Approving The United Nations Convention On Jurisdictional Immunities Of States And Their Property, Opened For Signature At New York On 17 January 2005

Original Language Title: Aprova a Convenção das Nações Unidas sobre as Imunidades Jurisdicionais dos Estados e dos seus Bens, aberta à assinatura em Nova Iorque, em 17 de Janeiro de 2005

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Read the untranslated law here: http://app.parlamento.pt/webutils/docs/doc.pdf?path=6148523063446f764c3246795a5868774d546f334e7a67774c336470626d6c7561574e7059585270646d467a4c316776644756346447397a4c334277636a45774c5667755a47396a&fich=ppr10-X.doc&Inline=false

MOTION for a RESOLUTION paragraph 10/X recognising the importance of clarifying and harmonising the scope of immunities from jurisdiction of foreign courts States; Whereas a Convention on jurisdictional immunities of States and their property reinforces the principle of the rule of law and promotes certainty and legal security, especially in the relations of States with individuals, whether they are natural or legal persons, and contribute to the codification and development of international law and harmonization of national and international practice in this area; So: under d) of paragraph 1 of article 197 of the Constitution, the Government presents to the Assembly of the Republic the following resolution: Approving the United Nations Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and their property, opened for signature at New York on 17 January 2005, as well as its annex which is an integral part , whose texts, authenticated versions in English and French languages, and translated in Portuguese language, published in annex. Seen and approved by the Council of Ministers of 22 July 2005 the Prime Minister the Minister of Parliamentary Affairs Minister Presidency UNITED NATIONS CONVENTION ON JURISDICTIONAL IMMUNITIES of States and THEIR PROPERTY the States parties to this Convention, Considering that the jurisdictional immunities of States and their property are generally accepted as a principle of customary international law taking into account the principles of international law enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, Convinced that an International Convention on jurisdictional immunities of States and their property would enhance the principle of the rule of law and legal certainty, especially in the relations of States with natural or legal persons, and contribute to the codification and development of international law and the harmonization of practice in this area taking into account the developments in the practice of States with regard to jurisdictional immunities of States and their property, stating that the principles of customary international law continue to govern the matters not regulated by the provisions of this Convention, have agreed as follows: part I introduction article 1 scope of the present Convention this Convention shall apply to the jurisdictional immunities of a State and its property before the courts of another State.

Article 2 Definitions 1. For the purposes of this Convention: a) "Court" means any organ of a State, whatever your denomination, authorized to exercise judicial functions; b) "State" means: (i) the State and its various organs of Government; (ii) constituent units of a federal State or political subdivisions of the State authorized to practice your acts in the exercise of sovereign authority and who exercise these functions; (iii) services, public bodies or other entities, to the extent that they have competence and practice actually acts in the exercise of the sovereign authority of the State; (iv) representatives of the State in the exercise of these functions; c) "commercial transaction" means: (i) Any commercial contract or transaction for the sale of goods or provision of services; (ii) any contract of loan or other transaction of a financial nature, including any warranty given and obligation of compensation in relation to the same; (iii) any other contract or transaction of commercial, industrial or professional nature, excluding labor contracts.

2. in determining whether a contract or transaction constitutes a "commercial transaction" under paragraph 1 (c)) it should be noted, first of all, the nature of the contract or transaction, and your aim also be taken into account if the parties so convencionarem in the contract or transaction, or if, in the practice of the State of the Forum, that purpose is relevant to determining the non-commercial nature of the contract or transaction. 3. the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 concerning definitions for the purposes of this Convention do not affect the employment of these terms, nor the meaning that can be attributed, in other international instruments or in the internal law of any State.

Article 3 privileges and immunities not affected by the present Convention 1. This Convention does not affect the privileges and immunities enjoyed by a State under international law, in relation to the exercise of the functions: a) Of their diplomatic missions, consular posts, special missions, missions to international organizations or delegations together with organs of international organizations or to international conferences; and (b)) of persons related to the same. 2. this Convention does not affect the privileges and immunities granted ratione personae under international law, the heads of State. 3. this Convention does not affect the immunities enjoyed by a State under international law with respect to aircraft or space objects owned or operated.

Article 4 non-retroactivity of the present Convention without prejudice to the application of any standards laid down in this Convention to which jurisdictional immunities of States and their property are subject under international law independently of this Convention, its provisions shall not apply to any question of jurisdictional immunities of States or their property arising in a lawsuit brought against a State before a Court of another State before the entry into force of this Convention between the States concerned.

PART II general principles article 5 immunity of States subject to the provisions of this Convention, a State shall enjoy, in respect of itself and its property, immunity from jurisdiction to the courts of another State.


Article 6 Modalities to guarantee the immunity of States 1. A State guarantee the immunity provided for in article 5 States refraining from exercise your jurisdiction in a lawsuit brought in its courts against another State and to this end shall ensure that its courts determine on their own initiative that the immunity of that other State under article 5 is respected. 2. A lawsuit brought in a Court of a State shall be considered as having been brought against another State if that other State: a) Is cited as a party to that lawsuit; or (b)) is not cited as a party to the lawsuit but the visa process, in fact, affect the assets, rights, interests or activities of that other State.

Article 7 express consent to exercise of jurisdiction 1. A State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction in a lawsuit in a Court of another State in respect of an issue or deal, if you have expressly consented in the exercise of jurisdiction by this Court regarding this same issue or deal: a) By international agreement; b) By written agreement; or c) by a declaration before the Court or written communication in a particular lawsuit. 2. The acceptance by a State with regard to the application of the law of another State shall not be interpreted as consent to the exercise of jurisdiction by the courts of that other State.

Article 8 effect of participation in a proceeding in court 1. A State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction in a proceeding in a Court of another State if:) was the State itself to establish the said dossier; or b) Intervened in the process or done any due diligence in relation to the merits of the case. However, if the State demonstrate to the Court that it could not have become aware of the facts on which a request for immunity if he could substantiate, or after having done such diligence may invoke immunity based on these facts, as long as he does it as soon as possible. 2. a State shall not be deemed to have consented to the exercise of the jurisdiction of a Court of another State if it intervenes in legal proceedings or take any other measures with the sole purpose of: a) Invoking immunity; or b) asserting a right relating to a right in the process. 3. The appearance of a representative of a State in a Court of another State as a witness shall not be interpreted as consent to the exercise of jurisdiction by the Court. 4. The non-arrival of a State in a proceeding in a Court of another State shall not be interpreted as consent to the exercise of jurisdiction by the Court.

Article 9 counterclaims 1. A State establishing a process in a Court of another State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction before the same court in respect of any counterclaim arising out of the same legal relationship or from the same facts of the main request. 2. A State which intervenes to apply to proceedings in a Court of another State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction before the same court in respect of any counterclaim arising out of the same legal relationship or from the same facts of the request made by the State. 3. A State which present a counterclaim in proceedings brought against you in a Court of another State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction in that Court in relation to the main request.

PART III proceedings in which States cannot invoke immunity article 10 commercial transactions 1. If a State carrying out a commercial transaction with a foreign natural or legal person and, as a result of the applicable rules of private international law, differences relating to such commercial transactions are subject to the jurisdiction of a Court of another State, the State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction in legal proceedings concerning the same business transaction. 2. paragraph 1 shall not apply to: a) in the case of a commercial transaction between States; or b) If the parties to the commercial transaction have expressly agreed otherwise. 3. When a State enterprise or other entity established by a State with separate legal personality and has the ability to: a) Sue or be sued in the courts; and b) Acquire, to own, possess or have goods, including the goods that this State authorized to explore or manage;

is party to a lawsuit related to a commercial transaction in which that company or entity, the immunity from jurisdiction enjoyed by the State in question will not be affected.

Article 11 contracts of employment 1. Unless otherwise agreed between the States concerned, a State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction in a Court of another State which is competent to hear the case, a judicial process that relates to a contract of employment between the State and an individual for work performed or should be carried out, in whole or in part in the territory of that other State. 2. paragraph 1 shall not apply if: a) the worker was hired to perform specific duties arising from the exercise of public authority; (b)) the worker is: (i) A diplomatic agent, as defined in the Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations of 1961; (ii) A consular officer, as defined in the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963; (iii) a member of the diplomatic staff of the permanent missions and international organisations of special missions, or if it is hired to represent a State at an International Conference; or (iv) any other person who enjoys diplomatic immunity; c) legal proceedings refer to the recruitment, renewal of the contract or reintegration of the worker; d) legal proceedings refer to the unilateral termination of the contract or the dismissal of the worker and, if so determined by the head of State, head of Government or Minister for Foreign Affairs of the employer State, this process puts into question the security interests of that State; and the worker is a national of) State employer at the time of the institution of the legal proceedings, unless the person concerned has permanent residence in the forum State; or f) the employer State and the employee have agreed otherwise in writing, subject to considerations of public policy conferring on the courts of the State of the forum exclusive jurisdiction in relation to the subject-matter of the proceedings.


Article 12 damage to persons and goods unless otherwise agreed between the States concerned, a State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction in a Court of another State which is competent to hear the case, in a case related to a financial claim, in the event of death or of offence to the physical integrity of a person, or in case of damage or loss of material caused by an act or omission alleged to be assigned to the State If the Act or omission occurred, in whole or in part, in the territory of that other State and if the author of the Act or omission was in that territory at the time of the Act or omission.

Article 13 ownership, possession and use of goods unless otherwise agreed between the States concerned, a State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction in a Court of another State that is competent to try the case in a judicial proceeding for the determination of:) any rights of the State on immovable property, your ownership or use, or any obligation of the resulting state of their rights possession or use of immovable property situated in the State of the Forum; b) Any States ' rights over movable or immovable property as a result of an inheritance, gift or bona vacantia; or c) any rights of the State in the administration of property, such as a fideicomissária property, the resulting heritage of a bankrupt or the property of a company in case of dissolution.

Article 14 intellectual and industrial Property unless otherwise agreed between the States concerned, a State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction in a Court of another State which is competent to hear the case, a lawsuit related with: a) the determination of any law of the State in a patent, model or industrial design, trade name or business name, trademark , copyright or any other form of intellectual or industrial property that benefit from some legal protection, even if provisional, in the State of the Forum; or (b) An alleged infringement by the State), in the territory of the State of the Forum, of a right of the kind referred to in subparagraph (a)) belonging to a third party and which is protected in the State of the Forum.

Article 15 Participation in companies or other legal persons 1. A State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction in a Court of another State which is competent to hear the case, a judicial process related to your participation in a company or other legal person, endowed with legal personality or not, when the process relates to relations between the State and the company or other legal person, where: the) Include other participants that no States or international organizations; and (b)) Are registered or have been incorporated under the law of the forum State or having your headquarters or main activity in this State. 2. A State can, however, invoke immunity from jurisdiction in a proceeding if the States concerned have so agreed or if the parties to the dispute so agreed in writing or, if the instrument created or governs the company or other legal person in question contains provisions to this effect.

Article 16 Ships that a State owns or operates 1. Unless otherwise agreed between the States concerned, a State which owns or operates a ship cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction in a Court of another State which is competent to hear the case, in a court case related to the operation of that ship if, at the time of the fact that gave way to action, the ship was to be used for purpose other than the public service without commercial purposes. 2. paragraph 1 does not apply to warships or the naval auxiliaries, nor to other vessels that a State owns or operates and who are, at some point, used exclusively for non-commercial public services. 3. Unless otherwise agreed between the States concerned, a State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction in a Court of another State which is competent to hear the case, in a court case related to the carriage of cargo on board a ship that it owns or operates, if at the moment of the fact that gave way to action the vessel was being used for a purpose other than the public service without commercial purposes. 4. paragraph 3 does not apply to any cargo carried on board vessels referred to in paragraph 2, nor any load that a State owns and which is used or intended to be used exclusively for the purpose of non-commercial public service. 5. States may plead all means of defence, prescription and limitation of liability which are available to private ships and cargoes and their respective owners. 6. If, in a lawsuit, arise a matter related to public and non-commercial nature of a ship of a State owns or operates or of the load that a State is the owner, a certificate signed by a diplomatic representative or other competent authority of that State shall notify the Court, make proof of the nature of the ship or the cargo.

Article 17 effect of an arbitration agreement If a State conclude an agreement in writing with a foreign natural or legal person to submit to arbitration differences relating to a commercial transaction, that State cannot rely, unless otherwise noted in the forecast, the immunity from legal proceedings in a Court of another State which is competent to hear the case in a court case concerning: the validity), interpretation or application of the arbitration agreement; b) To arbitration proceedings; or c) the confirmation or rejection of the arbitration award.

PART IV immunity of States in relation to precautionary measures and related judicial execution article 18 States Immunity in respect of pre-trial supervision measures cannot be taken, in connection with a lawsuit in a Court of another State, any protective measures prior to the judgment against the property of a State, such as the sequestration or attachment unless and to the extent that: (a)) the State consented expressly the application of such measures: (i) By international agreement; (ii) By arbitration agreement or by a written contract; or (iii) by a declaration in court or by written communication after a dispute between the parties has arisen; or (b)) the State has reserved or affected assets for satisfaction of the claim which is the object of this process.


Article 19 States Immunity in respect of implementing measures subsequent to the trial cannot be taken, in connection with a lawsuit in a Court of another State, any implementing measures subsequent to the judgment against the property of a State, such as sequestration, seizure or attachment, except if and to the extent that: (a)) the State consented expressly the application of such measures : (i) By international agreement; (ii) By arbitration agreement or by a written contract; or (iii) by a declaration in court or by written communication after a dispute between the parties has arisen; or (b)) the State has reserved or affected assets for satisfaction of the claim which is the object of that proceeding; or c) Is shown that the goods are specifically used or intended to be used by the State with purpose other than the public service without commercial purposes and are situated in the territory of the State of the Forum, provided that the implementing measures subsequent to the judgment to be taken only against the goods in connection with the entity against which the judicial process was introduced.

Article 20 effect of consent to the exercise of jurisdiction over the adoption of precautionary measures and enforcement in cases where consent to the adoption of precautionary measures and implementation is required under articles 18 and 19, consent to the exercise of jurisdiction under article 7 shall not imply that there is consent to the adoption of precautionary measures and enforcement.

Article 21 specific categories of goods 1. The following categories of property of the State, in particular, are not considered as goods specifically used or intended to be used by the State with purpose other than the public service without commercial purposes under article 19 (c)): a) the goods, including any bank account, used or intended to be used in the exercise of the functions of the diplomatic mission of the State or its consular posts , special missions, missions to international organisations, or delegations to organs of international organizations or to international conferences; b) the assets of a military nature or used or intended for use in the performance of military duties; c) the assets of the central bank or other monetary authority of the State; d) the assets which form part of the cultural heritage of the State or of your files and are not for sale or that are not intended to be sold; and) the goods that are part of an exhibition of objects of scientific, cultural or historical interest that are not for sale or that are not intended to be sold. 2. paragraph 1 shall apply without prejudice to articles 18 and under (a)) and (b)) of article 19.

Part V miscellaneous provisions article 22 service of documents 1 instance introductory. The service of a lawsuit against a State should be handled:) in accordance with any applicable international Convention which is binding on the State of the Forum and to the State concerned; or b) in accordance with any special arrangement in respect of the service between the author of the action and the State in question, if the law of the State of the Forum do not stop; or c) in the absence of a Convention or special arrangement: (i) For communication through diplomatic channels to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the State concerned; or (ii) By any other means accepted by the State concerned, if the law of the State of the Forum do not stop. 2. In the case of point (i) of subparagraph (c)) of paragraph 1, it is considered that the service was made at the time of receipt of the documents by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 3. These documents shall be accompanied, if necessary, a translation into the official language, or one of the official languages of the State concerned. 4. Any State which appear before a court on a matter of merit in a lawsuit brought against you, you will not be able henceforth to claim that the service didn't obey the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3.

Article 23 default Judgment 1. A judgment by default shall not be carried out against a State unless the Court has ensured that: a) the requirements set out in paragraphs 1 and 3 of article 22 were observed; b) Held a period of at least four months from the date on which the service that initiated the process were given or deemed to have been delivered in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 of article 22; and (c)) the present Convention does not prevent you from exercising your jurisdiction. 2. A copy of the sentence on any judgment by default against a State, accompanied if necessary a translation into the official language or one of the official languages of the State concerned, shall be communicated to the same through one of the means referred to in paragraph 1 of article 22, and in accordance with the provisions of that paragraph. 3. the time limit for appeal against a judgment by default shall not be less than four months and will start from the date on which the copy of the judgment is received, or deemed to have been received, by the State in question.

Article 24 privileges and immunities during a process in court 1. Any failure or refusal by a State to comply with a decision of a Court of another State, subpoenaing him to perform or refrain from performing a specific Act, to produce any document or provide any other information for the purposes of a proceeding, will not have any consequences beyond those that might result from this same conduct in relation to the merits of the case. In particular, no fine or penalty shall be applied to that State as a result of failure or refusal to comply with. 2. A State shall not be obliged to provide any security, bond or deposit, whatever your denomination, to guarantee the payment of judicial costs or other expenses in any process that defendant before a Court of another State.

PART VI final provisions article 25 Annex the annex to this Convention makes an integral part of the same.

Article 26 other international agreements nothing in this Convention shall affect the rights and obligations of States parties arising from international agreements addressing of matters contained in the present Convention and which apply in the relations between the parties.


Article 27 settlement of disputes 1. States parties should seek to resolve disputes concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention through negotiation. 2. Any dispute between two or more States parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention which is not settled through negotiation within six months shall, at the request of any one of those States parties, be submitted to arbitration. If, six months after the date of the request for arbitration, the same States parties have not reached an agreement on the Organization of the arbitration, any one of those States parties may take the dispute to the International Court of justice through a request made in accordance with the Statute of the Court. 3. Each State party may, at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance or approval, or accession to this Convention, declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2 of this article. The other States parties shall not be bound by paragraph 2 of this article with respect to any State party which has made such a statement. 4. Any State party having made a declaration in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article may at any time withdraw that Declaration by notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 28 Signature this Convention shall be open for signature by all States until 17 January 2007, at United Nations Headquarters in New York.

Article 29 ratification, acceptance, approval or accession 1. This Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval. 2. this Convention is open to accession by any State. 3. The instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 30 entry into force 1. This Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of the thirtieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. 2. For each State which ratifies, accepts, approves or accedes to this Convention after the deposit of the thirtieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the deposit by that State of your instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

Article 31 Denunciation 1. Any State party may denounce this Convention by means of a written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations. 2. The denunciation shall take effect one year after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary-General of the United Nations. This Convention will continue, however, to apply to any question of jurisdictional immunities of States and their property, raised in a lawsuit brought against a State in a Court of another State prior to the date on which the denunciation shall take effect for any of the States concerned. 3. The denunciation shall not affect the duty of any State party to fulfil any obligation under this Convention to which it would be subject under international law independently of this Convention.

Article 32 Depositary and notifications 1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is hereby designated as the depositary of this Convention. 2. As depositary of this Convention, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall notify all States: a) the signatures of this Convention and the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession or notifications of denunciation, under articles 29 and 31; b) the date of entry into force of this Convention pursuant to article 30; c) other acts, notifications or communications relating to this Convention.

Article 33 authentic texts the texts of this agreement in Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish are equally authentic.

In WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned, being duly authorized by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention, opened for signature at United Nations Headquarters in New York on 17 January 2005.





Annex to the Convention Interpretation agreed in respect of certain Convention provisions this annex aims to establish the understanding assigned by the provisions to which it relates.

Article 10 the term "immunity" in article 10 should be understood in the context of the present Convention in all your.

Paragraph 3 of article 10 does not prejudge the question of "lift the veil of society", or questions relating to a situation where a State entity has deliberately misrepresented the your financial position or subsequently reduced the your assets to avoid satisfying a claim, or other related issues.

Article 11 (d)) of paragraph 2 of article 11, the reference to "security interests" of the employer State, aims to matters of national security and safety of diplomatic missions and consular posts.

Pursuant to article 41 of the Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations of 1961 and article 55 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963, all the persons referred to in those articles have the duty to respect the laws and regulations of the acriditador State, including your employment legislation. At the same time, in accordance with article 38 of the Vienna Convention on diplomatic relations of 1961 and article 71 of the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963, the receiving State has the duty to exercise your jurisdiction so as not to interfere unduly with the performance of the functions of the mission or consular post.

Articles 13 and 14 the term "determination" means not only the examination or verification of the existence of the rights protected, but also how your substance, including the content, scope or extent of such rights.

Article 17 the expression "commercial transaction" includes investment matters.

Article 19 the term "entity" used in subparagraph (c)) means the State as an independent legal person, as well as a constituent unit of a federal State, a subdivision of a State, an agency or public body or other entity having a separate legal personality.

The expression "entity related goods" used in subparagraph (c)) must be understood in a broader sense than ownership or possession.


Article 19 does not prejudge the question of "lift the veil of society", or questions relating to a situation where a State entity has deliberately misrepresented the your financial position or subsequently reduced the your assets to avoid satisfying a claim, or other related issues.

United Nations Convention on Jurisdictional Immunities of States and Their Property The States Parties to the present Convention, Considering that the jurisdictional immunities of States and their property are generally accepted as a principle of customary international law, Having in mind the principles of international law embodied in the Charter of the United Nations, Believing that an international convention on the jurisdictional immunities of States and their property would enhance the rule of law and legal certainty , particularly in dealings of States with natural or juridical persons, and would contribute to the codification and development of international law and the harmonization of practice in this area, Taking into account developments in State practice with regard to the jurisdictional immunities of States and their property, Affirming that the rules of customary international law continue to govern matters not regulated by the provisions of the present Convention , Have agreed as follows: Part I Introduction Article 1 Scope of the present Convention The present Convention applies to the immunity of the State and its property from the jurisdiction of the courts of another State.

Article 2 Use of terms 1. For the purposes of the present Convention: (a) "court" means any organ of a State, however named, entitled to exercise judicial functions; (b) "State" means: (i) the State and its various organs of government; (ii) constituent units of a federal State or political subdivisions of the State, which are entitled to perform acts in the exercise of sovereign authority, and are acting in that capacity; (iii) agencies or instrumentalities of the State or other entities, to the extent that they are entitled to perform and are actually performing acts in the exercise of sovereign authority of the State; (iv) representatives of the State acting in that capacity; (c) "commercial transaction" means: (i) any commercial contract or transaction for the sale of goods or supply of services; (ii) any contract for a loan or other transaction of a financial nature, including any obligation of guarantee or of indemnity in respect of any such loan or transaction; (iii) any other contract or transaction of a commercial, industrial, trading or professional nature, but not including a contract of employment of persons.

2. In determining whether a contract or transaction is a "commercial transaction" under paragraph 1 (c), reference should be made primarily to the nature of the contract or transaction, but its purpose should also be taken into account if the parties to the contract or transaction have so agreed, or if, in the practice of the State of the forum, that purpose is relevant to determining the non-commercial character of the contract or transaction.

3. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 regarding the use of terms in the present Convention are without prejudice to the use of those terms or to the meanings which may be given to them in other international instruments or in the internal law of any State.

Article 3 Privileges and immunities not affected by the present Convention 1. The present Convention is without prejudice to the privileges and immunities enjoyed by a State under international law in relation to the exercise of the functions of: (a) its diplomatic missions, consular posts, special missions, missions to international organizations or delegations to organs of international organizations or to international conferences; and (b) persons connected with them.

2. The present Convention is without prejudice to privileges and immunities accorded under international law to heads of State ratione personae.

3. The present Convention is without prejudice to the immunities enjoyed by a State under international law with respect to aircraft or space objects owned or operated by the State.

Article 4 Non-retroactivity of the present Convention Without prejudice to the application of any rules set forth in the present Convention to which jurisdictional immunities of States and their property are subject under international law independently of the present Convention, the present Convention shall not apply to any question of jurisdictional immunities of States or their property arising in a proceeding instituted against a State before a court of another State prior to the entry into force of the present Convention for the States concerned.

Part II General principles Article 5 State immunity A State enjoys immunity, in respect of itself and its property, from the jurisdiction of the courts of another State subject to the provisions of the present Convention.

Article 6 Modalities for giving effect to State immunity 1. The State shall give effect to State immunity under article 5 by refraining from exercising jurisdiction in a proceeding before its courts against another State and to that end shall ensure that its courts determine on their own initiative that the immunity of that other State under article 5 is respected.

2. The proceeding before the court of a State shall be considered to have been instituted against another State if that other State: (a) is named as a party to that proceeding; or (b) is not named as a party to the proceeding but the proceeding in effect seeks to affect the property, rights, interests or activities of that other State.

Article 7 Express consent to exercise of jurisdiction 1. A State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction in a proceeding before a court of another State with regard to a matter or case if it has expressly consented to the exercise of jurisdiction by the court with regard to the matter or case: (a) by international agreement; (b) in a written contract; or (c) by a declaration before the court or by a written communication in a specific proceeding.

2. Agreement by a State for the application of the law of another State shall not be interpreted as consent to the exercise of jurisdiction by the courts of that other State.

Article 8 Effect of participation in a proceeding before the court 1. A State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction in a proceeding before a court of another State if it has: (a) itself instituted the proceeding; or (b) intervened in the proceeding or taken any other step relating to the merits. However, if the State satisfies the court that it could not have acquired knowledge of facts on which the claim to immunity can be based until after it took such a step, it can claim immunity based on those facts, provided it does so at the earliest possible moment.


2. A State shall not be considered to have consented to the exercise of jurisdiction by the court of another State if it intervenes in a proceeding or takes any other step for the sole purpose of: (a) invoking immunity; or (b) asserting a right or interest in property at issue in the proceeding.

3. The appearance of a representative of a State before a court of another State as a witness shall not be interpreted as consent by the former State to the exercise of jurisdiction by the court.

4. Failure on the part of the State to enter an appearance in a proceeding before a court of another State shall not be interpreted as consent by the former State to the exercise of jurisdiction by the court.

Article 9 Counterclaims 1. A State instituting a proceeding before a court of another State cannot invoke immunity from the jurisdiction of the court in respect of any counterclaim arising out of the same legal relationship or facts as the principal claim.

2. A State intervening to present a claim in a proceeding before a court of another State cannot invoke immunity from the jurisdiction of the court in respect of any counterclaim arising out of the same legal relationship or facts as the claim presented by the State.

3. A State making a counterclaim in a proceeding instituted against it before a court of another State cannot invoke immunity from the jurisdiction of the court in respect of the principal claim.

Part III Proceedings in which State immunity cannot be invoked Article 10 Commercial transactions 1. If a State engages in a commercial transaction with a foreign natural or juridical person and, by virtue of the applicable rules of private international law, differences relating to the commercial transaction fall within the jurisdiction of a court of another State, the State cannot invoke immunity from that jurisdiction in a proceeding arising out of that commercial transaction.

2. Paragraph 1 does not apply: (a) in the case of a commercial transaction between States; or (b) if the parties to the commercial transaction have expressly agreed otherwise.

3. Where a State enterprise or other entity established by the State which has an independent legal personality and is capable of: (a) suing or being sued; and (b) acquiring, owning or possessing and disposing of property, including property which that State has authorized it to operate or manage, is involved in a proceeding which relates to a commercial transaction in which that entity is engaged, the immunity from jurisdiction enjoyed by that State shall not be affected.

Article 11 Contracts of employment 1. Unless otherwise agreed between the States concerned, a State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction before a court of another State which is otherwise competent in a proceeding which relates to a contract of employment between the State and an individual for work performed or to be performed, in whole or in part, in the territory of that other State.

2. Paragraph 1 does not apply if: (a) the employee has been recruited to perform particular functions in the exercise of governmental authority; (b) the employee is: (i) the diplomatic agent, as defined in the Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations of 1961; (ii) the consular officer, as defined in the Vienna Convention on Consular Relations of 1963; (iii) a member of the diplomatic staff of the permanent mission to an international organization or of a special mission, or is recruited to represent a State at an international conference; or (iv) any other person enjoying diplomatic immunity; (c) the subject-matter of the proceeding is the recruitment, renewal of employment or reinstatement of an individual; (d) the subject-matter of the proceeding is the dismissal or termination of employment of an individual and, as determined by the head of State, the head of Government or the Minister for Foreign Affairs of the employer State, such a proceeding would interfere with the security interests of that State; (e) the employee is a national of the employer State at the time when the proceeding is instituted, unless this person has the permanent residence in the State of the forum; or (f) the employer State and the employee have otherwise agreed in writing, subject to any considerations of public policy conferring on the courts of the State of the forum exclusive jurisdiction by reason of the subject-matter of the proceeding.

Article 12 Personal injuries and damage to property Unless otherwise agreed between the States concerned, a State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction before a court of another State which is otherwise competent in a proceeding which relates to pecuniary compensation for death or injury to the person, or damage to or loss of tangible property, caused by an act or omission which is alleged to be attributable to the State , if the act or omission occurred in whole or in part in the territory of that other State and if the author of the act or omission was present in that territory at the time of the act or omission.

Article 13 Ownership, possession and use of property Unless otherwise agreed between the States concerned, a State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction before a court of another State which is otherwise competent in a proceeding which relates to the determination of: (a) any right or interest of the State in, or its possession or use of, or any obligation of the State arising out of its interest in , or its possession or use of, immovable property situated in the State of the forum; (b) any right or interest of the State in movable or immovable property arising by way of succession, gift or bona vacantia; or (c) any right or interest of the State in the administration of property, such as trust property, the estate of a bankrupt or the property of the company in the event of its winding up.

Article 14 Intellectual and industrial property Unless otherwise agreed between the States concerned, a State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction before a court of another State which is otherwise competent in a proceeding which relates to: (a) the determination of any right of the State in a patent, industrial design, trade name or business name, trademark, copyright or any other form of intellectual or industrial property which enjoys a measure of legal protection , even if provisional, in the State of the forum; or (b) an alleged infringement by the State, in the territory of the State of the forum, of a right of the nature mentioned in subparagraph (a) which belongs to a third person and is protected in the State of the forum.


Article 15 Participation in companies or other collective bodies 1. A State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction before a court of another State which is otherwise competent in a proceeding which relates to its participation in the company or other collective body, whether incorporated or unincorporated, being a proceeding concerning the relationship between the State and the body or the other participants therein, provided that the body: (a) has participants other than States or international organizations; and (b) is incorporated or constituted under the law of the State of the forum or has its seat or principal place of business in that State.

2. A State can, however, invoke immunity from jurisdiction in such a proceeding if the States concerned have so agreed or if the parties to the dispute have so provided by an agreement in writing or if the instrument establishing or regulating the body in question contains provisions to that effect.

Article 16 Ships owned or operated by the State 1. Unless otherwise agreed between the States concerned, a State which owns or operates a ship cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction before a court of another State which is otherwise competent in a proceeding which relates to the operation of that ship if, at the time the cause of action arose, the ship was used for other than government non-commercial purposes.

2. Paragraph 1 does not apply to warships, naval auxiliaries or, nor does it apply to other vessels owned or operated by a State and used, for the time being, only on government non-commercial service.

3. Unless otherwise agreed between the States concerned, a State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction before a court of another State which is otherwise competent in a proceeding which relates to the carriage of cargo on board a ship owned or operated by that State if, at the time the cause of action arose, the ship was used for other than government non-commercial purposes.

4. Paragraph 3 does not apply to any cargo carried on board the ships referred to in paragraph 2, nor does it apply to any cargo owned by a State and used or intended for use exclusively for government non-commercial purposes.

5. States may plead all measures of defence, prescription and limitation of liability which are available to private ships and cargoes and their owners.

6. If in a proceeding there arises a question relating to the government and non-commercial character of a ship owned or operated by a State or cargo owned by a State, a certificate signed by a diplomatic representative or other competent authority of that State and communicated to the court shall serve as evidence of the character of that ship or cargo.

Article 17 Effect of an arbitration agreement If a State enters into an agreement in writing with a foreign natural or juridical person to submit to arbitration differences relating to a commercial transaction, that State cannot invoke immunity from jurisdiction before a court of another State which is otherwise competent in a proceeding which relates to: (a) the validity, interpretation or application of the arbitration agreement; (b) the arbitration procedure; or (c) the confirmation or the setting aside of the award, unless the arbitration agreement otherwise provides.

Part IV State immunity from measures of constraint in connection with proceedings before the court Article 18 State immunity from measures of constraint pre-judgment in judgment measures of constraint, such as attachment or arrest, against property of a State may be taken in connection with a proceeding before a court of another State unless and except to the extent that: (a) the State has expressly consented to the taking of such measures as indicated : (i) by international agreement; (ii) by an arbitration agreement or in a written contract; or (iii) by a declaration before the court or by a written communication after a dispute between the parties has arisen; or (b) the State has allocated or earmarked property for the satisfaction of the claim which is the object of that proceeding.

Article 19 State immunity from measures of constraint post-judgment in the post-judgment measures of constraint, such as attachment, arrest or execution, against property of a State may be taken in connection with a proceeding before a court of another State unless and except to the extent that: (a) the State has expressly consented to the taking of such measures as indicated: (i) by international agreement; (ii) by an arbitration agreement or in a written contract; or (iii) by a declaration before the court or by a written communication after a dispute between the parties has arisen; or (b) the State has allocated or earmarked property for the satisfaction of the claim which is the object of that proceeding; or (c) it has been established that the property is specifically in use or intended for use by the State for other than government non-commercial purposes and is in the territory of the State of the forum, provided that post-judgment measures of constraint may only be taken against property that has a connection with the entity against which the proceeding was directed.

Article 20 Effect of consent to jurisdiction to measures of constraint Where consent to the measures of constraint is required under articles 18 and 19, consent to the exercise of jurisdiction under article 7 shall not imply consent to the taking of measures of constraint.

Article 21 Specific categories of property 1. The following categories, in particular, of property of a State shall not be considered as property specifically in use or intended for use by the State for other than government non-commercial purposes under article 19, subparagraph (c): (a) property, including any bank account, which is used or intended for use in the performance of the functions of the diplomatic mission of the State or its consular posts , special missions, missions to international organizations or delegations to organs of international organizations or to international conferences; (b) property of a military character or used or intended for use in the performance of military functions; (c) property of the central bank or other monetary authority of the State; (d) property forming part of the cultural heritage of the State or part of its archives and not placed or intended to be placed on sale; (e) property forming part of an exhibition of objects of scientific, cultural or historical interest and not placed or intended to be placed on sale.

2. Paragraph 1 is without prejudice to article 18 and article 19, subparagraphs (a) and (b).

Part V Miscellaneous provisions


Article 22 Service of process 1. Service of process by writ or other document instituting a proceeding against a State shall be effected: (a) in accordance with any applicable international convention binding on the State of the forum and the State concerned; or (b) in accordance with any special arrangement for service between the claimant and the State concerned, if not precluded by the law of the State of the forum; or (c) in the absence of such a convention or special arrangement: (i) by transmission through diplomatic channels to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the State concerned; or (ii) by any other means accepted by the State concerned, if not precluded by the law of the State of the forum.

2. Service of process referred to in paragraph 1 (c) (i) is deemed to have been effected by receipt of the documents by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

3. These documents shall be accompanied, if necessary, by a translation into the official language, or one of the official languages, of the State concerned.

4. Any State that enters an appearance on the merits in a proceeding instituted against it may not thereafter assert that service of process did not comply with the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3.

Article 23 Default judgment 1. A default judgment shall not be rendered against a State unless the court has found that: (a) the requirements laid down in article 22, paragraphs 1 and 3, have been complied with; (b) a period of not less than four months has expired from the date on which the service of the writ or other document instituting a proceeding has been effected or deemed to have been effected in accordance with article 22, paragraphs 1 and 2; and (c) the present Convention does not preclude it from exercising jurisdiction.

2. A copy of any default judgment rendered against a State, accompanied if necessary by a translation into the official language or one of the official languages of the State concerned, shall be transmitted to it through one of the means specified in article 22, paragraph 1, and in accordance with the provisions of that paragraph.

3. The time-limit for applying to have a default judgment set aside shall not be less than four months and shall begin to run from the date on which the copy of the judgment is received or is deemed to have been received by the State concerned.

Article 24 Privileges and immunities during court proceedings 1. Any failure or refusal by a State to comply with an order of a court of another State enjoining it to perform or refrain from performing a specific act or to produce any document or disclose any other information for the purposes of a proceeding shall entail the consequences other than those which may result from such conduct in relation to the merits of the case. In particular, in the fine or penalty shall be imposed on the State by reason of such failure or refusal.

2. A State shall not be required to provide any security, bond or deposit, however described, to guarantee the payment of judicial costs or expenses in any proceeding to which it is a respondent party before a court of another State.

Part VI Final clauses Article 25 Annex The annex to the present Convention forms an integral part of the Convention.

Article 26 Other international agreements Nothing in the present Convention shall affect the rights and obligations of States Parties under existing international agreements which relate to matters dealt with in the present Convention as between the parties to those agreements.

Article 27 Settlement of disputes 1. States Parties shall endeavour to settle disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the present Convention through negotiation.

2. Any dispute between two or more States Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present Convention which cannot be settled through negotiation within six months shall, at the request of any of those States Parties, be submitted to arbitration. If, six months after the date of the request for arbitration, those States Parties are unable to agree on the organization of the arbitration, any of those States Parties may refer the dispute to the International Court of Justice by request in accordance with the Statute of the Court.

3. Each State Party may, at the time of signature, ratification, acceptance or approval of, or accession to, the present Convention, declare that it does not consider itself bound by paragraph 2. The other States Parties shall not be bound by paragraph 2 with respect to any State Party which has made such a declaration.

4. Any State Party that has made a declaration in accordance with paragraph 3 may at any time withdraw that declaration by notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 28 Signature The present Convention shall be open for signature by all States until 17 January 2007, at United Nations Headquarters, New York.

Article 29 Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession 1. The present Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval.

2. The present Convention shall remain open for accession by any State.

3. The instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

Article 30 Entry into force 1. The present Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of deposit of the thirtieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with the Secretary General of the United Nations.

2. For each State ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to the present Convention after the deposit of the thirtieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

Article 31 Denunciation 1. Any State Party may denounce the present Convention by written notification to the Secretary-General of the United Nations.

2. Denunciation shall take effect one year following the date on which notification is received by the Secretary General of the United Nations. The present Convention shall, however, continue to apply to any question of jurisdictional immunities of States or their property arising in a proceeding instituted against a State before a court of another State prior to the date on which the denunciation takes effect for any of the States concerned.

3. The denunciation shall not in any way affect the duty of any State Party to fulfil any obligation embodied in the present Convention to which it would be subject under international law independently of the present Convention.

Article 32 Depositary and notifications 1. The Secretary-General of the United Nations is designated the depositary of the present Convention.


2. The depositary of the present Convention, the Secretary General of the United Nations shall inform all States of the following: (a) signatures of the present Convention and the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession or notifications of denunciation, in accordance with articles 29 and 31; (b) the date on which the present Convention will enter into force, in accordance with article 30; (c) any acts, notifications or communications relating to the present Convention.

Article 33 Authentic texts The Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts of the present Convention are equally authentic.

In WITNESS WHEREOF, the Arbitration Forum, being authorized thereto by their respective Surani Governments, have signed this Convention opened for signature at United Nations Headquarters in New York on 17 January 2005. Annex to the Convention Understandings with respect to certain provisions of the Convention The present annex is for the purpose of setting out understandings relating to the provisions concerned.

With respect to article 10 The term "immunity" in article 10 is to be understood in the context of the present Convention as a whole.

Article 10, paragraph 3, does not prejudge the question of "piercing the corporate veil", questions relating to a situation where a State entity has deliberately misrepresented its financial position or subsequently reduced its assets to avoid satisfying a claim, or other related issues.

With respect to article 11 The reference in article 11, paragraph 2 (d), to the "security interests" of the employer State is intended primarily to address matters of national security and the security of diplomatic missions and consular posts.

Under article 41 of the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and article 55 of the 1963 Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, all persons referred to in those articles have the duty to respect the laws and regulations, including labour laws, of the host country. At the same time, under article 38 of the 1961 Vienna Convention on Diplomatic Relations and article 71 of the 1963 Vienna Convention on Consular Relations, the receiving State has a duty to exercise its jurisdiction in such a manner as not to interfere unduly with the performance of the functions of the mission or the consular post.

With respect to articles 13 and 14 The expression "determination" is used to refer not only to the ascertainment or verification of the existence of the rights protected, but also to the evaluation or assessment of the substance, including content, scope and extent of such rights.

With respect to article 17 The expression "commercial transaction" includes investment matters.

With respect to article 19 The expression "entity" in subparagraph (c) means the State as an independent legal personality, a constituent unit of a federal State, a subdivision of a State, an agency or instrumentality of a State or other entity, which enjoys independent legal personality. The words "property that has a connection with the entity" in subparagraph (c) are to be understood as broader than ownership or possession. Article 19 does not prejudge the question of "piercing the corporate veil", questions relating to a situation where a State entity has deliberately misrepresented its financial position or subsequently reduced its assets to avoid satisfying a claim, or other related issues.

Convention des Nations Unies sur l ' immunité juridictionnelle des États et de leurs biens Les États Parties à la presente Convention, les immunités juridictionnelles to Considérant des États et de leurs biens procèdent d'un principe du droit international coutumier généralement accepté, à l'esprit les Ayant principes du droit international dans la Charte consacrés des Nations Unies, Convaincus qu ' une convention internationale sur les immunités juridictionnelles des États et de leurs biens renforcerait la prééminence du droit et la sécurité juridique , en particulier dans les rapports entre les États et les personnes physiques et morales, et contribuerait à la codification et au développement du droit international et à harmonisation des dans ce domaine, practise Tenant compte de l ' évolution de la pratique des États en ce qui les immunités juridictionnelles concerns des États et de leurs biens, les règles du droit to Affirmant international coutumier continuent de régir "lead les questions qui n'ont pas été réglées dans les dispositions de la presente Convention , Sont convenus de ce qui suit: Première partie Introduction Article premier La Portée de la presente Convention this Convention s ' applique à immunité de juridiction d'un État et de ses biens devant les tribunaux d'un autre État.

Article 2 Emploi des termes 1. Aux de la presente Convention purposes: a) Le terme «tribunal»» s ' entend de tout organe d'un État, quelle soit sa dénomination, habilité that the exercise des fonctions judiciaires; b) Le terme «État» désigne: i) L ' État et ses divers organes de gouvernement; II) Les side d'un État fédéral ou les subdivisions politiques de l ' État, qui sont habilitées à accomplir des actes dans l'exercice de l ' autorité souveraine et agissent to ce titre; III) Les établissements organismes d ' État or or autres entités, realised how dès qu'ils sont habilités à accomplir et accomplissent effectivement des actes dans l'exercice de l ' autorité souveraine de l ' État; IV) Les représentants de l ' État agissant à ce titre; c) L ' expression ' transaction commerciale» désigne: i) Tout contrat or transaction of plume commercial pour la vente de biens ou la prestation de services; II) Tout contrat de prêt ou autre transaction nature financière, y compris toute obligation de garantie or on en rapport avec un tel une telle transaction ou prêt; III) Tout autre contrat or transaction of nature commerciale, industrielle ou portant sur la fourniture de biens or services, à l'Exclusion d'un contrat de travail.

2. Pour déterminer si un contrat ou une transaction est une «transaction commerciale» au sens de l ' alinéa c du paragraphe 1, il convient de flat compte en premier lieu de la nature du contrat ou de la transaction, il faudrait aussi prendre more en considération si les parties au son but contrat ou à la transaction en sont convenues ainsi, or si , dans la pratique de l ' État du is, EC but pertinent pour déterminer la nature est non commerciale du contrat ou de la transaction.

3. Les dispositions des paragraphes 1 et 2 concernant l'emploi des termes dans la presente Convention n affectent l'emploi de ces termes pas ni le sens qui peut leur être donné dans d'autres instruments internationaux or dans le droit interne d'un État.


Privilèges et immunités 3 article non affectés par la presente Convention 1. La presente Convention n ' les privilèges et immunités affecte pas dont jouit un État en vertu du droit international en ce qui concerns l'exercice des fonctions:) De ses missions diplomatiques, consulaires poles, ses of ses missions spéciales, de ses missions auprès des organisations internationales, or de ses délégations dans les organes des organisations internationales or aux conférences internationales; et b) Des personnes qui y sont attachées.

2. La presente Convention n ' pas non plus les affecte privilèges et immunités que le droit international reconnaît aux chefs d ' État ratione personae.

3. La presente Convention n ' les privilèges et immunités affecte pas que le droit international à un État reconnaît concernant des aéronefs or des objets spatiaux lui appartenant ou exploités par lui.

Article 4 Non-rétroactivité de la presente Convention Sans préjudice de règles énoncées dans toutes application la auxquelles les immunités juridictionnelles presente Convention des États et de leurs biens sont soumises en vertu du droit international indépendamment de la presente Convention, cette dernière ne s ' applique à aucune question relative aux immunités juridictionnelles des États leurs biens or soulevée dans une procédure intentée contre un État devant un tribunal d'un autre État avant l ' entrée en vigueur de la presente Convention entre les États concernés.

Deuxième partie Principes généraux Article 5 Immunité des États Un État jouit, pour lui-même et pour ses biens, de l ' immunité de juridiction devant les tribunaux d'un autre État, sous réserve des dispositions de la presente Convention.

Article 6 Modalités pour donner effet à l ' immunité des États 1. UN État donne effet à l ' immunité des États prévue par l'article 5 en s ' abstenant d sa juridiction dans une procédure exercise devant ses tribunaux contre un autre État et, à cette fin, veille à ce que ses établissent tribunaux d ' office that l ' immunité de cet autre État prévue par l'article 5 est respectée.

2. Une procédure devant un tribunal d'un État est considérée comme étant intentée contre un autre État lorsque celui-ci Est cité comme: a) partie à la procédure; or b) n'est pas cité comme partie à la procédure, cette procédure aiming more than en fait à porter atteinte aux biens, droits, interets or activités de cet autre État.

Article 7 Consentement exprès à l'exercice de la juridiction 1. UN État ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction dans une procédure devant un tribunal d'un autre État à l ' égard d'une matière or d'une affaire s'il the consented expressément à l'exercice de la juridiction de ce à l ' égard de cette Court en matière de cette affaire: or) accord international; b) Dans un contrat écrit; or c) Par une déclaration devant le tribunal ou une communication écrite dans une procédure déterminée.

2. L ' accord donné par un État pour l ' application de la loi d'un autre État n'est pas réputé valoir consentement à l'exercice de la juridiction des tribunaux de cet autre État.

Article 8 Effet de la participation à une procédure devant un tribunal 1. UN État ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction dans une procédure devant un tribunal d'un autre État: a) s'il a lui-même procédure ladite intenté; or b) Si, quant au fond, il est intervenu à ladite procédure or y a quelque façon participé of that ce soit. Cependant it, si l ' État au Court prouve qu'il n'a pu avoir connaissance de faits sur lesquels une demande d ' immunité peut être fondée après avoir participé qu ' à la procédure, il peut invoquer l ' immunité sur la base de ces faits, à condition de le faire sans retard.

2. Un État n'est pas réputé avoir consented to l'exercice de la juridiction d'un Court d'un autre État intervient dans une procédure s'il y à seule fin participates or: a) D ' l ' immunité invoquer; or b faire valoir un droit) or un intérêt à l ' égard d'un bien en cause dans la procédure.

3. La comparution d'un représentant "d'un État devant un tribunal d'un autre État comme témoin n'est pas du consentement valoir réputée premier État à l'exercice de la juridiction of EC Court.

4. Le défaut de comparution d'un État dans une procédure devant un tribunal d'un autre État ne saurait s ' interpréter comme valant consentement du premier État à l'exercice de la juridiction of EC Court.

Article 9 Claim 1 reconventionnelles. UN État qui attempt une procédure devant un tribunal d'un autre État ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction devant ce qui en Court ledit concerns une demande reconventionnelle qui est fondée sur le même rapport de droit ou les mêmes faits que la demande principale.

2. Un État qui intervient pour introduire une demande dans une procédure devant un tribunal d'un autre État ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction devant ce qui en Court ledit concerns une demande reconventionnelle qui est fondée sur le même rapport de droit ou les mêmes faits que la demande introduite par lui.

3. Un État qui introduit une demande reconventionnelle dans une procédure intentée contre lui devant un tribunal d'un autre État ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction devant ce qui en Court ledit concerns la demande principale.

Troisième partie Procédures dans lesquelles les États peuvent ne pas invoquer l ' immunité Article 10 Transactions commerciales 1. SI un État, avec une personne effectue physique or morale étrangère, une transaction commerciale et si, en vertu des règles applicables de droit international privé, les contestations relatives à cette transaction commerciale-relevent de la juridiction d'un Court d'un autre État, l ' État ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction dans une procédure devant ce Court découlant de ladite transaction.

2. Le paragraphe 1 ne s ' applique pas: a) Dans le cas d'une transaction commerciale entre États; or b) Si les parties à la transaction commerciale en sont convenues expressément autrement.

3. Lorsqu ' une entreprise d ' État or une autre entité créée par l ' État qui est dotée d'une personnalité juridique distincte et la capacité:) Of Esther et d'etre attrait en justice; et b) D ' acquérir, de détenir et posséder or céder des biens, y compris des biens that l ' État l'a autorisée the exploiter or gérer impliquée dans une procédure est if rapportant à une transaction commerciale dans laquelle elle est engagée, l ' immunité de juridiction dont jouit l ' État concerné n'est pas affectée.


Article 11 Contrats de travail 1. Les États concernés à moins that n ' en conviennent autrement, un État ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction devant un tribunal d'un autre État compétent en l ' espèce, dans une procédure if rapportant à un contrat de travail entre l ' État et une personne physique pour un travail accompli or devant être accompli, en totalité ou en partie, sur le territoire de cet autre État.

2. Le paragraphe 1 ne s ' applique pas:) Si l ' employé a été engagé pour s ' acquitter de fonctions particulières dans l'exercice de la puissance publique; b) Si l ' employé est: i) Agent diplomatique, tel that défini dans la Convention de Vienne sur les relations diplomatiques of 1961; II) Fonctionnaire consulaire, tel that défini dans la Convention de Vienne sur les relations consulaires of 1963; III) Membre du personnel diplomatique d'une mission permanente auprès d'une organisation internationale, or d'une mission spéciale, or s'il est engagé pour représenter un État d'une conférence internationale realised how; or iv) s'il s ' agit de toute autre personne jouissant de l ' immunité diplomatique; c) Si l ' action pour objet l ' engagement, le requests de engagement or la réintégration d'un candidat; d) Si l ' action pour objet le licenciement ou la résiliation du contrat d'un employé et si, de avis du chef de l ' État, du chef du gouvernement du Ministre des affaires étrangères ou de l ' État employeur, cette action risque d ' interférer avec les intérêts de l ' État en matière de sécurité; and) Si l ' employé est ressortissant employeur de l ' État au moment où l'action est engagée, à moins qu'il n ' ait sa résidence permanente dans l ' État du is; or f) Si l ' employé et l ' État employeur en sont convenus autrement par écrit, sous réserve de considérations d ' ordre public conférant aux tribunaux de l ' État du is exclusive juridiction en raison de l ' objet de l'action.

Article 12 Atteintes à l ' intégrité physique d'une personne ou dommages aux biens À moins that les États concernés n en conviennent autrement, un État ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction devant un tribunal d'un autre État compétent en l ' espèce, dans une procédure if rapportant à une action en réparation pécuniaire en cas de décès ou d ' intégrité physique à atteinte d'une personne, ou en cas de dommage or part d'un bien corporel , dus à un acte or une omission prétendument attribuables à l ' État, si cet acte ou cette "omission" If sont produits, en totalité ou en partie, sur le territoire de cet autre État et si L'auteur de acte or of l ' était présent sur ce "omission" territoire au moment de l ' acte or of the omission.

Article 13 Propriété, possession et usage of biens les États concernés À moins that n ' en conviennent autrement, un État ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction devant un tribunal d'un autre État compétent en l ' espèce, dans une procédure if rapportant à la détermination:) d'un droit ou intérêt de l ' État sur un bien immobilier situé sur le territoire de l ' État du is , de la possession du bien immobilier par l ' État ou de usage qu'il en fait, d'une obligation ou de l ' État en raison de son intérêt juridique au regard de ce bien immobilier, sa possession or son usage; b) d'un droit ou intérêt de l ' État sur un bien immobilier né d'une mobilier or succession, d'une donation or d'une vacance; or c) d'un droit ou intérêt de l ' État dans l'administration de tels biens that biens en biens faisant partie trust du patrimoine d'un failli ou biens d'une société en cas de dissolution.

Article 14 Propriété intellectuelle et industrielle À moins that les États concernés n en conviennent autrement, un État ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction devant un tribunal d'un autre État compétent en l ' espèce, dans une procédure if rapportant à: a) La détermination d'un droit de l ' État sur un brevet, un dessin industriel, un nom modèle or commercial or une raison sociale, une marque de fabrique or commerce or un droit d'auteur ou toute autre forme de propriété intellectuelle ou industrielle , qui bénéficie d'une mesure de protection juridique, même, dans l ' État provisoire du is; or b) Une allégation of non-respect par l ' État, sur le territoire de l ' État du is, d'un droit du type visé à l ' alinéa appartenant à un tiers et a protégé par l ' État du is.

Article 15 Participation à des sociétés autres or groupements 1. UN État ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction devant un tribunal d'un autre État compétent en l ' espèce, dans une procédure if rapportant à sa participation dans une société or un groupement ayant la personnalité juridique et or non concernant les rapports entre l ' État et la société ou le groupement ou les autres parties, dès que la société ou le realised how groupement : Comprennent des autres parties) that des États or des organisations internationales; et b) Sont enregistrés or constitués selon la loi de l ' État du is ont leur siège ou leur lieu d ' activité or main dans cet État.

2. Un État peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction toutefois dans une telle procédure si les États intéressés en sont convenus ainsi les parties au différend or si en ont ainsi disposé par écrit accord or si l'instrument établissant or régissant la société ou le groupement contient des dispositions en question to cet effet.

Article 16 Navires dont un État est le propriétaire ou l ' 1 exploitant. Les États concernés à moins that n ' en conviennent autrement, un État propriétaire exploitant d'un navire or ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction devant un tribunal d'un autre État compétent en l ' espèce, dans une procédure if rapportant à ce navire exploitation si, au moment du fait qui a donné lieu à l'action, le navire était utilisé autrement qu ' à des service purposes public non commerciales.

2. Le paragraphe 1 ne s ' applique ni aux navires de guerre et navires auxiliaires, ni aux autres navires dont un État est le propriétaire ou l ' exploitant et qui sont, pour le moment, exclusivement utilisés, pour un service public non commercial.

3. les États concernés À moins that n ' en conviennent autrement, un État ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction devant un tribunal d'un autre État compétent en l ' espèce, dans une procédure if rapportant au transport d'une à bord d'un navire cargaison dont un État est le propriétaire ou l ' exploitant si, au moment du fait qui a donné lieu à l'action, le navire était utilisé autrement qu ' à des service purposes public non commerciales.


4. Le paragraphe 3 ne s ' applique ni to une cargaison transportée bord des navires visés au paragraphe 2 ni à une cargaison dont un État est propriétaire et qui est destinée à être utilisée or exclusivement utilisée à des service purposes public non commerciales.

5. Les États peuvent invoquer tous les light Middleweight de défense, et de responsabilité prescription limitation of dont peuvent se prévaloir les navires et privés et leurs cargaisons propriétaires. 6. Si, dans une procédure, la question du plume et non gouvernemental commercial d'un navire dont un État est le propriétaire ou l ' exploitant or d'une cargaison dont un État est propriétaire if posée, la production trouve devant le tribunal d'une attestation signée par un autre autorité compétente représentant "diplomatique or de cet État vaudra preuve du plume de ce navire ou de cette cargaison.

Article 17 Effet d'un accord d Si un État conclut arbitrage écrit par un accord avec une personne physique ou morale étrangère afin de soumettre à l'arbitrage des contestations relatives à une transaction commerciale, cet État ne peut invoquer l ' immunité de juridiction devant un tribunal d'un autre État compétent en l ' espèce, dans une procédure if rapportant À la validité a), à l ' interprétation ou à application de accord d arbitrage; b À la procédure d ' arbitrage); or c) À la confirmation or au rejet de la sentence arbitrale, moins that l ' accord d arbitrage n en dispose autrement.

Quatrième partie Immunité des États à l ' égard des mesures de contrainte en relation avec une procédure devant un tribunal Article 18 Immunité des États à l ' égard des mesures de contraintes antérieures au jugement Il ne peut être procédé à aucune mesure antérieurement au jugement de contrainte, telle saisie-arrêt saisie or that, contre les biens d'un État en relation avec une procédure devant un tribunal d'un autre État , excepté si et dans la mesure où:) L ' État the expressément consented à application telles mesures dans les termes indiqués Par un accord: i) international; II) une convention of arbitrage or un contrat écrit; or iii) Par une déclaration devant le tribunal ou une communication écrite queenette après la survenance d'un différend entre les parties; or b) L ' État a affecté des biens or réservé à la satisfaction de la demande qui fait l ' objet de cette procédure.

Article 19 Immunité des États à l ' égard des mesures de contrainte au jugement postérieures Aucune mesure de contrainte postérieure au jugement, telle that saisy, saisiearrêt or saisie-exécution, ne peut être prise contre des biens d'un État en relation avec une procédure devant un tribunal intentée d'un autre État excepté si et dans la mesure où:) L ' État the expressément consented à application telles mesures dans les termes indiqués : i) Par un accord international; II) une convention of arbitrage or un contrat écrit; or iii) Par une déclaration devant le tribunal ou une communication écrite queenette après la survenance du différend entre les parties; or b) L ' État a affecté des biens or réservé à la satisfaction de la demande qui fait l ' objet de cette procédure; or c) Il été établi les biens's that sont destinés à être utilisés spécifiquement or utilisés par l ' État autrement qu ' à un service public purposes non commerciales et sont situés sur le territoire de l ' État du is, the condition that les mesures de contrainte postérieures au jugement ne portent that sur des biens qui ont un lien avec l ' entité contre laquelle la procédure a été intentée.

Article 20 Effet du consentement à l'exercice de la juridiction sur l ' adoption of mesures de contrainte Dans les cas où le consentement à adoption of mesures de contrainte est requise en vertu des articles 18 et 19, le consentement à l'exercice de la juridiction au titre de l'article 7 n implies pas qu'il y ait consentement à adoption of mesures de contrainte.

Article 21 spécifiques de biens Catégories 1. Les catégories de biens d ' État ci-après ne sont pas considérées comme notamment des biens destinés à être utilisés spécifiquement or utilisés par l ' État autrement qu ' à un service public purposes non commerciales au sens des dispositions de l ' alinéa c de l'article 19: a) Les biens, y compris les comptes bancaires, destinés à être utilisés ou utilisés dans l'exercice des fonctions de la mission diplomatique de l ' État ou de ses postes consulaires , de ses missions spéciales, de ses missions auprès des organisations internationales, or de ses délégations dans les organes des organisations internationales or aux conférences internationales; b) Les biens de plume militaire ou les biens destinés à être utilisés ou utilisés dans l'exercice de fonctions militaires; c) Les biens de la banque centrale or d'une autre autorité monétaire de l ' État; d Les biens faisant partie) du patrimoine culturel de l ' État ou de ses archives qui ne sont pas mis or être mis en vente destinés à; and Les biens faisant partie) d'une exposition d ' objets d ' intérêt scientifique, culturel qui ne sont pas historique or mis destinés à être mis or en vente.

2. Le paragraphe 1 est sans préjudice de l'article 18 et des alinéas a et b) de l'article 19.

Cinquième partie Dispositions diverses Article 22 Signification or notification des actes introductifs d'instance 1. La signification or la notification d'une assignation à toute autre pièce or instituant une procédure contre un État est effectuée: a) the highly formalised concept toute convention internationale applicable liant l ' État du is et l ' État concerné; or b) highly formalised concept à tout particulier en matière meaning arrangement or notification between le demandeur intervenu et l ' État concerné, si la loi de l ' État du is ne s ' oppose pas y; or c) En l'absence d'une telle convention or d'un tel arrangement particulier: i) Couple communication adressée par les voies diplomatiques au Ministère des affaires étrangères de l ' État concerné; or ii) tout autre moyen Par accepté par l ' État concerné, si la loi de l ' État du is ne s ' y oppose pas.

2. La signification or la notification par le moyen visé au sous-alinéa (i) de l ' alinéa c du paragraphe 1 est réputée effectuée par la réception des documents par le Ministère des affaires étrangères.

3. Ces documents sont accompagnés, s'il y a lieu, d'une traduction dans la langue ou l ' une des langues de l ' État concerné for.

4. Tout État qui comparaît quant au fond dans une procédure intentée contre lui ne peut ensuite exciper de la non-conformité de la signification or de la notification de les dispositions des paragraphes assignation avec 1 et 3.


Article 23 Jugement par défaut 1. UN jugement rendu par défaut ne peut être contre un État, à moins que le Tribunal ne s ' assure: a) les paragraphes 1 et aux conditions prévues de l'article 3 ont été respectées 22; b) qu'il s ' est écoulé un délai de quatre mois au moins à la date à laquelle from la signification or la notification de assignation or instituant la procédure, the pièce autre été effectuée ou est réputée avoir été effectuée aux paragraphes 1 et 2 highly formalised concept of l'article 22; et c) Que la presente Convention ne lui pas d ' interdise exercise sa juridiction.

2. Une copie de tout jugement rendu par défaut contre un État, accompagnée, s'il y a lieu, d'une traduction dans la langue ou l ' une des langues de l ' État concerné, for est communiquée à celui-ci par l ' un des light Middleweight spécifiés au paragraphe 1 de l'article 22 et aux dispositions dudit highly formalised concept of paragraphe.

3. Le délai pour former un recours contre un jugement ne pourra être inférieur par défaut à quatre mois et à courir à la commencera date to laquelle la copie du jugement a été reçue or est réputée avoir été reçue par l ' État concerné.

Privilèges et immunités 24 Article en cours de procédure devant un tribunal 1. Toute omission or tout refus par un État conformer à une décision of du Court d'un autre État lui enjoignant d or s ' accomplir abstenir accomplir un acte déterminé d ' or de produire une pièce divulguer toute autre information or aux d'une procédure purposes n ' entraîne pas de celles qui peuvent autres conséquences that résulter, quant au fond de l ' affaire, de ce comportement. En particulier, amende aucune autre peine imposée or ne sera à l ' État en raison d'une telle omission or d'un tel refus.

2. Un État n'est pas tenu de fournir un cautionnement ni de constituer un dépôt sous quelque dénomination, that ce soit en garantie du paiement des frais et dépens d'une procédure à laquelle il est partie défenderesse devant un tribunal d'un autre État.

Sixième partie Clauses finales Article 25 Annexe L'Annexe à la partie intégrante de presente Convention fait celle-ci.

Article 26 see internationaux Les Autres dispositions de la Convention ne portent pas atteinte presente aux droits et obligations that pourraient avoir les États Parties en vertu d ' en vigueur internationaux auxquels ils see seraient parties, traitant de questions faisant l ' objet de la Convention.

Règlement des différends article 27 1. Les États Parties s ' efforcent les différends concernant l ' view of interprétation ou l ' application de la presente Convention par voie de négociation.

2. Tout différend entre deux États Parties concernant l ' interprétation or plus or l ' application de la presente Convention qui ne peut être réglé par voie de négociation dans un délai de six mois est, à la demande de un quelconque de ces États Parties, soumis à l'arbitrage. SI, dans un délai de six mois à compter de la date de la demande d ' arbitrage, les États Parties ne peuvent s ' entendre sur l'Organisation de l'arbitrage, l ' un quelconque d between eux peut porter le différend devant la Cour internationale de Justice en lui une requête highly formalised concept adressant au Statut de la Cour.

3. Chaque État Partie peut, au moment de la signature, de la ratification, de l ' acceptation or de approbation de la presente Convention or de l ' adhésion à celle-ci, déclarer qu'il ne se considère pas par le paragraphe 2 related. Les autres États Parties ne sont pas liés par le paragraphe 2 envers tout État Partie ayant fait une telle déclaration.

4. Tout État Partie qui a fait une déclaration en vertu du paragraphe 3 peut la retirer à tout moment en adressant une notification au Secrétaire général de l'Organisation des Nations Unies.

Article 28 Signature La presente Convention sera ouverte à la signature de tous les États jusqu'au 17 janvier 2007 au Siège de l'Organisation des Nations Unies, New York.

Article 29 Ratification, acceptation, approbation or adhésion 1. La presente Convention sera soumise à ratification, acceptation ou approbation. 2. La presente Convention restera ouverte à l ' adhésion de tout État. 3. Les instruments de ratification, acceptation, approbation or déposés auprès du Secrétaire seront adhésion général de l'Organisation des Nations Unies.

Entrée en vigueur article 30 1. La presente Convention entrera en vigueur le trentième jour suivant la date de dépôt du trentième instrument de ratification, acceptation, d ' d ' adhésion auprès du approbation or Secrétaire général de l'Organisation des Nations Unies.

2. Pour chaque État qui ratifiera, or approuvera la presente Convention acceptera or adhérera to celle-ci après le dépôt du trentième instrument de ratification, acceptation, of approbation or d ' adhésion entrera en vigueur, elle le trentième jour suivant la date de dépôt de l'instrument pertinent par ledit État.

Article 31 1 Dénonciation. Tout État Partie peut dénoncer la presente Convention notification écrite adressée au pair Secrétaire général de l'Organisation des Nations Unies.

2. La dénonciation un effet hold an après la date de réception de la notification par le Secrétaire général de l'Organisation des Nations Unies. Toutefois, la presente Convention continuera à s ' appliquer à toute question relative aux immunités juridictionnelles des États leurs biens or soulevée dans une procédure intentée contre un État devant un tribunal d'un autre État avant la date à laquelle la dénonciation effet à l ' égard hold de un quelconque des États concernés.

3. La dénonciation 'n' affecte en rien le devoir that the tout État Partie de remplir toute obligation énoncée dans la presente Convention to laquelle il serait soumis en vertu du droit international indépendamment de celle-ci.

Article 32 Dépositaire et notifications 1. Le Secrétaire général de l'Organisation des Nations Unies est le dépositaire de la presente Convention.

2. En sa qualité de dépositaire de la presente Convention, le Secrétaire général de l'Organisation des Nations Unies notifie à tous les États: a) Toute signature de la Convention et presente tout dépôt d'un instrument de ratification, acceptation, d or d ' adhésion or approbation d'une dénonciation, highly formalised concept of notification aux articles 29 et 31; b La date d ' entrée en) vigueur de la presente Convention, highly formalised concept to l'article 30; c) Tous autres actes et toutes autres notifications or communications en rapport avec la presente Convention.

Article 33 Textes authentiques Les textes anglais, arabe, chinois, espagnol, français et russe de la presente Convention font also was.


EN QUOI les soussignés was ce dûment autorisés, par leurs gouvernements respectifs ont signé la presente Convention, ouverte à la signature au Siège de l'Organisation des Nations Unies à New York, le 17 janvier 2005.









Annexe à la Convention en ce qui convenus Points concerns la compréhension de certaines dispositions de la Convention La presente annexe to pour but d ' énoncer les points en ce qui convenus concerns la compréhension des dispositions dont il est question.

Article 10 Le terme «immunité» employé à l'article doit être entendu dans le 10 context and of the ensemble de la presente Convention.

Le paragraphe 3 de l'article 10 ne préjuge ni la question de la «levée du voile dissimulant l ' entité», ni les questions liées à une situation dans laquelle une entité d ' État the délibérément déguisé sa situation financière or réduit ses actifs pour éviter apres coup de satisfaire à une demande d'autres questions connexes, ni.

Article 11 La référence aux «intérêts en matière de sécurité» de l ' État à l ' alinéa d, employeur) du paragraphe 2 de l'article 11, vise essentiellement à traiter les questions relatives à la sécurité nationale et à la sécurité des missions diplomatiques et des postes consulaires.

Aux termes de l'article 41 de la Convention de Vienne sur les relations diplomatiques de 1961 et de l'article 55 de la Convention de Vienne sur les relations consulaires de toutes les personnes visées 1963, dans ces articles ont le devoir de respecter les lois et du pays regulations ' hôte, y compris la législation du travail. Parallèlement, aux termes de l'article 38 de la Convention de Vienne sur les relations diplomatiques de 1961 et de l'article 71 de la Convention de Vienne sur les relations consulaires of 1963, l ' État d ' accueil doit exercise sa juridiction sur ces personnes de façon à ne pas entraver d'une manière excessive accomplissement des fonctions l de la mission or du poste consulaire.

Articles 13 et 14 Le terme «détermination» tel qu'il est employé dans ces articles ' entend non seulement de l ' établissement de la vérification de or existence des droits protégés, plus aussi de l ' évaluation de l ' appréciation de ces or droits quant au fond, y compris leur contenu, leur portée et leur étendue.

Article 17 L ' expression ' transaction commerciale» recouvre les questions d ' investissement.

Article 19 Le terme «entité» utilisé à l ' alinéa c) s ' entend de l ' État en tant that personnalité indépendante, juridique d'une unité constitutive d'un État fédéral, d'une subdivision d'un État, d'un organisme ou d'une institution étatique toute autre entité or, dotée d'une personnalité juridique indépendante.

L ' expression «les biens qui ont un lien avec l ' entité» utilisée à l ' alinéa c) s ' entend dans un sens plus large que la propriété ou la possession.

L'article 19 ne préjuge ni la question de la «levée du voile dissimulant l ' entité», ni les questions liées à une situation dans laquelle une ' entité d ' État the délibérément déguisé sa situation financière or réduit ses actifs pour éviter apres coup de satisfaire à une demande d'autres questions connexes, ni.