Circular 13/tt-Bkhcn/2016: Regulated Training Scheme Management, Fostering Human Resources For Science And Technology In The Country And Abroad By The State Budget

Original Language Title: Thông tư 13/2016/tt-bkhcn: Quy định quản lý Đề án đào tạo, bồi dưỡng nhân lực khoa học và công nghệ ở trong nước và nước ngoài bằng ngân sách nhà nước

Subscribe to a Global-Regulation Premium Membership Today!

Key Benefits:

Subscribe Now for only USD$20 per month, or Get a Day Pass for only USD$4.99.
CIRCULARS stipulated project management training, fostering human resources for science and technology in the country and abroad by the State budget _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ pursuant to Decree No. 20/2013/N% C4% 90-CP & area = 2 & type = 0 & match = False & vc = True & lan = 1 "target =" _blank "> 20/2013/NĐ-CP on April 2 in 2013 of the Government functions duties, powers and organizational structure of the Ministry of science and technology;
Pursuant to Decree No. 40/2014/N% C4% 90-CP & area = 2 & type = 0 & match = False & vc = True & lan = 1 "target =" _blank "> 40/2014/ND-CP on May 12, 2014 of government regulation of the use of personal importance, scientific and technological activities;
Implementing decision No 2395/QD-TTg on December 25 2015 Prime's approval of the project training, fostering human resources for science and technology in the country and abroad by the State budget;
The Minister of science and technology issued circulars stipulated project management training, fostering human resources for science and technology in the country and abroad by the State budget.
 
Chapter I GENERAL PROVISIONS article 1. Scope and objects 1. This circular defined project management training, fostering human resources for science and technology in the country and abroad by State budget approved in decision No 2395/QD-TTg on December 25 2015 of the Prime (hereinafter abbreviated as the project of 2395).
2. The object of this circular applies is personally active in science and technology, the research group, managers of science and technology in the ministries, the local science and technology institutions and enterprises; ministries, sectors, localities and relevant organizations.
Article 2. Form, target training, fostering 1. Training, fostering professionals: Election experts in science and technology to go training, fostering through research mission deployment or work term at research facilities, training or technology business abroad aims to form the team of professionals in science and technology have deep expertise research skills, and develop the scientific and technological problems of the industry, the field reaches the level of the region and the world, creating sources to develop into a leading scientist, general engineering.
2. training, fostering group: election of the team went to training, fostered through the deployment of the mission research at research facilities, training or technology business abroad to form a strong team, has the power to solve the tasks of science and industry's important technology , the field. Each group was given no more than 10 members by the leader of the group.
3. Fostering after Dr.: individual Election activities in science and technology have doctoral level join fostered after the doctor through the deployment of the mission research at the research facility, training in the country and abroad in order to develop and improve the skills of research and development create source to form the expert in the field of science and technology.
4. Fostering human resources for science and technology management: Election officers to manage science and technology participate in refresher courses in the country and abroad to enhance the knowledge, skills, science and technology management, innovation management.
Article 3. Fostering training time 1. Training time, training specialist: not more than 2 years.
2. Training time, fostering team: not to exceed 6 months.
3. postdoctoral training period: not more than 2 years.
4. time fostering science and technology management: not more than 3 months.
Special cases should extend training, fostered by the Minister of science and technology review, decisions, but not more than 3 months with the object prescribed in paragraph 1, paragraph 3 of this article, no more than 12 months with the object prescribed in clause 2, paragraph 4 of this Article.
Article 4. Fields, fostering training content 1. Training, specialist training, the research group and later a Ph.d. for the fields of science and technology, which focuses on the areas of priority technology, new technology, high technology is defined in the strategy and the plan of development of science and technology in each period.
2. professional training, professional skills, knowledge, science and technology management, innovation management for managers of science and technology.
Article 5. Fostering training facility 1. Training, overseas training is research institutes, universities, enterprises in the country with science and technology development, reputation and experience in the field of training, fostering, gain advanced achievements in the field of research and development, scientific management and technology management.
2. fostering training facility in the country is the basis of reputable and experienced, qualified, the Ministry of science and technology selection and implementation, fostering training mission.
Article 6. Fostering training plan 1. The institutions of science and technology in the proposed public training needs, fostering human resources for science and technology in the forms specified in article 2 of this circular, sent to the governing body is The ministerial bodies, and agencies in the Government, the people's committees of provinces and cities under central.
Ministries, ministerial agencies, government agencies, provincial people's Committee of central city in General, proposing training needs, fostering human resources in science and technology 1.1 ĐKNC-B form in annex 1 of this circular, posted on the Ministry of science and technology before 30 April each year for General construction planning, training, fostering human resources in science and technology.
2. The scientific and technological organizations in addition to public, the proposed business training needs, fostered under the provisions of Paragraph 1 of this article, posted on the Ministry of science and technology before 30 March each year, to sum up, the building plan.
3. The Ministry of science and technology of the base direction, strategy, development of science and technology, development of human resources in science and technology in each period; on the recommendation of the Agency, held forth in paragraph 1, item 2 of this responsiveness of ability and funding science and technology career, General construction, issued the plan of training, fostering human resources for science and technology project 2395 before 20 June each year to estimate the expenditure made for next year. Training plan, fostering human resources in science and technology are posted publicly on the electronic portal of the Ministry of science and technology at the address: www.most.gov.vn.
 
Chapter II conditions, criteria, SELECTION PROCESS INDIVIDUALS GO training, SPECIALIST TRAINING, the RESEARCH GROUP and LATER DR. Article 7. Eligibility training, fostering individual professional science and technology operations satisfy the following conditions simultaneously reviewed, trainings, fostering experts: 1. In the database expert in the science and technology of the Ministry of science and technology; no case in this database by the Minister of science and technology review, decision.
2. In Payroll or work full time, constantly from 12 months or more in the units specified in clause 2 1 of this circular.
3. Do not exceed the age of 55 for men and 50 years for females as of the time of submission of the application documents.
4. demonstration outline of the study expected to deploy in time to be sent for training and upgrading (which stated the need, objectives, content, research, implementation plans, expected results, methodology applied), are the basis of the study and training abroad.

5. The level of foreign language proficiency, meet the requirements of training facilities, fostering or equivalent foreign language level of degree 4 (B2) as specified in circular No. 01/2014/TT-BGD% C4% 90T & area = 2 & type = 0 & match = False & vc = True & lan = 1 "target =" _blank "> 01/2014/TT-BGDDT on Jan. 24 in 2014 of the Ministry of education and training released capacity language frame 6 tier for Vietnam.
6. professional development-oriented, common knowledge, experience, research for research officers in the unit after the course of training and upgrading.
7. Are the management units, agencies agree to training, fostered by the text.
Article 8. Eligibility training, fostering team meet as a group at the same time the following conditions are considered, trainings, fostering group: 1. Are conducting research at research institutes, universities, laboratories, incubation establishments or enterprises; There's a scientist to head the head of group, direction and responsible professionals.
2. Group or members of the group have scientific and technological achievements is expressed through: articles published in the journal Science, the prestigious international or monographs, or inventions, utility solutions are protected, or technological solutions, technical solutions have signed and approved , or the award of science and technology.
Request for scientific papers have been published, the monographs were published following the provisions of article 2, article 3 Circular No. 16/2009/TT-BGDDT on July 17, 2009 by the Ministry of education and training provisions detailing the review recognized standard, appointed, dismissed Professor , Associate Professor of.
Directory of international science journals are reputable are determined by the decision approving the list of academic journals count conversion science works when considering the standard title of Professor, Associate Professor of the Council State Professor titles annually.
The prize for science and technology is determined by the provisions of Decree No. 78/2014/N% C4% 90-CP & area = 2 & type = 0 & match = False & vc = True & lan = 1 "target =" _blank "> 78/2014/ND-CP on 30 July 2014 of the Government of Ho Chi Minh Prize, State awards and other awards for science and technology and the writing guide.
3. Planning and intensive research orientation with the specific goals of the group.
4. outline of the study expected to deploy in time to go training, fostering (which stated the need, objectives, content, research, implementation plans, expected results, methodology applied) or are implementing scientific and technological tasks in the country not yet conditioned to perform or not perform , are the basis of training, overseas training approved.
5. Age of each Member in the group not more than 50 years.
6. The level of foreign language proficiency, meet the requirements of training facilities, fostering or equivalent foreign language level of degree 4 (B2) as specified in circular No. 01/2014/TT-BGD% C4% 90T & area = 2 & type = 0 & match = False & vc = True & lan = 1 "target =" _blank "> 01/2014/TT-BGDDT on Jan. 24 in 2014 of the Ministry of education and training released capacity language frame 6 tier for Vietnam.
Article 9. Eligibility fostered after the personal doctor of science and PhD level technology are reviewed, dispatched fostered after the doctor when simultaneously meets the following conditions: 1. Working in the science and technology organization or Enterprise; under age 40.
2. Have at least 3 years experience in continuous research on the field of science and technology registered fostered until submission of application documents.
3. Is the author of at least 1 article published in the journal Science the prestigious international during 5 (five) years as of the time of submission of the application documents.
Directory of international science journals are reputable are determined according to the provisions in clause 2 article 8 of this circular.
4. demonstration outline of the study expected to deploy in time to go training, fostering (which stated the need, objectives, content, research, implementation plans, expected results, methodology applied), are the basis of training, fostering acceptance.
5. Foreign language proficiency, meet the requirements of training facilities, fostering or equivalent foreign language level of degree 4 (B2) as specified in circular No. 01/2014/TT-BGD% C4% 90T & area = 2 & type = 0 & match = False & vc = True & lan = 1 "target =" _blank "> 01/2014/TT-BGDDT on Jan. 24 in 2014 of the Ministry of education and training released capacity language frame 6 tier for Vietnam.
Article 10. Principles and selection criteria individuals go training, specialist training, the research group and later a Ph.d. personal recruitment to trainings, fostering professionals, research groups, and after the doctor is done according to the principle of competition, on the basis of the following criteria: 1. The level of expertise and achievements in science and technology.
2. The quality of the research outline presentation expects to deploy in time to go training, fostering.
3. presentation outline priority research is science and technology missions in the program, the project of science and technology national level; Science and technology missions especially or particularly important; Science and Technology Mission of emergency affecting the health, security, defence or technology transfer, new technologies operating in the science and technology organizations, businesses, healthcare organizations, security defense, state management bodies; the task of the science and technology serves the new research directions and tasks of science and other technologies in water have not yet formed, with or without conditions to perform.
4. Priority of objects supported in part the expense of training, fostered from funding sources outside the State budget.
Article 11. Notice of selection 1. After approval, the annual training plan, the Ministry of science and technology public notice regarding the selection of staff to trainings, fostering professionals, research groups and fostered after Dr. The selection can be done many times over the years.
2. the notification content including: content, forms, training targets, fostering; mode, the policy for students; recruitment object; Eligibility; the profile and the time limit for entrants.
3. the recruitment notice is sent to the Ministry, ministerial-level agencies, government agencies, people's committees of provinces and cities under central, the corporations, the State Corporation and posted publicly on the electronic portal of the Ministry of science and technology in addressing : www.most.gov.vn.
Article 12. Profile registration registration records to go training, fostered sent to the Ministry of science and technology including 1 the paper record accompanied by pdf.
Profile components include: 1. Registration selection, selection of a management unit directly under model B 1.2-ĐKCG; Model B-ĐKNNC 1.3 or 1.4. B ĐKSTS form in annex 1 of this circular.
2. Curriculum vitae by Vietnamese and English.
3. Outline of the study expected to deploy in time to go training, fostered by the Vietnamese and English (clarifies goals, meaning, the need of a research outline, research content, implementation plan, expected results, methodology applied).
4. The text agree reception of fostering training facility in the country or abroad are translated into Vietnamese.
5. The text agree to training, fostered by the Agency, the management unit.
6. copy of diploma, certificate; proof meets the conditions prescribed in article 7; Article 8 or article 9 of this circular.

7. professional development orientation (for the training of specialists); planning and in-depth studies orientation (for the team) in Vietnamese and English.
8. Written commitment taken responsibility and obligations of the participants during and after the completion of training and upgrading.
9. Verification of the other support in addition to the State budget (if any).
Article 13. Processing of documents and approval list 1. Expiry receipt of application documents (as reported), the Ministry of science and technology in the General list of individual sign away training, fostered by fostering training forms; the Organization reviews the application documents via the selection board.
2. Minister of science and technology approval list, notify the results to the acceptance and successful people management unit under one or a combination of the following forms: a) post information on the website of the Ministry of science and technology at the address: www.most.gov.vn : b) notice by post the text of the message;
c) notified via electronic mail (email) of individual candidates;
d other forms).
The successful results of effect within 12 months from the date of signing the successful approval decisions.
Article 14. The selection board 1. The selection board by the Minister of science and technology established, consisting of 5 (five) members: a) Chairman: Chief Executives 2395 scheme;
b) Vice Chairman of the Board: representatives of units was Minister of science and technology Affairs is the permanent agency 2395 scheme;
c) Secretaries: unit representatives are Minister of science and technology Affairs is the permanent agency 2395 scheme;
d) Councillor: representatives of relevant units of the Ministry of science and technology. Requirements of each base forms, training content, fostering, the Council of Commissioners may include scientists and representative bodies, other units.
2. The duty of the selection board: a) reviews, reviews of the application documents according to each form of fostering training based on the conditions specified in article 7, article 8 and article 9 of this circular;
b) a selection of records that meet the eligibility criteria of each form of training, fostered under the rules and vote reviews for each profile form B 2.1-PĐG in annex 2 of this circular. If documents exceed target training, fostering the conduct of selection according to the principle of competition, on the basis of the criteria specified in article 10 of this circular.
3. The duty of the Secretary to the Council: record the minutes of the meeting, the results of reviews of the application documents of the Council under model B-KQHĐ 2.2 in annex 2 of this circular, sent the permanent unit 2395 scheme and implementation of tasks arising in the recruitment process at the request of the Chairman of the selection board.
4. The Council of the work when available from 4 (four) members under collective principles, by majority voting. The case of equal number of votes, the decision by the party to have the vote of the President of the Council.
5. The father, mother, wife (husband), children, siblings, then registration is not involved in the recruitment Board.
6. The Council dissolved itself after the completion of the task.
Article 15. Contact training and trainings, fostering 1. The successful person yourself, please contact reception text training, formal training from the training institution, fostered. The Ministry of science and technology in collaboration with the relevant agencies to support the candidate contact the fostering training facility in case of need.
2. the successful People are the Ministry of science and technology issued summons to go training, fostering and decision making trainings, fostering scheme 2395 when writing trainings, fostered by the Agency, the management of the candidate.
 
Chapter III FOSTERING HUMAN RESOURCES for SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY MANAGEMENT article 16. Conditions for fostering dispatched 1. Fostering domestic personnel in scientific and technological management was taking the course in the country must simultaneously meet the following conditions: a) has at least 2 (two) years as of the moment are trainings, fostering a science and technology management in the Ministry , local branches, science and technology institutions and enterprises and always complete the task;
b) Not during review, enforcement of discipline from reprimand;
c) position employment accordingly with the contents of the course;
d) have written to the Agency's management training;
DD) is also sufficient time the work of at least 2 (two) years from the time the course begins.
2. Fostering foreign managers in science and technology are taking refresher courses abroad must meet the following conditions simultaneously: a) held the leadership from the rooms or from the planning Deputy Director, Department of science and technology, Deputy Chief or equivalent;
b) enough time to work at least 3 (three) years from the time the course begins;
c) Not during review, enforcement of discipline from reprimand;
d) completing missions in adjacent years ago;
DD) position employment accordingly with the contents of the course;
e) have written consent to fostering the Agency's management.
Article 17. The Organization fostered in the country 1. Training plan base, fostering human resources for science and technology in the country and abroad every year, the Ministry of science and technology choices and decisions, fostering training facility in the country holding the course on management skills, knowledge of science and technology innovation management, for managers of science and technology.
2. fostering training base assigned organizations make the training to perform the following operations: a) building program/organization plan each course (including: audience, objectives, programme content, the form taken, time, venue, topics, Faculty the number of participants expected, ...) and the cost of funding made to send the Ministry of science and technology to the evaluation, approval;
b) organized the compilation, evaluation and teaching document issued by the training and take responsibility for the content of documents;
c) Organization to implement training according to the approved plans (number of students a minimum of one course is 30 people); training management; reviews of study results and certificates for students under current rules;
d) report reviews the results of training and funding settlement reports submitted to the Ministry of science and technology at the latest 20 days after the end of refresher courses;
DD) entire archive records, vouchers for each course.
3. the assigned base implementation locking fostered hired foreign experts about the country teaching; enjoy the policy mode under current rules.
Article 18. Overseas training institutions 1. The base plans to foster scientific and technological manpower in the country and abroad every year, the Ministry of science and technology of distributed targets fostering science and technology management in foreign ministries, sectors, localities and related organizations.
2. Ministries, sectors, localities and related organizations decide elections officers met the conditions prescribed in item 2 article 16 this circular posted on the Ministry of science and technology.
3. The Ministry of science and technology in the General list, decided to go overseas training Brigade, which sent 01 (a) head of delegation members; contracted training, fostering for the base training, overseas training.
 
Chapter IV RIGHTS and OBLIGATIONS of the training, FOSTERING

Article 19. The right of the people to be sent for training and upgrading 1. Enjoy the mode, the policy as defined in article 21, article 22 of this circular.
2. Is the unit use and management facilitates the distribution of time to join the training program, fostered.
3. Be receiving back the Agency, unit and create conditions for application of the training results, fostering professional work.
Article 20. Obligations of the training, fostering 1. Compliance with policy, law of Vietnam and sent to school, rules of training and upgrading in the country and abroad.
2. Complete the training program, the registered training, return to work unit due to the application of the training results, fostering professional work; continue to perform the duties of expertise in the unit have been sent for training, fostering in the least time to fold the 3 (three) times time away for training and upgrading.
3. Perform periodic report mode every year (for the training course, fostered there time on 1 year) under model B 3.1-BCĐK and report the results of this training course, fostering ends under model B-BCKQ 3.2 in annex 3 of this circular, posted on the Ministry of science and technology and management unit.
The time limit for submitting reports: within 15 days at the end of 1 year (12 months) of training, the fostering of fostering training course begins (for periodic reports annually); within 15 days after the end of refresher course (for report results when training, fostering ends).
4. To compensate the cost of training and upgrading the current regulations on training, fostering, if officials arbitrarily do not participate in a training course, fostered when did full admissions and funding agencies for training and upgrading; arbitrarily quit, quit or quit in time to be sent for training and upgrading; failure to comply with the provisions in paragraph 2 of this Article; or breach of discipline training, fostering leading to termination of training and upgrading.
5. the team leader of the research team was training, overseas training to manage and take responsibility for the entire professional activities, research activities and other activities of the Group; representatives for the group to perform procedures related to training, fostering, dealing with training, fostering and report the Ministry of science and technology, fostering training results of the group.
6. Who was appointed head of the delegation go to fostering science and technology management in foreign countries have to manage and take responsibility for the activity of the Union in time for overseas training; on behalf of the delegation dealing with training, fostering and report the Ministry of science and technology results of the training.
Article 21. Mode, the policy with regard to the training and upgrading in the country 1. The fostering of science and technology management in the country are doing in State authorities, scientific institutions and technology established the current mode of training, fostering, public servants in the country.
Participants of training on the management of science and technology in the country are working in these organizations out of business, public supported the tuition and fees directly related to the course.
2. The post-doctoral training in the country supported the contents as specified in point b of paragraph 1, paragraph 3 article 6 and article 7 circular No. 09/TT-BKHCN/2015 on May 15, 2015 of the Minister of science and technology activity management regulations of capacity in science and technology by National Science Development Fund and the national technology funding.
Article 22. Mode, the policy with regard to the training, overseas training 1. Enjoying salary mode and other modes according to the current rules for officers, public servants, officers are sent for training, fostering if working in State bodies, scientific institutions and public technology.
2. Paid the expense of training, upgrading, implementation research mission, other costs related to the training and upgrading required (if any) by agreement with the basis of training and upgrading.
3. Be guaranteed subsistence level for the academic and research needs; round-trip plane ticket fees, road fees, fees do the Passport, visa and health insurance.
4. research funding support for training go objects, expert training, and fostering research group after a doctor, according to the following: a) Buy professional books, materials, tools needed to directly serve the needs of learning and research;
b) performs research activities, experimentation, empirical support for the deployment of the mission research;
c) announced the results of research on the ISI Journals of reputation, providing support to implement the announced is from the Government's Vietnam 2395 scheme;
d) registration fee for the first intellectual property rights in the country and abroad with the inventions and plant varieties if patent and cultivars is the result of research tasks according to the project of 2395, was granted the degree of protection of intellectual property rights by the competent authority. Intellectual property rights for inventions and plant varieties are the result of research tasks according to the project of 2395 organization, personal Vietnam.
 
Chapter V PROJECT MANAGEMENT ORGANIZATION Article 23. Project management content 1. Build training plans, annual refresher and each stage accordingly with the goal of the project to 2395.
2. The Organization informed, selection, implementation of the personal training ride, bringing fostered.
3. Monitor, test, evaluate the training process, the fostering of the refresher training.
4. Negotiate and contract training, fostered with training institutions, fostered in the country and abroad.
5. Build a database of human resources in science and technology involved 2395 scheme.
6. Organize information, propaganda, about 2395 scheme through conferences, workshops, summary, summarizing, common results of 2395 scheme and other forms.
7. Handle risk in the process of implementing the project of 2395.
8. Other content serving the management scheme 2395.
Article 24. Project management agency 1. The science and Technology Agency is chairing the organization deploy and manage project to 2395.
2. Minister of science and technology to form the Board of the project consists of 11 members, led by 12 Ministry of science and technology was Chairman.
The Board of the organizational scheme operates under the regulation by the Minister of science and technology.
3. Minister of science and technology in the delivery of a unit directly under the Ministry of science and technology made a permanent agency to help manage the Organization, implemented the project of 2395.
Specific duties of a permanent agency 2395 scheme by Minister of science and technology regulations.
Article 25. Personal management trainings, fostering 1. The Ministry of science and technology in collaboration with related agencies to manage the training, fostering.
2. Personal accept the regulation of the travel time and training, fostering or breach of discipline, training and research facilities will be handled according to the provisions of the law on training and upgrading of public servants and must reimburse the expenditure under current rules.
The Ministry of science and technology management unit, in coordination with the training, fostered a handling offense under current rules.
Article 26. Cost management of project 2395 1. 2395 project funding includes the funding of science and technology career annually and funds raised from legitimate sources.

2. Funding must be used for your purposes, ensure effective according to the approved plan and according to the regulations on financial management of the project of 2395.
3. The content of the financial management of the scheme specific guidance in 2395 circular financial management regulations implement the scheme by the Ministry of Finance issued 2395.
Article 27. Risk management during training, overseas training according to the project of 2395, if the training and fostering of being sick, accident or other unforeseen circumstances, the Ministry of science and technology will coordinate with related agencies to solve.
 
Chapter VI LIABILITY of the MINISTRY OF SCIENCE and technology, ministries, sectors, LOCALITIES and RELEVANT ORGANIZATIONS Article 28. The Ministry of science and technology 1. Host implementation, 2395 project management.
2. Guide the ministries, and local organizations and individuals registered to participate in the project of 2395.
3. Organization of appraisal, selection, personal election decision Science and technology, the team went to training, fostered in the country and abroad according to the project of 2395.
4. Negotiate and contract training, fostered with training institutions, fostered in the country and abroad.
5. Perform mode, the policy with regard to the training, fostered under the provisions of this circular and circular the financial management of the project of 2395.
6. the management of training and upgrading.
7. the preliminary organization, summarizing reviews the results of the project to 2395.
Article 29. The ministries, provincial people Committee 1. Proposed training needs, fostering scientific and technological personnel of ministries, local Ministry of science and technology to aggregate, build training plans, fostering human resources in science and technology project 2395.
2. Guide the Organization, individuals delegated participants registration scheme 2395. Election officers to manage science and technology go training, fostered under the guidance of the Ministry of science and technology.
3. In coordination with the Ministry of science and technology in the management of training and upgrading.
Article 30. The institutions involved in economic corporations, State corporations, science and technology organizations, the unit has active subscription to science and technology, business and other organizations to propose training needs, fostering human resources in science and technology with the Ministry of science and technology for consideration , trainings, fostering scheme 2395.
 
Chapter VII ENFORCEMENT of the TERMS of article 31. Apply the text cited the case of the legal text is cited in this circular are modified, supplemented or replaced shall apply as modified, supplemented or replaced.
Article 32. Effect 1. This circular effect since September 1, 2016.
2. During the implementation process if there are obstacles, suggest the Agency, organization, personal reflections on the science and Technology Ministry to consider additional amendments accordingly.