Law (2012:318) On The 1996 Hague Convention

Original Language Title: Lag (2012:318) om 1996 års Haagkonvention

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Read the untranslated law here: http://rkrattsbaser.gov.se/sfst?bet=2012:318

the 1996 Hague Convention



Article 1 articles 1 to 53 in the Hague on 19 October 1996

dagtecknade Convention on jurisdiction, applicable law,

recognition, enforcement and cooperation in respect of

parental responsibility and measures for the protection of children (the 1996

Convention) shall apply as in the original wording of the texts of law

here in the country. The original texts shall be equally authentic.



The original texts are available together with a Swedish translation

as an annex to this law.



Reserve forum



section 2 on the application of the 1996 Hague Convention means that a

the case shall be examined by a Committee which fulfills a municipality's information

in social services in Sweden and there is no other

competent board, is taken up by a Committee of Stockholm municipality

performing such tasks.



Approval of a placement of a child in Sweden



section 3 of The terms of authorisation of a placement of a child in

Sweden under article 33 are heard by a Board which fulfils the

tasks in social services in the municipality where the child is intended to be

placed. While consultation within the meaning of that article is made by the Board.



In Chapter 6. 11 a of the Social Service Act (2001:453) entered

conditions for accepting a position.

Specific information exchange on a child's situation, etc.



4 § Board fulfils a municipality's information within

social services must report on a child's situation according to

Article 32. The Board may also collect information or

evidence and rule on a parent's suitability in terms of

visitation, as indicated in article 35(2).



Decision on an interim measure in relation to custody, etc.



§ 5 If there is permission for a Swedish court under article

11 or 12, the Court in respect of custody, property, visitation

or guardianship, shall decide on such a temporary protection measure

referred to in these articles.



At the court handling the law (1996:242) if

Court cases. In the decision of the Court of Justice shall state how long

the safeguard measure is in effect.



The child may be heard before the Court, for special reasons for

and it is obvious that the child cannot be damaged by that

be heard. In a case involving child custody, property or rights of access,

Court, obtaining information from the social welfare board in question.

Before the social welfare Board provide information to it, if it is

appropriate, hear the parents and the child.



Recognition and enforceability



section 6, an application for recognition under article 24 or

Declaration of enforceability under article 26 is made to

District Court that the Government provides. Law (2014:934).



section 7 of the application under section 6, shall, in collaboration with

application to submit the original or a copy of

the decision that has been established by a competent authority. If

the application relates to a judgment given in a party

non-appearance, the applicant must also provide proof that

document instituting the proceedings or an equivalent document has been served

party.



In case of an application for a declaration of enforceability, should the applicant

also submit proof that the judgment is enforceable in the

State in which it has been notified.



The District Court may order the applicant to provide the additional

acts as the District Court need for its review.



If a document is written in a language other than Swedish,

should even a Swedish translation of the document submitted. A

the translation need not be submitted if the District Court opinion

It is not necessary or that it may reasonably be required.



In the Court of a case for recognition or

enforceability shall apply in all other respects the law

(1996:242) about court cases. Law (2014:934).



section 8 of the District Court shall explain the foreign judgment, in whole

or partly applicable or enforceable. Law (2014:934).



Enforcement



§ 9 Upheld an application for a declaration of enforceability, the

foreign judgment enforceable



1. According to chapter 21. parental code if it relates to a child's personal

and



2. in accordance with the enforcement code if it relates to a child's estate.

For enforcement to what is prescribed if

enforcement of the Swedish court ruling in similar cases.



Transfer of personal data



section 10 A Swedish authority may, notwithstanding section 33

personal data Act (1998:204) transferring personal data to

one authority in a country outside of the European economic

area, if necessary, to the authority shall

consider a necessary action under the 1996

Convention.



Request to exercise jurisdiction



section 11, a Swedish authority such a request referred to in

Article 9(1) shall ask the foreign authority

to exercise jurisdiction, if the foreign authority is considered

better placed to assess what is best for the child.



Transitional provisions



2014:934



1. this law shall enter into force on 10 January 2015.



2. Older rules applicable to the processing in Svea

Court of appeal and the Supreme Court cases initiated in

the Court prior to the entry into force.



Annex



CONVENTION EXPIRED, LA COMPÉTENCE, LA LOI APPLICABLE, LA

RECONNAISSANCE, L ' EXÉCUTION ET LA COOPÉRATION EN MATIÈRE DE

"RESPONSABILITÉ ET DE MESURES DE PROTECTION DES

ENFANTS



(Conclue le 19 octobre 1996)



Les Etats signataires de la

présente Convention,



Considérant qu'il convient de renforcer la protection des

enfants dans les situations à caractère international,



Désirant éviter des conflits entre leurs systèmes for Legal Affairs a

matière de compétence, loi applicable, reconnaissance et

exécution des mesures de protection des enfants,



Rappelant l ' importance de la coopération internationale pour la

protection des enfants,



Confirmant que l ' intérêt supérieur de l'enfant doit être une

considération primordiale,



Constatant la nécessité de réviser la Convention du 5 octobre

1961 la compétence des autorités expired et la loi

applicable en matière de protection des mineurs,



Désirant établir des outline communes à cet effet, en

tenant compte de la Convention des Nations Unies relative aux

droits de l'enfant, du 20 novembre 1989,



Sont convenus des outline suivantes:



CHAPITRE IN



CHAMP D ' APPLICATION DE LA CONVENTION



Article premier



1. La présente Convention a pour objet:



(a)) the determiner l ' État dont les autorités ont compétence pour

prendre des mesures tendant à la protection de la personne ou

des biens de l'enfant;



(b)) the determiner la loi applicable par ces autorités dance

l ' exercice de leur compétence;



(c)) the determiner la loi applicable à la responsabilité

";



d) d ' assurer la reconnaissance et l ' exécution des mesures de

protection dans tous les Etats contractants;



e) d ' établir entre les autorités des Etats contractants la

Coopération nécessaire à la réalisation des objectifs de la

Convention.



2. Aux fins de la Convention, l'expression «responsabilité

"» comprend l ' autorité" ou tout autre report

d ' autorité les droits, les analogue Regent pouvoirs et les

Bond des parents, d'un tuteur ou autre représentant

légal à l ' provide de la personne ou des biens de l'enfant.



Article 2



La Convention s ' applique aux enfants à partir de leur

Naissance et jusqu ' à ce qu ' ils aient atteint l ' âge de 18 ans.



Article 3 Les mesures prévues à l'article premier can

Porter ' notamment ' sur:



a) l ' attribution, l ' exercice et le retrait ou the total wholesale electricity

La responsabilité ", ainsi que la délégation de celle-

CI;



b) le droit de garde, concerning comprenant le droit sur les soins

de la personne de l enfant, et en particulier celui de décider

de son lieu de résidence, ainsi que le droit de visite,

comprenant le droit d ' emmener l'enfant pour une période limitée

dans un lieu autre que celui de sa résidence habituelle;



c) la co-tutorial, la curatelle et les institutions analogues;



d) la désignation et les fonctions de toute personne ou

which chargé de s ' streets again de la personne ou des biens de

l'enfant, de le représenter ou de assists;



e) le placement de l'enfant dans une famille d'accueil ou dance

UN establishment, ou son recueil légal couple kafala ou par une

institution analogue;



f) la supervision des soins par les autorités publiques

dispensés à toute personne ayant l'enfant par la charge de cet

enfant;



g) l ' administration, la conservation ou la disposition des

biens de l'enfant.



Article 4



Sont exclus du domaine de la Convention:



a) l ' establishment et la contestation de la filiation;



b) la décision sur l ' adoption et les mesures qui préparent la,

ainsi que l ' annulation et la révocation de l ' adoption;



c) les nom et prénoms de l'enfant;



d) l ' émancipation;



e) les bond alimentaires;



f) les trusts et successional;



g) la sécurité sociale;



h) les mesures publiques de caractère général en matière

d ' éducation et de santé;



les mesures prises in) a conséquence d ' infractions pénales

commises par des enfants;



j) les decisions sur le droit d ' asile et en matière

d ' immigration.



CHAPITRE II



COMPETENCE



Article 5



1. Les autorités judiciaires, aunt

Qu ' État contractant, administratives de de la résidence

habituelle de l enfant sont compétentes pour prendre des

Mesures tendant à la protection de sa personne ou de ses biens.



(2) Sous réserve de l'article 7, en cas de changement de la

résidence habituelle de l'enfant dans un autre Etat

les autorités compétentes contractant, sont de l ' État de la

Nouvelle résidence habituelle. Article 6



1. Pour les enfants réfugiés et les enfants qui, par suite de

troubles prévalant dans leur pays, sont internationalement

déplacés, les autorités de l ' État contractant sur le territoire


duquel ces enfants sont présents du fait de leur déplacement

exercent la compétence Prevue au paragraphe premier the

l'article 5.



2. La disposition du paragraphe précédent s ' applique également

aux enfants dont la résidence habituelle ne peut être établie.



Article 7



1. En cas de déplacement ou de non-retour illicite de l'enfant,

Les autorités de l ' État contractant dans amend the terms l'enfant avait

SA résidence habituelle immédiatement avant son déplacement ou

son non-retour conservent leur compétence jusqu'au moment où

L'Enfant a acquis une résidence habituelle dans un autre Etat

et que:



a) toute autre personne ou ayant, institution which le

droit de garde a acquiescé au déplacement ou au non-retour; OU



b) l'enfant a résidé dans cet autre Etat pour une période d ' au

moins un an après que la personne, l ' institution ou tout autre

which ayant le droit de garde a connu ou aurait Appendix: variations

connaître le lieu où se trouvait l'enfant, aucune demande de

Retour présentée pendant cette période n ' est encore en cours

d degree, et l ' enfant s ' est intégré dans son nouveau milieu.



2. Le déplacement ou le non-retour de l'enfant est considéré

comme illicite:



a) lorsqu ' il a lieu a violation d'un droit de garde, attribué

à une personne, une institution ou tout autre which, seul

OU conjointement par le droit de l'Etat dans l'enfant amend the terms

avait immédiatement avant sa résidence habituelle son

déplacement ou son non-retour, et



b) que ce droit était exercé de façon effective, seul ou

conjointement, au moment du déplacement ou you non-retour, ou

l ' eût été si de tels événements survenus n ' étaient.



Le droit de garde visé à la lettre a) peut résulter ' notamment '

d'une

Attribution de plein droit, d'une décision judiciaire ou

administrative, ou d'un accord selon le droit en vigueur de cet

Etat.



3. Tant que les autorités mentionnées au paragraphe premier

conservent leur compétence, les autorités de l ' État contractant

où l'enfant a été déplacé retenu ou ne prendre que les can

Mesures urgentes nécessaires à la protection de la personne ou

des biens de l'enfant, conformément à l'article 11.



Article 8



1. A titre d ' exception, l ' autorité de l ' État contractant

compétente en application des articles 5 ou 6, si elle

considère que l ' autorité d'un autre État contractant serait

Mieux à même d ' apprécier dans un cas particulier l ' intérêt

supérieur de l'enfant peut demander, soit à cette autorité ",

directement ou avec le con, cours de l ' Autorité centrale de cet

Etat la compétence pour de prendre acceptances les mesures de

protection qu'elle estimate nécessaires,



– soit statuer surseoir à et inviter les parties à saisir d'une

Telle demande l ' autorité de cet autre Etat.



2. Les Etats contractants dont une autorité peut être requise

ou dans les conditions fixées seizure for au paragraphe précédent

sont:



a) un État possède la nationalité dont l'enfant,



b) sont situés dans un État des biens amend the terms de l'enfant,



c) un Etat dont une demande est d'une autorité seizure for a

divorce ou de séparation corps des parents de l'enfant, ou a

annulation de leur mariage,



(d) amend the terms) un État avec l'enfant présente un lien étroit.



3. Les autorités procéder à un échange concernées can they

vues.



4. L ' autorité ou requise seizure for dans les conditions prévues au

paragraphe premier peut accepting la compétence, a lieu et

place de l ' autorité compétente en application des articles 5 ou

6, si elle considère que tel est l ' intérêt supérieur de

l'enfant.



Article 9



1. Les autorités des Etats contractants mentionnés à l'article

8, paragraphe 2, si elles sont considèrent les mieux qu ' à elles

même d ' apprécier dans un cas particulier l ' intérêt supérieur de

l'enfant, can



– soit demander à l ' autorité compétente de

l ' État contractant de la résidence habituelle de l'enfant,

directement ou avec le concours de l ' Autorité centrale de cet

Etat, de leur permettre d ' exercer la compétence pour prendre

les mesures de protection qu ' elles estiment nécessaires, — soit

the inviter les parties à présenter une telle demande devant les

Autorités de l ' État contractant de la résidence habituelle de

l'enfant.



2. Les autorités procéder à un échange concernées can they

vues.



3. L ' autorité à L'origine de la demande ne peut exercer la

Compétence en lieu et place de l ' autorité de l ' État contractant

de la résidence habituelle de l'enfant que si cette autorité (a)

accepte la demande.



Article 10



1. Sans préjudice des articles 5 à 9, les autorités d'un Etat

contractant, dans l ' exercice de leur compétence pour connaître

d'une demande a divorce ou de corps séparation des parents

d'un enfant résidant habituellement dans un autre Etat

contractant, ou en annulation de leur mariage, prendre, can

Si la loi de leur État le permet, des mesures de protection de

la personne ou des biens de l'enfant,



a) si, au commencement de la procédure, l'un des parents réside

habituellement dans cet État et que l'un d eux ait la

responsabilité "à l ' provide de l'enfant, et



b) si la compétence de ces autorités pour prendre de telles

Mesures a été acceptée par les parents, ainsi que par toute

autre personne ayant la responsabilité "à l ' provide the

l'enfant et si cette compétence est conforme à l ' intérêt

supérieur de l'enfant.



2. La compétence Prevue au paragraphe premier pour prendre des

mesures de protection de l'enfant cesse dès lors que la

décision faisant droit ou rejetant la demande a divorce,

séparation de corps ou annulation du mariage est devenue

ou définitive que la procédure a price nice pour un autre motif.



Article 11



1. Dans tous les cas d'urgence, les autorités de chaque Etat

contractant sur le territoire duquel se trouve l ' enfant ou des

biens lui appartenant sont compétentes pour prendre les mesures

the protection nécessaires.



2. Les mesures prises en application du paragraphe précédent à

l provide d'un enfant ayant sa résidence habituelle dans un Etat

contractant cessent d'avoir effet que les autorités dès

compétentes en vertu des articles 5 à 10 evil price les mesures

exigées par la situation.



3. Les mesures prises en

application du paragraphe premier à l ' provide d'un enfant ayant

SA résidence habituelle dans un État non contractant cessent

d'avoir effet dans chaque État contractant dès qu'elle y sont

reconnues les mesures prises par la situation exigées par les

autorités d'un autre État.



Article 12



(1) Sous réserve de l'article 7, les autorités d'un Etat

contractant sur le territoire duquel se trouve l ' enfant ou des

biens lui appartenant sont compétentes pour prendre des mesures

de protection de la personne ou des biens de l'enfant, ayant un

caractère provisoire et une efficacité territoriale restreinte

à cet Etat, pour autant que de telles mesures ne anything pas

incompatibles avec celles déjà prises par les autorités

compétentes en vertu des articles 5 à 10.



2. Les mesures prises en application du paragraphe précédent à

l provide d'un enfant ayant sa résidence habituelle dans un Etat

contractant cessent d'avoir effet que les autorités dès

compétentes

en vertu des articles 5 à 10 se sont prononcées sur les mesures

que pourrait

exiger la situation.



3. Les mesures prises en application du

provide premier paragraphe d'un à l ' enfant ayant sa résidence

habituelle dans un État non contractant cessent d'avoir effet

dans l ' État contractant où elles ont été prises dès qu'elle y sont

reconnues les mesures prises par la situation exigées par les

autorités d'un autre État.



Article 13



1. Les autorités qui sont d'un État contractant compétentes

Selon

Les articles 5 à 10 pour prendre des mesures de protection de

la personne ou des biens de l'enfant it s ' abstenir de

statuer si, lors de l ' introduction de la procédure, des mesures

correspondantes ont été demandées aux autorités d'un autre Etat

contractant alors compétentes en vertu des articles 5 à 10 et

sont encore en cours d ' degree.



2. La disposition du paragraphe précédent ne s ' applique pas si

Les autorités devant lesquelles la demande de mesures a été

présentée à leur ont initialement renoncé compétence.



Article 14



Les mesures prises en application des articles 5 à 10 restent

en vigueur dans les limites qui sont les leurs, même lorsqu ' un

changement des refers a fait disparaître sur l ' Oldman

amend the terms était fondée la compétence, tant que les autorités

compétentes en vertu de la Convention ne les ont pas modifiées,

remplacées ou levées.



CHAPITRE III



LOI APPLICABLE



Article 15



1. Dans l ' exercice de la compétence qui leur est attribuée par

Les

disposition du chapitre II, les autorités des Etats

contractants appliquent leur loi.



2. Toutefois, dans la mesure où la protection de la personne ou

des biens de l'enfant le requiert, elles can

exceptionnellement appliquer la loi ou prendre en considération

d'un autre État avec la situation présente amend the terms un lien

étroit.



3. En cas de changement de la résidence habituelle de l'enfant

dans un autre État contractant, la loi de cet autre Etat régit,

à partir du moment où le changement est survenu, les conditions

d application des mesures prises dans l ' État de l ' ancienne

résidence habituelle.



Article 16



1. L ' attribution de plein droit ou l ' extinction d'une

responsabilité ", sans intervention d'une autorité

judiciaire ou administrative, est régie par la loi de l ' État de

La résidence habituelle de l'enfant.



2. L ' attribution ou l ' extinction d'une responsabilité "

par un accord ou un acte unilatéral, sans intervention d'une

Autorité judiciaire ou administrative, est régie par la loi de


l ' État de la résidence habituelle de l enfant au moment où

l ' accord ou l'acte unilatéral prend effet.



3. La responsabilité "existant selon la loi de l ' État

de la résidence habituelle de l'enfant subsiste après le

changement de cette résidence habituelle dans un autre Etat.



4. En cas de changement de la résidence habituelle de l'enfant,

l ' attribution de plein droit de la responsabilité "à

une personne qui n'est pas déjà investie de cette

responsabilité est régie par la loi de l ' État de la nouvelle

résidence habituelle.



Article 17



L ' exercice de la responsabilité "est régi par la loi

de l ' État de la résidence habituelle de l'enfant. En cas de

changement de la résidence habituelle de l'enfant, il est régi

par la loi de l ' État de la nouvelle résidence habituelle.



Article 18



La responsabilité "Prevue à l'article 16

pourra être retirée ou ses conditions d ' exercice modifiées par

des mesures prises en application de la Convention.



Article 19



1. La validité d'un acte passe entre un tiers et une autre

personne qui aurait la qualité de représentant légal selon la

Loi de l ' État où l ' acte a été passé ne peut être contestée, you

La responsabilité du tiers engagée, pour le seul motif que

L'Autre personne n ' avait pas la qualité de représentant légal

en vertu de la loi désignée par les disposition du présent

Chapitre, sauf si le Rendu savait ou devait savoir que la

responsabilité "était régie par cette loi.



2. Le paragraphe précédent ne s ' applique que dans le cas où

l'acte a été passé entre personnes présentes sur le territoire

d'un même Etat.



Article 20



Les sont applicables du présent chapitre outline

même si la loi qu ' elles désignent est celle d'un État non

contractant.



Article 21



1. Au sens du présent chapitre, le terme «loi»

désigne le droit en vigueur dans un État, à l ' exclusion des

règles de conflit de lois.



2. Toutefois, si la loi applicable en vertu de l'article 16 est

celle d'un État contractant les règles et non que de conflit de

CET Etat désignent la loi d'un autre Etat qui non contractant

appliquerait sa propre loi, la loi de cet autre Etat est

applicable. Si la loi de cet État contractant autre non ne se

reconnaît pas applicable, la loi applicable est celle désignée

par l'article 16.



Article 22



L'application de la loi désignée par les outline

du présent chapitre ne peut être écartée que si cette

application est manifestement contraire à l'Ordre public,

Compte tenu de l ' intérêt supérieur de l'enfant.



CHAPITRE IV



RECONNAISSANCE ET EXECUTION



Article 23



1. Les mesures prises par les autorités d'un Etat

contractant sont reconnues de plein droit dans les autres Etats

contractants.



2. Toutefois, la reconnaissance peut être refusée:



a) si la mesure a été prise par une autorité dont la compétence

n ' était pas fondée sur un chef de compétence prévu au chapitre

(II);



b) si la mesure a été prise, hors le cas d'urgence, dans le

cadre d'une procédure judiciaire ou administrative, sans qu'elle ait

été donnée à l'enfant la possibilité d ' être entendu, a

violation des principes fondamentaux de procédure de l ' État

requise;



c) à la demande de toute personne prétendant que cette mesure

Porte atteinte à sa responsabilité ", si cette mesure (a)

été prise, hors le cas d'urgence, sans qu'elle ait été donnée à

cette personne la possibilité d ' être entendue;



d) si la reconnaissance est manifestement contraire à l'Ordre

public de l'Etat requise, compte tenu de l ' intérêt supérieur de

L'Enfant;



e) si la mesure est incompatible avec une mesure prise

postérieurement dans l'Etat non contractant de la résidence

habituelle de l'enfant, lorsque cette dernière mesure réunit

Les conditions nécessaires à sa reconnaissance dans l ' État

requise;



f) si la procédure Prevue à l'article 33 n'a pas été respectée.



Article 24



Sans préjudice de l'article 23, paragraphe premier, toute

personne intéressée peut demander aux autorités compétentes

d'un État contractant qu'il soit statué sur la reconnaissance

ou la non-reconnaissance d'une mesure prise dans un autre Etat

contractant. La procédure est régie par la loi de l ' État

requise.



Article 25



L ' autorité de l ' État requise est liée par les

constatations de fait sur lesquelles l ' autorité de l ' État qui a

price la mesure a fondé sa compétence.



Article 26



1. Si les mesures prises dans un État contractant et

qui y sont des actes d ' exécution exécutoires comportent dans un

Autre État contractant, elles sont, dans cet autre Etat,

exécutoires ou déclarées enregistrées aux fins d ' exécution, sur

Requête de toute partie intéressée, selon la procédure Prevue

par la loi de cet État.



2. Chaque État contractant applique à la déclaration

d exequatur ou à l ' enregistrement une procédure simple et

Rapide.



3. La déclaration d ' exequatur ou l ' enregistrement ne can

être refusés que pour l'un des motifs prévus à l'article 23,

paragraphe 2.



Article 27



Sous réserve de ce qui est nécessaire pour

l'application des articles qui précèdent, l ' autorité de l ' État

requise ne procédera à aucune mesure au fond de la revision

prise.



Article 28



Les mesures prises dans un Etat

contractant, qui sont déclarées exécutoires ou enregistrées aux

fins d ' exécution dans un autre État contractant, y sont mises à

exécution comme si elles avaient été prises par les autorités

the cet autre Etat. La mise à exécution des mesures se fait

conformément à la loi de l ' État requise dans les limites qui y

sont prévues, compte tenu de l ' intérêt supérieur de l'enfant.



CHAPITRE V



COOPERATION



Article 29



1. Chaque État contractant désigne une Autorité

Centrale chargée de satisfaire aux bond qui lui sont

imposées par la Convention.



2. Un État fédéral, un État dans plusieurs systèmes amend the terms they

droit sont en vigueur ou un État ayant des unités territoriales

autonomes est libre de désigner plus d'une Autorité centrale et

de spécifier l ' étendue territoriale ou personnelle de leurs

Fonctions. L ' État qui fait usage de cette faculté désigne

l ' Autorité centrale à laquelle toute communication peut être

adressée en vue de sa transmission à l ' Autorité centrale

compétente au sein de cet État. Article 30



1. Les Autorités

Centrales it coopérer entre elles et promouvoir la

Coopération entre les autorités compétentes de leur État pour

réaliser les objectifs de la Convention.



2. Elles prennent, dans le cadre de l'application de la

Convention, appropriées pour les fournir des outline

information sur leur législation, ainsi que sur les services

disponibles dans leur État en matière de protection de

l'enfant.



Article 31



L ' Autorité centrale d'un État contractant prend soit

directement, soit avec le concours d ' autorités publiques ou

d'autres organismes, toutes outline appropriées pour:



a) special les communications et offrir l'Assistance prévues

aux articles 8 et 9 et au présent chapitre;



(b)) special par la ", la conciliation ou tout autre

fashion analogue, des ententes à l ' amiable sur la protection de la

personne ou des biens de l'enfant, dans les situations

auxquelles s ' applique la Convention;



c) aider, sur demande d'une autorité compétente d'un autre Etat

contractant, à localiser l ' enfant lorsqu ' il paraît que celui-ci

EST présent sur le territoire de l ' État requise et a besoin de

protection.



Article 32



Sur demande motivée de l ' Autorité centrale ou d'une autre

Autorité compétente d'un État contractant avec l'enfant amend the terms

(a) un lien étroit, l ' Autorité centrale de l ' État contractant

(a) amend the terms said l'enfant dance résidence habituelle et dans amend the terms

Il est présent peut, soit directement, soit avec le concours

d ' autorités publiques ou d'autres organismes,



a) fournir un rapport sur la situation de l'enfant;



b) demander

à l ' autorité compétente de l ' État d ' opportunité examiner son de

prendre des mesures tendant à la protection de la personne ou

des biens de l'enfant.



Article 33



Lorsque l ' autorité compétente 1. a vertu des articles 5 à 10

the envisage le placement de l'enfant dans une famille d'accueil ou

dans un establishment, ou son recueil légal couple kafala ou par

une institution analogue, et que ce placement ou ce recueil

aura lieu dans un autre État contractant, elle consulte au

préalable de l ' Autorité centrale ou une autre autorité compétente

de ce dernier Etat. Elle lui communique à cet effet un report

sur l'enfant et les motifs de sa proposition sur le placement

ou le recueil.



2. La décision sur le placement ou le recueil ne peut être

prise dans l ' État que l ' Autorité centrale consent to si ou une

Autre autorité compétente de l ' État requise a approuvé ce

placement ou ce recueil, compte tenu de l ' intérêt supérieur de

l'enfant.



Article 34



1. Lorsqu ' une mesure de protection est

les autorités compétentes envisagée, en vertu de la Convention

can, si la situation de l'enfant à demander l ' exige, toute

Autorité d'un autre État contractant qui détient des

information utiles pour la protection de l'enfant de les lui

communiquer.



2. Chaque État contractant pourra déclarer que les demandes

prévues au paragraphe premier ne pourront être acheminées que

par l ' intermédiaire de son Autorité centrale.



Article 35



Les autorités compétentes 1. d'un État contractant can

demander aux autorités d'un autre État contractant de prêter

leur assistance à la mise en œuvre de mesures de protection

prises en application de la Convention, a particulier pour

assurer l ' exercice d'un effectif droit de visite, ainsi que du

droit de maintenir des contacts direct réguliers.




2. Les

autorités d'un État contractant dans l'enfant n'a pas amend the terms said

résidence habituelle can, à la demande d'un parent résidant

dans cet Etat et souhaitant obtenir, ou conserver un droit de

recueillir des renseignements ou visite, des be et se

prononcer sur l ' aptitude de ce à exercer le droit de parent

visite et sur les conditions dans lesquelles il pourrait

l ' exercer. L ' autorité compétente en vertu des articles 5 à 10

pour statuer sur le droit de visite devra, avant de se

prendre en considération prononcer, ces renseignements, be

OU conclusions.



3. Une autorité compétente en vertu des articles 5 à 10 pour

statuer sur le droit de visite peut suspendre la procédure

jusqu'au terme de la procédure Prevue au paragraphe 2,

' notamment ' lorsqu ' seizure for elle est d'une demande tendant à

modifier ou supprimer le droit de visite conféré par les

Autorités de l ' État de l'ancienne résidence habituelle.



4. Cet article n ' empêche pas une autorité compétente a vertu

des articles 5 à 10 de prendre des mesures provisoires jusqu'au

Terme de la procédure Prevue au paragraphe 2.



Article 36



Dans le cas où l ' enfant est exposé à un grave danger, les

autorités compétentes de l ' État contractant dans des amend the terms

mesures de protection de cet enfant ont été prises ou sont en

voie de l ' être, si elles sont informées du changement de

Résidence ou de la présence de l'enfant dans un autre Etat,

avisent les autorités de cet État de ce danger et des mesures

prises ou en cours d ' degree.



Article 37



Une autorité ne peut demander ou transmettre des information

an application de ce chapitre si elle est d ' avis qu ' une telle

demande ou transmission pourrait mettre en danger la personne

ou les biens de l'enfant, ou constituer une menace grave pour

La liberté ou la vie d'un membre de sa famille.



Article 38



1. Sans préjudice de la possibilité de réclamer des frais

raisonnables correspondant aux services fournis, les Autorités

Centrales et les autres autorités publiques des Etats

contractants supportent leurs frais découlant de application

des outline you présent chapitre.



2. Un État contractant peut conclure des accord avec un ou

plusieurs autres Etats contractants sur la répartition des

frais.



Article 39



Tout État contractant pourra conclure avec un ou plusieurs

Autres Etats contractants des accord a vue de favoriser dans

leurs rapports réciproques l'application du présent chapitre.

Les Etats qui ont conclu de tels accord a transmettront une

Copie au dépositaire de la Convention.



CHAPITRE VI



OUTLINE GENERALES



Article 40



1. Les autorités de l ' État contractant de la résidence

habituelle de l'enfant ou de l ' État contractant où une mesure

the protection a été prise au can "délivrer de la

"responsabilité ou à toute personne à qui est confiée

La protection de la personne ou des biens de l'enfant, à sa

demande, un certificat indiquant sa qualité et les pouvoirs qui

Lui sont conférés.



2. La qualité et les pouvoirs sont indiqués par le certificat

tenus pour établis, sauf preuve contraire.



(3) Chaque État contractant désigne les autorités habilitées à

établir le certificat.



Article 41



Les données personnelles ou conformément rassemblées transmises

à la Convention ne can être utilisées à d'autres fins que

Celles pour lesquelles elles ont été transmises rassemblées ou.



Article 42



Les autorités auxquelles sont transmises en des information

assurent la confidentialité conformément à la loi de leur État.



Article 43



Les documents ou TRANS délivrés en application de la

Convention sont dispensés de toute légalisation ou de toute

formalité analogue.



Article 44



Chaque État contractant peut

désigner les autorités à qui les demandes prévues aux articles

8, 9 et 33 it être envoyées.



Article 45



1. Les désignations mentionnées aux articles 29 et 44 sont

communiquées au Bureau Permanent de la Conférence de La Haye de

droit international privé.



2. La déclaration mentionnée à l'article 34, paragraphe 2, est

promote your au dépositaire de la Convention.



Article 46



UN État contractant dans des systèmes de droit amend the terms

ou des ensembles de règles en matière appliquent différents s '

de protection de l'enfant et de ses biens n'est pas tenu

d ' appliquer les règles de la Convention aux conflits expired

uniquement ces différents systèmes ou Ensemble de règles.



Article 47



Au regard d'un Etat dans deux ou plusieurs systèmes amend the terms they

droit ou Ensemble de règles ayant trait aux questions régies

par la présente Convention s ' appliquent dans des unités

territoriales différentes:



1. toute (BCR) à la résidence habituelle dans cet Etat vise

La résidence habituelle dans une unité territoriale;



2. toute (BCR) à la présence de l'enfant dans cet Etat vise

la présence de l'enfant dans une unité territoriale;



3. toute (BCR) à la situation des biens de l'enfant dance

CET Etat vise la situation des biens de l'enfant dans une unité

territoriale;



4. toute (BCR) à l ' État dont l'enfant possède la

Nationalité vise l ' unité territoriale désignée par la loi de

CET État ou, l absence de règles pertinentes, l ' unité

territoriale avec laquelle l'enfant présente le lien le plus

étroit;



5. toute (BCR) à l ' État dont une autorité est d'une seizure for

demande en séparation de corps divorce ou des parents de

l'enfant, ou en annulation de leur mariage, vise l ' unité

territoriale dont une autorité telle est d'une demande of the debtor;



6. toute (BCR) à l ' État avec l'enfant présente un amend the terms

Lien étroit vise l ' unité avec laquelle territoriale l'enfant

présente ce lien;



7. toute (BCR) à l ' État où l ' enfant a été retenu ou déplacé

vise l ' unité territoriale dans laquelle l ' enfant a été déplacé

OU retenu;



8. aux organismes ou toute (BCR) autorités de cet

Etat, autres que les Autorités centrales, organismes vise les

habilités à agir OU autorités dans l ' unité territoriale

concernée;



9. toute (BCR) à la loi, à la procédure ou à

l ' autorité de l ' État où une mesure a été prise vise la loi, la

procédure ou l ' autorité de l ' unité territoriale dans laquelle

cette mesure a été prise;



10. toute (BCR) à la loi, à la procédure ou à l ' autorité de

l ' État requise vise la loi, la procédure ou l ' autorité de

l ' unité territoriale dans laquelle la reconnaissance ou

l ' exécution est invoquée.



Article 48



Pour identifier la loi applicable en vertu du chapitre III,

lorsqu ' un Etat comprend deux ou plusieurs unités territoriales

dont chacune a son propre système de droit ou un ensemble de

règles ayant trait aux questions régies par la présente

Convention, les règles suivantes s ' appliquent:



a) a présence de règles en vigueur dans cet Etat identifiant

l ' unité territoriale dont la loi est applicable, la loi de

cette unité s ' applique;



(b)) a l absence de telles règles, la loi de l ' unité

territoriale définie selon les disposition de l'article 47

s ' applique.



Article 49



Pour identifier la loi applicable en vertu du chapitre III,

lorsqu ' un Etat comprend deux ou plusieurs systèmes de droit ou

Ensemble de règles applicables à des différentes catégories de

personnes pour les questions régies par la présente Convention,

appliquent les règles suivantes: s '



a) a présence de règles en vigueur dans cet Etat identifiant

laquelle de ces lois est applicable, cette loi s ' applique;



(b)) a l absence de telles règles, la loi du système ou de

l ensemble de règles avec l'enfant amend the terms présente le lien le

plus étroit s ' applique.



Article 50



La présente Convention n ' affecte pas la Convention du 25

Octobre 1980 sur les aspects civils de l ' enlèvement

International d ' enfants, dans les relations entre les Parties

aux deux Conventions. Rien n ' empêche cependant que des

disposition de la présente Convention pour anything invoquées

obtenir le retour d'un enfant qui a été retenu ou déplacé

illicitement, ou pour organiser le droit de visite.



Article 51



Dans les rapports entre les Etats contractants, la présente

Convention remplace la Convention du 5 octobre 1961 expired

La compétence des autorités et la loi applicable en matière de

protection des mineurs et la Convention pour régler la co-tutorial

des mineurs, signée à La Haye le 12 juin 1902, sans préjudice

de la reconnaissance des mesures prises selon la Convention du

5 octobre 1961 précitée.



Article 52



1. La Convention ne déroge pas aux instruments internationaux

auxquels des Etats contractants sont Parties et qui contiennent

des outline sur les matières réglées par la présente

Convention, à moins qu'elle ne soit une déclaration contraire promote your

par les Etats dependent pair de tels instruments.



2. La Convention n ' affecte pas la possibilité pour un ou

plusieurs Etats contractants de conclure des accord qui

ce qui contiennent, a concerne les enfants habituellement

résidents dans l'un des Etats Parties à de tels accord, des

disposition sur les matières réglées par la présente

Convention.



3. Les accord à conclure par un ou plusieurs Etats

contractants sur des matières réglées par la présente

Convention n ' affectent pas, dans les rapports de ces Etats avec

les autres Etats contractants, l'application des outline

de la présente Convention.



4. Les paragraphes précédents s ' appliquent également aux lois

uniformes reposant sur l ' existence entre les Etats concernés de

Liens spéciaux, régionale ' notamment ' de nature.



Article 53



1. La Convention ne s ' applique aux mesures prises qu '

dans un Etat après l ' entrée en vigueur de la Convention pour

CET Etat.




2. La Convention s ' applique à la reconnaissance et à

l ' exécution des mesures prises après son entrée en vigueur dans

Les rapports entre l ' État où les mesures ont été prises et

l ' État requise.



Article 54



1. Toute communication à l ' Autorité centrale ou à toute autre

Autorité d'un État contractant est adressée dans la langue

originale et accompagnée d'une traduction dans la langue

official ou l'une des langues officielles de cet État ou,

lorsque cette traduction est difficilement réalisable, d'une

traduction en français ou en anglais.



2. Toutefois, un État contractant pourra, en faisant la réserve

Prevue à l'article 60, s ' opposer soit à l ' utilisation du

Français, soit de l'anglais.



Article 55



1. Un État contractant pourra, conformément à

l'article 60:



a) réserver la compétence de ses autorités pour prendre des

Mesures tendant à la protection des biens d'un enfant situés

sur son territoire;



b) see réserver de ne pas reconnaître une responsabilité

"ou une mesure qui serait incompatible avec une mesure

prise par ses autorités par rapport à ces biens.



2. La réserve pourra être restreinte à certaines catégories de

biens.



Article 56



Le Secrétaire général de la Conférence de La Haye de

droit international privé convoque périodiquement une

Commission spéciale d ' le fonctionnement pratique increase its examiner

de la Convention.



CHAPITRE VII



CLAUSES FINALES



Article 57



1. La Convention est ouverte à la signature des Etats

qui étaient Principles de la Conférence de La Haye de droit

international privé lors de sa Dix-huitième session.



2. Elle sera ratifiée, acceptée ou approuvée et les instruments

the ratification, acceptation ou d ' approbation seront déposés

auprès du Ministère des Affaires Etrangères du Royaume des

Pays-Bas, dépositaire de la Convention. Article 58 1. Tout

Autre Etat pourra adhérer à la Convention après son entrée en

vigueur en vertu de l'article 61, paragraphe 1.



2. L ' adhésion auprès d ' sera déposé instruments du dépositaire.



3. L ' adhésion n ' aura d ' effet que dans les rapports entre l'Etat

adhérant et les Etats contractants qui n ' auront pas élevé

d ' objection à son encontre dans les six mois après la réception

de la notification à l'article 63 Prevue, lettre b). Une telle

objection pourra également être élevée par tout État au moment

d'une ratification, acceptation ou approbation de la

Convention, ultérieure à l ' adhésion. CES objections seront

notifiées au dépositaire.



Article 59



1. Un Etat qui comprend deux ou plusieurs unités

territoriales dans lesquelles des différents systèmes de droit

s ' appliquent aux matières régies par la présente Convention

pourra, au moment de la signature, de la ratification, the

l ' acceptation ou approbation, de de l ' adhésion, déclarer que

La Convention s ' appliquera à toutes ses unités territoriales ou

seulement à l'une ou à plusieurs d ' entre elles, et pourra à

tout moment modifier cette déclaration en faisant une nouvelle

Déclaration.



2. Ces déclarations "seront notifiées au dépositaire et

indiqueront expressément les unités territoriales auxquelles la

Convention s ' applique.



3. Si un État ne fait pas de déclaration en vertu du présent

Article, la Convention s ' appliquera à l ' ensemble du territoire

de cet État.



Article 60



1. Tout État contractant pourra, au plus tard au

moments de la ratification, de l ' acceptation, de approbation

ou de l ' adhésion, ou au moment d ' une déclaration promote your a vertu

de l'article 59, faire soit l'une, soit les deux réserves

prévues aux articles 54, paragraphe 2, et 55. Aucune autre

Réserve ne sera admise.



2. Tout État pourra, à tout moment, retirer une réserve qu'il

promote your aura. CE retrait sera notifié au dépositaire. 3. L ' effet

de la réserve cessera le premier jour du mois du French

calendrier après la notification mentionnée au paragraphe

précédent.



Article 61



1. La Convention entrera en vigueur le premier jour du mois

Suivant l ' expiration d'une période de trois mois après le dépôt

You French instrument de ratification, acceptation ou d '

d ' approbation prévu par l'article 57.



2. Par la suite, la Convention entrera en vigueur:



a) pour chaque Etat ratifiant, approuvant ou acceptant.

postérieurement, le premier jour du mois suivant l ' expiration

d'une période de trois mois après le dépôt de son instrument de

ratification, acceptation ou approbation d ' d ' d ' adhésion,;



b) pour chaque Etat adhérant, le premier jour du mois suivant

l ' expiration d'une période de trois mois après l ' expiration you

"Délai de six mois prévu à l'article 58, paragraphe 3;



c) pour les unités territoriales auxquelles la Convention a été

étendue conformément à l'article 59, le premier jour du mois

Suivant l ' expiration d'une période de trois mois après la

notification visée dans cet article.



Article 62



1. Tout État Partie pourra à dénoncer la Convention

Celle-ci par une notification adressée par écrit au

dépositaire. La dénonciation pourra se limiter à certaines

unités territoriales auxquelles s ' applique la Convention.



2. La dénonciation prendra effet le premier jour du mois

Suivant l ' expiration d'une période de douze mois après la date

de réception de la notification par le dépositaire. Lorsqu ' une

Période plus longue pour la prise d ' effet de la dénonciation

EST spécifiée dans la notification, la dénonciation prendra

Effet de la période à l ' expiration a question.



Article 63



Le dépositaire notify aux Etats principles de la

Conférence de La Haye de droit international privé, ainsi

Qu ' aux Etats qui auront adhéré conformément aux outline the

l'article 58:



(a) signatures, ratifications), les acceptations et approbations

visées à l'article 57;



b) les adhésions et les adhésions visées aux objections à

l'article 58;



c la date à laquelle) la Convention entrera en vigueur

conformément aux disposition de l'article 61;



d) les déclarations "mentionnées aux articles 34, paragraphe 2,

et 59;



e) les accord mentionnés à l'article 39;



f) les réserves visées

aux articles 54, paragraphe 2, et 55 et le retrait des réserves

prévu à l'article 60, paragraphe 2;



g) les dénonciations visées à l'article 62.



En foi de quoi, les soussignés, dûment autorisés, ont signé la

présente Convention.



Fait à La Haye, le 19 octobre 1996, a

Français et en anglais, les deux textes faisant également foi,

a un seul exemplaire qui sera déposé, dans les archives du

Gouvernement du Royaume des Pays-Bas et dont une copie

certifiée conforme sera remise, par la voie diplomatique, à

chacun des Etats principles de la Conférence de La Haye de droit

international privé lors de la Dix-huitième session.



CONVENTION ON JURISDICTION, APPLICABLE LAW, RECOGNITION,

ENFORCEMENT AND COOPERATION IN RESPECT OF PARENTAL

RESPONSIBILITY AND MEASURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF CHILDREN



(Concluded 19 October 1996)



The States signatory to the present Convention,



Considering the need to improve the protection of children in

international situation,



Wishing to avoid conflicts between their legal systems in

respect of jurisdiction, applicable law, recognition and

enforcement of measures for the protection of children,



Recalling the importance of international co-operation for the

protection of children,



Confirming that the best interests of the child are to be a

primary consideration,



Noting that the Convention of 5 October 1961 concerning the

powers of authorities and the law applicable in respect of the

protection of minors is in need of revision,



Desiring to establish common provisions to this effect, taking

into account the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the

Child of 20 November 1989,



Have agreed on the following provisions – CHAPTER in the SCOPE OF

THE CONVENTION



Article 1



1. The objects of the present Convention are-



(a)) to determine the State whose authorities have jurisdiction

to take measures directed to the protection of the person or

property of the child;



(b)) to determine which law is to be applied by such authorities

in exercising their jurisdiction;



(c)) to determine the law applicable to parental responsibility;



(d)) to provide for the recognition and enforcement of such

measures of protection in all Contracting States;



e) to establish such cooperation between the authorities of the

Contracting States as may be necessary in order to achieve the

purposes of this Convention.



2. For the purposes of this Convention, the term ' parental

responsibility ' includes parental authority, or any analogous

relationship of authority determining the rights, powers and

responsibilities of parents, guardians or other legal

representatives in relation to the person or the property of

the child.



Article 2



The Convention applies to children from the moment of their

birth until they reach the age of 18 years.



Article 3



The measures referred to in Article 1 may deal in particular

the with-



a) the attribution, exercise, termination or restriction of

parental responsibility, as well as its delegation; b) rights

of custody, including rights relating to the care of the person

of the child and, in particular, the right to determine the

child's place of residence, as well as rights of access

including the right to take a child for a limited period of

time to a place other than the child's habitual residence;



c) guardians hip, curatorship and analogous institutions;



(d)) the designation and functions of any person or body having

charge of the child's person or property, representing or

assisting the child; e) the placement of the child in a foster

family or in institutional care, or the provision of care by


kafala or an analogous institution;



f) the supervision by a public authority of the care of a child

by any person having charge of the child; g) the administration,

conservation or disposal of the child's property.



Article 4



The Convention does not apply to:



(a)) the establishment or contesting of a parent-child

relationship;



b) decisions on adoption, measures preparatory to adoption, or

the annulment or revocation of adoption; c) the name and

forenames of the child;



d) emancipation;



e) maintenance bond;



f) trusts or succession;



g) social security;



h) public measures of a general nature in matters of education

or health;



in) measures taken as a result of penal offences committed by

the children;



j) decisions on the right of asylum and on immigration.



CHAPTER II JURISDICTION



Article 5



1. The judicial or administrative authorities of the

Contracting State of the habitual residence of the child have

jurisdiction to take measures directed to the protection of the

child's person or property.



2. Subject to Article 7, in case of a change of the child's

habitual residence to another Contracting State, the

authorities of the State of the new habitual residence have

jurisdiction.



Article 6



1. For refugee children and children who, due to disturbances

occurring in their country, are internationally displaced, the

authorities of the Contracting State on the territory of which

These children are present as a result of their displacement

have the jurisdiction provided for in paragraph 1 of Article 5.



2. The provisions of the preceding paragraph also apply to

children whose habitual residence cannot be established.



Article 7



1. In case of wrongful removal or retention of the child, the

authorities of the Contracting State in which the child was

habitually resident immediately before the removal or retention

keep their jurisdiction until the child has acquired a habitual

residence in another State, and a) each person, institution or

other body having rights of custody has acquiesced in the

removal or retention; or



(b)) the child has resided in that other State for a period of at

least one year after the person, institution or other body

having rights of custody has or should have had knowledge of

the whereabouts of the child, no request for return lodged

within that period is still pending, and the child is settled

in his or her new environment.



2. The removal or the retention of a child is to be considered

wrongful where-



a) it is in breach of rights of custody attributed to a person,

an institution or any other body, either jointly or alone,

under the law of the State in which the child was habitually

resident immediately before the removal or retention; and



(b)) at the time of removal or retention those rights were

actually exercised, either jointly or alone, or would have been

so exercised but for the removal or retention.



The rights of custody mentioned in subparagraph (a) above, may

arise in particular by operation of law or by reason of a

judicial or administrative decision, or by reason of an

agreement having legal effect under the law of that State.

3. So long as the authorities first mentioned in paragraph 1

keep their jurisdiction, the authorities of the Contracting

State to which the child has been removed or in which he or she

has been retained can take only such urgent measures under the

Article 11 as are necessary for the protection of the person or

property of the child.



Article 8



1. By way of exception, the authority of a Contracting State

having jurisdiction under Article 5 or Article 6, if it

considers that the authority of another Contracting State would

be better placed in the particular case to assess the best

interests of the child, may either



-request that other authority, directly or with the assistance

of the Central Authority of its State, to assume jurisdiction

to take such measures of protection as it considers to be

necessary, or



– suspend consideration of the case and invite the parties to

introduce such a request before the authority of that other

State.



2. The Contracting States whose authorities may be addressed as

provided in the preceding paragraph are: a) a State of which

the child is a national,



(b)) a State in which property of the child is located,



c) a State whose authorities are seised of an application for

divorce or legal separation of the child's parents, or for

annulment of their marriage,



d) a State with which the child has a substantial connection.



3. The authorities concerned may proceed to an exchange of

views.



4. The authority addressed as provided in paragraph 1 may

assume jurisdiction, in place of the authority having

jurisdiction under Article 5 or 6, if it considers that this is

in the child's best interests.



Article 9



1. If the authorities of a Contracting State referred to in

Article 8, paragraph 2, consider that they are better placed in

the particular case to assess the child's best interests, they

may either – request the competent authority of the Contracting

The State of the habitual residence of the child, directly or with

the assistance of the Central Authority of that State, that

they be authorised to exercise jurisdiction to take the

measures of protection which they consider to be necessary,

orinvite the parties to introduce such a request before the

authority of the Contracting State of the habitual residence of

the child.



2. The authorities concerned may proceed to an exchange of

views.



3. The authority initiating the request may exercise

jurisdiction in place of the authority of the Contracting State

of the habitual residence of the child only if the latter

Authority has accepted the request.



Article 10



1. Without prejudice to Articles 5 to 9, the authorities of a

Contracting State exercising jurisdiction to decide upon an

application for divorce or legal separation of the parents of a

the child habitually resident in another Contracting State, or for

annulment of their marriage, may, if the law of their State so

provides, take measures directed to the protection of the

person or property of such child if



a) at the time of commencement of the proceedings, one of his

or her parents habitually resides in that State and one of them

has parental responsibility in relation to the child, and



b) the jurisdiction of these authorities to take such measures

has been accepted by the parents, as well as by any other

person who has parental responsibility in relation to the

child, and is in the best interests of the child.



2. The jurisdiction provided for by paragraph 1 to take

measures for the protection of the child ceases as soon as the

the decision allowing or refusing the application for divorce,

legal separation or annulment of the marriage has become final,

or the proceedings have come to an end for another reason.



Article 11



1. In all cases of urgency, the authorities of any Contracting

State, in whose territory the child or property belonging to

the child is present have jurisdiction to take any necessary

measures of protection.



2. The measures taken under the preceding paragraph with regard

to a child habitually resident in a Contracting State shall

lapse as soon as the authorities which have jurisdiction under

Articles 5 to 10 have taken the measures required by the

situation.



3. The measures taken under paragraph 1 with regard to a child

who is habitually resident in a non-Contracting State shall

lapse in each Contracting State as soon as measures required by

the situation and taken by the authorities of another State are

recognised in the Contracting State in question.



Article 12



1. Subject to Article 7, the authorities of a Contracting State

in whose territory the child or property belonging to the child

is present have jurisdiction to take measures of a provisional

character for the protection of the person or property of the

the child which have a territorial effect limited to the State in

question, in so far as such measures are not incompatible with

measures already taken by authorities which have jurisdiction

under Articles 5 to 10.



2. The measures taken under the preceding paragraph with regard

to a child habitually resident in a Contracting State shall

lapse as soon as the authorities which have jurisdiction under

Articles 5 to 10 have taken a decision in respect of the

measures of protection which may be required by the situation.



3. The measures taken under paragraph 1 with regard to a child

who is habitually resident in a non-Contracting State shall

lapse in the Contracting State where the measures were taken as

soon as measures required by the situation and taken by the

authorities of another State are recognised in the Contracting

State in question.



Article 13



1. The authorities of a Contracting State which have

jurisdiction under Articles 5 to 10 to take measures for the

protection of the person or property of the child must abstain

from exercising this jurisdiction if, at the time of the

commencement of the proceedings, corresponding measures have

been requested from the authorities of another Contracting

State having jurisdiction under Articles 5 to 10 at the time of

the request and are still under consideration.



2. The provisions of the preceding paragraph shall not apply if

the authorities before whom the request for measures was

initially introduced have declined jurisdiction.



Article 14



The measures taken in application of Articles 5 to 10 remain in

force according to their terms, even if a change of

circumstances has eliminated the basis upon which jurisdiction

was founded, so long as the authorities which have jurisdiction

under the Convention have not modified, replaced or terminated "

such measures.




CHAPTER III



APPLICABLE LAW



Article 15



1. In exercising their jurisdiction under the provisions of

Chapter II, the authorities of the Contracting States shall

apply their own law.



2. However, in so far as the protection of the person or the

property of the child requires, they may exceptionally apply or

take into consideration the law of another State with which the

situation has a substantial connection.



3. If the child's habitual residence changes to another

Contracting State, the law of that other State governs, from

the time of the change, the conditions of application of the

measures taken in the State of the former habitual residence.



Article 16



1. The attribution or extinction of parental responsibility by

operation of law, without the intervention of a judicial or

administrative authority, is governed by the law of the State

of the habitual residence of the child.



2. The attribution or extinction of parental responsibility by

an agreement or a unilateral act, without intervention of a

the judicial or administrative authority, is governed by the law of

the State of the child's habitual residence at the time when

the agreement or unilateral act takes effect.



3. Parental responsibility which exists under the law of the

State of the child's habitual residence subsists after a change

of that habitual residence to another State.



4. If the child's habitual residence changes, the attribution

of parental responsibility by operation of law to a person who

does not already have such responsibility is governed by the

law of the State of the new habitual residence.



Article 17



The exercise of parental responsibility is governed by the law

of the State of the child's habitual residence. If the child's

habitual residence changes, it is governed by the law of the

State of the new habitual residence.



Article 18



The parental responsibility referred to in Article 16 may be

terminated, or the conditions of its exercise modified, by

measures taken under this Convention.



Article 19



1. The validity of a transaction entered into between a third

party and another person who would be entitled to act as the

the child's legal representative under the law of the State where

the transaction was concluded cannot be contested, and the

third party cannot be held liable, on the sole ground that the

the other person was not entitled to act as the child's legal

representative under the law designated by the provisions of

This Chapter, unless the third party knew or should have known

that the parental responsibility was governed by the latter

law.



2. The preceding paragraph applies only if the transaction was

entered into between persons present on the territory of the

same State.



Article 20



The provisions of this Chapter apply even if the law designated

by them is the law of a non-Contracting State.



Article 21



1. In this Chapter the term ' law ' means the law in force in a

State other than its choice of law rules.



2. However, if the law applicable according to Article 16 is

that of a non-Contracting State and if the choice of law rules

of that State designate the law of another non-Contracting

State which would apply its own law, the law of the latter

State applies. If that other non-Contracting State would not

apply its own law, the applicable law is that designated by

Article 16.



Article 22



The application of the law designated by the provisions of this

Chapter can be refused only if this application would be

manifestly contrary to public policy, taking into account the

best interests of the child. CHAPTER IV RECOGNITION AND

ENFORCEMENT



Article 23



1. The measures taken by the authorities of a Contracting State

shall be recognised by operation of law in all other

Contracting States.



2. Recognition may however be refused:



a) if the measure was taken by an authority whose jurisdiction

was not based on one of the grounds provided for in Chapter II;



(b)) if the measure was taken, except in a case of urgency, in

the context of a judicial or administrative proceeding, without

the child having been provided the opportunity to be heard, in

violation of fundamental principles of procedure of the

requested State;



c) on the request of any person claiming that the measure

infringes his or her parental responsibility, if such measure

was taken, except in a case of urgency, without such person

having been given an opportunity to be heard;



d) if such recognition is manifestly contrary to public policy

of the requested State, taking into account the best interests

of the child;



e) if the measure is incompatible with a later measure taken in

the non-Contracting State of the habitual residence of the

child, where this later measure fulfils the requirements for

recognition in the requested State;



f) if the procedure provided in Article 33 has not been

complied with.



Article 24



Without prejudice to Article 23, paragraph 1, any interested

person may request from the competent authorities of a

Contracting State that they decide on the recognition or non-

recognition of a measure taken in another Contracting State.

The procedure is governed by the law of the requested State.



Article 25



The authority of the requested State is bound by the findings

of fact on which the authority of the State where the measure

the was taken based its jurisdiction.



Article 26



1. If measures taken in one Contracting State and enforceable

There require enforcement in another Contracting State, they

shall, upon request by an interested party, be declared

enforceable or registered for the purpose of enforcement in

that other State according to the procedure provided in the law

of the latter State.



2. Each Contracting State shall apply to the declaration of

enforceability or registration a simple and rapid procedure.



3. The declaration of enforceability or registration may be

refused only for one of the reasons set out in Article 23,

paragraph 2.



Article 27



Without prejudice to such review as is necessary in the

application of the preceding Articles, there shall be no review

of the merits of the measure taken.



Article 28



Measures taken in one Contracting State and declared

enforceable, or registered for the purpose of enforcement, in

another Contracting State shall be enforced in the latter State

as if they had been taken by the authorities of that State.

Enforcement takes place in accordance with the law of the

requested State to the extent provided by such law, taking into

consideration the best interests of the child.



CHAPTER V CO-OPERATION



Article 29



1. A Contracting State shall designate a Central Authority to

discharge the duties which are imposed by the Convention on

such authorities.



2. Federal States, States with more than one system of law or

States having autonomous territorial units shall be free to

appoint more than one Central Authority and to specify the

the territorial or personal extent of their functions. Where (a)

The State has appointed more than one Central Authority, it shall

designate the Central Authority to which any communication may

be addressed for transmission to the appropriate Central

Authority within that State.



Article 30



1. The Central Authorities shall cooperate with each other and

promote cooperation amongst the competent authorities in their

States to achieve the purposes of the Convention.



2. They shall, in connection with the application of the

Convention, take appropriate steps to provide information as to

the laws of, and services available in, their States relating

to the protection of children.



Article 31



The Central Authority of a Contracting State, either directly

or through public authorities or other bodies, shall take all

appropriate steps to –



a) facilitate the communications and the victims assistance

provided for in Articles 8 and 9 and in this Chapter;



b) facilitate, by mediation, conciliation or similar means,

agreed solutions for the protection of the person or property

of the child in situations to which the Convention applies;



c) provide, on the request of a competent authority of another

Contracting State, assistance in discovering the whereabouts of

a child where it appears that the child may be present and in

need of protection within the territory of the requested State.



Article 32



On a request made with supporting reasons by the Central

Authority or other competent authority of any Contracting State

with which the child has a substantial connection, the Central

Authority of the Contracting State in which the child is

habitually resident and present may, directly or through public

authorities or other bodies,



a) provide a report on the situation of the child;



b) request the competent authority of its State to consider the

need to take measures for the protection of the person or

property of the child.



Article 33



1. If an authority having jurisdiction under Articles 5 to 10

contemplates the placement of the child in a foster family or

institutional care, or the provision of care by kafala or an

analogous institution, and if such placement or such provision

of care is to take place in another Contracting State, it shall

first consult with the Central Authority or other competent

authority of the latter State. To that effect it shall transmit

a report on the child together with the reasons for the

proposed placement or provision of care.



2. The decision on the placement or provision of care may be

made in the requesting State only if the Central Authority or

other competent authority of the requested State has consented

to the placement or provision of care, taking into account the

child's best interests.



Article 34



1. Where a measure of protection is contemplated, the competent


authorities under the Convention, if the situation of the child

so requires, may request any authority of another Contracting

State which has information relevant to the protection of the

the child to communicate such information.



2. A Contracting State may declare that requests under

paragraph 1 shall be communicated to its authorities only

through its Central Authority.



Article 35



1. The competent authorities of a Contracting State may request

the authorities of another Contracting State to assist in the

implementation of measures of protection taken under this

Convention, especially in securing the effective exercise of

rights of access as well as of the right to maintain direct

contacts on a regular basis.



2. The authorities of a Contracting State in which the child

does not habitually reside may, on the request of a parent

residing in that State who is seeking to obtain or to maintain

access to the child, gather information or evidence and may

make a finding on the suitability of that parent to exercise

access and on the conditions under which access is to be

exercised. An authority exercising jurisdiction under Articles

5 to 10 to determine an application concerning access to the

child, shall admit and consider such information, evidence and

finding before reaching its decision.



3. An authority having jurisdiction under Articles 5 to 10 to

decide on access may adjourn a proceeding pending the outcome

of a request made under paragraph 2, in particular, when it is

considering an application to restrict or terminate access

rights granted in the State of the child's former habitual

residence.



4. Nothing in this Article shall prevent an authority having

jurisdiction under Articles 5 to 10 from taking provisional

measures pending the outcome of the request made under the

paragraph 2.



Article 36



In any case where the child is exposed to a serious danger, the

competent authorities of the Contracting State where measures

for the protection of the child have been taken or are under

consideration, if they are informed that the child's residence

has changed to, or that the child is present in another State,

shall inform the authorities of that other State about the

danger involved and the measures taken or under consideration.



Article 37



An authority shall not request or transmit any information

under this Chapter if to do so would, in its opinion, be likely

to place the child's person or property in danger, or

constitute a serious threat to the liberty or life of a member

of the child's family.



Article 38



1. Without prejudice to the possibility of imposing reasonable

charges for the provision of services, Central Authorities and

other public authorities of Contracting States shall bear their

own costs in applying the provisions of this Chapter.



2. Any Contracting State may enter into agreements with one or

more other Contracting States concerning the allocation of

charges.



Article 39



Any Contracting State may enter into agreements with one or

more other Contracting States with a view to improving the

application of this Chapter in their mutual relations. The

States which have concluded such an agreement shall transmit a

copy to the depositary of the Convention.



CHAPTER VI GENERAL PROVISIONS



Article 40



1. The authorities of the Contracting State of the child's

habitual residence, or of the Contracting State where a measure

of protection has been taken, may deliver to the person having

parental responsibility or to the person entrusted with

protection of the child's person or property, at his or her

request, a certificate indicating the capacity in which that

person is entitled to act and the powers conferred upon him or

her.



2. The capacity and powers indicated in the certificate are

presumed to be vested in that person, in the absence of proof

to the contrary.



3. Each Contracting State shall designate the authorities

competent to draw up the certificate.



Article 41



Personal data gathered or transmitted under the Convention

shall be used only for the purposes for which they were

gathered or transmitted.



Article 42



The authorities to whom information is transmitted shall ensure

its confidentiality, in accordance with the law of their State.



Article 43



All documents forwarded or delivered under this Convention

shall be exempt from legalisation or any analogous formality.



Article 44



Each Contracting State may designate the authorities to which

requests under Articles 8, 9 and 33 are to be addressed.



Article 45



1. The designations referred to in Articles 29 and 44 shall be

communicated to the Permanent Bureau of the Hague Conference on

Private International Law.



2. The declaration referred to in Article 34, paragraph 2,

shall be made to the depositary of the Convention. Article 46 (A)

Contracting State in which different systems of law or sets of

rules of law apply to the protection of the child and his or

her property shall not be bound to apply the rules of the

Convention to conflicts solely between such different systems

or sets of rules of law.



Article 47



In relation to a State in which two or more systems of law or

sets of rules of law with regard to any matter dealt with in

This Convention apply in different territorial units-



1. any reference to habitual residence in that State shall be

construed as referring to habitual residence in a territorial

Unit;



2. any reference to the presence of the child in that State

shall be construed as referring to presence in a territorial

Unit;



3. any reference to the location of property of the child in

that State shall be construed as referring to location of

property of the child in a territorial unit;



4. any reference to the State of which the child is a national

shall be construed as referring to the territorial unit

designated by the law of that State or, in the absence of

relevant rules, to the territorial unit with which the child

has the closest connection;



5. any reference to the State whose authorities are seised of

an application for divorce or legal separation of the child's

parents, or for annulment of their marriage, shall be construed

as referring to the territorial unit whose authorities are

seised of such application;



6. any reference to the State with which the child has a

substantial connection shall be construed as referring to the

the territorial unit with which the child has such a connection;



7. any reference to the State to which the child has been

removed or in which he or she has been retained shall be

construed as referring to the relevant territorial unit to

which the child has been removed or in which he or she has been

retained;



8. any reference to bodies or authorities of that State, other

than Central Authorities, shall be construed as referring to

those authorised to act in the relevant territorial unit;



9. any reference to the law or procedure or authority of the

State in which a measure has been taken shall be construed as

referring to the law or procedure or authority of the

the territorial unit in which such measure was taken; 10. any

reference to the law or procedure or authority of the requested

State shall be construed as referring to the law or procedure

or authority of the territorial unit in which recognition or

enforcement is sought.



Article 48



For the purpose of identifying the applicable law under Chapter

III, in relation to a State which beginning two or more

territorial units each of which has its own system of law or

set of rules of law in respect of matters covered by this

Convention, the following rules apply –



a) if there are rules in force in such a State identifying

which territorial unit's law is applicable, the law of that

Unit applies;



b) in the absence of such rules, the law of the relevant

territorial unit as defined in Article 47 applies.



Article 49



For the purpose of identifying the applicable law under Chapter

III, in relation to a State which has two or more systems of

law or sets of rules of law applicable to different categories

of persons in respect of matters covered by this Convention,

the following rules apply –



a) if there are rules in force in such a State identifying

which among such laws applies, that law applies;



b) in the absence of such rules, the law of the system or the

set of rules of law with which the child has the closest

connection applies.



Article 50



This Convention shall not affect the application of the

Convention of 25 October 1980 on the Civil Aspects of

International Child Abduction, as between Parties to both

Conventions. Nothing, however, precludes provisions of this

Convention from being invoked for the purposes of obtaining the

return of a child who has been wrongfully removed or retained

or of organising access rights. Article 51 In relations between

the Contracting States, this Convention replaces the Convention

of 5 October 1961 concerning the powers of authorities and the

the law applicable in respect of the protection of minors, and the

Convention governing the guardians hip of minors, signed at The

Hague 12 June 1902, without prejudice to the recognition of

measures taken under the Convention of 5 October 1961 mentioned

above.



Article 52



1. This Convention does not affect any international instrument

to which Contracting States are Parties and which contains

provisions on matters governed by the Convention, unless a

contrary declaration is made by the States, Parties to such

instruments.



2. This Convention does not affect the possibility for one or

more Contracting States to conclude agreements which contain,

in respect of children habitually resident in any of the States

Parties to such agreements, provisions on matters governed by

This Convention.




3. Agreements to be concluded by one or more Contracting States

on matters within the scope of this Convention do not affect,

in the relationship of such States with other Contracting

States, the application of the provisions of this Convention.



4. The preceding paragraphs also apply to uniform laws based on

special ties of a regional or other nature between the States

concerned.



Article 53



1. The Convention shall apply to measures only if they are

taken in a State after the Convention has entered into force

for that State.



2. The Convention shall apply to the recognition and

enforcement of measures taken after its entry into force as

between the State where the measures have been taken and the

requested State.



Article 54



1. Any communication sent to the Central Authority or to

another authority of a Contracting State shall be in the

the original language, and shall be accompanied by a translation

into the official language or one of the official languages of

the other State or, where that is not feasible, a translation

into French or English.



2. However, a Contracting State may, by making a reservation in

accordance with Article 60, object to the use of either French

or English, but not both.



Article 55



1. A Contracting State may, in accordance with Article 60,



a) reserve the jurisdiction of its authorities to take measures

directed to the protection of property of a child situated on

its territory;



b) reserve the right not to recognise any parental

responsibility or measure in so far as it is incompatible with

any measure taken by its authorities in relation to that

property.



2. The reservation may be restricted to certain categories of

property.



Article 56



The Secretary General of the Hague Conference on Private

International Law shall at regular intervals convoke a Special

Commission in order to review the practical operation of the

Convention.



CHAPTER VII



FINAL CLAUSES



Article 57



1. The Convention shall be open for signature by the States

which were Members of the Hague Conference on Private

International Law at the time of its Eighteenth Session.



2. It shall be ratified, accepted or approved and the

instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be

deposited with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom

of the Netherlands, depositary of the Convention.



Article 58



1. Any other State may accede to the Convention after it has

entered into force in accordance with Article 61, paragraph 1.



2. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the

depositary.



3. Such accession shall have effect only as regards the

relations between the acceding State and those Contracting

States which have not raised an objection to its accession in

the six months after the receipt of the notification referred

to in sub-paragraph b of Article 63. Such an objection may also

be raised by States at the time when they ratify, accept or

approve the Convention after an accession. Any such objection

shall be notified to the depositary.

Article 59



1. If a State has two or more territorial units in which

different systems of law are applicable in relation to matters

dealt with in this Convention, it may at the time of signature,

ratification, acceptance, approval or accession declare that

the Convention shall extend to all its territorial units or

only to one or more of them and may modify this declaration by

submitting another declaration at any time.



2. Any such declaration shall be notified to the depositary and

shall state expressly the territorial units to which the

Convention applies.



3. If a State makes no declaration under this Article, the

The Convention is to extend to all territorial units of that State.



Article 60



1. Any State may, not later than the time of ratification,

acceptance, approval or accession, or at the time of making a

the Declaration in terms of Article 59, make one or both of the

the reservation provided for in Articles 54, paragraph 2, and 55.

No other reservation shall be permitted.



2. Any State may at any time withdraw a reservation it has

made. The withdrawal shall be notified to the depositary.



3. The reservation shall cease to have effect on the first day

of the third calendar month after the notification referred to

in the preceding paragraph.



Article 61



1. The Convention shall enter into force on the first day of

the month following the expiration of three months after the

deposit of the third instrument of ratification, acceptance or

the approval referred to in Article 57.



2. Thereafter the Convention shall enter into force-



(a) for each State ratifying), accepting or approving it

subsequently, on the first day of the month following the

expiration of three months after the deposit of its instrument

of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;



b for each State acceding,) on the first day of the month

following the expiration of three months after the expiration

of the period of six months provided in Article 58, paragraph

3;



(c)) for a territorial unit to which the Convention has been

extended in conformity with Article 59, on the first day of the

month following the expiration of three months after the

notification referred to in that Article.



Article 62



1. A State Party to the Convention may denounce it by a

notification in writing addressed to the depositary. The

denunciation may be limited to certain territorial units to

which the Convention applies.



2. The denunciation takes effect on the first day of the month

following the expiration of twelve months after the

notification is received by the depositary. Where a longer

period for the denunciation to take effect is specified in the

notification, the denunciation takes effect upon the expiration

of such longer period.



Article 63



The depositary shall notify the States Members of the Hague

Conference on Private International Law and the States which

have acceded in accordance with Article 58 of the following –



(a) signatures, ratifications,) the acceptances and approvals

referred to in Article 57;



(b)) the objections raised to the accession and the accession referred

to in Article 58;



c) the date on which the Convention enters into force in

accordance with Article 61;



d) the declarations referred to in Articles 34, paragraph 2,

and 59;



e) the agreements referred to in Article 39;



f) the reservations referred to in Articles 54, paragraph 2,

and 55 and the withdrawals referred to in Article 60, paragraph

2;



g) the denunciations referred to in Article 62.



In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised

thereto, have signed this Convention.



Done at The Hague, on the 19th day of October 1996, in the

The English and French languages, both texts being equally

authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the

the archives of the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands,

and of which a certified copy shall be sent, through diplomatic

channels, to each of the States Members of the Hague Conference

on Private International Law at the date of its Eighteenth

Session.



CONVENTION ON JURISDICTION, APPLICABLE LAW, RECOGNITION,

ENFORCEMENT AND COOPERATION IN RESPECT OF PARENTAL RESPONSIBILITY AND

MEASURES FOR THE PROTECTION OF CHILDREN



(Concluded on 19 October 1996) The States that have signed the

This Convention, taking into account the need to improve the protection of

children in international situations, avoiding

conflicts between their legal systems with regard to jurisdiction,

applicable law, recognition and enforcement in the context of

measures for the protection of children, recalling the importance of the

international cooperation for the protection of children, which confirms

to the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration,



Noting that the Convention of 5 October 1961 concerning the

the powers of authorities and the law applicable in respect of the protection

for minors need to be revised, who wish to establish

common rules for this purpose, with regard to the

The United Nations Convention on the rights of the child

20 november 1989, has agreed on the following provisions.



CHAPTER I SCOPE OF THE CONVENTION



Article 1



1. the purpose of this Convention are:



(a)) to determine the State whose authorities have jurisdiction to

take action for the protection of the child's person or property.



(b)), to determine which law those authorities shall apply

in the exercise of its jurisdiction. c) to determine which law

applicable to parental responsibility.



(d)) to provide for the recognition and enforcement of such

measures of protection in all Contracting States.



e) to establish such co-operation between the authorities of the

Contracting States are required to achieve this

the Convention objectives.



2. for the purposes of this Convention, the concept of "parental responsibility"

custody or any similar relationship determine parents ',

legal guardians or other legal representatives ' rights,

powers and responsibilities in relation to the child's personal

or property.



Article 2



The Convention applies to children from birth until the

they have reached the age of 18.



Article 3 the measures referred to in article 1, in particular

apply



a) the attribution, exercise, or termination of

parental responsibility as well as delegation of same,



b) custody, including rights relating to

care of the person of a child, and in particular the right to

determine the child's place of residence, as well as access rights, including the right

for a limited time take the child to a place other than

the habitual residence of the child,



c) guardianship, curatorship and analogous institutions;



(d)) the designation and functions of any person or body

who will be responsible for the child's person or property, representing

or assisting the child;




e) placement of the child in a foster family or in institutional care;

or care of a child by kafala or similar

institutions,



f) supervision by a public authority of the care

the child, of a person who has responsibility for the child,



g) Administration, conservation or disposal of the child's

property.



Article 4



This Convention shall not apply to



(a)) the establishment or contestation of parenthood,



b) decisions on adoption, measures preparatory to

adoption, annulment or revocation of adoption;



c) the name and forenames of the child;



d) emancipation,



e) maintenance obligations;



f) trusts or succession;



g) social security,



h) public measures of a general nature for

education and health,



in) measures taken as a result of criminal offences

committed by children,



j) decisions on the right of asylum and immigration.



CHAPTER II JURISDICTION



Article 5



1. the judicial or administrative authorities of the

Contracting State of the child's place of residence shall be competent

to take measures aimed at the protection of the child's personal

or property.



2. subject to article 7, where the child receives a new

domiciled in another Contracting State, the authorities of the

new State of residence have jurisdiction.



Article 6



1. With regard to refugee children and children who, due to

unrest in his country have been driven out of this to

the authorities of the Contracting State in which these children have

the move to have the jurisdiction laid down in article 5(1).



2. the provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to children whose

habitual residence cannot be established.



Article 7



1. In case of wrongful removal or retention of a

child, the authorities of the Contracting State where the child

was habitually resident immediately before the removal or retention

retain their jurisdiction until the child has acquired habitual residence in a

other State, and



a) each person, institution or other body having rights of custody

If the child has accepted the removal or retention, or



(b)) the child has resided in that other State for at least one year

After the person, institution or other

bodies with rights of custody has had or should have had

knowledge of the whereabouts of the child, no request for

return lodged within that period is waiting for

crucial, and the child is settled in his new

environment.



2. a child's removal or retention shall

be considered as wrongful if it



(a)) is contrary to the custody of a child entrusted to a person, a

institution or any other body, either jointly or

separately, under the law of the State where the child was habitually resident

immediately before the removal or retention, and



b) this right really was exercised, either jointly or

themselves, at the time when the child was abducted or detained

or would have been so exercised but for the removal or not

the detention had taken place. Custody as referred to in (a), in the first

hand occur directly by operation of law or by a judicial

or administrative decision, or by an agreement

with legal effect under the law of the State.



3. As long as the authorities referred to in paragraph 1 have left their

permission, the authorities of the Contracting State in which the

the child has been or where it has been retained only take

such measures in urgent cases referred to in article 11 which is

necessary for the protection of the child's person or property.



Article 8



1. By way of exception, the authority of a Contracting

State having jurisdiction under article 5 or 6, if it considers that

authority of another Contracting State in the Special

the case is better placed to judge what is in the child's

best, either



– request, directly or with the assistance of the central authority, that

the other authority shall undertake to take

such protective measures as it considers necessary, or



– allow the conduct of the rest and give the parties

opportunity to submit such a request to the authority

in the other State.



2. the Contracting States whose authorities a

representation in accordance with paragraph 1 may be addressed are



(a)) a State in which the child is a citizen,



(b)) a State in which property of the child is located,



c) a State whose Government action is brought about

divorce or legal separation or marriage annulment

marriage between the child's parents,



d) a State to which the child has a substantial connection.



3. The authorities concerned must consult among themselves in

the question.



4. The authority to which a request has been made in

accordance with paragraph 1 may assume jurisdiction, in place of

the authority having jurisdiction under article 5 or 6, if it

requested authority considers that this is in the best interests of the child.



Article 9



1. where the authorities of a Contracting State referred to in

Article 8(2), consider that they are in the specific case is better

placed to judge what is in the best interests of the child, the

either



– request, directly or with the assistance of the central authority, that

the competent authority of the Contracting State in which the

the child's place of residence shall authorize them to exercise jurisdiction for the

to take the measures of protection they consider necessary, or



– give the parties the opportunity to submit such a request

to the authority of the Contracting State where the child has

resident.



2. competent authorities may consult among themselves in

the question.



3. the authority which provided the representation may exercise

jurisdiction in place of the authority of the Contracting

State of the habitual residence of the child only if the latter

the authority has granted the petition.



Article 10



1. without prejudice to articles 5 to 9,

the authorities of a Contracting State in which the application is

busy to trial for divorce or legal separation

or the annulment of a marriage between the parents of a

child who is habitually resident in another Contracting State, if

the law of their State so provides, take measures intended to

protect such child's person or property if



(a)) of the child's parents at the time of the procedure

begins residence in the State and one of them has

parental responsibility for the child, and



(b)) these powers of authorities to take such measures has

accepted by the parents and of any other persons who

parental responsibility for the child, and this is in the child's

the best.



2. The privileges specified in paragraph 1 to take measures for

the protection of the child ceases as soon as the decision to grant

or reject the application for divorce, legal separation or

marriage annulment has become final or the

the procedure has been terminated for any other reason.



Article 11



1. In all cases of urgency, the authorities of each

Contracting State in whose territory the child or property

belonging to the child is present have jurisdiction to take any necessary

protection measures.



2. The measures taken under paragraph 1 with regard to a

child who is habitually resident in a Contracting State shall cease

to apply as soon as the authorities which have jurisdiction under

articles 5 to 10 have taken the measures required by the situation

requires.



3. The measures taken under paragraph 1 with regard to a

child who is habitually resident in a non-Contracting State,

cease to have effect in each Contracting State as soon as they

measures as the situation requires and taken by another

State authorities are recognised in the Contracting State in

issue.



Article 12



1. subject to article 7, the authorities of a

Contracting State in whose territory the child or property

belonging to the child is present have jurisdiction to take provisional

measures for the protection of the child's person or property, with

territorial effect only in the State in question, provided that the measures

are not incompatible with measures already taken by the

authorities which have jurisdiction under articles 5 to 10. 2.

measures taken under paragraph 1 with regard to a child with

a resident of a Contracting State shall lapse as

soon the authorities which have jurisdiction under articles 5 to 10

has taken a decision in respect of the protective measures which the situation

may require.



3. The measures taken under paragraph 1 with regard to a

children resident in a non-Contracting State shall lapse

in force in the Contracting State where measures were adopted,

as soon as the measures as the situation requires and taken by

the authorities of another State are recognised in the Contracting

the State in question.



Article 13



1. the authorities of a Contracting State in accordance with

articles 5, 6 and 10 are competent to take measures for the protection of

the child's person or property shall abstain from exercising his

jurisdiction if, at the time when the proceedings are opened,

corresponding measures have been requested and is still being considered in

the authorities of another Contracting State which, at the

the time of the request is authorized in accordance with articles 5 to 10.



2. paragraph 1 shall not apply if the

authorities to whom the request for measures

originally was directed has renounced jurisdiction.



Article 14



The measures taken pursuant to articles 5 to 10 shall apply

According to their terms, even if the basis for jurisdiction have

by changing conditions, so long as the authorities

jurisdiction under the Convention have not modified, replaced

or repealed measures.



CHAPTER III



APPLICABLE LAW



Article 15



1. The authorities of the Contracting States shall apply


their own law in the exercise of its jurisdiction under the

the provisions of chapter II.



2. The authorities of the Contracting States may

However, in so far as the protection of the child's person or

property requires this, exceptionally apply or take into consideration the law

in a State with which the situation has a substantial

affiliation.



3. If the child gets a new habitual residence in another Contracting

State, the State law from the date of

the change will determine the conditions of application of the measures

taken in the State of the child's former habitual residence.



Article 16



1. The attribution or extinction of parental responsibility directly on

by operation of law, without the intervention of a judicial or

administrative authority shall be determined by the law of the State where the

the child is habitually resident.



2. The attribution or extinction of parental responsibility by an

agreement or a unilateral act, without intervention

by a judicial or administrative authority shall be determined by

the law of the State where the child is habitually resident at the time the

the agreement or unilateral act may

effect.



3. Parental responsibility which exists under the law of the State where the

the child's habitual residence is composed by a change of domicile to the

another State.



4. If the child gets a new habitual residence, the attribution of

parental responsibility directly by operation of law to a person who is not

already have parental responsibility be determined by the new State of residence

team.



Article 17



The exercise of parental responsibility shall be determined by the law of the

State where the child is habitually resident. Where a child's habitual residence changes, the

the exercise of parental responsibility be determined by the new

resident State law.



Article 18



The parental responsibility referred to in article 16 may be suspended or

conditions for the exercise of parental responsibilities may be amended by

measures taken under this Convention.



Article 19



1. The validity of a legal transaction carried out between

third party and another person who under the law of the State where the

This Act is done is empowered to act as the child's

legal representatives must not be attacked, and third parties can not

be held liable on the sole ground that the other person does not

was competent to act as the child's legal representative under

the law specified in this chapter, unless

not the third party knew or ought to have known that

parental authority is regulated in the Act.



2. paragraph 1 shall apply only if the Act is done

between people who were in the same State.



Article 20



The provisions of this chapter shall apply even if the law

as indicated by these provisions is a non-

Contracting State law.



Article 21



1. With the "law" referred to in this chapter, the applicable law of a

State, except for its conflict of law rules.



2. If the law applicable according to article 16 is a non-

Contracting State and if the State's conflict-of-laws rules

designate the law of another non-Contracting State which would

apply its own law, the law of that State shall, however, apply.

If the other non-Contracting State would not apply

their own law, the law designated by article

16.



Article 22



The law designated by the provisions of this chapter shall

be overridden only if the application is manifestly incompatible with the

public policy, taking into account

the best interests of the child.



CHAPTER IV RECOGNITION AND ENFORCEMENT



Article 23



1. the measures taken by a State party

authorities should be recognised directly by operation of law in all

the other Contracting States. 2. recognition may however be refused



a) if the action has been taken by an authority whose competence

was not based on any of the circumstances set out in

Chapter II,



b) if the action in violation of fundamental rules of procedure in

the requested State has been taken within the framework of a judicial

or administrative procedure but that the child has a

opportunity to be heard, unless it is a

urgent cases,



c) If a person requests it and argue that the measure prevents

him or her to exercise his or her parental responsibility, if the action

have been taken without the person in question has been given an opportunity to

comment, unless it is a matter of urgency,



d) if such recognition is manifestly contrary to the

public policy in the State addressed, with

taking into account the best interests of the child;



e) if the measure is incompatible with a later measure

taken in the non-Contracting State where the child has

the resident, if the later measure fulfils the requirements for

recognition in the requested State,



f) if the procedure provided for in article 33 has not been complied with.



Article 24



Without prejudice to article 23(1), any

interested party may request the competent authorities of a

Contracting State decide on the recognition or non-

recognition of a measure taken in another

Contracting State Procedure shall be governed in the requested

State law.



Article 25



Authority of the requested State shall be bound by

the assessment of the facts on which the authority

in the State where the measure was taken based its jurisdiction.



Article 26



1. If measures taken in one Contracting State and is

enforceable in the State require enforcement in another

Contracting State, measures at the request of an interested

party, be declared enforceable or registered for

enforcement in the other Contracting State in accordance

with the procedure laid down in the State law.



2. each Contracting State shall apply a simple and

fast procedure for declaration of enforceability or

the registration.



3. the Declaration of enforceability or registration may

may be refused only on any of the grounds specified in article 23(2).



Article 27



No review as to the substance of the measure adopted may take place,

subject to the review that is necessary to

apply the previous articles.



Article 28



Measures taken in one Contracting State and

declared enforceable or registered for enforcement

in another Contracting State shall be enforced in the latter

State as if they had been taken by the authorities there.

Enforcement shall take place in accordance with the law of the requested State

with the limitations laid down there, and taking account of the

the best interests of the child.



CHAPTER V CO-OPERATION Article 29



1. each Contracting State shall designate a central authority

who will have the task to perform the obligations which the

imposed upon such authorities under this Convention. 2. Federal

States, States with more than one system of law or States having

autonomous territorial units may designate more than one

Central Authority and to specify the territorial or the

personal scope of their powers. If a State has

appointed more than one central authority, it shall specify the

the central authority to which messages may be sent for

forwarding to the competent central authority of that State.



Article 30



1. The Central authorities shall cooperate with each other and promote

cooperation between the competent authorities in their States to

to achieve the objectives of this Convention.



2. The Central authorities shall, in connection with the application of

the Convention shall take appropriate measures to provide

information on the laws and the services available in their

States for the protection of children.



Article 31



The central authority of a Contracting State shall, immediately

or by authorities or other bodies, shall take all appropriate

measures to



a) facilitate communication and provide the support that

provided for in articles 8 and 9 and in this chapter;



b) through mediation, conciliation or similar actions

facilitate consensual solutions to the protection of the child's personal

or property in situations covered by the Convention,



c) at the request of a competent authority in another

Contracting State provide to find out where a child

is, if it can be assumed that the child is present and

need protection on the territory of the requested State.



Article 32



Upon a reasoned request from the central authority or other

competent authority of a Contracting State to which the

the child has a material connection, the central authority of the

Contracting State in which the child is habitually resident and is,

directly or through the authorities or other bodies,



a) report on the situation of the child;



b) request that the competent authority of its State to consider

whether measures need to be taken for the protection of the child's personal

or property.



Article 33



1. If an authority having jurisdiction under articles 5 to 10

consider placing the child in a foster family or in

institution, or provide care by kafala or similar

institution, and if such placement or management should take place in a

another Contracting State, it shall first consult the

Central Authority or other competent authority in this

State. to this end, it shall submit a report on the child

together with the reasons for the proposed placement

or health care.



2. the decision on the placement or if care be taken in the

requesting State only if the central authority or other

the competent authority of the requested State has consented to the

the placement or treatment having regard to the best interests of the child.



Article 34



1. When a safeguard measure is being considered, those under the Convention

competent authorities, if this is necessary with regard to the child's

situation, request any authority of another


a Contracting State which has information which is

relevant for the protection of the child submits such information.



2. A Contracting State may announce that petitions

referred to in paragraph 1 may be submitted to its authorities only through

the central authority.



Article 35



1. the competent authorities of a Contracting State may

request the authorities of another Contracting State

assists with the implementation of protective measures taken under

by this Convention, in particular in ensuring the

effective exercise of the right of access and right to maintain

regular, direct contact.



2. The authorities of a Contracting State in which the child

do not have place of residence may, at the request of a parent residing

in the State and wishing to receive or retain visitation rights with

the child, gather information or evidence and may make a statement

on the question whether it is appropriate to this parent exercises

visitation rights and the conditions under which such access would

able to be exercised. An authority exercising jurisdiction under

articles 5 to 10 in terms of visitation rights with the child shall take into account

such information, documents and statements when taking

his decision.



3. An authority in accordance with articles 5 to 10 have jurisdiction to

decide on access rights may let the matter rest pending

the result of a request in accordance with paragraph 2, especially if

It hears a request for limitation or revocation of the

access rights granted in the State where the child had previously

resident.



4. This article shall not prevent a competent authority

in accordance with articles 5 to 10 shall have the right to adopt interim

measures pending a request referred to in paragraph 2 must be answered.



Article 36



In the event that the child is exposed to a serious danger, the competent

the authorities of the Contracting State where measures for the

protection of the child have been taken or are under consideration – if they get

Notice that the child has changed residence to or

is in another State, shall inform the authorities of the

the State of the danger and of the measures taken or

is being considered.



Article 37



An authority shall not request or transmit information

pursuant to this chapter if, in the opinion of the Agency,

could endanger the child's person or property

or mean that the liberty or life of a member of

the child's family is seriously threatened.



Article 38



1. Without prejudice to the possibility to charge reasonable

fees for services, central authorities and other

authorities in the States parties bear their own costs

for the application of the provisions of this chapter.



2. each Contracting State may conclude agreements with

one or more other Contracting States concerning the allocation

of fees.



Article 39



Each Contracting State may conclude agreements with a

or more other Contracting States to mutually

improve the application of this chapter. States that have

concluded such an agreement shall transmit a copy to the

the Convention's depository.



CHAPTER VI GENERAL PROVISIONS



Article 40



1. The authorities of the Contracting State where the child has

domicile in the Contracting State where a measure of protection

taken may, at the request of the person who has

parental responsibility, or the person who will protect the child's

person or property, for that person, issue a certificate of the

what capacity the person is and what powers

the person has.



2. This person should, if nothing else can be shown, be deemed to be in

the property and have the powers set out in the certificate.



3. each Contracting State shall specify which authorities

is competent to issue the certificate.



Article 41



Personal data gathered or transmitted under the

the Convention shall be used only for the purposes for which the

gathered or transmitted.



Article 42



The authorities to which information submitted shall ensure

because they are confidential in accordance with the law

in this State.



Article 43



No legalisation or other similar formality shall be required

in the case of documents forwarded or delivered under

This Convention.



Article 44



Each Contracting State may designate the authorities to which

requests under articles 8, 9 and 33 are to be made.



Article 45



1. The Hague Conference on private international law permanent

Agency shall be notified of the authorities designated in accordance with

articles 29 and 44.



2. Declarations under article 34(2) shall be addressed to the

the Convention's depository.



Article 46



A Contracting State in respect of the protection of children and

their property has different legal systems or regulations shall not

be bound to apply this Convention to conflicts

solely between such different systems or regulatory framework.



Article 47



In relation to a State which in matters of this Convention has

two or more legal systems or regulatory framework applicable

within different territorial units shall



1. any reference to habitual residence in that State shall refer to habitual residence

in a territorial unit;



2. any reference to children is in this State

concern that children are in a territorial unit;



3. any reference to the property belonging to the child is

in this State, refer to that property belonging to the child is present in a

territorial unit,



4. any reference to the State in which the child is

citizens refer to the territorial unit specified in this

State law or, if the relevant rules, the

territorial unit to which the child has the closest connection;



5. any reference to the State whose authorities the

have submitted an application for divorce or

separation of the child's parents, or for annulment of

their marriage, refer to the territorial unit to which the

authorities that have submitted such an application,



6. any reference to the State to which the child has

material connection refer to the territorial unit to which the

the child has such connection;



7. any reference to the State to which the child is abducted

or in which the child is detained shall refer to the relevant

territorial unit to which the child is abducted or in

the child is detained;



8. any reference to bodies or authorities of that State,

but central authorities, refer to the bodies or agencies that

authorized to take measures within the relevant

territorial unit;



9. any reference to the law or procedure or authority

in the State in which an action has been taken refer to law or

procedure or authority of the territorial unit in

which such action has been taken,



10. any reference to the law of the requested State or

procedure or authority shall refer to the law or procedure or

authority of the territorial unit in which recognition

or enforcement requested.



Article 48



In determining the applicable law under Chapter III,

in relation to a State which comprises two or more territorial

devices, which each have their own system of law or

acquis in the field of this Convention includes,

the following rules apply:



a) If there are rules in force in such a State of

determined which territorial unit law applicable,

the law of that unit applies;



b) if there are no such rules, the law of the

the relevant territorial unit as defined in article 47 shall apply.



Article 49



In determining the applicable law under Chapter III,

in relation to a State which has two or more legal systems or

regulatory framework applicable to different categories of persons

in the field covered by this Convention, the following

rules are applied:



(a)) about it in such a State, the rules as to which of

These laws are applicable, the law applicable.



b) if there are no such rules, the legal system

or the regulatory framework applicable to which the child has the closest

affiliation.



Article 50



This Convention shall not affect the application of

Convention of 25 October 1980 on the civil aspects of

international child abduction in relations between

the parties to both conventions. There is not, however, prevent the

for the provisions of this Convention be invoked

repatriation of a child being abducted or illegally

detained or for organising access rights.



Article 51



In relations between the Contracting States to this

Convention to replace the Convention of 5 October 1961 concerning the

the powers of authorities and the law applicable in respect of the protection

for minors, and the Convention on guardianship of

Minors signed at the Hague 12 June 1902, without

prejudice to the recognition of measures taken under

the above-mentioned Convention of 5 October 1961.



Article 52



1. this Convention does not affect any international

instruments which the Contracting States are parties and

which contains provisions on matters governed by

the Convention, unless a contrary declaration made by the

States parties to such instrument.



2. this Convention does not affect the possibility for one or

more Contracting States to conclude agreements which

contains provisions concerning the matters governed by this

Convention in respect of children habitually resident in any of the

States that are parties to such agreements.



3. Agreements that may be concluded by one or more

Contracting States on matters within the scope of this

the scope of the Convention is without prejudice to the application

the provisions of this Convention in


the relationship between these States and other Contracting

States.



4. The preceding paragraphs shall also apply to

uniform laws based on special ties of

regional or other nature between the States concerned.



Article 53



1. the Convention shall apply to measures only if they

taken in a State after the Convention has entered into force

for the State.



2. the Convention shall apply to the recognition and

enforcement of measures taken after it has

in force between the State where the measures have been taken and

the requested State.



Article 54



1. any communication sent to the central authority or

to another authority of a Contracting State shall be

written in the original language and must be accompanied by a translation

into the official language or one of the official languages

in the other State or, where it is difficult to obtain a

such a translation, a translation into French or

English.



2. A Contracting State may, by reservation in accordance

However, with article 60, object to the use of either

French or English, but not both.



Article 55



1. A Contracting State may, in accordance with article 60



a) reserving its authorities permission to take action

for the protection of property of a child situated on its

territory,



b) reserve the right not to recognize parental responsibility or

an action that runs counter to a measure that its authorities

taken with respect to the property.



2. The reservation may be limited to certain categories of

property.



Article 56



The Secretary General of the Hague Conference on private international

private law shall at regular intervals convene a

Special Commission to review the practical application

of this Convention.



CHAPTER VII



FINAL PROVISIONS



Article 57



1. the Convention shall be open for signature by the States

who were members of the Hague Conference on private international

private law at the time of its eighteenth session.



2. it shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval and

instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval

be deposited with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands,

who is the depositary of the Convention.



Article 58



1. any other State may accede to the Convention after the

its entry into force in accordance with article 61(1).



2. The instrument of accession shall be deposited with the depositary.



3. Accession shall take effect only as between the

acceding State and those Contracting States which have not

made any objection to the Association within six months after

the notification under article 63 (b) has been received. States

can make such a complaint even when after a connection

ratifies, accepts or approves the Convention. The depositary

shall be informed of any such objection.



Article 59



1. A Contracting State which consists of two or more

territorial units with different systems of law in matters

governed by this Convention, when signing,

ratification, acceptance, approval or accession

declare that the Convention shall extend to all its units or

only one or several of them, and may at any time change its

Declaration by making a new declaration.



2. the depositary shall be notified of any such explanation and

the Declaration, specifically provided for the territorial

units Convention shall apply.



3. If a State does not make any declaration under this

Article, the Convention shall extend to all its territorial

devices.



Article 60



1. any State may, at the latest upon ratification, acceptance,

approval or accession, or where a statement in accordance

with article 59 released report one or both of the reservations

referred to in article 54(2), and article 55. No other

reservation shall be permitted.



2. Each State may at any time withdraw a reservation which it

have notified. The depositary shall be notified of such

readmission.



3. The reservation shall cease to have effect on the first day of the

the third calendar month after the notification as

referred to in the preceding paragraph has been provided.



Article 61



1. the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month

following the expiration of three months after the

the third instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval

referred to in article 57.



2. Thereafter the Convention shall enter into force



(a)) in respect of each State which subsequently ratifies,

accepts or approves it, on the first day of the month

following the expiration of three months after the date of its

instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or

instrument of accession has been deposited,



(b)) in relation to each acceding State, on the first day

in the month following the expiration of three months after the

the end of the period of six months referred to in article

58(3),



(c)) in relation to a territorial unit to which the Convention

has been extended in accordance with article 59, the first

day of the month following the expiration of three months

After the notification referred to in that article.



Article 62



1. A State party to the Convention may denounce it by

a notification in writing addressed to the depositary.

The denunciation may be limited to certain territorial units

which the Convention applies.



2. denunciation shall take effect on the first day of the month

following the expiration of twelve months after the

the depositary has received the notification. When a longer

the period of notice specified in the notification, the denunciation effect

After the expiration of such longer period.



Article 63



The depositary shall notify the States members of the

The Hague Conference on private international law and the States

which have acceded in accordance with article 58 of



(a) signatures, ratifications) the, recognition and

authorisations referred to in article 57;



(b)) the connections and the objections made against

accessions referred to in article 58,



(c)) date of the entry into force of the Convention in accordance with article 61,



d) the declarations referred to in article 34(2) and article 59,



e) the agreements referred to in article 39,



f) the reservations referred to in article 54(2), and article 55

and the withdrawals referred to in article 60(2),



g) the denunciations referred to in article 62.



In witness whereof the undersigned, being

duly authorised, have signed this Convention.



Done at the Hague on 19 October 1996, in English and French

languages, both texts being equally authentic, in a single

copies to be deposited in the Kingdom of the Netherlands

Government archive, and of which a certified copy of the

diplomatic means shall be provided to each Member State of the

The Hague Conference on private international law at the time

for its eighteenth session.