Law (2010:510) On Air Transport

Original Language Title: Lag (2010:510) om lufttransporter

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Read the untranslated law here: http://rkrattsbaser.gov.se/sfst?bet=2010:510

Introductory provisions



section 1 of this Act contains provisions on air transport.



paragraph 2 of the rules relating to liability for damage arising from

Aviation Act (1922:382) regarding civil liability for

damage in consequence of aviation and aviation law (2010:500).



EU legal provisions



section 3 provisions concerning air transport, see



1. Council Regulation (EC) No 2027/97 of 9 October 1997 on

the liability of air carriers in respect of air transport

of passengers and their luggage,



2. European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) No 261/2004

of 11 February 2004 establishing common rules

on compensation and assistance to passengers in the event of denied

boarding and of cancellation or long delay

of flights, and repealing Regulation (EEC) No 295/91,



3. European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) no 785/2004

of 21 april 2004 on insurance requirements for air carriers

and aircraft operators,



4. European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) No 2111/2005

of 14 december 2005 on the establishment of a

Community list of air carriers which

banned to operate within the community and

the information of air transport passengers on the identity of

that, and repealing article 9 of

Directive 2004/36/EC,



5. European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) No 1107/2006

of 5 July 2006 concerning the rights of

disabled persons and persons with reduced

mobility,



6. European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) no 1008/2008

of 24 september 2008 on common rules for the

the operation of air services in the Community (recast).



To the extent a matter governed by these regulations;

do not apply Swedish law.



Provisions supplementing the regulations in the first paragraph

1-5 can be found in paragraphs 12 to 17.



Provisions of the Montreal Convention



Air transport covered by the Montreal Convention



paragraph 4 of article 1 to article 22, article 23, first, second and third

the sentences, articles 25 to 27, articles 29 to 49 and

articles 51 and 52 of the Convention of 28 May 1999 on certain

uniform rules for the international carriage by air

(The Montreal Convention) shall apply as law in this country.



The English, French, Arabic, Chinese, Russian and Spanish

the texts of the Convention are equally authentic.



The English and French texts of the Convention, as well as a

translation of the Swedish are ingested as an attachment

to this law.



Air transport not covered by the Montreal Convention



paragraph 5 of the air transport for consideration in a country without

stopover outside the country and for other air transport

for remuneration that is not covered by the Montreal Convention shall

its provisions still apply as specified in

4 section. This applies even where such carriage is performed by

an air carrier without compensation.



In terms of the adjustment of damages for personal injury, Chapter 6.

section 1 of the tort liability Act (1972:207) shall apply instead of

Article 20 of the Convention.



As regards the limitation of the liability of the carrier for the transportation

of baggage or cargo to the provision in article 22(2) of

the Convention is implemented as if it concerns only checked

luggage and the provision in article 22.5 as if it refers to the

paragraphs 1 to 3.



Inflation adjustment



section 6 Of the thresholds laid down in articles 21 and

22 of the Montreal Convention be amended pursuant to article

24, the new thresholds for the application of 4 or 5

§ apply to transportation contracts signed at the earliest on the date on which the

the change takes effect under the Convention.



The Government should in the Swedish Code of statutes be known

such changes of thresholds.



Competent court



section 7 claims for compensation which may be brought in Sweden with the support of

Article 33(2) of the Convention should, if it is not brought

in any of the courts referred to in article 33(1), be brought

in the courts for the place where the passenger at the time of the accident

had his residence.



Compulsory insurance



section 8, a Swedish carrier shall have a liability insurance

covers the responsibilities conferred by section 4 or 5.



Liability insurance to cover such prepayment

referred to in article 5 of Council Regulation (EC) No 2027/97.



§ 9 a foreign carrier that performs the carriage of

passengers, baggage or cargo to or from Sweden or

between points in Sweden shall have a liability insurance which covers

the responsibilities conferred by section 4 or 5.



section 10 Transportation Board shall exercise supervision over the

carriers duly fulfils the obligations arising out of the 8 and 9

§§.



The Government or the authority the Government may

provide for insurance under sections 8 and 9.



Foreign Government and military transport



section 11 the provisions of §§ 4-10 shall not apply to

shipments covered by a foreign State subject

According to article 57 of the Convention.



Provisions in respect of Regulation (EC) No 2027/97



section 12 of the provisions of Article 3a of Regulation (EC) No 2027/97

should also apply to other carriers than EC

air carriers.



The provisions of article 5 of Regulation (EC) No 2027/97,

also apply to other Swedish carriers than those

represents Community air carriers.



The provisions of article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 2027/97,

also apply to it as other than an occasional basis and without

to be a carriers selling air transportation in own

name.



paragraph 13 of the Consumer Agency should supervise the carriers

fulfils the obligations arising out of articles 3a and 6 in

Regulation (EC) No 2027/97.



If these obligations are not met, the marketing

(2008:486) applied with the exception of the provisions of sections 29 to 36 on marknadsstörningssavgift. Information under articles

3A and 6 of the said Regulation shall be considered to be substantial under

the third paragraph of section 10 of the marketing practices Act.



Provisions in respect of Regulation (EC) No 261/2004,

Regulation (EC) No 2111/2005, Regulation (EC) No 1107/2006

and Regulation (EC) no 1008/2008



section 14 of the Consumer Agency shall supervise the

air carriers, their agents, tour operators and

ticket sellers duly fulfils the obligations arising out of



1. Regulation (EC) No 261/2004,



2. articles 11 and 12 of Regulation (EC) No 2111/2005,



3. articles 3 and 4 of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2006, and



4. Article 23 of Regulation (EC) no 1008/2008.

Law (2014:1349).



section 15 provides for the obligation to provide information

air carriers, their agents, tour operators and

ticket sellers in



1. Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 261/2004,



2. Article 11 of Regulation (EC) No 2111/2005,



3. articles 4(3) and 4(4) of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2006, and



4. Article 23(1) of Regulation (EC) no 1008/2008.



If information is not provided by any of the provisions

referred to in the first subparagraph, the Marketing Act

(2008:486) applied, with the exception of paragraphs 29 to 36 of

market interference charge. Such information shall be deemed to be

material in accordance with the third paragraph of section 10 of the Act.

Law (2014:1349).



16 §/expires U: 2016-09-01/

An air carrier or its agent or a tour operator

refusing persons with disabilities or impaired

mobility transportation in violation of articles 3 and 4(2) of regulation

(EC) No 1107/2006 may be required to provide transport in the

issue. The obligation may be subject to a penalty.



An air carrier or its agent or a tour operator

offer prices in a discriminatory manner in violation of the

Article 23(2) of Regulation (EC) no 1008/2008 shall be prohibited from

do it. The prohibition may be subject to a penalty.



Action for injunction in accordance with the first paragraph and the prohibition under

the market Court is seised of the second subparagraph of

The Consumer Ombudsman. Law (2014:1349).



16 section/entry into force: 2016-09-01/

An air carrier or its agent or a tour operator refusing persons with disabilities or reduced mobility transport in violation of articles 3 and 4(2) of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2006 may be required to provide transport in question. The obligation may be subject to a penalty.



An air carrier or its agent or a tour operator that offers rates in a discriminatory manner contrary to article 23(2) of Regulation (EC) no 1008/2008 must be prohibited. The prohibition may be subject to a penalty.



An action for injunction under the first paragraph, the prohibition referred to in the second subparagraph are brought before the Patent and market Court by the Consumer Ombudsman. Law (2016:225).



section 17 in a case that is not of major importance,

The Consumer Ombudsman announce an order for such a

injunction or prohibition referred to in section 16. The provisions of the

section 28 of the Marketing Act (2008:486) should then be applied.

Law (2014:1349).



Provisions of Regulation (EC) no 785/2004



section 18 Transportation Board shall exercise supervision over the

air carriers and aircraft operators comply with the

obligations arising out of Regulation (EC) no 785/2004 of the

regarding insurance for liability to

passengers and baggage or goods.



Such evidence as referred to in article 5(1) of the regulation,

be submitted to the Swedish Transport Agency.



Transitional provisions



2010:510



1. This law shall enter into force on september 1, 2010.



2. As long as the Convention on 12 October 1929, concerning

unification of certain rules relating to

international carriage by air (Warsaw Convention) in its

original version in force between Sweden and any

foreign State shall act (1937:73) for promotion of


aircraft apply instead of this law for such

air transport Convention in the wording is applicable

on. However, paragraphs 8 and 9, as amended by this Act

applied. The reference to the liability of the carrier shall

refer to the carrier's liability under the Act on the promotion of

aircraft. In addition, sections 12 and 13 as amended by

This law shall apply.



3. As long as the Warsaw Convention as amended by

the Protocol of 28 september 1955 amending

Warsaw Convention (Hague Protocol) is in force between the

Sweden and any foreign State, Chapter 9. aviation law

(1957:297) as amended prior law (1986:619) if

modification of the Aviation Act (1957:297) shall apply instead of this

law for such air transport Convention in the

the wording applies to. However, paragraphs 8 and 9 in their

as amended by this law shall apply. The reference to the

the liability of the carrier shall cover the liability of the carrier

under the Act (1937:73) for promotion of aircraft. Further

to paragraphs 12 and 13, as amended by this law shall apply.



4. As long as the Warsaw Convention as amended by

Montreal Protocol No. 4 on 25 september 1975 amending

The Warsaw Convention as amended by the Hague Protocol is

in force between Sweden and any foreign State shall

with regard to the transport of goods Chapter 9. aviation law

(1957:297) as amended prior law (2002:1130) about

modification of the Aviation Act (1957:297) shall apply instead of this

law for such air transport Convention in the

the wording applies to. However, paragraphs 8 and 9 in their

as amended by this law shall apply. The reference to the

the liability of the carrier shall cover the liability of the carrier

According to Chapter 9. the Aviation Act (1957:297) as amended

prior to the law (2002:1130) amending the Aviation Act

(1957:297).



Annex



CONVENTION FOR THE UNIFICATION OF CERTAIN RULES FOR

INTERNATIONAL CARRIAGE BY AIR



THE STATES PARTIES TO THIS CONVENTION,



RECOGNIZING the significant contribution of the Convention

for the Unification of Certain Rules to International

Carriage by Air signed in Warsaw on 12 October 1929,

hereinafter referred to as the "Warsaw Convention", and other

related instruments to the harmonization of private

international air law;



RECOGNIZING the need to modernize and consolidate the Warsaw

Convention and related instruments;



RECOGNIZING the importance of ensuring protection of the

interests of consumers in international carriage by air and

the need for equitable compensation based on the principle of

restitution;



REAFFIRMING the desirability of an orderly development of

international air transport operations and the smooth flow of

passengers, baggage and cargo in accordance with the

principles and objectives of the Convention on International

Civil Aviation, done at Chicago on 7 December 1944;



CONVINCED that collective State action for further

harmonization and codification of certain rules governing

international carriage by air through a new Convention is the

the most adequate means of achieving an equitable balance of

interests,



HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS:



CHAPTER IN



GENERAL PROVISIONS



Article 1



Scope of application



1. This Convention applies to all international carriage of

persons, baggage or cargo performed by aircraft for reward.

It applies equally to gratuitous carriage by aircraft

performed by an air transport undertaking.



2. For the purposes of this Convention, the expression

international carriage means any carriage in which, according

to the agreement between the parties, the place of departure

and the place of destination, whether or not there be a break

in the carriage or a transhipment, are situated either within

the territories of two States Parties, or within the

territory of a single State Party if there is an agreed

stopping place within the territory of another State, even if

that State is not a State Party. Carriage between two points

within the territory of a single State Party without an

an agreed stopping place within the territory of another State

is not international carriage for the purposes of this

Convention.



3. Carriage to be performed by several successive carriers is

deemed, for the purposes of this Convention, to be one

undivided carriage if it has been regarded by the parties as

a single operation, whether it has been agreed upon during the

the form of a single contract or of a series of contracts, and it

does not lose its international character merely because one

contract or a series of contracts is to be performed entirely

within the territory of the same State.



4. This Convention applies also to carriage as set out in

Chapter V, subject to the terms contained therein.



Article 2



Carriage performed by State and carriage of postal items



1. This Convention applies to carriage performed by the State

or by legally constituted public bodies provided it falls

within the conditions laid down in Article 1.



2. In the carriage of postal items, the carrier shall be

liable only to the relevant postal administration in

accordance with the rules applicable to the relationship

between the carriers and the postal administration.



3. Except as provided in paragraph 2 of this Article, the

the provisions of this Convention shall not apply to the carriage

of postal items.



CHAPTER II



DOCUMENTATION AND DUTIES OF THE PARTIES RELATING TO THE

CARRIAGE OF PASSENGERS, BAGGAGE AND CARGO



Article 3



Passengers and baggage



1. In respect of carriage of passengers, an individual or

collective document of carriage shall be delivered containing



(a) an indication of the places of departure and destination;



(b) if the places of departure and destination are within the

territory of a single State Party, one or more agreed

stopping places being within the territory of another State,

an indication of at least one such stopping place.



2. Any other means which preserves the information indicated

in paragraph 1 may be the profile file for the delivery of the

document referred to in that paragraph. If any such other

means is used, the carrier shall sacrifice to deliver to the

passenger a written statement of the information so

preserved.



3. The carrier shall deliver to the passenger a baggage

identification tag for each piece of checked baggage.



4. The passenger shall be given written notice to the effect

that where this Convention is applicable it governs and may

limit the liability of carriers in respect of death or injury

and for destruction or loss of, or damage to, baggage, and

for delay.



5. Non-compliance with the provisions of the foregoing

paragraphs shall not affect the existence or the validity of

the contract of carriage, which shall, nonetheless, be

subject to the rules of this Convention including those

relating to limitation of liability.



Article 4



Cargo



1. In respect of the carriage of cargo, an air waybill shall

be delivered.



2. Any other means which preserves a record of the carriage

to be performed may be the profile file for the delivery of an air

waybill. If such other means are used, the carrier shall, if

so requested by the consignor, deliver to the consignor a

cargo receipt permitting identification of the consignment

and access to the information contained in the record

preserved by such other means.



Article 5



Contents of air waybill or cargo receipt



The air waybill or the cargo receipt shall include:



(a) an indication of the places of departure and destination;



(b) if the places of departure and destination are within the

territory of a single State Party, one or more agreed

stopping places being within the territory of another State,

an indication of at least one such stopping place; and



(c) an indication of the weight of the consignment.



Article 6



Document relating to the nature of the cargo



The consignor may be required, if necessary, to meet the

formalities of customs, police and similar public authorities

to deliver a document indicating the nature of the cargo.

This provision creates for the carrier no duty, obligation or

liability resulting therefrom.



Article 7



Description of air waybill



1. The air waybill shall be made out by the consignor in

three original parts.



2. The first party shall be marked "for the carrier"; It shall

be signed by the consignor. The second party shall be marked

"for the consignee"; It shall be signed by the consignor and

by the carrier. The third party shall be signed by the carrier

who shall hand it to the consignor after the cargo has been

accepted.



3. The signature of the carrier and that of the consignor may

be printed or stamped.



4. If, at the request of the consignor, the carrier makes out

the air waybill, the carrier shall be deemed, subject to

proof to the contrary, to have done so on behalf of the

consignor.



Article 8



Documentation for multiple packages



When there is more than one package:



(a) the carrier of cargo has the right to require the

consignor to make out separate air waybills;



(b) the consignor has the right to require the carrier to

deliver separate cargo receipts when the other means referred

to in paragraph 2 of Article 4 are used.



Article 9



Non-compliance with documentary requirements



Non-compliance with the provisions of Articles 4 to 8 shall

not affect the existence or the validity of the contract of

carriage, which shall, nonetheless, be subject to the rules

of this Convention including those relating to limitation of

liability.



Article 10



Responsibility for forms of documentation



1. The consignor is responsible for the correctness of the

forms and statements relating to the cargo inserted by

it or on its behalf in the air waybill or furnished by it or


on its behalf to the carrier for insertion in the cargo

receipt or for insertion in the record preserved by the other

means referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 4. The foregoing

shall also apply where the person acting on behalf of the

consignor is also the agent of the carrier.



2. The consignor shall indemnify the carrier against all

damage suffered by it, or by any other person to whom the

carrier is liable, by reason of the irregularity,

incorrectness or incompleteness of the forms and

statements furnished by the consignor or on its behalf.



3. Subject to the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this

Article, the carrier shall indemnify the consignor against

all damage suffered by it, or by any other person to whom the

consignor is liable, by reason of the irregularity,

incorrectness or incompleteness of the forms and

statements inserted by the carrier or on its behalf in the

cargo receipt or in the record preserved by the other means

referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 4.



Article 11



Evidentiary value of documentation



1. The air waybill or the cargo receipt is prima facie

evidence of the conclusion of the contract, of the acceptance

of the cargo and of the conditions of carriage mentioned

therein.



2. Any statements in the air waybill or the cargo receipt

relating to the weight, dimensions and packing of the cargo,

as well as those relating to the number of packages, are

prima facie evidence of the facts stated; those relating to

the quantity, volume and condition of the cargo do not

constitute evidence against the carrier except so far as they

both have been, and are stated in the air waybill or the

cargo receipt to have been, checked by it in the presence of

the consignor, or relate to the apparent condition of the

cargo.



Article 12



Right of disposition of cargo



1. Subject to its liability to carry out all its bond

under the contract of carriage, the consignor has the right

to dispose of the cargo by withdrawing it at the airport of

departure or destination, or by stopping it in the course of

the journey on any landing, or by calling for it to be

delivered at the place of destination or in the course of the

journey to a person other than the consignee originally

designated, or by requiring it to be returned to the airport

of departure. The consignor must not exercise this right of

disposition in such a way as to prejudice the carrier or

other consignors and must reimburse any expenses occasioned

by the exercise of this right.



2. If it is impossible to carry out the instructions of the

consignor, the carrier must so inform the consignor

forthwith.



3. If the carrier carries out the instructions of the

consignor for the disposition of the cargo without requiring

the production of the part of the air waybill or the cargo

receipt delivered to the latter, the carrier will be liable,

without prejudice to its right of recovery from the

consignor, for any damage which may be caused thereby to any

person who is lawfully in possession of that part of the air

waybill or the cargo receipt.



4. The right conferred on the consignor ceases at the moment

When that of the consignee begins in accordance with Article

13. Nevertheless, if the consignee declines to accept the

cargo, or cannot be communicated with, the consignor resumes

its right of disposition.



Article 13



Delivery of the cargo



1. Except when the consignor has exercised its right under the

Article 12, the consignee is entitled, on arrival of the

cargo at the place of destination, to require the carrier to

deliver the cargo to it, on payment of the charges due and on

complying with the conditions of carriage.



2. Unless it is otherwise agreed, it is the duty of the

carrier to give notice to the consignee as soon as the cargo

arrives.



3. If the carrier admits the loss of the cargo, or if the

the cargo has not arrived at the expiration of seven days after

the date on which it ought to have arrived, the consignee is

entitled to enforce against the carrier the rights which flow

from the contract of carriage.



Article 14



Enforcement of the rights of consignor and consignee



The consignor and the consignee can respectively enforce all

the rights given to them by Articles 12 and 13, each in its

own name, whether it is acting in its own interest or in the

interests of another, provided that it carries out the

the bond imposed by the contract of carriage.



Article 15



Relations of consignor and consignee or mutual relations of

third parties



1. Articles 12, 13 and 14 do not affect either the relations

of the consignor and the consignee with each other or the

mutual relations of third parties, whose rights are derived

either from the consignor or from the consignee.



2. The provisions of Articles 12, 13 and 14 can only be

varied by express provision in the air waybill or the cargo

receipt.



Article 16



Formalities of customs, police or other public authorities



1. The consignor must furnish such information and such

documents as are necessary to meet the formalities of

Customs, police and any other public authorities before the

cargo can be delivered to the consignee. The consignor is

liable to the carrier for any damage occasioned by the

absence, insufficiency or irregularity of any such

information or documents, unless the damage is due to the

the fault of the carrier, its servants or agents.



2. The carrier is under no obligation to Pascal into the

correctness or sufficiency of such information or documents



CHAPTER III



LIABILITY OF THE CARRIER AND EXTENT OF COMPENSATION FOR

DAMAGE



Article 17



Death and injury of passengers-damage to baggage



1. The carrier is liable for damage sustained in case of

death or bodily injury of a passenger upon condition only

that the accident which caused the death or injury took place

on board the aircraft or in the course of any of the

the operations of embarking or disembarking.



2. The carrier is liable for damage sustained in case of

destruction or loss of, or of damage to, checked baggage upon

condition only that the event which caused the destruction,

loss or damage took place on board the aircraft or during any

period within which the checked baggage was in the charge of

the carrier. However, the carrier is not liable if and to the

extent that the damage resulted from the inherent defect,

quality or vice of the baggage. In the case of unchecked

the baggage, including personal items, the carrier is liable if

the damage resulted from its fault or that of its servants or

agents.



3. If the carrier admits the loss of the checked baggage, or

If the checked baggage has not arrived at the expiration of

21 days after the date on which it ought to have arrived, the

the passenger is entitled to enforce against the carrier the

rights which flow from the contract of carriage.



4. Unless otherwise specified, in this Convention the term

"baggage" means both checked baggage and unchecked baggage.



Article 18



Damage to cargo



1. The carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of

the destruction or loss of, or damage to, cargo upon

condition only that the event which caused the damage so

sustained took place during the carriage by air.



2. However, the carrier is not liable if and to the extent it

proves that the destruction, or loss of, or damage to, the

cargo resulted from one or more of the following:



(a) inherent defect, quality or vice of that cargo;



(b) defective packing of that cargo performed by a person

other than the carrier or its servants or agents;



(c) an act of war or an armed conflict;



(d) an act of public authority carried out in connection with

the entry, exit or transit of the cargo.



3. The carriage by air within the meaning of paragraph 1 of

This Article beginning the period during which the cargo is

in the charge of the carrier.



4. The period of the carriage by air does not extend to any

carriage by land, by sea or by inland waterway performed

outside an airport. If, however, such carriage takes place in

the performance of a contract for carriage by air, for the

purpose of loading, delivery or transhipment, any damage is

presumed, subject to proof to the contrary, to have been the

result of an event which took place during the carriage by

air. If a carrier, without the consent of the consignor,

substitutes carriage by another mode of transport for the

whole or part of a carriage intended by the agreement between

the parties to be carriage by air, such carriage by another

mode of transport is deemed to be within the period of

carriage by air.



Article 19



Delay



The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the

the carriage by air of passengers, baggage or cargo.

Nevertheless, the carrier shall not be liable for damage

occasioned by delay if it proves that it and its servants and

agents took all measures that could reasonably be required to

avoid the damage or that it was impossible for it or them to

take such measures.



Article 20



Exoneration



If the carrier proves that the damage was caused or

contributed to by the negligence or other wrongful act or

omission of the person claiming compensation, or the person

from whom he or she derives his or her rights, the carrier

shall be wholly or partly exonerated from its liability to

the claimant to the extent that such negligence or wrongful

Act or omission caused or contributed to the damage. When village

reason of death or injury of a passenger compensation is

granted by a person other than the passenger, the carrier

shall likewise be wholly or partly exonerated from its

liability to the extent that it proves that the damage was

caused or contributed to by the negligence or other wrongful

Act or omission of that passenger. This Article applies to


all the liability provisions in this Convention, including

paragraph 1 of Article 21.



Article 21



Compensation in case of death or injury of passengers



1. For damages arising under paragraph 1 of Article 17 not

exceeding 100 000 Special Drawing Rights for each passenger,

the carrier shall not be able to exclude or limit its

liability.



2. The carrier shall not be liable for damages arising under

paragraph 1 of Article 17 to the extent that they exceed for

each passenger 100 000 Special Drawing Rights if the carrier

proves that:



(a) such damage was not due to the negligence or other

wrongful act or omission of the carrier or its servants or

agents; or



(b) such damage was solely due to the negligence or other

wrongful act or omission of a third party.



Article 22



Limits of liability in relation to delay, baggage and cargo



1. In the case of damage caused by delay as specified in

Article 19 in the carriage of persons, the liability of the

carrier for each passenger is limited to 4 150 Special

Drawing Rights.



2. In the carriage of baggage, the liability of the carrier

in the case of destruction, loss, damage or delay is limited

to 1 000 Special Drawing Rights for each passenger unless the

the passenger has made, at the time when the checked baggage was

handed over to the carrier, a special declaration of interest

in delivery at destination and has paid a supplementary sum

If the case so requires. In that case the carrier will be

liable to pay a sum not exceeding the declared sum, unless it

proves that the sum is greater than the passenger's actual

interest in delivery at destination.



3. In the carriage of cargo, the liability of the carrier in

the case of destruction, loss, damage or delay is limited to

a sum of 17 Special Drawing Rights per kilogram, unless the

consignor has made, at the when the package was handed over

to the carrier, a special declaration of interest in delivery

at destination and has paid a supplementary sum if the case

so requires. In that case the carrier will be liable to pay a

sum not exceeding the declared sum, unless it proves that the

the sum is greater than the consignor's actual interest in

delivery at destination.



4. In the case of destruction, loss, damage or delay of part

of the cargo, or of any object contained therein, the weight

to be taken into consideration in determining the amount to

which the carrier's liability is limited shall be only the

total weight of the package or packages concerned.

Nevertheless, when the destruction, loss, damage or delay of

a part of the cargo, or of an object contained therein,

affects the value of other packages covered by the same air

waybill, or the same receipt or, if they were not issued, by

the same record preserved by the other means referred to in

paragraph 2 of Article 4, the total weight of such package or

the packages shall also be taken into consideration in

determining the limit of liability.



5. The foregoing provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this

Article shall not apply if it is proved that the damage

resulted from an act or omission of the carrier, its servants

or agents, done with intent to cause damage or recklessly and

with knowledge that damage would probably result; provided

that, in the case of such act or omission of a servant or

Agent, it is also proved that such servant or agent was

acting within the scope of its employment.



6. The limits UN-prescribed in Article 21 and in this Article

shall not prevent the court from awarding, in accordance with

its own law, in addition, the whole or part of the court

costs and of the other expenses of the litigation incurred by

the plaintiff, including interest. The foregoing commissions

shall not apply if the amount of the damages awarded,

excluding court costs and other expenses of the litigation,

does not exceed the sum which the carrier has offered in

writing to the plaintiff within a period of six months from

the date of the occurrence causing the damage, or before the

commencement of the action, if that is later.



Article 23



Conversion of monetary units



1. The sums mentioned in terms of Special Drawing Right in

This Convention shall be deemed to refer to the Special

Drawing Right as defined by the International Monetary Fund.

Conversion of the sums into national currencies shall, in

case of judicial proceedings, be made according to the value

of such currencies in terms of the Special Drawing Right at

the date of the judgement. The value of a national currency,

in terms of the Special Drawing Right, of a State Party which

is a Member of the International Monetary Fund, shall be

calculated in accordance with the method of valuation applied

by the International Monetary Fund, in effect at the date of

the judgement, for its operations and transactions. The value

of a national currency, in terms of the Special Drawing

Right, of a State Party which is not a Member of the

International Monetary Fund, shall be calculated in a manner

determined by that State.



2. Nevertheless, those States which are not Members of the

International Monetary Fund and whose law does not permit the

application of the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article

may, at the time of ratification or accession or at any time

Thereafter, declare that the limit of liability of the

carrier UN-prescribed in Article 21 is fixed at a sum of 1 500

000 monetary units per passenger in judicial proceedings in

their territories; 62 500 monetary units per passenger with

respect to paragraph 1 of Article 22; 15 000 monetary units

per passenger with respect to paragraph 2 of Article 22; and

250 monetary units per kilogram with respect to paragraph 3

of Article 22. This monetary unit corresponds to 65.5

milligrams of gold of millesimal fineness nine hundred. These

sum may be converted into the national currency concerned in

round figures. The conversion of these sums into national

currency shall be made according to the law of the State

concerned.



3. The calculation mentioned in the last sentence of

paragraph 1 of this Article and the conversion method

mentioned in paragraph 2 of this Article shall be made in

such manner as to express in the national currency of the

The State Party as far as possible the same real value for the

amounts in Articles 21 and 22 as would result from the

application of the first three sentences of paragraph 1 of

This Article. State Parties shall communicate to the

Depositary the manner of calculation pursuant to paragraph 1

of this Article, or the result of the conversion in paragraph

2 of this Article as the case may be, when depositing an

instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval of or

accession to this Convention and whenever there is a change

in either.



Article 24



Review of limits



1. Without prejudice to the provisions of Article 25 of this

Convention and subject to paragraph 2 below, the limits of

liability UN-prescribed in Articles 21, 22 and 23 shall be

reviewed by the Depositary at five-year intervals, the first

such review to take place at the end of the fifth year

following the date of entry into force of this Convention, or

If the Convention does not enter into force within five years

of the date it is first open for signature, within the first

the year of its entry into force, by reference to an inflation

factor which corresponds to the accumulated rate of inflation

Since the previous revision or in the first instance since

the date of entry into force of the Convention. The measure

of the rate of inflation to be used in determining the

inflation factor shall be the weighted average of the annual

rates of increase or decrease in the Consumer Price Indices

of the States whose currencies comprise the Special Drawing

Right mentioned in paragraph 1 of Article 23.



2. If the review referred to in the preceding paragraph

concludes that the inflation factor has exceeded 10 per cent,

the Depositary shall notify States Parties of a revision of

the limits of liability. Any such revision shall become

effective six months after its notification to the States

Parties. If within three months after its notification to the

States Parties a majority of the States Parties register

their disapproval, the revision shall not become effective

and the Depositary shall refer the matter to a meeting of the

States Parties. The Depositary shall immediately notify all

States Parties of the coming into force of any revision.



3. Notwithstanding paragraph 1 of this Article, the procedure

referred to in paragraph 2 of this Article shall be applied

at any time provided that one-third of the States Parties

express a desire to that effect and upon condition that the

inflation factor referred to in paragraph 1 has exceeded 30

per cent since the previous revision or since the date of

entry into force of this Convention if there has been no

previous revision. Subsequent reviews using the procedure

described in paragraph 1 of this Article will take place at

five-year intervals starting at the end of the fifth year

following the date of the review in the present

paragraph.



Article 25



Stipulation on limits



(A) the carrier may stipulate that the contract of carriage shall

be subject to higher limits of liability than those provided

for in this Convention or to no limits of liability

whatsoever.



Article 26



Invalidity of more detailed provisions



Any provision tending to relieve the carrier of liability or

to fix a lower limit than that which is laid down in this

Convention shall be null and void, but the nullity of any

such provision does not involve the nullity of the whole

contract, which shall remain subject to the provisions of

This Convention.



Article 27



Freedom to contract



Nothing contained in this Convention shall prevent the

carrier from refusing to enter into any contract of carriage,


from waiving any defences available under the Convention, or

from laying down conditions which do not conflict with the

the provisions of this Convention.



Article 28



Advance payments



In the case of aircraft accidents resulting in death or

injury of passengers, the carrier shall, if required by its

national law, make advance payments without delay to a

the natural person or persons who are entitled to claim

compensation in order to meet the immediate economic needs of

such person's. Such advance payments shall not constitute a

recognition of liability and may be offset against any

amounts subsequently paid as damages by the carrier.



Article 29



Basis of claims



In the carriage of passengers, baggage and cargo, any action

for damages, however founded, whether under this or in

contract or in tort or otherwise, can only be brought subject

to the conditions and such limits of liability as are set out

in this Convention without prejudice to the question as to

who are the persons who have the right to bring suit and what

are their respective rights. In any such action, punitive,

exemplary or any other non-compensatory damages shall not be

recoverable.



Article 30



Servants, agents – aggregation of claims



1. If an action is brought against a servant or agent of the

carrier arising out of damage to which the Convention

relates, such servant or agent, if they prove that they acted

within the scope of their employment, shall be entitled to

avail themselves of the conditions and limits of liability

which the carrier itself is entitled to invoke under this

Convention.



2. The aggregate of the amounts recoverable from the carrier,

its servants and agents, in that case, shall not exceed the

said limits.



3. Save in respect of the carriage of cargo, the provisions

of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this Article shall not apply if it

is proved that the damage resulted from an act or omission of

the servant or agent done with intent to cause damage or

recklessly and with know-ledge that damage would probably

result.



Article 31



Timely notice of complaints



1. Receipt by the person entitled to delivery of the checked

baggage or cargo without complaint is prima facie evidence

that the same has been delivered in good condition and in

accordance with the document of carriage or with the record

preserved by the other means referred to in paragraph 2 of

Article 3 and paragraph 2 of Article 4.



2. In the case of damage, the person entitled to delivery

must complain to the carrier forthwith after the discovery of

the damage, and, at the latest, within seven days from the

date of receipt in the case of checked baggage and 14 days

from the date of receipt in the case of cargo. In the case of

delay, the complaint must be made at the latest within 21

days from the date on which the baggage or cargo have been

placed at his or her disposal.



3. Every complaint must be made in writing and given or

dispatched within the times aforesaid.



4. If no complaint is made within the times aforesaid, no

action shall lie against the carrier, save in the case of

fraud on its part.



Article 32



Death of person liable



In the case of the death of the person liable, an action for

damages lies in accordance with the terms of this Convention

against those legally representing his or her estate.



Article 33



Jurisdiction



1. An action for damages must be brought, at the option of

the plaintiff, in the territory of one of the States Parties,

either before the court of the domicile of the carrier or of

its principal place of business, or where it has a place of

business through which the contract has been made or before

the court at the place of destination.



2. In respect of damage resulting from the death or injury of

a passenger, an action may be brought before one of the

courts mentioned in paragraph 1 of this Article, or in the

territory of a State Party in which at the time of the

accident the passenger has his or her principal and permanent

residence and to or from which the carrier operates servi-ces

for the carriage of passengers by air, either on its own

aircraft, or on another carrier's aircraft pursuant to a

commercial agreement, and in which that carrier information and presenting its

business of carriage of passengers by air from premises

leased or owned by the carrier itself or by another carrier

with which it has a commercial agreement.



3. For the purposes of paragraph 2,



(a) "commercial agreement" means an agreement, other than an

agency agreement, made between carriers and relating to the

provision of their joint services for carriage of passengers

by air;



(b) "principal and permanent residence" means the one fixed

and permanent abode of the passenger at the time of the

accident. The nationality of the passenger shall not be the

determining factor in this regard.



4. Questions of procedure shall be governed by the law of the

court seised of the case.



Article 34



Arbitration



1. Subject to the provisions of this Article, the parties to

the contract of carriage for cargo may stipulate that any

dispute relating to the liability of the carrier under this

Convention shall be settled by arbitration. Such agreement

shall be in writing.



2. The arbitration proceedings shall, at the option of the

claimant, take place within one of the jurisdictions referred

to in Article 33.



3. The arbitrator or arbitration tribunal shall apply the

the provisions of this Convention.



4. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 of this Article shall

be deemed to be part of every arbitration clause or

Agreement, and any term of such clause or agreement which is

inconsistent therewith shall be null and void.



Article 35



Limitation of actions



1. The right to damages shall be extinguished if an action is

not brought within a period of two years, reckoned from the

date of arrival at the destination, or from the date on which

the aircraft ought to have arrived, or from the date on which

the carriage stopped.



2. The method of calculating that period shall be determined

by the law of the court seised of the case.



Article 36



Successive carriage



1. In the case of carriage to be performed by various

successive carriers and falling within the definition set out

in paragraph 3 of Article 1, each carrier which accepts

passengers, baggage or cargo is subject to the rules set out

in this Convention and is deemed to be one of the parties to

the contract of carriage in so far as the contract deals with

that part of the carriage which is performed under its

supervision.



2. In the case of carriage of this nature, the passenger or

any person entitled to compensation in respect of him or her

can take action only against the carrier which performed the

the carriage during which the accident or the delay occurred,

Save in the case where, by express agreement, the first

carrier has assumed liability for the whole journey.



3. As regards baggage or cargo, the passenger or consignor

will have a right of action against the first carrier, and

the passenger or consignee who is entitled to delivery will

have a right of action against the last carrier, and further,

each may take action against the carrier which performed the

the carriage during which the destruction, loss, damage or delay

took place. These carriers will be jointly and severally

liable to the passenger or to the consignor or consignee.



Article 37



Right of recourse against third parties



Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice the question

whether a person liable for damage in accordance with its

provisions has a right of recourse against any other person.



CHAPTER IV



COMBINED CARRIAGE



Article 38



Combined carriage



1. In the case of combined carriage performed partly by air

and partly by any other mode of carriage, the provisions of

This Convention shall, subject to paragraph 4 of Article 18,

apply only to the carriage by air, provided that the carriage

by air falls within the terms of Article 1.



2. Nothing in this Convention shall prevent the parties in

the case of combined carriage from inserting in the document

of air carriage conditions relating to other modes of

carriage, provided that the provisions of this Convention are

observed as regards the carriage by air.



CHAPTER V



CARRIAGE BY AIR PERFORMED BY A PERSON OTHER THAN THE

CONTRACTING CARRIER



Article 39



Contracting carrier actual carrier



The provisions of this Chapter apply when a person

(hereinafter referred to as "the contracting carrier") as a

principal makes a contract of carriage governed by this

Convention with a passenger or consignor or with a person

acting on behalf of the passenger or consignor, and another

person (hereinafter referred to as "the actual carrier")

performs, by virtue of authority from the contracting

carrier, the whole or part of the carriage, but is not with

respect to such part a successive carrier within the meaning

of this Convention. Such authority shall be presumed in the

absence of proof to the contrary.



Article 40



Respective liability of contracting and actual carriers



If an actual carrier performs the whole or part of carriage

which, according to the contract referred to in Article 39,

is governed by this Convention, both the contracting carrier

and the actual carrier shall, except as otherwise provided in

This Chapter, be subject to the rules of this Convention, the

forms for the whole of the carriage contemplated in the

contract, the latter solely for the carriage which it

performs.



Article 41



Mutual liability



1. The acts and omissions of the actual carrier and of its

servants and agents acting within the scope of their

employment shall, in relation to the carriage performed by

the actual carrier, be deemed to be also those of the

contracting carrier.




2. The acts and omissions of the contracting carrier and of

its servants and agents acting within the scope of their

employment shall, in relation to the carriage performed by

the actual carrier, be deemed to be also those of the actual

carrier. Nevertheless, no such act or omission shall subject

the actual carrier to liability exceeding the amounts

referred to in Articles 21, 22, 23 and 24. Any special

agreement under which the contracting carrier assumes

bond not imposed by this Convention or any waiver of

rights or defences conferred by this Convention or any

special declaration of interest in delivery at destination

contemplated in Article 22 shall not affect the actual

carrier unless agreed to by it.



Article 42



Addressee of complaints and instructions



Any complaint to be made or instruction to be given during the

This Convention to the carrier shall have the same effect

whether addressed to the contracting carrier or to the actual

carrier. Nevertheless, instructions referred to in Article 12

shall only be effective if addressed to the contracting

carrier.



Article 43



Servants and agents



In relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier,

any servant or agent of that carrier or of the contracting

carrier shall, if they prove that they acted within the scope

of their employment, be entitled to avail themselves of the

conditions and limits of liability which are applicable under

This Convention to the carrier whose servant or agent they

are, unless it is proved that they acted in a manner that

prevents the limits of liability from being invoked in

accordance with this Convention.



Article 44



Aggregation of damages



In relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier,

the aggregate of the amounts recoverable from that carrier

and the contracting carrier, and from their servants and

agents acting within the scope of their employment, shall not

exceed the highest amount which could be awarded against

either the contracting carrier or the actual carrier under

This Convention, but none of the persons mentioned shall be

liable for a sum in excess of the limit applicable to that

person.



Article 45



Addressee of claims



In relation to the carriage performed by the actual carrier,

an action for damages may be brought, at the option of the

plaintiff, against that carrier or the contracting carrier,

or against both together or separately. If the action is

brought against only one of those carriers, that carrier

shall have the right to require the other carrier to be

joined in the proceedings, the procedure and effects being

governed by the law of the court seised of the case.



Article 46



Additional jurisdiction



Any action for damages contemplated in Article 45 must be

brought, at the option of the plaintiff, in the territory of

one of the States Parties, either before a court in which an

action may be brought against the contracting carrier, as

provided in Article 33, or before the court having

jurisdiction at the place where the actual carrier has its

domicile or its principal place of business.



Article 47



Invalidity of more detailed provisions



Any more detailed provision tending to relieve the contracting

carrier or the actual carrier of liability under this Chapter

or to fix a lower limit than that which is applicable

According to this Chapter shall be null and void, but the

nullity of any such provision does not involve the nullity of

the whole contract, which shall remain subject to the

the provisions of this Chapter.



Article 48



Mutual relations of contracting and actual carriers



Except as provided in Article 45, nothing in this Chapter

shall affect the rights and bond of the carrier's

between themselves, including any right of recourse or

indemnification.



CHAPTER VI



OTHER PROVISIONS



Article 49



Mandatory application



Any clause contained in the contract of carriage and all

Special agreements entered into before the damage occurred by

which the parties purport to infringe the rules laid down by

This Convention, whether by deciding the law to be applied,

the mind-altering or by the rules as to jurisdiction, shall be null

and void.



Article 50



Insurance



States Parties shall require their carriers to maintain

adequate insurance covering their liability under this

Convention. (A) the carrier may be required by the State Party into

which it operates to furnish evidence that it maintains

adequate insurance covering its liability under this

Convention.



Article 51



Carriage Performed in Extraordinary Circumstances



The provisions of Articles 3 to 5, 7 and 8 relating to the

documentation of carriage shall not apply in the case of

carriage performed in extraordinary circumstances outside the

the normal scope of a carrier's business.



Article 52



Definition of days



The expression "days" when used in this Convention means

calendar days, not working days.



CHAPTER VII



FINAL CLAUSES



Article 53



Signature, ratification and entry into force



1. This Convention shall be open for signature in Montreal on

28 May 1999 by States participating in the International

Conference on Air Law held at Montreal from 10 to 28 May

1999. After 28 May 1999, the Convention shall be open to all

States for signature at the Headquarters of the International

Civil Aviation Organization in Montreal until it enters into

force in accordance with paragraph 6 of this Article.



2. This Convention shall similarly be open for signature by

Regional Economic Integration Organization. For the purpose

of this Convention, a "Regional Economic Integration

Organisation "means any organisation which is constituted by

sovereign States of a given region which has competence in

respect of certain matters governed by this Convention and

has been duly authorized to sign and to ratify, accept,

approve or accede to this Convention. (A) reference to a "State

Party "or" States Parties "in this Convention, otherwise than

in paragraph 2 of Article 1, paragraph 1 (b) of Article 3,

paragraph (b) of Article 5, Articles 23, 33, 46 and paragraph

(b) of Article 57, applies equally to a Regional Economic

Integration Organization. For the purpose of Article 24, the

references to "a majority of the States Parties" and "one-

third of the States Parties "shall not apply to a Regional

Economic Integration Organization.



3. This Convention shall be subject to ratification by States

and by Regional Economic Integration Organization which have

signed it.



4. Any State or Regional Economic Integration Organization

which does not sign this Convention may accept, approve or

accede to it at any time.



5. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or

accession shall be deposited with the International Civil

Aviation Organization, which is hereby designated the

Depositary.



6. This Convention shall enter into force on the sixtieth day

following the date of deposit of the thirtieth instrument of

ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with the

Depositary between the States which have deposited such

instruments. An instrument deposited by a Regional Economic

Integration Organization shall not be counted for the purpose

of this paragraph.



7. For other States and for other Regional Economic

Integration Organization, this Convention shall take effect

60 days following the date of deposit of the instrument of

ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.



8. The Depositary shall promptly notify all signatories and

States Parties of:



(a) each signature of this Convention and date thereof;



(b) each deposit of an instrument of ratification,

acceptance, approval or accession and date thereof;



(c) the date of entry into force of this Convention;



(d) the date of the coming into force of any revision of the

limits of liability established under this Convention;



(e) any denunciation under Article 54.



Article 54



Denunciation



1. Any State Party may denounce this Convention by written

notification to the Depositary.



2. Denunciation shall take effect 180 days following the date

on which notification is received by the Depositary.



Article 55



Relationship with other Warsaw Convention Instruments



This Convention shall prevail over any rules which apply to

international carriage by air:



1. between States Parties to this Convention by virtue of

those States commonly being Party to



(a) the Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules

Relating to International Carriage by Air signed at Warsaw on

12 October 1929 (hereinafter called the "Warsaw Convention");



(b) the Protocol to Amend the Convention for the Unification

of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air

Signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929, done at The Hague on 28

September 1955 (hereinafter called The Hague Protocol);



(c) the Convention, Supplementary to the Warsaw Convention,

for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to

International Carriage by Air Performed by a Person Other

than the Contracting Carrier, signed at Guadalajara on 18

September 1961 (hereinafter called the Guadalajara

Convention);



(d) the Protocol to Amend the Convention for the Unification

of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air

Signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929 as Amended by the

Protocol Done at The Hague on 28 September 1955 signed at

Guatemala City on 8 March 1971 (hereinafter called the

Guatemala City Protocol);



(e) Additional Protocol Nos 1 to 3 and Montreal Protocol No 4

to amend the Warsaw Convention as amended by The Hague

Protocol or the Warsaw Convention as amended by both The

Hague Protocol and the Guatemala City Protocol signed at

Montreal on 25 September 1975 (hereinafter called the

The Montreal Protocols); or



2. within the territory of any single State Party to this


Convention by virtue of that State being Party to one or more

of the instruments referred to in subparagraphs (a) to (e)

above.



Article 56



States with more than one system of law



1. If a State has two or more territorial units in which

different systems of law are applicable in relation to

matters dealt with in this Convention, it may at the time of

signature, ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

declare that this Convention shall extend to all its

territorial units or only to one or more of them and may

modify this declaration by submitting another declaration at

any time.



2. Any such declaration shall be notified to the Depositary

and shall state expressly the territorial units to which the

Convention applies.



3. In relation to a State Party which has made such a

Declaration:



(a) references in Article 23 to "national currency" shall be

construed as referring to the currency of the relevant

territorial unit of that State; and



(b) the reference in Article 28 to "national law" shall be

construed as referring to the law of the relevant territorial

unit of that State.



Article 57



Reservation



No reservation may be made to this Convention except that a

The State Party may at any time declare by a notification

addressed to the Depositary that this Convention shall not

apply to:



(a) international carriage by air performed and operated

directly by that State Party for non-commercial purposes in

respect to its functions and duties as a sovereign State;

and/or



(b) the carriage of persons, cargo and baggage for its

military authorities on aircraft registered in or leased by

that State Party, the whole capacity of which has been

reserved by or on behalf of such authorities.



In WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned Plenipotentiaries, having

been duly authorized, have signed this Convention.



DONE at Montreal on the 28th day of May of the year one

thousand nine hundred and ninety-nine in the English, Arabic,

Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish languages, all texts

being equally authentic. This Convention shall remain

deposited in the archives of the International Civil Aviation

Organization, and certified copies thereof shall be

transmitted by the Depositary to all States Parties to this

Convention, as well as to all States Parties to the Warsaw

Convention, The Hague Protocol, the Guadalajara Convention,

the Guatemala City Protocol, and the Montreal Protocols



CONVENTION POUR L ' UNIFICATION DE CERTAINES RÈGLES RELATIVES

AU TRANSPORT AÉRIEN INTERNATIONAL



LES ÉTATS PARTIES À LA PRÉSENTE CONVENTION,



RECONNAISSANT l ' importante contribution de la Convention pour

l ' certaines règles relatives au unification the transport

aérien international, signée à Varsovie le 12 octobre 1929,

ci-après appelée la Convention de Varsovie "et celle

d'autres instruments connexes à l ' harmonisation du droit

aérien international law,



RECONNAISSANT la nécessité de la country et de refondre

Convention de Varsovie connexes et les instruments,



RECONNAISSANT l ' importance d ' assurer la protection des

intérêts des consommateurs dans le transport aérien

international et la nécessité d'une indemnisation équitable

fondée sur le principe de réparation;



RÉAFFIRMANT l ' intérêt d ' assurer le développement d'une

exploitation ordonnée you transport aérien international et un

acheminement sans heurt des bagages, des passagers et des

marchandises, conformément aux principes et aux objectifs de

La Convention relative à l ' aviation civile internationale

promote your à Chicago le 7 décembre 1944,



CONVAINCUS que l ' adoption de mesures collective's par les

États en vue d ' shirts et de certaines harmonisa codifier

règles régissant le transport aérien international est le

Meilleur moyen de réaliser un équilibre équitable des

intérêts,



SONT CONVENUS DE CE QUI SUIT:



CHAPITRE IN



GÉNÉRALITÉS



Article 1



Champ d ' application



1. La présente convention s ' applique à tout transport

International de personnes, bagages ou marchandises, effectué

par aéronef contre rémunération. Elle s ' applique également

aux transports gratuits effectués par aéronef par une

entreprise de transport aérien.



2. Au sens de la présente convention, l'expression transport

International s ' entend de tout transport amend the terms of dance, d ' après

Les stipulations des parties, le point de pore et le point

the destination, qu'il y ait ou non interruption de transport

OU sont situés transbordement, soit sur le territoire de deux

États parties, soit sur le territoire d'un seul État partie

SI une escale est Prevue sur le territoire d'un autre État,

même si cet État n'est pas un État partie. Le transport sans

une telle escale entre deux points du territoire d'un seul

État partie n'est pas considéré comme international au sens

de la présente convention.



3. Le transport à exécuter par plusieurs transporteurs

successifs est censé constituer pour l'application de la

présente convention un transport unique lorsqu ' il a été

envisagé par les parties comme une seule opération, qu'il ait

été conclu sous la forme d'un seul contrat ou d'une série de

contrats, et il ne perd pas son caractère international couples

Le fait qu'un seul contrat ou une série de contrats it

être exécutés intégralement dans le territoire d'un même

État.



4. La présente convention s ' applique aussi aux transports

visés au chapitre V, sous réserve des outline dudit

Chapitre.



Article 2



Transport effectué par l ' État et transport d ' envois postaux



1. La présente convention s ' applique aux transports effectués

par l ' État ou les autres personnes for Legal Affairs de droit

public, dans les conditions prévues à l'article 1.



2. Dans le transport des envois postaux, le transporteur

n'est responsable qu ' envers l ' administration postale

conformément aux règles applicables compétente dans les

rapports entre les transporteurs et les administrative

postales.



3. Les disposition de la présente convention autres que

Celles du paragraphe 2 ci-dessus ne s ' appliquent pas au

transport des envois postaux.



CHAPITRE II



DOCUMENTS ET RELATIFS AU TRANSPORT DES PARTIES BOND

DES BAGAGES, DES PASSAGERS ET DES MARCHANDISES



Article 3



Passagers et bagages



1. Dans le transport des passagers, un titre de transport

ou doit être délivré individuell collectif, contenant:



a) l ' indication des points de pore et de destination;



b) si les points de pore et de destination sont situés sur

Le territoire d'un même État partie et si une ou plusieurs

the Escale sont prévues sur le territoire d'un autre État,

l ' indication d ' une de ces escales.



2. L ' emploi de tout autre moyen constatant les indications

qui figurent au paragraphe 1 peut se substituer à la

délivrance du titre de transport mentionné dans ce

paragraphe. SI un tel autre moyen est utilisé, le

offrira au transporteur de délivrer passages un document

écrit constatant les indications qui y sont consignées.



3. Le transporteur délivrera au passages une fiche

d identification pour chaque article the luggage has.



4. Il sera donné un avis écrit au passages indiquant que,

lorsque la présente convention s ' applique, elle régit la

responsabilité des transporteurs en cas de mort ou de lésion

ainsi qu ' en cas de perte ou d ' destruction, avarie des

bagages, ou de retard.



5. L ' inobservation des outline des paragraphes

précédents affecte l ' n ' you existence you la validité du contrat

the transport, qui n ' a sera pas soumis aux règles de la moins

présente convention, y compris celles qui portent sur la

limitation de la responsabilité.



Article 4



Marchandises



1. Pour le transport de marchandises, une lettre de transport

aérien est émise.



2. L ' emploi de tout autre moyen constatant les indications

relatives au transport à exécuter peut se substituer à

l ' émission de la lettre de transport aérien. SI de tels

Autres moyens sont utilisés, le transporteur délivre à

l ' expéditeur, à la demande de ce dernier, un récépissé de

marchandises permettant l ' identification de l ' expédition et

l ' accès aux autres moyens enregistrées par ces indications.



Article 5



Be de la lettre de transport aérien ou you récépissé de

marchandises



La lettre de transport aérien ou le récépissé de marchandises

contiennent:



a) l ' indication des points de pore et de destination;



b) si les points de pore et de destination sont situés sur

Le territoire d'un même État partie et qu ' une ou plusieurs

the Escale sont prévues sur le territoire d'un autre État,

l ' indication d ' une de ces escales;



c) la mention du poids de l ' expédition.



Article 6



Document relatif à la nature de la marchandise



L ' expéditeur peut être tenu pour accomplir les formalites

nécessaires de douane, de police et d'autres autorités

publiques d ' émettre un document indiquant la nature de la

Marchandise. Cette disposition ne crée pour le transporteur

Aucun devoir, bonds ni responsabilité.



Article 7



Description de la lettre de transport aérien



1. La lettre de transport aérien est établie par l ' expéditeur

en trois exemplaires originaux.



2. Le premier exemplaire porte la mention "pour le

transporteur "; Il est signé par l ' expéditeur. Le deuxième

exemplaire porte la mention "pour le destinataire"; Il est

signé par l ' expéditeur et le transporteur. Le French

exemplaire est signé par le transporteur et remis par lui à

l ' expéditeur après acceptation de la marchandise.



3. La signature du transporteur et celle de l ' expéditeur

can être imprimées ou remplacées par un timbre.



4. Si, à la demande de l ' expéditeur, établit le transporteur

La lettre de transport aérien, ce dernier est considéré,


jusqu ' à preuve du contraire, comme agissant au nom de

l ' expéditeur.



Article 8



Documents relatifs à plusieurs coli's



Lorsqu ' il y a plusieurs coli's:



a) le transporteur de marchandises a le droit de demander à

l ' expéditeur l ' aérien de lettres de transport establishment

distinctes;



b) l ' expéditeur a le droit de demander au transporteur la

Remise de récépissés de marchandises distincts, lorsque les

Autres moyens visés au paragraphe 2 de l'article 4 sont

utilisés.



Article 9



Inobservation des outline relatives aux documents

obligatoires



L ' inobservation des disposition des articles 4 à 8 n ' affecte

NI l ' existence you la validité du contrat de transport qui

n ' a pas soumis aux règles sera moins de la présente

Convention, y compris celles qui portent sur la limitation de

responsabilité.



Article 10



Responsabilité pour les indications portées dans les

documents



1. L ' expéditeur est responsable de exactitude des

indications et déclarations "expired la marchandise

inscrites couple lui ou en son nom dans la lettre de transport

aérien, ainsi que de celles of Prague fournies par lui et ou a

son nom au transporteur en vue d ' être insérées dans le

récépissé de marchandises ou pour l'Insertion dans les données

enregistrées par les autres moyens prévus au paragraphe 2 de

l'article 4. CES disposition aussi au cas où s'en appliquent la

personne agissant au nom de l ' expéditeur est également

l'agent du transporteur.



2. L ' expéditeur assume la responsabilité de tout dommage subi

par le transporteur ou par toute autre personne à l ' provide the

laquelle la responsabilité du transporteur est engagée, a

raison d ' indications irrégulières et de déclarations ",

inexactes ou incomplètes fournies par lui ou et son of Prague

Nom.



3. Sous réserve des paragraphes 1 et 2 disposition des you

présent article, le transporteur assume la responsabilité de

Tout dommage subi par l ' expéditeur ou par toute autre

Personne à la responsabilité de laquelle l ' provide the

l ' expéditeur est engagée, a raison d ' indications et de

Déclarations "irrégulières, inexactes ou incomplètes insérées

par lui ou en son nom dans le récépissé de marchandises ou

dans les données enregistrées par les autres moyens prévus au

paragraphe 2 de l'article 4.



Article 11



Valeur probante des documents



1. La lettre de transport aérien et le récépissé de

marchandises font foi, jusqu ' à preuve du contraire, de la

conclusion du contrat, de la réception de la marchandise et

des conditions qui y figurent you transport.



2. Les énonciations de la lettre de transport aérien et du

récépissé de marchandises, relatives au poids, aux dimensions

et à l ' emballage de la marchandise ainsi qu ' au nombre des

coli's, font foi jusqu ' à preuve du contraire; Celles relatives

à la quantité, au volume et à l ' état de la marchandise ne

font preuve contre le transporteur que si la vérification a

(a) été promote your par lui en présence de l ' expéditeur, et constatée

sur la lettre de transport aérien, ou s'il s ' agit

d ' énonciations relatives à l ' état apparent de la marchandise.



Article 12



Droit de disposer de la marchandise



1. L ' expéditeur a le droit, à la condition d ' exécuter toutes

Les bond résultant du contrat de transport, the

disposer de la marchandise, soit en la retirant à l ' aéroport

the pore ou de destination, soit en l ' arrêtant a cours de

route lors d'un atterrissage, soit en la faisant livrer au

lieu de destination ou en cours de route à une personne autre

que le destinataire initialement demandant soit désigné, a

son retour à l ' aéroport de pore, pour autant que l ' exercice

de ce droit ne porte préjudice ni au transporteur, ni aux

Autres expéditeurs et avec l ' bond de rembourser les

frais qui résultent en.



2. Dans le cas où l ' exécution des instructions de

l ' expéditeur est impossible, le transporteur doit l ' en aviser

immédiatement.



3. Si le transporteur exécute les instructions de disposition

de l ' expéditeur, sans exiger la production de exemplaire de

La lettre de transport aérien ou you récépissé de la

Marchandise délivré à celui-ci, il sera responsable, sauf son

recours contre l ' expéditeur, qui pourra être du préjudice

causé par ce fait à celui qui est régulièrement a possession

de la lettre de transport aérien ou you récépissé de la

Marchandise.



4. Le droit de l ' expéditeur cesse au moment où celui du

destinataire room numbers, conformément à l'article 13.

Toutefois, si le destinataire refuse la marchandise, ou s'il

ne peut être joint, l ' expéditeur reprend son droit de

outline.



Article 13



Livraison de la marchandise



1. Sauf lorsque l ' expéditeur a exercé le droit qu'il tient de

l'article 12, le destinataire (a) le droit, dès l ' arrivée de la

Marchandise au point de destination, de demander au

livrer la marchandise de transporteur lui contre le paiement

du montant des créances et contre l ' exécution des conditions

they transport.



2. Sauf stipulation contraire, le transporteur doit aviser le

destinataire dès l ' arrivée de la marchandise.



3. Si la perte de la marchandise est reconnue par le

transporteur ou si, à l ' expiration d'un "délai de sept jours

Après qu'elle aurait Appendix: variations of "arriver, la marchandise n'est pas

' Arrivée, le destinataire est à faire valoir denied having vis-à-

way you transporteur les droits résultant du contrat de

transport.



Article 14



Possibilité de faire valoir les droits de l ' expéditeur et du

destinataire



L ' expéditeur et le destinataire can faire valoir tous les

droits qui leur sont respectivement conférés par les articles

12 et 13, chacun a son nom propre, qu'il agisse dans son

propre intérêt ou dans l ' intérêt d ' à autrui, condition

d ' exécuter les bond que le contrat de transport

impose.



Article 15



Rapports entre l ' expéditeur et le destinataire ou report

entre les tierces parties



1. Les articles 12, 13 et 14 ne portent préjudice aux you

rapports entre l ' expéditeur et le destinataire, ni aux

report's mutuels des tierces parties dont les droits

proviennent de l ' expéditeur ou du destinataire.



2. Toute clause dérogeant aux disposition des articles 12,

13 et 14 doit être inscrite dans la lettre de transport

aérien ou dans le récépissé de marchandises.



Article 16



Formalites de douane, de police ou d'autres autorités

publiques



1. L ' expéditeur est tenu de fournir les renseignements et les

documents qui, avant la remise de la marchandise au

destinataire, sont nécessaires à l ' accomplissement des

formalites de douane, de police ou d'autres autorités

publiques. L ' expéditeur est responsable envers le

transporteur de tous dommages qui violence résulter de

l ' absence, de insuffisance ou de l ' irrégularité de ces

renseignements et pièces, sauf le cas de faute de la part du

transporteur ou de ses préposés ou mandataires.



2. Le transporteur n'est pas tenu d ' examiner si ces

renseignements et documents sont exact ou suffisants.



CHAPITRE III



RESPONSABILITÉ DU TRANSPORTEUR ET ÉTENDUE DE INDEMNISATION

DU PRÉJUDICE



Article 17



Mort ou lésion subie par le Dommage causé aux passages –

bagages



1. Le transporteur est responsable du préjudice survenu en

CAs de lésion corporelle subie ou de mort par un passages,

par cela seul que l ' accident qui a causé la mort ou la lésion

s ' est produit à bord de l ' aéronef ou au cours de toutes

opérations d ' embarquement ou de débarquement.



2. Le transporteur est responsable du dommage survenu en cas

the destruction, avarie ou perte de bagages enregistrés, couple

cela seul que le fait qui a causé la destruction, la perte ou

l ' avarie s ' est produit à bord de l ' aéronef ou au cours de

toute période durant laquelle le transporteur avait la garde

des bagages enregistrés. Toutefois, le transporteur n'est pas

responsable et dans la mesure où si le dommage résulte de la

nature propre ou des bagages du vice. Dans le cas des bagages

non enregistrés, ' notamment ' des effets personnels, le

transporteur est responsable si le dommage résulte de sa

faute ou de celle de ses préposés ou mandataires.



3. Si le transporteur admet la perte des bagages enregistrés

OU si les bagages sont arrivés à ne pas enregistrés

destination dans les vingt et un jours qui suivent la date à

laquelle ils auraient Appendix: variations of "arriver, le passages est à denied having

faire valoir contre le transporteur les droits qui découlent

du contrat de transport.



4. Sous réserve de outline contraires, dans la présente

Convention le terme "bagages" désigne les bagages enregistrés

aussi bien que les bagages non enregistrés.



Article 18



Dommage causé à la marchandise



1. Le transporteur est responsable du dommage survenu en cas

the destruction, avarie ou perte de la marchandise par cela

seul que le fait qui a causé le dommage s ' est produit pendant

Le transport aérien.



2. Toutefois, le transporteur n'est pas responsable s'il

établit, et dans la mesure où il établit, que la destruction,

La perte ou l ' avarie de la marchandise résulte de l'un ou de

plusieurs des faits suivants:



a) la nature ou le vice propre de la marchandise;



b) l packaging défectueux de la marchandise par une personne

autre que le transporteur ou ses préposés ou mandataires;



c) un fait de guerre ou un conflit army;



d) un acte de l ' autorité publique accompli en relation avec

l ' entrée, la sortie ou le transit de la marchandise.



3. Le transport aérien, au sens du paragraphe 1 du présent

Article, comprend la période pendant laquelle la marchandise

se trouve sous la garde du transporteur.



4. La période du transport aérien ne couvre aucun transport

Terrestre, maritime ou par voie d'eau intérieure effectué en


dehors d'un aéroport. Toutefois, lorsqu ' un tel transport est

effectué dans l ' exécution du contrat de transport aérien a

Vue du chargement, de la livraison ou du transbordement, tout

dommage est présumé, sauf preuve du contraire, résulter d'un

survenu le transport aérien fait pendant. SI, sans le

on de l ' expéditeur, le transporteur remplace a

totalité ou en partie le transport convenu dans l ' entente

conclue entre les parties comme étant le transport par voie

AERIENNE, par un autre mode de transport, ce transport par un

Autre mode sera considéré comme faisant partie de la période

du transport aérien.



Article 19



Retard



Le transporteur est responsable du dommage résultant d'un

retard dans le transport aérien de passagers, de bagages ou

de marchandises. Cependant, le transporteur n'est pas

Responsable du dommage causé par un retard s'il prouve que

Lui, ses préposés et mandataires ont pris toutes les mesures

qui pouvaient raisonnablement s ' éviter pour imposer le

dommage, ou qu'il leur était impossible de les prendre.



Article 20



Exonération



Dans le cas où il fait la preuve que la négligence ou un

Autre acte ou omission préjudiciable de la personne qui

demande réparation ou de la personne dont elle tient ses

droits a causé le dommage ou y a contribué, le transporteur

EST exonéré en tout ou en partie de sa responsabilité à

l provide de cette personne, dans la mesure où cette négligence

OU cet autre acte ou omission préjudiciable a causé le

dommage ou y a contribué. Lorsqu ' une demande en réparation

EST introduite par une personne autre que le passages, a

raison de la mort ou d'une lésion subie par ce dernier, le

transporteur est exonéré également en tout ou en partie de sa

responsabilité dans la mesure où il prouve que la négligence

ou un autre acte ou omission préjudiciable de ce passages (a)

causé le dommage ou y a contribué. Le présent article

s ' applique à toutes les outline de la convention a

matière de responsabilité, y compris le paragraphe 1 de

l'article 21.



Article 21



Indemnisation en cas de mort ou de lésion subie par le

passages



1. Pour les dommages visés au paragraphe 1 de l'article 17 et

NE dépassant pas 100 000 droits de tirage spéciaux couple

passages, le transporteur ne peut exclure ou limiter sa

responsabilité.



2. Le transporteur n'est pas responsable des dommages visés

au paragraphe 1 de l'article 17 dans la mesure où ils

dépassent 100 000 droits de tirage spéciaux few passages,

s'il prouve:



a) que le dommage n'est pas Appendix: variations of "à la négligence ou à un autre

ACTE ou omission préjudiciable du transporteur, de ses

préposés ou de ses mandataires, ou



b) que ces dommages résultent uniquement de la négligence ou

d'un autre acte ou omission préjudiciable d'un tiers.



Article 22



Limites de responsabilité relatives aux retards, aux bagages

et aux marchandises



1. En cas de dommage subi par des passagers résultant d'un

retard, aux termes de l'article 19, la responsabilité du

transporteur est limitée à la somme de 4 150 droits de tirage

spéciaux few passages.



2. Dans le transport de bagages, la responsabilité du

transporteur en cas de destruction, perte, avarie ou retard

EST limitée à la somme de 1000 droits de tirage spéciaux couple

passages, sauf à la déclaration d ' intérêt livraison spéciale

promote your par le passages au moment de la remise des bagages

enregistrés au transporteur et moyennant le paiement éventuel

d'une somme ". Dans ce cas, le transporteur sera

tenu de payer jusqu ' à concurrence de la somme, déclarée à

moins qu'il prouve qu'elle est supérieure à l ' intérêt du réel

passages à la livraison.



3. Dans le transport de marchandises, la responsabilité du

transporteur, en cas de destruction, the perte, avarie ou de

retard, est limitée à la somme de 17 droits de tirage

spéciaux par kilogramme, sauf la déclaration spéciale d ' intérêt

promote your à la livraison par l ' expéditeur au moment de la remise

du transporteur et moyennant coli's au le paiement d'une somme

"éventuelle. Dans ce cas, le transporteur sera

tenu de payer jusqu ' à concurrence de la somme, déclarée à

moins qu'il prouve qu'elle est supérieure à l ' intérêt réel de

l ' expéditeur à la livraison.



4. En cas de destruction, the perte, avarie ou de retard

d'une partie des marchandises, ou de tout objet qui y est

be, seul le poids total du ou des coli's dont il s ' agit

EST pris en considération pour determiner la limite de

responsabilité du transporteur. Toutefois, lorsque la

destruction, la perte, l ' avarie ou le retard d'une partie des

marchandises, ou d'un objet qui y est be, affecte la

Valeur d ' autres coli's couverts par la même lettre de

transport aérien ou par le même récépissé ou, a l ' absence the

CES documents, par les mêmes indications consignées par les

Autres moyens visés à l'article 4, paragraphe 2, le poids

Total de ces coli's doit être pris en considération pour

the determiner la limite de responsabilité.



5. Les paragraphes 1 et 2 disposition des du présent article

NE s ' appliquent pas s'il est prouvé que le dommage résulte

d'un acte ou d'une omission du transporteur, de ses préposés

ou de ses mandataires, fait soit avec l ' intention de

provoquer un dommage, soit témérairement et avec conscience

Qu ' un dommage en résultera probablement, pour autant que,

dans le cas d'un acte ou d'une omission de préposés ou de

mandataires, la preuve ont également que ceuxci soit apportée

AGI dans l ' exercice de leurs fonctions.



6. Les limites fixées par l'article 21 et par le présent

Article n ' ont pas pour effet d ' enlever au tribunal la faculté

d ' outre conformément à allouer, a sa loi, une somme

correspondant à tout ou partie des dépens et autres frais de

Procès exposés par le demandeur, intérêts compris. La

outline précédente ne s ' applique pas lorsque le montant

de l ' indemnité allouée, non compris les dépens et autres

frais de procès, ne dépasse pas la somme que le transporteur

(a) offerte par écrit au demandeur dans un "délai de six mois à

dater du fait qui a causé le dommage ou avant l ' introduction

de instance si celle-ci est postérieure à ce "délai.



Article 23



Conversion des unités monétaires



1. Les sommes indiquées en droits de tirage spéciaux dans la

présente convention sont considérées comme se rapportant au

droit de tirage spécial tel que défini par le Fonds monétaire

International. La conversion de ces sommes en monnaies

nationales ' effectuera, en cas d ' instance judiciaire,

Suivant la valeur de ces monnaies a droit de tirage spécial

à la date du jugement. La valeur, a droit de tirage spécial,

d'une monnaie Nationale d'un État partie qui est membre du

Fonds monétaire international, est calculée selon la méthode

d ' évaluation appliquée par le Fonds monétaire international à

la date du jugement pour ses propres opérations et

transactions. La valeur, a droit de tirage spécial, d'une

Monnaie Nationale d'un État partie qui n'est pas membre du

Fonds monétaire international, est calculée la façon

déterminée par cet État.



2. Toutefois, les États qui ne sont pas principles you Fonds

monétaire international et dont la législation ne permet pas

d ' appliquer les présent paragraphe 1 outline you you

Article, can, au moment de la ratification ou de

l ' adhésion, ou à tout moment par la suite, déclarer que la

Limite de responsabilité du transporteur prescrite à

l'article 21 est fixée dans les procédures judiciaires, sur

leur territoire, à la somme de 1 500 000 unités monétaires

few passages; 62 500 unités monétaires few passages pour ce

qui concerne le paragraphe 1 de l'article 22; 15 000 unités

monétaires few passages pour ce qui concerne le paragraphe 2

de l'article 22; 250 kilogramme monétaires et par unités pour

CE qui concerne le paragraphe 3 de l'article 22. Cette unité

monétaire correspond à soixante-cinq milligrammes et demi

d'Or au titre de neuf cents millièmes de Nice. Les sommes

can être converties dans la monnaie Nationale concernée

en chiffres tour. La conversion de ces sommes en monnaie

Nationale conformément à la législation s'en effectuera de

l ' État a cause.



3. Le calcul mentionné dans la dernière phrase du paragraphe

1 du présent article et la conversion mentionnée au

paragraphe 2 du présent article sont effectués de façon à

exprimer en monnaie nationale de l ' État partie la même valeur

réelle, dans la mesure du possible, pour les montants prévus

aux articles 21 et 22, que celle qui découlerait de

l'application des trois premières phrases du paragraphe 1 du

présent article. Les États parties communiquent au

dépositaire leur méthode de calcul conformément au paragraphe

1 du présent article ou les resultats de la conversion

conformément au paragraphe 2 du présent article, selon le

CAs, lors du dépôt de leur instrument de ratification,

d ' acceptation ou d ' approbation de la présente convention ou

d ' adhésion à celle-ci et chaque fois qu'un changement see

produit dans cette méthode de calcul ou dans ces resultats.



Article 24



Révision des limites



1. Sans préjudice des disposition de l'article 25 de la

présente convention et sous réserve du paragraphe 2 ci-

DESSOUS, les limites de responsabilité prescrites aux

articles 21, 22 et 23 sont tous par le dépositaire révisées

Les cinq ans, la première révision intervenant à la fin de la

Gary année suivant la date d ' entrée en vigueur de la

si la présente convention ou convention n ' entre pas a

vigueur dans les cinq ans qui suivent la date à laquelle elle

EST pour la première fois ouverte à la signature, dance

l ' année de son entrée en vigueur, moyennant l'application


d'un correspondant au taux pour inflation coefficient

cumulatif de révision ou depuis la précédente inflation,

dans le cas d'une première révision, depuis la date d ' entrée

en vigueur de la convention. La mesure du taux d ' inflation à

Utiliser pour determiner le coefficient est la pour inflation

Moyenne pondérée des taux annuels de la bullish ou de la

bearish des indices de prix à la consommation des États dont

Les monnaies composent le droit de cité au tirage spécial

paragraphe 1 de l'article 23.



2. Si la révision mentionnée au paragraphe précédent conclut

que pour le coefficient 10% inflation, a dépassé le

dépositaire notifie aux États parties une révision des

limites de responsabilité. Toute révision ainsi adoptée prend

Effet six mois après sa notification aux États parties. SI,

dans les trois mois qui suivent cette notification aux États

Parties, une majorité des États parties notifie sa

désapprobation, la révision ne prend pas effet et le

dépositaire renvoie la question à une réunion des États

parties. Le dépositaire notifie immédiatement à tous les

États parties l ' entrée en vigueur de toute révision.



3. le paragraphe 1 du présent Nonobstant article, la

procédure au présent paragraphe 2 du évoquée article est

applicable à tout moment, à condition qu'un tiers des États

Parties exprime un souhait dans ce sens et à condition que le

visé au paragraphe pour inflation coefficient 1 soit

supérieur à 30% de ce qu'il était à la date de la révision

précédente ou à la date d ' entrée en vigueur de la présente

Convention s ' il n ' y a pas eu de révision antérieure. Les

selon la procédure décrite révisions ultérieures au

paragraphe 1 du présent article interviennent tous les cinq

ANS à partir de la fin de la Gary année suivant la date

de la révision du présent paragraphe intervenue a vertu.



Article 25



Stipulation de limites



UN transporteur peut stipuler que le contrat de transport

peut fixer des limites de responsabilité plus élevées que

celles qui sont prévues dans la présente convention ou ne

comporter aucune limite de responsabilité.



Article 26



Nullité des outline contractuelles



Toute le transporteur tendant à exonérer clause they said

responsabilité ou à établir une limite inférieure à celle qui

EST fixée dans la présente convention est nulle et de nul

Effet, mais la nullité de cette clause n ' entraîne pas la

nullité du contrat qui reste soumis aux disposition de la

présente convention.



Article 27



Liberté de contracter



Rien dans la présente convention ne peut empêcher un

transporteur de refuser la conclusion d'un contrat de

transport, de renoncer aux moyens de défense qui lui sont

donnés en vertu de la présente convention ou d ' établir des

conditions qui ne sont pas en contradiction avec les

disposition de la présente convention.



Article 28



Paiements anticipés



En cas d ' accident entrainant la mort d ' aviation ou la lésion

de passagers, le transporteur, s'il y est tenu par la

Législation de son pays, versera sans retard des avances aux

personnes physiques qui ont droit à un dédommagement pour

leur permettre de subvenir à leurs besoins économiques

immédiats. CES avances ne constituent pas une reconnaissance

de responsabilité et elles can être déduites des montants

versés ultérieurement par le transporteur à titre de

dédommagement.



Article 29



Principe des recours



Dans le transport de passagers, de bagages et de

marchandises, toute action en dommages-intérêts, à some

titre que ce soit, a vertu de la présente convention, a

raison d'un contrat ou d'un acte illicite ou pour toute autre

ne peut être exercée cause, que dans les conditions et

limites de responsabilité prévues par la présente convention,

Sans préjudice de la détermination des personnes qui ont le

droit d ' agir et de leurs droits respectifs. Dans toute action

de ce genre, on ne pourra pas obtenir de dommages-intérêts

punitifs ou dommages exemplaires à titre de ni un autre que

La réparation.



Article 30



Préposés, mandataires Montant total de la réparation



1. Si une action est intentée contre un préposé ou un

mandataire du transporteur à la suite d'un dommage visé par

la présente convention ou mandataire, ce préposé, s'il prouve

qu'il a agi dans l ' exercice de ses fonctions, pourra se

prévaloir des conditions et des limites de responsabilité que

peut invoquer le transporteur en vertu de la présente

Convention.



2. Le montant total de la réparation qui, dans ce cas, peut

être obtenu du transporteur, de ses préposés et de ses

mandataires, ne doit pas dépasser lesdites limites.



3. Sauf pour le transport de marchandises, les outline

des paragraphes 1 et 2 du présent article ne s ' appliquent pas

s'il est prouvé que le dommage résulte d'un acte ou d'une

omission, ou mandataire du fait du préposé soit avec

l ' intention de provoquer un dommage, soit témérairement et

avec conscience dommage qu'un a probablement résultera.



Article 31



Délais de protestation



1. La réception des bagages enregistrés et des marchandises

Sans protestation par le destinataire constituera

présomption, sauf preuve du contraire, que les bagages et

marchandises ont été livrés en bon état et conformément au

titre de transport ou aux indications consignées par les

Autres moyens visés à l'article 3, paragraphe 2, et à

l'article 4, paragraphe 2.



2. En cas d ' avarie, le destinataire doit addresses au

transporteur immédiatement après la une protestation

Découverte de avarie et, au plus tard, dans un "délai de

Sept jours pour les bagages enregistrés et de quatorze jours

pour les marchandises à dater de leur réception. En cas de

retard, la protestation devra être promote your au plus tard dans

Les vingt et un jours à dater du jour où le baggage ou la

Marchandise auront été mis à sa disposition.



3. Toute protestation doit être promote your couple réserve écrite et

Remise ou prévu dans le expédiée "délai pour cette

protestation.



4. À défaut de protestation dans les délais prévus, toutes

Action contre le transporteur sont irrecevables, sauf le cas

de fraude de celui-ci.



Article 32



Décès de la personne responsable



En cas de décès de la personne responsable, une action en

responsabilité est recevable, conformément aux disposition

de la présente convention, à l ' encontre de media qui

représentent juridiquement said succession.



Article 33



Juridiction compétente



1. L ' action a responsabilité devra être portée, au choix du

demandeur, dans le territoire d'un des États parties, soit

devant le tribunal du domicile du transporteur, du siège

principal de son exploitation ou du lieu où il possède un

establishment par le soin duquel le contrat a été conclu,

soit devant le tribunal du lieu de destination.



2. A ce qui concerne le dommage résultant de la mort ou

lésion corporelle subie d'une par un passages, l'action en

responsabilité peut être intentée devant l'un des tribunaux

mentionnés au paragraphe 1 du présent article ou, eu provide

aux spécificités du transport aérien, sur le territoire d'un

État partie où le passages a sa résidence principale et

Permanente au moment de l accident et vers ou à partir amend the terms

duquel le transporteur exploite des services de transport

aérien, soit avec ses propres aéronefs, soit avec les

aéronefs d'un autre transporteur en vertu d'un accord

commercial, et dans ses activités transporteur mène amend the terms ce

de transport aérien à partir de locaux que lui-même ou un

Autre transporteur il conclu avec un accord (a) amend the terms

commercial loue ou possède.



3. Aux fins du paragraphe 2:



a) "accord commercial" signifie un accord autre qu'un accord

d ' agence conclu entre des transporteurs et sur la concerning

performance de services communs de transport aérien de

passagers;



b) "résidence principale et permanente" désigne le lieu

unique de séjour fixe et permanent du passages au moment de

l ' accident. La nationalité du passages ne sera pas le facteur

Regent à cet provide.



4. La procédure sera régie selon le droit du tribunal saisi

de l'Affaire.



Article 34



Arbitrage



1. Sous réserve des outline you présent article, les

Parties au contrat de transport de fret can stipuler que

Tout différend relatif à la responsabilité du transporteur a

vertu de la présente convention sera réglé par arbitrage.

Cette entente sera consignée par écrit.



2. La procédure d'arbitrage se déroulera, au choix du

demandeur, dans l'un des lieux de compétence des tribunaux

prévus à l'article 33.



3. L ' arbitre ou le tribunal arbitral appliquera les

disposition de la présente convention.



4. Les paragraphes 2 et disposition des 3 du présent article

seront réputées faire partie de toute clause ou de tout

accord arbitral, et toute disposition contraire à telle

clause ou à tel accord arbitral sera nulle et de nul effet.



Article 35



"Délai de recours



1. L'action intentée doit être en responsabilité, sous peine

de déchéance, dans le "délai de deux ans à compter de

l ' arrivée à destination ou du jour où l ' aéronef aurait Appendix: variations

arriver, ou de l ' "arrêt du transport.



2. Le mode du calcul du "délai est déterminé par la loi du

tribunal saisi.



Article 36



Transporteurs successifs



1. Dans les cas de transport régis par la définition du

paragraphe 3 de l'article 1, à exécuter par divers

transporteurs successifs, chaque transporteur acceptant. des

Voyageurs, des bagages ou des marchandises est soumis aux

règles établies par la présente convention est censé être, et

une des parties du contrat de transport, pour autant que ce


contrat ait trait à la partie du transport effectuée sous son

Contrôle.



2. Au cas d'un tel transport, le passages ou ses ayants droit

NE pourront recourir que contre le transporteur ayant

effectué le transport au cours duquel l ' accident ou le retard

s ' est produit, sauf dans le cas où, par expresse stipulation,

Le premier assuré pour la responsabilité transporteur aura

Tout le voyage.



3. S'il s ' agit de bagages ou de marchandises, le passages ou

l ' expéditeur aura recours contre le premier transporteur, et

Le destinataire ou le passages qui a le droit à la délivrance

contre le dernier et l'un et l'autre pourront, en outre,

Agir contre le transporteur ayant effectué le transport au

cours duquel la destruction, la perte, l ' avarie ou le retard

SE sont produits. CES transporteurs seront solidairement

responsables envers l ' expéditeur, ou le passages ou le

destinataire.



Article 37



Droit de recours contre des tiers



La présente convention ne préjuge en aucune manière la

question de savoir si la personne responsable tenue pour a

vertu de ses outline a ou non un recours contre toute

autre personne.



CHAPITRE IV



TRANSPORT INTERMODAL



Article 38



Transport intermodal



1. Dans le cas de transport intermodal effectué en partie par

Air et en partie par tout autre moyen de transport, les

disposition de la présente convention ne s ' appliquent, sous

Réserve du paragraphe 4 de l'article 18, qu ' au transport

aérien et si celui-ci répond aux conditions de l'article 1.



2. Rien dans la présente convention n ' empêche les parties,

dans le cas de transport intermodal, d ' insérer dans le titre

de transport aérien des conditions relatives à d'autres modes

de transport, à condition que les stipulations de la présente

Convention ce qui concerne anything respectées le transport

pair of air.



CHAPITRE V



TRANSPORT AÉRIEN EFFECTUÉ PAR UNE PERSONNE AUTRE QUE LE

TRANSPORTEUR CONTRACTUEL



Article 39



Transporteur contractuel Transporteur de fait



Les outline you présent chapitre s ' appliquent lorsqu ' une

personne (ci-après dénommée "transporteur contractuel")

conclut un contrat de transport régi par la présente

Convention avec un passages ou un expéditeur ou avec une

personne agissant pour le compte du passages ou de

l ' expéditeur, et qu ' une autre personne (ci-après dénommée

"transporteur de fait") effectue, en vertu d'une authorization

donnée par le transporteur contractuel, tout ou partie du

transport, mais n'est pas, ce qui concerne cette partie a,

UN transporteur successif au sens de la présente convention.

Cette authorization est présumée, sauf preuve contraire.



Article 40



Responsabilité du transporteur corresponding contractuel et du

transporteur de fait



Sauf disposition contraire du présent chapitre, si un

transporteur de fait effectue tout ou partie du transport

qui, conformément au contrat visé à l'article 39, est régi

par la présente convention, le transporteur contractuel et le

transporteur sont soumis aux règles de fait de la présente

Convention, le premier pour la totalité du transport envisagé

dans le contrat, le second seulement pour le transport qu ' il

effectue.



Article 41



Attribution mutuelle



1. Les actes et omissions du transporteur de fait ou de ses

préposés et mandataires agissant dans l ' exercice de leurs

Fonctions, relatifs au transport effectué par le transporteur

de fait, sont réputés être également media du transporteur

contractuel.



2. Les actes et omissions du transporteur contractuel ou de

SES préposés et mandataires agissant dans l ' exercice de leurs

Fonctions, relatifs au transport effectué par le transporteur

de fait, sont réputés être également media you transporteur de

fait. Toutefois, aucun de ces actes ou omissions ne pourra

soumettre. le transporteur de fait à une responsabilité

dépassant les montants prévus aux articles 21, 22, 23 et 24.

Aucun accord spécial aux termes duquel le transporteur

contractuel assume des bond que n ' impose pas la

présente convention, aucune renonciation à des droits ou

moyens de défense prévus par la présente convention ou aucune

Déclaration spéciale d ' intérêt à la livraison, visée à

l'article 22 de la présente convention, n ' auront d ' effet à

l provide you transporteur de fait sauf ce, on the

dernier.



Article 42



Notification des ordres et protestations



Les instructions ou au transporteur à notifier protestations,

en application de la présente convention, ont le même effet

Qu ' elles ou au transporteur anything contractuel adressées au

transporteur de fait. Toutefois, les instructions visées à

l'article 12 n ' ont d ' effet que si elles sont adressées au

transporteur contractuel.



Article 43



Préposés et mandataires



En ce qui concerne le transport effectué par le transporteur

de fait, ou tout transporteur de ce préposé mandataire ou du

transporteur contractuel, s'il prouve qu'il a agi dance

l ' exercice de ses fonctions, peut se prévaloir des conditions

et des limites de responsabilité applicables, en vertu de la

présente convention au transporteur dont il est le préposé

ou le mandataire, sauf s'il est prouvé qu'il a agi de telle

façon que les limites de responsabilité ne puissent être

invoquées conformément à la présente convention.



Article 44



Cumul de la réparation



En ce qui concerne le transport effectué par le transporteur

de fait, le montant total de la réparation qui peut être

obtenu de ce transporteur, you transporteur contractuel et de

leurs préposés et mandataires quand ils ont agi dance

l ' exercice de leurs fonctions, ne peut pas dépasser

l ' indemnité peut être la plus élevée à charge qui soit mise

du transporteur contractuel, soit du transporteur de fait, a

vertu de la présente convention, sous réserve qu ' aucune des

personnes mentionnées dans le présent article ne puisse être

tenue pour responsable au-delà de la limite applicable à

cette personne.



Article 45



Notification des actions en responsabilité



Toute action en responsabilité, relative au transport

effectué par le transporteur de fait peut être intentée au,,

Choix du demandeur, contre ce transporteur ou le transporteur

contractuel ou contre l'un et l'autre, conjointement ou

séparément. SI l'action est intentée contre l ' un seulement de

CES transporteurs, ledit transporteur aura le droit d ' appeler

L'Autre transporteur intervention devant le tribunal

saisi, les effets de cette intervention ainsi que la

procédure qui lui est applicable étant réglés par la loi de

CE tribunal.



Article 46



Juridiction annexe



Toute action en responsabilité, Prevue à l'article 45, doit

être portée, au choix du demandeur, sur le territoire d'un

des États parties, soit devant l'un des tribunaux où une

action peut être intentée contre le transporteur contractuel,

conformément à l'article 33, soit devant le tribunal du

domicile du transporteur de fait ou du siège principal de son

exploitation.



Article 47



Nullité des outline contractuelles



Toute le transporteur tendant à exonérer clause contractuel

ou le transporteur de fait de leur responsabilité en vertu du

présent chapitre ou à établir une limite inférieure à celle

qui est fixée dans le présent chapitre est nulle et de nul

Effet, mais la nullité de cette clause n ' entraîne pas la

nullité du contrat qui reste soumis aux disposition you

présent chapitre.



Article 48



Rapports entre transporteur contractuel et transporteur de

fait



Sous réserve de l'article 45, aucune disposition du présent

Chapitre ne peut être interprétée comme affectant les droits

existant entre les transporteurs et bond, y compris

Tous droits ou recours à un dédommagement.



CHAPITRE VI



AUTRES OUTLINE



Article 49



Bond d ' application



Sont nulles et de nul effet toutes clauses du contrat de

transport et toutes conventions particulières antérieures au

dommage par lesquelles les parties dérogeraient aux règles de

la présente convention soit par une détermination de la loi

applicable, soit par une modification des règles de

compétence.



Article 50



Assurance



Les États parties exigent que leurs transporteurs contractent

une assurance suffisante pour couvrir la responsabilité qui

leur incombe aux termes de la présente convention. UN

transporteur peut être tenu, par l ' État partie à destination

duquel il exploite des services, de fournir la preuve qu'il

maintient une assurance suffisante couvrant sa responsabilité

au titre de la présente convention.



Article 51



Transport effectué dans des refers extraordinaires



Les disposition des articles 3 à 5, 7 et 8 relatives aux

titres de transport applicables ne sont pas au transport

effectué dans dehors the extraordinaires des refers in a

toute opération normale de l ' exploitation d'un transporteur.



Article 52



Définition du terme "on-call"



Lorsque dans la présente convention il est question de jours,

IL s agit de jours ouvrables et non courants de jours.



CHAPITRE VII



OUTLINE PROTOCOLAIRES



Article 53



Signature, ratification et entrée en vigueur



1. La présente convention est ouverte à Montréal le 28 mai

1999 à la signature des États participant à la Conférence

Internationale de droit aérien, tenue à Montréal du 10 au 28

Mai 1999. Après le 28 mai 1999, la convention sera ouverte à

La signature de tous les États au siège de l'Organisation de

l ' aviation civile internationale à Montréal jusqu ' à ce

qu'elle entre en vigueur conformément au paragraphe 6 du

présent article.



2. De même, la présente convention sera ouverte à la

signature des régionales d ' intégration of organization

économique. Pour l'application de la présente convention, une


"organisation régionale d ' intégration économique" est une

Organization constituée d ' États souverains d'une région

donnée qui a compétence sur certaines matières régies par la

Convention et qui a été dûment autorisée à signer et à

ratifier, acceptances, approuver ou adhérer à la présente

Convention. Sauf au paragraphe 2 de l'article 1, au

paragraphe 1, alinéa b), de l'article 3, à l ' alinéa b)

l'article 5, aux articles 23, 33, 46 et à l ' alinéa b)

l'article 57, toute mention d'un promote your "État partie ou

"d ' États parties" s ' applique également aux organization

régionales d ' intégration économique. Pour l'application de

l'article 24, les mentions of Prague d ' "une majorité des États

parties ' et d ' "un tiers des États parties" ne s ' appliquent

pas aux régionales d ' intégration économique organization.



3. La présente convention est soumise à la ratification des

États d ' intégration économique et des organisation qui l ' evil

signée.



4. Tout État ou organisation régionale d ' intégration

économique qui signe la présente convention ne peut pas

l ' acceptances, l y adhérer à approuver ou tout moment.



5. Les instruments de ratification d ' acceptation,

d ' approbation ou d ' adhésion auprès de seront déposés

l'Organisation de l'aviation civile internationale, qui est

désignée par les présentes comme dépositaire.



6. La présente convention entrera en vigueur le soixantième

jour après la date du dépôt auprès du dépositaire du

trentième instrument de ratification, acceptation,

d ' approbation ou d ' adhésion et entre les États qui ont déposé

UN tel instrument. Les instruments déposés par les

organizational régionales d ' intégration économique ne seront

PAS comptées aux fins du présent paragraphe.



7. Pour les autres États et pour les autres organization

régionales d ' intégration économique, la présente convention

prendra effet soixante jours après la date du dépôt d'un

instrument de ratification, acceptation ou approbation d ', d '

d ' adhésion.



8. Le dépositaire notify rapidement à tous les signataires

et à tous les États parties:



a) chaque signature de la présente convention ainsi que sa

date;



b) chaque dépôt d'un instrument de ratification,

d ' acceptation, d ' approbation ou d ' adhésion ainsi que sa date;



c) la date d ' entrée en vigueur de la présente convention;



d) la date d ' entrée en vigueur de toute révision des limites

de responsabilité établies en vertu de la présente

Convention;



e) toute dénonciation au titre de l'article 54.



Article 54



Dénonciation



1. Tout État partie peut dénoncer la présente convention couple

notification écrite adressée au dépositaire.



2. La dénonciation prendra effet cent quatre-vingt jours

après la date à laquelle le dépositaire aura reçu la

notification.



Article 55



Relation avec les autres instruments de la Convention de

Varsovie



La présente convention l emporte sur toutes règles

s ' appliquant au transport international par voie AERIENNE:



1) entre États parties à la présente convention du fait que

CES États sont communément parties aux instruments suivants:



a) Convention pour l ' unification de certaines règles

relatives au transport aérien international, signée à

Varsovie le 12 octobre 1929 (appelée ci-après la Convention

de Varsovie);



b) Protocole concerning modification de la Convention pour

l ' certaines règles relatives au unification the transport

aérien international signée à Varsovie le 12 octobre 1929,

fait à La Haye le 28 septembre 1955 (ci-après appelé le

Protocole de La Haye);



c) Convention complémentaire à la Convention de Varsovie,

certaines règles pour l ' unification the relatives au transport

aérien international effectué par une personne autre que le

transporteur contractuel, signée à Guadalajara le 18

septembre 1961 (appelée ci-après la Convention de

Guadalajara);



d) Protocole concerning modification de la Convention pour

l ' certaines règles relatives au unification the transport

aérien international signée à Varsovie le 12 octobre 1929

amendée par le protocole fait à La Haye le 28 septembre 1955,

signé à Guatemala le 8 March 1971 (ci-après appelé le

Protocole de Guatemala);



e) as a whole depended on nos 1 à 3 et Protocole de Montréal

n ° 4 concerning modification de la Convention de Varsovie

amendée par le Protocole de La Haye ou par la Convention de

Varsovie amendée par le Protocole de La Haye et par le

Protocole de Guatemala, signés à Montréal le 25 septembre

1975 (ci-après appelés les Whole de Montréal); OU



2) dans le territoire de tout État partie à la présente

Convention du fait que cet État est partie à un ou plusieurs

mentionnés aux alinéas des instruments a) à e) ci-dessus.



Article 56



États possédant plus d'un régime juridique



1. Si un État comprend deux unités territoriales ou shirts

dans lesquelles des différents régimes for Legal Affairs

s ' appliquent aux questions régies par la présente convention,

Il peut, au moment de la signature, de la ratification, the

l ' acceptation ou approbation, de de l ' adhésion, déclarer

que ladite convention s ' applique à toutes ses unités

territoriales ou seulement à l'une ou plusieurs d ' entre elles

et il peut à tout moment modifier cette déclaration a a

soumettant une nouvelle.



2. Toute déclaration de ce genre est communiquée au

dépositaire et indique expressément les unités territoriales

auxquelles la convention s ' applique.



3. Dans le cas d'un État partie qui a fait une telle

Déclaration:



a) les références, à l'article 23, à la "monnaie nationale"

sont interprétées comme signifiant la monnaie de l ' unité

territoriale pertinente dudit État;



b) à l'article 28, la (BCR) à la "loi nationale" est

interprétée comme se rapportant à la loi de l ' unité

territoriale pertinente dudit État.



Article 57



Réserves



Aucune réserve ne peut être admise à la présente convention,

Si ce n'est qu'un État partie peut à tout moment déclarer,

couple notification dépositaire adressée au, que la présente

Convention ne s ' applique pas:



a) aux transports aériens internationaux effectués et

exploités directement par cet État à des are non

commerciales relativement à ses fonctions et devoirs d ' État

Souverain;



b) au transport de personnes, de bagages et de marchandises

effectué pour ses autorités militaires à bord d ' aéronefs

immatriculés dans ou loués par ledit État partie et dont la

Capacité entière a été réservée ou par ces autorités pour le

Compte de celles-ci.



EN FOI DE QUOI les plénipotentiaires soussignés, dûment

autorisés, ont signé la présente convention.



FAIT à Montréal le jour du mois de mai 28th de an mil neuf

cent quatre-vingt-dixneuf dans les langues française,

anglaise, arabe, chinoise, espagnole et russe, tous les

textes faisant également foi. La présente convention restera

déposée aux archives de l'Organisation de l'aviation civile

Internationale, et le dépositaire en transmettra des copies

certifiées conformes à tous les États parties à la Convention

de Varsovie, au Protocole de La Haye, à la Convention de

Guadalajara, au Protocole de Guatemala et aux Whole they

Montreal.



CONVENTION FOR THE UNIFICATION OF CERTAIN RULES RELATING TO INTERNATIONAL

AIR TRANSPORT



THE CONTRACTING STATES,



RECOGNIZING the importance of the Convention for the unification

of certain rules relating to international

carriage by air, signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929,

hereinafter called the "Warsaw Convention", and by others, thereby

associated instruments for the harmonisation of legislation on

Civil Aviation,



Recognizing the need to modernize and consolidate

The Warsaw Convention and the other to the attached document,



RECOGNIZING the importance of the protection of consumers '

interests in the context of international air transport and

to ensure fair compensation in accordance with

compensation principle,



Which ONCE AGAIN confirms that it is desirable to have a methodical

development of international air transport and with a

trouble-free transport of passengers, baggage and cargo in

accordance with the principles and objectives of the Convention on

international civil aviation concluded at Chicago on 7

December 1944,



Convinced that the best way to achieve a

equitable balance of interests is to further

harmonise and codify certain provisions of

international air transport through the adoption of a new

Convention,



HAVE AGREED AS FOLLOWS.



CHAPTER I



GENERAL PROVISIONS



Article 1



Scope of application



1. this Convention shall apply to any international

carriage of persons, baggage or cargo performed by

aircraft for remuneration. It is also applicable to the

transport by aircraft, which haulage companies perform

without compensation.



2. for the purposes of this Convention, "international transport"

each transport where the place of departure and destination, according to

the parties ' agreement – regardless of whether transport disruption or

replacement of the aircraft appearing – located either within two

Contracting States or within one and the same

Contracting State if an agreed

stopover is made within the territory of another State, even if

the State is not party to the Convention. Transport between two

sites in one Contracting State

without agreed stopping place on another State's

territory is not considered as international transport in accordance with

This Convention.



3. this Convention shall be deemed to carriage performed by several

carriers one after the other to be a single operation, regardless of


If it entered into one or more agreements about this, provided that

the parties consider the journey as a single operation;

the transport does not lose its international character merely

to one or more of the contracts to be performed entirely within

one and the same territory.



4. this Convention shall also apply to such

transport provided for in chapter V.



Article 2



Carriage performed by the State and transport of mail



1. this Convention shall apply on shipments

performed by a State, municipality or other public body, and

which satisfies the conditions laid down in article 1.



2. in the carriage of postal carrier is solely responsible

with regard to items, company and in accordance with the

rules applicable to the relationship between the carriers and

Messenger company.



3. Except as provided in paragraph 2,

the Convention does not apply to postal consignments.



CHAPTER II



DOCUMENTATION AS WELL AS THE OBLIGATIONS OF THE PARTIES IN THE TRANSPORT OF

PASSENGERS, BAGGAGE AND CARGO



Article 3



Passengers and baggage



1. For passenger transport, the individual or

collective transport documents provided as

contains:



a) indication of departure and destination;



b) of departure and destination are within the same

Contracting State and one or more

stopovers in accordance with what has been agreed shall be

within the territory of another State, an indication of the location of at least

such a stopover.



2. Any transport document need not be provided;

If the information referred to in paragraph 1 recorded otherwise.

In such a case, the carrier shall offer passengers a

transcript of the recorded data.



3. the carrier shall give the passenger a baggage check for the

each piece of checked baggage.



4. The passenger shall be notified in writing to the

Convention, if applicable, governs and possibly

limits the liability of the carrier for death or

damage to the baggage destruction, loss or damage and

for delays.



5. affect the existence or the validity of the contract of carriage

not that the previous paragraphs are breached; also in

such cases are subject to the agreement of the provisions of this

Convention, including the provisions on limitation of liability.



Article 4



Freight



1. For each freight shipment shall an air waybill

be provided.



2. Any air waybill may be substituted, if

the data concerning the shipment recorded otherwise. In

such a case, the carrier if the sender requests it

provide sender a goods receipt that allows

to identify the shipment and provides access to the

details of the shipment as registered.



Article 5



Air waybill or cargo receipt content



Air waybill or the cargo receipt shall include:



a) indication of the place of departure and destination;



b) of departure and destination are within the same

Contracting State and one or more

stopovers in accordance with what has been agreed shall be

within the territory of another State, an indication of the location of at least

one such stopping place;



c) an indication of the weight of the item.



Article 6



Document detailing the nature of the goods



If necessary obligations according to tulllens, police

or any other regulations shall be

carried out, it may be requested by the sender to

provide a written document with information on the

the estate's art. This provision does not place any obligation

or any liability of the carrier.



Article 7



Description of air waybill



1. The air waybill shall be made out by the consignor in three

original copies.



2. The first copy shall be marked with the label "

the carrier "and signed by the sender. The other

the specimen must be marked with the label "receiver" and

be signed by the consignor and the carrier. The third

the specimen must be signed by the carrier and submitted

to the sender when the goods have been received.



3. The consignor and the carrier's signature must be

printed or stamped.



4. Unless shown otherwise, the carrier shall be deemed to have been

on the sender's behalf if the carrier established

the air waybill at the latter's request.



Article 8



Transport document for several cargo units



When transport refers to multiple freight units



(a)), the carrier has the right to request that the sender establishes

separate air waybills;



(b)), the sender has the right to request that the carrier leaves

over separate cargo receipts, if the information in accordance with

Article 4, second paragraph, been registered by other means.



Article 9



Flawed documents



The transport does not affect the existence or the validity of the contract

of articles 4 to 8 are overridden, and the agreement also covered in

such a case the provisions of this Convention, including

the provisions on limitation of liability.



Article 10



Responsibility for the information contained in the documents



1. the consignor is responsible for the accuracy of information and

information on the goods which that person or someone who has acted

on his mission has provided in the air waybill or

cargo receipt or registered otherwise in accordance with

Article 4(2). This also applies, if the person is on

sender's mission at the same time, agents of the carrier.



2. the consignor shall indemnify the carrier for damage

the carrier or the carrier is liable for

caused due to the use of the data or information

has been provided by the consignor or on its behalf is inaccurate

or incomplete.



3. subject to paragraphs 1 and 2 shall

the carrier replace sender for the damage that the sender

or that the sender is responsible for suffered due to

the data or information provided by the carrier

or on its behalf and entered in the cargo receipt or

registered by other means in accordance with article 4(2), the

incorrect or incomplete.



Article 11



Evidentiary value



1. the air waybill or the cargo receipt shall, unless otherwise

appears, it is considered evidence that a contract of carriage has been concluded, that

the goods are accepted, as well as to the conditions set out in

air waybill or the cargo receipt is accepted.



2. Unless otherwise shown, the data on air waybill

or the cargo receipt relating to the weight, dimensions or packaging

or on the number of cargo units are considered justified; the data on

air waybill or the cargo receipt relating to the quantity, volume

or condition shall be considered as having probative value unless

condition to the carrier in the sender's presence has

checked them and on the air waybill or the cargo receipt

affirmed this, or if the information relates to the visible

condition.



Article 12



Right of disposition



1. without prejudice to the shipper's obligations under

the transport agreement, is entitled to dispose of the goods

by withdrawing it on departure or

the destination airport or stop it on landing during the

the trip or decide to clear the goods at the destination, or

during the journey shall be delivered to someone other than the person

originally specified as recipients or request it

shall be sent back to the departure airport. The sender

may not exercise his right of disposition on a

such a way that it causes damage to the carrier or for

any other shipper, and the shipper must indemnify the additional

costs arising from the exercise of this right.



2. If the sender's instructions cannot be executed, the

carrier shall immediately inform the sender accordingly.



3. If the carrier follow the shipper's instructions without

request that his copy of the air waybill or

cargo receipt must be presented, is the responsibility of the carrier with

retention of the right of recourse against the consignor for the damage

thereto for the rightful holder of the said

copies.



4. The sender's right expires when the recipient's right must be exercised in

accordance with article 13. If the recipient refuses to accept the

the goods, or if he is not present, the sender

Once again the right of disposition.



Article 13



Delivery of goods



1. Except in cases where the shipper has exercised its right under the

Article 12, the consignee has the right to request to get the goods

by the carrier when this has come up with

the place of destination, provided that the receiver pays what

the carrier has the right to require and meet

the conditions of carriage.



2. Unless otherwise agreed, the carrier shall immediately

notify the recipient when the goods have arrived.



3. If the carrier admits that the cargo has been lost, or

If the goods have not arrived within seven days after the day

then it ought to have arrived, the consignee may assert their rights

According to the contract of carriage against the carrier.



Article 14



Sender's and recipient's exercise of their rights



Both the sender and the recipient may enforce its

rights under articles 12 and 13 of its own name, under

provided that they comply with their obligations under

the contract of carriage, whether they are acting for their own account

or on someone else's behalf.



Article 15



The relationship between the sender and the recipient and vis-à-vis

third parties



1. Articles 12-14 influence on either the sender's or

the recipient's relationship or the internal

the relationship between third parties whose right derives from the

the sender or the receiver.



2. Derogations from the provisions of articles 12-14

only if they are expressly included on the air waybill or

goods receipt.



Article 16




Obligations of customs, police and other

official regulations



1. The shipper shall provide the information and written

documents needed to comply with customs, police and

other governmental formalities before the goods may be provided

to the receiver. The consignor shall indemnify the carrier for

the damage incurred by the carrier due to

such information or documents are missing or

incomplete or incorrect, unless the carrier or

any of the carrier's employees or contractors have

caused the injury through negligence.



2. the carrier is not obliged to examine

accuracy or of the information or documents

completeness.



CHAPTER III



LIABILITY OF THE CARRIER AND EXTENT OF COMPENSATION



Article 17



Death and injury of passengers-damage to baggage



1. The carrier is liable for the death or bodily injury

sustained by passengers provided that the

event occurred on board the aircraft

or when boarding or avstigningen.



2. The carrier is liable if the checked baggage destruction,

lost or damaged, provided that the

event occurred on board the aircraft

or during the time the baggage was in the carrier's care.

The carrier is liable, however, not to the extent that the damage is caused by

inherent properties or by an inherent defect or

weakness in it. in the case of unchecked baggage, including

personal belongings, is the responsibility of the carrier for damages,

If the carrier or its servants or agents

has caused the injury through negligence.



3. If the carrier admits that checked baggage has

been lost, or if the checked baggage has not arrived

within twenty-one days after the date on which it would have

arrived, the passenger has the right to make their rights

According to the contract of carriage against the carrier.



4. Unless otherwise specified, in this Convention with

"baggage" both checked baggage and unchecked baggage.



Article 18



Damage to goods



1. The carrier is liable for destruction, loss of goods or

damaged, provided that the event which caused the

occurred during air transport.



2. The carrier is liable, however, not to the extent of the injury, according to

What carrier showing caused by:



(a)) the properties or by an inherent defect or

weakness in it;



b) deficient packing of goods carried out by someone

other than the carrier or the carrier's employees or

contractors;



c) Act of war or armed conflict; or



d) public authority in relation to the goods are brought into the

or out of a State or in transit.



3. "air transport" in the first paragraph refers to the period of time during

the goods are in the carrier's care.



4. Air transport does not cover such shipments to

by land, by sea or on an inland waterway that occur outside

an airport. Where such transport is carried out for loading,

the submission or transfer due to the contract of carriage,

However, should any damage shall be deemed to have been incurred as a result of a

event during carriage, unless shown otherwise. If

the carrier without the sender's consent replaces all or

parts of a transport as provided for in the agreement between the parties

shall be in the form of an air transport with another

modes of transport, air transport is considered to include this

part of the journey.



Article 19



Delay



The carrier is liable for damage occasioned by delay in the

carriage by air of passengers, baggage and cargo.

However, the carrier is not responsible for any such damage if

the carrier indicates that he and his employees or

contractor has taken all steps reasonably

be requested to avoid the damage or that it was impossible

to take such measures.



Article 20



Adjustment



If the carrier proves that the damage was caused in whole or in

in part by the negligence or omission or other wrongful

the Act of the person claiming compensation or by someone from

which derives its right,

carrier shall be exempt from all or part

liability to the person requesting compensation in the

extent that carelessness or failure entirely

or partly caused the injury. If a passenger has been killed

or damaged and if someone other than the passenger requests

compensation by reason thereof, the carrier shall also

be wholly or partly exonerated from liability if

the passenger itself caused or contributed to the damage by

negligence or other wrongful act or omission.

This article applies to all rules regarding liability in

This Convention, although article 21.1.



Article 21



Compensation for death and injury of passengers



1. for damage referred to in article 17 (1) and which are not

exceeding 100 000 special drawing rights for each

individual passengers can carrier neither escape or

limit its liability.



2. For such damages as referred to in article 17(1),

the liability of the carrier is limited to 100 000

special drawing rights for each passenger unless

carrier shows:



(a)) that the damage was not caused by the carrier or his

employee or contractor of negligence or other

wrongful act or omission; or



(b)) that the injury caused by the negligence of a third party solely

or other wrongful act or omission.



Article 22



Limitation of liability in relation to delay, baggage and cargo



1. For damages caused by delay in accordance with article 19 by

transport of passengers is the liability of the carrier

limited to 4 150 special drawing rights for each

passengers.



2. in the carriage of baggage, the carrier's

liability for baggage destruction, loss, damage

or delay is limited to 1 000 special

drawing rights for each passenger unless

the passenger, when the checked baggage was handed over to the

the carrier, a special declaration of interest

attached to the baggage delivery at destination

and paid the additional fee if such was requested. In such a

cases where the declared amount limit for

the liability of the carrier, unless the carrier can

show that this amount is higher than the value of the passenger's

actual interest in delivery at

destination.



3. in the carriage of goods, the carrier's liability for damage

If the goods destroyed, lost, damaged or delayed

limited to 17 special drawing rights per kilogram, unless

not the shipper, when the goods were handed over to the carrier,

made a special declaration of interest is tied

to the goods delivery at destination, and paid

additional fee if such was requested. In such a case, the

then the amount reported as the limit of the carrier's

liability, unless the carrier can prove that this

amount is greater than the value of the consignor's actual interest in

that the goods delivery at destination.



4. If part only of the goods or only a subject in

This is destroyed, lost, damaged or delayed, only

the importance of this estates unit form the basis for the calculation of

the limit of liability of the carrier. If the value of

other cargo units, covered by the same air waybill,

goods receipt or registration otherwise in accordance with

Article 2(4), affected by the destruction, loss, damage

or delay, the total weight of these

freight units are included when the limit of the carrier's

liability must be determined.



5. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if it is shown

to the carrier or its servants or agents

by an act or omission caused the damage with intent

to cause damage or recklessly and with knowledge that a

damage would probably result. However, this applies in the case

If the carrier's employees and contractors only if it

shown that they acted within the scope of the service or the

the mission.



6. The limits of liability provided for in article 21 and in this

Article shall not preclude the Court, in addition, in accordance

with national law, impose all or part

compensation for the plaintiff's legal costs and for other

expenses that the claimant had, as a result of a process,

including accrued interest. However, this does not apply if

carrier within six months from the tortious

the event or before the action was brought, if this occurs

later, in writing, has offered the plaintiff at least as much in

compensation that the sanction the damages, not including

legal costs and other expenses resulting from

process.



Article 23



Conversion of monetary units



1. "special drawing rights" referred to in this Convention

the special drawing rights as defined by

The International Monetary Fund. In legal proceedings shall

the conversion of amounts into national currency on the basis

the value of currencies expressed in special drawing rights the

date on which the judgment is delivered. The value of a Contracting State

national currency in terms of the special drawing rights shall,

for a State that is a member of the International Monetary Fund,

be determined according to the method of calculation as relevant today

applied by the Monetary Fund for its operations and

transactions. The value of a Contracting State's national

currency expressed in special drawing rights, of any State

that is not a member of the International Monetary Fund is expected to


on the way in which the State determines.



2. A State which is not a member of the International Monetary Fund

and whose law does not permit the provisions referred to in

paragraph 1 may, however, in the instrument of ratification or

at the moment of accession or at any time thereafter, declare

to the limit of liability of the carrier in accordance with

Article 21 shall be 1 500 000 monetary units per

passenger in judicial proceedings in their territory,

62 500 monetary units per passenger in the case of

Article 22(1), 15 000 monetary units per passenger in

concerning article 22(2) and 250 monetary units per kilogram when

it applies to article 22(3). This monetary unit corresponds to 65.5

milligrams gold of 0.900 fineness. Amounts referred to in this paragraph as

converted into national coins may be rounded off.

The conversion of the amounts shall be made in accordance with the relevant

State law.



3. The calculation mentioned in the last sentence of paragraph 1 and the

the conversion method mentioned in paragraph 2 shall be made so that

the results in the national currency of the Contracting State

for the amounts referred to in articles 21 and 22 so far

possible expression of the same intrinsic value as an estimate

According to the first three sentences of paragraph 1 would do. When a

Contracting State deposits an instrument of ratification,

acceptance, approval or accession by-

seeing at this Convention and any amendment of such

instrument, it shall inform the depositary of the

calculation method the State applies under paragraph 1

and if the result of the conversion in paragraph 2.



Article 24



Review of limits



1. without prejudice to the provisions of

Article 25 depositary shall, with regard to paragraph 2

below, every five years to review the limits of liability provided for

in articles 21 to 23, with the first review shall

be carried out at the end of the fifth year after the date of

the entry into force of the Convention or, if this does not enter into

force five years after it opened to

the signing, during the first year in which the Convention is in

power, on the basis of an inflation factor corresponding to the

the accumulated inflation rate since the last review

or, in the case of the first review, since the date of

the entry into force of the Convention. For the determination of

the inflation factor, the inflation rate is calculated as a weighted

average of the annual change in the States

the consumer price index, whose currencies comprise the Special

drawing right mentioned in article 23(1).



2. If the results of the review referred to in paragraph 1 is a

the inflation factor above 10%, the depositary

inform the Contracting States regarding the amendment of

liability limits. The amendment shall enter into force six months

After the Contracting Governments. If

a majority of the Contracting States within three months

after they have been informed of the change, notify that

they do not accept it, the amendment shall not enter into force,

and the depositary shall refer the matter to a meeting of the

the Contracting States. The depositary shall promptly

notify all States parties about when a change

enters into force.



3. Notwithstanding paragraph 1, the procedure laid down by paragraph 2

applicable whenever one-third of the Contracting

States so wish, provided that the inflation factor referred to in

first subparagraph exceed 30% since the last change

or, if it has not yet made any change, since the date of

the entry into force of the Convention. Subsequent reviews pursuant to

the procedure referred to in paragraph 1 shall be carried out every five years and for

the first time at the end of the fifth year after the date of

review pursuant to this paragraph.



Article 25



Agreement on limits of liability



A carrier may stipulate that the higher limits of liability than those

laid down in this Convention shall apply to

the contract of carriage or to no limits at all,

apply.



Article 26



Void contractual terms



Each contract terms that are intended to relieve

the carrier from liability or to fix a lower

limits of liability than those provided for in this Convention are

invalid, but the transport contract as such is still valid and

subject to the provisions of the Convention.



Article 27



Freedom to contract



Nothing in this Convention shall prevent the carrier from that

refuse to conclude transport contracts, refrain from asserting

defences under the Convention establishing

conditions which do not conflict with the Convention.



Article 28



Advance



In case of air accidents involving death or injury to passengers

the carrier shall, where its national law requires

it, immediately pay advances to the natural persons who are

eligible to cover their immediate

financial needs. Such advances do not imply any

recognition of liability and may be offset against the

any amount of compensation the carrier latter

pay.



Article 29



Basis of claims



In the case of the carriage of passengers, baggage or goods,

an action for damages, however founded – with the support

of the Convention, whether in contract, tort or

otherwise – be kept only under the conditions and within the

limits laid down in this Convention, no matter who or

who has the right to bring an action and the law

apply them. for such an action is punitive,

deterrence or other ickekompensatoriska not damage records

recoverable.



Article 30



Employees and contractors – total claims



1. If an action is brought relating to damage covered by the

the Convention against any of the carrier's employees or

contractors, these may rely on the same terms and

limits of liability which the carrier, if they can show that they

acted in the exercise of their employment.



2. the total compensation that the carrier and its

employees and contractors are required to provide may not

exceed the said limits.



3. Except in the case of the carriage of goods, the provisions of paragraph 1

and 2 does not, if it is shown that the carrier's employees or

Contractor caused the damage through action or

failure in intent to cause damage or recklessly and

with the knowledge that damage would probably result.



Article 31



Time limit for claims



1. Unless otherwise shown, checked baggage or goods

recipient receives no remarks are considered to be delivered in

good condition and in accordance with the transport Act

or otherwise the registration referred to in article 3(2),

and article 4(2).



2. The person to which the baggage or goods shall be delivered

shall claim any damages of the carrier immediately

After the discovery, but not later than seven days from receipt when

the case of baggage and last fourteen days from the receipt of the

question about goods. In case of delay complaint must be made within 21

days from the date on which the baggage or cargo was put to

This person's disposal.



3. Every complaint must be made in writing and shall have been provided

or dispatched within the times aforesaid.



4. If any claim is not made within the above specified

the time, the action to be brought against the carrier only if they

utter fraud.



Article 32



Skadeståndsansvarigs death



If the person responsible for the damages has died, an action for

compensation under this Convention be brought against lawful

representing the estate.



Article 33



Jurisdiction



1. Claims for compensation shall be brought in any of the

Contracting States. The plaintiff may choose

to bring proceedings either in the courts for the place where

the carrier has his habitual residence, where the carrier's

Head Office is located, or where the Office is located, which

the agreement has been concluded, or in the Court of

destination.



2. Claims for compensation when a passenger is killed or injured

may be brought either at one of the courts mentioned in

paragraph 1 or within the territory of the Contracting State in which the

the passenger at the time of the accident had their principal and

permanent place of residence, or from which carrier

operating the air transport of passengers, either with their own

aircraft or with any other carrier aircraft on

the basis of a business agreement and where the carrier is engaged in

its operations for air transport of passengers from the premises

owned or leased by the carrier itself or by any

other carrier with whom the carrier has entered into a

business agreements.



3. In paragraph 2, '



a) business agreement "means an agreement, other than a mediation agreement,

between carriers for the provision of common

services for the carriage of passengers,



b) principal and permanent residence: the passenger's fixed

and a permanent resident at the time of the accident. The passenger's

nationality shall not be conclusive in this regard.



4. In rättegångsfrågor, the law of the State where the proceedings are heard

applicable.



Article 34



Arbitration



1. Under the conditions set out in this article shall

the parties to a contract of carriage provide that disputes

with regard to the liability of the carrier under this

Convention shall be settled by arbitration. Such a

Agreement shall be in writing.



2. The arbitration proceedings shall, in accordance with the claimant's choice, take place

within one of the jurisdictions referred to in article 33.



3. The arbitrator or arbitration tribunal shall apply the

the provisions of this Convention.



4. the provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 shall be deemed to be included in all

clauses or agreements on arbitration, and each condition


in such clauses or agreement contrary to the provisions

is invalid.



Article 35



Limitation of action



1. the right to compensation is lost, if an action is not brought

within two years from the date of arrival at the destination,

calculated from the date on which the aircraft ought to have arrived

or from the date on which the carriage stopped.



2. calculation of this time shall be made in accordance with the law of

the State where the case is tried.



Article 36



Successive transport



1. in the case of carriage performed by several carriers

After each other and falling within the definition set out in

Article 1, each carrier which accepts passengers,

baggage or cargo is subject to the provisions of this

Convention and is deemed to be a party to the contract of carriage to

the part the contract deals with that part of the carriage which is performed

under his control.



2. for such transport, a passenger or a

person entitled to bring an action only against the

the carrier which performed the carriage during which the

damage or delay occurred, unless the first

carrier expressly assumed liability for the whole

the trip.



3. in the case of baggage and cargo, the passenger or

the sender any action against the first carrier, and the

passenger or consignee who is entitled to get the goods,

bring an action against the final; both may in addition bring an action against the

the carrier which performed the carriage during

which the destruction, loss, damage or delay

occurred. The aforementioned carriers stand in

relationship to the passenger or consignor or

the receiver.



Article 37



Right of recourse against third parties



Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice the question whether a

person liable for damage in accordance with the Convention's

provisions has right of recourse against any other person.



CHAPTER IV



COMBINED TRANSPORT



Article 38



Combined transport



1. When a shipment, which satisfies the conditions laid down in article 1,

shall be carried out partly by air and partly by any

other means of transport, the provisions of this Convention

apply only to the carriage by air, except in the cases referred

in article 18(4).



2. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Convention may by combined

transport conditions concerning transport, other

means of transport are included in the transport document, provided that

the provisions of the Convention are observed as regards the

air transport.



CHAPTER V



CARRIAGE BY AIR PERFORMED BY ANYONE OTHER THAN THE

CONTRACTING CARRIER



Article 39



Contracting carrier actual carrier



The provisions of this chapter shall apply when a person

(hereinafter referred to as the contracting carrier) in his own name seals

a contract of carriage covered by this Convention with a

passenger or consignor or with a person acting on a

passenger or sender's mission, while another person

(hereinafter referred to as actual carrier) on behalf of the

contracting carrier performs the whole or a part of the

the transport but in terms of their part is not a gradual

carrier for the purposes of the Convention. Such a mission,

be presumed, unless otherwise shown.



Article 40



Each carrier liability



If the actual carrier performs the whole or a part of a

transport in accordance with the agreement referred to in article 39

covered by this Convention and unless otherwise provided in this

Chapter, the Convention's rules apply both for the

contracting carrier in respect of the entire carriage

under the terms of the agreement and of the actual carrier in case of

the carriage which he performs.



Article 41



Joint liability



1. the acts or omissions of the actual carrier

or its employees or agents in the exercise of

employment shall, as regards the part of the

transport the actual carrier done, is considered

also as the contracting carrier

failure.



2. the acts or omissions of the Contracting

the carrier or its servants or agents

within the scope of their employment shall, in the

for that part of the journey as the actual carrier

done, is also considered as the actual carrier's action

or failure. However, not any act or

failure to do the actual carrier responsible for

an amount that exceeds the amounts specified in articles

21-24. The actual carrier is without its own

approval is not bound by any special agreement,

through which the contracting carrier assumes

obligations in addition to the provisions of this Convention or

refrain from asserting defenses under

Convention or by a declaration under article

22.



Article 42



Addressee addressee and instructions



A complaint or an indication that under this Convention

shall be set to one of the carrier also apply to the

Second, whether addressed to the contracting or

the actual carrier. An instruction under article 12 is

However, valid only if it is given to the Contracting

the carrier.



Article 43



Employees and contractors



As regards the part of the journey that the actual

the carrier has done, his servants and agents

and even the contracting carrier's employees or

contractors rely on the same conditions and limits of liability which

the Convention applies to the carrier in question, if they

can show that they acted within the scope of the service or the

the mission and it does not appear that they acted in a way that

the Convention does not mean that the limits of liability may be invoked.



Article 44



Total compensation



As regards the part of the journey that the actual

the carrier has done, the total compensation

imposed upon him, the contracting carrier or their

employees or contractors do not exceed the maximum

amounts applicable for either of the carriers under this

Convention; However, none of the persons in question should be required to

be responsible for an amount in excess of the limit applicable

for this person.



Article 45



Defendant in claims



As regards the part of the journey that the actual

the carrier conducted the plaintiff may elect to bring an action for

reimbursement either to the actual, or against the

contracting carrier, or against both together

or separately. If an action is brought against only one of

the carriers, who would have the right to require the other

the carrier involved in the procedure, in which case the procedure for

and the consequences thereof shall be governed by the law of the State where

the case is being examined.



Article 46



Jurisdiction in special cases



Action for compensation in accordance with article 45 shall be brought within any

by the end of the speakers spirit States. The applicant may

choose to bring the action before a court which in accordance

Article 33 the action may be brought against the Contracting

the carrier or at the competent court in the place where the

the actual carrier has its domicile or

Head Office.



Article 47



Void contractual terms



Any contractual term which aims to rid the

contracting carrier or the actual carrier

from liability under this chapter or to fix a lower

limits of liability than those provided for by this chapter is

invalid, but the transport agreement as such, although such a

conditions still valid and subject to the provisions of this

Chapter.



Article 48



Carrier relationship



Except as provided in article 45, nothing in

This chapter affect the carriers ' rights and

obligations to each other, including any

right of recourse and the right to compensation for damage.



CHAPTER VI



OTHER PROVISIONS



Article 49



Mandatory application



Provisions in the contract of carriage or in special

arrangements concluded before damage occurs,

by which the parties intend to violate the provisions of the

This Convention, whether by deciding the law applicable

or by changing the rules of jurisdiction, are invalid.



Article 50



Insurance



The Contracting States shall by their carriers

require them to take out adequate insurance to cover

their liability under this Convention. A

carrier, of a Contracting State in which the carrier

traffic be required to prove that the carrier has a

adequate insurance covering his liability

According to this Convention.



Article 51



Carriage performed in extraordinary circumstances



Provisions concerning transport documents in articles 3 to 5, 7 and

8 if the documentation of carriage shall not apply in

the case of carriage performed in extraordinary

circumstances outside the carrier's normal activities.



Article 52



Definition of days



With "days" means calendar days and in this Convention not

working days.



CHAPTER VII



FINAL PROVISIONS



Article 53



Signature, ratification and entry into force



1. This Convention shall be open for signature in

Montreal on 28 May 1999 for those States participating in the

International Conference on air transport law in Montreal

from 10 to 28 May 1999. After 28 May 1999, the Convention

be open for signature to all States at

The International Civil Aviation Organization Headquarters in

Montreal until it enters into force in accordance with paragraph 6

in this article.




2. this Convention shall also be open for signature

of regional organisations for economic integration. In

for the purposes of this Convention a "regional organization for

economic integration "an organisation consisting of

independent States of a given region which has competence

with respect to certain matters governed by this Convention

and who is authorized to sign and to ratify,

accept, approve or accede to this Convention.

References to "Contracting State" or "Contracting

States "in this Convention shall include regional

organizations for economic integration, but in article 1(2),

Article 3 (1) (b), article 5 (b), articles 23, 33, 46 and article

57 (b). The expressions "a majority of the Contracting

States "and" one-third of the Contracting States "

in article 24 shall not apply to such organisations.



3. this Convention is subject to ratification by States and

regional organisations for economic integration

signed it.



4. A State or a regional organization for economic

integration, which have not signed this Convention, when

any time accept, approve or accede to it.



5. instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or

accession shall be deposited with the International

Civil Aviation Organization, which is hereby published-



mentioned to the depositary.



6. Among the States which have deposited an instrument of ratification,

acceptance, approval or accession of the

Depositary this Convention shall enter into force on the sixtieth

the day after the date of deposit of the thirtieth instrument deposited.

For the purposes of this paragraph, an instrument that

deposited by a regional organisation for economic

integration does not count.



7. For other States and other regional organizations for the

economic integration becomes this Convention regarding the

60th day after the date on which the instruments of ratification, acceptance,

approval or accession is deposited.



8. the depositary shall promptly notify the Contracting

States of



a) each signature of this Convention and the date of

This is accomplished,



b) each deposit of an instrument of ratification, acceptance,

approval or accession and the date of this

takes place,



c) on the date on which the Convention enters into force,



d) on the date of an amendment of the limits under this

Convention enters into force,



e) any denunciations under article 54.



Article 54



Termination



1. A Contracting State may denounce this Convention

by written notification to the depositary.



2. The denunciation takes effect one hundred and eighty days after the

date on which the depositary received notification.



Article 55



Relation to Warszawakonven-CIDE instruments



This Convention shall prevail over any other regulations for

international air transport



1. between States parties in the light of the

are parties to the



(a)), the Convention for the unification of certain

rules relating to international carriage by air,

signed at Warsaw on 12 October 1929 (hereinafter referred to as

The Warsaw Convention),



b) Protocol amending the Convention on

unification of certain rules relating to

international carriage by air, signed at Warsaw on 12

October 1929, completed in the Hague on 28 september 1955 (hereinafter

called the Hague Protocol);



c) Convention being to add the Warsaw Convention

for the unification of certain rules relating to

international carriage by air performed by a person other than the

contracting carrier, signed at Guadalajara on

18 september 1961 (hereinafter Guadalajarakonventionen),



d) Protocol involving the modification of the Convention concerning

unification of certain rules relating to

international carriage by air, signed at Warsaw on 12

October 1929 as amended by the Hague Protocol of 28

September 1955 signed at Guatemala City on 8 March 1971

(hereinafter called the Guatemala Protocol),



e) additional Protocol Nos 1 to 3 and Montreal Protocol No 4

involving amendment of the Warsaw Convention as amended

According to the Hague Protocol or the Warsaw Convention, in its

as amended by the Hague Protocol and the Guatemala Protocol,

signed at Montreal on 25 september 1975 (hereinafter referred to as

Montreal Protocols), or



2. within the territory of a Contracting State on the ground that

the State is a party to one or more of the instruments

set out in paragraphs (a) to (e) above.



Article 56



States with more than one legal system



1. If a State has two or more territorial units in which

different legal systems applying in matters relating to this

Convention, that State upon signature,

ratification, adoption, approval or accession

declare that the Convention shall extend to all its

territorial units or only one or some of them, and

may at any time change its declaration by a new

Declaration.



2. Any such declaration shall be notified to the depositary and

contain an explicit reference to the territorial

devices where the Convention is applicable.



3. a Contracting State which has made such a

explanation shall:



(a)) with the expression "national currency" in article 23, of course

the currency of the territorial unit in question, and



(b)), the term "national law" in article 28

of course, the law of the territorial unit in question.



Article 57



Reservations



This Convention cannot be subject to a reservation;

with the exception that each Contracting State when that

at any time by notification to the depositary, declare that this

Convention shall not apply in the case of



a) international carriage by air performed and operated directly

by the Contracting Government, if this happens in the non-

commercial purposes, and taking into account the State's functions

and responsibilities as sovereign



b) the carriage of persons, baggage and cargo that is carried out for its

military authorities with aircraft registered in

or leased by the State and whose entire payload capacity has

reserved by these authorities or on their behalf.



For CONFIRMATION OF THIS, the undersigned Plenipotentiaries have

agents with the aid of appropriate full powers, have signed this

Convention.



Done at Montreal on 28 May 1999 in English, Arabic,

Chinese, French, Russian and Spanish languages, the texts

all have equal validity. This Convention shall be deposited in

International Civil Aviation Organization's archives, and

the depositary shall transmit certified true copies to all the

Contracting States and to all States parties

in the Warsaw Convention, the Hague Protocol,

Guadalajarakonventionen, Guatemala Protocol and

Montreal Protocols.