Order Ecd / 1308/2015, Of 8 June, By Which The Characteristics And Organization Of The Intermediate Level Of Specialized Education Of Spanish As A Foreign Language In Official Language Schools Are Regulated Area Of ​​management ...

Original Language Title: Orden ECD/1308/2015, de 8 de junio, por la que se regulan las características y organización del nivel intermedio de las enseñanzas de régimen especial de español como lengua extranjera de las escuelas oficiales de idiomas del ámbito de gestión...

Read the untranslated law here: http://www.boe.es/buscar/doc.php?id=BOE-A-2015-7357

The Organic Law 2/2006 of May 3, Education, provides in Article 59.1 that the teachings of its specialized language will be organized at basic, intermediate and advanced. In application of that article, the Royal Decree 1629/2006, of 29 December, the basic aspects of the curriculum of language education special regime regulated by the Organic Law 2/2006 of 3 approved May, Education.

Article 3.2 of Royal Decree 1629/2006, of December 29, determines that the educational Administrations shall establish the respective curricula, of which form part, in any case, the minimum teachings set out in this royal decree.

The Order ECD / 1111/2014, of June 24, by which the characteristics and organization of the basic level of specialized education of Spanish as a foreign language in official language schools are regulated and Ceuta Melilla and the corresponding curriculum is established, regulated the characteristics and organization of the basic level and established the curriculum the teaching of that language.

Should therefore establish the curriculum corresponding to the specialized education of Spanish as a foreign language taught in official language schools in the field of management of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport intermediate level.

In the process of making this order has delivered an opinion the State Board of Education.

By virtue of this, I have:

Article 1. Scope.

This order shall apply to the teaching of languages ​​of special regime regulated by the Organic Law 2/2006 of 3 May, of Education, for the intermediate level of Spanish as a foreign language taught in the public schools language in the field of management of Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.

Article 2. Elements of the curriculum.

Curriculum elements consist of the objectives, content, skills, methodological guidelines and evaluation criteria set out in the Annex to this order.

Article 3. Organization and duration of the courses.

The teachings of intermediate level curriculum of Spanish as a foreign language regulated by this order will be organized in two courses of 120 hours each, which may be given in daily, alternating or intensive mode.

Article 4. teaching programs.

1. Educational departments develop coordination respective programming that will complement and develop the curriculum.

2. Schedules include, for each course:

A) The objectives and contents established, and the timing;

B) specific guidance on methodology and teaching materials;

C) the procedures and criteria for evaluation and promotion.

3. The program prepared by the relevant department must be approved by the faculty and made public in the official school of respective languages.

Article 5. Students with specific educational needs.

It shall apply to students requiring a different educational attention to the ordinary as indicated in Chapter II of Title I of Law 2/2006 of 3 May, of Education, in Articles 71 to 79a.

Article 6. Access.

1. They can access these language lessons persons who meet the requirements of current legislation.

2. The accreditation certificate of having passed the basic level of Spanish as a foreign language will allow access to the teachings of intermediate level of the language.

3. Diploma of Spanish as a Foreign Language (DELE) A2 level, regulated by Royal Decree 264/2008 of 22 December, amending Royal Decree 1137/2002, enabled to access the teaching of Spanish as a language foreign intermediate level.

4. Under the collaboration agreement between the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport and the National University of Distance Education for official recognition of diplomas Language issued by the UNED through the University Language Center Distance-CUID, diploma acreditativo have exceeded the level A2 Basic Spanish language Center of the University UNED will allow access to the teachings of intermediate level of the language.

5. They may also access any of the courses intermediate level of Spanish as a foreign language who, complying with the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article, can demonstrate sufficient mastery of skills in that language.


6. The department responsible for coordinating teaching these lessons may take into account, for the location of a new student in the corresponding course, skills in Spanish as a foreign language that claimed by students in their European Language Portfolio.

Item 7. Promotion and permanence.

1. Promoting a course to another within the intermediate level will require applicants to pass a test demonstrating achievement of the objectives set out in the relevant educational programming for that course. These tests will be organized by the relevant departments and their characteristics are homogeneous with those of other languages.

2. It corresponds to the official language schools academic certification of overcoming the courses mentioned above.

3. Students will have the right to classroom-based provision a maximum of four courses.

Article 8. Assessment.

The official language schools carry out different types of evaluation: classification, diagnosis, progress, development and certification. For each of these types of evaluation, the group of students to be targeted, the characteristics of the methods, tools and evaluation criteria and those responsible for the evaluation process will be indicated.

Article 9. Certification.

1. To obtain the certificate of intermediate level, they must pass specific tests that will be common to all forms of education in the official language schools in managing the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport.

2. The Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport regulate the development, call, management and evaluation of the tests referred to above.

3. The Provincial Directorates of the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport in Ceuta and Melilla and the official language schools make all the information on the evidence that concerns the students who will perform public.

4. Intermediate certificates shall be issued by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport on a proposal from the official language schools.

5. According to the recommendations of the Council of Europe for the use of the European Language Portfolio, students who do not obtain the certificate of intermediate level may be issued to them, at their request, an academic certification have acquired the command required in some of the skills assessed by the examinations, according to the conditions that the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport determine.

6. Certificates intermediate shall include at least the following information: body issuing the certificate, student data (name, DNI or NIE or failing passport number, date and place of birth), language (Spanish as Foreign) language level (Intermediate) level of the Common European Framework of Reference (B1), and date of issue.

Sole additional provision. Refresher courses and specialization.

1. The official language schools may, depending on available resources, organize and teach courses for updating and specialization of skills in Spanish as a foreign language at the intermediate level.

2. These courses, which are organized according to demand, will be oriented to the formation of adults with partial need to develop skills in Spanish as a foreign language at the intermediate level.

3. The organization and delivery of refresher courses and specialization lead, by the official language school that bid, setting objectives, content, skills, methodological guidelines and evaluation criteria, and the development of programming that set the timing of the relevant teachings and characteristics of evaluation.

4. Certificates refresher courses and specialization intermediate shall be issued by the official language school for organizing the relevant courses.

5. On certificates of specialization courses in addition to what is stated in Article 9.6 of this order, the corresponding specialty course be indicated.

6. On certificates of refresher courses, in addition to what is stated in Article 9.6 of this order, it indicates that it is a refresher course.

First final provision. Application of the order.


To the head of the Ministry of Education, Vocational Training and Universities to take the decisions and instructions necessary for the implementation of the provisions of this order is hereby authorized person.

Second final provision. Entry into force.

This order shall come into force on the day following its publication in the "Official Gazette".

Madrid, June 8, 2015-The Minister of Education, Culture and Sports, José Ignacio Wert Ortega.
ANNEX


Curriculum intermediate level of Spanish as a foreign language

The official language schools offer citizens the opportunity to acquire, according to their needs and throughout life, different levels of proficiency in several languages, which depends equal opportunities for personal development, education, employment, mobility, access to information and enrichment and intercultural communication and democratic participation in today's multilingual societies. These centers are therefore one of the most appropriate contexts to develop language education policies of the Council of Europe, which aim to promote multilingualism, linguistic diversity, social cohesion, democratic citizenship and mutual understanding, as well as economic development.

The official language schools do to encourage his adult citizens in a multilingual and multicultural competence, as defined in the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages ​​(CEFR) and the ability to use language for communication purposes and participate in an intercultural relationship where a person, as a social agent, with different grade- dominates several languages ​​and has experience of several cultures, which is equivalent to a composite and complex competition that allows you to better integrate into a global society. This competence involves awareness of why and how languages ​​have been chosen, that there are transferable skills and the ability to use them in learning languages ​​are learned; respect for all languages ​​and their varieties, regardless of the value assigned them socially, as well as inherent to these cultures and cultural identity of others; the ability to perceive and realize the relationship between languages ​​and cultures, and an integrated language teaching in curricula global approach.

To coincide fully with the action-oriented approach adopted in the CEFR, the ordering of the teaching of specialized language developed in this curriculum is based on the idea that a language is not an object to be simply studied and known, and whose rules the speaker is subjected, but a socially and culturally scheduled activity, it learns to perform, in the larger context of an overall activity, to communicate with others, for various reasons and with different objectives.

1. Introduction to the curriculum

The CEFR notes that "communication involves tasks that are not only linguistic, but involving activities require language and communicative competence of the individual" and "to the extent that these tasks are neither routine automatic or require the use of strategies. " Moreover, "while performing these tasks to carry out activities involving language, they need development (through understanding, expression, interaction or mediation) of oral or written texts [...] There can not be an act of communication through language without a text [and] there is necessarily a correlation between the proposed categories for describing language activities and the texts resulting from such activities'.

The ultimate goal of this curriculum is therefore to contribute to the students to become able, the level collected in this annex, to create texts that demand performing certain tasks in a real life and achieving certain ends, applying simultaneously through appropriate strategies, a series of competitions of various kinds presented here inevitably linearly and separate components. The joint and strategic implementation of various communication skills requires learning, teaching and assessment skills such reintegrated into a whole that reflects the complex reality of linguistic activity in any language.


This curriculum, given its characteristics, can help accomplish this reintegration by teachers and students to reflect, first, on why people act linguistically and what we actually do when we act linguistically; what it enables us to act in this way and therefore, what skills you have to learn to do so; You learn how to act-and act better-in other tongues and their own, and how to set goals and assess their achievement. The fruits of this reflection conclusions can be drawn to guide the practice of teachers and students, both in their joint work and independent learning.

2. objectives

Why do people act linguistically? In the teaching and learning of languages ​​it has gone from studying their formal aspects, and alleged operational rules to what you can do with the languages, ie their communication functions, but actional approach means go further and consider action frameworks older, regardless of the specific language, as well as purely linguistic skills they are a means and not an end, the linguistic activity is also a means and not an end, in all cases and in any language.

In public, personal, educational or occupational areas are carried out many actions that may need to turn linguistic activities of any kind: people study, work and in their leisure time, for example, listen to music or read, go to movies or chatting with friends. Meanwhile, an activity such as going to the movies can sue be with other people, get information on what movies to see, where and at what time reading reviews or criticisms, get tickets, scroll to the movies, watch the movie and discuss it later with the companions or with others, perhaps in an Internet chat. A working meeting may require, among other tasks, information, prepare and make a presentation, perhaps with a computer support, answering possible questions from the audience, negotiate, make decisions or draft a subsequent report. While some general education type can not anticipate situations and global actions that students will face in other languages, the creation and production--Comprehension texts that usually requires the completion of certain general activities in the various areas forms precisely the set objectives of this curriculum.

Hence the importance to be accorded to the general skills of the learners and can transfer these skills to learn other languages ​​and their cultural environments. And hence, too, the first fundamental orientation to be given to the teaching and learning: locate at all times what is done in the classroom by reference to the general action as it is carried out in the real environment. A change of view from a mere "task-based approach" to an actional approach involves establishing a general framework for action, clearly define what is a task to discriminate real tasks and learning tasks, and propose global actions or projects that incorporate diversity linguistic activities, texts and competencies of different types that students will face in the course of a more complex action in the real world.

It should be remembered that the learning needs of adult learners require that proposed projects are designed not only to learn, develop and improve various skills but to be trained in the actual behaviors in the target language, behaviors involving the strategic and simultaneous activation of general competence, sociolinguistic, pragmatic and specific language, in order to carry out a series of actions meaning in a particular area with a clearly defined goal and a specific outcome.

The objectives of action by global and general skills established in this curriculum for the intermediate level are:

1. Overall objective.

Use the language with some confidence and flexibility, receptively and productively, both orally and in writing, as well as to mediate between speakers of different languages ​​in everyday and less common situations requiring understand and produce texts in a variety of language standard with common structures and a not very common vocabulary, and covering general, everyday or those who have a personal interest.

2. General objectives for skills.


2.1 Listening: understand the general meaning, essential information, main points and most relevant details in oral texts, clearly structured in standard language, articulated at slow or medium speed and transmitted orally or by technical means, provided that the acoustic conditions are good and can again hear what was said.

2.2 and oral interaction: to produce well organized and appropriate to the interlocutor and communicative purpose oral texts, and performing with correction, fluidity and spontaneity allowing interaction, although sometimes become evident foreign accent, pauses to plan speech or correct errors and some cooperation by partners is necessary.

2.3 Reading Comprehension: understand the general meaning, essential information, main points and most relevant in clearly structured texts written in standard language, regarding general, current or related to specific topics details.
2.4
written expression and interaction: writing simple and cohesive texts on familiar topics or those of personal interest, and in which ask for or provide information; stories are told; experiences, events are described, be they real or imagined, feelings, reactions, desires and aspirations; briefly justify opinions and explain plans.

This is what we do in reality when we act linguistically. The difference between learning and teaching from socially patterned behaviors and make global from isolated abstract knowledge resides in considering whether or not the language as action. If the regularities in linguistic activity in any language are observed, it is found that this sistematicidad not generated from the application of a set of rules, but replication of a series of patterns of use: people They relate and communicate with some purpose, transactional or interactional, and for that they have learned a series of complex behaviors that typically include a linguistic behavior and incorporating situational, functional and formal aspects.

Surpassing both a traditional approach based on rules and forms, as a communicative approach, focusing primarily on the functions or individual speech acts a actional approach takes as its starting point the entire text and its social function as well as its conventional character in equally conventional contexts. In this sense we can speak of devolution since what is seen in learning a first language is that speakers acquire, from communication and social experiences, knowledge about prototypical texts commonly used in certain contexts , which also have prototypical features, and that speakers use to turn this knowledge, which serves general but flexible orientation in their activities, comprehension and interaction.

The text is the product unit of linguistic activity in any language and actional is a complex scheme which combines several dimensions, including those not usually considered proper language, including format, iconography or non-verbal language. Understanding, production and word processing as minimum units of communication is the linchpin of the teachings covered by this curriculum. In the process of creation is simultaneously text where it manifests itself, it is put into play everything we usually think of as isolated skills: where communication strategies (planning, execution, control and repair) apply; general and socio-linguistic skills that enable adaptation of text to its social context; pragmatic skills that allow you to associate form and function and regulate the process of creating textual basis of their consistency with the specific environment and its cohesion or internal organization, ie its inception, development and closure; and language skills, which are developed together to role in building the text: lexical selection, syntactic change, intonation patterns or spelling conventions, among others, which allow you to adjust the text to their communicative purposes depending on its specific context.

In the curriculum, the various powers or competence contents are related linearly but in a certain order, so that it is more clear what the underlying actional perspective and how to address the integrated treatment of these contents, from the general socio-cultural context of action to the specific linguistic element.


3. Basic competence content.

What enables us to act linguistically is therefore a set of strategies, knowledge and skills that reflect a common cognitive substrate to every speaker but whose specific manifestations depend on the particular culture, while respond to social needs and communication concrete. Students must train under the guidance and support of teachers in the use of the necessary measures to implement the competencies that demand different types of communicative activities in the language strategies.

The fact that in real linguistic activity, and in the text that your product is, these skills are imbricated not mean they can not be distinguished. The distinction made in the curriculum between listening activities, reading comprehension and expression and oral and written interaction allows the same distinction in teaching, learning and assessment and facilitates the division of powers on which should be advise the student and it will develop, depending on the performance of specific activities.

So in the previous section have distinguished, for example, speaking of oral interaction, as each demand activation of powers which should be dealt with separately. The dialogic text is subject to the reactions of the partners, which are created together: interventions are brief, impromptu; the term is often incomplete and abounds in onomatopoeia, interjections, gestures or other actions to maintain contact, expression of the reactions, or indication of references. The oral monologic text requires being able to produce longer, structurally complete and complex sentences. In both cases, a general and communicative competence are necessary, but the differences in scope, situational and contextual will demand different subcompetences: the public or private sector demand observance of certain sociolinguistic norms, a particular treatment of the subject (which may be reflected, for example in certain lexical items), and so on. Meanwhile, the activities of comprehension of oral or written texts require the development of specific skills and training of students in implementing strategies that are exclusive to these activities.

Thus, teaching programs and teaching practices, learning and autonomous learning can be addressed, not from the purely linguistic skills whose parceling and sequencing is always problematic and whose isolated learning does not guarantee proper implementation in the (re) construction of the text, but from the fields, sets of tasks, activities, or various types of texts. However, without losing sight of their relationship to the understanding communication activities, production or mediation in each case, it is also possible to organize lessons about any skills and subcompetences depending on the needs of students.

The various types of skills listed in the curriculum are subdivisions of general and communicative competence and this division makes it possible to determine learning objectives and measurement of reach. Strategies and skills that students should bring into play to carry out any activity can be discriminated and treated at different stages and in different ways, both in the classroom and outside it, and will correspond to the departments of teaching coordination and teachers define what size you are going to give priority at what time and in what setting. In these cases, you can consider whether to stop treatment and evaluation of certain subcompetences to students, thus making more aware and responsible for their own learning.

In either case, it will make explicit what general goal, ie to achieve what project or general action the various subcomponents so treated that teaching and learning will lead the students to acquire useful skills for their effective development in a multilingual and multicultural society.

The contents competence must take into account the intermediate level and will require a realization by the departments of teaching coordination and appropriate faculty, are:

3.1 General skills.
3.1.1 Notional
Contents.


The notions listed below, and be broken down and develop in the teaching programs, are notions or general cognitive categories applicable to any language and culture and that are present in any communication situation and any text product linguistic activity.

Shall be considered, for the intermediate level, the exponents of the various subclasses of notions considering that these exponents must be simple, formally and conceptually, and frequently used, and that these exponents are both lexical repertoires as syntagmatic, syntactic and textual structures determined for the level:

3.1.1.1 Entity: expression of entities (people, objects and other beings and concrete and abstract entities) and reference thereto.

3.1.1.2 Ownership: existence; quantity; quality and valuation.

3.1.1.3 Relations: space (absolute and relative location in space); time (absolute and relative position in time); states, processes and activities (appearance, form, participants and their relationships); logical relationships (between states, processes and activities) conjunction; disjunction; opposition; comparison; condition; cause; purpose; result; temporal relations (before, simultaneous, later).

Sociocultural 3.1.2 Contents.

A proper socio-cultural competence is one of the factors that contribute to successful communication. At the intermediate level, students should be aware of the most significant differences between the habits, customs, attitudes, values ​​and beliefs that prevail in the communities where the target language is spoken and in their own, and what so these various cultural aspects affect the use of the language.

The development of this type of competition requires more than the simple transmission of sociological, geographical, historical or cultural knowledge about the communities in which the language is spoken and should be treated through tasks that integrate linguistic and cultural objectives, given total interdependence of linguistic activity and its environment. They consider and develop the following aspects:

3.1.2.1 Daily life: festivities; schedules; Work practices; recreational activities.

3.1.2.2 Living Conditions: living standards; living place; work; social care.

3.1.2.3 Relationships: social structure and relations between its members (gender, family, generations, in work situations, with the authority and administration, of community among political and religious groups).

3.1.2.4 Values, beliefs and attitudes: social classes; professional groups; regional cultures; institutions; history and traditions; politics; Arts; religion; humor.

3.1.2.5 Kinesics, proxémica and paralinguistic aspects: gestures; positions; facial expressions; eye contact; body contact; extralinguistic sounds and prosodic qualities (quality of voice, tone, stress, volume).

3.1.2.6 Social Conventions: manners, customs, conventions and taboos related to behavior.

3.1.2.7 ritual behavior: public behavior; celebrations; social and religious ceremonies and practices.

3.2 Communication skills.

3.2.1 Language skills.

3.2.1.1 lexical-semantic content.

Students at intermediate level, will have a good command of basic vocabulary and a common vocabulary sufficient to express any circumlocution on most issues relevant to their daily life (family, hobbies and interests, work, travel and events current), but can still make mistakes when addressing important issues and rare or complex situations.

The topics for which should be considered sub-items and their corresponding lexical repertoires areas, taking into account the demands of the aims of this level are as follows:

Personal identification. Housing, home and environment. Daily life activities. free and leisure time. Travels. human and social relations. Health and physical care. Education. Shopping and commercial activities. Feeding. Goods and services. Language and communication. Climate, weather and environment. Science and Technology.


In the treatment of this competition, it will mind that there is no 'passive' vocabulary and lexicon "active" but repertoires of forms and meanings that depend on the communicative activity which (comprehension, expression, interaction concerned ). A person reading or watching TV is so linguistically active as when addressing an audience or take part in a conversation. In this sense, the degree of self lexical level competition must be purchased in relation to its specific character in the text of the relevant product linguistic activities in various communication situations.

Be taken into account also the desirability of treating the lexicon considering ways and above plurilexemáticas isolated word so as to provide the students with a wider use to facilitate the proper development of competition lexical context units.

3.2.1.2. grammar.

At the intermediate level, students will generally have a good control of the most common syntactical structures, but can manifest influence of the mother tongue and make mistakes or other product of its interlanguage. Syntactical skills to be developed for this level are:

Prayer composed 3.2.1.2.1. Expression of logical relationships: conjunction [y / e; (Ni) ... nor]; disjunction [o / u; (O) ... or ...]; opposition and contrast [but; although; while)]; inequality comparison [plus / minus (...) that] and equality [like that (....); the same as…]. The absolute superlative. The comparative and superlative syncretic. lexicons increased use procedures; condition (if / else); cause (because, like, for + Inf; is that); purpose [for (that); to what)]; result (eg then, so, that is it, so, therefore); temporal relationships: previously [before (that)]; subsequently [after (to)]; simultaneity (when, while, at + Inf); delimitation (until, since).
3.2.1.2.2
Simple sentence: affirmative and negative declarative sentence. Order marking elements POSTPOSING Subj; preemption of complements of the verb (eg María I have given the CD). affirmative and negative interrogative sentence. direct interrogative sentences: Total (eg Ready to go ?; You know, and if you go to dinner?); and partial (elliptical, disjunctive and echo). Indirect interrogative sentences with completive depending on Subj, OD, C. Regime (eg Ask him if he wants ice cream). affirmative and negative exclamatory sentence: introduced why (de), how much and how (eg What people!), and interjections (eg If only approve!). affirmative and negative imperative sentence: attenuation markers; with enforcement mechanisms or emphasis (eg Run, run!). Phenomena of agreement: grammar, ad sensum and proximity (Subj ↔ verb collective subject, multiple subject (plural, coordinated and juxtaposed); Subj ↔ attribute (eg 200 euros is a lot of money)).

3.2.1.2.3 The noun phrase.
3.2.1.2.3.1
core phrase.

Noun 3.2.1.2.3.1.1.

3.2.1.2.3.1.1.1 classes: common and proper; simple and compound.

Gender 3.2.1.2.3.1.1.2.

Noun animated 3.2.1.2.3.1.1.2.1. Names with a single form for both genders (eg agent). Opposition gender by suffixes commonly used (eg an actor / actress) and various radicals (bull / cow).

3.2.1.2.3.1.1.2.2 inanimate nouns. Common names with double gender (eg bag / bag). names: gender allocation mechanisms (eg a lemon Trina, a Coca-Cola, a Rioja).

3.2.1.2.3.1.1.3 Number.

3.2.1.2.3.1.1.3.1 Common names: compounds and loans common use (eg umbrella, blogs); nouns with preference for the singular or plural (eg health, desire).

3.2.1.2.3.1.1.3.2 own names. surnames and place names: the use of the plural individual cases.

Grade 3.2.1.2.3.1.1.4. Positive relative: augmentative (eg cochazo), short (eg little coffee).

Pronoun 3.2.1.2.3.1.2.
3.2.1.2.3.1.2.1
Personal: unstressed and tonics. Pronouns unstressed position RE and LE and combinatorics. OD duplication and OI [pe me (like action movies) Me]. Absence / presence of the personal pronoun Subj. neutral pronouns.
Possessive 3.2.1.2.3.1.2.2
depending on subject, attribute and OD [pe (I like) yours].

3.2.1.2.3.1.2.3 Reflexive and reciprocal unstressed.

3.2.1.2.3.1.2.4 Demonstrative of proximity and distance to the transmitter / receiver. The neutral demonstrative: anaphoric use.

3.2.1.2.3.1.2.5 Indefinite commonly used (eg someone, anyone, any, any, something, anything, other, miscellaneous).

3.2.1.2.3.1.2.6 Interrogatives commonly used preceded by preposition. Distinguishing what / which.


3.2.1.2.3.1.2.7 relative (eg who, which, where).

3.2.1.2.3.2 Modification and complementation core phrase.

Determinants 3.2.1.2.3.2.1.

3.2.1.2.3.2.1.1 definite and indefinite articles. The neutral article. Specific reference of the definite article as a marker of first / second mention or reference to a budget item. unspecific reference terse indefinite article and noun phrases.

3.2.1.2.3.2.1.2 Demonstrative of proximity and distance to the speaker / receiver. Deíctico uses with courage and anaphoric uses.

3.2.1.2.3.2.1.3 Possessive unstressed and tonics. Position and combinatorics with other determinants (eg your car and mine, a friend of mine).

3.2.1.2.3.2.2 quantifiers: Numerals. Cardinals and ordinals. Collective, fractional multiplicative and more frequent (eg a lot of; most). Definite and indefinite (eg each, enough).
3.2.1.2.3.2.3
By AdjP prefix (eg a book).
3.2.1.2.3.2.4
By PrepP (eg the corner store, sparkling water).
By
3.2.1.2.3.2.5 relative phrase (eg the person with whom I live).

3.2.1.3.2.3 position sintagma elements: (Det +) (AdjP +) N (+ SPREP) (+ Phrase relative). Combination of determinants: compatibilities and restrictions. Matching phenomena: Core ↔ coordinated adjectives; ↔ coordinated adjective nuclei.

3.2.1.2.4 The adjectival phrase.
3.2.1.2.4.1
core phrase: Adjective.

3.2.1.2.4.1.1 Classes: adjectives and relational; adjectival locutions [eg (a shirt) checkered].

3.2.1.2.4.1.2 Number: invariable adjectives (eg free, unisex).

3.2.1.2.4.1.3 Grade: Positive relative: by derivation (teeny pe) and modification (eg enough). Comparative: inequality and equality. superlative relative (ie highest). absolute superlative: by suffixation (yummy pe); relative lexicons (eg huge, beautiful).

3.2.1.2.4.2 Modification and complementation of the core of the phrase: by Adj. (Eg navy); by SPREP (glad to see pe).

3.2.1.2.4.3 position sintagma elements: N (+ Adj) (+ Prep).
3.2.1.2.4.4
phrase syntactical functions: CC and C. predicative (eg arrived home tired).

3.2.1.2.5 The verb phrase.
3.2.1.2.5.1
core phrase: Word.

3.2.1.2.5.1.1 Classes: auxiliary copulativos, semicopulativos, transitive, intransitive, pronominal and impersonal commonly used.

3.2.1.2.5.1.2 Time: Present (present indicative). Past (historical / narrative, imperfect, preterite indefinite present, preterite, pluperfect indicative). Future (present, simple simple and conditional future indicative).

Appearance 3.2.1.2.5.1.3.

3.2.1.2.5.1.3.1 Durative: intrinsically Durative verbs; perífrasis (eg lead / continue / follow + Ger).

3.2.1.2.5.1.3.2 Regular: circumlocution Soler + Inf
.
3.2.1.2.5.1.3.3 inchoate: the perífrasis start / made
+ Inf.
3.2.1.2.5.1.3.4 Iterative: intrinsically frequentatives verbs; circumlocution back to + Inf.

3.2.1.2.5.1.3.5 Spot: inherently specific verbs; tenses (eg present, preterite).

3.2.1.2.5.1.3.6 terminative: the perífrasis finish / stop / finish + Inf; (Eg indefinite preterite, pluperfect) tenses.

3.2.1.2.5.1.4 Mode.

3.2.1.2.5.1.4.1 factuality: present, imperfect, present perfect, past perfect progressive indefinite and indicative.

3.2.1.2.5.1.4.2 Need: expressions as need / do lack + Inf / prayer.

3.2.1.2.5.1.4.3 Obligation / prescription: + Inf duty; verbs and verbal expressions that denote obligation / prescription (eg be mandatory + Inf / sentence); imperative.
3.2.1.2.5.1.4.4
Capacity: be able
+ Inf.
3.2.1.2.5.1.4.5 Permission: verbs and expressions denoting permission (eg leave + Inf / prayer); imperative.

3.2.1.2.5.1.4.6 Possibility: If possible / power (that) + Inf / prayer.

3.2.1.2.5.1.4.7 Prohibition: verbs that express prohibition and negative forms of verbs that express permission + Inf / prayer; (Neg +) imperative.

3.2.1.2.5.1.4.7 Intention and volition: verbs and verbal expressions that denote intention and willingness + Inf / prayer (eg desire; intend to; think); simple conditional.

3.2.1.2.5.1.5 Voice: active, middle and impersonal constructions.

3.2.1.2.5.2 Modification and complementation core phrase: by AdvP (eg has already arrived); by PrepP: prepositions of common verbs (eg help; talk about, remember).


3.2.1.2.5.3 position sintagma elements: (AdvP +) V (+ AdvP) (+ S Prep).
3.2.1.2.5.4 syntactical functions
phrase (V, Subj., OD).

3.2.1.2.6 The adverbial phrase.
3.2.1.2.6.1
core phrase: adverbs and adverbial phrases (eg suddenly, halfway).

3.2.1.2.6.1.1 Classes: SENTENCE (eg possibly, unfortunately, perhaps). Discursive (eg first ... then, for example). Aspectuales (eg and, yet, again). Intensifiers (eg too much, really, so). Focus (eg only; also, either).

3.2.1.2.6.1.2 Grade: Positive relative (eg afar); Comparative [eg further (that)]; absolute superlative (eg precious little; cerquísima).

3.2.1.2.6.2 Modification and complementation core phrase: by SPREP (eg near the square); by adverbs (eg down there).

3.2.1.2.6.3 position sintagma elements: (Adv +) N (+ SPREP) (+ Adv); distribution of sentence adverbs and discourse in prayer.
3.2.1.2.6.4
phrase syntactical functions: Attribute (eg'm perfectly).

3.2.1.2.7 The prepositional phrase.
3.2.1.2.7.1
core phrase: prepositions and prepositional phrases.

3.2.1.2.7.1.1 prepositions: a; with; Against; from; since; during; in; between; toward; until; through; for; by; without; on. Common uses (eg grilled; bike; for the trip). Correlations of prepositions (eg from ... to, from ... to, to ... a).

3.2.1.2.7.1.2 prepositional phrases commonly used (eg through, because of, thanks to, from, within, about).

3.2.1.2.7.2 Modifying the core of the phrase: by SN (eg a few minutes after 10); by SV (eg before dinner).

3.2.1.2.7.3 position sintagma elements: (SN +) N (+ SV).
3.2.1.2.7.4
phrase syntactical functions: Attribute (eg This shirt is cotton; The car is second hand).

3.2.1.3 orthographic Contents.

At the intermediate level, students will be able to understand written texts spelling conventions listed below and use them to produce written texts spelling and punctuation are correct enough as to be almost always understand .

The orthographic skills to be developed for this level are:

3.2.1.3.1 The alphabet. Digraphs,,,,.

3.2.1.3.2 Graphical representation of phonemes and sounds: general rules of accentuation.
3.2.1.3.3
spelling of foreign words.

3.2.1.3.4 Using the characters in its various forms (uppercase, lowercase, italics, abbreviations, acronyms and symbols commonly used, etc.).
3.2.1.3.5
spelling and punctuation signs (accents, umlauts, dash, dot, comma, semicolon, colon, interrogatives and exclamations signs, etc.).
3.2.1.3.6
Hyphenation at the end of line. syllabic structure.
Phonetic Contents
3.2.1.4.

This competence involves intermediate level, knowledge and skill in the perception and production of the following:
3.2.1.4.1
sounds and vowel phonemes and their combinations (hiatuses, sinalefas).
3.2.1.4.2
Sounds and phonemes and consonant clusters: especially complex consonant clusters (eg bilabial or labiodental + liquid; velar + liquid).
3.2.1.4.3
Phonological processes (weakening, neutralization, assimilation, etc.).
3.2.1.4.4
phonic accent of isolated lexical items: composite and derived words.
3.2.1.4.5
Accent and atonicidad in the phrase: neutral accent and emphatic nuclear nuclear accent contrastive value. Intonation: neutral and marked patterns associated with modalities of prayer and speech acts; associated with the structure of information (new / known pe); associated with the mood of the issuer).

3.2.2 Sociolinguistic competence.

3.2.2.1 sociolinguistic Contents.

This competition includes the knowledge and skills needed to address the social dimension of language use and includes linguistic markers of social relations (eg treatment you / you), comity, idioms and expressions of popular wisdom, registers, dialects and accents.

At the intermediate level, students are expected to develop this competition so as to be aware of the more conventional sociolinguistic patterns governing the communication in the target language, and to act accordingly with sufficient adequacy, in a neutral register .
3.2.3
pragmatic skills.

3.2.3.1 Functional contents.


At the intermediate level, it is expected that students develop this competency so that you can perform the following communication functions or speech acts, using the most common examples of these functions in a neutral record:
3.2.3.1.1
functions or acts of assertive speech, expression related to knowledge, opinion, belief and conjecture: affirm; announce; assent; sort out; confirm the veracity of a fact; to describe; express agreement and disagreement; express ignorance; express doubt; express an opinion; hypothesize; identify and be identified; report; predict.
3.2.3.1.2
compromisivos functions or acts of speech, expression related to the offering, intention, will and decision: express the intention or desire to do something; invite; offer something; offer help; offer to do something; promise.
3.2.3.1.3
functions or speech acts managers, who aim the recipient do or not do something, whether this is in turn a verbal act as an action other: counseling; warn; give instructions; give permission; order; ask for something, help, confirmation, information, instruction, opinion, permit someone to do something; ban; propose; someone remember something.
3.2.3.1.4
phatic functions or acts of solidarity and speech being made to establish or maintain social contact and express attitudes toward others: invite; accept and decline an invitation; to thank; Attract attention; welcome; goodbye; express approval; express sympathy; to congratulate; interest in someone or something; to regret; apologize; introduce oneself; introduce somebody; greet.
3.2.3.1.5
functions or acts of expressive speech, with which attitudes and feelings are expressed in certain situations: express admiration, joy or happiness, appreciation or sympathy, approval and disapproval, disappointment, disinterest and interest, disgust, pain, doubt, hope, preference, satisfaction, surprise, fear, sadness.

3.2.3.2 Contents discourse.

At the intermediate level, students should be able to produce and understand texts of various types, formats and topics, standard varieties of language and in a neutral record, using a wide range of simple linguistic elements organized in a linear cohesive sequence.

In determining the specific skills of textual construction that students must acquire to produce and understand appropriate to their specific context and with an appropriate internal organization texts, the following aspects will be developed:

Textual 3.2.3.2.1 Consistency: adequacy of oral / written text to the communicative context.

3.2.3.2.1.1 Type and format text.
3.2.3.2.1.2
Variety of language.

3.2.3.2.1.3 Registry.

Item 3.2.3.2.1.4. Approach and content: selection of relevant content; lexical selection; selection of syntactic structures.
3.2.3.2.1.5
spatiotemporal context: spatial reference and time reference.
3.2.3.2.2
textual cohesion: internal organization of oral / written text. Initiation, development and completion of the textual unit.
3.2.3.2.2.1 Home
speech: initiators mechanisms; introduction of the subject; theming.
3.2.3.2.2.2 Development
speech.

3.2.3.2.2.2.1 Thematic development.
Maintenance
3.2.3.2.2.2.1.1 topic: anaphora; ellipsis; repetition; reformulation.

3.2.3.2.2.2.1.2 theme Expansion: exemplification; reinforcement; emphasis; contrast; introduction of subtopics.

3.2.3.2.2.2.2 Theme Change: digression; Recovery topic.
3.2.3.2.2.3
speech Conclusion: summary / recap, textual indication of closure and textual closure.

3.2.3.2.2.4 Maintenance and monitoring of oral speech, Take, maintenance and transfer of speaking time. Support, show understanding, request for clarification, etc. Intonation as a resource of oral text cohesion: use of intonation patterns.
3.2.3.2.2.5
score cohesion as a resource written text: use of punctuation.
Methodological guidelines



This curriculum is considered the center of the learning process is the learner. Therefore, since learning styles are diverse and learning, notes the CEFR, is enhanced by "diversity of experiences, provided they are not compartmentalised nor strictly repetitive," the question of how you learn to act act-and best- in other languages ​​and in itself has no single answer. There is, in this sense, the determination of specific teaching methods but the recommendation to take into account the various methodological options and make a selection of them in terms of the objectives pursued in each case.

However, the adoption of a actional approach also entails a certain vision of the methodology. In fact, this approach is a "pedagogical mutation" which is threefold. On the one hand, the change in perspective from mere knowledge to be able to act, which includes both the knowledge to know how to be, know-how and knowledge learn- claims that the methods used are those deemed most effective to develop in students the capacity for action and incorporate all the necessary aspects depending on the peculiarities of each activity. In this sense, suggests the CEFR, should consider "the differences of medium or communication channel and psycholinguistic processes involved in speaking, listening, reading and writing activities, comprehension and interaction" to the when selecting, adapt or design tasks and oral and written submissions to the students and to determine how it is expected to handle tasks such texts and texts.

The communicative ability and motivation to improve increase if students learn using the language to perform tasks that are of interest and can be placed in a real sociocultural context; if he proposes and exposes the own authentic language of each activity and if afforded the most appropriate instruments to address the particular activity. The ability of students to express themselves orally, for example, is provided on the one hand, if it is a communicative reason to use the language and, secondly, if exposed to this activity through written texts, even exclusively oral but word on audiovisual media, which can play back the indispensable overlapping dimensions for oral and impossible to simultaneously display production, appropriately, by other means: intonation, rhythm, volume, gestures and actions that constitute the production of such texts.

So, from the need or proposal to conduct a set of tasks, it first determines the context of linguistic performance; then they mobilize communication strategies; naturally they integrate different communication skills or activities involved; general and communication skills the student already has and must acquire to fulfill tasks are specified, and suitable materials, including the authentic document is of great interest are selected. Teaching materials, including textbooks, will be used depending on the results produced an analysis of their approach, the type of tasks proposed and treatment that make them and the different strategies and skills that students should develop tasks to carry out, as these aspects are covered in the curriculum. Thus making also facilitates learning to learn.

The second aspect of the pedagogical actional carries a mutation that approach is the evolution towards an autonomous learning and throughout life, so that formal education should equip students with skills not only in languages, but also with the attitude, general skills and learning strategies that one can use to enrich and develop their multilingual and multicultural competence outside the education system. In this regard, the departments of teaching coordination and teachers should consider and determine which will offer students for their learning and use of language are increasingly independent, and what capabilities of discovery and analysis, and skills study, will be promoted or will be taught to develop.


Although the ability to learn to learn is developed naturally in the process of learning, with students should reflect on communication, language in general and studying languages, so aware of both the common substrate to every language and culture as the peculiarities of each; In the first case, there is provided a use by students of the skills you have in your first or first languages ​​for learning other as well as to improve various skills in those to become more aware of how different linguistic activities are articulated and the factors that determine this joint; in the second case, meet the own particularities of cultures and languages ​​learned fosters respect for linguistic and cultural diversity and helps them learn more effectively avoiding improper generalization that can occur in many ways to relate some languages ​​and cultures other in the learning process.

In the reflection on language, it is not reaching the discovery of "rules", but to observe real linguistic activity in the language and patterns of action applied by the speakers. To refer to these regularities, whether the meaning of a lexical item, the function of a syntactic structure or text processing steps, will have to handle a certain terminology, which can benefit students in their autonomous learning. In any case, this terminology should be as transparent and consistent as possible, and capable of being applied to any language. This curriculum incorporates a nomenclature of universal character, which implies the existence of principles common to all languages, given the knowledge base shared by all human beings and all social uses of language, which can be extended to any language . Also, the terminology used in the curriculum includes concepts that have widespread use and updated in the context of applied linguistics, while respecting, where necessary, the particularities of the specific language.

Addition by observing communication processes, the students develop their ability to learn by participating in them and analyzing their performance to recognize their achievements and their needs, set goals, plan how to achieve them and find adequate resources. In this regard, the role that teachers can play as a coach and language consultant is essential and beyond the scope of the classroom: in the class can boost performance-and monitorizar- of students rather than the explanation or execution of these exercises they can perform autonomously while, to help them learn to learn, can provide resources or guide them towards them and guide them in how to use them.

These resources include the information and communications technology (ICT), which constitute the third aspect of the pedagogical mutation to which reference is made. ICT is a pervasive reality in today's societies and, with regard to language learning, not simply replace books by computers to further develop traditional practices but to implement new practices, especially as concerns the relationship between the classroom and the real context of communication. The use of ICT not only to diversify and make more attractive the activities in class or demanded by autonomous learning, but also one of the best ways to increase the exposure of students to authentic language, so that it enters into direct contact and in real time with other speakers and their cultures, and to update immediately in every moment the cast of teaching materials, learning and self-learning. In addition, the use of these technologies by students and faculty also contributes to the development of digital competence, which is among the core competencies to be citizens.

ICT is the best tool to design and perform, especially in the classroom and beyond, cross-cutting tasks, which involved many other knowledge and skills, apart from purely linguistic. Here, meanwhile, they are in ICT in its real context of use, which allows students to observe and understand what they actually do people when they act linguistically and become aware of lexical uses, syntactic and discourse of speakers in a particular language, as well as socio-cultural and contextual they depend on such uses features.


New technologies also have an important role in the evaluation and self-assessment. On the one hand, it facilitates both access to texts of all kinds and features for your understanding and the opportunity to produce various texts, especially in the form of interaction, oral and written. Students can benefit from these means to see for himself the extent to which it is able to communicate effectively in real contexts through activities of comprehension, expression, interaction and mediation, while teachers have ICT a valuable resource to access materials with which to design tasks and tests to assess progress and achievement of students as well as their proficiency in the use of language. On the other hand, there are also programs specially designed to test, independently, the degree of achievement of general or specific objectives in various skills so that students, advised by teachers when necessary, can track, with the rate deemed appropriate, the state of its partial skills and exercise proper control over them to improve them.

ICT, finally, represent significant changes in all that relates to teaching, learning and assessment in the official language schools, from the characteristics of the spaces programming activities; these changes reach the end of the institution itself, which, following the most innovative trends, focuses on contributing to the students, given their characteristics, be responsible for their own learning and be able to build as broad individual competition and possible through a rich and formal learning and non-formal.
Evaluation


Evaluation in the official language schools can be viewed from different angles depending on the answers given to the question raised in the introduction to this curriculum, how to set goals and evaluate the achievement of the same.

In all cases, it is considered as the action assessment comprising a measurement of the degree of achievement of the specific objectives set and making appropriate decisions, and these decisions affect the access of students to the teaching, in process learning, in promoting a course to another or to issue an official certificate of proficiency in the use of language. Also, in all cases, the evaluation must meet minimum quality requirements -there will be valid, reliable, ethical and viable- way that serves their purposes and have a positive impact on students, the institution itself and society as a whole.

Thus, the evaluation will consist of a collection, systematically organized, relevant and reliable data whose analysis allows unbiased issue on what is measured judgments. To be valid, the evaluation must actually measure and evaluate what is intended (the skills in the use of language, for example, can only be evaluated through activities of comprehension, expression, interaction or mediation). A reliable assessment assumes that it is not affected by factors beyond the capabilities and actual student performance, which requires that the methods, instruments and evaluation criteria are, first, valid and which are designed, managed and implemented following guidelines to ensure the absence of arbitrariness, objectivity, the same conditions for all students evaluated and consistency of results.

To this end, it should at least develop a specification for the content of the evaluation, to establish regulated procedures for implementation and determine evaluation criteria appropriate to the purpose of the evaluation and a definite way to apply which must be shared, if applicable, for all the teachers involved. An ethical evaluation should guarantee the rights of students, equal opportunities and the proper use of evaluation results. The feasibility of assessment, in short, has to do with the relationship between the media and it demands resources that are available.

Whatever type of assessment concerned, schools, educational departments coordination and faculty will present these requirements and determine how, in their respective areas of action, is to ensure compliance. classification, diagnosis, progress, development and certification: in the official language schools the following types of evaluation will be undertaken.


For the classification of newly admitted students wishing to access the teachings at face official regime, and also implement processes to this end, departments may take into account previous skills of the candidates in the language according to those they have been officially accredited by other institutions, or registered by the applicants themselves in their European Language Portfolio, provided that the description of these competences is sufficiently transparent to allow the appropriate location in the corresponding course.

The diagnostic evaluation is a timely control as often as deemed appropriate, partial objectives of various types listed in teaching units are developed according to current schedules derived from this curriculum. It corresponds teachers organize and carry out this evaluation with the respective groups of students in charge, in order to identify areas that require review or change in treatment. Diagnosis can also be made of pupils taken individually, in which case self-assessment should be considered for those check what they do and to what extent do well. To perform this self-assessment students must have control instruments, such as questionnaires or other protocols, to collect the targets set for each unit or group of them, can itemize objectives as far as necessary.

Self-assessment is also particularly relevant and useful in measuring student progress and, together with the monitoring carried out by teachers in how to determine educational departments coordination, one of the best measures for the students take responsibility for their learning and improve their ability to learn to learn through awareness of the state of their powers at certain times of the various objectives achieved in line with the course program and objectives still you have left to achieve in subsequent stages. The results of both types of evaluation findings and relevant guidance on the actions and resources needed will be taken to improve the process both learning and teaching. The moments that will, by teachers, an assessment of progress will be determined by the departments, taking into account the development of certain skills, especially the ability to activate together, can only be observed in periods sufficiently spaced.

At the end of each course in which the teachings of the intermediate level are organized, it carried out an assessment of exploitation whose purpose is to see whether the student has achieved the objectives set for the corresponding course and can therefore promote the next course. Given the importance of the decisions that may lead the results of this evaluation, the guidelines should regulate it shall be established by the departments of educational coordination.

The evaluation of proficiency in the use of language aimed at obtaining the official certificate of intermediate level will be through a specific certification test the design, administration and scoring will follow the guidelines established by the Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport, for all schools in their area of ​​management and for all modes of teaching.

Students shall be deemed to have acquired the powers of this level for each skill, it meets the following evaluation criteria:


Listening
Understanding instructions with simple technical information, such as, for example, equipment operating instructions often used, and follow directions.

Generally understand the main ideas of a conversation or informal discussion provided the speech is clearly articulated in standard language.

In formal talks and meetings, to understand much of what is said if it is related to their specialty and where interlocutors avoid very idiomatic usage and speak out clearly.

Generally follow the main ideas of a long debate that takes place in his presence, whenever the speech is articulated clearly and in a variety of standard language.

Understanding broadly, conferences and simple and brief presentations on everyday issues whenever develop a standard pronunciation.


Understanding the main ideas of many radio or TV everyday or current issues or topics of personal or professional interest when the delivery is relatively slow and clear.

Understanding the main ideas of radio news and other material recorded simple everyday topics dealing articulated relatively slowly and clearly.

Understanding many films that articulate clearly and in simple language level, and where the visuals and action lead much of the argument.
Speaking


Make public statements brief and tested on a daily topic in their field, who are clearly intelligible although accompanied by a distinctly foreign accent and intonation.

Make a brief, prepared presentation on a subject within their specialty, with clearly enough so that you can follow without difficulty most of the time and whose main points are explained with reasonable accuracy, as well as answer additional questions from the audience, although it may have to ask to repeat them if you talk fast.
Oral interaction


Navigating our common transactions of daily life such as travel, accommodation, meals and shopping. Exchange, check and confirm information with appropriate details. Face less common situations and explain why a problem.

Start, maintain and close simple conversations and face to face discussions on everyday topics of personal interest or pertinent to everyday life (eg family, hobbies, work, travel and current events).

In informal conversations, offer or seek personal views and to discuss issues of interest opinions; make understandable their opinions or reactions to possible solutions to problems or practical questions, or steps be followed (on where to go, what to do, how to organize an event, eg a trip), and invite others to express their views on how to proceed; describe experiences and events, dreams, hopes and ambitions; kindly express beliefs, opinions, agreements and disagreements, and briefly explain and justify opinions and projects.

Take part in formal discussions and regular working meetings on everyday topics and involve an exchange of information on specific facts or where instructions or solutions to practical problems occur, and raise them a point of view clearly, offering brief explanations of arguments and opinions, plans and actions.

Take the lead in interviews or consultations (for example, to raise a new issue), although much depends on the interviewer during the interaction, and use a questionnaire prepared for a structured interview, with some additional questions.
Reading Comprehension


Understand simple and clearly written instructions on a device.

Find and understand relevant information in everyday written material, such as letters, brochures and short official documents.

Understand the description of events, feelings and wishes in personal letters.

Recognize significant ideas of simple newspaper articles that address everyday issues.
Writing


Write very brief reports in standard format with information on common fact and the reasons for certain actions.

Taking notes, making a list of the important aspects during a simple lecture, provided the topic is known and the speech is formulated in a simple manner and articulate clearly.
Summarizing
short fragments of information from various sources and perform simple paraphrase short written passages using the words and management of the original text.


Written Interaction
Write notes in transmitting or requires simple information immediately and in highlighting issues that are important.

Writing, regardless of media, personal letters describing experiences, impressions, feelings and events in some detail, and in exchanging information and ideas on topics both abstract and concrete, noting the issues considered important by asking about problems, or explaining them with reasonable accuracy.