On The European Convention For Experimental And Other Scientific Purposes The Protection Of Vertebrate Animals Used And Of The Protocol Of Amendment To The European Convention For Experimental And Other Scientific Purposes The Protection Of Vertebrate ...

Original Language Title: Par Eiropas Konvenciju par izmēģinājumos un citos zinātniskos nolūkos izmantojamo mugurkaulnieku aizsardzību un Grozījumu protokolu Eiropas Konvencijai par izmēģinājumos un citos zinātniskos nolūkos izmantojamo mugurkaulnieku aizsardzību

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Read the untranslated law here: https://www.vestnesis.lv/ta/id/212193

The Saeima has adopted and the President promulgated the following laws: for a European Convention for experimental and other scientific purposes the protection of vertebrate animals used and of the Protocol of amendment to the European Convention for experimental and other scientific purposes the protection of vertebrate animals used in article 1. 18 March 1986 on the European Convention for experimental and other scientific purposes the protection of vertebrate animals used (hereinafter referred to as the Convention) and 22 June 1998 of the Protocol of amendment to the European Convention for experimental and other scientific purposes the protection of vertebrate animals used (hereinafter referred to as the Protocol) with this law is adopted and approved.
2. article. Convention and the fulfilment of the obligations provided for in the Protocol are coordinated by the Ministry of agriculture.
3. article. On the basis of article 35 of the Convention paragraph 1, the Republic of Latvia made a reservation concerning article 27 of the Convention, paragraph 2 and article 28, paragraph 1 of Appendix A to the Convention as well as in the General section and paragraph 3 of point 4.3 and species specific sections do not apply.
4. article. The Ministry of Foreign Affairs, in accordance with article 35 of the Convention, paragraph 1, of the reservations made, notify the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe.
5. article. The Convention shall enter into force on its article 33, paragraph 2, within the time and in order, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs shall notify the newspaper "journal".
6. article. This Protocol shall enter into force on its article 5 within the time and in order, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs shall notify the newspaper "journal".
7. article. The law shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation. With the law put the Convention and Protocol in English and their translation into Latvian language.
The Parliament adopted the law of 3 June 2010.
President Valdis Zatlers in Riga V. 22 June 2010 in the European Convention for the Protection of animals Used for Experimental Vertebrat the and others Scientific Purpose of Strasbourg, 18 March 1986 text amended according to the provision of the Protocol (ETS No. 170), the axis of its entry into force, on 2 December 2005 preamble the member States of the Council of Europe, signatory of the heret, Recalling that the aim of the Council of Europe is to achieve a greater unity between its members and that It wishes to co‑operat with other States in the protection of live animals used for experimental and other scientific purpose;
Recognising that my moral obligation it has a respect all animals and to have due considerations for their capacity for suffering and memory;
Vertheles not Accepting that I in his quest for knowledge, health and safety has a need to use animals where there is a reasonable expectations that the result will be to extend knowledge or be it the overall benefit of man or animal, just as he's them for food, USA clothing and as beasts of burden;
Resolved to limit the use of animals for experimental and other scientific purpose, with the aim of replacing such use wherever practical, in particular by seeking alternative measure and encouraging the use of these alternative measure;
The common provision of the Desiro adop in order to protect animals used in those procedures which may possibly cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm and to ensur that where they shall be unavoidabl by the skipper to a minimum, have agreed as follows: part I – General principles article 1 1. This Convention applies to any animal used or intended for use in any experimental or other scientific procedure where that procedure may cause pain , suffering, distress or lasting harm. It does not apply to any agricultural or clinical veterinary practice non‑experimental.
2. In this Convention: (a) "animal", unless a) otherwise qualified, means any live non‑human vertebrat, including free-living and/or reproducing larval forms, but excluding foetal or embryonic forms; others
(b)) "intended for use" means bred or the skipper for the purpose of sale, disposal or use in any experimental or other scientific procedure;
(c)) "procedure" means any experimental or other scientific use of an animal which may cause it pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm, including any course of action intended, or it liabl it, result in the birth of an animal in any such condition, but excluding the least painful methods accepted in modern practice (that is ' humane ' methods) of killing or marking an animal.
A procedure starts when an animal is first prepared for use and ends when from further observations are made for that procedure; the elimination of pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm by the successful use of or analgesi or anesthesi other methods does not place the use of an animal outside the scope of this definition;
(d)) "competent person" means any person who is considered by a Party to be competent in its territory to perform the relevant function described in this Convention;
e) "responsible authority" means, in the territory of a given Party, any authority, body or person designated for the relevant purpose;
f) "establishment" means any stable or mobile facility, any building, group of buildings or other premises, including a place which is not wholly enclosed or covered;
g) "breeding establishment" means any establishment where animals are bred with a view to their use in procedures;
h) "supplying establishment" means any establishment, other than a breeding establishment, from which animals are supplied with a view to their use in procedures;
I) "user establishment" means any establishment where animals are used in procedures;
j) "humane method of killing" means the killing of an animal with a minimum of physical and mental suffering appropriate to the species.
Article 2 (A) the procedure may be performed for one or more of the following purpose only and subject to the restriction laid down in this Convention: (a) (i) the avoidance or prevention of) disease, ill-health or other abnormality, or their effects, in man, vertebrat or invertebrat of animals or plants, including the production and the quality, efficacy and safety testing of drugs , substances or products;
(ii) the diagnosis or treatment of disease, ill-health or other abnormality, or their effects, in man, vertebrat or invertebrat of the animals or plants;
(b) the detection, assessment, regulation) or modification of physiological conditions in man, vertebrat and invertebrat in animals or plants;
(c) protection of the environment);
d) scientific research;
(e) education and training);
f) forensic inquires.
Article 3 Each Party to take the all of the undertak the cessary steps to give effect to the provision of this Convention and to ensur an effective system of control and supervision as soon as possible and in any case within a period of five years from the date of entry into force of the present Convention in respect of that Party.
Article 4 of the provision in this Convention shall be affec the liberty of the parties to a stricter measure of adop for the protection of animals used in procedures or for the control and restriction of the use of animals in procedures.
Part II – General care and tion of article 5 1 of accommod. Any animal used or intended for use in a procedure shall be provided with accommodation, an environment, at least a minimum degree of freedom of movement, food, water and care, appropriate to its health and well‑being. Any restriction on the exten to which an animal can satisfy its physiological and ethological needs shall be limited as far as practicabl. In the implementation of this provision, regard should be paid to the guidelines for accommodation and care of animals set out in Appendix A to this Convention.
2. The environmental conditions in which animals are bred, the skipper shall be checked daily or used.
3. The well-being and State of health of animals shall be observed sufficiently closely and frequently to prevent pain or suffering, distress or avoidabl a lasting harms.
4. Each Party shall subject to determin the ensur that any defect or suffering discovered is corrected as quickly as possible.
Part III-conduct of procedure article 6 1 shall not be A procedure performed for any of the purpose referred to in the article on 2, if another scientifically satisfactory method, not entailing the use of an animal, is reasonably and practicably available.
2. Each Party should encourag the scientific research into the development of methods which could provide the same information as that obtained in procedures.
Article 7 When a procedure has to be performed, the choice of species shall be carefully considered and, where required, be explained to the responsible authority; in a choice between procedures, those should be selected which use the minimum number of animals, cause the least pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm and which are most likely to provide satisfactory results.
Article 8 (A) the procedure shall be performed under general or local or analgesi or anesthesi by other methods designed to eliminat as far as practicabl pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm applied throughout the procedure unless: (a)) the pain caused by the procedure is less than the impairmen of the animal's well‑being caused by the use of or analgesi, or anesthesi b) the use of or the IR incompatibl analgesi anesthesi with the aim of the procedure. In such cases, appropriate legislative and/or administrative measure shall be taken of the fact that from such procedure ensur is carried out unnecessarily.
Article 9 1. Where it is planned to subject an animal to a procedure in which it will or may experience sever pain which is not likely, that the procedure must be specifically declared and justified to, or specifically authorized by the responsible authority.
2. Appropriate legislative and/or administrative measure shall be taken of the fact that from such procedure ensur is carried out unnecessarily.
Such measure shall include: – either of the specific authorization by the responsible authority;

-or specific declaration of such procedure to the responsible authority and judicial or administrative action by that authority if it is not satisfied that the procedure is the importanc of sufficient for meeting the essential needs of man or animal, including the solution of scientific problems.
Article 10 During a procedure, an animal used shall remain subject to the provision of article 5 except where those provision with the incompatibl with the objective of the procedure.
Article 11 1. At the end of the procedure it shall be decided whethers the animal shall be kep alive or killed by a humane method. An animal shall not be kep alive if, even though it has been restored to normal health in all other respect, it is likely to remain in lasting pain or distress.
2. The decision referred to in paragraph 1 of this article shall be taken by a competent person, in particular a veterinarian, or the person who, in accordanc with article 13, is responsible for, or has performed, the procedure.
3. Where, at the end of the procedure: (a) an animal is to be kep) alive, it shall receive the care appropriate to its state of health, be placed under the supervision of a veterinarian or other competent person and the skipper under conditions conforming to the requirements of article 5. The condition laid down in this sub-paragraph may, however, be waived where, in the opinion of a veterinarian, the animal would not suffer as a consequences of such exemption;
(b)) an animal is not to be kep alive or cannot benefit from the provision of article 5 for its well-being, it shall be killed by a humane method as soon as possible.
4. From an animal which has been used in a procedure entailing sever or enduring pain or suffering, or irrespectiv of analgesi was the whethers anesthesi employed, shall be used in a further procedure unless it has returned to good health and well-being and either: (a)) the further procedure is one in which the animal is subject throughout to general of which is to be maintained anesthesi until the animal is killed; or (b)) the further procedure will involv-minor interventions only.
Article 12 Notwithstanding the other provision of this Convention, where it is not a legitimat cessary for the purpose of the procedure, the responsible authority may allow the animal concerned to be set free provided that it is satisfied that the maximum practicabl care has been taken to safeguard the animal's well-being. Procedures that involv settings the animal free shall not be permitted solely for educational or training purpose.
Part IV – article 13 (A) Authorisation procedure for the purpose of access referred to in article 2 may be carried out by authorized persons, or under the responsibility of a person authorized to direct, or if the experimental or other scientific project concerned is authorized in accordanc with the provision of national legislation. Authorization shall be granted only to persons deemed to be competent by the responsible authority.
Part V – Breeding or supplying establishment in article 14 for supplying establishment shall be Breeding and registered with the responsible authority subject to the grant of an exemption under article 21 or article 22 shall comply with Such registered establishment of the relevance of the article require 5. Article 15 the registration provided for in article 14 shall specify the person in charge of the establishment , who shall be competent to administer or arrang for suitabl care for animals of the species bred or kep in the establishment.
Article 16 1 of the Arrangements shall be made. at registered breeding establishment in their record, in respect of the animals bred there, the number and species of such animals leaving, the dates they leave and the name and address of the recipient.
2. Arrangements shall be made at registered by supplying establishment to record the number and species of such animals entering and leaving, the dates of these movement, from whom the animals concerned were acquired and the name and address of the recipient.
3. The responsible authority shall prescrib the records which are to be the skipper and made available to it by the person in charge of the establishment is mentioned in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article. Such records shall be the skipper for a minimum of three years from the date of the last entry.
Article 17 1. Each dog and cat in an establishment shall be individually and permanently marked in the least painful manner possible before it is weaned.
2. Where an unmarked dog or cat is taken into an establishment for the first time after it has been weaned it shall be marked as soon as possible.
3. Where a dog or cat is transferred from one establishment to another before it is weaned and it is not practical to mark it beforehand, a full documentary record, specifying in particular its mother, shall be kep to until it can be marked.
4. the Particular of the identity and origin of each dog or cat shall be entered in the records of the establishment.
On the establishment of article VI-User User establishment shall be registered in the 18 with or otherwise approved by the responsible authority and shall comply with the conditions laid down in article 5, article 19 shall be Provision. be made at user establishment for installation and equipment appropriate for the species of animals used and the performance of the procedures conducted there. The design, construction and functioning of such installation and equipment shall be such as to ensur that the procedures are performed as effectively as possible, with the object of obtaining consistent results with the minimum number of animals and the minimum degree of pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm.
Article 20 In the user establishment: (a) the person or persons) who is administratively responsible for the care of the animals and the functioning of the equipment shall be identified;
(b) sufficient trained staff shall be be) provided;
(c) the arrangements shall be an adequat) made for the provision of veterinary advice and treatment;
(d) a veterinarian or other competent) a person should be charged with advisory duties in relations to the well‑being of the animals.
Article 21 1. Animals of the species listed below which are for use in procedures shall be acquired directly from or from registered breeding establishment originat, unless a general or special exemption has been obtained under arrangements to be determined by the Party: mouse a must for Wheel Ratt muscul norvegicus Guinea pig in the Golden hamster Cavi porcell in Mesocricet auratus rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus Dog Canis familiar to a Cat cat Quail Coturnix coturnix Felis 2. Each Party to the extend of the undertak provision of paragraph 1 of this article to other species, in particular of the order of primates, as soon as there is a reasonable prospect of (a) a sufficient supply of purpose‑bred animals of the species concerned.
3. Straying animals of a domesticated species shall not be used in procedures. A general exemption made under the conditions of paragraph 1 of this article may not extend to stray dogs and cats.
Article 22 In the user establishment, only animals from breeding or supplying establishment supplied registered shall be used, unless by a general or special exemption has been obtained under arrangements to be determined by the Party.
Article 23 procedures may, where authorized by the responsible authority, be conducted outside user establishment.
Article 24 shall be made Subject to the user establishment to maintain at records and make them available as required by the responsible authority. In particular, these records shall be sufficient to meet the requirements of article 27 and, in addition, show the number and species of all animals acquired, from whom they were acquired and their date of arrival.
Part VII – Education and training article 25 1. Procedures carried out for the purpose of education, training or further training for the profession or other occupation, including the care of animals being used or intended for use in procedures, must be notified to the responsible authority and shall be carried out by or under the supervision of a competent person, who will be responsible for ensuring that the procedures comply with national legislation under the terms of this Convention.
2. the Procedure within the scope of education, training, or further training for the purpose of others than those referred to in paragraph 1 above shall not be permitted.
3. the procedures referred to in paragraph 1 of this article shall be restricted to those absolutely not cessary for the purpose of the education or training concerned and be permitted only if their objective cannot be achieved by comparably effective audio‑visual or any others suitabl method.
Article 26 Persons who carry out the procedure, or take part in the procedure, or take care of animals used in procedures, including supervision, shall have had appropriate education and training.
Statistical information for the VIII – article 27 1. Each Party shall collect statistical information on the use of animals in procedures and this information shall where lawful be made available to the public.
2. the Information shall be collected in respect of: (a) the number and kind) of animals used in procedures;
(b) the number of animals) in selected categories used in procedures directly concerned with medicine and in education and training;
(c) the number of animals) in selected categories used in procedures for the protection of man and the environment;
(d) the number of animals) in selected categories used in procedures required by law.
Article 28 1. Subject to requirements of national legislation relating to secrecy and confidentiality, each Party shall communicate every year to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe information in respect of the items mentioned in paragraph 2 of article 27, presented in the form set out in Appendix B to this Convention.

2. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall publish the statistical information received from the parties in respect of the items mentioned in paragraph 2 of article 27 3. Each Party is invited to communicate to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe the address of its national authority from which inform a tion about more comprehensive national statistics may be obtained on request. Such address will be led in the publications of statistics made by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
Part IX – Recognition of procedures carried out in the territory of another Party article 29 1. In order to avoid unnecessary repetition of procedures required by law on health and safety, each Party shall, where practicabl, recognize the results of procedures carried out in the territory of another Party.
2. To that end the parties undertak, where practicabl and lawful, to render each other mutual assistance, in particular by the furnishings of their legislation and administrative information on practice relating to the requirements for procedures to be carried out in support of submissions for registration of products, as well as factual information on procedures carried out in their territory and on authorization or any other particular pertaining to the administrative procedure of these.
On the X-Multilaterals consultation article 30 1. The Parties shall, within five years from the entry into force of this Convention and every five years thereafter, or more frequently if a majority of the parties should so request, hold a consultation within the multilaterals Council of Europe examin it the application of this Convention, and the advisability of revising it or extending any of its provision.
2. consultation of these shall take place at meetings convened by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. The Parties shall communicate the name of their representative to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe at least two months before each meeting.
3. Subject to the provision of this Convention, the Parties shall draw up the rules of procedure for the consultation.
About the XI-Amendments to article 31 1. Any amendment to them, (A) and (B) Appendic proposed by a Party or by the Committee of Minister of the Council of Europe shall be communicated to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe and forwarded by him to the member States of the Council of Europe, the European Community and to any non-member State which has acceded to , or has been invited to accede to the Convention in accordanc with the provision of article 34 amendments proposed by Any 2 in accordanc with the provision of the preceding paragraph shall be of the examined, not less than six months after the date of forwarding by the Secretary General, at a consultation may be the multilaterals where it adopted by a two-thirds majority of the parties. The text adopted shall be forwarded to the parties.
3. Twelve months after its adoption at a multilaterals consultation, any amendment shall enter into force unless one third of the parties have notified an objection.
Of the XII – Final Provision article 32 this Convention shall be open for signature by the member States of the Council of Europe and by the European communities. It is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval. The instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
Article 33 1. This Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of six months after the date on which four member States of the Council of Europe have expressed their consent to be bound by the Convention in accordanc with the provision of article 32.2. In respect of a Signatory which subsequently express their consent to it be bound by it, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of six months after the date of the deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval.
Article 34 1. After the entry into force of this Convention, the Committee of Minister of the Council of Europe may invite any State not a member of the Council to accede to this Convention, by a decision taken by the majority provided for in article 20 d of the Statute of the Council of Europe and by the unanimous vote of the representatives of the Contracting States entitled to sit on the Committee.
2. In respect of any acceding State, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of six months after the date of deposit of the instrument of accession with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
Article 35 1. Any Signatory may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, make one or more reservations. From reservations, however, may be made in respect of articles 1 to 14 or 18 to 20 articles. 2. Any Party which has made a reservation under the preceding paragraph may wholly or the partly withdraw it by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. The withdrawals shall take effect on the date of receipt of such notification by the Secretary General.
3. A Party which has made a reservation in respect of a provision of this Convention may not claim the application of that provision by any other Party; It may, however, if its reservation is partial or conditional, claim the application of that provision insofar as it has itself accepted it. Article 36 1. Any Signatory may, at the time of signature or when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, specify the territory or territories to which this Convention shall apply.
2. Any Party may at any later date, by a declaration addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe, extend the application of this Convention to any other territory specified in the declaration. In respect of such territory, the Convention shall enter into the force on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of six months after the date of receipt of such declaration by the Secretary General.
3. Any declaration made under the two preceding paragraphs may, in respect of any territory specified in such declaration, be withdrawn by a-tion addressed to the notific Secretary General. The withdrawals shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of six months after the date of receipt of such notification by the Secretary General.
Article 37 1. Any Party may at any time denounc this Convention by means of a notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
2. Such denunciation shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of six months after the date of receipt of the notification by the Secretary General.
Article 38 the Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify the member States of the Council of Europe, the European communities and any State which has acceded to this Convention of: a any signature;)
(b)) the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;
(c) any date of entry) into force of this Convention in accordanc with articles 33, 34 and 36;
(d) any other Act, notification) or communication relating to this Convention;
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised, have signed theret this Convention.
Done at Strasbourg, this 18th day of March 1986, in English and French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall transmit certified cop to each member State of the Council of Europe, the European communities and to any State invited to accede to this Convention.
APPENDIX A of the European Convention for the Protection of animals used for Experimental Vertebrat the and other Scientific Purpose (ETS NO. 123) guidelines for Accommodation and care of animals (article 5 of the Convention), Approved by the Multilaterals Consultation table OF contents INTRODUCTION DEFINITION of GENERAL SECTION 1. The physical facilities functions and general design 1.1 1.2. Holding rooms 1.3. General and special purpose procedure rooms 1.4. Service rooms 2. The environment and its control Ventilation 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4. Temperature Humidity. Lighting 2.5 noise 2.6. Alarm systems 3. Education and training 4 care 4.1 Health 4.2. Capture from the wild 4.3 transport of animal quarantine, 4.4 and 4.5 Housing and acclimatisation isolation enrichmen the 4.6 4.7 4.8 Flooring Watering Feeding, litter, bedding and substrat, not rigid material 4.9 4.10 4.11 Handling Cleaning humane killing 4.12 4.13 Identification records, species-SPECIFIC SECTION a. Spec-specific provision for rodent 1. Introduction 2. The environment and it will control 3. Health 4. Housing, enrichmen and care b. Spec-specific provision for rabbit 1. Introduction 2. The environment and it will control 3. Health 4. Housing, enrichmen and care-specific provision of c. Spec for cat 1. Introduction 2. The environment and it will control 3. Health 4. Housing, enrichmen and care d. Spec-specific provision for dogs 1. Introduction 2. The environment and it will control 3. Health 4. enrichmen and Housing, care E. Spec-specific provision for ferret 1. Introduction 2. The environment and it will control 3. Health 4. Housing, enrichmen and care F-specific provision of Specie for non-human primates a. General considerations 1. Introduction 2. The environment and it will control 3. Health 4. Housing, enrichmen and care 5. Training of personnels 6. Transport.
b. Additional provision for the housing and care of marmoset and tamarin c. Additional provision for the housing and care of squirrel monkeys (d). Additional provision for the housing and care of macaqu and the vervet

e. Additional provision for the housing and care of the baboon's g. species-specific provision for farm animals and mini-pigs a. General considerations 1. Introduction 2. The environment and it will control 3. Health 4. Housing, enrichmen and b. Additional provision of care for the housing and care of cattle c. the Additional provision for the housing and care of sheep and goat d. Additional provision for the housing and care of pigs and mini-pig e. Additional provision for the housing and care of equine, including horses, pon, and donkey mules h. Spec-specific provision for bird a. General considerations 1. Introduction 2. The environment and it will control 3. Health 4. Housing, enrichmen and b. Additional provision of care for the housing and care of the domestic fowl, in stock and during procedures c. Additional provision for the housing and care of the domestic turkey, in stock and during procedures d. Additional provision for the housing and care of quail, in stock and during procedures e. Additional provision for the housing and care of the ducks and the gees in stock and during procedures f. Additional provision for the housing and care of the pigeon, in stock and during procedures g. Additional provision for the housing and care of the Zebra finch, in stock and during procedures i. species-specific provision for amphibian 1. Introduction 2. The environment and it will control 3. Health 4. Housing, enrichmen and care 5. Transport j. Spec-specific provision for reptil's 1. Introduction 2. The environment and it will control 3. Health 4. Housing, enrichmen and care 5. Transport k. Spec-specific provision for fish 1. Introduction 2. Environment and it control Health 3.
4. Housing, enrichmen and care 5. Transport Appendix A guidelines for accommodation and care of animals (article 5 of the Convention) Introduction 1. The member States of the Council of Europe have decided that it is their aim to protect the live animals used for experimental and other scientific purpose to ensur that any possible pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm inflicted as a consequences of the procedures being conducted upon them, shall be the skipper at a minimum.
2. some procedures are conducted under field conditions on free-living, the self-supporting, wild animals, but such procedures are relatively few in number. The great majority of animals used in procedures with the facilities of the CEAS in wide-ranging from outdoor corrals to cages for small animals in a laboratory animal house. This is a situation where there are often highly conflicting interests between the scientific requirements and the needs of the animal. In this conflict, the basic physiological and ethological needs of the animals (freedom of movement, social contact, meaningful activity, nutrition, water) should be restricted only for the minimum period of time and not cessary degree. Such restriction should be reviewed by an animal scientist, technician and those competent persons will be charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal before the procedure is undertaken with the ensur that the exten of the set animal welfare is minimised to a level consistent with the scientific objective of the study.
3. This appendix provides guidelines for the accommodation and care of animals, based on present knowledge and good practice. It explain and supplements the basic principles adopted in article 5 of the Convention. The object of the appendix is to help the authorities, institutions and individual in their pursuit of the aim of the Council of Europe in this matter.
4. The General section provides guidelines on accommodation, housing and care relevant to all animals used for experimental and other scientific purpose. Supplementary guidance concerning commonly used species is presented in the specific section. Information is included in the where clause of these specific sections for the provision of the general section apply.
The species-specific sections with based on proposals made by the expert group on rodent, rabbit, dog, cat, ferret, non-human primates, farm species, mini-pig, bird, amphibian, reptil and fish. In addition to these proposals, the expert group has also submitted background information to support their proposals, based on scientific evidence and practical experience.
This background information is the sole responsibility of the respectiv expert groups and is separately available. For some groups of species, namely reptil and amphibian, fish, these explanatory documents also provides additional information on less commonly used species not referred to in the spec-specific provision.
Should problems occure behavioural or breeding, or should further information on specific requirements for other spec to be required, advice should be sought from experts specialised in the species concerned and care staff, to ensur that any particular species ' needs are adequately addressed.
5. Care is a word which, when used in connection with animals intended for, or in actual use in procedures, or in connection with laboratory animals for breeding purpose of CEAS, covers all aspects of the relationship between animals and man. Its substance is the sum of material and non-material resources provided by me to obtain and maintain an animal in a physical and mental state where it will suffer least, and promote the good of science. It starts from the moment the animal is intended to be used in procedures, including the breeding or keeping for that purpose, and continue until the it is humanely killed or otherwise disposed of by the establishment in accordanc with article 11 of the Convention after the completion of the procedure.
6. The appendix includes advice about the design of appropriate animal facilities and provides recommendations and guidance about how the welfare provision is led within the Convention can be met. However, the recommended standard of space a minimum allowance represen. These may have to be increased in some circumstanc, as environmental requirements for individual animals might vary according, for example, the species, age, physiological condition, stocking density and whethers the animals with the kep as for breeding stock, or experiments, whethers long-term or short-term. Environmental enrichmen is also an important factor for the welfare of the animals.
7. If existing facilities or equipment do not conform to the present guidelines, these should be altered or replaced within a reasonable period of time, having regards to the animal welfare allocation and financial and practical concerns. Pending such replacement or alteration, adjustments should be made to the number and size of animals in existing enclosures in order to comply, as far as possible, with these guidelines.
Definition in the Definition of terms used in the Appendix (A) in addition to those led in the article 1.2 of the Convention: "Animal enclosure" is defined as the primary accommodation in which the animals are confined, such as:-"cage"-a permanently fixed or movable container that is enclosed by solid walls and, at least on one side, by the Pack or meshed wire or, where appropriate , nets, and in which one or more animals with a skipper or transported; Depending on the stocking density and the size of the container, the freedom of movement of the animals is relatively restricted;
the "pen" – an area, for example, enclosed by walls, bars or meshed wire in which one or more animals with a skipper; Depending on the size of the penis and the stocking density, the freedom of movement of the animals is usually less restricted than in a cage;
-"run"-an area closed, for example, by the fence, walls, bars or meshed wire and frequently situated outside permanently fixed building, in which animals in cages or kep pen can move freely during certain periods of time in accordanc with their ethological and physiological needs, such as exercise;
-"stable" – a small enclosure with three sides, usually a feed-rack and lateral separation, where one or two animals may be kep a tethered.
The secondary accommodation, in which the animal enclosure (s), as defined above, may be kep, will be designated as "holding room" for the purpose of Appendix a. Example of a "holding room" with:-rooms where animals are normally housed on, either for breeding and stocking, or during the course of a procedure;
– "containmen systems", such as laminar flow isolator, cabinet and individually ventilated cage systems.
General section 1. The physical facilities and general design 1.1 functions 1.1.1. All facilities should be so constructed as to provide a suitabl environment for the species to be kep, taking into account their physiological and ethological needs. Facilities should also be designed and managed to prevent access by unauthorised persons and the ingres or escape of animals.
Facilities that are part of a larger building complex should also be protected by appropriate security and building measure and arrangements that limit the number of entrance.
1.1.2. There should be an active maintenance programme in order to prevent and remedy any defect of building or equipment.
1.2. Holding rooms 1.2.1. All of the measure should be taken without the cessary ensur regular and efficient cleaning of the rooms and the maintenance of satisfactory hygienic standards. Ceiling and wall should be damage-resistant with a smooth, impervio and easily a washabl surface. Special attention should be paid to junction, including those with doors, patent ductus, pipes and cables. Where appropriate, an inspection window should be fitted in the door. Floor should be smooth, impervio and have a non-slippery, easily a washabl surface, which can carry the weight of the rack and other heavy equipment without being damaged. Drain, if present, should be adequately covered and fitted with a barrier which will prevent vermin from gaining access or animal from escaping.

1.2.2. Where the animals are allowed to run freely, wall and floor should be surfaced with a material resistant to the heavy wear and tear caused by the animals and the cleaning process. The materials should not be detrimental to the health of the animals and should be such that the animals cannot hurt themselves. Additional protection should be given to any equipment or fixtures so that they may not be damaged by the animals or injuries the animals themselves.
1.2.3. the Spec that are incompatibl, for example predator and prey, or animals requiring different environmental conditions, should not be housed on in the same room nor, in the case of predator and prey, within sight, smells or sounds.
1.2.4. Holding rooms should, where appropriate, be provided with facilities for carrying out minor procedures and manipulation.
1.3. General and special purpose procedure rooms At breeding or supplying establishment 1.3.1. of the facilities for making suitabl consignment of animals ready for dispatch should be available.
1.3.2. All establishment should also have available, as a minimum, the laboratory facilities for the carrying out of simple diagnostic tests, post-mortem examination, and/or the collection of sample of which to be subjected it to more extensive laboratory investigations elsewher.
1.3.3. Facilities should be provided to enable newly-acquired animals to be isolated until their health status can be determined, and the potential health risk to established animals assessed and minimised.
1.3.4. General and special purpose procedure rooms should be made available for a situation where it is undesirabl to carry out the procedures or observations in the holding room.
1.3.5. Where appropriate, there should be provision for one or more separate rooms suitably equipped for the performance of surgical procedures under aseptic conditions. There should be facilities for post-operative recovery where this is warranted.
1.3.6. There should be accommodation for separate housing of sick or injured animals, where not cessary.
1.4. Service rooms 1.4.1. Storeroom should be designed, used and maintained to safeguard the quality of food and bedding. These rooms should be vermin and insec-proof. Other materials, which may be contaminated or present a hazard to animals or staff, should be stored separately.
1.4.2. Separate storeroom for clean cages, instruments and equipment should be provided.
1.4.3. The cleaning and washing areas should be large enough to accommodate up the installation does not decontaminat it and clean the cessary used equipment. The cleaning process should be arranged so as to separate the flow of clean and dirty equipment to prevent the contamination of newly-cleaned equipment. Wall and floor should be covered with a suitably durable surface material and the ventilation system should have the capacity to carry the ampl away the excess heat and humidity.
1.4.4. Provision should be made for the hygienic storage and disposal of animal waste and carcass. If incineration on the site is not possible or not, the subject is suitabl cessary should be made for the safe disposal of such material, having regard to national and local regulations and by-laws. Special precaution should be taken with toxic, radioactive or infectious waste.
1.4.5. The general design and construction of circulation areas should correspond to the standards of the holding rooms. The corridor should be wide enough to allow easy circulation of movable equipment.
2. The environment and its control of Adequat Ventilation 2.1 2.1.1. ventilation should be provided in the holding room and the animal enclosures to satisfy the requirements of the animals housed on. The purpose of the ventilation system is to provide a sufficient fresh air of an appropriate quality and to keep down the level and spread of odour, noxio gas, dust and infectious agents of any kind. It also provides for the removal of excess heat and humidity.
2.1.2. The air in the room should be at frequent intervals renewed stands out among. A ventilation rate of fifteen to twenty air changes per hour is normally adequat. However, in some circumstanc, for example where stocking density is low, eight to ten air changes per hour may suffic. In some cases, natural and mechanical ventilation ventilation may suffic may not even be needed. Recirculation of untreated air should be avoided. However, it should be emphasised that even the most efficient system cannot compensat for poor cleaning routines or not gligenc.
2.1.3. The ventilation system should be so designed as to avoid harmful draught and noise disturbanc.
2.1.4. Smoking in rooms where there are animals should be forbidden.
2.2. Temperature 2.2.1. The subsequent species-specific sections give the range within which it is recommended that the temperature should be maintained. It should also be emphasised that the figures given in these sections apply only to adult, normal animals. The new-born, young, hairles, newly-operated, sick or injured animals will often require a much higher temperature level. The temperature of the premise's should be regulated according to possible changes in the animals ' thermal regulation, which may be compromised due to special physiological condition or to the effects of the procedure.
Temperature in the holding rooms should be measured and logged on a daily basis.
2.2.2. It may be not to provide a ventilation cessary system having the capacity both to heat and cool the air supplied.
2.2.3. In the user establishment a precise temperature control in the holding rooms may be required, because the temperature of the environment is a physical factor which has a profound effect on the metabolism and behaviour of all animals, and therefore the validity of the Lady of certain scientific outcomes.
2.2.4. Outdoor areas provided for animals to exercise and interact cannot have strict temperature regulation. Animals should not be restricted to such areas under climatic conditions which may cause them distress.
2.3. the Humidity For some species, such as rats and a gerbil, the relative humidity may need to be controlled within a fairly narrow range to the possibility of minimis health or welfare problems, whereas other species, such as dogs, a wide fluctuation of tolerat well in humidity levels.
2.4. Lighting a where natural light does not provide an appropriate light/dark cycle, it is not to provide controlled lighting both cessary to satisfy the biological requirements of the animals and to provide a satisfactory working environment. Exposure of some species to bright light should be avoided and darker areas for withdrawals should be available within the animal enclosures. There should be an adequat illuminations for the performance of husbandry procedures and inspection of the animals. Regular photoperiod and light intensity of suitabl to the species should be provided and interruption to these should be avoided. When keeping albino animals, one should take into account their sensitivity to light. Considerations should be given to the inclusion of Windows in the holding room, since they are a source of natural light and can provide environmental enrichmen for some species, especially the non-human primates, dogs, cats, farm animals and some other large mammal.
2.5. Noise noise can be a disturbing factor for animals. High noise level and noise can cause of sudden stress which, in addition to the welfare consequences for the animal, may influence the experimental data. Noise level is within the hearing range of animals, including in some cases ultrasound, that is, the sound above the hearing range of the human being, conventionally taken to be exceeding 20 kHz, sounds should be minimised particularly during their restinga phase. Alarm systems should sound outside the sensitive hearing range of the animals, where this does not conflict with their audibility to human. The layout of rooms and a corridor can be major factors influencing the acoustic environment and this should be taken into account in their design. Holding rooms should be provided with noise insulation and absorption of adequat materials.
2.6. Alarm systems (A) technologically dependent animal facility is (a) an entity vulnerabl. It is strongly recommended that such facilities are appropriately protected to detect a fire hazard, such as the unauthorised persons, and an intrusion of the breakdownas of essential equipment, such as ventilation fans, air heater or cooler and humidifier.
Animal facilities which rely heavily on electrical or mechanical equipment for environmental control and protection should have a stand-by system to maintain essential services and emergency lighting systems as well as to ensur that alarm systems themselves do not operate it in the file.
Heating and ventilation systems should be equipped with monitoring devices and alarm to ensur that any faults can be quickly identified and rectified promptly.
Clear instructions on emergency procedures should be prominently displayed. Alarm with recommended for water tanks for fish and other aquatic animals in case of failure of the water or air supply. Care should be taken to ensur that the operations of an alarm system causes as little disturbanc as possible to the animals.
3. Education and training All persons involved in caring for, or otherwise involved with, animals being bred, held or used for experimental or other scientific purpose should be appropriately educated and trained for it the standard recommended in the Resolution on education and training of persons working with laboratory animals adopted by the Multilaterals Consultation of the parties to the Convention on 3 December 1993 4. Care 4.1 4.1.1. within an animals Health, animal facility with a totally dependent on humans for their health and well-being. The physical and psychological state of the animals will be influenced by their local environment, food, water and the care and attention provided by the animal care staff.

A strategy should be in place in all establishment to ensur that an appropriate health status is maintained, which safeguards animal welfare and meets scientific requirements. This strategy should include a microbiological surveillance programme, plans for dealing with health breakdownas, and should define health parameters and procedures for the introduction of new animals.
4.1.2. The person responsible for the establishment should ensur regular inspection of the animals and supervision of the accommodation and care by a veterinarian or other competent person. Inspection of the animals should be made at least daily by a person trained in accordanc with paragraph 3 of the General section, ensur that it all sick or injured animals are identified and appropriate action taken. Regular health monitoring should be carried out.
4.1.3. Because of the potential risk of contamination of animals and staff presented by the handling of animals, particular attention should be paid to the institutions of hygiene and supervision procedure of staff health.
4.2. the capture from the wild animals need 4.2.1 When it be captured, it should only be done by humane methods and by persons competent to apply them. The impact of the capturing procedures on the remaining wildlife and habitats should be minimised.
4.2.2. Any animal found at or after capture, to be injured or in poor health should be examined by a competent person as soon as possible, and appropriate action taken. This may require referral to a veterinarian for treatment, or, in the case of serious injury, the animal should be immediately killed by a humane method, in line with the principles set out in the European Commission recommendations for the road safety of experimental animals (part 1 and part 2). Appropriate and sufficient to transport containers and means of transport should be available at capture sites, in case animals need to be moved for examination or treatment.
4.2.3. Special considerations should be given to the acclimatisation, quarantine, housing, husbandry and care of wild caught animals. The eventual fate of wild caught animals following the conclusions of the scientific procedures should also be given due considerations before the work begins. This is to ensur that the difficult and practical welfare issues associated with any subsequent release to the wild can be satisfactorily addressed.
4.3. Transport of animals, For animal transportation 4.3.1 is a stressful experience which should be mitigated as far as possible. The following principles should apply to all animal movement, from short journey by vehicle within scientific establishment to international transportation.
Animals should be transported in accordanc with the principles of the European Convention on the Protection of animals during International Transport (ETS 65 and From ETS No. 193), having regard to the Resolution on the acquisition and transport of laboratory animals, adopted by the May 1997 Multilaterals Consultation of the parties to Convention ETS No. 123.4.3.2. Both sender and recipient should agree the conditions of transport, departure and arrival times to ensur that full preparation can be made for the animals ' arrival. The sender should ensur that the animals are examined and found to be fit for transport before being placed in the transport container.
4.3.3. Animals that are sick or injured shall not be considered fit for transport, except for slightly injured or sick animals whose transport would not cause additional suffering, or where the transport is under veterinary supervision for or following, veterinary treatment,.
Sick or injured animals may also be transported for experimental or other scientific purpose of approved by the relevant competent authority, if the illness or injury is on of the research program. From additional suffering should be imposed by the transport of such animals, and particular attention should be paid to any additional care which may be required. (A) a competent person should confirm that such animals are fit for the intended journey.
4.3.4. The person responsible for the transport of the animals has the overall control over the organisation, carrying out and completion of the whole journey, the regardless_of of their duties are the whethers subcontracted other parties during transport.
4.3.5. The person in charge of the welfare of the animals has direct physical responsibility for the care of the animals during transport. Such a person may be the attendant or the driver of a vehicle if fulfilling the same role. The person in charge of the welfare of animals being transported should be aware of the special needs of the laboratory animals in their care.
4.3.6. The route should be planned in order to ensur that the transport is carried out efficiently, the journey time from minimis loading unloading them, and to avoid delay in order to limit any stress and suffering of the animals. Care is needed to ensur that animals are maintained under the environmental conditions suitabl for the species, and that measure with a minimis it taken sudden movement, noise, or vibrations of excessiv during transport.
4.3.7. Where appropriate, the container should be designed to prevent or restrict the entry of micro-organisms or spread. It should allow Visual inspection of the animal without compromising the microbiological status of the animal.
4.3.8. On arrival at their destination, the animals should be removed from their transport container and examined by a competent person with the least possible delay. Animals which are sick, injured or otherwise out of condition, should be kep under close observation and separately from other animals housed on. These animals should be provided with veterinary treatment as appropriate or, if not, promptly killed by cessary deemed a humane method.
4.4 quarantine, acclimatisation and isolation the objective of quarantine and isolation period with: a. to protect other animals in the establishment;
b. protect me against this zoonotic infection; and (c) together with an acclimatisation period., to foster good scientific practice.
According to the, these circumstanc period may vary and are either determined by the national regulations of the Party, or a competent person, normally the veterinarian appointed by the establishment.
4.4.1. Quarantine Quarantine is defined as a period of housing newly introduced or reintroduced animals separate from existing animal in the establishment to establish the State of health of the animals and to prevent the introduction of disease. Such a period is recommended when the health status of the animals is not known.
4.4.2. A period of acclimatisation Acclimatisation is needed to allow animals to recover from transport stress, to become accustomed to a new environment and their husbandry and care practices. Even when the animals are seen to be in good health, it is not for them the cessary a period of acclimatisation underg before being used in a procedure. The time required will depend on several factors, such as the stress to which the animals have been subjected which in turn depend on several factors such as the duration of the transportation and the age of the animal and the change of the social environment. It should also be taken into account that the international transport may not cessitat an extended period of acclimatization due to disturbanc of the diurnal rhythm of the animals.
4.4.3. A period of Isolation isolation is intended to reduce the risk of infection to other animals or humans. Any animal suspected of posing such a risk should be housed on in a separate facility.
4.5. The Housing and enrichmen to 4.5.1. Introduction All animals should be allowed adequat space to express a wide behavioural repertoir. Animals should be socially housed on wherever possible and provided with an adequately complex environment within the animal enclosure to enable them to carry out a range of normal behaviour. Restricted environments can lead to behavioural and physiological abnormalit affec the validity and of scientific data.
Considerations should be given to the potential impact of the type of accommodation, and that of the environmental and social enrichmen of the programme, on the outcomes of scientific studies, in order to avoid the generation of invalid scientific data and consequential animal wastag.
The housing and enrichmen strategies used in breeding, supplying and user establishment should be designed to fulfill the needs of the species housed on and to ensur that the animals can make the best use of the space available. Their design should also take into account the need to observe the animals with minimum disruption and to facilitat handling. Suggested minimum animal enclosure size and space with an allowance included in the subsequent individual species section.
Unless otherwise specified, the additional surface area provided by the enclosure of the additions, such as shelves, should be provided in addition to the recommended minimum floor area.
4.5.2. Housing

Animals, except to those which are naturally solitary, should be socially housed on in stable groups of compatible individual. Single housing should only occure if there is justification on veterinary or welfare grounds. Single housing on experimental ground should be determined in consultation with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal. In such circumstanc, additional resources should be targeted to the welfare and care of these animals. In such cases, the duration should be limited to the minimum period and, where not possible cessary, Visual, auditory, olfactory and tactile contact should be maintained. The introduction or re-introduction of animals to established groups should be carefully monitored by trained staff adequately, it avoid problems of incompatibility and disrupted social relationships. The possibility of social housing should be promoted by purchasing compatible individual when procuring animals of any species gregario.
4.5.3. Enrichmen All animals should be provided with sufficient space to the complexity to allow expression of adequat of a wide range of normal behaviour. They should be given a degree of control and choice over their environment to reduce stress-induced behaviour. This may be achieved by using appropriate enrichmen techniques, which extend the range of activities available to the animal and increase their coping activities. In addition to the social activities, the enrichmen can be achieved by allowing and promoting physical exercise, foraging, manipulatives and cognitive activities, as appropriate to the species. It is advisabl to allow the animal to exercise at every possible opportunity. Environmental enrichmen in animal enclosures should be appropriate to the species-specific and individual needs of the animals concerned. Form of the enrichmen should be so that innovation adaptabl based on new understanding may be incorporated. The enrichmen the programme should be regularly reviewed and updated. The staff responsible for animal care should understand the natural behaviour and biology of the species, so that they can make sensible and informed choices on enrichmen. They should be aware that all of the enrichmen initiative not cessarily not to the advantage of the animal and therefore is should monitor their effects and adjust the program as required.
4.5.4. Animal enclosures Animal enclosures should not be made out of materials detrimental to the health of the animals. Their design and construction should be such that from injury to the animals is caused. Unless is ut300r2u using disposables, they should be made from materials that will withstand cleaning and decontamination techniques. In particular, attention should be given to the design of animal enclosure floors, which should be appropriate to the species and age of the animals and be designed to the removal of excret facilitat.
4.6 4.6.1 Feeding. The form, content and presentation of the diet should meet the nutritional and behavioural needs of the animals. For some species, the opportunity for foraging should be givens. Roughag is an important component of the diet for some species of animals, as well as a means of satisfying some behavioural needs.
4.6.2. The animals ' diet should be palatabl and non-contaminated. In the selection of raw materials, production, preparation and presentation of feed, precaution should be taken to the minimis chemical, physical and microbiological contamination. The feed should be packed in bags that provide clear information on the identity of the product and its date of production. An expiry date should be clearly defined by the manufacturer and adhered to.
Packing, transport and storage should also be such as to avoid contamination, deterioration or destruction. Storeroom should be cool, dry and dark, vermin and insec-proof. Perishables feed like Greens, vegetable, fruit, meat, fish should be stored in cold rooms, refrigerators or freezer.
All feed hoppers, or others through a utensil used for feeding should be cleaned regularly and, if not, sterilised cessary. If the feed is used, mois or if the feed is easily contaminated with for example water or urin, daily cleaning is not cessary.
4.6.3. Each animal should be able to access the food, with sufficient feeding space provided to limit competition. In some circumstanc, food intake may need to be controlled to avoid obesity.
4.7 4.7.1 Uncontaminated drinking water Watering. should always be available to all animals. Water is, however, a vehicle for the micro-organism, and the supply should therefore be so arranged that the contamination risk is minimised.
4.7.2. Watering systems should be designed and used to provide an adequat quantity of water of suitabl quality. Be sufficient watering points (drinker) should be available. When automatic watering systems are used, their functioning should be regularly checked, serviced and flushed to avoid accidents, such as blockag or the spread of leakag and infections. If solid-bottomed cages are used, care should be taken to the minimis risk of flooding.
4.7.3. In fishes, amphibian and reptil, tolerance for acidity, chlorin and many others will differ widely from spec chemicals to their species. Therefore a provision should be made to the water supply for adap aquaria and tanks to the needs and tolerance limits of the individual species.
4.8. Flooring, litter, bedding and substrat, not rigid material 4.8.1 appropriate bedding materials or sleeping structures should always be provided for animals, as well as appropriate materials or structures not sting for breeding animals.
Various materials are commonly placed into the animal enclosure to serve the following functions: to absorb urin and faec, and this for a facilitat cleaning; It allows the animal to perform certain species-specific behaviour, such as foraging, digging or burrowing; It provides a comfortable, yielding surface or secure area for sleeping; to allow the animals to build a nest for breeding purpose.
Certain materials may not serve all of these needs, and it is therefore important to provide a sufficient and appropriate materials. Any such material should be dry, dust-free, absorben, non-toxic and free from infectious agents or vermin and other forms of contamination. Materials derived from wood that has been chemically treated ore containing toxic natural substances as well as products which cannot be clearly defined and standardised should be avoided.
4.8.2. Within the animal enclosure, the flooring should provide a solid, comfortable restinga area for all animals. All sleeping areas should be kep to clean and dry.
4.9 4.9.1 Cleanings. The standard of a facility, including good husbandry, depend very much on good hygiene. A very high standard of cleanlines and order should be maintained in holding, also washing and storage rooms. -Adequat routines for the cleaning, washing, decontamination and sterilisation, when not cessary, of enclosures and accessories, bottles and other equipment should be established and carried out.
4.9.2. These cleaning and wastewater should not be detrimental for the regime to animal health or welfare. Clear operating procedures, including a recording system should be in place for the changing of bedding in animal enclosures.
4.9.3. There should be regular cleaning and, where appropriate, renewal of the materials forming the ground surface in the animal enclosures to avoid them becoming a source of infection and normal infestation.
4.9.4. Odour-marking is an important form of behaviour in some species, and cleaning will cause disturbanc some degree of social disruption. Cleaning regime-should have regard for these behavioural needs. Decision on the frequency of cleaning should be based on the type of animal enclosure, the type of animal, the stocking density, and the ability of the ventilation system to maintain suitabl air quality.
4.10. Handling the quality of care given to the animals in the laboratory may influence not only breeding success, growth rate and welfare, but also the quality and outcomes of the experimental procedures. Accustoming animals to be competent and confident handling during a routin husbandry and procedures reduce stress both the animals and personnel. For some species, for example dogs and non-human primates, a training program to encourag co.-operations during procedures can be beneficial to the animal, the animal care staff and the scientific program. For certain species, the social contact with humans should be a priority.
However, in some cases, the handling should be avoided. This may be particularly the case with wild animals, and is one reason why wild animals can be less suitabl as experimental subjects. Staff caring for animals are expected, at all times, to have a caring and respectful attitude towards the animals in their care, and to be proficient in the handling and the forthcoming of the animals.
Where appropriate, staff time should be set aside for talking, handling, training and grooming the animals.
4.11. Humane killing 4.11.1 All humane methods of killing animals require expertise, which can only be attained by appropriate training. Animals should be killed using a method that adher to the principles set by the European Commission recommendations for the road safety of experimental animals (part 1 and Part2).
4.11.2. (A) any animal can be exsanguinated unconscio deeply, but drugs which the muscle before unconsciousnes of paralys occure, drugs with curariform effects and Electrocutions without passage of current through the brain, should not be used without prior anaesthesi.
Disposal should not be allowed until death has been confirmed.
4.12. Records

Records of source, use and final disposal of all animals bred, breeding, or for the CEAS for subsequent supply for use in scientific procedures should be used not only for statistical purpose but, in conjunction with the health and breeding records, as indicators of animal welfare and for husbandry and planning purpose.
4.13. the Identification In some instances, it is not for the animal to be individually cessary identified, for example, when being used for breeding purpose or scientific procedures, to enable accurate records to be the skipper. The method chosen should be reliable and cause the minimum pain and discomfor to the animal when applied and in the long-term. Sedativ or local anaesthetic and analgesic should be used if not cessary. Staff should be trained in carrying out the identification and marking techniques.
Species-specific section a. species-specific provision for rodent 1. Introduction Mic the laboratory mouse is derived from the wild House mouse (Mus muscul) a largely nocturnal burrowing and climbing animal which builds bring for regulation of the microenvironmen, shelter and reproduction. Hat with good climbers. Hat do not readily cross open spaces, preferring to remain close to walls or other structures. A wide range of social organisations has been observed depending on population density and intense territoriality may be seen in reproductively active edge. Pregnant females may prov of teacher and aggressive in nest defence. Sharp strain albino mice, particularly, have poor sight they rely heavily on their sense of smells and create patterns of urin is marking in their environment. Mice also have a hearing and the acut very sensitive to ultrasound. There is considerabl difference in the intensity of expression and behaviour depending on the strain.
Wheel the laboratory rat is derived from the wild brown rat (Ratt norvegicus) and is a highly social animal. Avoid open spaces, wheel, and use it to mark territory urin. Their sense of hearing with a highly developed and the smells, and the wheel with the PSSA to ultrasound. Daylight vision is poor, but dim-light vision is effective in some pigmented strain. Albino rats avoid areas with light levels over 25 lux. Activity is greater during the hours of darkness. Young animals are very exploratory and often engage in social play.
Gerbil a gerbil or Mongolian jird is the (Marion's SP.) is a social animal and is nocturnal, although largely in the laboratory it is also active during daylight. In the wild, a gerbil build Burrows with tunnel entrance-as a protection against predators, and in the laboratory often develop stereotypic digging behaviour unless provided with the adequat facilities.
The wild ancestor of the Hamster (Mesocricet-sp) of the laboratory with a largely solitary hamster. The female hamster is larger and more aggressive than the male and cant be serious injury inflic on here mate. Hamster will often make a latrine area within the enclosure, mark areas with a gland secretion from the flank, and females frequently selectively reduce the size of their own litter by cannibalism.
Guinea Pig Wild Guinea pig (the Cavi porcell) with social, rodent burrows in which do not cursorial, but live under cover and may use Burrows made by other animals. The edge may be of adult aggressive to each other, but generally aggression is rar. Guinea Pigs tend to freeze at unexpected sounds and may stampede as a group in response to sudden unexpected movement. Guinea Pigs are extremely sensitive to being moved and may freeze as a result for thirty minutes or more.
2. The environment and it control 2.1 Ventilation (see paragraph 2.1 of the General section) 2.2. Temperature Rodent should be maintained within a temperature range of-20 ° C to 24 ° c. Among the group of local temperature of rodent in solid-floored enclosures will be higher than room temperature often. Even with the adequat ventilation the enclosure's temperature may be up to 6 ° c above room temperature. Do not sting of stbox not give material/animals the opportunity to control their own microclimat. Special attention should be paid to the temperature in the systems as well as containmen it that provided for the hairles animals.
2.3. Humidity the relative humidity in roden facilities should be kep at 45 to 65%. Excepted from this principle with a gerbil, which should be kep at a relative humidity of 35 to 55%.
2.4. Lighting light levels within the enclosure should be low. All rack should have shaded the top to reduce the risk of retinal degeneration. This is of particular importanc for albino animals.
(A) the period of red light at the undetectabl to the frequenc rodent can be useful during the dark period so that staff can monitor the rodent in their active phase.
2.5. the noise As a rodent with a very sensitive to ultrasound, and use it for communication, it is important that this extraneo of noise is minimised. Ultrasonic noise (over 20 kHz) produced by many common laboratory fittings, taps, including drippings trolley wheel and computer monitors, can cause abnormal behaviour and breeding cycles. It may be advisabl to monitor the acoustic environment over a broad range of frequenc and over extended time periods.
2.6. Alarm systems (see paragraph 2.6. of the General section) 3. Health (see paragraphs 4.1 and 4.4 of the General section) 4. Housing, enrichmen and care 4.1. Housing of species should be Gregario group – as long as the group housed on with a stable and harmonio. Such groups can be achieved, although it is difficult, when housing male hat, adult hamster or gerbil, as this can result in sever of conspecific aggression.
Animals may be housed on individually if adverse effects or damage with a likely to occure. Disruption of established stable and harmonio in the group should be minimised, as this can be very stressful.
4.2. the Enrichmen and their enrichmen the enclosures should allow the animals to normal behaviour and manifest to enable their conspecific reduce competitive situation is adequately.
Cotton and does not sting, and the refuge of a material with very important resources for rodent in breeding, stock or under procedure and should be provided unless there is a justification on veterinary or welfare grounds against doing so. Withholding of such materials on the experimental ground should be agreed with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal. Not hard material should allow the rodent it manipulates the material and construct a nest. Nest boxes should be provided if the sting is not insufficient material provided for the animals to build a complete, covered nest. Bedding material should be absorbed and may be used by urin the rodent to lay down urin mark. Not hard material is important for rat, hamster and gerbil mice, as it enable them to create the appropriate microenvironment for restinga and breeding. Nest boxes or others with the refuge is important for Guinea pig, hamster and rat.
Guinea pig should always be provided with manipulabl materials such as hay for chewing and concealmen.
Wood sticks for chewing and gnawing may be considered for enrichmen for all roden to spec.
Many species to attempt the roden divide up their own enclosures into the area for feeding, restinga, urination and food storage. These may be based on odour division mark rather than a physical division but may be beneficial for the partial barrier allow the animals to initiat or avoid contact with other group members. To increase the complexity of environmental addition some form of enclosure enrichmen is strongly recommended. Tubes, boxes and climbing racks with example of devices which have been used successfully for rodent, and these can have the added benefit of increasing utilisabl floor area.
Gerbil need comparatively more space than other species in order to be roden allow them to build and/or use the Burrows of sufficient size. A gerbil will require a thick layer of litter for digging and does not sting or a substitute Burrows, which needs to be at least 20 cm long. Considerations should be given to the use of translucent tinted or enclosures and inserts which permit good observation of the animals without disturbing them.
The same principles regarding the quality and quantity of space, environmental enrichmen and other considerations in this document should apply to containmen systems such as individually ventilated cages (IVC), although the design of the system may mean that these may have to be approached differently.
4.3. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring the enclosures should be made of easy-to-clean materials and their design should allow proper inspection of the animal without causing it them disturbanc.
Once young animals become active they require proportionally more space than adults do. 4.3.1. Dimensions In this and subsequent tables for all roden to recommendations "enclosure height" means the vertical distance between the enclosure floor and the top of the enclosure, and this height should apply over more than 50% of the minimum enclosure floor area prior to the addition of enrichmen devices.
When designing procedures, considerations should be given to the potential growth of the animals it is an adequat ensur space provided (as detailed in tables a.1 to a. 5) for the duration of the study.
Table a.1. MIC: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of post – may be kep to mice weaned at these higher stocking density, for the short period after weaning until issue, provided that the animals are housed on in larger enclosures with adequat-enrichmen. These housing conditions should not cause any welfare raises such as: increased level of aggression, morbidity or mortality, and other behavioural deficit stereotyp, weight loss, or other physiological or behavioural stress responses.
Table a.2. Wheel: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of


* In lifetime studies, animals should be provided with enclosures of a suitabl size to enable the animals to be socially housed on. Stocking density on the axis towards the end of such studies may be difficult to predic, consequentially there may be occasions where space allowance per individual animal may fall below those indicated above. In such circumstanc's priority should be given to maintaining stable social structures.
** Post – may be kep rats weaned at these stocking density, for the short period after weaning until issue, provided that the animals are housed on in larger enclosures with adequat-enrichmen. These housing conditions should not cause any welfare raises such as: increased level of aggression, morbidity or mortality, and other behavioural deficit stereotyp, weight loss, or other physiological or behavioural stress responses.
Table a.3. Gerbil: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of table a. 4. Hamster: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance for post-hamster may be kep to weaned at these stocking density, for the short period after weaning until issue, provided that the animals are housed on in larger enclosures with adequat-enrichmen. These housing conditions should not cause any welfare raises such as: increased level of aggression, morbidity or mortality, and other behavioural deficit stereotyp, weight loss, or other physiological or behavioural stress responses.
Table (A). 5. Guinea pig: the minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of 4.3.2. Flooring Solid floor with bedding or perforated floor with a preferabl to the grid or wire mesh floors. If the grid wire mesh with or is used, (a) solid or bedded area or, as an alternative in the case of Guinea pig, a slatted area, should be provided for the animal to rest on a specific experimental conditions unless prevent this. May be withheld by the bedding of time – mating practices.
As the can lead the mesh floor serious injuries, the floor should be closely inspected and maintained to ensur that there from loose or sharp projections.
During pregnancy, parturition and lactation late, breeding females should only be kep on solid floor with bedding.
4.4 Feeding (see paragraph 4.6 of the General section) 4.5 Watering (see paragraph 4.7 of the General section) 4.6 Substrat, litter, bedding and not rigid material (see paragraph 4.8 of the General section) 4.7 Cleaning Although high hygiene standards should be maintained, it may be advisabl to maintain some odour cues left by animals. Too frequent changing of enclosures should be avoided, particularly where pregnant animals and females with a litter with a concerned, as such can result in the Miss disturbanc-mothering or cannibalism.
Decision on the frequency of cleaning should therefore be based on the type of the enclosure, type of animal, and the stocking density, the ability of ventilation systems to maintain suitabl air quality.
4.8 Handling When handling, care needs to be taken to the minimis disturbanc of the animals or their enclosure environment. This is of particular importanc with hamster.
4.9. Humane killing (see paragraph 4.11 of the General section) 4.10 records (see paragraph 4.12 of the General section) 4.11. Identification (see paragraph 4.13 of the General section) (B). Species-specific provision for rabbit 1. Introduction the rabbit (Oryctolagus-cunicul) is a naturally gregario in spec. Rabbit should be allowed space and an adequat enriched environment, the denial of which can result in the loss of normal locomotor activity and in skeletal abnormalit.
2. The environment and it control 2.1 Ventilation (see paragraph 2.1 of the General section) 2.2. Temperature Rabbit should be maintained in a temperature range of-15 ° C to 21 ° c. Among the group of local temperature of rabbit in solid-floored enclosures will be higher than room temperature often. Even with the adequat ventilation the enclosure's temperature may be up to 6 ° C above room temperature.
Do not sting of stbox not give material/animals the opportunity to control their own microclimat. Special attention should be paid to the temperature in containmen systems.
2.3. Humidity the relative humidity in the rabbit facilities should not be less than 45%.
2.4. Lighting (see paragraph 2.4. of the General section) 1.6. Noise (see paragraph 2.5. of the General section) 2.6. Alarm systems (see paragraph 2.6. of the General section) 3. Health (see paragraphs 4.1 and 4.4 of the General section) 4. Housing, enrichmen and care 4.1. Housing Young and female rabbit should be housed on in harmonio to social groups. Single housing should only occure if there is justification on veterinary or welfare grounds. Single housing on experimental ground should be determined in consultation with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal. Adult entire edge may perform the behaviour and should not be housed on territorial with other entire edge. Enriched floor Penn have been used with success to house young adult female rabbit and the rabbit although groups may need to be carefully managed to avoid aggression. Ideally a rabbit for group housing should be the littermat that have been together since a kep weaning. Where an individual cannot be group-housed on considerations should be given them, housing them in close Visual contact.
4.2. the enrichmen Enrichmen the rabbit is Suitabl for includes roughag, Haya block or chew sticks as well as an area for attention. In the floor pan for group housing, Visual barriers and structures to provide refuge and look out behaviour should be provided. For breeding does not sting and a nest-box materials should also be provided.
4.3. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring It is preferabl for enclosures to be rectangular. A raised area should be provided within the enclosure. This raised area should allow the animal to lie and sit and easily move underneath, but should not cover more than 40% of the floor space. While the enclosure height should be sufficient for the rabbit to sit without disfunction its ears touching the roof of the enclosure, this degree of clearance is not considered not cessary for the raised area. If there are good scientific or veterinary reasons for not using a shelf then the enclosure should be 33% larger for a single rabbit and 60% larger for two rabbit. Wherever it is possible, the rabbit should be kep in the pen.
4.3.1. the dimensions table b.1. Rabbit over 10 weeks of age: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of the table is to be used for both cage and Pena. In a raised area of the cage should be provided (see table B. 4). The pen should contains structures that the space it subdivid allow animals to initiat or avoid social contact. The additional floor area is 3000 cm2 per rabbit for the third, the fourth, the fifth and the sixth rabbit, while 2500 cm2 should be added for each additional rabbit above a number of six.
Table (B). 2. DOE plus litter: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance for At least three to four days before giving birth, does should be provided with an extra or a not stbox compartmen in which they can build a nest. The should preferably be stbox outside the enclosure. Straw or other material should be provided not sting. The enclosure should be designed so that the DOE can move to another area or compartmen raised away from her nipple after they have left the nest. After weaning, the littermat should stay together in their breeding of the enclosure as long as possible. Up to eight may be kep to the littermat in the breeding enclosure from weaning until seven weeks old, and littermat may be the skipper of the five on the minimum floor area from eight to ten weeks of age.
Table (B). 3. Rabbit is less than 10 weeks of age: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of the table is to be used for both cage and Pena. The pen should contains structures that the space it subdivid allow animals to initiat or avoid social contact. After weaning, the littermat should stay together in their breeding of the enclosure as long as possible.
Table (B). 4. Rabbit: Optima dimensions for raised areas for enclosures having the dimensions indicated in table b.1.

To allow proper use of the raised area and of the enclosure as a whole the dimensions given above for the raised area size and height with the OPTIMA, with very close minimum and maximum (within 10% of optimum size). If there are scientific or veterinary justification for not providing a raised area then the floor area should be 33% larger for a single rabbit and 60% larger for two rabbit, the rabbit facilitat's locomotor activities and to enhance the opportunity to escape from a more dominant animal.
Where a raised area is provided for rabbit of less than 10 weeks of age, the optimum size of the raised area should be 55 x 25 cm and the height above the floor should be such that the animals can make use of it. 4.3.2. Wire Flooring floor should not be used without the provision of a large enough area in the restinga holds all the rabbit at any one time. Solid floor with bedding or perforated floor with a preferabl to the grid or wire mesh floors.
4.4 Feeding (see paragraph 4.6 of the General section) 4.5 Watering (see paragraph 4.7 of the General section) 4.6 Substrat, litter, bedding and not rigid material (see paragraph 4.8 of the General section) 4.7 Cleaning (see paragraph 4.9 of the General section) 4.8 Handling (see paragraph 4.10 of the General section) 4.9. Humane killing (see paragraph 4.11 of the General section) 4.10 records (see paragraph 4.12 of the General section) 4.11. Identification (see paragraph 4.13 of the General section) (C). Species-specific provision for cat 1. Introduction the domestic cat is derived from the solitary African wild cat (Felis silvestris libyc), but has a strong tendency to learn social behaviour. With appropriate socialisation provided at an early age, such behaviour can be expressed both their conspecific and me.

Good social interaction with humans is suitabl temperament of encourag for subsequent studies. However, sharp cat will lack dominance and appear to lack hierarchs mechanisms for reconciliation of post-conflict, forming social relationships may be stressful. Visible signs that cat with the stressed not as straightforward as with the interpre-those in dogs.
Sharp cat with a territorial and become attached to particular locations likely to be stressed ut300r2u by relocation. Cat with an excellent climber and utilis is raised structures (e.g. shelves) extensively, both as vantage points and, when it housed on in groups, maintains a distance from other cats.
2. The environment and it control 2.1 Ventilation (see paragraph 2.1 of the General section) 2.2 the temperature may be maintained within a cats wide temperature range provided that their welfare is not compromised. A temperature range of 15 ° C to 21 ° C should be maintained when precise control is required for cat under procedure (see paragraph 2.2.3 of the General Section).
As kittens have limited thermoregulatory control for around the first ten days of life, additional local heating should be provided during this period.
2.3. It is considered unnecessary to control Humidity relative humidity, as cats can be exposed to wide fluctuation of ambient relative humidity without adverse effects.
2.4. Lighting Holdings of cats under the twenty-four-hour natural light-dark cycle is acceptabl ... Where the light of of the photoperiod is provided by artificial lighting, this should be within a range of ten to twelve hours daily.
If natural light is totally excluded, low level night lighting (5 to 10 lux) should be provided to allow the cat to retain some vision and to take account of their startl reflex.
2.5. Noise (see paragraph 2.5. of the General section) 2.6. Alarm systems (see paragraph 2.6. of the General section) 3. Health (see paragraphs 4.1 and 4.4 of the General section) 4. Housing, enrichmen and care 4.1. Housing female cat and not utered cat of both sex with sociabl and with a generally is commonly held in groups of up to twelve. However, the establishment of groups of two or more such cats requires careful monitoring of the compatibility of all of the individual in the group. Special care is needed when introducing regrouping, an unfamiliar cat to a group, and not on the edge of the housing-utered in a group or maintaining cat in larger groups.
Where cat is housed on with group – normally, single-housing may be a significant stress factor. Therefore, the cat should not be single-housed on for more than twenty-four hours without justification on veterinary or welfare grounds. Single housing for more than twenty-four hours on the experimental ground should be determined in consultation with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal.
Cats which with SmartList help needed aggressive towards others of cat should be a singly housed on only if compatible companion cannot be found. Social stress in all pairs-or group-housed on individual should be monitored at least weekly using an established behavioural and/or physiological stress scoring system. This is especially important for and the edge of the utered not.
Females with kittens under four weeks of age or in the last two weeks of pregnancy may be housed on singly. During this time, considerations should be given to also allowing females which are normally group-housed on them have access to their group, e.g. by connecting the kittening enclosures to the group housing the animal enclosures.
The development of social behaviour in cats is profoundly affected by social experience between two and eight weeks of age. During this period, it is particularly important that the cat has social contacts with other cats (e.g. litter mates) and with humans and is familiarised with the environmental conditions likely to be encountered during subsequent use. Daily handling during this sensitive stage of development is a prerequisite for the social behaviour of the adult cat and it has been shown that a short period of handling event on the first days after birth is of importanc as the young animals are already able to responds to scent and tactile stimulation.
All cats should have a period of play and general social interactions with humans on a daily basis, plus additional time for regular grooming. Particular attention should be paid to social enrichmen for single-housed on cats by providing additional human contact.
4.2. the Enrichmen Raised on the enclosed structures should be provided (e.g. a bed with three walls and a roof on a shelf approximately one metre off the floor) to give the cat a view of their surrounding and, if pair-or group-housed on, the opportunity to maintain a comfortable distance from other cats. There should be a sufficient number of these structures the minimis competition. Structures should be distributed within the enclosure so that animals can fully use the space available.
There should also be provision for the cat to seek refuge and privacy within their own enclosure and, in particular, away from the sight of the cat in other enclosures. Vertical wooden surface should be provided for to allow claw-sharpening and scent-marking.
Outside of an environmental enrichmen the speech provides opportunity for cats in both breeding and user establishment and should be provided where possible.
Pseudo-predatory behaviour should be encouraged and play. A selection of toys should be available and these should be changed on a regular basis in order to avoid ongoing stimulation and ensur familiarity, which decrease the motivation to play.
4.3. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring enclosures, including the division between enclosures, should provide a robust and easy to clean environment for the cat. Their design and construction should seek to provide an open and light facility giving the cat a comprehensive sight outside of their enclosure.
4.3.1. the dimensions table (C). 1. Cat: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance for the minimum space in which a queen and litter may be held is the space for a single cat, which should be gradually increased so that by four months of age to a litter have been re-housed on it to conform with the above space requirements for adults. The normal age for weaning is seven to nine weeks.
Cat should never be forced to spend their entire lives outside and should always have access to an internal enclosure that meets all standards, including the minimum dimensions, detailed in these guidelines.
Areas for feeding and for litter trays should be not less than 0.5 metres apart and should not be interchanged.
Constraint in a space below the minimum requirement detailed above, such as in a metabolic cage or any similar type of housing for scientific purpose, may severely set the welfare of the animals. Such constraint should be for the minimum time and within a space that is as close as possible to that defined above and no less than that required for the animal to stretch horizontally and vertically, it fully lie down and turn around.
4.3.2. Flooring the preferred flooring for cat enclosures is a solid continuous floor with a smooth non-slip finish. Additional enclosure furniture should provide all cats with a comfortable restinga place.
Open flooring systems such as a grid or mesh should not be used for cats. Where there is a justification for open flooring, great care should be taken in their design and construction in order to avoid pain, injury or disease and to allow the animals to normal behaviour manifest. Practical experience shows that metabolic cages are not always not sharp cat's urin cessary and faec can be collected directly from the litter tray.
The quality and finish of the floor of an outside run need not be to the standard of the inside enclosure, providing it is easy to clean and not physically injurio to the cat.
4.4 Feeding (see paragraph 4.6 of the General section) 4.5 Watering (see paragraph 4.7 of the General section) 4.6 Substrat, litter, bedding and not rigid material At least one litter tray of dimensions 400 x 300 mm minimum should be provided for every two cats and should contain (a) a and non-suitabl absorben toxic litter or material that is acceptabl substrat it and used by the cat. If urin and is regularly deposited the faec outside the tray, additional trays containing alternative substrat should be provided for. If this is in pairs-or group ineffectiv, housed on cat, social incompatibility is indicated and the cat should be removed from the group one at a time until the problem is resolved.
Sufficient bed should be provided for all the cat and should be made (a) easy to clean of suitabl material. These beds should contain bedding material such as polyester fleece or similar bedding material.
4.7 Cleaning Each enclosure should be cleaned occupied at least daily. A litter tray should be emptied daily and litter material replaced.
Cleaning of enclosures should not result in the cat becoming wet. When the hosed down with enclosures, the cat should be removed from the enclosure to a dry place and returned only when it is reasonably dry.
4.8 Handling For cat, close contact with the persons caring for them is crucial, especially for single-housed on cat.
4.9. Humane killing (see paragraph 4.11 of the General section) 4.10 records (see paragraph 4.12 of the General section) 4.11. Identification (see paragraph 4.13 of the General section) (D). Species-specific provision for dogs 1. Introduction the domestic dog (Canis familiar) is an inquisitiv and highly social animals which actively seek information about it in the surrounding, reflecting the behaviour of its ancestor in the wolf family. Although much of the day is to spen restinga, the dog requires a complex physical and social environment during the active phase.
Bitch's seek solitude in a quiet area for parturition and rearing of young.

Axis aggression is a significant risk, care is needed to maintain the dog in the harmonio groups socially. The recommendations provided by the Council for the Beagle, the most commonly used breeds. Account should be taken of the individual breed characteristics if others breeds are used.
2. The environment and it control 2.1 Ventilation (see paragraph 2.1 of the General section) 2.2 the temperature may be maintained within the dogs a wide temperature range provided that their welfare is not compromised. A temperature range of 15 ° C to 21 ° C should be maintained when precise control is required for dogs under procedure (see paragraph 2.2.3 of the General Section).
As puppies have limited thermoregulatory control in the first ten days or so of life, additional local heating should be provided within the whelping enclosure.
2.3. It is considered unnecessary to control Humidity relative humidity, as dogs can be exposed to wide fluctuation of ambient relative humidity without adverse effects.
2.4. Lighting the holding of dogs under the twenty-four-hour natural light-dark cycle is acceptabl ... Where the light of of the photoperiod is provided by artificial lighting, this should be within a range of ten to twelve hours daily.
If natural light is totally excluded, low-level night lighting (5 to 10 lux) should be provided to allow the dogs to retain some vision and to take account of their startl reflex.
2.5. Noise noise in dog kennels can reach high levels which are known to cause damage to humans, and which could be affec dogs ' health or physiology. For these reasons it is important to consider methods of reducing noise in dog facilities. By addressing the dogs ' behavioural needs in the facility design, the level of vocalisation may be decreased. Much of the noise is generated by the dogs ' own vocalisation, but may also be generated by husbandry operations within the facility and ingres from outside sources. Any source of noise that may further the dog barking stimulat should therefore be limited as far as possible. Penetration of external noise can be reduced by appropriate sitting of the facility and by appropriate architectural design. Noise generated within the facility can be reduced by noise absorben material or structures. Expert advice on noise reduction should be taken when designing or modifying dog accommodation.
2.6. Alarm systems (see paragraph 2.6. of the General section) 3. Health (see paragraphs 4.1 and 4.4 of the General section) 4. Housing, enrichmen and care 4.1. Housing dogs should be housed on in harmonio for groups socially within the animal enclosure, unless the scientific procedure or welfare requirements make this impossible. Special care is needed when introducing an unfamiliar regrouping dogs or dogs to a group. In all cases, the groups should be monitored on an ongoing basis for social compatibility.
Outside of an environmental enrichmen the speech provides opportunity for dogs in both breeding and user establishment and should be provided where possible.
Single-housing of dogs for even short periods can be a significant stress factor. Therefore, the dog should not be single-housed on for more than four hours without justification on welfare or veterinary grounds. Single-housing for more than four hours on the experimental ground should be determined in consultation with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal.
In such circumstanc, additional resources should be targeted to the welfare and care of these dogs. Additional human socialisation time, and Visual, auditory and, where possible, tactile contact with other dogs, should be provided for all single-housed on animals on a daily basis.
Unless contra-indicated on scientific grounds, single-housed on dogs should be allowed to exercise in a separate area with, if possible, other dogs, and with staff supervision and interaction, on a daily basis.
Stud dog should, wherever possible, be socially housed on harmonio in pairs or in groups or with a bitch.
Per-parturien the bitch's should only be moved to the whelping enclosure between one and two weeks of expected parturition. While in the whelping enclosure they should have additional daily human contact.
Social behaviour in dogs develop between four and twenty weeks of age. During this period, it is particularly important that the dog has social contacts with littermat, adult dogs (e.g. the bitch) and with humans, and is likely to be familiarised with the conditions encountered during subsequent use. Daily handling during this sensitive stage of development is a prerequisite for the social behaviour of the adult dog and it has been shown that a short period of handling, even from the first days after birth onward, IR of importanc as the young animals are already able to responds to scent and tactile stimulation.
4.2. the Enrichmen the design of indoor and outdoor enclosures should allow some privacy for the dogs and enable them to exercise control over their Finnish social interactions.
Separate areas for different activities should be provided. This can be achieved by, for example, inclusion of the pen-raised platform and sub division.
Dog treats and toys afford welfare benefits to the animals, providing these are used sensibly and adequately monitored. As chewing is an important behaviour, items should be provided which meet this need.
The primary advantage of exercise with it to allow additional opportunities for dogs to experience a complex and varied environment and to increase interaction with other dogs and humans. These will be particularly important where these needs cannot be fully met within the space provided by the animal enclosure. Therefore, unless contra-indicated on scientific or veterinary grounds, the dog should be removed to a separate area and allowed to exercise, with other dogs where possible, and with staff supervision and interaction, ideally on a daily basis.
4.3 enclosures – dimensions and flooring Animal enclosures, including the division between enclosures, should provide a robust and easy to clean environment for the dog. In their design and construction they should seek to provide an open and light facility giving the dog a comprehensive sight of other dogs and staff, outside of their immediate animal enclosure.
4.3.1. the dimensions of these guidelines with the intended to encourag the social housing of dogs and to permit adequat environment enrichmen. It should be noted that within this concept and strategy every encouragement is given to dogs in large holdings and socially – harmonio for groups both to increase the available floor space and enhance their socialisation opportunities.
Dogs should never be forced to spend their entire lives outside and should at all times have access to an internal enclosure that meets the standards for construction and environmental control detailed in these guidelines. The internal enclosure should be not less than represen 50% of the minimum space to be made available to the dogs, as detailed in table d.1 below.
The space of detailed below with an allowance based on the requirements of Terrier, but it should be noted that the allowance significantly in excess may be required for giant breeds such as St. Bernard or Irish wolfhound. For breeds other than the laboratory Beagle, space allowance-should be decided in consultation with veterinary staff and the responsible authority.
Table (D). 1. Dogs: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance for dogs that are housed on each pair or group may be constrained to half the total space provided (2 m ² for a dog under 20 kg, 4 m ² for a dog over 20 kg) while undergoing procedures ut300r2u as defined in the Convention, if this separation is essential for scientific purpose. The period for which a dog should be so constrained should be minimised and should not in any event exceeds 100 four hours. This provision is made to encourag pair housing (particularly in the toxicology studies) while at the same time allowing for the need to monitor the feed intake and perform post-dosing observations.
Any further social or physical constraint, such as in a metabolic cage or physicals in a sling, forthcoming may severely set the welfare of the animals. Constraint in a metabolic cage or any similar type of housing for scientific purpose-should be within a space that is as close as possible to that defined above and no less than that required for the animal to lie down and stretch out fully, turn around.
4.3.2. A Nursing bitch and litter, and puppies up to 7.5 kg A nursing bitch and litter should have the same space allowance as a single bitch of equivalent weight. The whelping pen should be designed so that the bitch can move to an additional compartmen or raised area away from the puppies.
The normal age for weaning puppies is six to nine weeks.
Table (D). 2. Dogs: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance for postweaned stock 4.3.3. Flooring the preferred flooring for dog accommodation is a solid continuous floor with a smooth non-slip finish. All dogs should be provided with a comfortable, solid restinga area, for example, by the use of enclosure furniture such as beds or raised platform.
Open flooring systems such as a grid or mesh should not be used for dogs. Where there is a justification for open flooring, great care should be taken in their design and construction in order to avoid pain, injury or disease and to allow the animals to normal behaviour manifest. If any welfare problems in which the will «arise related to the flooring, veterinary advice should be sought and, if not, the cessary dogs relocated onto solid flooring.
Pre-weaned puppies and peri-parturien and the bitch should not be suckling the skipper in an open floor system.
The quality and finish of the floor of an outside run need not be to the standard of the inside enclosure, providing it is easily cleanabl and not injurio to the dogs.
4.4 Feeding (see paragraph 4.6 of the General section) 4.5 Watering

(See paragraph 4.7 of the General section) 4.6 Substrat, litter, bedding and not material When the dogs with a sting held on solid floors, some litter or facilitat of cleaning materials and substrat minimis cessity of the washing or hosing down for regular.
Per-parturien and suckling bitch's should be provided with a bed and bedding materials to support nursing and the whelping of puppies. Puppies also benefit from the provision of bedding materials, as may certain breeds such as the greyhound.
4.7 Cleaning Each enclosure should be cleaned occupied at least daily. All of the soiled materials excret and should be removed from all areas used by the dogs at least daily, and more frequently if not cessary.
Wet cleaning by hosing down of the enclosures should be carried out not sharp but should not cessary result in the dog becoming wet. When the hosed down with enclosures, the dog should be removed from the enclosure to a dry place and returned only when it is reasonably dry.
4.8 Handling (see paragraph 4.1 above and paragraph 4.10 of the General section) 4.9. Humane killing (see paragraph 4.11 of the General section) 4.10 records (see paragraph 4.12 of the General section) 4.11. Identification (see paragraph 4.13 of the General section) e. species-specific provision for Introduction 1 Ferret ferret (Mustela furo-putori) are the natural conditions under which the carnivor feed on small mammal will birds, fish and invertebrat. They have complex hunting behaviour and tend to hoard food, but will not eat decayed matter.
Although in the wild the ferret is generally a solitary animal, there shall it be se welfare benefits if they are in the harmonio group of socially housed on in captivity. Ferret will normally live in burrows, and this shall be in the provision of captivity appreciate materials, such as tubes in which they cant crawl and play games.
Ferret is usually breed once a year, mating in the spring. Male animals are hostil to, and will fight vigorously with the edge of the unfamiliar, during the breeding season. As a consequences, at this time of the edge of the single housing may not cessary prov.
The ferret is an intelligent, inquisitiv, playful and agile animals, and this should be taken into account in the design of the accommodation and when handling. A complex, escape-proof enclosure is required which provides opportunities to the ferret to exhibit "a wide behavioural repertoir.
2. The environment and it control 2.1 Ventilation (see paragraph 2.1 of the General section) 2.2. Temperature Ferret should be maintained in the temperature range of-15 ° C to 24 ° c.
As a ferret do not have well-developed sweat gland to avoid heat exhaustion, they should not be exposed to high temperature.
2.3. It is considered unnecessary to control Humidity or relative humidity as a ferret records can be exposed to wide fluctuation of ambient relative humidity without adverse effects.
2.4. Lighting the light source and type should not be aversiv to the animals and particular care should be taken with albino ferret, especially if, in the top tier of housed on tiered racking systems.
Holdings of the ferret under the twenty-four-hour natural light-dark cycle is acceptabl ...
Where the light of of the photoperiod is provided by artificial lighting, this should be for a minimum of eight hours daily and should generally not sixteen 12 hours daily.
However, it should be noted that for manipulation of the reproductive cycle of variation in the light-dark cycles is not cessary (e.g. the light on of the photoperiod can vary from six to sixteen hours).
If natural light is totally excluded, low level night lighting should be provided to allow animals to retain some vision and to take account of their startl reflex.
2.5. the Lack of sound or noise auditory stimulation can be detrimental and make a ferret is nervous. However, loud noise and unfamiliar vibration have been reported to cause stress-related disorders in ferret and should be avoided. It is important to consider methods of reducing sudden or unfamiliar noise in ferret facilities, including that generated by husbandry operations within the facility and also by ingres from outside sources. Ingres of noise can be controlled by appropriate sitting of the facility and by appropriate architectural design. Noise generated within the facility can be controlled by noise to materials or structures absorben. Expert advice should be taken when designing or modifying accommodation.
2.6. Alarm systems (see paragraph 2.6. of the General section) 3. Health (see paragraphs 4.1 and 4.4 of the General section) 4. Housing, enrichmen and care 4.1. Animal Housing should be kep in a socially-harmonio groups unless there is scientific justification or welfare for single housing.
During the breeding season, adult edge may be maintained by the need to avoid fighting and injury it singly. However, the edge can be successfully maintained in groups at other times.
Pregnant females should be housed on singly only during late pregnancy, from more than two weeks prior to parturition.
Separation of animals that are normally group – can be housed on a significant stress factor. Where this is for a period of more than twenty-four hours, it should be regarded as severely compromising the welfare of the animals. Therefore, the ferret should not be single-housed on for more than twenty-four hours without justification on veterinary or welfare grounds. Single housing for more than twenty-four hours on the experimental ground should be determined in consultation with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal.
Where animals are the single-housed on, for scientific or welfare whethers reasons, additional resources should be targeted to the welfare and care of these animals. Additional human socialisation time, and Visual, auditory and, where possible, tactile contact with others ferret should be provided for all single-housed on animals on a daily basis.
The social behaviour of the ferret should be taken into account by providing regular interaction with others through ferret group housing and regular handling. In general, the ferret shall benefit from the sea such regular and confident handling and this should be encouraged, as it results in better quality and more sociabl of animals.
Social behaviour in LG.Philips ferret at an early age and it is important that the young ferret has social contacts with other ferret (e.g. litter-mates) and with humans (e.g. animal caretakers). Daily handling during this sensitive stage of development is a prerequisite for the social behaviour of the adult ferret. It is reported that the more frequent the interaction, the more placid the animal will become, and this interaction should be continued through into adult life.
4.2. the Enrichmen the design of the ferret enclosure should meet the animals ' species, and breed-specific needs. It should be so that innovation adaptabl based on new understanding may be incorporated.
The design of the enclosure should allow some privacy for the ferret and enable them to exercise control over their Finnish social interactions.
Separate areas for different activities, such as by raised platform and Pena subdivision, should be provided in addition to the minimum floor space detailed below. Where does not sting the boxes provided, these should be designed to contain the young ferret is within the nest.
Provision of containers and tubes of cardboard or rigid plastic, and paper bags, of both investigative and stimulat play behaviour. Water bath and bowl with a used extensively by ferret.
4.3. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring 4.3.1. Dimensions these guidelines are intended to encourag the social housing of the ferret and permit an adequat enrichmen of the environment. It should be noted that within this concept and strategy every encouragement is given to holding ferret in large groups of both socially and harmonio to increase the available floor space and to enhance the socialisation opportunities.
Animal enclosures, including the division between enclosures, should provide an easy to clean and robust environment for the ferret. Their design and construction should seek to provide an open and light facility giving the ferret a comprehensive sight of other ferret and staff, outside of their immediate animal enclosure. There should also be provision for the ferret to seek refuge and privacy within their own enclosure and, in particular, away from the sight of ferret in other enclosures.
As a ferret have a remarkabl is ability to escape, the design of the enclosure should be such that the animal is unable to escape or their injuries is itself should any attempt be made such.
The recommended minimum height of the enclosure should be 50 cm. The ferret enjoy climbing and this height is the provision of suitabl facilitat enrichmen. The floor space should provide an adequat area for movement and to allow the animal the opportunity to select the sleeping, eating and urination/defecations area. In order to provide enough space for environmental complexity, from the animal enclosure should be less than 4500 cm ². Minimum space requirements for each ferret with as follows: table e. 1. Ferret: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of Animal enclosures should be of a rectangular shape rather than a square, it is facilitat locomotor activities.
Constraint in less than the above space requirements for scientific purpose, such as in a metabolic cage, may severely set the welfare of the animals.
4.3.2. Flooring the flooring for Ferret accommodation should be a solid continuous floor with a smooth non-slip finish. Additional enclosure furniture such as beds or platform should provide all ferret with a warm and comfortable place restinga.
Open flooring systems such as a grid or mesh should not be used for ferret.
4.4 Feeding (see paragraph 4.6 of the General section) 4.5 Watering (see paragraph 4.7 of the General section) 4.6 Substrat, litter, bedding and not rigid material

Bedding material is required for all ferret. In addition, non-rigid materials such as hay, straw or paper should be provided. Deep litter systems are considered to provide additional enrichmen.
It is good practice to use some litter or material at least the substrat facilitat of cleaning and the minimis cessity to not wash/hose down regularly.
4.7 Cleaning wet cleaning by hosing down of animal enclosures should not result in the ferret is becoming wet. When the animal enclosures are hosed down, the ferret should be removed from the enclosure to a dry place and returned only when it is reasonably dry.
Will tend to defecat Ferret against a vertical surface in one area of the enclosure. Provision of a litter tray may be beneficial and reduce the frequency of cleaning required for the remainder of the enclosure.
All of the soiled materials excret and should be emptied at least daily, and more frequently if not from a litter tray cessary, and/or removed from all other areas used by the animals as a toilet.
Frequency of cleaning of the remainder of the enclosure should be determined on factors such as stocking density, enclosure design and stage of breeding e.g. periparturien the period.
4.8 Handling (see paragraph 4.10 of the General section) 4.9. Humane killing (see paragraph 4.11 of the General section) 4.10 records (see paragraph 4.12 of the General section) 4.11. Identification (see paragraph 4.13 of the General section) f. species-specific provision for non-human primates a. General considerations 1. Introduction Keeping non-human primates in the laboratory create a number of problems which are not shared with other commonly used laboratory mammal. Non-human primates are not domesticated, but with wild animals; most are also arboreal. Their wild status means that they are more alert than domesticated species and the with the highly reactive to any unfamiliar and alarming incentives. Unlik domesticated species of, they have not been selected for their human and friendlines low aggression. Early friendly contact between Infante and care-giver will result in a less fearful animals, the animals learn that familiar humans don't constitut a threat, but the animals will retain most of the attributes of their wild conspecific. In contrast to non-arboreal mammal laboratory, the flight of the non-human primates reaction from terrestrial predators is vertical, rather than horizontal; even the least arboreal species seek refuge in trees or on cliff faces. As a result, enclosure height should be adequat to allow the animal to perch at a sufficiently high level for it to feel secure. The structural division of space in the enclosure of the primat is of paramount importanc. It is essential that the animal should be able utilis as much of the volume as possible because, being arboreal, they occupyi ..... a three-dimensional space. To make this possible, perch and climbing structures should be provided.
In addition to their wild nature and climbing habita, non-human primates have advanced cognitive capabilities and foraging behaviour and social complex. As a result, they require complex, enriched environments to allow them to carry out a normal behavioural repertoir. The group structure, however, should be such that normal behaviour in distress or pain indicativ of the or those likely to result in injury to the skipper to a minimum.
Non-human primates used for scientific research should be captive-bred and, where practicabl, reared on site to avoid transport stress. Captive-bred animals of known age, with parentag and health status and have been reared under standardised husbandry practices. Where non-human primates with to be imported they should, whenever possible, be obtained from Ocean Beach to sharp established breeding colon with high welfare and care standards. They should be free from zoonotic diseases. Wild caught animals should only be used in exceptional circumstanc axis they present a health hazard to staff, have unknown and likely a histor to be more afraid of humans. In some instances there can be a significant mortality among the animals at the trapping site and during transfer to the source country holding site.
Additional details are provided for the commonly bred and used laboratory species. Further advice on requirements for other species (or if behavioural or breeding problems occure) should be sought from experienced primatologist and care staff to ensur that any particular species needs are adequately addressed.
2. The environment and it control 2.1 Ventilation (see paragraph 2.1 of the General section) 2.2. Temperature As in captivity the animals have restricted opportunities for natural behavioural means of coping with climatic change, the ranges specified for laboratory animals will not be those which are not cessarily reflec they experience in nature. Generally the ranges will be those which are optimal for the animals and comfortable for staff. Where outdoor enclosures with in use, it is essential to provide shelter from the weather for all inclemen individual and continuous access to the heated indoor accommodation adequat. This is of particular importanc in colon to the extensive outdoor breeding enclosures to the with reduce the risk of loss and of not frostbit onat in the winter months.
2.3. Although some Humidity non-human primates live in tropical rain forests, where humidity is high, and others in arid regions, it is not to be replicated cessary for this in the laboratory for established colon. In general, the humidity level of 40 to 70% relative humidity with a comfortable for both animals and care staff. Care should be taken (see individual species) not to expose the animal to humidity which is too low and prolonged exposure outside this range should be avoided, particularly for New World monkeys, which may be their respiratory problems susceptibl.
2.4. Lighting the most non-human primates laboratory should have a 12hour/12hour light/dark cycle. Simulated dawn and dusk lighting may be beneficial for some species. For the nocturnal species, such as the trivirgat, the Aot cycle should be modified so that dim red light is used during on of the normal working day to allow the animal to be observed during their active period, and also to enable the task to be routin husbandry carried out safely. Whenever possible, rooms housing non-human primates should be provided with Windows, since they are a source of natural light and can provide environmental enrichmen.
2.5. the noise background sound such as Restful music or radio programmes provided during the day can act as a form of environmental enrichmen and help them screen out loud sudden noise-but it should not be provided permanently. Music may also have a calming effect on the animals in times of stress. For most species, a satisfactory sound level will be the same as those recommended for the staff, but some species such as the can also callitrichid heart ultrasound, so this should be taken into account. The level of background noise should be low and the CEAS should only 12 65 DBA for short periods.
2.6. Alarm systems most higher non-human primates have a similar hearing to humans; to avoid frightening the animals should be avoided. siren An appropriate alternative would be to use flashing lights visible to staff in all rooms.
3. Health Though the use of captive-bred animals to ensur that they should in good health and do not pose a risk of infection to their staff or other non-human primates in the premise, all newly acquired animals should arrive with full health certification and be quarantined on arrival. During this period, their health should be closely monitored and further serological testing bacteriological and parasitological, should be performed by a competent laboratories as required.
All non-human primates in the colony should be under veterinary control and submitted it to expert diagnostic test periodical Their close affinity to humans results in susceptibility to a number of diseases and normal are the common and occasionally life threatening it both to the others. It is, therefore, of vital importanc that there is also regular medical screening of the staff. Any member of staff posing a potential health risk to the animal should not have contact with the animals. Particular care should be taken when dealing with animals which may be contaminated by pathogen of transmissibl to humans. Staff should be informed of the measure taken, and the risk of infection minimis. Lifetime health records should be kep out for each animal. The investigation of unexpected mortality morbidity and should be thorough, having regard for the potential zoonotic diseases, and entrusted it to be competent personnel and laboratories.
Non-human primates from different location areas should be strictly separated from each others until their health status has been clarified.
In outdoor enclosures vermin control is of particular importanc.
4. Housing, enrichmen and care 4.1. (A) the person to be competent in the Housing the Libertines of the non-human primates should be available for advice on social behaviour, environmental enrichmen the strategies and management.

Because the common laboratory non-human primates are social animals, they should be housed on with one or more compatible conspecific. It is harmonio to ensur relations, it is essential that the group composition of laboratory non-human primates should be appropriate. Compatibility, and group composition, henc in terms of the age and sex of its members depend on the species. In creating a group, the natural social organisation of the species should be taken into account. In confined conditions, however, where the space for extended chases or the emigration of social reject is not available, the natural age and sex composition of troops may be inappropriate, modification to group structure may be required. For example, a harem may be substituted for the structure a natural multi-multi-male, female troops in macaqu. The experimental protocol may also determin group composition, for example, single-sex or same age groups. Visual barriers, which allow the animals to be out of sight of one another, are important in group housing and multiple escape routes provide opportunities to avoid attack and also prevent dominant individual from restricting access to other parts of subordinat of the enclosure.
Careful monitoring of animals is not following the grouping or mixing cessary, and a programme of action should be in place for managing and minimising aggressive interactions.
Where animals are housed on in same-sex groups, it is best to avoid housing the two sex in close proximity, as this can lead to the edge of similar background becoming aggressive. The only exception to the social housing should be either for veterinary reasons or where an experimental protocol demands it to ensur good science. The housing should only be allowed a single for as short a time as possible, under close supervision, where there is a justification on veterinary or welfare grounds. Single housing on experimental ground should be determined in consultation with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal. In such circumstanc, additional resources should be targeted to the welfare and care of these animals. For experimental animals, where housing them in large groups is not possible, keeping them in same-sex pairs compatible is probably the best social through.
Where socially housed on animals needs to be separated for a period of time, for example, for the dosing, and vigilanc should be the care is exercised on re-introduction as the social organisation in the group may have changed and the animal may be attacked. Possible solutions include confinemen of this animal to an individual enclosure attached to, or within, the main living area of all individual of separation or briefly followed by the re-introduction of the whole group simultaneously.
4.1.1. The Breeding sex ratio and number of animals in a breeding colony will depend on the species involved. It is important to ensur that both space and complexity with the adequat to prevent the intimidation of individual, particularly lowranking females and young. In the spec, the polygamo sex ratio should ensur that the majority of females mated with MC and give birth to live Ocean Beach. Where there is more than one male in the group, care should be taken to ensur that the edge with a compatible. Monogamous species will be bred in family groups with a breeding pair and two or more sets of their police.
For future breeding animals, it is important that the young grow up in stable social groups, preferably their natal group, with their mother. This that their parenting skills of ensur and social interactions within a hierarchical structure develop adequately.
Animals will normally successfully rear single or twin without police intervention. However, a management policy for rejected for an Infante is required it is suffering in minimis these animals.
4.1.2. Separation from the mother Young animals have a slow postnatal development lasting several years in a period of cercopithecoid with dependency on their mother for lasting until 8 the ut300r2u 12 hours old, depending on the species. During this period they learn about their environment under the mother's protective vigilanc and Socialist through interactions with a diversity of social partners.
They also learn parenting skills by interacting with Infante or helping to care for the event. Separation of Infante from a colony causes distress to the mother and infant at the time. It is therefore a preferabl to leave them in their natal colony until they have become independent. They should, for their own welfare, have to be weaned earlier or separated, it is advisabl to incorporat them into a well organised group to avoid damage to their social development, behaviour, physiology and immun is competence. The appropriate age range for weaning will depend on the species.
4.2. the Enrichmen the environment should enable the animal to carry out a complex program of daily activity. The precise features of the living quarters, however, will vary according to species, due to a difference in natural behaviour. The enclosure should allow the animal to adop as wide a behavioural repertoir as possible, provide it with a sense of security, and a suitably complex environment to allow the animal to run, walk, climb and jump. Materials providing tactile incentives are also valuable. Opportunities for the animals to have some control over the environment should be provided. Some novelty should also be introduced at the interval, which can include for example minor changes in the conformation or through administration of enclosure furniture and feeding practices.
4.3. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring Non-human primates should be housed on in such a way that they do not exhibit "abnormal behaviour and with able to display a satisfactory range of normal activities.
The following factors will determin the enclosure dimensions for a given species:-the adult size of the animal (juvenile animals, though smaller, are usually more active than adults, the requiring of similar space allowance for physical development and play), and – to provide sufficient space to a complex and challenging environment and – the size of groups to be accommodated.
4.3.1. Dimensions the following principles should apply to the housing of all species of non-human primates:-enclosures should be of a height their adequat allow the animal to sit vertically and a flea on a perch or a shelf, without contacting the its tail the floor;
-the animal should be able to display a normal locomotor and behavioural repertoir;
– There should be room for the environmental enrichmen; suitabl
– Apart from exceptional circumstanc, the animals should not be housed on singly;
-enclosures should not be arranged in two or more tiers vertically.
4.3.2. Outdoor enclosures where possible, non-human primates should have access to outdoor enclosures. These are commonly used for breeding larger non-human primates. They have the advantage for the animals that they can include many features of the natural environment and are also useful for holding stock or experimental animals where the close is not required: the climatic control and outdoor temperature to the suitabl. Outdoor enclosures are usually constructed of metal, but other materials, including wood, can be used providing it is suitably weather-proofed. Some types of wood are approved by toxicologist provided that (a) a certificate of analysis is available. Wood is easily maintained or replaced, can be custom-built on site and provides a quieter and more natural materials. To protect the structural integrity of a wooden enclosure, the framework should either be of a type of wood which the animals will not chew or protected with mesh and a non-toxic treatment. The base of the enclosure can be of concrete or natural vegetation. Concrete-floored enclosures can be covered with a non-toxic suitabl substrat. Either on of the outdoor enclosure should be roofed, to allow the animal to be outside in wet weather and to provide protection from the sun or, alternatively, a shelter can be provided. Where outdoor enclosures are provided, the non-human primates will utilis them, even in the winter. However, heated indoor enclosures should be provided. It is recommended that the minimum size for an indoor enclosure should meet the minimum values specified to ensur that the animals are not overcrowded in the inclemen the weather. Axis outdoor enclosures represen the additional space, there is no need to set minimum dimensions for these. Where different enclosures are connected, for example outdoor and indoor, more than one connecting doors should be provided to prevent being trapped by the subordinat more dominant animals.
4.3.3. Indoor housing Although indoor enclosures will commonly be constructed of metal, other materials, such as wood, laminat and glass have been used successfully and provide a quieter environment.
Axis height is a critical feature of the enclosure, all non-human primates should be able to climb, jump and occupyi ..... a high perch. The wall can include mesh to allow climbing but sufficient to diagonal branch or perch should also be provided for to allow all the animals to sit on them simultaneously. Where mesh is used, care should be taken to ensur that it is of a type which could not lead to injury through having their Limbu of the trapped animals.

Solid floors have the advantage that they can be covered with a substrat in which food can be scattered to encourag the foraging. Non-human primates require space for activity, but may need to be confined in smaller enclosures for short home period of time when justified on veterinary or experimental grounds. Smaller volumes can be created by partitioning the main enclosure using dividers and/or a mobile back to the enclosure, having a cage within the home enclosure, two linked units, or attaching the experimental enclosures to a larger exercise enclosure. These methods of confining the experimental animals all have the advantage that animals have access to a satisfactory living environment and social companions, allowing for feeding, cleaning and separation however experimental purpose, such as dosing and blood sampling.
Should single-housing in a small enclosure, not because of a special cessary experimental paradigm, the duration and the exten of confinemen should be justified by the experimenters, balancing the likely effect on the well-being of the animal against the scientific value and requirements of the experiment. Such restriction should be reviewed by an animal scientist, technician and those competent persons will be charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal.
More space for activity can be provided by keeping non-human primates in large groups, rather than pairs. An individual can be isolated by training (see paragraph 4.8 below) or running the group through a race with a trap in it.
The additional provision will provide minimum recommended enclosure size for the different species.
4.4 Feeding the Presentation and content of the diet should be varied to provide interest and environmental enrichmen. Scattered food-foraging, or will the encourag where this is difficult food should be provided which requires manipulation, such as whole fruits or vegetable, or puzzle-feeders can be provided. Foraging devices and structures should be designed and situated to the minimis contamination. Vitamin C is an essential component of the primat diet. New World monkeys require an adequat quantit of vitamin D3 to. As the enrichmen feeding may lead to their preferences, to ensur that the animals receive a balanced diet it is advisabl to feed the standard diet first thing in the morning when the animals are hungry and have no alternative. The food can be scattered to ensur that it is not monopolised by the dominant individual. A varied diet should not be provided if it is likely to have disturbing effects on the experimental results. However, in such circumstanc-variation can be introduced in the form of standard diet is nutritionally available in different shapes, colours and flavours.
4.5. Watering (see paragraph 4.7 of the General section) 4.6 Substrat, litter, bedding and not rigid material some non-human primates, for example some prosimian, require no rigid materials, for example wood Lea haven, charminster, dry leaves or straw. Non-toxic-such as wood chip substrat, woods with a low dust granulat level or with a valuable tutorial papers to promote foraging in indoor enclosures. Grass, wood chips or bark chips in herbag are suitabl for outdoor facilities.
4.7 Cleaning (see paragraph 4.9 of the General section) 4.8 Handling various methods of the self-employed in the forthcoming handling non-human primates, wide-ranging from enclosures with sliding partition, through netting, holding the animals manually, it does it using a tranquillis them. Although non-human primates is being handled and the dislik stressed by it, training animals to co-operate in should be encouraged, as this will reduce the stress otherwise caused by handling. Training the animals is a most important aspect of husbandry, particularly in long-term studies. It has a dual advantage in providing the animal with an intellectual challenge and making work more rewarding for the care-giver. Non-human primates will responds to aural and Visual stimuli, and by using simple reward systems, training can often be employed to encourag the animals they accept minor interventions, such as blood sampling.
The response of individual it training and procedures should be regularly reviewed, as some animals may be particularly difficult or non-responsiv and in such cases, careful considerations should be given to their continued use.
Though animals can be trained to accomplish tasks, attention should be paid to appropriate recovery period when subjected to repeated experiments.
4.9. Humane killing (see paragraph 4.11 of the General section) 4.10 records Individual records containing detailed information for each animal should be maintained. These should include: species, sex, age, weight, origin, clinical and diagnostic information, present and previous housing system, history of the experimental use and any other information relevant for management and experimental procedures, such as reports on their behaviour or status, and favoured social companions/social relationship.
4.11. Identification All non-human primates in a facility should be identified with a permanent and unique laboratory identification code before weaning. Individual animals can be identified by using properly fitted not at «the gold with attached medallions or tattoos for large species. The microchip can be injected into the accessible sites (the wrist for larger animals or scruff of the neck for smaller species). As it is important to be able easily to distinguish animals, some laboratories successfully use names for the animals, as these can easily be used to identify dominant and subordinat, with the animals and is considered by some to encourag the care staff to increase their respect for the non-human primates.
5. Training of personnel Staff should be trained in the management of animal husbandry and training under their care. For animal carer and a scientist working with non-human primates, training should include species-specific information. This should include the biological and behavioural characteristics and requirements of the species, environmental enrichmen, the methods used for the introduction and removal of animals and social dynamics. Training should also include information on the health and safety of staff working with non-human primates including zoonotic disease risk, and management.
6. Transport animals should, where possible, be transported in compatible pairs. However, adult animals may need to be transported singly.
b. Additional provision for the housing and care of marmoset and tamarin 1. Introduction Marmoset (Callithrix spp.) with small, highly arboreal, diurnal primat South American non-human. In the wild they have home ranges of 1 to 4 hectars of where they live in extended family groups of three to fifteen animals consisting of a breeding pair and their police. Females produce a litter of twice a year (normally in captivity, not twins and infrequently, triplets) and all group members take care of the Ocean Beach. The inhibition of the reproductive subordinat is by the dominant females will occure due to hormonal and behavioural mechanisms. Marmoset with a frugivor – specialised in the insectivor and gum-tree gouging and gum feeding; However, in captivity they would goug and scent-mark other hardwoods. Foraging and feeding occupyi ..... up to 50% of the time available. Marmoset and tamarin can live for up to fifteen to twenty years in captivity.
Tamarin (Saguin spp.) are similar in many respect the marmoset. They are found in South and Central America, but with a slightly larger animals and have larger home ranges, varying from 30 to 100 hectars. The larger home ranges of tamarin with is related to more frugivorous diet, while they do not goug, and eat gum only when readily accessible.
Most marmoset and tamarin show reluctanc to descend to the ground and frequently scent-mark their environment.
2. The environment and it control 2.1 Ventilation (see paragraph 2.1 of the General section) 2.2 the Marmoset and tamarin temperature should be maintained in a temperature range of 23 ° C to 28 ° C, although slightly higher levels are due to a acceptabl the tropical nature of the animal.
2.3. Humidity Humidity level of 40 to 70% should be provided, although the animal will the relative humidity tolerat levels higher than 70%.
2.4. Lighting A photoperiod of from less than twelve hours of light is recommended. The lighting source should illuminate uniformly in the holding room. However, within the animal enclosures, a shaded area should always be provided.
2.5. Special considerations should be given the noise to the minimis exposure to ultra-sound, which is within the hearing range of the marmoset and tamarin.
2.6. the Alarm system (see paragraph 2.6. of the General considerations for non-human primates) 3. Health (see paragraph 3 of the General considerations for non-human primates) Housing, enrichmen and 4 care 4.1 Marmoset and tamarin Housing should be housed on in family groups consisting of unrelated male-female pairs and one or more sets of Ocean Beach. Groups of stock animals should be consis of compatible sam-sex peer individual or juvenil. Care should be taken when grouping unrelated adult individual of the same sex since over the aggression may occure.
During the experiments, the marmoset and tamarin can generally be kep with a compatible sam-sex animal (twins, parent/police) or in male-female pairs, using contraception. When the experimental procedures or veterinary care require single housing, the duration should be minimised and the animal should remain in Visual, auditory and olfactory contact with conspecific.
Breeding pairs should be formed only when the animals are aged about 2 years. In family groups, the presence of the mother will inhibit the ovulatory cycle in her female police. New pairs intended for breeding should not be kep to close to the parental family since reproduction may be inhibited.

The appropriate age of weaning will depend on the intended use of the animals but should not be earlier than 8 weeks of age. When animals with to be used as breeders, they should remain in the family group until at least 13 months of age in order to the rearing of adequat acquir experience.
4.2. the Enrichmen the natural behaviour of the marmoset and tamarin in the captive indicates that environment should provide some degree of complexity and stimulation, factors which are more valuable than simply increasing enclosure dimensions to promote species-typical behaviour. Furniture of natural or artificial materials (for example, wood, PVC) should include: perch, platform, swing by ropes. It is important to provide a certain degree of variability in orientation, and firmnes the diameter allow the animals to perform appropriate locomotor and jumping behaviour. The wooden perch marmoset and tamarin in the allow it to express their natural behaviour of gnawing followed by scent-marking. In addition, a comfortable secure restinga area such as nest boxes should be included since they are used for sleeping and hiding in the restinga, alarming situation. Though Visual contact between family groups is normally stimulating for the animals, opaqu screen and/or increasing the distance between enclosures in order to avoid territorial interactions may be needed in some cases, and in particular for certain callitrichid spec. Foraging devices, which stimulat the natural behaviour of the animals, should be suspended or presented in the upper part of the enclosure, in the considerations of the reluctanc of the animals it descend to ground level. Wood chips as a substrat will encourag the foraging of spilled food at the floor area. In general, the inclusion in the lower part of the enclosure of the structural element and enrichmen devices will promote a wider and more diversified use of the space. For the marmoset, which specialised in tree obtain gum it, section-gnawing of drilled with dowel holes and filled with gum arabic have proved very beneficial.
4.3. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring For the marmoset and tamarin in the volume of available space and the vertical height of the enclosure with the more important than floor area, due to the arboreal nature and the vertical flight reaction of these species. The minimum dimensions and design of the enclosure should take into account the purpose for which the animals are maintained (breeding, stock, short or long experiments) and enable the inclusion of sufficient devices for improving the environmental complexity.
Table f.1. Marmoset and Tamarin: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of Animal should only be a singly under exceptional circumstanc CEAS (see paragraph 4.1).
* The top of the enclosure should be at least 1.8 m from the floor.
4.4 Feeding the Marmoset and tamarin require a high protein intake and since they are unable to the vitamin D3 synthesist without access to UV-B radiation, the diet must be supplemented with adequat level of vitamin D3.
4.5. Watering (see paragraph 4.7 of the General section) 4.6 Substrat, litter, bedding and not rigid material (see paragraph 4.6 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 4.7 Marmoset and tamarin is frequently Cleaning scent-mark their environment and the total removal of familiar scents may cause behavioural problems. Alternate cleaning and sanitation of the enclosure and the enrichmen devices will retain some of the territorial scent-marking and has beneficial effects on the psychological well-being of the animals, reducing over-stimulated scent-marking.
4.8. Handling Regular handling and human contact are beneficial for improving the animals ' habituation to monitoring and experimental conditions and cooperate with it in facilitat training some procedures. When capture and transport of the animals to the required, nest boxes can be used to reduce handling stress.
4.9. Humane killing (see paragraph 4.11 of the General section) 4.10 records (see paragraph 4.10 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 4.11. Identification (see paragraph 4.11 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 5. Training of personnel (see paragraph 5 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 6. Transport (see paragraph 6 of the General considerations for non-human primates) c. Additional provision for the housing and care of squirrel monkeys 1. Introduction Squirrel monkeys (Saimir in spp.) the inhabi tropical rain forests of the South American continent at various altitude. There are various regional subspec, the two most important are known as s. SC. boliviens (black headed) and s. SC. sciure (olive). In addition to the difference in coat colour and face mask is they also have some minor variation in behavioural characteristics. Body weight of adults ranges from 600 to 1100 g with edge of being distinctly heavier than females. Standing disfunction, adult animals reach about 40 cm body length. They are typically arboreal animal living at different levels of the canopy, depending on the environmental temperature. They do, however, descend to the ground to look for food and, and in the case of young animals, to play. When in danger, they flea to a high level. When travelling they may take a leap in depending on the density of the canopy. In the wild they live in fairly large groups in which females and young animals live together with a dominant breeding male, whereas the adult side of that are not in breeding condition remains on the periphery, forming groups of their own. Squirrel monkeys in captivity have been known to live for up to twenty-five years.
2. The environment and it control 2.1 Ventilation (see paragraph 2.1 of the General section) 2.2. Temperature Though the species live in a wide range of climatic conditions in tropical forests from low to high altitude in mountain areas, temperature changes in the habitats of the colon or to individual troops do not vary greatly. Therefore a marked short-term temperature variation should be avoided. In the wild the animals to the ambient temperature of the adap by choosing the most suitabl level within the canopy (for example, not to the ground in arer cool weather). Whereas a normal room temperature of 22 ° C to 26 ° C it shall be adequat se, for animals with restricted exercise areas of temperature around 26 ° C may be more appropriate.
2.3. A range of Humidity 40 to 70% is adequat for this species.
2.4. Lighting As tropical-forest dweller, the squirrels adapted it with a monkey-diffus lighting. Vertheles, not for animal without access to outdoor enclosures, areas with high intensit of light similar to daylight it should be provided. The light spectrum should a daylight event resembl though the light intensity need not be that of the bright sunshine. (A) 12 hours/12hour light and dark cycle is appropriate. The daylight period should not be less than eight hours. The addition of a UV component or time-limited exposure to UV lamps would enable essential vitamin D3 synthesis in the skin.
2.5. Noise (see paragraph 2.5. of the General considerations for non-human primates) 2.6. Alarm systems (see paragraph 2.6. of the General considerations for non-human primates) 3. Health may be the silent Squirrels monkeys carrier of a herpes virus (Saimirin-1, herpesvir syn. For tamarin, Herpesvir T, Herpesvir of platyrrhina Herpes), which, when transmitted, prov-tomarmoset may fatal. It is, therefore, recommended to not keep these two animal species in the same units unless the test have shown the colon to be free from this viral infection.
4. Housing, enrichmen and care 4.1. Housing Based on their natural social organisation there is no difficulty in keeping a large single saimir in-sex groups. For this purpose, however, the male and female groups should be well separated to avoid the fighting. Special attention should be paid to identify distressed individual in a group since aggressive behaviour is not very pronounced in the squirrel monkey.
For the purpose of breeding a group of seven to ten females kep with one or two of the sides appear to be adequat. Breeding groups should have Visual contact, but should be prevented from physical contact, with other groups.
Not wborn animals are carried on the back of their mothers until they are about 6 months old. However, they leave their mother for exploration or are carried by close relatives at an early stage of the TIA. They are the Socialist and learn it, frequently through vocalisation, discover what may be dangerous or beneficial for them. The animals take up solid food from the age of three months onward. Vertheles it is not recommended that young animals should not be separated from their families before 6 months of age or, if hand feeding is not cessary, they can be placed for adoption by another female, if possible, in their natal group. Squirrel monkeys reach sexual maturity at about the age of 3 years.
Breeding groups, once established, should not be disturbed, to avoid reduction in breeding performance. The major environmental and social changes should be avoided in the.
4.2. the Enrichmen axis, squirrel monkey is arboreal animals need sufficient the climbing possibilities which can be provided by wire-mesh walls, Poles, chains or ropes. Though they will leap over the gap if provided with structures, they prefer to run along or swing on horizontal and diagonal branch or rope bridges. Perch or nest boxes where they can sit huddled together for restinga and sleep will be used.
A solid base in substrat encourag the foraging with a activity and play. The animal should be offered a choice of sites within the enclosure to allow for activity, to enable them to retreat from social contact and to allow them to select a comfortable temperature and lighting conditions.
4.3. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring table f.2. Squirrel Monkey: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of


The Animal should only be a singly under exceptional circumstanc CEAS (see paragraph 4.1). Squirrel monkey should preferably be kep in groups of 4 or more animals.
4.4 Feeding the Squirrel monkeys require a high protein intake. As with other South American species, squirrel monkeys require high levels of vitamin D3 in addition to vitamin c. pregnant females with a folic acid deficiency, susceptibl it and should be provided with an appropriate powder or liquid supplement containing synthetic folic acid.
4.5. Watering (see paragraph 4.7 of the General section) 4.6 Substrat, litter, bedding and not rigid material (see paragraph 4.6 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 4.7 Cleaning (see paragraph 4.9 of the General section) 4.8 Handling Squirrels monkeys can be trained to come forward for a titbit or drinks as rewards. They are also capable of learning how to solve the task for reward. For catching for investigation or treatment, the animal should be trained to enter the gangway with the trap cage or individual enclosures.
4.9. Humane killing (see paragraph 4.11 of the General section) 4.10 records (see paragraph 4.10 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 4.11. Identification (see paragraph 4.11 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 5. Training of personnel (see paragraph 5 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 6. Transport (see paragraph 6 of the General considerations for non-human primates) d. Additional provision for the housing and care of macaqu and vervet 1. Introduction the three species of the macaqu which with most commonly in laboratories all CEAS originat from Asia: the Macac mulatt (the rhes for monkey), the fascicular Macac (the long-tailed, crab-eating or cynomolg-macaqu) and the arctoid Macac (the stump-tailed or bear macaqu). The verve (cercopithecus aethiop or Chloroceb to the aethiop) is a rather similar type of African monkey car theme kõpu in the laboratories. In the wild, all of these species live in matriarchal multi-multi-male/female groups. There are both male and female dominance hierarchs and females kinships form groups within the troops. Social bonds are between related females, the stronges and the edge of the compete for access to females in oestr. Two species, the stump-tailed rhes for monkey and macaqu live in a warm climate, the temperatu while the long-tailed macaqu is an exclusively tropical species which particularly favour the mangrove swamp and in water often forag. The long-tailed macaqu is the most arboreal of the four species and the stump-tailed macaqu the most terrestrial. The verve has a wide range of African habitats, including grasslands, open forests and mountains, with wide-ranging climatic conditions from tropical to warm the temperatu. The monkey with the seasonals Rhes breeders while the other species breed all year round in captivity. All the species have a predominantly vegetarian diet, although they may also feed on space pictures. Macaqu and vervet in captivity have been known to live for more than thirty years.
2. The environment and it control 2.1 Ventilation (see paragraph 2.1 of the General section) 2.2. Temperature of Rhes monkeys and stump-tailed with a macaqu of climate temperatu toleran, with also the vervet adaptabl and temperature of 16 ° C to 25 ° C are suitabl ... For the long tailed macaqu, however, a more suitabl range is 21 ° C to 28 ° C, although it will venture outdoors in much cooler weather.
2.3. the Humidity (see paragraph 2.3. of the General considerations for non-human primates) 2.4. Lighting (see paragraph 2.4. of the General considerations for non-human primates) 1.6. Noise (see paragraph 2.5. of the General considerations for non-human primates) 2.6. Alarm systems (see paragraph 2.6 in the General considerations for non-human primates) 3. Health Old World monkeys belong to the most susceptibl spec for Sharia and a high percentage of Asiatic macaqu in the wild with a silent carrier of Herpes B (syn. Herpes, Cercopithicin-herpesvir-simia 1). May also be susceptibl Vervet to Marburg virus and Ebola virus.
4. Housing, enrichmen and care 4.1. Macaqu and Housing should be kep with vervet social companions. Should a larger grouping, be feasibl, this should be encouraged. Same-sex groups with the most easily created at the time when the animals are separated from their mother. With all the social housing, staff should be vigilan to ensur that aggression is minimised. Colon with the Verve of pron to Cheeto? of particularly violence, especially after any form of the group it disturbanc.
Breeding groups in captivity will usually be composed of one male and six to twelve females. With larger groups, it improves conception rates, two of the edge can be included. If one side is considerably the youngers than the other, the competition between them will be reduced. Where are the enclosures used linked, care should be taken to monitor female-female aggression when the edge is out of sight in the other part of the enclosure.
The removal of the young age of the macaqu from their mother is an important considerations for the breeding female, future breeders and stock animals. The young should not be separated from their mothers normally earlier than 8 months of age, preferably 12 months apart from Infante which are unable to be reared by their mother, for example due to poor lactation, injury or illness. To avoid major behavioural disturbanc, such hand-reared animals should be re-integrated with other animals as soon as compatible possible. Separation before six months can cause distress and may lead to persistent behavioural and physiological abnormalit.
4.2. the Enrichmen these animals, having advanced cognitive capabilities, require a suitably complex environment. A solid floor, which can be enriched by providing a non-toxic substrat, will allow for the scattered food items of concealmen and encourag the foraging. The enclosures should include vertical and diagonal structures for climbing, facilitating the use of the whole volume of the enclosure. Shelves and perch should not be placed on one above the other. A space should be left between the shelf and the wall to allow enclosure for the animals it suspend its tail freely.
Ladders, perch and toys to chew with all of value. In the larger enclosures, a water tank (which is easily emptied) is particularly valuable for m. m. mulatt fascicular by but will also use it. Food can be dropped into the water for the long-tailed macaqu and it will dive to retrieve it. it is foraging encourag devices (from wide-ranging food scattered in the substrat it puzzle-feeder) have proved effective. Suitabl foods material can be placed on the mesh roof to encourag the animals to access it from the top of the enclosure. S novelty is important, the toy should be provided and exchanged frequently.
4.3. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring For the animal to feel secure, the design and the interior dimensions of the enclosure should at least allow them to climb above human eye level.
Housing the animals in groups and in enclosures larger than the minimum group size and enclosure dimensions proposed in table 3 should be encouraged F table F. 3. Macaqu and vervet: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance *** Animal should only be a singly under exceptional circumstanc CEAS (see paragraph 4.1).
** An enclosure of minimum dimensions may hold up to three animals ** An enclosure of minimum dimensions may hold up to two animals **** In breeding colonies from additional space/volume allowance is required for young animals up to 2 years of age housed on with their mother.
Animals should be housed on in indoor enclosures providing appropriate environmental conditions of sufficient size to permit all animals to be provided with at least the minimum space allowance of set out in table (F). 3 above.
In certain climate, it may be possible to hold breeding and stock animals in enclosures if an entirely outdoor shelter from climatic extremes adequat is provided.
4.4 Feeding (see paragraph 4.4 in the General considerations for non-human primates) 4.5 Watering (see paragraph 4.7 of the General section) 4.6 Substrat, litter, bedding and not rigid material (see paragraphs 4.3 and 4.6 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 4.7 Cleaning (see paragraph 4.9 of the General section) 4.8 Macaqu of Handling can easily be trained to co-operate in simple procedures such as a routin injection or blood sampling and to come to an accessible part of the enclosure.
4.9. Humane killing (see paragraph 4.11 of the General section) 4.10 records (see paragraph 4.10 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 4.11. Identification (see paragraph 4.11 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 5. Training of personnel (see paragraph 5 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 6. Transport (see paragraph 6 of the General considerations for non-human primates) e. Additional provision for the housing and care of the baboon's 1. Introduction the Baboon's include three gener- Papi, Theropithec, Mandrill, and in which the commonly used species with the papi Papi-(Guinea baboon's) and the Papi Anubis (olive baboon's).
The Baboon's woodlands and savannah of the inhabi, including arid stepp and mountain dessert. They are heavily built and terrestrial quadrupedal animals. They display a great prognathism. The edge is equipped with a large canines.
With a baboon's omnivoro and eat a wide variety of foods, mostly vegetarian (fruit and roots), although they do eat space pictures and occasionally mammal prey such as young Gazelle or other non-human primates.
The Papi Papi papi and the Anubis of live in a multi-multi-male/female groups.
The Baboon's in captivity have been known to live for more than thirty-five years.
The following guidelines with the relevant it Papi papi Papi of the and the Anubis.
2. The environment and it control 2.1 Ventilation (see paragraph 2.1 of the General section) 2.2. Temperature

With a baboon's adaptabl temperatu toleran and of climate and temperature of 16 ° C to 28 ° C are suitabl ...
2.3. the Humidity (see paragraph 2.3. of the General considerations for non-human primates) 2.4. Lighting (see paragraph 2.4. of the General considerations for non-human primates) 1.6. Noise (see paragraph 2.5. of the General considerations for non-human primates) 2.6. Alarm system (see paragraph 2.6. of the General considerations for non-human primates) 3. Health (see paragraph 3 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 4. Housing , enrichmen and care 4.1. Housing adults and should be kep with the juvenil social companions. Stock animals can be kep in compatible sam-sex groups. Wherever possible, the experimental animals should be kep in same-sex pairs or groups.
Breeding groups should be composed of one male and six to seven females, or two edges and twelve to fifteen females. Larger groups may be much more difficult to manage. Staff should be vigilan to ensur that aggression is minimised. The Baboon's colon with a particularly pron to aggression, especially after a Cheeto? of any form of the group it disturbanc.
The young should not normally be separated from their mother before eight weeks of age, preferably twelve months, apart from which have been rejected for an Infante or whose mother is not adequately, or teacher others veterinary reasons.
4.2. the Enrichmen the Baboon's, having advanced cognitive capabilities, require a suitably complex environment. A solid floor, which can be enriched by providing a non-toxic substrat, will allow for the scattered food items of concealmen and encourag the foraging. Ladders, perch and toys to chew with all of value. Food may be placed on the mesh roof to encourag the animals to access it from the top of the enclosure. Due to the size and the behavioural needs of the baboon's, enclosures should be robust and include broad shelves and blocks. S novelty is important, the toy should be provided and exchanged frequently.
4.3. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring: For the animal to feel secure, the design and the interior dimensions of the enclosure should be at least high enough to allow them to climb above human eye level.
Housing the animals in groups and in enclosures larger than the minimum group size and enclosures dimensions proposed in table f.4 should be encouraged table f.4. The Baboon's: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance *** Animal should only be a singly under exceptional circumstanc CEAS (see paragraph 4.1.).
** An enclosure of minimum dimensions may hold up to 2 animals.
In breeding colonies from additional space/volume allowance is required for young animals up to 2 years of age housed on with their mother.
Animals should be housed on in indoor enclosures providing appropriate environmental conditions of sufficient size to permit all animals to be provided with at least the minimum space allowance of set out in table f.4. above.
In certain climate, it may be possible to hold breeding and stock animals in enclosures if an entirely outdoor shelter from climatic extremes adequat is provided.
Enclosures should have a solid floor.
4.4 Feeding (see paragraph 4.4. of the General considerations for non-human primates) 4.5 Watering (see paragraph 4.7 of the General section) 4.6 Substrat, litter, bedding and not rigid material (see paragraphs 4.3 and 4.6 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 4.7 Cleaning (see paragraph 4.9 of the General section) 4.8 in the Baboon's Handling can be easily trained to co-operate in simple procedures such as a routin injection or blood sampling and to come to an accessible part of the enclosure. However, for personnel safety considerations, great care should be taken in handling the animal and is suitabl adult forthcoming deployed.
4.9. Humane killing (see paragraph 4.11 of the General section) 4.10 records (see paragraph 4.10 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 4.11. Identification (see paragraph 4.11 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 5. Training of personnel (see paragraph 5 of the General considerations for non-human primates) 6. Transport (see paragraph 6 of the General considerations for non-human primates) g. species-specific provision for farm animals and mini-pigs a. General considerations 1. Introduction For the the purpose of this document the term "farm animal" includes cattle, sheep, goat, pig, mini-pigs and equine, including horses, pon, donkey and mules.
The use of farm animals in research from applied to experiments can under farm conditions to more fundamental studies in agricultural, veterinary or biomedical research carried out under laboratory conditions. In the former case, it is important that the housing and management conditions, whilst taking due account of the animal health and welfare, the product information which can be reliably applied to commercial farm conditions. In the latter case, where the more inventory procedure is frequently involved with, a different type of housing and management is not cessary. The precise nature of the housing should be adopted to yield information suitabl of relevance to the experimental questions and appropriate for the procedures involved.
Management systems for all farm animals should accommodate up their natural behaviour, in particular of the need to graz or forag, exercise and Socialist. Farm animals are held in a number of different types of enclosures, often dependent on the experimental requirements. For example, farm animals may be held on pastur, in open-sided building with access to the open yard, in enclosed building with natural ventilation or in specialised building for quarantine and biocontainmen with natural or forced ventilation.
During agricultural research, when the aim of the research requires that the animals be under similar conditions with skipper to those under which commercial farm animals are the CEAS, the keeping of the animal should at least conform with the standard laid down in the European Convention for the Protection of animals for Farming Purpose CEAS (ETS No. 87) and in the related recommendations.
2. The environment and its control Under natural conditions with exposed by the farm animals, and will rank a wide tolerat of temperature, although there is some variation in the degree of tolerance between species and breeds. They will seek shelter against driving rain and strong wind, and protection from the intense sun. Where they are exposed to the in skipper enclosures outdoor conditions, shelter and shade and a reasonably dry lying area should be provided. Shelter should be carefully positioned taking these factors into considerations. The shelter should be provided sufficient to protect all animals from adverse climatic conditions.
Animals held outdoors or in a building with natural ventilation will be exposed to ambient environmental conditions. Animals should not be restricted to such areas under climatic conditions which may cause the animal in distress.
Environmental parameters, in particular temperature and humidity, are strictly interrelated and should not be considered in isolation.
2.1. All animals with a Ventilation plants sensitive to respiratory problems. In the absence of mechanical ventilation, as is the case in a significant number of farm animal building, it is important to ensur that air quality is provided by suitabl natural ventilation (see paragraph 2.1.1. of the General section).
Dust levels in the air from the feed and bedding should be minimised.
2.2. The thermoneutral temperature zone of farm species vary considerably, depending on the condition to which the animals are acclimatised. Farm animals living outdoors a thick layer of hair develop/during the winter months, Lea haven, charminster to help them in their low temperature tolerat. They may lower the temperature of the indoor acclimatis the event without the growth of winter coats, provided the relative humidity is low, with a draught of and they have avoided a lying area with a sufficient bedding material. In indoor enclosures it is therefore important to avoid the wide fluctuation and sudden changes in temperature, particularly when moving the animals between indoor and outdoor accommodation. As farm animals may suffer from heat stress, during periods of high temperature it is important to ensur that appropriate measure, for example the shearing of sheep and provision of shaded area, lying in place to avoid welfare problems.
Appropriate temperature ranges are dependent on a number of factors including, for example, breed, age, weight, calorics intake, stage of lactation and type of environment.
2.3. the Humidity Under natural conditions, exposed to a farm animals, and a well, a wide tolerat ranking of relative humidit. In the controlled environments of extreme and sudden wide fluctuation of humidity should be avoided, as both high and low humidity can predispos the animals to disease.
In indoor enclosures, building should be designed with sufficient ventilation to prevent a prolonged period of high humidity, as this may cause of dampnes excessiv in the animal enclosures, predisposing the animal to respiratory disease, foot-rot and other infectious condition.
2.4. Lighting Plants species have evolved to live in different conditions; for example in graz and ruminant rest during daylight in open grasslands, whereas a pig show crepuscular activity in the woodlands area. Provision of adequat light is important for all farm animal species, and natural light is preferred where possible. Where this is not provided, the light on the of the photoperiod should be within a range of eight to twelve hours daily, or should reproduce natural light cycles. (A) controlled photoperiod may be needed for breeding and for some experimental procedures. Sufficient natural or artificial light should also be available for inspection of group and individual.
Where Windows are provided, breakabl glass should be screened using a protective physical barrier or be situated out of reach of the animals.

2.5. the noise background noise from Unavoidabl, for example, ventilation equipment, should be minimised, and the sudden noise should be avoided. Handling and forthcoming facilities should be designed and operated to the minimis noise during use.
2.6. Alarm systems (see paragraph 2.6. of the General section) 3. Health 3.1. farm animal disease control with the often Sharp sourced from commercial farms, it is important that the measure taken to ensur that animals of a health status to the suitabl obtained. Mixing animals from different sources is a particular risk.
Preventive medicine programmes should be developed on the basis of veterinary advice for all farm species, and appropriate vaccination regime adopted not the axis of the cessary.
Foot care management, normal control measure and nutritional management with essential parts of all farm-animal health program. Regular dental examination and respiratory disease preventive measure with a particular of importanc in equine program.
Regular review of production is indicated and condition scoring should also be included. Care is needed to ensur that any substrat is provided does not introduce or promote growth of infectious agents or normal.
3.2 Behavioural Behavioural abnormalit such as abnormalit to the tail, ears or chewing or biting, flank Lea haven, charminster, navel sucking, pulling weavings and crib biting can occure as (a) the consequences of poor husbandry or environmental conditions, social isolation, or from boredom due to long periods of inactivity. If such abnormalit to occure, measure should be taken immediately to rectify the these deficienc to including, for example, a review of environmental factors and management practices.
3.3. Husbandry Disbudding, dehorning of adult animals, castration and tail docking should not be done unless a justified on welfare or veterinary grounds. When those techniques are carried out, appropriate and analgesi of anaesthesi should be provided.
3.4. Neonatal care High standard of stockmanship and care not for the successful rearing of cessary farm animals during the neonatal period.
The accommodation, with a dry Suitabl clean area, should be provided for the peri-parturien and neonatal animals. Facilities should be designed to be maintained it is facilitat observation and high hygiene standards, as young animals with particularly susceptibl to infections.
All of should not receive the onat adequat non of the axis of colostr soon as possible after birth, and preferably within four hours. The supplies of colostr of Adequat should be available for use in emergencies.
Suitabl feeding practices should be in place to allow normal growth and development, with access provided by the ruminant roughag from two weeks of age.
As neonatal animals have poor Thermo-regulatory control, particular care is needed to ensur that the temperature of the suitabl provided and maintained. (A) supplementary local heat source may be required, although care is needed to avoid the risk of injury, such as burns, and accidental fires.
To reduce the risk of Miss-mothering or rejection, it is important that a strong maternal bond is allowed to develop during the first few days of life. During this period it is important the handling or management minimis procedures, such as transport, castration or tagging, that may be this relationship disrup or prevent the young animals accessing a non sufficient of colostr or of milk.
Weaning strategies should be given due considerations to minimis stress in the mother and the police. Weaning into groups of animals of similar ages in the development of facilitat compatible and stable social structures.
Naturally reared pigs and mini-pigs should not be weaned before four weeks of age, lamb, and beef of Caen for kids six weeks before of the ag and the equine before twenty weeks of age, unless there is justification on veterinary or welfare grounds.
For animals which are reared artificially, commonly dairy, Caen appropriate feeding regime should be provided to satisfy the nutritional requirements, and in the case of ruminant, it promote normal Rumena development.
Early weaning from the dam on the experimental or veterinary grounds should be determined in consultation with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal. In such circumstanc, additional attention and mean should be targeted to the welfare and care of these animals.
4. Housing, enrichmen and care 4.1. Housing Farm animals should be housed on in harmonio for groups socially within the animal enclosure, and husbandry practices designed to social disruption, unless minimis the scientific procedure or welfare requirements make this impossible.
When the skipper in groups, a defined hierarchy is quickly established. Some aggressive interactions may be encountered during the initial grouping while relative ranking in the social hierarchy are established.
Special care is needed it is aggression and potential minimis injury when grouping, regrouping, or introducing an unfamiliar animal to a group. In all cases, animals should be grouped according to size and age and monitored on an ongoing basis for social compatibility.
Separation from a group, and the single-housing of farm animals for even short periods can be a significant stress factor. Therefore, farm animals should not be housed on a single, unless justified on welfare or veterinary grounds. The exception, where animals may prefer to be housed on singly include females about to give birth, and adult boar meat, which can be solitary under natural conditions.
Single-housing on the experimental ground should be determined in consultation with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal. Factors to be taken into considerations should include the nature of the individual animals, their likely reaction to separation from the group and the need for and duration of an habituation period. Where individual housing is cessary, an animal should not have Visual, auditory and olfactory contact with conspecific.
4.2. the Enrichmen As a stimulating environment is an important contributing factor to farm animal welfare, environmental enrichmen the should be provided to prevent boredom and stereotypic behaviour. All farm animal species naturally spend a large amount of time each day browsing or grazing, rooting for food, and in social interaction. Opportunities should be provided by Suitabl to meet these Libertines, by for example access to pastur, the provision of hay or straw or manipulabl objects such as a chain or ball.
Enrichmen the materials and devices should be changed at regular intervals since animals, in particular pigs, tend to lose interest in the material to which they have become accustomed. Sufficient to enrichmen devices should be provided to minimize aggressive behaviour 4.3 enclosures – dimensions and appropriate design of flooring farm-animal enclosures is essential to ensur that suitabl space is available within the enclosure to allow the animal to carry out a range of normal behaviour. Floor type, provision of bedding drainag (and henc East of maintaining hygiene) and the social circumstanc (group size and stability) will all impact on the space requirements for the animals.
All enclosures should be designed and maintained to ensur that animals cannot be trapped or injured, for example in the partition or under feeding through.
Animals should not be tethered, unless justified on a scientific or veterinary grounds, in which case this should be for the minimum time period not cessary.
A sufficient space should be provided for each animal to stand up, lie comfortably, stretch and groom themselves, with access to a communal lying area and adequat room for feeding.
The lying area should allow all the animals to lie in lateral recumbency simultaneously, bearing in mind that whilst some farm animals, for example, generally prefer their pigs lie in physical contact with other conspecific, others, such as equine's prefer a degree of spatial separation. Under the condition of high temperature, where animals need to lie with complete spatial separation in their heat loss, facilitat a lower lying area should be allowed.
The lying area should be provided with bedding to enhance comfort and reduce the incidence of pressure lesions. Where absence of bedding is not for experimental reasons cessary, the floor should be designed and insulated to improve physical and, unless a suitabl powered environment is provided, thermal comfort.
The height of the enclosures should allow natural rearing and mounting behaviour.
Enclosure flooring material should be non-injurio and provide adequat grip for unconstrained locomotion and posture change. Floor should be well maintained and replaced when not cessary, sharp surface damage causing injuries will develop over time.
4.4 Feeding the diet should provide adequat is a nutrient to support the maintenance of the energy requirements in each animal, given the environmental conditions under which animals are the CEAS. Additional energy will be needed to support pregnancy, lactation and growth, and should be tailored to the needs of the animals (for example, high genetic merit dairy cattle). Vitamin and mineral levels in the diet should also be considered, for example to avoid copper toxicity in sheep or the formation of urinary calculi in castrated male sheep, and where not cessary, mineral lick should be provided.
When grazed grass is used as stocking density to forag, should be controlled to ensur is adequat is supplies with available to meet the nutritional requirements of all the animals. Where grass supply is limited, the provision of additional feed in the field should be considered.
For ruminant and horses, sudden changes in diet should be avoided, and new items introduced gradually, especially where high-energy feed with the introduced, or during periods of high metabolic demand, for example around parturition. The roughag is sufficient should be provided.

In group-housing systems, there should be sufficient food provided in sufficient numbers of sites for all individual access it without risk of injury.
Forag forms a significant component of the diet of farm animals. Since the amount of the needed forag may preclud the use of bags for storage, forag items, including hay, straw, silag and root crop, should be stored in a way that minimizes deterioration in quality and the risk of contamination. A pest-control strategy should be in place in the areas where the concentrate with forag and stored.
When grass is cut for feeding animals housed on (for example, zero-grazing), it should be done frequently, as cut grass heat up when stored and become the unpalatabl.
4.5. Watering animals should have access at all times to fresh uncontaminated water, which should be readily accessible to all of the individual within the social group. The number of points through drinking or length should be sufficient to allow access to water for all of the individual within the social group. Flow rates should meet the demand of the individual animal as these will vary depending on the feed, physiological status and ambient temperature, for example, animals have much higher teacher water demand than stock animals.
4.6 litter, bedding and Substrat, not rigid material (see paragraph 4.8 of the General section) 4.7 Cleaning (see paragraph 4.9 of the General section) 4.8 Handling If handling and forthcoming facilities with required, these should be of robust construction and safe for animals and the operator. In particular, a non-slip floor should be provided.
Handling and forthcoming facilities can take the form of basic equipment provided within the animal enclosure, or more complex, dedicated facilities serving the needs of the whole establishment. Handling and forthcoming facilities can be provided in the enclosure area, but care should be taken to ensur that these do not set space allowance or create a potentially hazardous physical reversible in the enclosure.
The dedicated facilities should, where possible, races and incorporat the pen for separating animals; footbath; Special facilities for some species such as plunge bath and dip pen for sheep shearing; and an area to allow animals to recover after treatments. Ideally these facilities should be protected from prevailing weather condition for the comfort of both animal and operator.
Animals should be handled quietly and firmly and not be rushed along races and guitar hero. These should be designed, taking account of the natural behaviour of the animals, it is facilitat East of movement and the risk of injury minimis. Immobilisation devices should not cause injury or unnecessary distress. Aversiv a physical or electrical, incentives should not be used.
Passage and gates should be of sufficient width to permit the two animals to pass freely, whereas races should be of width only to permit a one-way movement.
Regular handling will allow animals to human habituation of contact. Where frequent handling is required, (a) a programme of training and positive rewards should be considered their fear and distress minimis.
Animals should not be closely confined except for the duration of any examination, treatment or sampling, whilst accommodation is being cleaned, collecting for milking, or loading for transport.
4.9. Humane killing All systems for the humane killing of farm animals should be designed to ensur that animals are not caused unnecessary distress. Careful handling by experienced staff, with minimum disruption to their normal practices, will the minimis distress to the animals, before ut300r2u humanely killed.
Killing should not be performed in areas where other animals are present, unless in the case of road safety of a injured animal where additional suffering! may be caused by moving the animal.
4.10 records (see paragraph 4.12 of the General section) 4.11. Identification animals should be individually identified by the appropriate use of transponders, ear tags, plastic neck collars and/or Rumena bolus. Freeze branding and tattooing may be less suitabl. Hot branding should not be used.
Identification devices should only be applied by trained personnel and at times when the procedure is likely to have minimal adverse effects on the animals. Tagged or tattooed ears should be checked regularly for signs of infection and the lost tag should be replaced using the original tag hole where possible.
If electronic devices of identification with a used, they should be of the correct size and specification for the animal and should be checked regularly for function and the absence of any adverse reaction, for example, injection site reaction and rubbings or pharyngeal trauma as a result of improper bolus administration.
b. Additional provision for the housing and care of cattle 1. Introduction cattle (BOS Taurus and Bos indicus) with social animals forming hierarchs to based on dominance relationships among members of the Raiders. They will frequently develop affinity relationships with conspecific. As ruminant, cattle spend much of the day foraging, followed by a long rest period. Cattle are normally and with an easily habituated docil to human contact.
2. The environment and its control (see paragraph 2 of the General considerations for farm animals and mini-pig) 3. Health (see paragraph 3 of the General considerations for farm animals and mini-pigs) Housing, enrichmen and 4 care 4.1. Horned and polled animal Housing should not be mixed, except for young Caen and their mother.
4.2. Enclosures-dimensions and table 1 flooring. Cattle: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance where the cattle are housed on indoor, a bedded area sufficient to allow all of the animal to lie will be provided simultaneously. Where the cubicl are not provided, this area will normally be approximately 70% of the minimum floor area shown in the above table. The remainder of the enclosure can be non-bedded for feeding and exercise.
If individual open-ended with a sharp cubicl provided the bedded area, this area may be reduced in size, but the total number of cubicl's numbers by 12 animals should 5% to reduce competition and permit all animals lie it simultaneously. The design of the cubicl is critical to their comfort, and specialist advice should be sought before installation. It should include considerations of the body size of the animal, a surface sufficiently cushioned to prevent injury, the stables, adequat drainag correctly positioned stall dividers and head Rails, lateral and vertical freedom for head movement and an adequat lunging space. The height of the rear step should prevent entering the cubicl-dung during cleaning, but not be of such a height that it causes damage to the feet during ingres and exit. The remainder of the enclosure can be non-bedded for feeding and exercise.
The length is primarily determined by Cubicl the weight of the animal. Cubicl width will vary, depending on the type of division used, but must be sufficient to allow the animal to lie comfortably without pressure being exerted by the undu the division on vulnerabl parts of the body. Specialist advice should be sought on the design and installation of cubicl.
4.3. Feeding the through space provided will allow all animals to feed at the same time, unless the diet is available ad libid (see above table). Horned cattle require more space than through polled animals, and due allowance should be made for the this.
4.4. Watering Water through: there should be sufficient space to allow a linear through 10% of the animals to drink at one time. This it a minimum of equat 0.2 meter per 10 adult cattle. Teacher dairy cow will require 50% more space.
The water bowl: a minimum of two water bowl should be provided when cattle with group-housed on. For groups of over twenty cattle, at least one drinking bowl for ten animals should be provided.
4.5. Where Handling animals are milked by machine, equipment should be maintained to a high standard to prevent diseases such as mastitis.
Horned cattle may present a danger to personnel in confined spaces. Under these, it may be no circumstanc cessary to consider dehorning. Wherever possible, this should be carried out on Calvi's under the age of eight weeks.
c. Additional provision for the housing and care of sheep and goat 1. Introduction Sheep (Ovis aries) are the grazing animals which, because of the difference between the breeds, for example fleece characteristics, will thrive in a wide range of climatic conditions.
Under natural conditions, sheep farming or are very social, spending all their lives close to other members of the flock whom they recognis-individually. As a species, therefore is ut300r2u particularly disturbed by social isolation, a factor which should be taken into account when designing animal accommodation. However, in terms of social cohesion "there are recognisabl of variation between breeds, for example, hill sheep tend not to flock closely together when left undisturbed.
Goat (Capra hircus) with a naturally inquisitiv spec and generally interact well with other animal species and humans. Like sheep, goat live in social groups and with a disturbed by social isolation. To obtain their food by Goat browsing more than by grazing and with the best adapted to the dry, firm ground. Their ability to climb is considerabl and this of their browsing facilitat. They prefer warm conditions and do not wet and windy tolerat conditions well.
2. The environment and its control Under extreme conditions, the sheep will require access to natural or artificial wind-break and shade, shelter whilst a different coat characteristics mean that goat with less of rain and prolonged toleran should have free access to roofed shelter areas whilst the outside.
Recently shorn animals may need a higher temperature than a fleeced animals of environmental.
3. sheep and goat Health adult of LEA haven, charminster breed should be shorn at least once per year, unless this would set of their welfare.
4. Housing, enrichmen and care

4.1. the entire adult side of Housing from both species can be more solitary than females and young Ocean Beach. They may be aggressive, particularly during the breeding season, requiring careful management to reduce the risk of fighting and injury to their handler.
Horned and polled goat should not be housed on together.
4.2. the Enrichmen be raised Sufficient areas of appropriate size and quantity to prevent dominant animals impeding access should be provided for the goat.
4.3. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring table G. 2. Sheep and Goat: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance For the adult goat, an increased minimum partition height may be required to prevent the escape of the entire enclosure should have a solid floor with appropriate bedding provided.
4.4. Watering In indoor enclosures for sheep and goat has at least one point per drinking twenty animals should be provided.
4.5. Identification Dyeing the fleece or coat using recognised non-toxic agricultural products may be used for marker short-term experiments in short-Lea haven, charminster breeds of sheep and goat in.
d. Additional provision for the housing and care of pigs and mini-pigs 1. Introduction the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) is descended from the European wild boar meat. Although subject to intensive selection pressure over many generations for the production characteristics of Economics importanc, domesticated pigs have largely retained the same behavioural repertoir as their ancestor. Under unrestricted conditions, they live in small family groups, show a diurnal and crepuscular rhythm have strongly developed exploratory behaviour. Ut300r2u omnivoro and a large part of their active time foraging for food is to spen. At birth, the scope of work in social isolation and farrow will construct a nest prior to parturition. Weaning is gradual and is completed at about four months of age, and will integrate the piglet gradually into the social group with little aggression.
Mini-pig will differ from the farm pig in many significant respect. A number of different mini-pig strain will have been developed by conventional breeding procedures in order to produce a small pig as a laboratory animal suitabl for research purpose. For the purpose of this appendix, the mini-pig is defined as a small pig breed for usage for experimental and others scientific purpose and with an adult body weight typically not exceeding 60 kg, but can be as high as 150 kg in bag strain. Because of this difference in body size at maturity, recommendations for farm pigs cannot always be extrapolated on a simple weight basis. Recommendations in this document apply to both types of pig, with specific requirements of mini-pig annotated where not cessary.
2. The environment and it control 2.1 temperature Pig and mini-pigs are highly sensitive to environmental temperature and place a high priority on behavioural thermoregulation.
Pigs may be kep in a uniform, temperature-controlled environment, in which case the whole room should be maintained within the thermoneutral zone. Alternatively, they may be kep in an enclosure with different microclimat, by providing localized heating or kennelling of the lying area and provision of bedding material of adequat. A temperature gradient within the enclosure is considered beneficial. Outdoor pig cant compensat for lower ambient temperature provided that the shelter, with adequat plentiful dry bedding, and additional food is provided.
Table G. 3. Pig and minipig: guideline temperature ranges for single-housed on animals In addition to body weight, the temperature will vary suitabl according to sexual maturity, the presence or absence of bedding, group housing, and the calorics intake of the animal. Within the ranges given, animals of lower body weight, without bedding or with restricted calorics intake should be provided with the higher temperature.
Piglet of low body weight are very sensitive to environmental temperature and should be provided with higher temperature. A litter of wborn piglet should be offered not a lying area minimum of 30 ° C, decreasing to 26 ° C at the age of two weeks. For farrowing/lactation rooms, the minimum room temperature is that it does not allow cessary required an adequat is temperature to be maintained in the Anni lying area, taking account of any local heat supply. Because of their high metabolic activity, something with a teacher pron to heat stress and farrowing room temperature should ideally not 12 of 24 ° c.
3. Health (see paragraph 3 of the general considerations for farm animals and mini-pigs) 4. Housing, enrichmen and care 4.1. Enrichmen the Pig show spatial separation of different behaviour in such as lying, feeding and excretion. Enclosures should therefore allow for the the establishment of separate functional areas by providing either plentiful space or appropriate subdivision of the enclosure area.
Pigs have a high motivation to explore and should be provided with an environment of sufficient complexity to allow expression of a species-specific exploratory behaviour. All pig should at all times have access to the non of adequat materials for investigation and manipulation, including rooting, in order to reduce the risk of behavioural disorders.
4.2. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring table G. 4. indicates the minimum space requirement for an animal at any given liveweigh. Enclosures should be designed to accommodate up to the highest liveweigh that pig will finally reach in any given circumstanc. The number of enclosure changes should be minimised.
Table g.4. Pig and Minipig: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of pigs may be confined in smaller enclosures for short periods of time, for example by partitioning the main enclosure using dividers, when justified on veterinary or experimental grounds, for example where individual food consumption is required.
Where pig with an individually or in small groups housed on, greater space allowance per animal with required than for those in larger groups.
Pig should not be tethered at any time, and should not be confined in stalls or the crate except for short periods of time for feeding, insemination cessary, not veterinary or experimental purpose. The accommodation for sow and piglet should enable the fulfillment of the special behaviour patterns of the scope before and after parturition, and those of the piglet after birth. That, although the use of farrowing crate can safeguard the survival of Anni and welfare under some conditions, the close confinemen of the sow during the perinatal and suckling periods should be limited as far as possible and loose housing systems should be aimed at.
The most appropriate flooring material will depend on the size and weight of the pigs. The provision of the rooting/facilitat sting substrat, it is to provide a desirabl solid floor in the lying area of the penis. Slatted floors can be of value in facilitating good hygiene, but the sl and a void dimension should be appropriate to the size of the pig in order to prevent foot injuries.
4.3. Feeding pigs for meat production with the CEAS is typically fed libid of approaching maturity, the ad until after which restricted feeding practices to avoid obesity. not the cessary Mini-pig with a pron to become obess on conventional pig diet. Special reduced calorie diet with increased fibre content helps to prevent this problem. Where feed restriction is cessary, not pig will show increased foraging motivation which can be expressed as increased activity and aggression, and development of stereotyped oral behaviour. To avoid these problems it is important to modify diet to enhance satiety, for example by increased provision of dietary fibre, and to provide an appropriate Office such as foraging substrat straw.
With restricted feeding practices, young growing animals should be fed at least twice daily, whereas mature animals should be fed once daily as an adequat-meal size is important for the animal to reach satiety, and will the minimis aggression. Where is restricted, all of the individual feeding within the social group should have access to the feed without causing aggression. Adequat is through space should be provided to ensur that animals can feed simultaneously. Recommended requirements are given in table (G). 5. Where animals are housed on singly or in small groups, the minimum through space should be that for restricted feeding. When animals are housed on in larger groups and fed ad libid, through space can be shared and a lower total space is required.
Table G. 5. Pig and minipig: minimum space allowance through the feeding Each animal on restricted feeding should be provided with at least the minimum through space allowance.
4.4. Watering As pig with the PSSA to the consequences of water deprivation, in cases where they are the group-housed on, at least two drinking points per unit, or a large bowl allowing more than one pig to drink at the same time, should be provided to prevent dominant animals drinking impeding access to the point. To achieve this, the following drinking space with the recommended allowance.
Table (G). 6. Pig and minipig: minimum allowance of drinking to the point where pigs are housed on in larger groups through watered from an open, the minimum length of the perimeter with access to water through should be that allowing a single pig unimpeded access (as indicated in table G. 5. for restricted feeding space), or 12.5 mm of length per pig, through whichever is the greater.
Table G. 7. Pig and minipig: minimum drinking water flow rates for pigs 4.5 Substrat, litter, bedding and not rigid material

Contribute to pig welfare bedding in many ways. It enhance the physical and thermal comfort (except in hot environmental condition), can be eaten to provide gut fill and enhance satiety, and provides a substrat for foraging and nest-building behaviour. The exten to which each of these different benefits can be provided will depend on the nature of the long straw bedding, with providing the best overall materials but alternatives such as chopped straw, sawdus, wood shaving and tutorial papers conferring some benefits. Bedding should be non-toxic and, where possible, provide structural diversity of exploratory behaviour stimulat it. Bedding should be provided for all pig, unless precluded for reasons of experimental, and is particularly important for farrowing sow, which have a strong motivation to perform carry-building behaviour, and for pig feeding regime, restricted one, which have a strong motivation to express foraging behaviour.
e. Additional provision for the housing and care of horses, equine, including pon, donkey and mules of axis 1. Introduction evolved grazer of Equine open grasslands, and domestic horses and pon (Equus caballus) and donkey (Equus blood) have retained the behavioural repertoir of their ancestor. In the feral or free-wide-ranging State, is equine of frogs live in separated into small family groups or bands typically comprising one stallion, with several of the foal and yearling, Marie. The social structure of a clearly defined hierarchy develop, and individual animals within a group often form close pair bonds which it is important to maintain recognis and if possible. Mutual body care is a particularly important element in their social life.
A ruminant, equine Unlik may of graz is continuously for many hours and under natural conditions they will spend fourteen hours daily at the sixteen this activity. Although their natural food is grass, herb, and leaves, they are very selective regarding their choice of grass species and which as of the plant to eat. Their normal daily patterns is the graz, move a step and graz again. In this way they exercise as well as feed, and can cover long distances in a twenty-four hour period.
Ideally, the management systems for the equine behaviour of their natural, should accommodate up in particular the need to graz, exercise, and Socialist. Ut300r2u flight animals and henc is easily startled and this should also be taken into account.
2. The environment and it can be used to control the Rug in cool conditions, especially if hair has been clipped, but these should be removed and checked daily.
The man and the tail of the equine provides protection from adverse weather conditions and from the flu and should not be removed or cut short. Where I and tail need to be shortened or tidied this should be achieved by trimming rather than by pulling.
3. Health (see paragraph 3 of the General considerations for farm animals and mini-pigs) Housing, enrichmen and 4 care 4.1. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring, equine-Ideally should be kep at pastur or have access to at least six pastur for hours a day. Where is the equine with the skipper with minimal or no access to grazing then additional roughag should be provided to the extend of the time feeding and spen reduce boredom.
In indoor enclosures, group-housing systems are the preferred since these provide opportunities for socialisation and exercise. For horses it is essential that great care is taken to ensur social compatibility of groups the total space requirement for indoor enclosures will depend on whethers animals also have daily access to additional areas for grazing and and/or other forms of exercise. The figures below assume that such additional areas will be provided. If not, then the space allowance should be of increased significantly.
Table G. 8. Equine: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of an adequat ensur It space is provided, the space allowance for each of the individual animal should be based on the wither height (WH) the shortes side should be a minimum of 1.5 x the wither height of the animal.
The height of indoor enclosures should allow animals to rear to their full height to safeguard the welfare of the animals.
Slatted floor should not be used for equine.
4.2. the incorrect feeding of the equine Feeding can have very serious welfare implications, causing the illness such as colic and laminit.
Since they naturally graz for long periods, they should ideally have constant access to them in the form of forag fresh grass, hay, straw or silag. Where they are not given the opportunity to Hong Kong, they should be provided with (a) the quantity of long fibre suitabl/roughag is every day. Where possible the roughag should be fed on the ground or in a suitably designed round bale feeder. Hay nets and rack should be designed and positioned their risk of injury minimis.
If "hard" (concentrate) feed is offered to animals, particularly where the animals are housed on in groups the feeding order should, where possible, follow the order of frogs dominance. Where possible individual should be fed separately. If this is not possible feeding points should be spaced at least 2.4 m apart and there should be at least one point per animal. Horses fed with concentrate need to be given small non of feed frequently.
4.3. Watering horses prefer to drink from an open water surface, and this should be provided where possible. If automatic water-drinker with a used nippl, animals may need to be trained to use them.
4.4. Identification Ear tags and tattooing should not be used in equine. If identification other than a coat colour is required then the transponder should be used. Numbered head-collars and hanging tags for halter have also been used successfully for identification.
H. species-specific provision for bird a. General considerations 1. Introduction with the Bird used for a broad range of research, including the fundamentals of applied purpose veterinary medical studies and toxicology. Domestic fowl and turkey with the most common laboratory bird and the often used in developmental studies and for the production of biological materials such as tissue and antibod. Domestic poultry are also the most commonly used species in bird welfare research. Fowl are used for pharmaceutical safety and efficacy evaluation, whereas a quail and other birds with more frequently the subjects of ecotoxicology studies. The other, less commonly used species such as the pigeon and wild birds are generally used in psychology and physiology or zoology research fundamentals. Catching wild birds to use as experimental animals should be avoided unless it is not for the purpose of the cessary of the experiment.
Although birds are essentially built for flight and share the same basic body plan, they have an extremely diverse range of adaptation for locomotion and feeding. Most species are adapted to range over relatively large, three-dimensional area by one or more means of locomotion including flying, walking, running, swimming or diving, both while foraging and during migration. Many species of birds are highly social and should be kep in stable groups wherever possible.
Additional details are provided for the commonly bred and used laboratory species. It is essential that the housing and care of less commonly used species not included below pay due regards to their behavioural, physiological and social requirements. Housing, husbandry and care protocols for such species should be researched before the bird with the obtained or used. Advice on requirements for other species (or if behavioural or breeding problems occure) should be sought from experts and care staff to ensur that any particular species needs are adequately addressed. Information and guidance on the less commonly used species is available in the background information document.
During agricultural research when the aim of the research requires that the animals be under similar conditions with skipper to those under which commercial farm animals are the CEAS, the keeping of the animal should at least conform with the standard laid down in the European Convention for the Protection of animals for Farming Purpose CEAS (ETS No. 87) and in the related recommendations.
Many of the potential welfare problems specific to their birds with associated with inappropriate pecking behaviour. This can be divided into aggressive pecking; Feather pecking (where individual either peck at other birds ' feather or pluck and pull at their own); and pecking at the skins of other birds, which can cause serious suffering and mortality if unchecked. The cause of inappropriate pecking is not always clear, but it is often possible to avoid by chick rearing Cheeto? with access to enable the substrat that forag and appropriately by the peck. Chick of all species should therefore be housed on one solid floors with litter.
Prevention is especially important because it attracted a damaged fowl feather, and the presence of a feather-pecked birds may therefore lead to the rapid spread of of injurio to pecking. There are a number of measure of that should be employed to avoid pecking in a Cheeto? of injurio wherever possible and to reduce or prevent this behaviour should it occure. These include providing alternative such as foraging of pecking substrat substrat, bunch of string, pecking blocks or straw; providing a Visual barrier; periodically or lowering the OK light intensity or using red light; and using light sources that the UV rays efia. Anti-pecking spray with a commercially available and can be used to reduce the incidence of injurio to pecking in the short term, but it will still be cessary to not address the underlying causes of the Libertines. Some strain of domestic birds have been selectively bred so that inappropriate pecking is reduced and such strain should be researched and used wherever possible.
Methods which cause pain or distress, such as very low lighting (i.e. any other. below 20 lux) for prolonged periods, or for physical modifications such as beak trimming, should not be used.

Birds housed on in a poor quality environment that does not permit them to forag, exercise or interact with conspecific will experience chronics distress that may be indicated by stereotypic behaviour, for example self-mutilation, feather pecking, and pacing. Such behaviour may be indicativ of serious welfare problems and should lead to an immediate review of the housing, husbandry and care.
2. The environment and it will control Many species with Ventilation 2.1 is especially susceptibl to draught. The measure should therefore be in place to ensur that individual will not become chilled. The Accumulation of dust and gas such as carbon dioxid and Honeywell's should be kep to a minimum.
2.2. the temperature where appropriate, the bird should be provided with a range of temperature-so that they can exercise a degree of choice over their thermal environment. All healthy adult quail, pigeon and domestic ducks, gees, fowl and turkey should be housed on at the temperature between 15 ° C and 25 ° c. It is essential to take account of the interaction between temperature and relative humidity, as some species will suffer from heat stress within the prescribed temperature range relative humidity if the is too high. For species where there are from published guidelines on temperature and humidity, the climate experienced in the wild throughout the year should be researched and replicated as closely as possible.
Higher room temperature than those indicated or of a baseline source of supplementary heat such as a brooder lamp may be required for sick or juvenile birds (see table H. 1. below).
Table h. 1. Guidelines for temperature and humidit relative for domestic fowl and turkey, g. Gallus domesticus and Meleagris gallopav the chick ' behaviour should be used as a guide when setting the brooder lamp temperature. If thermally comfortable, chick of all species will be evenly spaced in the enclosure and making a gusty amount of noise; "the chick may be too hot and noisy chick making distress calls may be too cold.
2.3. Humidity relative humidity should be maintained within the range of 40 to 80% for healthy, adult, domestic birds.
2.4. Lighting light quality and quantity are critically important for some species at certain times of the year for normal physiological functioning. Appropriate light and dark regime for each of the species, life stage and time of year should be known before animals are acquired.
Lights should not be abruptly switched off or on, but should be dimmed and raised in a gradual fashion. This is especially important when housing birds capable of flight. Dim night lights – may the movement at night facilitat for heavy-bodied poultry strain. Where provided, care should be taken to ensur that circadian rhythm is not disrupted.
2.5. the noise some birds, for example the pigeon, are considered to be able to hear very low frequency sounds. Although infrasound (sound below 16 Hz) is unlikely to cause distress, birds should be housed on away from any equipment that emit low frequency vibrations whenever possible.
3. Health captive-bred birds should be used wherever possible. Wild birds may present special problems in terms of their behaviour and health when in a laboratory situation. A longer period of quarantine and habituation to captive conditions is generally required before they are used in scientific procedures.
Careful health monitoring and normal control should health risks in minimis birds with outdoor access.
4. Housing, enrichmen and care Bird should be housed on in enclosures which facilitat and encourag a range of behaviour including desirabl natural, social behaviour, exercise and foraging. Many birds will benefit from housing that allows them to go outdoors and the feasibility of this should be evaluated with respect to the potential to cause distress or their conflict with the experimental aim. Some form of cover such as shrub should always be provided it will encourag bird outdoors to use all the available area.
4.1. Housing birds should be housed on in harmonio for groups socially within the animal enclosure, unless the scientific procedure or welfare requirements make this impossible. Special care is needed when introducing an unfamiliar regrouping bird or bird to a group. In all cases, the groups should be monitored on an ongoing basis for social compatibility.
Single-housing of birds for even short periods can be a significant stress factor. Therefore, the bird should not be single-housed on unless a justified on welfare or veterinary grounds. Single-housing on the experimental ground should be determined in consultation with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal.
Most species of bird with social insurance at least part of the year and highly sensitive to family relationships, so the formation of appropriate, stable, harmonio of the group should be given a high priority. As there are significant species variation, the optimal composition of groups, and at what stage in the birds ' lives these should be created should be known before groups are formed and the procedures are undertaken.
4.2. Enrichmen A stimulating environment is a very important contributor to good bird welfare. Perch, dust and water bath, the nest sites and not suitabl rigid materials, objects and pecking for foraging substrat should be provided for species and individual that will benefit from them unless there is scientific justification for withholding or veterinary such items. The bird should be encouraged to use all three dimensions of their housing for foraging, exercise and social interactions including play wherever possible.
4.3. Enclosures-dimensions and guidelines for flooring enclosure dimensions are set out in the species-specific provision for domestic fowl, domestic turkey, quail, duck and pigeon, gees and Zebra finch. All birds, especially species that spend a significant proportion of their time walking, such as quail or fowl, should be housed on one floor with a solid rather than on the grid floor substrat. Birds can be a pron to foot problems, for example, overgrown claws, faecal accumulation and foot lesions such as foot-pad dermatitis due to standing on wet litter, on any type of flooring, and so frequent monitoring of foot condition is always not cessary. In practice, it may not be set between the cessary consider a solid-and grid flooring for scientific purpose. In such cases, the bird should be provided with solid-floored restinga areas occupying at least a third of the enclosure floor. Grid areas should be located under the perch if faecal collection is required. To reduce the incidence of foot injuries, slats made of plastic should be used in preference to the wire mesh wherever possible. If the wire mesh has to be used, it should be the size of a grid it suitabl adequately support the foot and the wire should have a rounded edge and be plastic coated.
4.4 Feeding the Feeding patterns of wild birds vary widely and considerations should be given to the nature of the food, the way in which it is presented and the times at which it is made available. Diet that will meet the nutritional requirements of each species and promote natural foraging behaviour should be researched and formulated before any animals are obtained. On of the diet or additional treats should be scattered on the floor of the enclosure to encourag foraging wherever appropriate. Dietary enrichmen the benefits birds, so additions such as fruit, vegetable, seed or invertebrat's should be considered where appropriate even if it is not possible to feed the birds on their ' natural ' diet. Where new foods are introduced, the previous diet should always be available so that birds will not go hungry if they are unwilling to eat new foods. Some species with more than others adaptabl and advice should be sought on the appropriate dietary regime.
As some species, particularly granivor, require them to digest their food bill savedoff, these should be provided with appropriately-sized Gr. II. Bird will select Michael of the size they prefer if material of various size of the is provided. The Gr. II a should be regularly renewed stands out among. Dietary calcium and phosphor of should also be provided for the bird in an appropriate form and at an appropriate level for each life stage, to prevent bone disease nutritional. Any such requirements should be thoroughly researched and catered for. Food can be supplied in the feeder that are either attached to the side of the enclosure or standing on the enclosure floor. Space occupied by floor feeder is not available to the birds and should not be included in the calculation of the pen area. Wall mounted feeders do not occupyi ..... floor space but should be designed and fitted with care so that birds cannot become trapped underneath them. Chick of some species (for example, domestic turkey) may need to be taugh to feed and drink in order to avoid dehydration and potential starvation. Food for all species should be clearly visible and provided at several points to help prevent feeding problems.
4.5. Watering Water should be provided via nippl or cup drinker, or as a continuous drinking channel. There should be sufficient or an adequat drinker of the length of the channel to prevent dominant bird drinker from monopolising them. One nippl or cup drinker should be provided for every three or four birds, with a minimum of two in each enclosure. Supplementary water may also be given as enrichmen in birds ' feed the if appropriate.
4.6 litter, bedding and Substrat, not rigid material

The substrat Suitabl for birds, it should be unlikely cause absorben foot lesions and of an appropriate particle size of dust the minimis and prevent accumulation of excessiv on the birds ' feet. The substrat of Suitabl include chipped bark, white wood shaving, chopped straw or sand, washed but not sandpaper. Litter should be maintained in a dry condition and friabl be sufficiently deep and absorbing the faec dilut. Others include suitabl floor covering plastic artificial turf or deep pile rubber mat. (A) a pecking the substrat suitabl such as five of straw should be scattered over the floor.
Hatchlings and juvenile birds should be provided with a substrat that they cant grip it avoid developmental problems such as splayed legs. Juvenile birds should also be encouraged, for instance if not cessary by tapping with the fingers, to peck at the substrat to help prevent subsequent misdirected pecking.
4.7 Cleaning (see paragraph 4.9 of the General section).
4.8. the Handling of equipment for catching Suitabl and handling should be available, for example, well maintained the nets in the appropriate size and darkened the nets with padded rim for small birds.
If the experimental procedure requires adult birds to be handled regularly, it is recommended from a welfare and experimental perspective to handle a frequently during rearing the chick, as this reduced the later fear of human.
4.9. Humane killing the preferred method of killing for juvenile and adult birds is an overdos of anaesthetic using an appropriate agent and route. This is preferabl to carbon dioxid inhalation of carbon dioxid-sharp may be aversiv.
Sharp diving birds and some others, for example, mallard ducks, can slow their heart rates and hold their breath for long periods, care should be taken when killing such species by inhalation to ensur that they do not recover. Duck, diving birds and very young chick should not be killed using carbon dioxid.
4.10 records (see paragraph 4.12 of the General section) 4.11. Identification of Non-inventory inventory of minimally or methods such as noting physical difference, ringing with either closed or split ring and staining or dyeing the feather with a preferabl it more inventory techniques such as electronic tagging or wing tagging. Combinations of coloured leg rings for identification, although minimis handling due regard should be paid to any potential impact of colour on behaviour in some species. When using the ring as the temporary marking for rapidly growing chick, regular checking is essential to ensur that the ring is not impeding the growth of the leg marking methods of inventory. Highly such as toe-clippings or web-punching cause suffering and should not be used.
b. Additional provision for the housing and care of the domestic fowl, in stock and during procedures Domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) retain much of the biology and behaviour of the jungle fowl from which they were domesticated. Behaviour that are most important to the species with a stared not (in females), and using a litter for foraging, perching scratching, pecking and dustbathing. Fowl with social and should be housed on in groups of around five to twenty birds, with fewer edges than females in the adult group, for example, a ratio of 1 to 5. Attempts have been made to a select strain of fowl feather pecking or agonistic behaviour for reduced. The existenc of appropriate strain of this type should be determined, and the feasibility of acquiring them, should be assessed for each project.
Laying hen should have access to the nest boxes from at least two weeks before coming into lay and no later than 16 weeks of age. Single-or pair-housed on bird should each have access to a nest box, with a ratio of at least one nest box per two bird provided in larger groups. Nest boxes should be enclosed and large enough to allow one to turn around the hen. A loose-such as wood-shaving substrat or straw should be supplied within the nest boxes to promote not staring behaviour. The Substrat should be regularly replaced and kep to clean.
Fowl should always be provided with the opportunity to perch, peck appropriate substrat, forag and dust-bath from one day old. Suitabl materials for dust-bathing include sand or soft wood shaving.
The Perch should be 3 to 4 cm in diameter and round with a flattened top. The optimum height above the floor may stay for different breeds, ages and housing conditions but should initially be fixed at perch of 5 to 10 cm and for older birds at 30 cm above the floor. Perch heights should be basis in response to the birds ' behaviour by seeing how easily the bird can get on and off the perch and move between them. All birds should be able to perch at the same time and every adult bird should be allowed 15 cm of perch at each level. Especially during the establishment of groups, the bird should also be briefly observed during the dark period to confirm that all of the individual roosting.
With a highly motivated to perform fowl ' comfort ' behaviour such as wing flapping, feather ruffling and leg stretching, which help it to maintain strong leg bones. Bird should therefore be housed on in floor enclosures large enough to permit all of these whenever possible by the Libertines. Ideally, the bird should be housed on with outdoor access; appropriate cover such as bush's is essential to encourag the fowl to go outside.
Flooring for fowl should be solid, as this enable the provision of their foraging and encourag the substrat possibly help to reduce the incidence of feather pecking. If need to be caged fowl for scientific purpose, they should be housed on in enclosures designed to address behavioural requirements. If there are scientific reasons for not providing a solid floor, a solid area with loose substrat and items such as a bunch of string, rope blocks, pecking, turf or straw should be provided for pecking.
Fowl strain developed for rapid growth rates (broiler) with a highly lamenes and their susceptibl their use should be avoided wherever possible. If broiler is used, the individual should be assessed for lamenes at least weekly and grown more slowly than those reared commercially unless the growth rate is essential for the study.
Table h. 2. Domestic fowl: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of where these minimum enclosures sizes cannot be provided for the scientific reasons, the duration of the confinemen the should be justified by the experimenters and determined in consultation with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal. In such circumstanc, birds can be housed on in smaller enclosures containing appropriate enrichmen and with a minimum floor area of 0.75 m2. These can be used to House two laying birds or small groups of birds in accordanc with allowance of the space given above.
c. Additional provision for the housing and care of the domestic turkey, in stock and during procedures the Wild turkey is regularly a utilis diverse range of environments and perform a variety of behaviour including a dust-bathing, foraging and hunting. The social behaviour of the wild turkey is complex, particularly during the breeding season. Domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopav) retain many of the characteristics of wild birds but there are some fundamental difference, for example domestic turkey with is unable to fly, but have retained the ability to speak quickly, and jump and glide, especially at the youngers ages.
Domestic turkey with a highly social and should not be single-housed on. Stable groups formed as soon as the bird should be with is acquired and monitoring is essential as adequat injurio of feather-pecking and head-pecking can occure from the first days of life.
Lamenes is a common problem and needs to be carefully monitored. Veterinary advice should be sought on a policy for dealing with lamenes.
Turkey should be provided with a perch placed at the height where the bird on the ground not able easily to peck and tug at the feather of perching birds. However, if birds with older and less agile, the access should be facilitated by the perch of special equipment such as ramps. Where this is not possible, the perch should be placed at a low height (for example at 5 cm). The shape and size of the perch should be in accordanc with the rapidly growing claws of the birds. The Perch should be ovoid or rectangular with corner and thats made of wood or plastic.
Substrat for dust-bathing should always be provided. Suitabl materials with fresh sawdus or sand. Straw may be used for enrichmen of Bali and it provides a refuge from the dominant bird, but will need to be frequently replaced and older, heavier birds may need a ramp to gain access to them.
Table (H). 3. Domestic Turkey: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance for All enclosure sides should be at least 1.5 m long. Where these minimum dimensions cannot be provided for scientific reasons, the duration of the confinemen the should be justified by the experimenters and determined in consultation with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal. In such circumstanc, birds can be housed on in smaller enclosures containing appropriate enrichmen and with a minimum floor area of 0.75 m2 and a minimum height of 50 cm for birds below 0.6 kg, 75 cm for birds below 4 kg, and 100 cm for birds over 4 kg. These can be used to house small groups of birds in accordanc with allowance of the space given above.
d. Additional provision for the housing and care of quail, in stock and during procedures

Wild quail live in small social groups and Johnson much of their time to foraging for seeds and scratching and invertebrat on the ground. The preferred Habitat of many species is the dens vegetation such as grasslands, bushes alongsid river and cereal fields. Domestication does not appear to have substantially altered quail behaviour, so it is essential to design the housing systems that respect this and allow the provision of substrat for not scratching and dustbathing stbox, pecking and cover wherever possible. The housing of quail in the Pan as opposed to aviar or it is therefore strongly recommended the cages.
Quail (Coturnix spp; Colin for Virginians; Lophortyx californic; Excalfactori chinensis) of the group should be housed on in either all female or mixed-sex groups. Where the sex with mixed, the ratio of the sides of the females should be low (for example, 1 to 4) to reduce aggression between edge and injuries to females. It may be possible to pair-house edge if the stable pairs are formed during rearing. The likelihood of aggressive leading to skin lesions and pecking feather loss is reduced if quail not kep under intensive conditions and established groups are not mixed.
Quail are capable of extremely rapid startl responses, which can lead to head injuries. Staff should therefore always approach the birds slowly and calmly and quail should be provided with cover and environmental enrichmen, especially early in life, in order to reduce fear. Quail chick should have access to coloured objects such as balls, tubing and cubes them fear of both human being alleviat and novel stimulus in adult birds. Adult birds should be givens pecking objects such as stones, pine cone, balls and branch of vegetation. Sand, wood shaving or straw substrat for foraging and a place to which the bird can withdraw should be provided, with additional dust bath of sand or sawdus if the substrat of foraging is not suitabl for dust bathing. Laying hen should have access to the nest box and not rigid material, such as hay.
If quail need to be housed on in the cage, considerations should be given to combining enclosures and adding enrichmen to the items. Solid enclosure roof may make the birds feel safer, although this could result in an unacceptably low light levels in lower if bird enclosures with is housed on in racks. Bird cage-housed on should be for the minimum possible period because many welfare problems become more sever with age, especially in birds kep for one year or more.
Table h. 4. Quail: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance.

The enclosure roof should be made of the material reduce plian the risk of head injuries.
e. Additional provision for the housing and care of duck and gees, in stock and during procedures and commonly a Domestic duck gees used in research and testing include Anas platyrhynchos, Anser anser domesticus and (Cairina moschata). All waterfowl are primarily adapted for locomotion and feeding in water, which is also very important for ' comfort ' behaviour in such as bathing and preening. The duck and the gees should be provided with a pond with a mixtur of stones and Michael on the bottom, both to increase the birds ' behavioural and their repertoir of adequat encourag maintenance of the feather. The very minimum that waterfowl should be able to do is immers is their heads under water and shake the water over the body. Drinker and pond for waterfowl should be located over the grid area of the drain beneath it the with reduce flooding.
Gees and domestic ducks have been selected for meat and egg production, but all breeds retain most of their ' wild-type ' behaviour and generally more nervous and easily upset than other domestic birds, especially when they are moulting.
Within twenty-four hours of hatching and throughout the first weeks of life, water should be provided to the swimming behaviour, facilitat but care should be taken to the minimis risk of drowning by, for example, the use of a shallow bowl. After the first week, a shallow pond (dimensions as in table h. 6) with large stones on the bottom should be provided with food or Gr. II the scattered among the stones it is dabbling or diving, encourag as appropriate. In the absence of the parent bird, access the pond for juvenile birds should only be under the supervision and to ensur that they can leave the water and do not become chilled. This should continue until they are clearly capable of leaving the water unaided and their feather have begun their waterproof emerge. It is not to control the cessary temperature of the water. The pond should be regularly cleaned and replaced as cessary to ensur not water good water quality.
The duck and the gees should be housed on one solid floors and have sufficient space to permit the foraging, walking, running and wing flapping. A complex environment should be provided, including for example natural or artificial covers, boxes and straw Bala. The duck and the gees should always be kep to the outdoors or have access to outdoor runs unless there is scientific or veterinary justification for keeping them indoor. Bird is housed on with outside access should be kep to secure from predators and should be supplied with a dry shelter to enable them to rest. Vegetation for cover and/or grazing should be provided as applicable. Serious considerations should be given to supplying other features of the Habitat that are likely to be important to each species of bird with whethers housed on indoor or outdoor. This includes shallow water with vegetation for the dabbling ducks, gees and turf for deeper water with large stones for species whose natural habitat is along rocky coastlin.
The duck and the gees should be housed on in appropriately sized groups wherever possible and the amount of time when any individual is left alone should be minimised. Many species become territorial during the breeding season, the however, so it may not reduce the group size cessary and ensur that there is sufficient space in the enclosure to reduce the risk of injury, particularly the female bird.
Table H. 5. Duck and gees: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of this should include a pond of minimum area 0.5 m2 per 2m2 enclosure with a minimum depth of 30 cm. The pond may contribute up to 50% of the minimum enclosure size.
** Pre-fledged birds may be held in enclosures with a minimum height of 75 cm. Where these minimum enclosure size cannot be provided for the scientific reasons, the duration of the confinemen the should be justified by the experimenters and determined in consultation with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal. In such circumstanc, birds can be housed on in smaller enclosures containing appropriate enrichmen and with a minimum floor area of 0.75 m2. These can be used to house small groups of birds in accordanc with allowance of the space given below.
Table H-6. Duck and gees: minimum pond size of Pond size with per 2 m2 enclosure. The pond may contribute up to 50% of the minimum enclosure size.
f. Additional provision for the housing and care of the pigeon, in stock and during procedures the various strain of domestic pigeon with a deriv it believed from the rock Dove Columbia Livia. Rock carry the of dov and roosa on cliffs or within caves, and feral pigeon will the ledges on my sheltered utilis-made structures in the same way. In their natural habitat is usually occure in pigeon pairs to large flock, feeding and roosting together, but will not defend roosting spaces and tight areas. The can be housed on the pigeon in mixed groups, and may lay eggs but will not bring them if incubat boxes are not provided.
Care should be taken when choosing a breed for laboratory use, as some strain may show abnormal or undesirabl Libertines and should therefore be avoided. Pigeon with a primarily seed-eaters but with a omnivoro, so food containing animal protein should be offered regularly.
Pigeon should be allowed an area sufficient for flight wherever possible, with a separate area for each bird perching along at least one wall of the enclosure. Box of approximately 30 cm perch x 15 cm located in block should be provided. Branches hung from the roof and can also be used for scaffolding perching. Toys hung from a chain should be provided, for example, bird bell, mirror and commercially available toys designed for pets. Each enclosure should have a shallow water bath. Where pigeon need to be frequently handled, ' area ' or rigid Chambers can be provided so that birds can be trained to retreat to them for capture.
Larger, enriched enclosures with shelving, perch and toys should be used wherever possible rather than ' standard ' pigeon enclosures. Pigeon benefit from being able forag and should not be kep on grid floors without strong scientific justification.
Table h. 7. Pigeon: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance of enclosures should be long and narrow (for example 2 m by 1 m) rather than allow it to square bird perform short flights.
g. Additional provision for the housing and care of the Zebra finch, in stock and during procedures the Zebra finch (Taeniopygi-guttat) across most of Australia occure. They are highly mobile, wide-ranging over wide area in search of food, and live in a flock of up to several hundred individual. The species is sexually dimorphic, as monogamous and the male's plumag is more than that of the ornat female. The breeding season is not fixed, but is triggered by the availability of grass seed ripening. Zebra finch's use for roosting bring as well as breeding; bring to the roosting used more frequently in cold condition and may carry or be old breeding purpose-built.

Zebra finch with social and non-breeding birds should be housed on in groups. Unwanted breeding can be prevented by housing in single sex groups, or suppressed in mixed-sex groups by withholding both roosting and breeding would bring and by feeding a diet of dry seeds supplemented with fresh Greens, but never soaked or sprouted seeds. Bring should be provided for breeding birds, for example in the form of wicker or plastic baskets or wooden boxes with grass, paper shall strip or coconut fibres for non rigid material, but the bird will defend these and it is important to monitor behaviour to ensur that sufficient to carry with the provided. Spray of millet Panicum a should be continually available as dietary enrichmen. Sharp Zebra finch's feed extensively on the ground, birds should be housed on one solid floor to facilitat natural foraging behaviour.
Toys, swing is designed for perch and pet bird will benefit the Zebra finch and these should be provided wherever possible. Perch with a particularly important for well-being and should be provided at a range of heights the normal feeding and roosting behaviour facilitat. Water for bathing should be provided at least once a week in shallow trays with water of approximately 0.5 to 1 cm in depth.
Zebra finch's coloured fittings with leg bands for identification can have significant effects on their social and reproductive behaviour of (for example, red can enhance dominance and green or blue reduce it). Care should be taken in the selection of colours and patterns of leg bands.
Minimum enclosure size for Zebra finch with set out in table h. 8 below. Enclosures should be long and narrow (for example, 2 m by 1 m) to enable the bird to perform short flights. Zebra finch's thrive in outdoor enclosures provided they have access to shelter and roosting where appropriate bring. Additional heating should be provided for birds housed on outdoors in cold conditions.
Table h. 8. Zebra Finch: a minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance For breeding studies, pairs may be housed on in smaller enclosures containing appropriate enrichmen with a minimum floor area of 0.5 m2 and a minimum height of 40 cm. The duration of the confinemen the should be justified by the experimenters and determined in consultation with the animal technician and with the competent persons charged with advisory duties in relations to the well-being of the animal.
I. Spec-specific provision for amphibian 1. Introduction According to systematic, amphibian is involv three change orders: Urodel (Caudata), Gymnophion (Apod), Anur (Ecaudat) and. The belong to the super of Anur – order Salienti. For the present provision, Urodel (salamander, newts) and Anur (frog, toad) are of interest. They differ greatly in their patterns of geographic distribution and in the diversity of living types, such as aquatic (for example, Xenop for laevis), semi-aquatic (for example, Rana temporari) semiterrestrial (for example, the Bufo Marinus) and arboreal (for example, Hyl cinerea). Amphibian in a wide range of occupyi ..... habitat types from arid deserts to deep freshwater lakes. Some may spend most of their life underground or high in the cloud forest canopy. Some are found north of the Arctic circle and a freezing condition, can tolerat while others have evolved a range of adaptation to avoid desiccation in the hot areas of the world.
Amphibian with a very much adapted to the substrat on/in which they live. In this context, the body skin play an important role in the transfer of water, the substances, including toxic solubl substances and oxygen. Therefore it play key roles in the survival of amphibian, their interactions with their environment, and their ability to exploit a wide range of habitats and ecological conditions. An amphibian's health depend on certain properties and peculiarit of it in the body of the making of the amphibian skin significant bio-indicators of environmental health.
Where possible, an amphibian used for experimental or other scientific purpose-bred and reared in captivity should be. Purpose-bred animals should be used in preference to animals taken from the wild.
Table i.1. lists the four main habitats of amphibian and example of species of each Habitat frequently used for experimental and other scientific purpose. The following proposals provide detail on the basic accommodation and care conditions to be covered for species of these habitats. Specific procedures may require the use of certain other species which do not fall into the four Habitat categories. Further advice on the requirements for these and other species (or if behavioural or breeding problems occure) should be sought from expert specialists and care staff to ensur that any particular species needs are adequately addressed. Additional background information on less commonly used species, and habitats is available in the background information document elaborated by the Group of experts.
Table i. 1: change the Habitat categories and example by Habitat of species frequently used 2. The environment and its control 2.1. Enclosures for amphibian Ventilation should be adequately ventilated. The water in the enclosures of aquatic amphibian should be caged, circulated, filtered and aerated (see also paragraph 4.3.1.).
2.2. the temperature with an ectothermic Amphibian. Areas of different temperature and humidity with a beneficial, it allows them to seek their amphibian preferred microenvironmen. Amphibian in the frequent fluctuation in exposed temperature and humidity may be severely stressed and may be more pron to health problems. Room and water temperature should be controlled for.
Hibernation in amphibian may be induced or interrupted by regulating the light-dark rhythm and room temperature. Before inducing hibernation in captivity, animals should be in good health and body condition. In animals used for breeding, a State of near winter torpor (for example dim light the darkness and 8 ° C to 10 ° C room temperature) may be simulated where appropriate. Under these conditions, the animals can be kep to the long axis of the axle without feeding for four to five months. Restoration of the pre-environmental conditions will induce hibernation activity and mating behaviour.
Prevention of hibernation in a laboratory environment will not cause major welfare problems.
2.3. do not drink the Humidity Amphibian but absorb moisture through their skin. Water loss is an especially critical problem in captive terrestrial and semi-terrestrial amphibian, a properly hydrated integumen is essential to the normal function of the amphibian skin. Areas of different humidity within the enclosure are beneficial. Even desert-adapted amphibian should have access to a humid environment.
2.4. Lighting is reflecting the natural Photoperiod cycle from where the animals should be used in originat. Light level in the enclosures should be consistent with that expected to be encountered under natural conditions. Both semi-terrestrials and aquatic animal caged should have the opportunity to withdraw their shaded areas within the enclosure.
2.5. the noise is very sensitive Amphibian with the noise (Airborne incentives) and vibrations (substrateborn in incentives) and the disturbed by any new, unexpected stimulus. Therefore, such measures should be minimised by disturbanc extraneo.
2.6. Alarm systems alarm systems with Adequat recommended if used with circulation systems and/or aeration is required.
3. Health (see paragraph 4.1 of the General section) 4. Housing, enrichmen and care 4.1. Housing In most amphibian, social behaviour is mainly restricted to the mating season. However, the group-housing of amphibian is advisabl, for instance to improve feeding and reduce fear responses. For example, in the Xenop spp. group feeding feeding frenzies of inducing promotes all animals to feed. At very low stocking density to such frenzies do not occure and food is not eaten frequently.
To avoid cannibalism in certain species (particularly among larval Ambystoma spp. and Scaphiop spp.), these animals should be maintained in small groups. Cannibalism in groups can be reduced by size grading.
4.2. the Enrichmen the terrestrial habitat of amphibian should be structured, including, for example, branch, leaves, five of barks, stones or other man-made materials suitabl. Amphibian benefit from such environmental enrichmen in different ways: for example, such inclusion allow animals to hide, and provides label for Visual and spatial orientation. The side walls of the a should be textured to provide terrari a structured surface.
The provision of hiding places/shelter that with appropriate to the amphibian's needs is recommended, because they can reduce stress on captive amphibian. For example, in the Xenop spp. a tube of ceramic or plastic may be provided. The refuge should be inspected regularly for sick or injured animals. A dark floor to the tank may enhance the sense of security in the animals.
Materials used for enrichmen devices should not be detrimental to the health of the amphibian. Enclosures and enrichmen the structures should have smooth surface and rounded edge to the minimis risk of injury to the amphibian's skin.
4.3. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring 4.3.1. Enclosures for aquatic amphibian in Aquatic amphibian in such as Xenop for amphibian larvae laevis or housed on in a tank and aquaria. These may be equipped with a gentle flow-through water system for the circulation of uncontaminated (for example, dechlorinated) water, a heating device to maintain the temperature, and a suitabl compressed air supply and airston for aeration. Care is needed to ensur that aeration does not cause injury to the animals. Unless a proper flow system is in place, the water in the enclosures should be with water of an appropriate renewed stands out among quality about twice a week.
For Xenop spp., systems with regular changes of water (fill-and-dump systems) is sufficient for maintaining appropriate water quality (such as minimising level in Honeywell). Airston's are not required for Xenop.

Furthermore, the long, narrow enclosures should be avoided since they may restrict the locomotor activity and social behaviour such as feeding frenzies.
Table i.2. Urodel, e.g., aquatic Ambystoma spp: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance * Measured from snout to tail.
Table i. 3. Aquatic anuran, e.g., Xenop spp.: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance. ** These recommendations apply to holding (i.e. any other., husbandry) tanks but not to those tanks used for natural mating and super-ovulation for reasons of efficiency, as the latter procedures require smaller individual tanks. Space requirements determined for adults in the indicated size categories; juvenil and tadpoles should either be excluded, or dimensions altered according to the scaling principles.
** Measured from snout to vent.
4.3.2. Enclosures for semi-aquatic and semi-terrestrial amphibian semi-aquatic and semi-terrestrial amphibian with a skipper in enclosures consisting of a terrestrial and an aquatic on the. The water area of the Forum should allow animals to terrari submerg. Unless a flow-through system is used, the water should be renewed stands out among at least twice a week.
Each unit should be covered to preven terrari escape. It is advisabl to paint or otherwise cover the outside of the wall it is transparent minimis damage to the animal. Additions to the interior design can include: soft-foamed plastic material on the floor near the pool area, stones, pieces of artificial materials, artificial bark branch and leaves, and shelves. Fine sawdus and any other related small-particle substrat should be avoided, as it the Lady the sensitive body skin, a pathogen and is the harbour difficult to clean and re-use.
Table i. 4. Semi-aquatic, e.g. anuran, Rana temporari: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance * Measured from snout to vent.
** One third land division, two thirds water division sufficient for animals in their submerg.
Measured from the surface of the land division up to the inner part of the top of the terrari; Furthermore, the height of the enclosures should be adapted to the interior design.
Table i. 5. Semi-terrestrial anuran, e.g., the Bufo Marinus: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance * Measured from snout to vent.
** Two-thirds land division, one-third water division sufficient for animals in their submerg.
Measured from the surface of the land division up to the inner part of the top of the terrari; Furthermore, the height of the enclosures should be adapted to the interior design.
4.3.3. Enclosures for arboreal amphibian Having regards for the behaviour of different arboreal species, every effort should be made to allow for this by the provision of appropriate structures for climbing and arboreal species restinga by (see section 4.3.2). In addition, it is not to provide water in which cessary they can in themselves or seek submerg greater humidity. If the water dish with a used, they should be arranged in such a way that they are easy for the amphibian to enter or leave it.
Table i. 6: Arboreal anuran, e.g., Hyl cinerea: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance * Measured from snout to vent.
** Two-thirds land division, one-third pool division sufficient for animals in their submerg.
Measured from the surface of the land division up to the inner part of the top of the terrari; Furthermore, the height of the enclosures should be adapted to the interior design including, e.g., shelves, large artificial branch, and structures for climbing.
4.4 Feeding the majority of amphibian with a carnivor's with food preferences for living small invertebrat (such as larvae, space pictures and worms). Captive animals should be maintained on their natural food or foodstuff for approximating those of one their natural diet. However, captive aquatic amphibian can successfully be maintained on five of the fish fille or scrapings from the frozen liver and heart. The feeding frequency should be related to environmental conditions, such as temperature and light intensity. The daily feeding is not advisabl for adult animals, but once it three times weekly to satiation at each feeding is recommended.
4.5. Water quality For aquatic and semi-aquatic amphibian water quality, including the concentration of ammonium and the pH level in the water, should be regularly monitored.
4.6 litter, bedding and Substrat, not rigid material (see paragraph 4.8 of the General section) 4.7 Cleaning In order to avoid diseases, the terrestrial and aquatic areas in the should be carefully cleaned it by terrari remove dirt, excremen and food particle.
4.8. Handling the skin of the amphibian can be easily damaged. Care is required during handling, which should be kep to a minimum.
4.9. Anaesthesi and humane killing, potentially painful procedure of Inventory should be accompanied both by analgesi and anaesthesi. Axis ' amphibian skin accounts for a significant portions of normal gaseo of the exchanges, in animals, in which anaesthetised lung respiration is reduced or interrupted, the body skin should always be kep the mois, for example with a wet tissue.
4.10 records (see paragraph 4.12 of the General section) 4.11. Identification where animals need to be identified individually there are a number of methods such as the transponder suitabl; tank labels for individually housed on animals; monitoring pigment or wars configuration; small label by coloured thread. Chemical marking should not be used, since the substance is absorbed through the skin, possibly causing toxic effects. Toe clippings should not be the IR deleterio and carried out.
5. Transport During transport, amphibian should be provided with sufficient air and moisture and, if not, appropriate devices cessary to maintain the required temperature and humidity.
J. species-specific provision for reptil 1. Introduction According to systematic morphological, of the change include reptil orders Rhynchocephali (tuatar), Squamat (lizard, Snake), Cheloni (turtles, tortoises, and terrapins), and Crocodili (caiman crocodile, alligator,, and gavial). They differ greatly in their patterns of geographic distribution and in the diversity of living types.
In contrast to the more or less smooth and skin seen in amphibian mois, reptil's have a skin protected by overlapping scales (snake, lizard) by a box-like shell (chelonian), or by bone plate in the skins (crocodile, alligator, and caiman). The thick skin is an adaptation to better protect reptil's from the water loss that occure with the permeabl skin of the amphibian.
Table j.1. lists two very general Habitat categories of reptil and example of species of each Habitat frequently used for experimental and other scientific purpose. The following proposals provide detail on the basic housing and care conditions recommended for species found within these habitats. Specific procedures may require the use of certain other species which do not fall into these categories, such as semi-aquatic, arboreal or climbing a rock-reptil. Should problems occure behavioural or breeding, or should further information on specific requirements for other spec to be required, advice should be sought from experts specialised in the species concerned and care staff, to ensur that any particular species ' needs are adequately addressed Additional information on species and habitats is available in the background information document by the expert group.
Where possible, used for experimental or other of reptil scientific purpose should be procured from reputabl of suppliers.
Table j.1. Two Habitat categories and the example of the species of each reptil Habitat frequently used 2. The environment and its control 2.1. Ventilation of enclosures should be adequately ventilated of reptil. To prevent animals from escaping, ventilation should be screen-covered.
2.2. the temperature with an ectothermic Reptil. In order to maintain their body temperature, under natural conditions they will select a microenvironment in which they can gain or lose heat. Therefore, the enclosures should offer them the animals areas of different temperature (temperature gradient).
Temperature requirements of different species vary considerably and may even fluctuat in the same species at different times of the year. In the laboratory, room and water temperature should be controlled for. In many of the sex determination and reptil gonadal differentiation with a temperature-dependent.
An incandescent lamp positioned over the platform provided a restinga board will allow it increase their basking reptil's body temperature. When the lights are turned off, a flat heating device may be used. Terrari of snake or lizard from tropical habitats should be of at least one furnished with warmth-plate. Heating devices should be thermostatically-controlled to prevent the animals from overheating and burning.
2.3. the Humidity In order to regulat the humidity, it will also be without it regulat the cessary ventilation rate. A relative humidity of 70 to 90% can be maintained by evaporating water from a container placed near the heater. The provision of areas of different humidity (humidity gradient) is beneficial.
2.4. Lighting appropriate light and dark regime for each of the species, life stage, and time of the year should be provided. Reptil's should have the opportunity to withdraw their shaded areas within the enclosure. Light or sun lamps should not be the sole source of heat. The provision of a ultraviole radiation is not the cessary stimulat the animal's production of vitamin d. 2.5. Noise is very sensitive with Reptil to acoustic noise (Airborne incentives) and their vibratory noise (substrat – borne incentives) and the disturbed by any new, unexpected stimulus. Therefore, such measures should be minimised by disturbanc extraneo.
2.6. Alarm systems Adequat alarm systems should be provided if water circulation systems are used and/or aeration is required.
3. Health care is needed when the housing different species of possible different health status.

4. Housing, enrichmen and care 4.1. Housing (see paragraph 4.5.2 of the General section) 4.2 Enrichmen the Habitat of reptil's should be structured to include, for example, natural or artificial branches, leaves, barks and five of the stones. Reptil's benefit from such environmental enrichmen in different ways: for example, such inclusion allow animals to hide, and provides label for Visual and spatial orientation. To prevent collision with clear glass, the side walls of the should be patterned on the terrari provides a structured surface.
4.3. Enclosures-dimensions and flooring enclosures and enclosure furniture should have smooth surface and rounded edge to the minimis risk of injury, and in the most sensitive species should be used opaqu material.
4.3.1. Enclosures for aquatic Aquatic reptil's of reptil should be accommodated in the water – filtered, aerated circulated, and tanks. The water should be renewed stands out among about twice per week. The minimis the bacterial contamination of the water, the water temperature should note 12 of 25 ° c. Water level should be sufficient for their submerg reptil.
A platform should be provided as a board on which the restinga reptil's can haul out or under which take shelter. Such a platform should be made of materials, such as suitabl wood, so that the animal is able to get a purchase with their claws in order to pull themselves out of the water. The platform should be replaced at the interval as not cessary. The platform is made of epoxy or may not serve the polyurethan this function and will quickly under the deteriorat continuous warm temperature.
Table J 2. Aquatic chelonian is e.g., the Trachemy spp.: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance * Measured in a straight line from the front edge to the back edge of the shell.
4.3.2. Enclosures for terrestrials reptil.
Terrestrials of should be kep reptil in enclosures consisting of an appropriate for an aquatic and terrestrial part. The water area of the Forum should allow animals to terrari submerg. It is advisabl to renew the water at least twice a week, except in the case of a flow-through system.
By Terrari should be transparent, have tight Seamus, with all holes securely screened, and be provided with well-fitted lid or doors that can be securely fastened down. All doors and lid should be fitted with hooks, latch or hasp. It is advisabl to construct doors and lid, so that the entire top or an entire end or side open to facilitat-cleaning (except in the case of venomo-reptil). For some species, except for the front wall, all side walls including the top should be opaqu. In the case of highly irritabl or easily frightened reptil, the clear wall can be provided with a removable covering. For housing, the venomo snake certain security criteria must be fulfilled.
The provision of appropriate shelter is important for all terrestrial reptil, both in which to hide and also of similar background to feed. (A) shelter-box, such as a tube of clay simulat the darkness of a burrow.
Table 3: j. Terrestrial snake, e.g., Thamnoph the spp: minimum enclosure dimensions and space allowance * Measured from snout to tail.
** Measured from the surface of the land division up to the inner part of the top of the terrari; Furthermore, the height of the enclosure should be adapted to the interior design including, e.g., shelves and large artificial branches.
4.4 Feeding the captive's should be maintained on their reptil natural foods, foodstuff or commercial diet to those of approximating their natural diet. Many with a carnivor reptil (all snake and crocodile, lizard, most and some turtles), but some are vegetarian and others are omnivores. Some species exhibit "very narrow and specific feeding habita. Reptil, except for some snake, can be trained to feed on dead prey. Therefore, it should normally not be not to feed on live vertebrat cessary. When vertebrat is used with the dead, they should have been humanely killed using a method that will avoid the risk of toxicity to the reptil. Feeding of the regime should be appropriate to the species, stage of development and husbandry system.
4.5 Drinking water Watering should be provided for all reptil.
4.6 litter, bedding Substrat, and A variety of rigid material not of may be used for substrat terrari, depending on the requirements of the species. Fine sawdus and any other small-particle substrat should be avoided, as the this may cause serious mouth or internal injuries or reversible, particularly in bowel snake.
4.7 Cleaning (see paragraph 4.9 of the General section) 4.8. Handling care is needed when handling reptil, as they can be easily injured. For example, some lizard may shed their tail (autotomy) if handled in an inappropriate way, and others species can easily be traumatised.
4.9. Humane killing (see also paragraph 4.11 of the General section) An appropriate method of killing is by an overdos of (a) an anaesthetic suitabl.
4.10 records (see paragraph 4.12 of the General section) 4.11. Identification where animals need to be individually identified a number of suitabl method with available: transponder; enclosure label for individually housed on animals; monitoring individual skin patterns (according to colour, skin damage, etc.); pen marking will require renewal after skin shedding; small label at the it by coloured thread. Toe clippings should not be the is and deleterio done.
5. Transport During transport should be provided with the adequat reptil air and moisture and, if not, appropriate devices included cessary to maintain the required temperature and humidity.
K. species-specific provision for fish 1. Introduction the use of fish as experimental animals has expanded greatly over the past decade for a number of reasons, including the great increase in aquaculture, which has led to a variety of supporting basic studies in areas such as nutrition, disease, genetics, physiology and ecotoxicology and other toxicological research, as well as fundamental studies in genetics and immunology whose results with of relevance to higher vertebrat groups , including mammal. A wide variety of fish species are used for experimental purpose and these have a diverse range of habitats, behaviour and environmental and husbandry requirements.
Fish are ectothermic animals are highly adapted to their and the particular aquatic environment. They react very rapidly to stress with immediate physiological consequences that can be relatively long-lasting and such changes, as well as having obvious welfare implications, will also impact upon the experimental results.
Investigators and animal care staff should be acquain themselves with the characteristics of the proposed experimental fish species, to ensur that appropriate facilities and husbandry procedures are in place before animals are obtained. Spec-specific guidance on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), tilapiin of the cichlids, the zebra fish (Danio rerio), sea bass (Dicentrarch to labrax), Atlantic halibu (Hippoglossus Hippogloss), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), turbot (Scophthalmus Maximus), African catfish (Claria's gariepen) is available in the background document elaborated by the Group of experts. Further advice on the requirements of these and other species should be sought from expert specialists and care staff to ensur that any particular species needs are adequately addressed.
During the aquaculture research, when the aim of the research requires that fish are under similar conditions the CEAS to those under which commercial fish with a skipper, the keeping of the animal should at least conform with the standard laid down in the European Convention for the Protection of animals for Farming Purpose CEAS (ETS No. 87).
2. Environment and it control 2.1. Water supply It is essential that an adequat water supply of quality is suitabl provided at all times. Water flow in systems or recirculatory filtration within enclosures should be sufficient to remove suspended solid and waste and to ensur that water quality parameters are maintained within acceptabl level. Monitoring systems should be in place to ensur a fish provided with an appropriate quantity of water of appropriate quality. Water flow should also be appropriate to enable fish to swim correctly and to maintain normal behaviour. In most cases, within enclosures housing post-larval fish, the water supply is best directed onto the water surface at an angle.
2.2. Water quality Water quality is the most important factor in maintaining the well-being of fish and in reducing the stress and the risk of disease. Water-quality parameters should at all times be within the range acceptabl that sustain a normal activity and physiology for a given species. The definition of rank is acceptabl complicated in the optimum condition for a not well defined for many species and that the requirements of individual species may vary between different life-stage larvae of e. g, juvenil, adults or according to physiological status for example metamorphosis, spawning, feeding, previous history of exposure.
Fish show varying degrees of adaptability to changing water-quality conditions. Some degree of acclimatisation may be not cessary and this should be carried out for a period appropriate for the fish species in question.
As most fish species cannot function well in water containing a high level of suspended solid, these should be maintained within an acceptabl range. Where it is not water supply facilities cessary should be appropriately filtered to remove substances harmful to fish and to maintain water physics-suitabl chemical parameters.
2.2.1. Oxygen Oxygen concentration should be appropriate to the species and the context in which they are held. Required oxygen concentration will vary according to temperature, carbon dioxid concentration, salinity, by feeding level and the amount of handling. Where no supplementary aeration of water cessary should be provided.
2.2.2. the Nitrogen compounds

Honeywell is the main excretory product of fish. Dissolved bun, as well as feed and converted it in the faec inorganic compounds such as ammonium and phosphate. Honeywell will be further converted into nitrit and selects. Honeywell and with it the very toxic nitrit fish and their accumulation should be avoided by increasing the flow rate, reducing density or temperature, or biofiltration.
Susceptibility to Honeywell can stay between fish species and marine fish in general and with more susceptibl youngers. The toxic form of the Honeywell Honeywell is unionised, the amount of which will depend not only on the total concentration of ammonium, but also on pH, salinity and temperature.
2.2.3. Carbon dioxid (CO2) Carbon dioxid is produced by fish during respiration and water form carbonic dissolv in acid, the lowering of the pH. Accumulation of carbon dioxid can be a problem at a high stocking density if pure oxygen is used instead of air to maintain the oxygen content in the water. Although high concentration of free carbon dioxid can be fatal to fish this is most unlikely to be a problem under normal housing conditions. However, care should be taken that water supply systems, particularly in the case of groundwater-based systems, do not introduce a carbon dioxid quantit of harmful in the enclosures.
2.2.4. pH pH levels depend on a Acceptabl many water quality factors, for example, carbon dioxid and calcium. As far as possible the pH should be kep to the stable as any change in pH will influence other water quality parameters. In general may be lower than pH in freshwater in salt water. If not supply water should be buffered cessary.
2.2.5. Salinity Salinity requirements of fish will vary according to whethers ut300r2u marine or freshwater in origin or adapted. Some species are able this tolerat a wide range of salinity. Salinity tolerance in others may vary according to life stage. Changes in salinity should be introduced gradually.
2.3. Temperature temperature should be maintained within the optimal range of the fish species involved and any changes should take place gradually. At high temperature it may be not to provide supplementary aeration of cessary enclosure water.
2.4. Lighting Many fish require light for feeding and other behavioural activities. Fish should be maintained on an appropriate photoperiod as far as possible since the day/night cycle influence the physiology and the behaviour of fish.
Many fish species should not normally be kep in bright light, although some tropical species naturally encounter very bright light. As appropriate for the species, the lighting should be subdued or tanks should be covered and is suitabl hiding places provided. Abrup changes in the light should be avoided as far as possible.
2.5. Noise can be acutely sensitive to Fish the sound, even at very low levels. Noise level to within the experimental facilities should be kep to a minimum. Where possible equipment causing the noise or vibration, such as power generator or filtration systems, should be separated from the fish-holding facilities. Fish reared in a particular environment will adap to the incentives presented there and may become stressed if moved to unfamiliar surrounding.
2.6 Alarm systems (see Paragraph 2.6 of the General Section) 3. Health 3.1 General appropriate attention should be paid to hygiene within the experimental facilities. The health of the fish is intimately bound up with their environmental and husbandry conditions. Most diseases are associated with stress arising from these conditions in deficienc and any attempt to control disease should address these problems with the if area to be successfully eradicated. Fish health management is almost always concerned with population rather than a single individual, and control measure should be designed accordingly of.
3.2. the Hygiene and wastewater Fish-holding facilities, including associated pipework, should be cleaned and disinfected when appropriate. In the closed systems cleaning and wastewater should be compatible with maintenance of optimal microbiological condition. Equipment, for example, the nets should be disinfected between use. Staff should take precaution to prevent cross-contamination between fish enclosures.
3.3. Quarantine newly introduced stock, both farmed and wild fish from, should be given an appropriate quarantine period, as far as possible separate from existing stock. During quarantine they should be closely monitored and any disease problem which should be treated by the «arise or the stock destroyed. Farmed fish should be procured from suppliers reputabl and as far as possible have a verified health status.
4. Housing, enrichmen and care 4.1. Housing Fish behaviour will influence the stocking density and the or territorial behaviour schooling should be considered. The stocking density of the fish should be based on the total needs of the fish in respect of environmental conditions, health and welfare. The fish should have sufficient water volume for normal swimming. The measure should be taken to avoid or of conspecific aggression minimis without otherwise compromising animal welfare. The stocking density for a given Acceptabl species will vary depending on water flow and water quality, current, fish size, age, health and feeding method. In principle, the group should be consis of fish of the same size to the minimis risk of injuries or cannibalism.
4.2. the Enrichmen For some species may not be the environmental enrichmen cessary to take account of their behavioural traits, for example, in reproduction or predation. Example of such needs include provision of hiding places for the wrasse, or such as the sands of the substrat for some flatfish. Care is needed to ensur that environmental enrichmen do not adversely affec the water quality, but this should not imped the development of a measure of the suitabl enhance the welfare of the fish.
4.3. Enclosures 4.3.1. Fish holding facilities in Fish can be maintained in land-based enclosures dedicated building or in external areas, or in enclosures in the open-water systems. Where practical, these should have controlled access, and be arranged to minimize disturbanc of the fish, and the maintenance of a facilitat suitabl environmental condition.
4.3.2. Land-based enclosures the materials used to construct the enclosures should be non-toxic, durable and with a smooth internal surface to prevent abrasion to the fish. Enclosures should be of an appropriate size to accommodate up the required stocking density of fish and should be able to receive the cessary water flow. Enclosures should be of an appropriate shape to accommodate up the behavioural needs and preferences of the particular experimental fish species; for example, circular enclosures with the most appropriate for salmonid. Enclosures should be designed to prevent escape. Enclosures should be appropriate where self-cleaning it AIDS removal of waste products and to feed the surpl.
4.3.3. the Open-water enclosures, especially Marine Fish species, may be kep in large floating enclosures. The enclosure dimensions, including depth, should permit active swimming and shoaling of the fish. Mesh size should permit good water exchange while preventing the escape of fish. Enclosures should be designed to the minimis risk of attack by predators. Enclosures should be rigged so as to prevent distorting their shape in tidal flow or running water and the trapping of fish.
4.4. Feeding Fish may be fed either on artificial diet or fresh/frozen natural feed. Artificial diet is preferabl, providing it meets the nutritional requirements of the species, and is it the acceptabl fish. Some fish species or life stage will not take the artificial diet. Artificial diet will also tend to have less impact on water quality.
It is important that the fish are fed at an appropriate feeding rate and frequency, and this will depend on a number of factors including temperature, size and maturity. As the high temperature increase the metabolic rate, feeding level should also be increased. It may not always be does not feed it fish cessary daily. Presentation of diet is also very important in ensur adequat feeding it. Considerations should be given to the number of meal per day, the age of the fish, the water temperature and the size of the pellet or food fragment offered. Feeding regime, palatability and the presentation of food should obtain ensur that all fish food sufficient. Particular attention should be paid to feeding of larval fish, especially where feeding is switched from live to artificial diet.
4.5. Cleaning of enclosures All enclosures should be kep free of fish waste products or uneaten feed. If these are the allowed it, the water quality and the accumulat fish health will be adversely affected. Enclosures should be treated and cleaned regularly to prevent fouling and reduced water exchange. There should be the risk of back-flushing and consequen fouling of the enclosure water and the risk of infection. If enclosures are not self-cleaning, waste material should be siphoned off as not as soon as possible, generally cessary after feeding. The sides and bottom of enclosures should be cleaned regularly to avoid the build up of alga and other detritus. Care should be taken to minimis stress during cleaning.
4.6. Handling the Fish may be severely stressed by handling which should therefore be kep to the minimum possible. Fish should normally not be tted out from the normal enclosure and anaesthetised in a smaller container before handling. Fish should be kep under anaesthetic for as short a time as possible and be placed in clean water aerated for recovery. An effective concentration of anaesthetic should be maintained throughout the procedure.
When catching fish, the nets with an appropriate frame and mesh size should be used. Knotted net mesh should be avoided. The nets should be disinfected and rinsed in clean water before use.

Out of the water the fish should be handled with wet gloves or wet hands and on the surface to avoid a mois scale and barrels of loss. Particular attention should be paid to handling practices to avoid desiccation, suffocation and other injury.
4.7. Humane killing most fish should be killed by either: – an overdos of anaesthetic using appropriate route and anaesthetic agent for the size and species. When killed by immersion, the fish should be left in the anaesthetic solution for at least five minutes following the cessation of opercular movement and/or vestibul-ocular reflex (VOR), or of the brain by concussions-striking of the crani of Death should be confirmed, for example, by physical destruction of the brain or exsanguination.
4.8. Records Records should be maintained on appropriate water quality parameters.
4.9. Identification It is not always not to individually identify cessary or feasibl all fish within a facility.
If it is not to mark fish for identification purpose cessary, subcutaneo of the dye injection is considered the least inventory method of marking. Careful considerations is needed before more inventory of methods such as fin or pit tagging with the clippings used. Mechanical tagging should not be used unless the other method is suitabl ...
How should generally be carried out under the orders of anaesthesi in their ease handling and the risk of injury minimis, morbidity and stress.
5. Transport the Fish should be deprived of food prior to transportation for a period sufficient to allow the gut to clear and reduce faecal contamination of the transport system. Care should be taken to prevent injury and stress to fish during capture, loading, transportation and unloading. Abrup to temperature changes, period of any deterioration in the hypoxi and water quality due to excretory products should be avoided.
APPENDIX B Statistical tables and Explanatory notes for their completion in fulfillment of the requirements in articles 27 and 28 of the Convention Under article 27 and 28 of the Introduction of the Convention, each Party shall collect statistical information, relating to certain aspects of the procedures coming under the Convention and communicate this information to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe who shall publish the information received.
The method used to collect the information is for each Party to decide and, of course, any additional statistical information may be collected to satisfy the national requirements. However, in order to facilitat the work of the Secretary General, the information supplied to him must be in accordanc with comparabl and the attached tables. Data shall be collected per calendar year.
General the animal to be counted are those which will be put to a use which may cause them pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm (see article 1.2 (c) of the Convention). The counting shall take place when the animals are put to use in a procedure. Each animal shall be counted once only in the same table. Animals not subject to procedures as defined in article 1.2 (c) shall not be counted for the purpose of collecting statistical information in the context of this Convention.
The very nature of biological research makes it inevitabl that occasion will «arise when it is difficult to decide in which columns of a table an animal being used in a procedure should be recorded. There is no right or wrong method of solving the problem, which is one of individual choice. Subject to such directives as the competent authorities may be give, it is for the scientist to decide where to record his animal.
It is, however, essential to ensur that from an animal is counted twice in the same table.
Table 1 the number and kind of animals used in procedures In this table, the total number of animals used in procedures shall be given, this total being broken down by type or class of animal.
Table 2 the number of animals used in procedures for selected purpose of this table is intended to show the number of animals used in the broad area of research, development: Fundamentals of new products, safety evaluation, diagnosis of disease, and education and training. In column 1, "medical" includes veterinary medicine.
Table 3 the number of animals used in procedures for selected purpose for the protection of man, animals and the environment by toxicological or other safety evaluations this table is intended to give a more detailed breakdownas of procedures carried out for the general protection of man, animals and the environment excluding medical purpose. Column 6 includes harmful radiation.
Table 4 the number of animals used in procedures concerned with diseases and disorders this Tabla is intended to illustrat the number of animals used for medical purpose, including veterinary medicine, with special reference to three areas of human disease of particular public concern with which.
Table 5 the number of animals used in procedures required by law for An entry in the column "Party only" shall be made when the procedure is required by the law of the Party in which the procedure takes place, including international obligations into which that Party has entered (for example as a Party to the Convention on the Elaborations of a European Pharmacopoei or as a member State of the European communities).
An entry in the column "Other parties only" shall be made where the aim of the procedure is specifically to meet requirements, including trade requirements, in countries other than the Party, including also requirements of the convention to which the latter is not a party.
"Both" shall be used where the procedure is intended to meet the requirements of both groups. in this case of the entry shall be made in either of the other two columns.
Table 1 the number and kind of animals used in procedures during (year) in the (Party) mice (Mus muscul) rats (norvegicus Ratt) Guinea pig (the Cavi porcell) Other rodent (others Rodenti) Rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) apes (Hominoide) Other Simians (Cercopithecoide & Ceboide) Prosimian (Prosimi) dogs (Canis familiar) Cat (Felis cat) Others carnivor (others Carnivor) horses, donkey and cross-bred (Wild), Pig (Sus), Goat and sheep (Ovis & Capra) cattle (BOS) Other mammal (other Mammali), birds (Aves), Reptil (Reptili) Amphibian (Amphibi), Fish (PISCES) Total table 2 the number of animals used in procedures for the purpose of (year) during selected in (Party) All species Selected species of Rodent and rabbit dogs and cats primates 1 Biological Studies (including medical) of a fundamental nature 2 Discovery, development and quality control (including safety evaluation) of products or appliances for human and veterinary medicine 3 diagnosis of disease Protection of man, 4 animals and the environment by toxicological or other safety evaluations table 5 Education and training 3 the number of animals used in the procedure for selected purpose for the protection of man, animals and the environment by toxicological or other safety evaluations during (year) in the (Party) Further classification of item 4 of table 2 All species Selected species of Rodent and rabbit dogs and cats primates 1 substances used or intended to be used mainly in agriculture 2 substance used or intended to be used mainly in industry 3 substances used or intended to be used mainly in household 4 substances used or intended to be used mainly as cosmetics or toiletries 5 substances used or intended to be used mainly as additives in food for human consumption 6 Potential or actual hazard of contaminant in the general environment table 4 the number of animals used in procedures concerned with diseases and disorders during (year) in the (Party) All species Selected species of Rodent and rabbit dogs and cats primates 1 Cancer (excluding evaluation of carcinogenic hazard) 2 Cardiovascular diseases 3 the nervous and mental disorders
 
 
 
 
 
4 Other human and animal diseases Note: When a procedure covers cancer under any item from 2 to 4, the cancer classification should take precedenc.
Table 5 the number of animals used in procedures required by law during the (year) in the (Party) All species Selected species of Rodent and rabbit dogs and cats Party only primates Other parties only Both of amendment to the Protocol the European Convention for the Protection of animals used for the Experimental Vertebrat and others of Strasbourg, 22 June Purpose 1998 the member States of the Council of Europe and the European Community signator to this Protocol, to the European Convention for the Protection of animals used for Experimental Vertebrat the and other Scientific Purpose, opened for signature in Strasbourg, on 18 March 1986 (hereinafter referred to as "the Convention"), Having regard to the Convention which includes general provision designed to safeguard animals intended to be used for scientific purpose of suffering, pain and distress the from , and to the member States ' resolve to limit the use of animals for experimental and other scientific purpose, with the aim of replacing such use whenever possible, in particular by seeking alternative measure and encouraging the use of these alternative measure;
Considering the technical nature of the provision included in the Convention that the appendic;
Acknowledging the need to ensur is their consistency with the results of research in the fields covered, have agreed as follows: article 1 article 30 of the Convention shall be amended as follows:

1. The Parties shall, within five years from the entry into force of this Convention and every five years thereafter, or more frequently if a majority of the parties should so request, hold a consultation within the multilaterals Council of Europe examin it the application of this Convention, and the advisability of revising it or extending any of its provision.
2. consultation of these shall take place at meetings convened by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. The Parties shall communicate the name of their representative to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe at least two months before each meeting.
3. Subject to the provision of this Convention, the Parties shall draw up the rules of procedure for the consultation. "
Article 2 of the Convention shall be supplemented by a new part XI: "Amendments" including a new article 31 as follows: 1. Any amendment to them, (A) and (B) Appendic proposed by a Party or by the Committee of Minister of the Council of Europe shall be communicated to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe and forwarded by him to the member States of the Council of Europe , to the European Community and to any non-member State which has acceded to, or has been invited to accede to the Convention in accordanc with the provision of article 34 amendments proposed by Any 2 in accordanc with the provision of the preceding paragraph shall be of the examined, not less than six months after the date of forwarding by the Secretary General, at a consultation may be the multilaterals where it adopted by a two-thirds majority of the parties. The text adopted shall be forwarded to the parties.
3. Twelve months after its adoption at a multilaterals consultation, any amendment shall enter into force unless one third of the parties have notified an objection. "
Article 3 articles 31 to 37 of the Convention shall become articles 32 to 38 respectively.
Article 4 1 shall be open. this Protocol for signature by the Signator to the Convention, which may become parties to this Protocol by: (a) signature without reservation) as to ratification, acceptance or approval; or (b) signature subject to ratification), acceptance or approval, followed by ratification, acceptance or approval.
2. A Signatory of the Convention may not sign this Protocol without reservation as to ratification, acceptance or approval, nor deposit an instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, unless it has already deposited or simultaneously deposits an instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of the Convention.
3. the States which have acceded to the Convention may also accede to this Protocol.
4. The instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the Council of Europe.
Article 5 this Protocol shall enter into force on the thirtieth day after the date on which all the parties to the Convention have become parties to this Protocol in accordanc with article 4 Article 6 the Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall notify the member States of the Council of Europe, the other parties to the Convention and the European Community of (a) any signature without reservation) in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval;
b any signature with reservation in) in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval;
(c) the deposit of an) any instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession;
d any date of entry) into force of this Protocol in accordanc with article 5 thereof;
e any other Act, notification) or communication relating to this Protocol.
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised, have signed theret this Protocol.
Done at Strasbourg, this 22nd day of June 1998, in English and in French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe shall transmit certified cop to each Member State of the Council of Europe, to the other parties to the Convention and to the European Community.
 
European Convention for experimental and other scientific purposes the protection of vertebrate animals used in Strasbourg, 18 March 1986 text amended in accordance with the Protocol No. 170 conditions since they entered into force on 2 December 2005.
The preamble to the Convention signed the Council of Europe Member States, recalling that the aim of the Council of Europe is creating closer links between its members and that it wants to cooperate with other countries for experimental and other scientific purposes the protection of animals used;
Recognizing that the human moral obligation is to respect all animals and due consideration to the capacity of animals to suffer and to remember;
Assuming that people in knowledge, health and safety in search of a need, however, to use animals where there is sufficient for a reasonable chance that the results obtained will add to knowledge, or in General will serve the good of man and animal, like a man being used in food, clothing and as a burden bearers;
Decides to restrict the use of animals for experimental and other scientific purposes, with the aim to replace wherever practicable, such use of animals, in particular seeking alternative measures and encouraging the use of such alternative measures;
Desiring to adopt common rules to protect animals used in procedures that may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm and to ensure that where it is unavoidable, these procedures would be reduced to the minimum, have agreed as follows: part I.
General provisions article 1 1. this Convention shall apply to all animals used or intended for use in any experimental or other scientific procedure where that procedure may cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm. It does not apply to non-experimental agricultural or clinical veterinary practices.
2. for the purposes of this Convention: (a) "animal"), unless there is another sign, meaning any living vertebrate, except humans, including substantive and/or reproduction in the form of larvae, but excluding other foetal or embryonic forms;
(b)) "intended for use" means bred or kept for the purpose to sell, give away, or use in any experimental or scientific procedure;
(c)) "procedure" means any animal experiments or other scientific use of animals that can cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm, including any sequence of actions with a view to, or which may cause the animal's birth in these conditions, but excluding the most painful in the modern practice of killing or animal accepted markup methods ("humane" methods).
The procedure begins when the animal is originally prepared for use and ends when the purpose of this procedure is not carried out subsequent observation; pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm prevention successfully using anesthesia, analģēzij or other methods without the use of animals in places outside the scope of this definition;
(d)) "competent person" means any person who is party to the Convention in its territory deemed competent to perform the relevant function described in the Convention;
e) "responsible authority" means any territory of the party concerned and the purpose of designated authority, organisation or person;
f) "establishment" means any stationary or transportable structure, building, group of buildings or other premises, including a location that is not fully enclosed or covered;
g) "establishment" means any establishment where animals are bred with a view to use in procedures;
h) "supplying establishment" means any establishment, other than a breeding establishment, from which animals are supplied for use in procedures;
I) "use" means any establishment where animals are used in procedures;
j) "humane method of killing" means the killing of an animal according to its species with a minimum of physical and mental suffering.
Article 2 the procedure can only be performed on one or more of the purposes specified below, and subject to the restrictions laid down in this Convention: (a) (i))) the avoidance of illness or disease prevention, poor health or other deviation from the norm, or their impact on human, vertebrate or invertebrate or plant, including medicine, substance or the production and quality of products, and security testing;
(ii) the diagnosis or treatment of disease), poor health or other deviation from the norms or their impact on the people of vertebrates, invertebrates or plants;
(b)), and invertebrates, vertebrates and plant physiological state detection, assessment, regulation or modification;
c) environmental protection;
(d) scientific research;)
e) education and training;
(f) judicial medical examination).
Article 3 each party undertakes to take all necessary steps to ensure that the provisions of this Convention shall enter into force as soon as possible and to ensure effective control and monitoring system, in any case, within five years, since the entry into force of this Convention for the party concerned.
4. the article is not one of the provisions of the Convention does not affect the freedom of the parties to adopt stricter rules on the use of animals in procedures or controls and restrictions relating to the use of animals in procedures.
Part II.
The general care and accommodation of article 5.

1. Animals used or intended to be used in procedures, is provided accommodation, an environment, at least a minimum of freedom of movement, food, water and care appropriate to the health and welfare requirements. Animal physiological and Ethological needs of the degree of restriction should be reduced, as far as practically possible. The realization of this Convention should be taken into account in the guidelines set out in Annex A in respect of the animals and care.
2. the environmental conditions in which animals are bred, kept or used are checked every day.
3. Animal welfare and the situation was being watched carefully and frequently enough to prevent damage to the animal's pain or avoidable suffering, distress or lasting harm.
4. each Party shall establish procedures ensuring that any defect or suffering discovered in as soon as possible.
Part III.
The procedures of article 6 1. Procedure is carried out in one of the mentioned in article 2, if you have other acceptable and practical scientifically satisfactory method, which does not require the use of animals.
2. It is desirable that each Party shall promote the development of the methods of scientific research areas that could provide the same information, which is obtained by applying the procedures.
Article 7 procedure is to be performed, the choice of species is carefully considered and, if necessary, explain the responsible body; the selection procedure should be chosen such procedures that use a minimum number of animals and caused the least pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm and which are expected to provide satisfactory results.
Article 8 Procedure is carried out by applying the General or local anaesthesia or analģēzij or another method that is so constructed as to prevent, so far as it is possible in practice, pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm, applying this method throughout the procedure, unless: (a)) the pain caused by the procedure is less about animal welfare, the deterioration caused by anesthesia or analģēzij, or (b) the use of anaesthesia or analģēzij) is incompatible with the aim of the procedure. In such cases, are made according to legal and/or administrative measures to ensure that no such procedure is carried out unnecessarily.
Article 9 1. If it is planned to subject an animal to the procedure in which it definitely or potentially suffer a large and possibly prolonged pain, the following procedure is necessary to declare and justify its necessity or specific such procedure must receive authorization by the responsible authority.
2. Are made according to legal and/or administrative measures to ensure that no such procedure is carried out unnecessarily.
Such measures include: – responsible authorities permit or, in the case of the notice to the responsible authority for the procedure and the responsible authorities the legal or administrative action if it is not satisfied, or the procedure is sufficiently important in human or animal material needs, including scientific problems.
Article 10 article 5 requirements apply to all animals used during the procedure, except where these rules are incompatible with the objectives of this procedure.
1. Article 11 at the end of the procedure it is decided if the animal is saved the life, or it will be killed by a humane method. The animal is not saved the life, if, despite the fact that its health in every other respect is restored, it apparently continues to suffer pain or distress.
2. The decision referred to in paragraph 1 shall be adopted by the competent person, in particular a veterinarian, or the person who, in accordance with article 13, is responsible for the procedure, or has it made.
3. If at the end of the procedure: (a) the animal life is saved), they receive the care appropriate to its state of health, it is provided of a veterinarian or other competent person monitoring, and it is kept under conditions which comply with the provisions of article 5. However, it is possible derogation from the conditions laid down in this subparagraph, if, after the veterinarian's opinion, such exceptional results in the animal will suffer;
b) where an animal does not save the life or welfare benefit then it cannot apply the provisions of article 5, it as soon as possible are killed by a humane method.
4. animal who used whatever anesthetic or analģēzij during the procedure for the application of the victim of great pain or suffering, is not subject to the next procedure, unless it is renewed good health and welfare, and: (a)) the next procedure is one in which the animal is subject to general anaesthesia which is to be maintained until the animal is killed; or (b)) the next procedure is performed only a small intervention in the animal's body.
Article 12 Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Convention, if it is necessary for the purposes of legitimacy, procedure, the competent authority may authorise the release of the animal in question, if it is satisfied that the animal welfare protection is assured the maximum practicable care. Procedures which result in the animals may be removed, is not only allowed for educational or training purposes.
Part IV.
Article 13 authorisation referred to in article 2 for the purposes of the procedure can be performed by authorised persons, or under the direct supervision of the authorized persons, or if the experimental or other scientific project concerned is authorized in accordance with the national legislation. Permission is granted only to the persons responsible authority deemed competent.
Part v.
Breeding or supplying establishments article 14 breeding or supplying establishments are registered before the body responsible under article 21 and 22 of the exception provided for in the procedure. Such registered company shall comply with the requirements of article 5.
15. Article 14 registration provided for in article on the responsible person of a company who is entitled to administer or arrange company or held in cultured species suitable care.
16. Article 1. registered company in the production account of breeding animals here, including data on the number of animals marketed and species, sales dates and names and addresses of the recipients.
2. The registered delivery company provided records on incoming and outgoing number and species of animals, movement dates, places from which the animals concerned were acquired and the names and addresses of the recipients.
3. the responsible authority determines what accounting is to take the person who is responsible for this article, and 2. the undertakings referred to in point and, as the person responsible authority must be provided access to this inventory. These records are stored for at least three years from the date of the last entry.
1. Article 17 of the company each dog and cat before separation is the most painful way individually with a permanent label marked.
2. If, after the separation of an unmarked dog or cat is taken into an establishment for the first time, it will be marked as soon as possible.
3. If the dog or cat is before weaning is moved from one company to another and previous markup is not appropriate, then, with the mother, is stored a complete documentation of the animals until the animal can be marked.
4. Details of the dog's or cat's identity and origin are recorded in the accounting records of the company.
Part vi.
Companies use article 18 of the companies are registered to Use the responsible body or is otherwise responsible authority approved and comply with article 5 in the specified conditions.
Article 19-use business rules are introduced for use in animal species-appropriate equipment and the purchase of equipment and the remaining procedures in this company. Equipment and facility design, construction and operation shall ensure that the procedures are made as much impact as possible for the purpose of obtaining consistent results with the minimum number of animals and the minimum of pain, suffering and distress or lasting harm.
Article 20: (a) use) is indicated for the care of the animals and the functioning of the administrative apparatus of the person or persons responsible;
(b)) is sufficiently trained personnel;
(c)) are organized according to the veterinary advice and treatment;
(d)) preferred to a veterinarian or other competent person should be authorized to provide advisory services in relation to animal welfare.
21. Article 1. animals of the species listed below, used in procedures, is purchased directly from registered breeding establishments or their source is mentioned, unless the company has not obtained a general or specific exclusive rights according to the Convention of the party's actions: mouse Mus muscul Ratt norvegicus rat of marine of the mumps Carvi porcell Golden Hamster of Mesocricet auratus rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus dog Canis familiar cat Felis in quail Coturnix coturnix cat 2. Each Party undertakes to include in paragraph 1 of this article, the rules also in other species especially primates, as soon as it occurs on the Outlook for the special purpose bred animals of the species concerned the supply of sufficient magnitude.
3. Procedures are not used to tame the stray animals. According to this article in particular exception may not contain the stray dogs and cats.
Article 22

The use of plants is used only from registered breeding or supplying establishments supplied animals unless the company has not obtained a general or specific exclusive rights according to the Convention of the party's activities.
Article 23 procedure, if you have the permission of the responsible authority, may be carried out outside the companies use.
Article 24 determines the use of company accounting procedures and bringing the order records are displayed on request of the competent authority. These records must comply with the requirements of article 27 and, in addition, indicate the number of all animals and the species, their origin and their delivery date.
(VII) education and training article 25 1 of the procedures that are performed in the continuous education and training, with a view both to experts and other professions, including animals used in procedures or for the use of animal care professionals, must be reported to the responsible authority, and this procedure shall be carried out by the competent person, or under the supervision of a competent person to be responsible for the procedures comply with the provisions of this Convention, laid down in national legislation.
2. the procedure for carrying out educational, training or continuing training in other areas as referred to in paragraph 1, are not allowed.
3. paragraph 1 of this article, in these proceedings are limited to those that are absolutely necessary for the purpose of education or training and is allowed only if their objective cannot be achieved with a relatively powerful audio, Visual, or some other appropriate method.
Article 26 persons carrying out the procedures or proceedings, or in the care of animals used in procedures, including monitoring, has previously acquired education and have been trained.
Part VIII.
Statistical information article 27 1. each Party shall collect statistical information about the use of animals in procedures and this information, if it is legally harvested, is available to the public.
2. Information is collected: (a) the procedures to be used for) the number and type of animals;
(b) the number of animals, in selected) categories that are used in the medical, education and training directly related procedures;
(c) the number of animals, in selected) categories that are used with the human environment directly related procedures;
(d) the number of animals, in selected) categories that are used by the procedures provided for in the law.
28. Article 1. According to national law with regard to the preservation of secrets and confidentiality, each Party shall transmit each year to the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe information in respect of article 27, paragraph 2 of the section. This information is provided in Annex B of the Convention specified in the form.
2. The Secretary-General of the Council of Europe received from the parties publish statistical information concerning article 27, paragraph 2 of the section.
3. each of the parties is invited to communicate to the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe national authorities appointed by the address from which a request can get more information about national statistics. The following addresses are included the Secretary General of the Council of Europe published in statistical data.
Part IX.
Other party recognition of procedures carried out in article 29 1. to avoid unnecessary health and safety laws for repeat procedures, each Party shall, where practicable, recognise the other party's territory the results of procedures carried out.
2. To this end, the parties undertake, where practicable and lawful, mutual help, in particular by providing information on their national legislation and administrative practice relating to the requirements to perform procedures in support of the application for registration of the product, as well as factual information about activities in their territory and on authorizations or any other administrative clarification in the context of this procedure.
Part x.
Multilateral consultations article 30 1. Five years from the entry into force of this Convention and thereafter every five years, or more often if the majority of the parties should so request, the parties to the Council of Europe organised multilateral consultations to review the application of this Convention and its usefulness for review or its extension.
2. These consultations shall take place at meetings convened by the General Secretariat of the Council of Europe. The Parties shall notify the names of the representatives of the General Secretariat of the Council of Europe at least two months before the meeting.
3. Subject to the provisions of this Convention, the Parties shall adopt rules of procedure for the consultations.
Part XI.
Amendment 31 article 1. all amendments to annexes A and B, proposed by a party or the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe shall notify the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe, and he sent them to the Member States of the Council of Europe, the European Community and to any non-Member States which have acceded or has been invited to accede to the Convention in accordance with the provisions of article 34.
2. Any amendment proposed in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the multilateral consultation, in which the parties may adopt by a two-thirds majority, no earlier than six months after they were sent by the General Secretariat. The adopted document is sent to the parties.
3. An amendment shall enter into force twelve months after the adoption of a multilateral consultation, where one-third of the parties have not expressed any objections.
Part XII.
Final clauses article 32 of this Convention is available on the Council of Europe and Member States of the European Community to sign. It is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval. The instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval are submitted for storage to the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe.
33. Article 1 this Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the period of six months beginning with the date on which four Member States of the Council of Europe have expressed their consent to be bound by the Convention in accordance with article 32.
2. as regards the Convention signatory State which subsequently expresses its consent to be bound, the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the period of six months after the signing of the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval date of the document.
34. Article 1. After the entry into force of this Convention, the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe may invite any outside the existing State of the Council to accede to the Convention, the decision of the Council of Europe Statute, provided for in article 20 d of the votes cast, and the unanimous vote of the representatives of the Contracting States, which are entitled to participate in the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe.
2. for each State acceding to the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the period of six months after the date of the instrument of accession with the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe.
Article 35 1. Each country by signing or ratification, acceptance or approval, declare that it reserves one or more reservations. However, for 1 to 14 or 18 to 20 of the reservations will not be accepted.
2. Each Party shall, in accordance with the preceding paragraph which has made reservations may wholly or partly withdraw it by addressing the notification to the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe. The withdrawal shall take effect on the date when it received the following notification by the Secretary-General.
3. a party which has made a reservation in respect of any of the provisions of this Convention, may not require that the other party apply this provision; It may, however, if its reservation is partial or associated with any condition, require the implementation of that provision in so far as that party itself has adopted these rules.
36. Article 1 each at the time of signature or ratification, acceptance or approval, specify the territory or territories to which the Convention applies.
2. Each party within the statement later, the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe, extend the application of this Convention to any other territory specified in the notice. In respect of such territory the Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the month following the period of six months after the date on which the Secretary-General receives such notification.
3. Any under the two preceding paragraphs provide the notice in respect of any territory specified in such notification may be withdrawn with the Council of Europe addressed to the Secretary-General of the notification. Withdrawal shall take effect on the first day of the month following the period of six months after the date on which the Secretary-General receives such notification.
37. Article 1 any party may at any time denounce this Convention by sending European notification addressed to the Secretary General of the Council.
2. Such denunciation shall take effect on the first day of the month following the period of six months after the date on which the Secretary-General receives such notification.
Article 38 the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe and the Council of Europe shall notify the Member States of the European Community and all the countries that have acceded to this Convention of: (a) each signature);
b) each instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval;
c) any date of entry into force of the Convention in accordance with article 33, 34 and 36 of article;
d) any other Act, notification or communication relating to this Convention.
In witness thereof, the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Protocol.

Strasbourg, 18 March 1986, in English and French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy, which is deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary-General of the Council of Europe shall transmit certified copies to each of the conventions of the Council of Europe and Member States of the European Community to accede to this Convention and all the invited countries.
(A) the addition of animal housing and care guidelines (article 5 of the Convention) approved the multilateral consultation table of contents introduction definition in SECTION 1 of General Physical objects, functions and design 1.1 1.2 1.3 holding space. The General and earmarked spaces 1.4. procedures for utility room 2. environment and its control ventilation 2.1 2.2. Temperature humidity 2.3 2.4 2.5. Lighting noise 2.6. Alarm systems 3. education and training 4 care 4.1 health 4.2. Capturing a wild animal transport 4.3 4.4 quarantine , acclimatization and insulation 4.5 accommodation and holding power of improving 4.6 4.7 4.8 the Watering flooring, substrate, litter and dens installing 4.9 4.10 4.11 clean up handling of humanitarian killing 4.12 4.13 identification documentation of species SPECIFIC section a. rules for rodents 1. Introduction 2. environment and its control of health 3 4. Accommodation, holding and improve care b. provisions for rabbits 1. Introduction 2. environment and its control of health 3 4 accommodation , the holding and improving care c. rules for cats 1. Introduction 2. environment and its control of health 3 4. Accommodation, holding and improve care D. Rules for dogs 1. Introduction 2. environment and its control of health 3 4. Accommodation, holding and improve care E. Rules relating to the House (room) the ferrets 1. Introduction 2. environment and its control of health 3 4 accommodation , the holding and improving care f. rules relating to non-human primates, primates a) General provisions 1. Introduction 2. environment and its control of health 3 4. Accommodation, holding and improve care 5. training 6. Transport b) additional provisions marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.) for accommodation and care c) additional provisions for vāverpērtiķ (by Saimir spp.) for accommodation and care d) additional provisions for the macaques and the Green monkey accommodation and care e) additional provisions for the accommodation and care of baboons G. Rules for farm animals and mini a) General provisions 1 Introduction 2. environment and its control of health 3 4. Accommodation, holding and improve care b) additional provisions for the accommodation and care of cattle c) additional provisions for the accommodation of ovine and caprine animals and care d) additional provisions for the accommodation of pigs and mini and care e) additional provisions for the equidae including horses, ponies, donkeys and mules accommodation and care, h. rules for birds (a)), the General provisions 1 Introduction 2. environment and its control of health 3 4. Accommodation, holding and improve care b) additional provisions for the home and the care and accommodation of hens in stock and during procedures c) additional provisions for the accommodation of Turkey and home care both in stock and during procedures d) additional provisions for the accommodation and care of quail and in stock and procedures e) additional provisions for the accommodation of ducks and geese and care both in stock and during procedures f) additional provisions for the accommodation and care of the pigeons and the item and procedures l) additional provisions for the accommodation of the zebra finches and care both in stock and during procedures i. terms relating to amphibian 1. Introduction 2. environment and its control of health 3 4. Accommodation, holding and improve care for transport 5. J. Provisions regarding the reptiles 1. Introduction 2. environment and its control of health 3 4. Accommodation, holding and improve care transport K 5. Provisions on fish introduction 2 1. environment and its control of health 3 4. Accommodation, holding and improve care 5. Appendix A to the transport of animal housing and care guidelines (article 5 of the Convention) introduction 1. Council of Europe Member States have decided that their task is to protect the lives of animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes to ensure that any possible pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm to animals as a result of the procedure is limited to the minimum.
2. some procedures are performed under field conditions with freedom and living in self maintenance of wildlife, however this procedure is relatively small. Most of the animals used in procedures are kept in different objects, starting with the runs outside and ending with small animal cages in laboratory animals in the building. In this situation, where they are located, often there is a big conflict between scientific demands and needs of the animals. This conflict in animal physiological and Ethological needs (freedom of movement, social contacts, meaningful movement, feeding, water) the limitation period and the amount must be the lowest possible. The following procedures before scientists, zootehniķ and competent persons responsible for consultation in matters of animal well-being, should review the limitations of the animal to ensure that animal welfare is limited in so far as this is necessary for scientific research purposes.
3. This appendix describes the animal husbandry and care guidelines, based on current knowledge and good practice. It is explained and supplemented the Convention's basic principles laid down in article 5. Thus, this appendix is intended to help the authorities, institutions and individuals to implement the objectives set by the European Council in this area.
4. The General section provides guidance for all experimental and other scientific purposes for holding animals used for accommodation and care. Additional instructions regarding the most commonly used species are included in the specific sections of the species. If the information is not provided to a specific section, must be applied to the General information section.
The species specific sections are based on the recommendations provided by the expert group, which specialised in rodents, rabbits, dogs, cats, ferrets home (room), Primate, non-human primates, farm animal, Pygmy hog, bird, amphibian, reptiles and fish. In addition to these recommendations, the expert group also submitted to the scientific evidence and practical experience based on additional information.
This additional information is available separately, and its content is responsible only for the expert group. For some groups of species, namely, amphibian, reptiles and fish, these interpretative documents provide additional information about less common species, which are not listed in the species specific sections.
If the behavior occurs or growing problem or need more information on specific requirements in respect of other species must request further information and relevant experts and care staff, which is specialized for that species, to ensure that the specific needs of the species is properly secured.
5. Care is a name that, if the procedures or actually used for animals or is used in relation to breeding laboratory animals kept, cover all animal and human aspects of relations. Care is the tangible and intangible resources, provided by people to achieve and maintain the animal's physical and mental state, in which animals suffer the least and at the same time promoting scientific advances. It starts from the moment when you decided on the use of animals in procedures, includes the cultivation and possession of animals for this purpose and will continue until after the end of the proceeding authority animal humanely kill or otherwise dispose of it in accordance with article 11 of the Convention.
Appendix 6 provides tips on keeping animals suitable for the design of the object, as well as tips and pointers on how to run the welfare requirements laid down in the Convention. Note that the area of the proposed standards refer to the minimum required area. Under certain conditions, these areas can increase because the environmental requirements for individual animals may vary, for example, of the species, age, physiological status, population density and whether animals are kept in stock, breeding or long or short term trials. An important factor in animal welfare is also holding.
7. If an existing objects or equipment does not comply with these guidelines, they should be adapted or replaced within a reasonable period of time, taking into account animal welfare and financial priorities and practical considerations. To ensure compliance with these guidelines to object and the replacement of equipment and the completion of the adaptation is to be adjusted, the number of animals and the size of the existing enclosures.
Definitions of terms used in Appendix A definitions in addition to those provided for in the Convention, article 1, paragraph 2:

-"animal enclosure" is the main animal holding where animals is limited, such as: "the cage" is permanently fixed or movable container that consists of solid walls and, on at least one side, from the bars or metal mesh or, where appropriate, the network and keeping or carrying one or more animals; Depending on population density and size of the container's freedom of movement of the animals is relatively limited;
"the stall" is the area bounded by, for example, walls, bars or metal mesh, and there one or more animals; Depending on the stall size and population density of animal freedom of movement in the pen is less limited than often cage;
"the corral" means the area bounded by, for example, fencing, walls, bars or metal sieve; runs are often situated outside the permanent buildings, and certain periods of time in cages or penned animals can move freely under the behavioural and physiological needs, such as movements;
-"cloth" is a small, fenced on three sides of the site, usually with the feed table and partitions, which can hold one or two collared animals.
Secondary holding, which can contain the above animals enclosures, in Appendix A, will be called "holding space". "Holding space" examples: – premises on which animals are normally kept for breeding and livestock building or procedure;
"the system of confining the animals" such as isolators, laminar flow rooms and individually ventilated cage system.
General section 1. Physical facilities functions and design 1.1 1.1.1. All objects must be designed so as to provide a suitable environment for the species held, having regard to their physiological and Ethological needs. Objects must be constructed and managed in such a way as to prevent persons belonging to access, as well as their access to them or escaping from them.
Objects that have a larger building complex must be protected with proper security and building regulations, which reduce the number of entrances.
1.1.2. Have implemented an active maintenance programme to prevent and remedy any buildings or equipment found defects.
1.2. Holding space 1.2.1. All necessary measures must be taken to ensure regular and efficient cleaning and satisfactory hygienic standards. The ceiling and walls must be of durable against breakage, with a smooth, waterproof and easily washable surface. Particular attention must be paid to the connections, including connections with doors, ducts, pipes and cables. If necessary, the door can create a check box. Floors must be smooth, impervious, non-slip, easily washable surface that can withstand without damage the shelf and other heavy equipment. If using a pop-up, they should have appropriate covers and be equipped with barriers to prevent the entry of pests and the escape of animals.
1.2.2. the Place where the animals are allowed to move freely, walls and floors must be covered with a material that is resistant to the cleaning of animal and cause wear and tear. The material must not be harmful to animal health, and must be such as to avoid injury to the animals. Ensure all equipment or accessories additional protection to animals they cannot be damaged or not to hurt animals.
1.2.3. incompatible species such as predators and their victims, or species that require different environmental conditions, not to be housed in one room; predator and its natural prey should be accommodating to each other would not be able to see, smell or hear.
1.2.4. If necessary, holding space must be equipped with facilities for a small procedure and manipulation.
1.3. The General and special types of procedure room 1.3.1. cultivation or supply companies to make available suitable equipment to prepare animals for carriage.
1.3.2. In all companies must make available at least the laboratory equipment to perform simple diagnostic tests, post-mortem examinations and/or sampling, where more of the laboratory investigations elsewhere.
1.3.3. Must ensure that objects just for the isolation to their health and to determine the potential health risk assessment and reduction of other animals.
1.3.4. Procedure (General and special) should be used when the procedures or observations is not desirable to make animal holding rooms.
1.3.5. Where necessary, ensure one or more separate spaces that are properly equipped to perform surgical procedures for sterile conditions. You must provide post-operative recovery room where such recovery is provided.
1.3.6. Must have appropriate spaces in which, if necessary, individual diseased or injured animals.
1.4. the utility room of 1.4.1. Storage facilities must be designed, operated and maintained so as to ensure the quality of feed and bedding. These premises must be protected against pests and insects. Other materials which may contaminate or which may endanger the animals or workers should be kept separate.
1.4.2. Should be available for separate storage facilities for clean cages, instruments and equipment storage.
1.4.3. The cleansing and washing rooms must be sufficiently large so that it would be possible to put the equipment in the equipment used for disinfecting and cleaning. The cleaning process should be organized in such a way as to separate clean and dirty equipment to prevent the flow of newly cleared equipment recontamination. Wall and floor surfaces must be covered with suitable material, resistant and the ventilation system should be powerful enough to pass the excess heat and humidity.
1.4.4. ensure the dead animals and animal waste for the hygienic storage and disposal. If incineration on site is not possible or necessary, to take appropriate measures to ensure the safe disposal of this material, taking into account national legislation, local rules and regulations. With regard to toxic, radioactive or infectious waste must comply with specific security measures.
1.4.5. The General movement for the design and construction of the zone must meet the standards of holding space. Passageways must be wide enough to be able to freely move the mobile equipment.
2. environment and its control ventilation 2.1 2.1.1. Holding rooms and animal enclosures must have proper ventilation to ensure the needs of the animals accommodated. The ventilation system is to ensure adequate quality of the fresh air, and reduce odor, harmful gases, dust and any agents of infection and spread. It also provides the extra heat and humidity removal.
2.1.2. The air in the room is frequently renewed. Typically, you should use the ventilation mode, which provides air exchange in the 15 to 20 times an hour. However, in some cases, such as where the population density is small, 8-10 may be sufficient air exchange times per hour. Sometimes natural ventilation sufficient air exchange, and mechanical ventilation is not necessary. Not allow crude air circulation. However, it should be stressed that even the most efficient ventilation system cannot compensate for poor quality for regular cleaning or neglect.
2.1.3. The ventilation system must be constructed in such a way as to prevent harmful traction and noise.
2.1.4. Smoking should be prohibited in rooms where animals are kept.
2.2. Temperature 2.2.1. Further rules in respect of certain species is specified in the recommended temperature range. Note that these figures apply only to adult healthy animals. Newborns, young, without feathers, recent surgery, sick or wounded animals often requires a significantly higher temperature. The room temperature should be judged according to possible changes in the purpose of animals that can cause physiological conditions or procedures.
The temperature in the holding rooms must be measured and recorded every day.
2.2.2. may require a ventilation system that can both heat and cool the supply air.
2.2.3. the animal use facilities may be required for accurate holding room temperature control, because temperature is a physical factor that significantly affects all animal metabolism and behavior, thereby affecting the validity of certain studies.
2.2.4. the precise temperature control zones is not possible outside the premises intended for contacts between animals and exercises. Animals should not hold such zones, if the existing climatic conditions cause distress to the animals.
2.3. The humidity in Some species, such as rats and mice of sand, relative air humidity, it may be necessary to provide a relatively narrow range, to reduce the health and welfare problems, while other species, such as dogs, well tolerate wide fluctuations in the level of moisture.
2.4. Lighting

If natural light does not provide an appropriate light/dark cycle, controlled lighting is necessary to ensure the animal biological needs and satisfying work environment. Some species may not be held in bright light, and animal enclosures must provide the darker places where animals could shelter. You must provide proper lighting zootechnical procedures and animal testing. Without interruption to ensure species suitable for regular fotoperiod and light intensity. Keeping albino animals, take into account their sensitivity to light. Holding rooms have desirable installation of Windows because they have natural light and can improve the environment for some species, especially primates, non-human primates, dogs, cats, livestock and certain other large mammals.
2.5. Noise noise in animals can be a troublesome factor. High noise levels and sudden noises can cause stress, which in addition to the consequences that it creates animal welfare, may affect the test results. In particular, the rest of the animals is necessary to reduce the noise level of audibility range of animals, including, in some cases, ultrasound, it is also, the sound above the human hearing range (usually assumes that they are sound above 20 kHz). Alarm system sound frequency must be outside the range of sensitive conversations, as long as it is still heard people. Space and Corridor layout may be the most important factor affecting the acoustic environment, and this should be taken into account in the planning of space. Holding rooms should use adequate sound insulation and absorption materials.
2.6. Alarm systems Of technology depends on the animals is vulnerable. It is strongly recommended that such facilities should be properly protected against hazards such as fires and unauthorised entry, as well as the dimensions, for example, the fan, the air heater or cooler and humidifier damage.
Housing facilities that are substantially dependent on environmental control and protection electrical and mechanical equipment, must be installed in a spare system that provide important functions and emergency lighting systems, as well as an alarm system for continuous operation.
Heating and ventilation systems must be equipped with monitoring devices and alarms to ensure that any failures in the operation are immediately detected and rectified.
Visible is to place the understandable instructions for action in emergency situations. Fish and other aquatic animals in the Aquarium is recommended that alarm report impaired water or air. Ensure that the alarm system is potentially less disruptive to animals.
3. education and training of All persons involved in the production of livestock or otherwise holding and use it for experimental or other scientific purposes should be educated and trained under the standard that is recommended in its resolution on the education and training of persons working with laboratory animals, which was adopted by the Council of Europe Convention of a multilateral meeting in 1993 on December 3.
4. Care 4.1 4.1.1 the following health facilities keep animal health and well-being is totally dependent on people. The animal's physical and psychological condition will affect the environment, food, water, care and attention that you also care workers given to these animals.
All institutions must be developed the strategy for health, to protect animal welfare and meets scientific requirements. This strategy must be part of a monitoring program and the microbiological action plans in the case of animals, as well as the need to establish health indicators and new animal import arrangements.
4.1.2. the institutions shall be required to ensure that a veterinarian or other competent person regularly checks the animals and monitor their accommodation and care. Animal testing at least once a day for a person who is trained, in accordance with the General section 3 to ensure that all sick or injured identified animals and taken necessary measures. Regular health surveillance should be carried out.
4.1.3. in the light of the animal and the risk of infection in animal care in the process, particular attention should be paid to the institution's hygiene procedures and employee health monitoring.
4.2. Capturing the wild 4.2.1. If you need to capture the animals, it may be carried out only by competent persons using humane techniques. You may want to reduce the capture procedure effect on surrounding wildlife and Habitat.
4.2.2. If during or after the capture is found that an animal is injured or ill, competent person as soon as possible is to investigate this animal and to take the necessary measures. May require the transfer of the animal by a veterinarian to treat, but in the case of serious injury to the animal is humanely killed immediately, using the humane way in accordance with the principles of the recommendations of the European Commission on euthanasia of animals used in the experiments (part 1 and 2). The capture sites must be available in sufficient numbers of suitable shipping container and means of transport, if the animals would be sent to the examination or treatment.
4.2.3. Particular attention must be paid to the acclimatization of animals caught in the wild, quarantine, housing, maintenance and care. Before you begin, always duly consider wild animal captive destiny after the completion of the scientific procedure. It is necessary to properly assess the existing practical problems and welfare issues associated with the release of wild animals.
4.3. animal transport for the carriage of animals is 4.3.1. stress the full experience, which may have to be reduced. Any movement of animals – short stretch to the vehicle within the scientific authorities to international transport – must comply with the following principles.
The animals must be transported in accordance with the principles laid down in the European Convention for the protection of animals during international transport (ETS 65 and ETS No. 193), pursuant to the resolution on acquisition and laboratory animals, adopted the Convention of the Council of Europe (ETS No. 122) of the parties to the multilateral meeting in May 1997.
4.3.2. Origin and recipient mutually agree on the conditions of transport, departure and arrival time to ensure that the animal's arrival has made all the preparations. The consignor must ensure that, before the animal into the shipping container of the animal has been tested and found to be appropriate.
4.3.3. Sick or injured animals shall not be considered fit for transport, except for the slightly injured or ill animals whose transport would not cause additional suffering, or if the transport is carried out under the supervision of the official veterinarian, in order to make animal treatment or after such treatment.
Sick or injured animals can also carry experiments or other recognised by the competent authority, if the illness or injury is part of a research program. Transport of these animals must not cause additional suffering, and particular attention must be paid to the additional care, if necessary. A competent person must confirm the suitability of such animals intended for transport.
4.3.4. the person in charge of the transport of animals is totally responsible for travel arrangements, and the completion of carriage irrespective of whether the transport tasks are assigned to the other party.
4.3.5. the person in charge of animal welfare is directly responsible for the care of the animals during transport. This person may be an attendant or driver, if it simultaneously performs both of these functions. For the welfare of the animals being transported, the person responsible must be informed of his care of the laboratory animal's specific needs.
4.3.6. the route of the journey must be designed so as to ensure efficient transport to reduce the journey time from loading to unloading of the animal and to avoid delays, thereby reducing the stress and suffering of animals. You must make sure that the relevant species during transport are provided suitable environmental conditions and reduce sudden movements, excessive noise or vibration impacts.
4.3.7. If necessary, the container must be designed in such a way as to prevent or limit the penetration of microorganisms or the spread of it. The containers must be such as to allow Visual inspection of the animals without impairing the microbiological condition of the animals.
4.3.8. Arrival at destination, the animals should be moved from the shipping container and a competent person as soon as possible those animals should be checked. Sick, injured, or state the animals are carefully observed and must be kept separate from other animals. These animals are required to provide adequate veterinary care, or, if it is deemed necessary, they are humanely killed.
4.4 quarantine, acclimation and isolation

The purpose of the quarantine and isolation: a) to protect other animals;
(b)) to protect people against zoonoses and c) together with the acclimation period to promote good scientific practices.
Quarantine and isolation period can vary depending on the existing conditions and time limits laid down either by the law of a Contracting Party, or by the competent person is usually designated by an institution.
4.4.1. The quarantine quarantine is the accommodation period applicable to the newly imported or introduced animals repeatedly, separated them from the institution existing animals to determine their health and prevent the spread of the disease. Such a period is recommended, if you do not know the State of health of the animal.
4.4.2. Acclimatization Acclimatization period is necessary to permit the transport of the animals to recover from stress and get used to the new environment and maintenance and care measures. Even if the animal is healthy, the use of animals in procedures before it is recommended aklimatizē. The time needed depends on various factors, such as stress, which the animals have been exposed, which in turn depends on several other factors, such as the duration of the carriage, the animal's age and social environment. It should be noted that for international transport may require longer acclimatization disorder that can be caused by the transport of the animal's circadian rhythm.
4.4.3. Isolation isolation period shall be determined in order to reduce the risk of infection to other animals or people. If you suspect that the animal may be the risk of these animals are housed separately.
4.5. Accommodation and holding improvement 4.5.1 Introduction, all animals must be available in sufficient quantity for the site the natural behavior. Whenever possible, the animal should be kept with the other animals, and animal enclosure, it must be sufficiently complex environment to the animal it could implement the string expressions its typical behavior. Too depressing environment can lead to behavioral and psychological abnormalities and adversely affect the validity of the scientific data.
Accommodation type to be taken into account and the holding and social improvement programme potential impact on scientific research, to avoid valid scientific data acquisition and the unnecessary loss of animals.
Production, delivery and use of facilities for accommodation and implemented during the holding improvement strategies need to be able to meet the needs of the species and accommodated to ensure that animals are able to use those available space as efficiently as possible. In developing this strategy, account should be taken of the need to observe the animals, the least possible distorting them, and encourage them to care. The minimum recommended size of animal enclosure contains the following species, dedicated sections.
Unless otherwise specified, in addition to the recommended minimum floor area of enclosures must provide additional surface, such as a shelf.
4.5.2. the accommodation, except for those that are solitary by nature, must be housed together with other animals in the stable groups of compatible individuals. Individual accommodation is to be used only if it has a veterinary or animal welfare reasons. A separate trial for the purpose of accommodation is to be determined in consultation with the zootehniķ and a competent person responsible for advising on matters of animal well-being. In these circumstances, the animal welfare and care should be given to the additional resources. In such cases, the duration of accommodation should be reduced to the minimum necessary period, and, if possible, at this time is to ensure the animal's Visual, auditory, olfactory, and tactile contact with the other animals. Properly trained employees must be carefully monitored the animal's arrival in or return to the already formed groups to prevent problems associated with animal and interference of a mismatch in their mutual relations. Housing Group to be beneficial, it is better to buy the pack animals that are mutually compatible.
4.5.3. The holding of all animals is improving should ensure plenty of space, offering a sufficiently complex environment to animals could implement species-specific behavioral manifestations. To reduce stress-induced behavior, animals should be allowed to control and choose the environment. It can provide you with suitable holding improvement techniques that extend the range of actions available to animals and promote their adaptation. In addition to the social activities of the holding can be improved by allowing and encouraging relevant species physical activity, food uzlasīšan, manipulative and cognitive activity. It is recommended that you allow the animals to practice whenever possible. Improvements in animal enclosures must meet the respective needs of the species and specimens. Improvements must adapt innovation can be introduced, based on new knowledge. Holding improvement program should be periodically reviewed and updated. Responsible for animal care workers would be able to introduce appropriate holding improvements, they must understand the species natural behavior and biology so that they can be reasonable and knowledgeable choose holding improvements. Employees should be aware that not all improvements will be suitable for animals and that, therefore, it is necessary to monitor the impact of improvements to animal, adjusting accordingly the holding improvement programme, if necessary.
4.5.4. animal fencing for animal enclosures shall not be made from animal materials harmful to health. The design and construction of the enclosure must be such that the animals cannot hurt enclosures. If the rails are not intended for single use, they must be made of appropriate cleaning and disinfection materials. In particular, attention must be paid to the design of the floor of the enclosure, which must be adapted to the species and age of the animal and designed in such a way as to facilitate the disposal of excrement.
4.6 power supply Feed to the type of instrumentation, content and presentation must meet animal nutrition and behavioral needs. Some species are able to gather up the feed. Some animal species significant diet are coarse feed, which also provides specific behavioural needs.
4.6.2. Animal feed must be tasty and not contaminated. Choosing raw materials, making, preparing and serving food, you must take precautions to minimise food chemical, physical and microbiological contamination. Food is packaged in bags that are given explicit information about the origin and date of manufacture. The manufacturer must clearly state and observe the expiration date of the feed.
Packaging, transport and storage should also be such as to preclude contamination of feedingstuffs, deterioration or destruction. Storage must be in a cool, dark and protected from pests and insects. Food, perishable, such as Greens, vegetables, fruit, meat, fish, must be stored in cold rooms, refrigerators or freezers.
All feed supply units, trough or other accessories used in feeding, is regularly cleaned and if necessary sterilized. If using a damp feed or feeds that can be easily contaminated by, for example, with water or urine, cleaning should be done every day.
4.6.3. Each animal must have access to sufficient food supply to reduce competition between the animals. Sometimes the feed intake has to be controlled to limit animal obesity.
4.7 4.7.1 of the Watering. all animals must always be available for clean drinking water. However, water is micro-media, so the water supply should be designed in such a way as to reduce the risk of infection.
4.7.2. Watering system is constructed and operated so as to ensure enough water in an appropriate quality. To make available sufficient numbers of drinkers. If you use the Automatic watering system must ensure regular inspection, maintenance and flushing to prevent crashes, such as blockages, leaks or the spread of the infection. If you use the cages with solid floors, it is necessary to reduce the risk of flooding.
4.7.3. The various fish, amphibian and reptile species tolerance for acidity, chlorine and many other chemical substances vary considerably. Therefore, the supply of water aquariums and tanks should be adapted to the needs of each species and tolerance.
4.8. Flooring, substrate, litter and installing the dens 4.8.1 animals always have to provide a suitable bed material or design cubicle; breeding animals is also suitable for materials or constructions dens installing.
Animal enclosure usually includes various materials that absorb urine and faeces are, thus facilitating cleaning; allow the animal to make species-specific actions, for example, feed uzlasīšan, digging, or cave formation; to provide a convenient and suitable surface or a safe area for sleeping; allow the animal to create mig breeding purposes.

Some materials cannot ensure all these needs, therefore it is important to ensure adequate materials in sufficient quantity. These materials must be dry, absorbent, non-toxic, no dust and infectious agents or pests or other contamination. You may not use the materials derived from chemically treated wood or containing toxic substances, as well as a clearly definable and substandard products.
4.8.2. the animal enclosures flooring need to ensure a strong, comfortable resting place for all animals. All bedding should be dry and clean diet.
4.9 4.9.1. cleaning the quality of an object, including the good maintenance practices, in many respects depends on good hygiene. Very high purity and order the standards are also holding, washing and storage rooms. Need to develop and implement appropriate procedures and supplies, fencing and other equipment of bottle cleaning, washing, disinfection and, if necessary, sterilization.
4.9.2. these cleaning and disinfection mode must not be detrimental to the health or welfare of the animal. It is necessary to introduce clear routines, including a tracking system for changing the litter animal enclosures.
4.9.3 regularly cleaned and, if necessary, restore the base materials of animal enclosures, to avoid that they become infectious and pests.
4.9.4. some species are specific to mark territory with scent, and cleaning can disrupt the social order. Cleaning regimes must take into account the behavioral manifestations. Decision on the frequency of cleaning should be adopted, taking into account the type of enclosure, animal species, population density and the ventilation system's ability to ensure adequate air quality.
4.10. The handling of animal care quality can affect not only the laboratory animal breeding, growth and welfare, but also the quality of the test procedures and results. Animal domestication to the competent and reliable daily care reduces stress levels for both the animals and staff. For some species, such as dogs and primates, non-human primates, the animal care staff and scientific program can be a useful training program that trained the animals to cooperate during the procedure. Some species have very important social interaction with people.
However, in some cases, from contact with animals should be avoided. In particular this applies to wild animals, and this is one of the reasons why wildlife is less suitable for use in experiments. Care for employee treatment the animals always have to be careful and respectful, and working with animals they have to be professional and focused.
If necessary, care workers have to manage a separate time to talk, play, minute animals and show them your care.
4.11. Humane killing of All humanitarian 4.11.1 methods of killing the animals experience is required, which can be obtained only in appropriate training. Animals are killed using a method that meets the principles set out in the recommendations of the European Commission on euthanasia of animals used in the experiments (part 1 and 2).
4.11.2. Animal which is deep in the unconscious, blood may be let down, but no prior anesthesia may not be used in medicine before joining the comatose paralyzes muscles, as well as drugs with similar effects for kurār and fatal electric shock on the no power through the brain.
Killed animals must not be destroyed, before the death has not been confirmed.
4.12. Documentation documentation on all the origin, use and final disposal, reared, kept for breeding purposes or for use in future uses of the scientific procedures, not just statistics, but also with health and breeding registers as both indicators of animal welfare and zootechnics and planning purposes.
4.13. the identification in some cases requires individual identification of animals, for example, to ensure the accuracy of records, if animals are used for breeding or scientific procedures. Identification technique chosen should be trusted and that generates minimal pain and discomfort to the animals and the application of the technique of the moment, both in the long run. If necessary, you must use sedatives or local anesthesia and painkillers. Employees must be trained to perform identification and use markup techniques.
Species SPECIFIC section a. rules for rodents 1. Introduction to laboratory mice mouse predecessor is a wild House mice (Mus muscul); It is mostly the cave rokoš and climbing night animal that micro-regulation, shelter and breeding needs form the mig. The mouse is a good kāpelētāj. The mouse does not like to cross open spaces, they move the walls or other structures. Depending on the population density is possible to observe many different social organization forms, and males can be observed in the reproductive age expressed territorial behavior. Pregnant and lactating females in can show aggression, protecting the nest. Whereas mice, especially in albīnaj mice lines have low vision, they rely on the sense of smell and their territory stained with urine. Mice have very good hearing, and they are sensitive to ultrasound. Depending on the mouse lines, there are significant differences in behaviour and performance mice intensity.
Rats in laboratory rats predecessor is a wild Brown rat (Ratt norvegicus), and it is a very social animal. Rats avoid public places, and they use urine to mark territory. Rats are very well developed sense of smell and hearing, and they are particularly sensitive to ultrasound. The animal ill see the light of day, but some pigmented lines right in the Chair and see in the dark. Albino rats avoid places where the lighting level to more than 25 luxury. Rat activity is more dark hours. Young animals are very curious and very often engage in a playground.
The sand mouse gerbil or Mongolian gerbil (Marion's SP.) is a nocturnal public, although it is also active in the laboratory in daylight. Wild mouse builds a sand cave with under the entrance, thus ensure against predators, so they are often in the laboratory observed the stereotypical drill behavior, unless they are not applied.
Laboratory hamsters Hamster wild predecessors (Mesocricet-sp) was essentially solitary. A female Hamster is bigger and more aggressive than the male, and it can seriously hurt your spouse. Your enclosure hamsters often creates a place to defecate, marks the territory, through its own side, and mammary gland secretions females often reduce their-random, extra babies eat.
Guinea Pigs guinea pigs in the wild (the Cavi porcell) is a public, skraidelējoš in rodents, which do not form the caves while living under cover or use other animals created the cave. Adult males can be aggressive to one another, but in general the aggression is rarely observed. Guinea Pigs are characteristic of the pour, at the unexpected sound, and in response to sudden movements, the group can Stampede in the run. Guinea Pigs are very sensitive to movement, and in response to the move, you can freeze them for thirty minutes or longer.
2. environment and its control of Ventilation (see 2.1. The General section 2.1.)
2.2. the temperature must be kept at a temperature of rodents from 20 C to 24 C temperature enclosures with a hard floor, which is housed in the rodent group, will often be higher than the temperature in the room. Also, if adequate ventilation is provided, the temperature in enclosures can be up to 6 C higher than the ambient temperature. Nest building material/box allows you to control the animals nesting in them the necessary microclimate. Particular attention must be paid to the temperature of the animal confinement systems, as well as the temperature, which is provided bezspalv.
2.3. installations where Moisture is housed in rodents, it is necessary to ensure relative air humidity of 45-65%. The exception is the sand mouse, which is to be kept to a relative humidity of 35-55%.
2.4. Lighting the lighting level in the enclosure must be low. All shelves have to be with the shaded surfaces to reduce the risk of damage to the retina of the animal. This applies in particular to albino animals.
Rodent monitoring it in the active phase, the dark days, you can use the red light that turns on so that the rodents could not predict its start.
2.5. the noise as the rodents are very sensitive to ultrasound, and use it for communication, it is essential to reduce extraneous noise. Ultrasound (sound at frequencies above 20 kHz), caused many laboratory accessories, such as a dripping tap, cart wheels, computer monitors, can influence the behavior and breeding cycles. It is recommended to observe long acoustic environment in a wide frequency range.
2.6. The alarm system (see. The General section 2.6.)
3. Health (see. The General section 4.1 and 4.4.)
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation

The pack animals should be housed in groups, as long as they are stable and compatible. Such groups can also create the mice housed males, adult hamsters or sand mouse, though it is difficult, because between the representatives of one species can be observed strong aggression.
If the expected aggression or injuries, animals can be housed separately. It is possible to avoid stable and compatible group DIS, because such action could cause the animals stress.
4.2. The holding of the Animal enclosures and improving environmental improvements must allow animals to exercise their activities and must cut between one species existing in the competition.
Litter and mig installing material, as well as the shelter is very important resources for rodents and breeding phase and live stock, both during the procedure, so they must always be available, unless this is contrary to any health or welfare-related considerations. The provision of such material is not the purpose of the study is aligned with the zootehniķ and the competent person is responsible for advising on matters of animal well-being. The installation material is the nest must be such that the rodents to handle and build a nest. If the nest is not the installation of the material in sufficient quantity must be provided to animals nesting box can create complete, cover the nest. Litter must be able to absorb urine, and rodents can be used urine to leave marks. Installation material is dens essential for rats, mice, hamsters, gerbil mice, because it allows the animal to create micro for leisure and reproduction processes. The nest box installation or other hiding places are essential for Guinea pigs, hamsters and rats.
Guinea Pigs are always to provide the materials with which they can work, such as a wall, they can chew or where they can hide.
Rodent holding improvement can be applied to a wooden brush which rodent you can chew and gnaw.
Many rodent species are characteristic of fence cutting area eating, recreation, urination and feed storage areas. These areas are usually marked with smell, not separated by physical borders, but relatively barriers might be appropriate to allow the animals to initiate contact with other team members or avoid it. Highly recommended is to increase the diversity of the environment, by introducing certain improvements in the enclosures. For example, enclosures can insert pipe climbing, boxes, design by rodents like to use, and through them can increase the area available for animals in the enclosure.
The sand mice need comparatively more space than other rodent species, so that they can create and/or use a big enough caves. The sand mice need a thick, at least 20 cm long litter layer digging and nest or cave system. Preferably use transparent or tinted in the enclosures and the notion that allow to observe animals without disturbing them.
The same principles in relation to the space available and the quality and capacity of the holding, as well as other considerations described in this document apply also to animal containment systems, for example, to individually ventilated cages (IVC), even though their application may require a different approach according to the design of the system.
4.3. Fence-size and flooring fences are to be constructed of materials which are easy to clean, and they must be designed in such a way that the animals would be impossible to monitor without disturbing.
Young animals become active, they need relatively more space than adult animals.
4.3.1. Size in this and all subsequent tables rodents suggested "enclosure height" is the vertical height from the enclosure floor to ceiling, and the fence height should be more than 50% of the minimum enclosure floor area before holding equipment to improve insertion enclosure.
Planning procedures must take into account the possible growth of the animals during the study to ensure sufficient space for the animals (see. A. 1-a. table 5).
(A) table 1 the mouse: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required surface area to body weight (g) minimum enclosure size (cm2) floor area per animal (cm2) minimum enclosure height (cm) in stock and during procedures up to 20 330 60 12 above 20 and up to 25 to 30 330 80 12 25 330 70 12 over and above the 30 330 100 12 raising 330 Monogām couple (relationship/tuvradniecīb) or three (tuvradniecīb). Each additional female with litter 180 cm2 need more.
 
12 in stock nurseries * enclosure size 950 cm ² less than 20 950 40 12 enclosure size 1500 cm less than 20 1500 30 12 * ² the short period after weaning until they use the mouse to change the can hold in higher density conditions, provided that the animals are kept in larger enclosures with adequate improvements. These housing conditions must not impair the welfare of animals, such as increasing the level of aggression, morbidity and mortality, cause the stereotypical behavior, and other behavioral disorders, weight loss and other physiological or stress reactions.
A. the rats table 2: minimum size of the enclosure and the required surface area to body weight (g) minimum enclosure size (cm2) floor area per animal (cm2) minimum enclosure height (cm) in stock and during procedures * up to 200 800 200 18 above 200 and up to 300 to 400 800 350 18 300 800 250 18 over and above the 400 and so 800 600 800 450 18 over 600 1500 600 18 raising the mother and babies. Each animal that extra inserts enclosure requires additional 400 cm2.
 
18 in stock nurseries * enclosure size 1500 cm ² to 50 1500 100 18 above 50 and up to 100 1500 125 18 above 100 and up to 150 to 200 1500 175 18 150 1500 150 18 above and stock farms ** enclosure size 2500 cm ² up to 100 2500 100 18 100 to 150 2500 125 18 over and above 150 and up to 200 2500 150 18 * lifetime studies in animals should be housed in suitable sized enclosures together with other animals. Whereas it is difficult to predict the population density at the end of this study, the animals are actually available in the area of the enclosure may turn out to be less than indicated in the table area. In these circumstances, a stable social structures is a priority.
** For a short period after weaning until their use changes in rats can be kept in a higher density conditions, provided that the animals are housed in larger enclosures with adequate improvements. These housing conditions must not impair the welfare of animals, such as increasing the level of aggression, morbidity and mortality, cause the stereotypical behavior, and other behavioral disorders, weight loss and other physiological or stress reactions.
A. table 3 sand mouse: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required surface area to body weight (g) minimum enclosure size (cm2) floor area per animal (cm2) minimum enclosure height (cm) in stock and during procedures up to 40 1200 150 18 over 40 1200 250 18 spawning 1200 Monogām couple or three animals with offspring 18 A. 4. table hamsters: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required surface area to body weight (g) minimum enclosure size (cm2) floor area per animal (cm2) minimum enclosure height in stock and during procedures up to 60 800 150 14 over 60 and up to 100 800 200 14 over 100 800 250 14 800 mother or raising monogām couple with babies in nurseries * Item 14 less than 60 1500 100 14 the short period after weaning until their change of use hamsters may be kept in a higher density conditions with provided that the animals are housed in larger enclosures with adequate improvements. These housing conditions must not impair the welfare of animals, such as increasing the level of aggression, morbidity and mortality, cause the stereotypical behavior, and other behavioral disorders, weight loss and other physiological or stress reactions.
A. table 5 guinea pigs: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required surface area to body weight (g) minimum enclosure size (cm2) floor area per animal (cm2) minimum enclosure height in stock and during procedures up to 200 1800 200 23 above 200 and up to 300 to 450 1800 500 23 300 1800 350 23 over and over and over 450 to 700 2500 700 23 700 2500 900 23 breeding pair with 2500 babies. For each additional breeding female need additional 1000 cm2.
 
23 4.3.2. Flooring we recommend that you use a hard floor with bedding or perforated floor, not the floor, made up of a grid or wire mesh. If you use the grid or wire mesh floor, the rest of the site must be provided with bedding or hard lined cover (with līstīt rooms lined bedding for Guinea Pigs), unless this is contrary to the conditions of the trial. Litter can prevent the mating period.
Wire mesh floors can injure the animals, so the floor has been carefully checked and maintained to ensure that they do not crack or sharp projections.

The last stage of gestation, parturition and lactation breeding females should be there only on a hard floor with bedding.
4.4. Power supply (see. The General section 4.6.)
Watering (see 4.5. The General section 4.7.)
Substrate, litter and material (see the installing the mig. The General section 4.8.)
4.7 cleaning To both maintain high standards of hygiene, it is recommended that you leave any of the animal create odors. Common rails are unwelcome, especially pregnant animals and females with infants, it can cause females to abandon babies or cause cannibalism.
So the decision about cleaning frequency is taken depending on the type of animal enclosures, population density and ventilation systems to ensure adequate air quality.
4.8. Handling care must seek the least possible to disturb the animals or to interfere in their living room enclosure. This applies especially to the hamsters.
4.9. Humane killing (see. The General section 4.11.)
4.10. the documentation (see. The General section 4.12.)
4.11. Identification (see. The General section 4.13.)
B. provisions for rabbits 1. introduction rabbit (Oryctolagus-cunicul) is usually a pack animal. Rabbits must provide sufficient space and environmental diversity – if not, rabbits can become sedentary and those can appear skeletal deformity.
2. environment and its control of Ventilation (see 2.1. The General section 2.1.)
2.2. The temperature in rabbits should be kept at a temperature between 15 ° C to 21 ° c. The temperature in the enclosure with the rabbit group hard surfacing will often be higher than the temperature in the room. The temperature of the enclosure can be about 6 ° C higher than the temperature in the room even if adequate ventilation is provided.
MIG installing material/boxes to allow the animals to control the nest microclimate. Special attention should be paid to the temperature of the animal to the delimitation of the systems.
2.3. The relative humidity of the air humidity is of rabbit accommodation facilities must not be less than 45%.
2.4. Lighting (see. The General section 2.4.)
noise (see 2.5. The General section 2.5.)
2.6. The alarm system (see. The General section 2.6.)
3. Health (see General section 4.1 and 4.4.)
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation of young rabbits and rabbit females should be housed in compatible social groups. The rabbit separate from other animals housed only when such accommodation is with animal health or welfare grounds. A separate trial for the purpose of accommodation is determined in consultation with the zootehniķ and a competent person responsible for advising on matters of animal well-being. Adult uncastrated males can protect their sites, so they may not be housed with other uncastrated males. The new rabbit and rabbit adult females may be used for holding advanced floor boxes, although the Group has stepped up monitoring to prevent aggression. The best one in the group is housed in rabbits from one pitch that has held together since the separation. If rabbits can accommodate the group, animals must be housed, so between them would be impossible visual contact.
4.2. improving holding rabbits are the appropriate holding improvements as coarse feed, wall or in brush briquettes demolition, as well as areas of refuge. Group accommodation in floor pens for the animals to ensure visual barriers and design hiding places and surroundings. To encourage growth, it is also necessary to ensure materials installation and a box of mig mig.
4.3. Fence-size and flooring recommended is a rectangular enclosure. Fencing should be included in the platform. The platform must be such that the animals can easily move underneath it, sleep, and sit, but the increase may not take up more than 40% of the floor area. Fencing must be so high to the rabbit in it could sit on his haunches, its ears to the fence without touching the ceiling; This condition does not apply to the height between the platform and the enclosure ceiling. If a reasonable scientific and veterinary purposes without a rack enclosure, the enclosure must be about 33% higher if it is housed in one rabbit, and about 60% higher if it kept two rabbits. If possible, rabbits are kept penned.
4.3.1. Size table b.1. Rabbits older than 10 weeks: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required area of body weight (kg) minimum floor area for one or two compatible animals animals (cm2) minimum height (cm) less than 3 3500 45 from 3 to 5 4200 45 above 5 5400 60 dimensions in the table apply to both cages and pens. Cages must be provided (see the platform. B. table 4.) must be included in the design of the living quarters, which divides the space, to ensure that the interfaces between the animal or animals from also allow them to escape. From the third to the sixth rabbit must provide additional floor area 3000 cm2 per rabbit, but exceeding the six-number of each rabbit rabbit provides additional floor area 2500 cm2.
B. table 2 female with babies: the minimum size of the enclosure and the area needed a female's weight (kg) minimum enclosure size (cm2) addition boxes designed for mig (cm2) for the minimum height (cm) less than 3 3500 1000 45 from 3 to 5 4200 1200 45 above 5 5400 1400 60 at least 3-4 days before calving females must provide a separate partition or a case in which it could build the nest. The box is recommended to place the nesting outside the fence. Ensure straw or other material dens installing. Fencing must be designed such that after the young have left the nest, the female can move to another partition or a promotion. The babies are weaned litters are as long as possible should be left to the total enclosure, into which they are born. In the same enclosure after weaning to 7 weeks of age can hold a maximum of 8 rabbits from one shot; 5 rabbits from one shot can keep to the minimum floor area of 8 to 10 weeks of age.
B. table 3. Rabbits less than 10 weeks: the minimum size of the enclosure and the area required a minimum Age enclosure size (cm2) the minimum floor area per animal (cm ²) minimum height (cm) From weaning to 7 weeks of age 4000 800 40 From 7 to 10 weeks 4000 1200 40 dimensions indicated in the table apply to both cages and pens. Pens must be inserted into the structure that divides the space, to ensure that the interfaces between the animal or animals from also allow them to escape. After the weaned pups are one shot as long as possible should be left to the total enclosure, into which they are born.
B. table 4. Rabbits: optimal dimensions of the enclosures, the platform that meets the size table b.1 shows the size age (weeks) body weight (kg) the optimal size (cm x cm) the optimum height from the enclosure floor (cm) above the less than 10 3 55 x 25 25 30 25 5 55 x 3 to x 5 60 35 30 above the fence and fencing To increase overall proper use the table above shows the optimum size and height increases, there is a small difference between the minimum and maximum dimensions of the platform (10% of the specified optimum sizes). If scientific or veterinary purposes increases enclosure is not installed, the floor area must be increased by 33%, if the enclosure there one rabbit, and about 60% if the enclosure holding two rabbits, to encourage the activity and lokomotor allow the rabbit to escape from the dominant rabbit.
If the platform is designed for rabbits, who are under the age of 10 weeks, the optimum platform dimensions are 55 x 25 cm and the height of the elevation of the floor must be such that the animals can use it.
4.3.2. Flooring if using a wire floor, to provide a resting place, which should be large enough so that it could contain all the rabbits. We recommend that you use a hard floor with bedding or perforated floor, not the floor, made up of a grid or wire mesh.
4.4. Power supply (see. The General section 4.6.)
Watering (see 4.5. The General section 4.7.)
4.6. the substrate, litter and material (see the installing the mig. The General section 4.8.)
4.7 cleaning (see. The General section 4.9.)
4.8 handling (see. The General section 4.10.)
4.9. Humane killing (see. The General section 4.11.)
4.10. the documentation (see. The General section 4.12.)
4.11. Identification (see. The General section 4.13.)
B. provisions for cats 1. introduction domestic cats are descended from the African wild cat in standalone (Felis silvestris libyc), but they have a high propensity to learn social graces. Early socialisation is sufficient sociability may occur either in relation to other cats and people.

Good interaction with the people about the nature of the show the suitability of the research. However, as cats are not dominant hierarchy and seem to have developed a reconciliation mechanism after conflict, building social relationships can lead to stress. Compared to dogs, external signs of stress, the cat is not so prominent.
Whereas cats are territorial animals, and get used to specific sites, the move is likely to cause them stress. Cats are great kāpelētāj and actively use the elevated structures (such as shelves) and as the place of observation, both as a private space to patverto from other cats.
2. environment and its control of Ventilation (see 2.1. The General section 2.1.)
2.2. Temperature suitable for cats has a wide temperature range, if one is not impaired their wellness. If the procedure with cats require precise control, temperature must be maintained in the range of 15 ° C to 21 ° C (see. The General section 2.2.3).
As the kittens in the first ten days of life is a limited purpose, during this period they need additional heating.
2.3. the humidity, it is considered that the relative air humidity should not be regulated, because cats well tolerated relative humidity of wide fluctuations.
2.4. Lighting suitable for cats is natural within twenty-four hours of light-dark cycle. If fotoperiod light parts for artificial lighting is used, then each day should last from ten to twelve hours.
When natural light is not used at all, should provide a small night lights (5 – 10 lux) to cat preserve certain visibility and response reflexes.
noise (see 2.5. The General section 2.5.)
2.6. The alarm system (see. The General section 2.6.)
3. Health (see. The General section 4.1 and 4.4.)
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation Queens and male neutered cats are generally public, and is usually kept in groups and twelve animals. However, when you create a group that contains two or more cats, the following must be carefully monitored all team members ' mutual compatibility. Special care has to be taken, including the redeployment of the cat group previously unknown cats, not castrated male or creating a larger group.
If the cat is accustomed to accommodation group, then a separate accommodation for cats can cause significant stress to the animal. Therefore, without health or welfare-related reason why cats should not be individually housed for more than twenty-four hours. Separate accommodation for a period of more than twenty-four hours, the trial for the purpose of determining, in consultation with the zootehniķ and a competent person responsible for advising on matters of animal well-being.
Cats who have shown repeated aggression against other cats, accommodating separately only if they are not able to find compatible partners. At least once a week must examine the pairs or groups housed in social animals stress level, using behavioral and/or psychological stress point system. Particularly important in the following test to take the uncastrated males.
Cat with kittens under the age of four weeks, or Queens during pregnancy in the last two weeks can accommodate individually. During this time, you should be able to access the group she, in which it has been lived in, for example, connecting the kitten holding Rails with the rails of the group.
Cat social behavior in a very social experience it affects 2 to 8 weeks of age. At this stage, it is particularly important that the cat is a social contact with other cats (for example, with the same litter of babies) and people and the cat get to know the environment in which it most likely will live in the future. Everyday in this sensitive age affect a growing cat social behavior, and it is shown that even brief contact on the first day of life can be important because young animals already respond to the smell and touch.
Every cat every day takes time and interaction with people in play, as well as additional time for regular self cleaning. Particular attention must be paid for separately housed the cat social environmental improvement, providing additional exposure to people.
4.2. improving the holding should ensure increased, partially enclosed structures (such as the bed with three walls and a roof on the shelf about 1 feet from the floor) to the cat can observe the surroundings and, if they are housed in pairs or groups, shelter from the other cats in their own private space. To reduce the competition, must be available in sufficient quantity for the following construction. Design of the enclosure must be placed so that the animals could fully use the available space to them.
Cats must also be able to shelter their enclosure, to be in solitude and be outside the field of vision of other cats. Ensure vertical wooden surface of the nail sharpening and markup using scent glands.
If possible, the open-air runs must be provided, as they will improve the cat's environment and keeping farms and the use of institutions.
There is a need to promote the characteristic behaviour of carnivores, and playfulness. Should be available for the various toys that are changed regularly to ensure continuous situation simulations, and would not allow an animal to get used to the toys that reduce the desire to play.
4.3. Fence-size and flooring fences, including partitions between the fences, is necessary to ensure the cats healthy and clean environment. Their design and construction must be such as to ensure an open and fair environment, allowing cats completely monitor the surroundings.
4.3.1. Size c. table 1. Cats: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required floor area (m ²) Shelf (m ²) height (m) minimum size one adult animal 1.5 0.5 2 for each additional animal in addition to 0.75 0.25-note must be provided. * Floor area without shelves.
Minimum space, in which you can hold the Slingshot and the Cubs, is the space that is for one adult cat; This space is progressively be extended to four months of age, kittens should be housed in a room that meets the requirements set out in the table for adult cats. Suitable for separation from the mother's age is 7-9 weeks.
Cats should never be forced to spend their whole lives outdoors, and they always should be able to get into the internal enclosure that complies with all standards, including these references the specified minimum dimensions.
The distance between the feeding and toilet boxes must not be less than 0.5 metres, and it cannot be changed.
Scientific purposes being lower than previously indicated in the area, such as a metabolic cage or other similar accommodation, you can dramatically reduce the welfare of animals. Such incarceration must be as soon as possible and in such a space, which can meet the pre-set enclosure sizes and in which at least could stretch out horizontally and vertically, to lie down and turn around.
4.3.2. the recommended flooring flooring cat enclosures is a solid continuous floor with a smooth, non-slip surface. Comfortable holiday accommodation for cats will create additional fencing equipment.
Cat enclosures may not be used in the open floor systems such as floor gratings or wire networks. If loose floor coverings are justified, their installation must be carried out very carefully in order to avoid that such floor is causing pain to animals, the animals are injured or cause disease, and to restrict the animal's natural behavior. Practice shows that metabolic cages are not always required, because cat urine and faeces can collect from toilet boxes.
The outdoor paddock surface quality and finishing of the surface does not have to match the inner rails of standard flooring – it must be easy to clean, and it may not be physically threaten the cat's health.
4.4. Power supply (see. The General section 4.6.)
Watering (see 4.5. The General section 4.7.)
4.6. the substrate, litter and mig-installing should ensure at least one toilet box (minimum dimensions 300 x 400 mm), two cats, and should be suitable for absorbent and non-toxic litter or substrate that cats like to use. If the cat needs regular natural outside toilet boxes should provide additional toilet box with other substrate materials. If the enclosures in which is housed a couple of cats or a group, such a measure does not provide the desired result, it shows a mismatch between the cats and the cats one by one is to be distinguished from the group, to ensure the desired result.
All cats must be available beds from easy to clean material. These must provide suitable bedding material such as polyester or other suitable material.
4.7 cleaning each populated the enclosures must be cleaned at least once a day. Every day is empty the toilet box and need to be replaced in the litter.
Fencing during cleanup cats must not get wet. If the rails are washed with a hose, the cats moved from the enclosure in a dry place and shall be returned to the enclosure only when the enclosure is dry.
4.8 handling

Cats, especially cats that live separately, so important is the close contact with people who care.
4.9. Humane killing (see. The General section 4.11.)
4.10. the documentation (see. The General section 4.12.)
4.11. Identification (see. The General section 4.13.)
D. rules for dogs 1. introduction Home Dog (Canis familiar) is curious and very sociable animal who is very interested in surroundings reflecting their ongoing, Wolf family ancestors ' behavior. Although a large part of a day spent relaxing in the sun, in the active stage of the day dog needs a complex physical and social environment.
Bitches looking for solitude of quiet places to procreation and rearing of juveniles.
Whereas there is a considerable risk of aggression must be socially compatible dogs group. The recommendations relate to the Beagle, which is the most commonly used dog breed. If you use other breeds, account must be taken of the characteristics of the variety.
2. environment and its control of Ventilation (see 2.1. General section 2.1.)
2.2. Temperature suitable for dogs has a wide temperature range, if one is not impaired their wellness. If the procedure in dogs is required precise control, temperature must be maintained in the range of 15 ° C to 21 ° C (see. The General section 2.2.3).
Whereas the purpose of the puppy during the first 10 days of life is limited, calving enclosure during this period is to provide additional heating.
2.3. the humidity, it is considered that the relative air humidity should not be regulated, because the dogs well tolerated relative humidity of wide fluctuations.
2.4. Lighting suitable for dogs is natural within twenty-four hours of light-dark cycle. If the light of fotoperiod is provided, using artificial lighting, then every day should last from ten to twelve hours.
When natural light is not used at all, should provide a small night lights (5 – 10 lux) to dogs preserve certain visibility and response reflexes.
2.5. Noise noise Kennel you can reach a large volume, which is harmful to humans, and it can also adversely affect the dog's health and physiology. Therefore, the dog holding is essential to implementing noise reduction measures. The noise level is likely to diminish if the object is observed in the planning of dog behavior. A large part of the noise causes the dogs, but the noise can also cause maintenance measures object and external noise sources. Therefore, it is necessary to try to stifle any noise source that can cause dog barking. Extraneous noise can stifle, choosing a suitable object location and architectural design. Noise that occurs inside the object, you can reduce the noise control materials and construction. Designing or customizing your dog the holding must take into account the expert tips on noise reduction.
2.6. The alarm system (see. The General section 2.6.)
3. Health (see. The General section 4.1 and 4.4) 4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation the dogs should be housed socially compatible groups animal enclosure, unless this is contrary to the scientific procedures or animal welfare requirements. Special care is required to regroup or strange dogs dog Add Group. In all cases, is continuously monitored the group social compatibility.
If possible, the open-air runs must be provided, as they will improve the environment and keeping the dog kennel and use.
Individual dog accommodation even for brief periods of time can have significant stress factor for animals. Therefore, without health or welfare-related reason, dogs may not accommodate more than four hours. Separate accommodation for a period in excess of four hours, the purpose of the study determines, in consultation with the zootehniķ and a competent person responsible for advising on matters of animal well-being.
Individually housed in dog welfare and care should be given to the additional resources. Every day should be given additional time to dog interactions with people, and it is necessary to ensure the dog's Visual, hearing and, if possible, physical contact with other dogs.
Unless this is contrary to the scientific arguments separately kept dogs every day should be allowed to practice the designated natural area employee, if possible together with other dogs.
Breeding dogs, if possible, should be housed in pairs or socially compatible groups or with bitches.
The pregnant bitches should be moved to calving fencing not earlier than two weeks before the expected farrowing time. Calving enclosure them every day is to provide additional exposure to people.
Dog social behavior is formed from four to twenty weeks. At this stage, it is particularly important that the dog is a social contact with other dogs of the same pitch, adult dog (such as with the bitch) and people, and to learn about their dog environment where it most likely will live in the future. Everyday in this sensitive age affect a growing dog social behavior, and it is shown that even brief exposure from the first days of life may be important because young animals already respond to the smell and touch.
4.2. improving holding indoor enclosure and outer fences are to be constructed to ensure the dogs down private space and allow them to control certain social contact.
The animals must provide separate areas for different activities. This can be achieved, for example, installing a raised platform and separating the paddocks with bulkheads.
Various delicacies and toys the dog wellness, if they are reasonable and their use monitored. Whereas it is important for dog chewing behaviour, in order to satisfy this requirement is to ensure the appropriate items.
The main benefits of the practice is increasing environmental diversity in dogs, as well as increasing the exposure of dogs by other dogs and people. This is especially important if this need is not possible to completely ensure the animal enclosure available in the area. So, unless this is contrary to the scientific arguments or objections, veterinary dogs each day, ideally, should be allowed to practice in a delimited area under the supervision of the employee and, if possible, together with the other dogs.
4.3.3-size and flooring animal fences, including partitions between the fences, is necessary to ensure the dogs healthy and clean environment. Enclosure design and construction must be such as to ensure open and bright spaces, allowing dogs to observe other dogs and employees located outside the fence.
4.3.1. Size of these guidelines aim to promote dog accommodation groups and provide them with suitable housing site improvements. It should be noted that the most desirable solution is keeping the big dogs in compatible groups, thus saving floor space and improving animal interaction opportunities.
Dogs should never be made to spend their whole lives outdoors, and they always should be able to get into indoor enclosure that complies with all these specifications determine design and environmental control standards. Indoor enclosures must constitute not less than 50% of the dogs available minimum space under it, as shown below in table d.1.
The following areas have been identified, based on the requirements for holding a Beagle, but it should be noted that a larger dog breeds (such as the St. Bernard or Irish Wolf dogs) may be significantly higher. Other breeds of dogs of the area required is determined in consultation with a veterinarian and the responsible authority.
D. table 1. Dogs: the minimum size of the enclosure and the area required weight (kg) minimum enclosure size (m ²) the minimum floor area for one or two animals (m ²) for each additional animal add a minimum (m ²) minimum height (m) to over 20 4 8 4 2 20 4 4 2 2 the procedure laid down in the Convention during a pair or a group can be accommodated at the dog separately housed in the area, which accounts for half of the designated area (2 m ² dog weighing less than 20 kg and 4 m ² dog that weighs more than 20 kg) If this separation is essential for scientific purposes. Dog separation period must be as short as possible, and it shall in no case exceed four hours. This provision is intended to promote dog accommodation in pairs (in particular, the toxicological studies) while ensuring the need to monitor food intake and make observations after dosing.
Any other access restriction or physical limitation, for example, into a metabolic cage or limitation of motion, can significantly impair the welfare of animals. If the dog is placed in a scientific purpose metabolic cage or other enclosure, it is possible to correspond to the sizes listed above and at least let the animal completely stretch out, lie down and turn around.
4.3.2. Bitches lactation with babies and puppies with a weight of up to 7.5 kg

Bitch with breastfeeding babies need as much area as one bitch of the same weight. Calving pens must be designed so that the bitch can move to an additional partition or on the platform away from the puppies.
Suitable age to distinguish from mother to puppy is 6-9 weeks.
D. table 2. Dogs: the minimum size of the enclosure and the area needed for puppies after they are weaned Dog weight (kg) minimum enclosure size m ² minimum floor area per animal in m2 minimum height up to 0.5 m 5 4 2 over 5 and up to 10 4 2 1.0 and 1.5 over 10 to 15 4 2 above 15 and up to over 20 4 2 2 20 8 4 2 4.3.3. Flooring recommended flooring for dog accommodation facilities is a solid body with a smooth floor , non-slip surface. All dogs must ensure a comfortable, solid holiday destinations, such as inserting the enclosure increased the fur and the platform.
Dog enclosures must not use open flooring system, such as network or wire mesh floor. If loose floor coverings are justified, their installation must be done with great care, to avoid that they cause the animals pain, hurt animals or cause disease, and to restrict the animal's natural behavior. If floor pose welfare problems should consult with a veterinarian and, if necessary, they should be moved to a hard floor coverings.
From mothers not different puppies, pregnant bitches and zīdītājkuc of the enclosures may not be held with open floor system.
The outdoor paddock surface quality and finishing of the surface does not have to match the Interior Rails flooring standard – it must be easy to clean, and it may not be physically threaten the health of the dog.
4.4. Power supply (see. The General section 4.6.)
Watering (see 4.5. The General section 4.7.)
4.6. the substrate, litter and the material of the installation if the dogs nest is kept on a hard floor, litter or substrate material will facilitate the cleaning and decreasing the need regularly to wash or rinse the fence.
Pregnant bitches and zīdītājkuc to provide for sleeping with a suitable material to facilitate placing the puppy in the world and breastfeeding. Bedding materials are also needed for puppies, especially some breeds, such as Greyhound, puppies.
4.7 cleaning each populated the enclosures must be cleaned at least once a day. All the excrement and dirt gathered from all areas used by the dog at least once a day or more often if necessary.
If necessary, take the Rails wet cleaning by using a rinse hose, but not soaking the dogs. If the rails are washed with a hose, the dogs moved from the enclosure in a dry place and shall be returned to the enclosure only when the enclosure is dry.
4.8 handling (see section 4.1 and section 4.10 in General.)
4.9. Humane killing (see. The General section 4.11.)
4.10. the documentation (see. The General section 4.12.)
4.11. Identification (see. The General section 4.13.)
E. provisions for home (room) the ferrets 1. Introduction to the House (room) the ferret (Mustela furo-putori) is a predator that natural surroundings feed on small mammals, birds, fish, and invertebrates. They use sophisticated hunting techniques and tend to hide and make feed items, but do not eat food that started to perish.
Although the wild ferrets are usually solitary, keeping in captivity socially compatible groups improves the well-being of ferrets. Ferrets typically live in caves, so in captivity they must ensure the materials through which they can sneak and play, such as a pipe.
Ferrets breeds once a year, in the spring. The mating period, males are aggressive and fierce battles with foreign males. Therefore, during this time, males may need to be separated from each other and from other ferrets.
Home of the ferret is a smart, curious, playful and energetic animal, and this should be taken into account in creating home ferret housing and tending animals. The animal requires a complex fence, from which there is no possible escape and which allows to fully disclose the ferret-specific behavior.
2. environment and its control of Ventilation (see 2.1. The General section 2.1.)
2.2. The temperature in the House is appropriate for your ferret temperature range from 15 ° c to 24 ° c.
As the home of the ferrets are not well developed sweat glands may not be kept at high temperature to pārkarst animals.
2.3. the humidity, it is considered that the relative air humidity should not be regulated, because ferrets well tolerated relative humidity of wide fluctuations.
2.4. the illumination light source and light way may not cause the animal, and particular attention must be paid to home the ferrets, especially those albino specimens kept in the upper tiers of cages.
The House is suitable for ferrets natural 24-hour light-dark cycle.
If the light of fotoperiod is provided, using artificial lighting, light each day must be turned on for at least eight hours, but not more than sixteen hours.
However, it should be noted that the manipulation of the reproductive cycle will require changes in the light-dark cycle (for example, fotoperiod light part may vary from six to sixteen hours).
When natural light is not used at all, there must be a small night lights (5 – 10 lux), to allow the animals to preserve certain visibility and response reflexes.
2.5. the noise completely silent or auditory nerve stimulating home not ferrets can be harmful and make them nervous. However, the loud, strange noise and vibration may cause the ferrets with stress related disorders, therefore, from such shocks are protected. Consideration should be given to techniques of sudden and unfamiliar noise, including handling measures noise object and an external source, noise reduction home ferret ownership. Extraneous noise can be reduced by choosing an appropriate object position, and architectural design. Noise that occurs inside the object, can be controlled by the noise control materials and construction. Planning and transforming the accommodation premises, must consult with the appropriate expert.
2.6. The alarm system (see. The General section 2.6.)
3. Health (see. The General section 4.1 and 4.4.)
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation must be kept Animals socially compatible groups, unless there are scientific or animal welfare reasons for certain animals for keeping.
The mating period adults males may need to be insulated to prevent struggle and injury. However, the rest of the time males can successfully keep the groups.
Pregnant females are distinguished separately only the end of the period of pregnancy, not earlier than two weeks before calving.
If the animals are accustomed to live in groups, separation can cause strong stress to the animal. Discrimination being more than twenty-four hours, it will seriously impair the well-being of the animals. Therefore, without health or welfare-related reason, the home of the ferrets housed not longer than twenty-four hours. Separate accommodation for a period of more than twenty-four hours, the purpose of the study determines, in consultation with the zootehniķ and a competent person responsible for advising on matters of animal well-being.
If the animals are kept separate or with scientific welfare reasons, must devote additional resources to the well-being and care of the animal. All the ferrets housed separately each day should be given additional time to interface with people and must provide a Visual, hearing, and, if possible, the physical contact with other ferrets.
Taking into account the social behaviour of domestic ferrets, it should ensure regular contact with other home ferrets, accommodating the animals group and regularly gives them attention. Overall, the home of the ferrets like regular and reliable care, and it is a must, as this will improve the quality of the results and the animal becomes sabiedriskāk.
Home ferret social behaviour strengthen early age, and it is important that the baby will ensure communication with other home ferrets (for example, with babies from the same litter) and people (for example, with the total of animals). Daily care in this sensitive stage of development determines the adult home of ferret's social behavior. It has been observed: the more exposure because the animal will become steadier, and this interaction also need adult ferret's life.
4.2. improving holding home ferret enclosure design must correspond to the species and breed specific needs. Fencing must be such that it would be possible to adapt the innovations that are being introduced on the basis of the new findings.
Fences must be constructed to house the ferrets available for certain private room and to be able to control certain social contact.
In addition to the minimum floor area, which is indicated below, the enclosures must also provide space for performing actions such as elevated platforms and individual compartments. If you have boxes of deployments, they have the nest must be designed so that the young ones izvelto of mig.

Cardboard or rigid plastic pipes and boxes and paper bags will encourage curiosity and playfulness of the animals. Home of the ferrets love bath and basin.
4.3. Fence-size and flooring 4.3.1. Size of these guidelines is to promote home ferret accommodation groups and provide them with suitable housing site improvements. It should be noted that this concept and strategy for promoting home ferret keeping large compatible groups, thus saving floor space and improving animal interaction opportunities.
The animal enclosure, including partitions between the fences, is necessary to ensure home healthy and comfortable ferrets clean environment. Enclosure design and construction must be such as to ensure open and bright spaces, allowing the House to observe other ferrets, ferrets, and employees located outside the fence. Home of the ferrets must also be able to shelter their enclosure, to be in solitude and be outside the field of vision of other ferrets.
As the home of the ferrets have great ability to escape enclosure design must be such that the animals could not escape or hurt themselves trying to escape.
Enclosure recommended minimum height is 50 cm. Home ferret like climbing and this height enables you to implement appropriate improvements in the holding. Floor area must be large enough for the animal to move freely and to choose a place for sleeping, eating and toilet. To ensure sufficient environmental diversity, no fence area shall not be less than 4500 cm ². Minimum area requirements per home ferret is listed in table 1 of E..
E. table 1. Ferrets: the minimum size of the enclosure and the area required a minimum enclosure size (cm ²) the minimum floor area per animal (cm ²) minimum height (cm) up to 600 g Animals over 600 g Animals 4500 1500 50 4500 3000 50 adult males and juveniles 6000 6000 50 female 5400 5400 50 animal fences must be rectangular, not square, so as to promote animal lokomotor activity.
Limitation of less area scientific purposes, such as metabolic cage, can significantly reduce the animal's well-being.
4.3.2. the recommended flooring flooring home ferret accommodation facilities have suffered continuous flooring with a smooth, non-slip surface. Additional furnishing barriers, such as sleeping and platform, will provide all home ferrets warm and comfortable resting place.
Home ferret enclosures must not use open flooring system, such as network or wire mesh floor.
4.4. Power supply (see. The General section 4.6.)
Watering (see 4.5. The General section 4.7.)
4.6. the substrate, litter and installing all home dens ferrets must provide sleeping material. In addition, you must also provide the materials of construction, for example the mig, hay, straw or paper. It is believed that the additional holding enhancements provide deep litter system.
A good practice is to use a litter or substrate material to facilitate cleaning and minimize the need for fencing regularly wash/rinse with the hose.
4.7 cleaning animals enclosures rinsing with a hose, ferrets may not get wet. If the rails are washed with a hose, home moved from the perimeter of the ferrets in a dry place and shall be returned to the enclosure only when the enclosure is dry.
Home of the ferrets is a characteristic tendency to defecate against vertical surfaces in a certain part of the enclosure. Toilet boxes may reduce other Rails area cleaning frequency.
Toilet box and/or sites that the animal used as a toilet, has to be cleaned as often as necessary but at least once a day.
The rest of the enclosure cleaning frequency is determined depending on factors such as population density, fence design and reproduction stage stage, such as the gestation period.
4.8 handling (see. The General section 4.10.)
4.9. Humane killing (see. The General section 4.11.)
4.10. the documentation (see. The General section 4.12.)
4. Identification (see 11. The General section 4.13.)
F. provisions relating to non-human primates, primates a) General provisions 1. introduction of primates, non-human primates, holding laboratory creates a number of problems, which are typical of the work of other mammals used in the laboratory. Primates, non-human primates, are wild animals, and most of them live in the trees. Since primates are wild animals, they are more boisterous as it progressed than the domesticated species of animals and extremely strong and does not respond to the familiar and disturbing stimuli. Unlike the pieradinātaj species are bred for their primates friendliness toward people and the little aggressiveness. Friendly contact between the common and the baby at an early age will reduce the animal's bailīgum because the animals learn that familiar people are not dangerous, but the animals will keep most of the properties that are characteristic of the species in the wild. Compared with trees not resident in laboratory mammals Primate, non-human primates, carnivores, fled from the land in a vertical plane rather than in a horizontal plane; even those species that live in the trees relatively small, looking for shelter in the trees or on the wall. So the fence height must be sufficient for the animal to climb high enough to feel safe. Extremely important precincts of primates is the allocation of space. It is very important that animals can use the greatest possible portion of the enclosure volume, because as the animals living in the trees require a three-dimensional space. For this to be possible, there must be suitable for the anvil and climbing structures.
In addition to the wild nature and the climbing habits of primates, non-human primates, have developed cognitive ability, complex feed uzlasīšan techniques and social behaviour. Therefore, the expressions they needed for the implementation of a complex environment. However, the structure of the Group should be the one to be maximally reduced its natural manifestation, which causes the animals stress and suffering, or which may cause injury.
Scientific studies of primates, used for non-human primates have been born in captivity, and, if practicable, developed on the site, to avoid stress caused by transport. Captive-born animals age, parents and health status is known, and they are grown in accordance with standardized zootechnical practices. If the primates, non-human primates must be imported, it would be advisable to buy a familiar place that adhere to high standards of animal welfare and care. They may not be the zoonotic diseases. Wild animals captive use is permitted only in exceptional circumstances, because they can threaten the health of employees, their background is unknown, and most likely, they will fear the people. In some cases, there is a high mortality of animals the animal capturing locations or during transportation of animals on the holding of animals.
For species that are normally grown and used in laboratories, further information is available. To properly ensure the needs of other species (or if the observed expressions or reproductive problems), it is necessary to consult with experienced professionals and the Primate care staff.
2. environment and its control of Ventilation (see 2.1. The General section 2.1.)
2.2. Temperature whereas the captive animals have limited options to implement natural techniques to adapt to climate change, the laboratory animal for keeping suitable temperature range are not always attuned to the natural environment. Overall, the temperature is optimum must comply with both the animal and the well-being of employees. If you use an outdoor enclosure, they must provide shelter from the weather and continuous access to indoor heated enough. This condition is especially important for farms that use large outdoor enclosures to reduce the risk of animal apsaldēšan and neonatal death in winter months.
2.3. Humidity although some primates, non-human primates, live in tropical rain forests, which have a high moisture level, but other regions, dry Labs dzīvojošaj colonies do not need to provide similar conditions. In General, relative air humidity from 40% to 70% is suitable for both animals and care workers. Care must be taken to avoid the animals are kept too low air humidity (see separate species) or to the animals, especially the new world monkeys that are susceptible to respiratory diseases, long would not be kept in conditions which do not meet the relative humidity range.
2.4. Lighting

Most laboratory Primate, non-human primates, requires a 12-hour light-dark cycle. Some species may need artificial brightening and dusk lighting. For a night of species such as the trivirgat, in particular the Aot labor day should be used in dull red light lighting so that you can observe the animals to their active period and could probably make a customary care arrangements. If it is possible, Primate, non-human primates, holding rooms must be with Windows because they have natural light and can improve animal housing.
2.5. the noise As the holding technique improvement and sudden loud noise reduction, you can use a soothing background sound, such as music or radio broadcasts, but this technique is not intended for permanent use. Music can also have a calming effect on the animals stress. For most species the sound level consistent with a sound level that is recommended for employees, but also it should be noted that some species, such as the marmoset (Callithrix spp.) can hear ultrasound. Must ensure a low background noise level, and only temporary it may exceed 65 decibels.
2.6. Alarm systems for most higher primates developed, non-human primates, the hearing resembles the human ear; to scare the animals, must not use sirens. As an alternative means of signalling all spaces you can use the employees see the flares.
3. Health while captive-bred animal use should ensure that the animals are healthy and do not pose a danger of contamination to the employees or other institution housed primates, of all newly acquired animals must be completely filled in, and by the health certificate for the import must be placed in quarantine. During this period must be carefully observed the imported animal health situation and take the necessary serological and bacteriological, parasitological examination the competent laboratories.
To all the primates living in the colony, non-human primates should be made subject to veterinary supervision and must periodically carry out diagnostic checks. Their close relationship with the people determine their susceptibility to many diseases and parasites that are common to both species and can sometimes threaten the health of both species. It is therefore extremely important to take regular medical check-ups are also employees. If an employee can potentially pose a risk to animal health, this employee is to be prevented any possible contact with animals. Special care is to be ensured in animals that could be infected with dangerous pathogens to man. Employees must be informed and must take the necessary measures to reduce the risk of infection. Animal life must make records about the State of health of the animal. Sudden illness and death investigation is to be entrusted to a competent staff and laboratories, and it must be made very carefully, taking into account the potential zoonotic diseases.
Animals from different geographical areas must be strictly distinguished from one another until you have checked their health status.
Outdoor enclosures is particularly important pest control.
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation of the Primate, non-human primates, social behaviour, holding improvement strategies and care must consult with a person who is competent in these matters.
Whereas laboratories used by primates, non-human primates are social animals, they must be housed in combination with one or more compatible representatives of the same species. To ensure compatibility, significant group is a group of laboratory primates in the correct formation. Compatibility and the resulting group breakdown by age and sex of animals depends on the species. When you create a group, must be taken into account in social organization peculiar to the species. However, the conditions of captivity, where there is not enough space to organize the expanded pursuit or of a group outcast animal, natural emigration group, age and sex distribution may be inappropriate and may require changes in the group structure. For example, Macaque groups native composition, which includes several males and several females, can be replaced with the structure of the harem. The group can also be determined in the trial, creating, for example, same-sex groups or peer groups. It is important that the Group should provide a Visual perimeter barriers that would allow animal shelter outside the field of vision of other animals, and several escape routes, which make it possible to avoid attacks and prevent dominant specimens to deny access to the underlying animal in certain parts of the enclosure.
After you create or regrouping animals should be carefully observed, and there must be a programme of action to develop aggressive behavior for the control and reduction.
If the animals are housed in same-sex groups, the opposite gender group is not desirable to accommodate close to one another, because then the males can become aggressive. Animals can not accommodate social group only if it has a veterinary justification or if requested by the pilot. Individual accommodation is allowed only with the health or welfare-related reasons; It must be the shortest possible span of time, and it should be carefully monitored. Separate accommodation for purposes of the study determines, in consultation with the zootehniķ and a competent person responsible for advising on matters of animal well-being. Individually housed in welfare and care of primates should be given additional resources. If not possible the trials involved housing large groups, the best solution might be compatible with keeping same-sex pairs.
If the animal is required for a time separated from the group, for example, to try a preparation, the return of the animals in the Group should be carefully monitored, because there can be changed in the social organisation of the Group and the animals can attack. The animal may be placed in a separate enclosure that is inserted in the enclosure or in the Group next to it, or can distinguish between all groups of animals, not long after the Group again totally bringing.
4.1.1. the Reproduction of gender relations and in proportion to the number of animals in captivity are dependent on the species concerned. It is important to ensure that the space available in the volume and diversity would be sufficient to eliminate the animal, in particular low status group females and occupying the new animals, bullying. In polygamous species one sex must be provided for, in order to ensure that all females are paired and gives birth to live young. If the group contains more than one male, to make sure that the compatibility between the males in the group. Monogām species there family groups, comprising two parents and two or more generations of offspring.
An important condition for future breeding animals is that young animals need to grow stable groups, preferably in groups in which they were born, along with their mothers. This ensures that the offspring parenting skills and social relationships within the hierarchical structure of developing properly.
The animals are without intervention could successfully raise one baby or twins. But it is a necessary action Protocol in case the mother of baby refuses to reduce the suffering of animals.
4.1.2. the Separation from his mother's new cercopithecoid (cercopithecus) characteristic of slow development, postpartum which lasts several years, depending on the species and their dependence on the parent lasts up to 8-12 months of age. During this period they are vigilant in the protection of the mother in exploring the environment and socialise, consulting the public.
Interact with others or even helping a newborn to take care of them, are acquired in rearing skills. Newborn separation of colonies produces stress both mother and newborn animals. Therefore, until the young animals become habitual, it is recommended to leave the colony in which they were born. If the same animal welfare reasons it is necessary to distinguish it from its mother earlier than usual, this animal is recommended to insert the well organized group to undermine social development, animal behaviour, Physiology and the immune system. Separation from the mother at a suitable age range for each species may vary.
4.2. improving the holding environment must be such that the animal is able to exercise its the daily operations of the complex program. In view of the differences of different species of natural behavior, living space equipment will depend on the species that live in them. Enclosure for animals must be able to implement a wide range of natural expressions, to provide a sense of security, as well as provide sufficient diversity to the animal in this environment can run, walk, climbing and jumping. We recommend that you also use a key stimulant materials. The animal must be provided the opportunity to control the environment. environment of the animal it is necessary to introduce regular upgrades, such as small changes in the design of the equipment enclosure or layout and animal feeding.
4.3. Fence-size and flooring

Primates, non-human primates must be accommodated without daring them to inadequate action and to be able to put sufficient customary activities.
Enclosure size of each species are dependent on the following factors: – the size of an adult animal (although young animals are smaller, they are generally more active than adults, so they need as much space in the physical development and games);
-enough space for complex and interesting environment and the size of the group, taking.
4.3.1. Size of primates of all species, non-human primates, accommodation in compliance with the following principles:-cage height must be sufficient for the animal to flee in a vertical plane and sit on the stool or shelf, with the tail without touching the floor;
-the animal must be provided the opportunity to implement the species-specific lokomotor and behavioral manifestations;
-the site must be sufficient so that it would be possible to improve the holding;
-the animal must not be housed separately from other animals, unless there are exceptional circumstances;
-enclosures must not be deployed vertically above the other two or more lines.
4.3.2. The outdoor enclosure if this is possible, it is necessary to ensure that non-human primates, primates, access to the outdoor enclosure. Outdoor enclosures typically used in larger primates, non-human primates, breeding. Such Rails has the advantage that it is possible to insert the animals natural environment-specific equipment and that they can be kept or used in the experiments the animals in the reserve, if not needed for precise climate control and outdoor air temperature is suitable for these animals. The outdoor enclosure is usually made of metal, but you can also use other materials (such as wood), if they are sufficiently protected against the weather. Are authorized to determine the toxicologist's wood type, if one is available in wood composition analysis certificate. Wooden structures are easy to maintain and replace, they can be installed on the site according to the individual order, and wood is a natural material and less gaudy. To protect the wooden enclosure design, the design of the load-bearing enclosure must be constructed from the wood that rots or animals which are protected by a network or non-toxic processing feature. Enclosure base can be made from concrete or can be used for this purpose in natural vegetation. If the enclosure floor is made of concrete, it can be covered with suitable non-toxic substrate material. Part of the enclosure must be covered with a roof, so the animals can come out in wet weather and also to provide protection from the Sun, or the need to provide special shelters, under which the animals may shelter from the weather. If outdoor enclosures are available, Primate, non-human primates, used also in winter. However, you must also provide heat to the indoor enclosure. It is recommended that an indoor enclosure sizes comply with the minimum requirements laid down in order to avoid cluttering the fencing from adverse weather conditions. As the outdoor enclosure provides extra space, it is not necessary to establish this fencing minimum sizes. If different rails are interconnected, for example, if the outdoor enclosure is connected to fencing indoors, you must provide more than one path connecting to the dominant animals drive the dead animals not with lower social status in the group.
4.3.3. Accommodation indoors although rails are usually made of metal, more reassuring introduction environmental building can be successfully applied to other materials such as wood, laminate and glass.
Whereas a substantial enclosure parameter is the height of the fence enclosures all primates, non-human primates, it is necessary to provide for the possibility of climbing, jumping and shelter to high placed perches. The walls can be covered with the network, which the animals use the climbing, but must also ensure sufficient diagonal branch or perch on which to sit at all enclosure housed animals. If you use the network, you must make sure that it does not savaino, the animal wedged in a network of animal limbs.
Hard flooring advantage is that such a floor it is possible to overlay with the substrate material on which it is possible to scatter in the feed, encouraging feed uzlasīšan and collection. Non-human primates, primates, requires space physical activity, but the veterinary or experimental purposes for a short period of time can lock up into smaller enclosures. Smaller spaces can be created, with the partitions dividing the main fence and/or using transportable enclosure back wall, as well as inserting the enclosure cage, two interconnected sites or adding enclosures intended for physical activities, animal trials for enclosures. This incarceration technique has the advantage that the animals have access to the living room and the members of the group, but at the same time is a separate animal feeding, cleaning and use procedures, for example, enable the preparation and blood sampling.
If, for a given trial requires a separate accommodation of animals in a small enclosure, trial investigator must be able to justify such duration of detention and imprisonment, against impact on the well-being of the animal with the trial requirements and scientific value. Such restrictions must be valued scientists, zoologists and competent persons who are responsible for advising animal wellness issues.
More room for physical activity can provide if Primate, non-human primates, large groups there, rather than in pairs. The animals can be distinguished from other animals, training (see 4.8 below) or forcing the animals to run through the tunnel, which is inserted into the trap.
Additional terms are listed in the recommended minimum enclosure size for various species.
4.4. Power shall ensure the feed content and presentation diversity, to encourage interest in the animals feed and improve animal holding. The feed will promote its dispersion uzlasīšan, but if the food distribution is difficult to ensure that the feed is to be handed to the obtaining of the animal should be devoted to specific efforts, for example, teaches the whole fruit and vegetables or putting food in the feeder opening requires specific actions of the animal. Power devices and structures must be designed and located so as to prevent food spoilage. Vitamin c is an essential nutrient components of primates. New world monkeys require a certain amount of vitamin D3. Whereas the rich feeding can make animals queasy, balanced diet is recommended to ensure the admission standard feed to present the first day's meal in the morning when the animals are hungry and cannot choose a different feed. Feed can scatter in the enclosure to prevent dominant animals receive the entire group for the food intake. If the feed is expected to adversely affect the diversity of the trial results, the animals have to be fed with the uniform food. In this case, the standard feed can be varied by changing its appearance, colour and taste.
Watering (see 4.5. The General section 4.7.)
4.6. the substrate, litter and installing Some dens primates, non-human primates, such as certain prosimian (Prosimi) requires the installation of nesting material such as wood, wool, dry leaves or straw. Non-toxic substrate material, such as wood chips, pellets with a reduced proportion of dust or tattered paper is valuable material, which promotes indoor enclosures feed uzlasīšan. The outdoor enclosure is suitable for grass, various plants, wood or bark chips.
4.7 cleaning (see. The General section 4.9.)
4.8 handling work with primates, non-human primates are used in different freedom restriction – in the range of fences with sliding partitions and capture of animals by hand or with the network until the animal sleep DART. Although these interacting with human primates are concerned, it is advisable to train animals to work together to reduce such exposure caused by stress. Animal training is the most important aspect of animal care, in particular the long-distance studies. Training provides the intellectual animal activity and facilitate the work of the caregiver. Primates, non-human primates, reacts to sounds and Visual stimuli, and using simple techniques, "sparked" the animals can train you to work in small procedures, such as blood sampling.
You should regularly analyze the animal's reaction to the training and procedures and should be carefully considered especially impervious to the continued use of animals in experiments.
Although it is possible to train the animals to perform tasks, between repeated trials of the animals is necessary to ensure sufficient rest periods.
4.9. Humane killing (see. The General section 4.11.)
4.10 documentation

For each animal record the details. Specify the following information: animal species, gender, age, weight, origin, clinical and diagnostic information, current and previous accommodation system, test history and other information which is essential for care and experimental procedures, such as reports on the animal's behavior or status, and for members of the Group recommended/relations group.
4.11. Identification of All institution living primates, non-human primates, before it is weaned and must be assigned a permanent unique identification code of the laboratory. Animal identification can ensure, through proper charged on the neck with a strap of Medallion or tattoos of the large species. Accessible locations on the body (most animals to the wrists, lower-back) you can enter the chip. Whereas it is essential to ensure easy recognition of certain animals, some laboratories have successfully introduced in the names of animals, because you can easily use the dominant and subordinate animals for identification, and it is believed that the name giving animals the care staff respect for primates.
5. the training of workers must be trained in animal care, grooming and training. Animal caregivers and with primates, non-human primates, researchers working in the training must include information about the specific animal species. Workers must be informed of the species biological and behavioral characteristics and requirements, the necessary improvements to the holding, the animals and separation techniques and social dynamics. Training should include information on the health and safety of workers at work with primates, non-human primates, including the potential zoonoses, as well as therapy.
6. Transport If it is possible, the animals are transported in compatible pairs. However, adult animals may need to be transported separately.
(b) additional provisions) marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.) for accommodation and care introduction 1 Marmoset (Callithrix spp.) are small, mostly living in the trees of South America day primates. In the wild they inhabit 1-4 hectares large areas of extended family groups from three to fifteen animals, consisting of both parents and their offspring. The females have a litter twice a year (most often twins, but not rare in captivity three Cubs in one litter), and for the little ones take care all members of the group. Dominant females females observed downstream in the presence of certain hormonal and behavioral mechanisms that inhibit their reproductive ability. Marmoset (Callithrix spp.) feed on fruit and insects and is popular among sveķkok, feeding on the tree resin; However in captivity they carved and will mark the page with the smell of other trees. Feed uzlasīšan and capture marmoset (Callithrix spp.) take up 50% of your time. Marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.) life expectancy in captivity is from fifteen to twenty years.
Tamarīn (Saguin spp.) is in many ways similar to marmoset (Callithrix spp.). They live in South America and Central America, is not much larger than a marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and inhabit a wider area from 30 to 100 hectares. Tamarīn (Saguin spp.) are necessary for larger areas because they consume more fruit, gouge out the trees and not the resin eating only when they are easily available.
Most of the marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.) reluctantly leave the trees to climb down to the ground, and often marks its territory with scent.
2. environment and its control of Ventilation (see 2.1. The General section 2.1.)
2.2. Temperature Marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.) are held in the temperature range from 23 ° C to 28 C, although the tropical origin, they are suitable also for the slightly higher temperature.
2.3. Humidity relative air humidity must be provided in the range of 40% to 70%, although the animals tolerated well above the 70% moisture.
2.4. Lighting is recommended for fotoperiod, which is no less than twelve hours of light. Light source has to be evenly illuminate the entire holding space. However, the animal enclosures must also provide shadow.
2.5. Noise, particular attention must be paid to the marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.) audibility range in ultrasound.
2.6. the alarm system (see. 2.6. Section General rules about primates, non-human primates.)
3. Health (see. (3) General rules on primates, non-human primates.)
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation Marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.) should be accommodating family groups that consist of non-familial male and female pairs and one or more generations of offspring. Spare animals groups emerging from the compatible one sex and age of the specimens or young animals. Care must be taken not to create a group of relatives of the same sex in adult animals, as they can be too aggressively against one another.
During the tests, the marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.) can usually keep compatible pairs of the same sex (the twins, parents/offspring) or using contraception, male and female. If the trial procedures or veterinary care for animals in need of separate accommodation, its duration should be as short as possible, and separate the animals accommodated must be on vision, hearing, and smell the reach of distance from other members of its species.
Breeding pairs form only when the animals are about 2 years old. Family groups the parent presence overpowering female shoot ovulation cycle. The new breeding pairs should not hold the parent family as this would upset their reproductive rate.
Suitable to distinguish the age of the mother depends on the animal's range, but the separation should not be less than 8 month. If the animals are intended to be used for breeding, they must keep the family group to at least 13 months to properly master the rearing.
4.2. improving holding Marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.) in natural behavior suggests that the environment is not free to be a complex and challenging, because species typical behavior in the promotion of these factors are more important than the size of the enclosure. The recommended equipment of natural and artificial materials (such as wood or PCV)-anvil increases, swings, rope. It is essential to vary the placement of these items, and persistence, to allow the animals to meet their specific movements and leaps. Wooden perches allow marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.) to disclose their specific behavior-tree deteriorated and markup using the smell glands. In addition, the enclosures must be also convenient and safe resting place, for example, inserting the enclosure box nest deployments because the animals they can use the rest, sleeping and also a refuge in the event of danger. Although Visual contact between family groups usually stimulates the animals sometimes, especially some of the marmoset (Callithrix spp.) species, it is necessary to insert the opaque partitions and/or increase the distance between fences to prevent territorial interactions. Power devices that stimulate natural behaviors of animals, should be hung or placed in the upper part of the enclosure, given that animals do not like to walk down to the ground. Wood chips substrate encourages animals to gather up fallen on the floor. Usually different design and holding devices to improve into a fence in the lower part of the expanding fence space and its use. Marmoset (Callithrix spp.) that gouge out holes in the trees resin, very useful is a resin filled the hollow spikes.
4.3. Fence-size and flooring Marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.) of the available capacity and the enclosure of space vertical height is significantly more important indicators than the enclosure floor area because they are living animals, trees which escape from danger, fled in a vertical plane. The minimum size of the enclosure and the schedule depends on the target of animal husbandry (breeding for the purpose of holding items in inventory or use short or long trials), and they must be placed in the device's environmental diversity.
F. table 1. Marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.): the minimum size of the enclosure and the area required minimum floor area of enclosures for 1 * or 2 animals with offspring up to 5 months old (m2) minimum space per additional animal over 5 months (m3) minimum enclosure height (m) * Marmoset (Callithrix spp.) 0.5 0.2 1.5 Tamarīn (Saguin spp.) 1.5 0.2 1.5 * a separate holding of animals is allowed only in exceptional cases (see. 4.1.).
Enclosure to the ceiling should be at least 1.8 m height from the floor.
4.4. Power supply

Marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.) require a large amount of protein, and the menu should include enough Vitamin D3, because these animals cannot synthesize Vitamin D3 without UV-B radiation.
Watering (see 4.5. The General section 4.7.)
4.6. the substrate, litter and material (see the installing the mig. 4.6 section general rules regarding primates, non-human primates.)
4.7 cleaning Marmoset (Callithrix spp.) and tamarīn (Saguin spp.) areas for marking often used their scent glands, and the familiar smell of complete elimination can cause behavioral disorders in animals. Alternatively, fencing and holding equipment to improve cleaning and disinfection techniques partially preserved areas markup smell and have a beneficial effect on the psychological well-being of the animals, reducing the need to dive into the territory of the markup too.
4.8. Handling regular care and interaction with people promoting animal at monitoring and settling-trial conditions and facilitates training to cooperate in some procedures. If it is necessary to capture and transport the animals stress reduction can be used for installing nest boxes.
4.9. Humane killing (see. The General section 4.11.)
4.10. the documentation (see. 4.10. the section general rules about primates that non-human primates.)
4.11. Identification (see. 4.11. the section general rules about primates that non-human primates.)
5. staff training (see. paragraph 5 of the General rules for the primates, which are non-human primates.)
6. Transport (see point 6 of the General provisions of the primates, which are non-human primates.) c) additional provisions for vāverpērtiķ (by Saimir spp.) for accommodation and care introduction 1 Vāverpērtiķ (for Saimir spp.) live in the tropical forests of the South American continent in different height. Different regions live in different subspecies, of which the most common is s. SC. boliviens (blackheads) and s. SC. sciure (olive) subspecies. In addition to the differences in coat colour and appearance of the face, there is also the slight differences in their behavior. The adult weight can range from 600 to 1100 g and males are significantly heavier than females. Put on his haunches, adult animals of approximately 40 cm height pricks up his. Vāverpērtiķ (Saimir in spp.) are typical tree of animals depending on the temperature of the living tree canopy at different levels. However, foraging or young animals, playing, they tend to come down on Earth. Feeling the danger, they are sheltering in the high trees. Depending on the thickness of the canopy, they can move, jumping from branch to branch. In the wild they live in relatively large groups, females and young animals living with the dominant breeding males, whereas adults males who do not have the reproductive stage, remain in the periphery, creating their own group. Vāverpērtiķ captivity (Saimir of SPP.) would live up to twenty-five years of age.
2. environment and its control of Ventilation (see 2.1. The General section 2.1.)
2.2. Temperature although this species live in different climatic conditions in different tropical forests above sea level, including mountain regions, temperature changes or the Pack of animal colonies inhabited area is small. It is therefore necessary to prevent significant temperature fluctuations in the short term. Wild animals adapt to the ambient temperature, choosing the appropriate level of the canopy (e.g. weather conditions, producing vēsāko nearer to the ground). Although the fit is a room temperature of 22 ° c in the range of up to 26 ° c, the animals in motion limited space will be suitable for temperatures around 26 ° c.
2.3. The humidity this species suitable for relative air humidity in the range of 40% to 70%.
2.4. Lighting As the rainforests of the inhabitants of vāverpērtiķ (in Saimir spp.) are dispersed in suitable lighting. However, animals which are not available in the outdoor enclosure, it is necessary to provide a high intensity light that look like daylight. Light spectrum must comply with daylight, though light does not have to be as bright as the Sun. Fit is a 12-hour light-dark cycle. Daylight period must not be less than eight hours. Additional UV radiation or temporary UV lamp light provides the necessary synthesis of vitamin D3 in the skin.
noise (see 2.5. 2.5. the section general rules about primates, non-human primates.)
2.6. The alarm system (see section 2.6 General rules about primates, non-human primates.)
3. Health Vāverpērtiķ (Saimir in spp.) can be hidden (the herpesvir Saimirin Herpes 1, syn. For tamarin, Herpesvir T, Herpesvir of platyrrhina Herpes) host, which can prove to be fatal to marmoset (Callithrix spp.). It is therefore recommended that these two species do not hold together, if one checks have confirmed that the colonies of this virus carriers.
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation taking into account vāverpērtiķ (in Saimir spp.) in a natural social organization shapes, it is easy to keep large same sex groups. However, males and females of the group must be properly separated from one another to prevent cīnīšano. Special attention should be given to the identification of specimens of the neglected group because vāverpērtiķ (Saimir in spp.) is not high in aggressive behaviour.
Breeding of the Group of 7 to 10 females there along with one or two males. Breeding groups must be in Visual contact with the other groups, but there is a need to prevent this group from the physical contact.
Newborn animals the mother wears on his back until 6 months of age. However, a relatively early age they start to leave the mother to explore the surroundings, or they begin to carry close relatives. Thus they socialise and often with sound help exploring the existing threats and benefits. The animals began to pick up the solid food from the age of three months. However, it is not recommended for new animals to distinguish from their families before they reach six months of age, or if you need feeding by hand, you can put the other fellow female, if possible, in the same group in which they are born. Vāverpērtiķ of sexual maturity (in Saimir spp.) reaches the age of 3.
After the creation of breeding groups must not interfere with, not to reduce the breeding activity. Therefore, significant environmental or social change breeding group are not desirable.
4.2. improving holding It as vāverpērtiķ (by Saimir spp.) are living animals in the trees, you must provide the climbing through the wire mesh walls, Poles, chains and ropes. Although vāverpērtiķ (Saimir of SPP.) would jump from one design to another, they prefer rock and skraidel through horizontal and diagonal branches or placed the rope passes. Relaxation and sleeping animals will use the anvil and the boxes in which they can nest sit huddled together.
Solid fence foundations, coated with the substrate material, the feed uzlasīšan and rotaļāšano. Enclosure for animals must have diversity in which they could run their activities, shelter from the other team members and choose a pleasant temperature and lighting.
4.3. Fence-size and flooring f. table 2. Vāverpērtiķ (by Saimir spp.): the minimum size of the enclosure and the area required minimum floor area 1 * or 2 animals (m2) minimum space per additional animal over 6 months (m3) minimum enclosure height (m) animal keeping individual 2.0 0.5 1.8 is permissible only in exceptional cases (see. 4.1.). Vāverpērtiķ (Saimir in spp.), we recommend that you keep the Group four or more animals.
4.4. Power Vāverpērtiķ (Saimir in spp.) is required to take in more protein. Like other species living in South America, also vāverpērtiķ (in Saimir spp.) in addition to vitamin C requires a large amount of vitamin D3. Pregnant females are sensitive to folic acid deficiency, so they must ensure the synthetic forms of sufficient quantity of powder or liquid containing the food additive.
Watering (see 4.5. The General section 4.7.)
4.6. the substrate, litter and material (see the installing the mig. 4.6 section general rules about primates, non-human primates.)
4.7 cleaning (see. The General section 4.9.)
4.8 handling Vāverpērtiķ (Saimir in spp.) can teach to close in to get food or drink. Vāverpērtiķ (by Saimir spp.) can also learn to solve certain tasks to pay receive coveted. To be able to catch the examination or treatment procedures, they must be trained to enter the trap cages equipped in the aisles or nodalīto in the enclosures.
4.9. Humane killing (see. The General section 4.11.)
4.10. the documentation (see. 4.10. the section general rules about primates, non-human primates.)
4.11. Identification (see. 4.11. the section general rules about primates, non-human primates.)
5. staff training (see. paragraph 5 of the General rules for Primate, non-human primates.)
6. Transport

(See. paragraph 6 of the General provisions on primates, non-human primates.)
d) additional provisions for macaques and the Green monkey accommodation and care for the 1. introduction throughout the three most commonly used laboratory species of macaques (the Macac mulatt (rhesus monkey), the fascicular Macac (long-tailed Macaque or krabjēdāj in cynomolg or in macaques) and the arctoid Macac (voles or bear Macaque)) originating in Asia. The Green monkey (cercopithecus aethiop or Chloroceb to the aethiop) is a Macaque monkeys from Africa similar to that are sometimes kept in laboratories. In the wild these species all live in matriarhāl in mixed groups. Found in both males and females have a dominate female of the hierarchy, and the bar inside the form the asinsradinieč group. Social links are stronger between relatives and males searching females period in competing for access to females. Two species-rhesus monkey (the Macac mulatt) and bear macaques (the arctoid Macac) – live in warm and temperate climates, while krabjēdāj in macaques (the fascicular Macac) live only in tropical climates, especially in the priority given to the mangrovj bog, and often uzlas the feed water. Of these four species of macaque krabjēdāj (the fascicular Macac) is most pronounced in primates living in the trees, while most are staying on Earth bear Macaque (the arctoid Macac). Green monkey (cercopithecus aethiop/Chloroceb to the aethiop) occurring in different places in Africa, including in open woods and lawns are excluded, the mountains, the climatic conditions that range from the warm temperatures to more tropical. Rhesus monkeys (the Macac mulatt) characteristic of seasonal breeding, while the other species breed in captivity throughout the year. All species are mostly vegetarians, although their diet may include insects. Macaques and the Green monkey (cercopithecus aethiop/Chloroceb to the aethiop) tend to live in captivity for more than thirty years.
2. environment and its control of Ventilation (see 2.1. The General section 2.1.)
2.2. The temperature in the rhesus monkey (the Macac mulatt) and bear macaques (the arctoid Macac) ability to adapt to the temperate climatic conditions; also, the Green monkey (cercopithecus aethiop/Chloroceb to the aethiop) can adapt and are suitable for temperatures ranging from 16 ° C to 25 ° c. Krabjēdāj in macaques (the fascicular Macac) is suitable for temperature ranges from 21 ° C to 28 ° C, although they will go out significantly vēsāko conditions.
humidity (see 2.3. 2.3. Section General rules about primates, non-human primates.)
2.4. Lighting (see. 2.4. Section General rules about primates, non-human primates.)
noise (see 2.5. 2.5. the section general rules about primates, non-human primates.)
2.6. The alarm system (see. 2.6. Section General rules about primates, non-human primates.)
3. Health, old world monkeys are the most susceptible species against tuberculosis, and much of the Asian Macaque living in the wild are of hidden Herpes B virus (herpes simia, a herpesvir Cercopithicin 1) host. The Green monkey (cercopithecus aethiop/Chloroceb to the aethiop) may be susceptible to Marburg virus and Ebola virus.
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation the Macaques and the Green monkey (cercopithecus aethiop/Chloroceb to the aethiop) should be kept in groups. It is recommended that larger groups, if it is possible. Same-sex groups are the easiest to create different animals from the mother. Always when the animals are housed in social groups, employees are monitored to the level of aggression in the Group would be reduced to a minimum. Outbreaks of aggression is very characteristic of the Green monkey (cercopithecus aethiop/Chloroceb to the aethiop) colonies, especially after the Group has experienced some turbulence.
Captive breeding group usually consists of one male and 6-12 females. Larger groups can include two males to improve fertilisation. If one of the males is significantly higher than the other males, among them there is not much competition. If using a connected fence, should be carefully monitored in aggression between females when the male is outside the field of vision in a different enclosure.
The age at which young Macaques are weaned from her mother, is a major factor breeding females, the upcoming breeding animals and animals kept in reserve. Young should not be distinguished from the mother before they have reached 8 months old; separation is best taken within 12 months of age. This condition does not apply to babies, which my mother could not care for the low lactation, injury or disease. To prevent serious behavior disorders, hand-fed animals is possible to integrate a compatible group. Separation of animals from the mother sooner than six months of age can cause distress and permanent deviations in behavior and physiology of the animal.
4.2. improving holding these animals have developed cognitive abilities, and will require diverse environment. Hard floor that can be covered with a non-toxic material, substrate feed hiding and uzlasīšan. Enclosures must be placed in the vertical and diagonal structures, which can be used for climbing animals, thus allowing the use of all animals in the enclosure. Shelves and the stool must not be placed on top of the other. Between the shelf and the enclosure wall must leave space for the animal free to place your own tail.
Useful are the ladders, perches and toys to chew. Larger enclosures for macaques krabjēdāj (for fascicular Macac) particularly useful will be comfortable in the water tank completely emptied, which will also be rhesus monkeys (the Macac mulatt). Krabjēdāj in macaques (the fascicular Macac) feed intended to throw the water animals dive, to obtain it. Also effective is a proven power devices (from the dispersion of the substrate material of the feed to special feeders where the opening of the animals is to take certain actions). Suitable foods can be placed also on the roof of the net in order to encourage access to food animals in the upper part of the enclosure. Whereas innovation is important, the enclosure must be available to the animals toys that should be changed regularly.
4.3. Fence-size and flooring To the animals feel safe enclosure design and internal dimensions must be such as to allow the animals to be able to climb over the fence of the human eye level.
The animals are housed in groups, recommended that the animals exceeds F. 3. the table shows the minimum number of animals in the group, and enclosures that are greater than those indicated in the table 3.
F. table 3. Macaques and the Green monkey (cercopithecus aethiop/Chloroceb to the aethiop): the minimum size of the enclosure and the area needed * minimum enclosure size (m2) minimum enclosure volume (m3) minimum space per animal (m3) minimum enclosure height (m) animals up to 3 years of age * 2.0 3.6 1.0 1.8 animals from 3 years of age *** 2.0 3.6 1.8 1.8 animals which are kept for breeding purposes **** 3.5 2.0 * separate holding of animals is allowed only in exceptional cases (see,. 4.1.).
** The minimum size of the enclosure can hold no more than 3 animals.
The minimum size of the enclosure can hold no more than 2.
Breeding colonies extra space/space is not required for young animals up to 2 years of age, which are held together with the mother.
Animals should be housed in indoor enclosures, giving them broad enough environment to all animals have access to at least the required minimum area that are specified in Table F.
Under certain climatic conditions, breeding and replacement animals may be kept in outdoor enclosures where they provided shelter to hide under adverse weather conditions.
4.4. Power supply (see. 4.4 section general rules about primates that non-human primates.)
Watering (see 4.5. The General section 4.7.)
4.6. the substrate, litter and material (see the installing the mig. 4.3 and 4.6 section general rules about primates, non-human primates.)
4.7 cleaning (see. The General section 4.9.)
4.8 handling Macaques can easily train you to work everyday procedures, for example, they allow you to do the injections and remove the blood samples, as well as gladly come enclosure, which can reach them.
4.9. Humane killing (see. The General section 4.11.)
4.10. the documentation (see. 4.10. the section general rules about primates, non-human primates.)
4.11. Identification (see. 4.11. the section general rules about primates, non-human primates.)
5. staff training (see paragraph 5 of the General rules for Primate, non-human primates.)
6. Transport (see point 6 of the General provisions on primates, non-human primates.) e) additional provisions for the accommodation and care of Baboon 1. introduction Is found in three genera of baboons, Papi, Theropithec and Mandrill – from which most often use the papi Papi (Guinea baboons), and Papi the Anubis (olive baboons).

Baboons live in forests and savannas, including dry steppes and deserts of the mountains. They are arrays of four-legged land animals. Baboons are distinctly protruding jaw. The males have large tusks.
Baboon is omnivorous and will eat a variety of foods, mainly vegetarian food (fruits and roots), although Baboon tend to eat also insects and sometimes also mammals, such as the new Primate of gazelles and other, non-human primates in Guinea Baboon (the papi Papi) and olive Baboon (the Anubis Papi) living in mixed groups.
Baboons in captivity tend to live longer than thirty-five years.
The following instructions apply to the Guinea Baboon (the papi Papi) and olive Baboon (the Anubis Papi).
2. environment and its control of Ventilation (see 2.1. The General section 2.1.)
2.2. Temperature adjust easily moderate the baboons climate and suitable temperature range is between 16 ° C and 28 ° c.
humidity (see 2.3. 2.3. Section General rules about primates, non-human primates.)
2.4. Lighting (see. 2.4. Section General rules about primates, non-human primates.)
noise (see 2.5. 2.5. the section general rules about primates, non-human primates.)
2.6. the alarm system (see. 2.6. Section General rules about primates, non-human primates.)
3. Health (see. 3. Section General rules about primates, non-human primates.)
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation for adults and young baboons are kept social groups. Reserve the animals can be kept compatible same-sex groups. Whenever possible, animals used in experiments must be kept the same-sex pairs or groups.
Breeding groups should be composed of one male and 6-7 females or two males and 12-15 females. Large groups might be harder. Employees are monitored to the violence of the Group would be reduced to a minimum. Outbreaks of aggression is very characteristic of Baboon colonies, especially after the Group has experienced some turbulence.
Young should not be distinguished from the mother before they have reached the age of eight; separation is desirable to take twelve months of age. This does not apply to newborns, of which the mother is abandoned or whose mothers are lactating, or difficulties in cases where separation is health grounds.
4.2. The holding of these animals is improving Advanced cognitive abilities, and will require a sufficiently diverse environment. Hard floor that can be covered with a non-toxic material, substrate feed hiding and uzlasīšan. Useful are the ladders, perches and toys to chew. Suitable foods can be placed also on the roof of the net in order to encourage access to food animals in the upper part of the enclosure. Given the size and stature of the Baboon behavior characteristics, fences should be well secured, and they have to put plate shelves and blocks. Whereas innovation is important, the enclosure must be available to the animals toys that should be changed regularly.
4.3. Fence-size and flooring To the animals feel safe enclosure design and internal dimensions must be such that the animals can get it above the level of the eyes of the people.
The animals are housed in groups, recommended that the animals exceeds F. table 4 shows the minimum number of animals in the group, and enclosures that are greater than those indicated in the table 3.
F. table 4. Baboon: the minimum size of the enclosure and the area needed * minimum enclosure size (m2) minimum enclosure volume (m3) minimum space per animal (m3) minimum enclosure height (m) animals ** up to 4 years of age animals ** from 4 4.0 7.2 3.0 1.8 age 7.0 12.6 6.0 1.8 animals kept for breeding *** 12.0 2.0 animal keeping separate is permissible only in exceptional cases (see,. 4.1.).
** The minimum size of the enclosure can hold no more than two animals.
Breeding colonies extra space/space is not required for young animals up to 2 years of age, which are held together with the mother.
Animals should be housed in indoor enclosures, giving them broad enough environment to all animals have access to at least the required minimum area, which is specified in table f.4.
Under certain climatic conditions, breeding and replacement animals may be kept in outdoor enclosures where they provided shelter to hide under adverse weather conditions.
Fences must be with the hard floor.
4.4. Power supply (see. 4.4 section general rules about primates, non-human primates.)
Watering (see 4.5. The General section 4.7.)
4.6. the substrate, litter and material (see the installing the mig. 4.3 and 4.6 section general rules about primates, non-human primates.)
4.7 cleaning (see. The General section 4.9.)
4.8. the treatment of Baboons are easy for trainees to interact daily procedures, for example, they allow you to do the injections and remove the blood samples, as well as gladly come enclosure, which can reach them. However, an employee for security reasons adult animal care must take special care, taking appropriate precautions.
4.9. Humane killing (see. The General section 4.11.)
4.10. the documentation (see. 4.10. the section general rules about primates, non-human primates.)
4.11. Identification (see. 4.11. the section general rules about primates, non-human primates.)
5. staff training (see paragraph 5 of the General rules for Primate, non-human primates.)
6. Transport (see point 6 of the General provisions on primates, non-human primates.)
G. provisions for farm animals and mini a) General provisions 1. introduction this document, the term "livestock" includes cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, mini and equine animals, including horses, ponies, donkeys and mules.
Livestock uses and research conducted on farms and fundamentālāko of agriculture, veterinary and biomedical research laboratory. Holdings reported trials are essential to ensure the keeping and care conditions in which not only would be duly taken into account in animal health and animal welfare requirements, but should also be able to obtain reliable, commercial agricultural information. The labs, which are often performed more invasive procedures, it is necessary to other housing and care. Housing conditions should provide essential information about the research question and must comply with the remaining procedures.
Care system must correspond to the natural behaviour of animals in agriculture, in particular by providing them the opportunity to graze, gather up the feed, move and communicate. Farm animals can be kept in different enclosures, which are selected according to the requirements of the test. For example, livestock grazing, can keep open buildings with access to the unsettled squares, closed buildings with natural ventilation or specialised buildings with natural or mechanical ventilation, intended for holding in quarantine or animal biological isolation.
If agricultural research need to keep animals in conditions that resemble conditions of commercial agricultural, livestock must meet the minimum standards laid down in the European Convention for the protection of animals kept for farming purposes (ETS No. 87) and related recommendations.
2. environment and its control in natural conditions of farm animals are subject to wide temperature range and well tolerated, although the different species and varieties this resistance varies. The animals will look for shelter from heavy rains, strong winds and intense solar radiation. If the animals are kept in outdoor enclosures, they must provide shade and dry area for sleeping. Deploying shelter, these considerations must be taken into account. To provide sufficient shelter all animals protection from adverse climatic conditions.
Animals that are kept outside or in buildings with natural ventilation, are subject to the environmental impact. Animals may not be held in the following locations, in the existing climatic conditions can cause distress to the animals.
Environmental indicators, in particular temperature and relative air humidity are interrelated and should not be considered in isolation from one another.
2.1. the ventilation All farm animals are susceptible to respiratory problems. Without mechanical ventilation (as it is in large parts of the building, keeping farm animals), it is essential to ensure adequate air quality with natural ventilation (see. The General section 2.1.1).
The need to reduce the feed and bedding dust levels in the air.
2.2. Temperature

Termoneitrāl zone for different livestock species varies greatly and depends on the climatic conditions under which the animals are accustomed to. Outdoor living farm animals in the winter months have thick Fur/Wool that they protects against low air temperatures. These animals are able to adapt to lower indoor temperature even without a winter coat, if one room there is a low relative air humidity, no draughts and animals there's room for sleeping with a sufficient quantity of litter. Therefore, the indoor nožogojumo is essential to prevent a wide and sudden fluctuations in temperature, especially when animals are moved from indoor to outdoor enclosures. Whereas animals can overheat, periods of high air temperature, it is important to take appropriate measures to prevent the deterioration of animal wellness, for example, cut back on shadow ewes and ensure the animals bedding.
Suitable temperature range depends on various factors, including the animal species, age, intake of calories, weight, lactation stage and media type.
2.3. The humidity under natural conditions of farm animals are exposed to a wide range of relative humidity fluctuations and well they tolerate. In an environment where it is possible to control the climatic conditions, avoiding too high or low relative humidity or sudden and wide fluctuations in relative humidity, in both high and low humidity levels can cause disease in animals.
Buildings which indoor enclosure, must be equipped with adequate ventilation to prevent long-term high relative air humidity as this animal enclosures could lead to excessive moisture, causing respiratory disease in animals, nail rot and other infectious conditions.
2.4. Lighting farm animal species are adapted to different conditions of life, such as ruminants graze and daily during daylight hours resting in open meadows, while the pigs become active in twilight hours in a forested area. All species of farm animals is necessary to ensure sufficient lighting, if possible, giving priority to natural lighting. When natural light is not available, the fotoperiod light of each day should last from eight to twelve hours or must comply with the natural light cycle. Breeding procedures and specific test procedures may need to be adjusted fotoperiod. Adequate natural or artificial lighting must also ensure the animal group or individual animal tests.
If the buildings are the Windows, breaking glass, they should be protected with physical barriers or room layout must be such that the animals cannot reach these glasses.
2.5. Noise inevitable background noise caused by, for example, the ventilation equipment, it is possible to be cut, and there is a need to prevent sudden noises. Maintenance facilities and containment facilities should be designed and operated so as to use the noise reduction possible.
2.6. The alarm system (see. The General section 2.6.)
3. Health 3.1. Disease Control whereas livestock often comes from commercial farms, it is essential to take the necessary measures to ensure that these animals are in good health. Particular risks are from different places of origin for mixing of animals.
For all species of farm animals, on the basis of the recommendations of the veterinarian should develop preventive medicine programs and the necessary vaccinations.
Nail care, parasite control and diet control is the whole agricultural animal health protection program. Equidae in dedicated programmes are particularly important regular dental examinations and respiratory disease prevention measures.
Included is also a regular inspection of the production indicators and status determination. The substrate must be treated so that it does not cause or contribute to the emergence of infection or parasite or reproduction.
3.2 behavioural abnormalities in Behavior abnormalities, such as tails, ear or chew or bite on its side, wool plūkāšan, the navel or sucking, mīņāšano and the feed trough demolition may cause poor quality care or environmental conditions, social isolation or omission created ennui. If such defects are observed, must immediately take the necessary measures to prevent this deficiency, including, for example, review of existing environmental factors and care procedures.
3.3. the manipulation of Health Dehorning, castration or docking of tails of adult animals may be carried out only if there is a veterinary or animal welfare reasons. During the implementation of these measures should be used under anaesthesia and pain management.
3.4. Neonatal Care For newborn livestock care to be successful, must adhere to high standards of animal husbandry.
Pregnant animals and newborn animals must ensure adequate housing conditions and dry, clean room. The layout must be such as to facilitate the monitoring and maintenance of the premises must respect high standards of hygiene, because the newborn animals are particularly susceptible to infection.
All newborns at birth as soon as possible (preferably within the first four hours) must receive sufficient colostrum. Must have access to sufficient colostrum for items that would be intended for use in an emergency.
To ensure the normal animal growth and development, they have a right to be fed to ruminants at the age of two weeks starting given fodder.
Whereas the purpose of new animals have not evolved, require special attention in order to give them a suitable temperature. You may need additional local heat sources, while shielding the animals from possible injury, such as a firing or a random ugunsnelaim.
To reduce the risk of mother shoves a newborn or abandon it, it is essential that the first day of the new life created a strong bond with the mother. During this period it is important to limit care and maintenance procedures, such as transportation, castration, or markup, that could interfere with this link to the strengthening or prevent new animals to get the required quantity of colostrum.
Is duly consider separation of approaches, to her mother's and baby's stress. Distinguish the new animal into similar age groups promoting compatible and stable social structure formation.
Naturally raised pigs and mini may not be distinguished from the mother, if they are not already four weeks old; the lambs, kids and calves to meat may be distinguished from six weeks of age, but of equidae from twenty weeks of age unless the earlier separation is not based on a veterinary or animal welfare considerations.
Artificially bred animals, primarily dairy beef calves, you must provide the appropriate power to meet their nutritional needs and to facilitate the normal tripe for ruminants.
Early baby's separation from the mother for the purpose of study or veterinary purposes may be carried out in consultation with the zootehniķ and the competent person responsible for consulting with the well-being of the animals. Such a different animal well-being and care should be given to the additional attention and resources.
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation for farm animals should be housed in a socially compatible groups animal enclosure, and use a range of techniques that ensure social stability, unless they conflict with the scientific procedures or animal welfare requirements.
The animal groups start down the hierarchy. Originally, the formation of a contingent of social hierarchy levels is possible aggressive behaviour.
Particular attention must be paid to the reduction of this aggression and possible injury prevention group and regroup in time or, if the group includes members of the previously unknown animal. The Group of animals always need to be appropriate for the size and age of the animal, and is continuously observe the mutual compatibility of the animals.
Agricultural animal even temporary separation from the Group and accommodation separately from the other animals may be a significant stress factor. So the animals should not be housed separately, unless a separate accommodation is not based on considerations of health or welfare. Individual accommodation could be pleasant females that will soon be in the womb, and adult boars that natural conditions can also choose to live alone.
A separate trial for the purpose of accommodation is determined in consultation with the zootehniķ and a competent person responsible for advising on matters of animal well-being. The animal should be taken into account, it's likely response to the separation of the Group and the need for and the duration of the period of domestication. If the animal must be housed separately, the animal must provide the vision, hearing and olfactory contact with others of their species.
4.2. improving the holding

Whereas the incentive environment that significantly improves the welfare of farm animals, the boredom alleviation and stereotypical behavior prevention require the holding of animals. Farm animals everyday spend much of their time eating the grass, ganot or scavenging foraging and contacting other animals. Animals should provide everything you need for the implementation of such activities, such as grazing, hay or straw, or game objects such as chains or bombs.
Holding accessible materials and devices should be changed regularly because the animals, particularly pigs, tend to lose interest in the materials to which they are accustomed. To reduce animal aggression, it is necessary to ensure sufficient holding improvement element.
4.3. Fence-size and floor coverings according to livestock enclosure design is a key factor to ensure the enclosure sufficient space for the animals their natural behaviour. The type of flooring, drainage, litter (and hence the maintenance of hygiene) and social conditions (group size and consistency) affects the animals need space.
All enclosures must be designed and maintained so as to avoid injury to the animals or get stuck, such as compartments or under the feed trough.
Animals must not be tethered, if one has no scientific or veterinary grounds, in this case, the animal keeping tied the short period of time.
Rails must have sufficient space to all the animals are able to stand, lie down comfortably, stretch and groom themselves, as well as a common sleeping area and suitable feeding areas.
The sleeping area must be such that all the animals are able to lie down on his side at the same time, given that some farm animals, such as pigs, loves to sleep often physical contact with representatives of their species, while other animals such as horses, sleeping away from each other. If there are high temperatures and to cool her down, animals must sleep away from each other, it is necessary to provide for more sleeping area.
The sleeping area must provide bedding, to improve comfort and reduce injuries caused by izgulējum. If the litter is contrary to the conditions of the trial, the floor must be created in and shielded so as to improve the animal's physical and also thermal Wellness (if the animal housing environment can not be adjusted).
Enclosure height must be such that the animal enclosure can freely sit up hind legs and to rise.
Enclosure floor coverings must not injure the animals and must be easily portable and adjustable. The floor must be carefully nurtured and, if necessary, be changed, because by the time the floor surface damage will occur, which can injure the animals.
4.4. the feeding of farm animals must be maintained for each animal to maintain energy for the required nutrients, in the light of the environmental conditions in which the animals are kept. Additional energy will be necessary during pregnancy and lactation period as well as during the growing season, and should be adapted to the requirements of animal (such as a high genetic value of dairy cows). The diet should also include vitamins and minerals, which are needed, for example, to prevent food poisoning in sheep or urinary stones can formation castrated Rams, and, if necessary, must ensure licks.
If the pasture is used as animal feed, must govern the number of grazing animals, to ensure that all animals receive the necessary nutrients. If the product inventory are limited, the field must provide additional feed.
Ruminants and horses may not make rapid changes and new components must be introduced gradually, in particular if the introduction of feedingstuffs with a high energy value, or periods of high metabolism, for example, not long before and after childbirth. You must provide enough fodder.
Group accommodation systems must provide for an adequate food supply and power seats to all the animals could get to feed, without running the risk of personal injury.
Feed form a significant part of the diet of farm animals. Whereas the amount of feed required can be so great that the fodder storage provided for particular packages may not be possible, the forage, including hay, straw, silage and root crop, should be stored so as to prevent a deterioration in the quality of feedingstuffs and animal poisoning risk. Forage and concentrate storage areas must be carried out pest control measures.
Mowing grass for animal feed (for example, if the animals are not placed on pasture), it has to be done often because the mown grass storage heats and becomes delicious.
4.5. Watering for each animal group must always be available to the fresh, clean water. Number or watering trough length must be such that all the animals in the Group should have access to water. The water flow must match each animal needs, which will vary depending on the feed, physiological condition or environmental temperature, for example, lactating animals need considerably more water than other animals.
4.6. the substrate, litter and material (see the installing the mig. The General section 4.8.)
4.7 cleaning (see. The General section 4.9.)
4.8 handling if there is to be used for the maintenance and control of the tools, they must be strong and must guarantee the safety of the animal and the user. In particular, it is essential to ensure non-slip floor.
Maintenance and control tools can be part of the basic equipment of the animal enclosures, or they can be specifically designed for that purpose in the objects that are used in all institutions. Maintenance and control objects can be placed in the enclosure, but you must make sure that the animal is not jeopardized thus requires conditions of the area or would result in dangerous physical obstacles.
If possible, specialized objects must include routes and animal pens, foot bath, some species specifically designed equipment – bath which immersed, and sheep shearing runs; zone in which animals may recover after maintenance procedures. To ensure the well-being of the animals and the user, these objects, it is desirable to protect against weather effects.
Animal care must be carried out calmly and confidently, and animals may not be rushing to the aisles and corridors. Routes and corridors should be made, taking into account the natural behaviors of animals, in order to facilitate the movement and reduce the risk of hurt. Animal arresting devices must not cause injuries to the animal, or causes inconvenience. Fear of causing physical or electrical stimulus funds is prohibited.
Corridors and the gate must be sufficiently wide to through them at the same time be able to move freely, while the two routes must be so broad as to allow movement in only one direction.
Regular care training for the animals at the contact with people. If the procedure has to be performed often, require training programs and the positive stimulus programs that reduce animal fear and distress.
Animals may restrict another closely to another pilot, maintenance only, or at the time of sampling or cleaning up the seat, as well as gathering the animals milking or preparing for transport.
4.9. Humane killing of all systems of farm animals for humane killing must be designed to ensure that the animal does not cause unnecessary distress. Experienced staff care, allowing one minimal deviation from normal practice, reduce the distress to the animal before it humane killing.
Killing may be carried out in the presence of other animals except euthanasia badly injured animal, where the animal's movements would cause further suffering.
4.10. the documentation (see. The General section 4.12.)
4.11. Identification of the animals have to be highlighted separately, using transponders, ear tags, plastic neck strap and/or tripe bolus. The distinguishing signs of the animal body freezing or tattooing is less suitable for markup techniques. The distinguishing signs are not desirable to burn.
Identification devices may only be used by trained staff and appropriate periods of time when identification procedures the least impact on the animal. Marked or tattooed ears should be checked regularly to make sure there are no signs of the infection appeared, and a lost ear tags should be replaced with new ones, if possible, the same piercing.
If you use electronic identification devices, their sizes and specification must be appropriate to the animal, and they must be regularly checked and possible side effects, such as injection site reactions and rubbing or throat injuries resulting from improper use of the bolus.
(b)) additional provisions for the accommodation and care of cattle 1. introduction

Cattle (BOS Taurus and Bos indicus) are social animals, which is based on the hierarchy of existing relationships of dominance. Beef with your representatives of a species is often based on their relationship. As the cattle are ruminants, they spend most of the day, uzlas a feed and then resting for long. Cattle are normally docile and easy to accustom to the contact with people.
2. environment and its control (see. 2. the General provisions for farm animals and the Pygmy hog.)
3. Health (see. (3) General rules on farm animals and Pygmy hog.)
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation of animals with horns should not be housed together with animals without horns, except in young calves and their mothers, to which this Convention does not apply.
4.2. the Fence – size and flooring G. table 1. Cattle: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required surface area to body weight (kg) minimum enclosure size (m2) the minimum floor area per animal (m2/animal) trough the area bezrag of cattle feeding ad libitum (m/animal) trough area bezrag for the regulated feeding cattle (m/animal) up to 100 100 to 200 2.50 2.30 0.10 0.30 over and over 200 and 400 4.25 3.40 0.15 0.50 to 6.00 4.80 0.18 0.60 over 400 and up to and up to 600 over 600 800 9.00 7.50 0.21 0.70 11.00 8.75 0.24 0.80
Over 800 16.00 10.00 0.30 1.00 If cattle are housed indoors, it is necessary to ensure a large enough area for sleep, which can sleep in at all the animals. If there are no booths, sleeping for zone typically takes about 70% of table 1 the minimum floor area. The remaining part of the fence may not be covered with litter, and it is used for feeding and physical activity.
If you have not concluded for sleeping in cabins, sleeping area area can be reduced, but the number of booths have to be about 5% higher than the number of animals in order to reduce competition and all animals would sleep at the same time. Cab layout a very significant impact on the well-being of the animals, so before installing it must consult with the specialist. The size of the animal should be taken into account; the surface must be sufficiently soft to prevent personal injury; You must provide adequate drainage of the pen, the pen properly positioned on the top rung of the splitter, and sufficient space for the head sāniskaj and vertical movements, as well as the head of "hurling". Rear step must be so high as to prevent the ingress of manure booth cleaning time while not cutting the animal's legs, then when entering or exiting the cab. The remaining part of the fence may not be covered litter, and it is used for feeding and physical activity.
CAB length depends mainly on the animal's weight. Cabin width depends on the partitioning method, but they should be wide enough so that the animals can comfortably lie down in the cab, do not unduly pressing vulnerable parts of the body. On the planning and construction of booths have to consult a specialist.
4.3. Feeding Trough the possibility should be provided for all animals to feed at the same time, if one is not available in the feed ad libitum (see table above). Slavonian cattle requires more space than cattle trough without the horns.
4.4 Drinking water trough must be so long that the time of them would drink 10% animal. It meets at least 0.3 metres to 10 adult bovine animals. Milk lactating cows need about 50% more space.
Water bowls. If the cattle kept in groups must provide at least two water bowls. Groups with more than twenty cattle, must provide at least one water bowl to ten animals.
4.5 handling if the animal is mechanized milking, milking equipment must be maintained according to high standards, to prevent diseases such as mastitis.
Limited space horned bovines can endanger employees. It is therefore necessary to consider the dehorning. If possible, dehorning calves must be carried out prior to eight weeks old.
c) additional provisions for the accommodation of ovine and caprine animals and care introduction 1 sheep (Ovis aries) are grazing animals, which according to the characteristics of the breed concerned, for example, wool characteristics, is suitable for life in the wide range of climatic conditions.
Natural conditions and the resident sheep farms are very social animals that spend their entire life together with other members of the herd, each recognizes a induviduāl. Sheep especially concerned about separation from the herd, and this factor should be taken into account in the planning of animal housing. However, in the case of cohesion between different herd sheep breeds exist differences, such as mountain sheep are unsuited to close Assembly together unless they are disturbed.
Goats (Capra hircus) is characterized by curiosity, and they generally like to deal with people and other animals. Just like the sheep, the goats live in groups and are concerned about separation from the group. Looking for feed, goat more moving through the neighborhood than them both, and most are dry, hard soil. The goats are good kāpelētāj, and it reinforces their cognitive ability. Goats prefer the warm weather, and its not very well tolerated wet and windy conditions.
2. environment and its control in extreme weather conditions, the sheep is to provide access to natural or artificially created a haven of strong wind or a hot sun, while the goats are poorly tolerated sustained use different fur qualities, so if they are kept outside, they must ensure free access to the shelters.
Recently cirpt animals could require higher ambient temperatures than animals with fur.
3. Health Adult wool breeds of sheep and goats is a must when at least once a year, provided that this does not impair their well-being.
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation the two species of adult males may be better suited to life than females and the young alone animals. The males can be aggressive, especially in the mating period, and therefore, care must be taken carefully to minimize the possibility of the struggle and the total risk of injuries.
Horned goats should not be housed with goats that are not horns.
4.2. improving holding goats must ensure a sufficient quantity of suitable size increases to dominant animals would not be able to block other goats access to them.
4.3. Fence-size and flooring G. table 2. Ovine and caprine animals: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required surface area to body weight (kg) minimum enclosure size (m2) the minimum floor area per animal (m2/animal) minimum partition height (m) length of trough pressing ad-libitum (m/animal) trough regulated feeding for length (m/animal) Less than 20 above 20 and up to 1.0 0.7 1.0 0.10 0.25 1.5 1.0 1.2 0.10 0.30 over 35 and 35 to 60 over 60 2.0 1.5 1.2 0.12 0.40 3.0 1.8 1.5 0.12 0.50 for adult goats can require higher partitions to prevent animal izmukšan.
Throughout the enclosure must ensure solid ground with a sufficient quantity of litter.
4.4. Watering the sheep and goat indoor enclosures must provide at least one watering place to twenty animals.
4.5. Identification of short-term experiments of īsviln varieties of sheep and goat tagging can be used to dye wool or fur with approved non-toxic agricultural markup features.
d) additional provisions for the accommodation of pigs and mini and care 1. Introduction to the domestic pig (Sus scrofa) is descended from the European wild boar. Although the economy of domestic swine production reasons have been subject to intensive breeding for many generations, they have mostly kept their ancestors the existing behavior. Not limited circumstances they live in small family groups, are active in the gloomy daily and they have a very developed cognitive instinct. Home pigs are omnivorous, which is a large part of the active time spent, the uzlas feed. Sows give birth alone and before calving creates a mig. Piglets weaned from mother staggered by completing four months of age, and gradually integrate into piglets social group in which there is not a high level of aggressiveness.
Mini in many ways different from domestic swine. Using conventional breeding procedures, has created several different subspecies of the Pygmy hog with the aim of creating a small pig that would be suitable for use in laboratory experiments. This appendix of the Pygmy hog is considered small swine breeding animals intended for use for experimental and other scientific purposes, and that body weight is usually not more than 60 kg, but some subspecies may even reach 150 kg weight. Given this difference in body weight in adult animals, recommendations, House pigs is not always possible to extrapolate, based solely on weight. The recommendations in this document apply to both types of pigs, if necessary, specific requirements in respect of giving individual mini.
2. environment and its control temperature 2.1.

Pigs and mini is very sensitive to the ambient temperature, and the purpose is one of the determining aspects that affect their behavior.
Pigs can be kept in a uniform environment that it is possible to regulate the temperature, and the whole room has to maintain a neutral temperature. Pigs can also be kept in enclosures in which there are different microclimate, ensuring local heating or containment of the sleeping place and ensuring adequate litter. Enclosure is recommended a gradual change in temperature. Pigs are kept outdoors, can live at a lower ambient temperature, if they are provided adequate shelter to large quantities of dry bedding and extra feed.
G. table 3. pigs and mini: the recommended temperature range separately housed animal live weight recommended temperature range (° c) less than 3 kg from 30 to 36 from 3 to 8 kg from 26 to 30 above 8 and up to 30 kg from 22 to 26 above 30 and up to 100 kg from the 18 to 22 above 100 kg from 15 to 20 at a suitable temperature is not only dependent on weight but also of sexual maturity, the availability of accommodation in litter and intake of calories. Subject to the specified temperature range, animals with lower body weight, without bedding or with limited calorie intake requires a higher temperature.
Piglets with low body weight are very sensitive to temperature, and require a higher temperature. Newborn piglets bed must be at least 30 ° C, reducing the temperature to 26 ° C, when the piglets are two weeks old. Calving/weaning premises must provide the minimum temperature, to maintain adequate temperature piglet sleeping, taking into account any local heating source. Sow lactation intensive metabolism can quickly overheat, so the temperature in the room should not give to rise above 24 ° C.
3. Health (see point 3 of the General rules on farm animals and Pygmy hog.)
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Holding accessible rooms for split Pigs for performing actions such as sleeping, eating and excretion. So the enclosures should be able to create individual functional areas, ensuring sufficient area or compliant enclosure area distribution.
Pigs have made cross-cultural instinct, so they need a sufficiently complex environment for them to disclose the species-specific curiosity. All pigs must always be available in sufficient quantity and of research material, including toy dumpster diving location to reduce the risk of distortion of behaviour.
4.2. the Fence – size and flooring G. table 4 shows the minimum space requirements, depending on the animal live weight. Planning the enclosure, it is necessary to take into consideration the greatest weight, an enclosure housed pigs will reach. Rails are possible to be changed less often.
(G). table 4. pigs and mini: the minimum size of the enclosure and the area required (kg) live weight, the minimum enclosure size (m2) the minimum floor area per animal (m2/animal) the minimum sleeping area per animal (in neutral) (m2/animal) to 5 2.0 0.20 0.10 over 5 and up to 10 above 10 to 20 2.0 0.25 0.11 and 2.0 0.35 0.18 above 20 and up to 30 over 30 and up to 50 2.0 0.50 0.24 2.0 0.70 0.33 above 50 and 70 above 70 and up to 3.0 0.80 0.41 up to 100 over 100 to 150 3.0 1.00 0.53 and 4.0 1.35 0.70 over 150 Adult (conventional) 5.0 2.50 0.95 boars 7.5 1.30 * pigs may insert into smaller enclosures for short periods of time, if this is necessary for the purpose of health or trial, for example, with a barrier separating the main part of certain enclosures.
If the pigs are housed separately from each other, or in small groups, these animals requires more space than most groups of animals.
Pigs should never be tethered, and they must not put pens or cages, unless done temporarily and need feeding, breeding or veterinary or experimental purposes. Sows and piglets must be housed in enclosures that allow before and after calving sow and piglets after birth take their specific activities. Therefore, although the use of cages can parturition to ensure the survival and well-being of piglets under certain circumstances, it is possible to avoid incarceration in the prenatal period of sows and lactation, and it is desirable to use an open shed.
Fitness flooring depends on the size and weight of the pigs. So you can easily use the dumpster diving/mig the installation substrate, stall sleeping area requires a solid floor. Crate floor can improve hygienic conditions, but is used in a crate and the floor spacing size must match the size of the pigs to the animals on the floor of this does not hurt your feet.
4.3. Feeding pigs are usually fed ad libitum until maturity and then the power supply should be regulated to prevent animal obesity. Mini tend to aptaukot, where they are fed with normal swine feed. Obesity can prevent a particular diet to reduce calories and increase fiber content. Power limiting causes pigs to gather up the feed, which can manifest as increased darbīgum, aggressiveness and loud behavior. To resolve these problems, it is essential to change the diet to increase feed sātīgum, such as increasing dietary fiber and providing enough feed to the uzlasīšan substrate, such as straw.
Adjusting the power supply, the new growing animals must be fed at least twice a day, but adults animals – once a day, because suitable meals is a vital satiety, which thus reduces the aggressiveness of the animal. If the power supply is regulated, all group members must be accessible to the feed without triggering aggression. SIL must be large enough to ensure that they can be fed to all animals. The recommended requirements are given in table 5. G. If the animals are housed separately from one another, or in small groups, at least for a trough must satisfy the regulated feeding trough used in size. If the animals are housed in larger groups and are being fed ad libitum, animals can divide space at the trough and requires less area to one of the trough.
(G). table 5. pigs and mini: the minimum required space at the feeding trough a single animal live weight (kg) minimum space at the trough (cm) (ad-libitum feeding and regulated) minimum space at the trough one animal ad-libitum feeding (cm/animal) To over 10 and up to 10 13 20 16 2.0 2.5 to 3.0 over 20 and 30 18 over 30 and up to and up to 50 22 50 70 24 3.5 4.0 4.5 above 70 and up to 100 27 above 100 and up to 5.0 over 150 31 regulated feeding 150 40 7.0 * each animal must provide at least the minimum space at the trough.
4.4. Watering it as pigs are especially sensitive to the processes causing dehydration, where they are housed in groups, you must provide at least two drinkers on the unit or a large tub, from which you can drink more than one pig, to prevent that the dominant animals blocks the access of other animals at drinkers. To achieve this, it is recommended that you provide the following watering place.
G. table 6. pigs and mini: the minimum number of drinkers drinking way pigs to drinkers nipple drinkers of 10 large watering tubs (from which you can drink at least two pigs) 20 when pigs are kept in larger groups and watered from the open trough, trough the minimum perimeter length must be such that any pig could be undistorted access to water (as specified in table 5. G. separated feeders), or the length of 12.5 mm trough to one pig, depending on that size is larger.
G. table 7 pigs and mini: the minimum drinking water flow the pigs the way minimum water flow (ml/min)-500 piglets Weaned animals Growing Not pregnant sows and 700 boars sows lactating 1000 1500 4.5 substrate, litter and litter dens deployments in many ways improves the welfare of pigs. They improve physical and thermal Wellness (except the high ambient temperature), they can eat to fill your stomach and get a satiety, and they are used as substrate feed uzlasīšan and nest building. Litter type used depends on the extent to which will be provided to each of these different benefits, the long straw in general have better material, although certain advantages inherent in other types of litter, such as chopped straw, sawdust, chips and shredded paper. Litter must be non-toxic and, if possible, to provide structural diversity, to foster cross-cultural instincts. Litter all pigs must be provided, unless this is contrary to the conditions of the trial and the bedding is particularly important for pregnant sows that have a strong instinct for building dens, and pigs that have a certain limited power mode and therefore is strongly expressed in feed uzlasīšan instinct.

(e) additional provisions) the equidae including horses, ponies, donkeys and mules, accommodation and care introduction 1 the equidae have evolved as grazing animals, public and domestic horses and ponies (Equus caballus) and donkeys (Equus blood) have preserved their ancestors the existing behavior. In the wild, or unlimited territory of equidae live in herds, which are divided into small family groups or groups that usually consist of a single Stallion, several mares, foals and year old horses. Social structure is based on a clearly defined hierarchy, and individual animals in a group usually close pairs, it is essential to discern and to keep, if possible. Interdependence is particularly important in maintaining the social life.
Unlike ruminants, equidae can constantly graze many hours, and natural conditions to do so, they will pay each day from fourteen to sixteen hours. Although their natural food is grass, plants and leaves, they are very selective with regard to grass varieties and which part of the plant to eat. Their daily lives they usually spend, taking a couple of ganot steps and continuing to graze. Thus, they are not only feeding, but also moving, twenty-four hours could through great distances.
Equine grooming system is preferable to adjust their natural behaviour, taking into account in particular the need to graze, to move and to connect with other animals. It should be noted that from the peril they fled and that sheltering in it is easily frightened.
2. environment and its control in Cold weather conditions can use quilts in particular, if the animal's hair is cut, however, these rugs every day must be removed and checked.
Mane and tail of equidae provide protection against adverse weather conditions and flies, therefore it must not cut back on or cut off briefly. If the mane and tail are curtailed or sakopj, they need to be clipped, not to pull.
3. Health (see point 3 of the General rules on farm animals and Pygmy hog.)
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Fence-size and floor coverings is preferably equine animals keep grazing or provide them access to pasture for at least six hours a day. If the pastures of equidae are not available or are available at a minimum, you must provide additional fodder to extend the feeding time and reduce boredom.
Indoor enclosures of animals housed in groups is preferred, because this provides the opportunity to connect with other animals and to practice. Horses is essential to accommodate the socially compatible groups.
The required total area indoor enclosures will depend on whether the animals are available daily in additional areas for grazing and/or other exercises. Noting further the numbers, it is assumed that the following additional areas the animals are available. If not, then fencing the area is greatly increased.
G. table 8. Equidae: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required area of the withers height (m) the minimum floor area per animal (m2/animal) minimum enclosure height (m) for each animal held singly or in groups of up to 3 animals in each animal held in groups with 4 or more animals in a farrowing crate/Mare with foal From 1.00 to 3.00 16 over 1.40 9.0 6.0 1.40 to 1.60 12.0 9.0 and 20 over 1.60 16.0 3.00 (2 x WH) 2 * 20 * 3.00 to ensure adequate , each animal area required is calculated based on the height of the Withers (WH).
Shorter fraction must be at least 1.5 times higher than the height of the neck of the animal.
Indoor enclosure height must be such that the animals can sit up tall hind legs, thus ensuring the welfare of the animal.
The equidae must not use crates.
4.2 power supply the power supply of the equidae can be very significantly worsen their welfare, causing diseases such as colic and laminīt.
Whereas equidae in nature for a long time to spend, they are constantly ganot must be available for fresh grass, hay, silage or straw. If the horses are not able to graze each day in sufficient quantity must be available for the long fiber/roughage. If possible, fodder for animals is to take from the Earth or from the appropriate round bale feeders. Hay nets and feed table is constructed and located to minimise the risk of injury.
Group housed animals fed with "hard" feed (concentrate), the animals have to be fed, where this is possible under the existing hierarchy in the group. If possible, separate the animals are also kept to be fed separately. If this is not possible, feeding sites must be placed at least 2.4 m away from one another, and must support at least one point per animal feeding. If the horses are fed with feed concentrates should be given frequently and in small doses.
4.3. Watering horses prefer to drink from open sources, therefore they must be provided whenever it is possible. If you use automated nipple drinkers, the animals will probably have to be trained to use them.
4.4. Identification of equidae may not use ear tags and tattoos. If identification by coat colour is not possible, you must use transponders for identification. Animal identification is used successfully also numbered chips off the bridle and reins.
H. rules for birds (a)), the General provisions 1. Introduction to birds is extensive, including fundamental studies, veterinary studies and toxicology. Home of chicken and Turkey are the most common birds in the laboratory, and are typically used in research and development of biological material, such as tissue and antibody production. Poultry is also the most common bird welfare studies. The chicken used in medication safety and exposure assessment, but the quail and other birds commonly used in ecotoxicological studies. Other less common species such as pigeons and wild birds, usually used in psychology and fundamental Physiology or zoological studies. The trials may not be used in the wild to catch birds, unless it is necessary for the purposes of the trial.
Although the birds are flying and they have created a joint body to the basic design, they do vary by type of movement and feeding. Most of the species are adapted to life in a relatively extensive three-dimensional areas where food and travel uzlasīšan they use one or more forms of transport, including flying, walking, running, swimming and diving. Many species of birds are very public, and they must be housed in the Standing Group whenever it is possible.
For species that are normally grown and used in laboratories, provide additional information. Accommodating and nurturing less common species that are not described below, it is essential to devote proper attention to behavioural, physiological and social needs. Prior to the acquisition or use of birds must be investigated to the appropriate species of accommodation, zootechnical and care requirements. To properly ensure the needs of the species concerned (or if you have a behavioral disorder or breeding difficulty) must consult with experienced professionals and care workers. Information and guidance on the less used species, further information is available in the document.
If agricultural research requires the keeping of animals in commercial farming conditions, for holding animals must at least meet the standards laid down in the European Convention for the protection of animals kept for farming purposes (ETS No. 87) and related recommendations.
Many of the bird welfare problems are associated with the anomalies of knābšan behaviour. They can manifest as aggressive knābšan, hair surgery (when birds are pulling another bird feathers or pluck off and pulling his hair), as well as the other birds knābšan the skin, which can cause great pain and death, if the bird behavior are not monitored. Knābšan behavioral disorder, reason is not always clear, but often it is impossible to prevent, rearing them to ensure that the substrate allows you to develop the proper feed uzlasīšan and pecking behavior. So all species should be housed chickens on a hard floor, covered with bedding.

Prevention is especially important, because the chicken paid increased attention to damaged feathers and some birds that have feathers, izknābt can set the rapid spread of the traumējoš knābšan. There are several steps to be taken to prevent the knābšan of traumējoš whenever it is possible, and to reduce the spread of this behavior if it has emerged. These include alternative pecking for material such as food substrate, uzlasīšan tied the string bundle, pecking or straw, Visual obstructions; light-intensity intermittent or temporary reduction or red light; UV lamp. Trade is available against knābšan of for aerosols, and they can be used to temporarily reduce the health risk, but the knābšan will still be necessary to avoid such behavior causes. Breeding results in some varieties of poultry following knābšan departure are uncommon, and this variety is studied and used as much as possible.
You may not use the painful or distress-techniques, such as prolonged reduction of light (less than 20 lux) or physical changes, such as beak trimming.
Quality of the environment in which the birds are prevented from feed, gather up the physical actions or contact with other birds, will cause the birds chronic distress, stereotypical behaviour can take as, for example, paškropļošan, hair tugging and neurotic walking. Such behavior may indicate a significant welfare problems, and should immediately review the existing accommodation, care and care practices.
2. environment and its control 2.1 ventilation many species are particularly sensitive to draughts. Therefore, measures should be taken to ensure that the birds are quenched. To a minimum to reduce dust and gases such as carbon dioxide and ammonia accumulation.
2.2. the temperature if necessary, birds must provide a variety of temperatures, so that they can choose them according to the temperature. All healthy adult quail, pigeons and ducks, geese, chickens and turkeys should be kept at a temperature between 15 ° c and 25 ° c. Must take into account the temperature and relative air humidity of interaction, because some species may become overheated if this temperature, relative air humidity is too high. For those species, which are not available in the instructions for the appropriate temperature and humidity, it is necessary to examine the climate in which the birds are resident in the wild, and provide similar circumstances also in captivity.
Sick birds or bird babies may need a higher temperature or supplementary heat source, such as sildlamp (see. (H) table 1) h. table 1. The temperature and relative air humidity home chickens and turkeys, g. Gallus domesticus and Meleagris gallopav age (days), Low Temperature (oC) of the lamp (c) relative humidity (%)
Up to 1 35 25 to 30 from 60 to 80 over 1 and up to 7 32 from 22 to 27 of 60 to 80 above the 7 to 14 29 19 to 25 and from 40 to 80 above 14 and up to 21 26 18 to 25 from 40 to 80 above 21 and up to 28 24 18 to 25 from 40 to 80 above the 28 and up to 35-18 to 25 from 40 to 80
Over 35-15 to 25 from 40 to 80 Sildlamp temperature suitability is determined by observing the behavior of chicks. If the temperature is suitable for all species will be izretinājuš chickens to the enclosure and cause moderate noise. If you're quiet enough, chickens may be too hot, but if they succeed, the sounds of loud excited, they may be too cold.
2.3. Humidity healthy adult birds suitable for relative air humidity is between 40% and 80%.
2.4. Lighting light quality and quantity in some species certain times of the year is very important for normal physiological functioning. Before the animals will need to identify the relevant species, life stage and season appropriate light and night mode.
The light should not suddenly be turned on or off, dims and gradually to light up. This is particularly important when there are birds able to fly. Weak night lighting can facilitate movement during the night the heavy breeds of poultry. Have to be careful not to disturb the birds 24-hour rhythm, if one exists.
2.5. Noise is considered that some birds, such as pigeons, can hear very low frequency sounds. Although the infrasound (sound with a frequency below 16 Hz), most likely will not cause alarm, the birds may not be held low-frequency vibrations in the vicinity of the source, if it is avoidable.
3. Health should preferably use the captive-bred birds. Wild birds may appear in the laboratory of behavioral and health problems. Usually scientific procedures before use it need more time to keep quarantined and tame to conditions of captivity.
Careful monitoring and health checking the parasite reduces health risks to birds, staying outdoors.
4. the accommodation, the holding and improving care for birds should be housed in enclosures that encourages their natural behaviors, including social behavior, physical activity and food uzlasīšan. Many birds have a beneficial effect on access to the outdoor enclosure, and is to be valued, as this will affect the distress or the reasons for, and will not be contrary to the objectives of the trial. Outdoor enclosures must always provide a fixed cover, such as bushes to entice birds to use everything available to them.
4.1. Accommodation the birds must be housed in a socially compatible groups animal enclosure, unless this is contrary to the scientific procedures or animal welfare requirements. Changes not familiar bird groups or add a group must take special care. In all cases, is continuously monitored between group members.
Bird's accommodation separate from other birds — even for brief periods of time can have significant stress factor. Therefore, the birds may not be housed separately from other birds, unless he has been linked with health or welfare grounds. Separate accommodation for purposes of the study determines, in consultation with the zootehniķ and a competent person responsible for advising on matters of animal well-being.
Most bird species have at least a certain sociability on the stage, and they have significant family links, therefore, stable and coherent group is very important. Whereas there is a great diversity of species, before the Group and procedures must find the optimal composition and formation of the group most bird life.
4.2. improving holding challenging environment is very important for the promotion of the well-being of the birds. Birds according to their needs is to provide perches, sand and water bath, suitable nesting sites, articles and pecking substrate feed uzlasīšan, unless there is scientific or veterinary justification for denial of these articles. If possible, the birds are encouraged to use the entire enclosure feed uzlasīšan three-dimensional space, physical activities and interactions with other birds, including games.
4.3. Fence-size and flooring species Follow-up dedicated rules are specified in the hen house, the home of turkeys, quail, ducks and geese, pigeons and zebra finches (Taeniopygi-guttat) 3. All the birds and bird species, in particular, that a significant proportion of the time spent walking, such as quail or chicken should be kept on a hard floor with the substrate, rather than on the grid floor. Regardless of the type of flooring birds can suffer from a variety of leg problems, such as overgrown hooves, the accumulation of feces and foot injuries, such as a foot pad dermatitis caused by damp litter of parking, so it is often necessary to check the condition of the birds leg. The purpose of the study in practice may need a hard floor use with grid floors. In such cases, the birds must ensure solid flooring rest areas, occupying at least one third of the total floor area of enclosures. If you need to collect faeces, floor grid must be placed under the anvil. To reduce the frequency of injury to the feet of wire grid should be replaced with a plastic līstīt, whenever possible. If you must use a wire grid, it must be sensitive enough to the birds on it to properly support the feet, and the wires must be round and covered with plastic material.
4.4 feeding wild bird feeding habits are very different, and attention must be paid both to the type of feed used, and the presentation and time. Prior to the purchase of should be explored and diet which meets the nutritional requirements of the species and encourage the natural instinct of feed uzlasīšan. If necessary, part of the feed or additional food should be applied to the enclosure floor to get the feed uzlasīšan. Birds affect rich diet, therefore, if necessary, the diet can be supplemented with fruits, vegetables, seeds and invertebrates, even if it is not possible to offer their natural bird nutrition. Including the menu new feed should always be available for the previous feed to the birds do not suffer hunger, if they don't want to eat the new food. Some species can adapt more quickly than others, and you want to find the appropriate dietary regimes.

Some species of birds, notably graudēdāj, feed digestion must ensure gravel consisting of appropriate-sized pebbles. If the gravel will consist of various sized pebbles, birds of them will choose yourself the best. The gravel should be regularly renewed. To prevent nutrient deficiency-induced bone disease, bird diet must contain calcium and phosphorus in an appropriate form and the appropriate stage of life. Any such claim must be carefully studied and followed. The feed can be inserted in the feeder, which is attached to the fence wall or placed on the floor of the enclosure. Feeders in the floor area occupied by birds is not available, so it may not be necessary to include the birds enclosure area calculation. Wall mounted feeders do not occupy space on the floor, but they must be carefully designed and secured so as to prevent that the birds are trapped beneath them. Some species (such as the House of Turkey) chickens may need to teach to eat and drink, to ensure that they do not atūdeņoj and not suffer hunger. The birds feed provided must be clearly visible and located in several places to prevent the supply to the power-related problems.
4.5. The drinking bird watering with water use nipple drinkers, Cup or a continuous watering tray. You must provide enough drinkers or sufficient watering tray length to prevent the dominant birds does not allow to drink other birds. You must provide one with beans or drinking bowl on three or four birds each enclosure by placing at least two drinkers. If necessary, as feed supplements may give additional water birds.
4.6. the substrate, litter and socket installing the birds intended must be absorbent substrates that do not damage the bird's feet and consists of a suitable size particles to reduce dust level and prevent excessive accumulation on the birds ' legs. Applied to the substrate material is shredded tree bark, white wood chips, chopped straw or washed sand, but not in the sandpaper. Bedding should be dry, loose and deep enough to dissolve and absorb droppings. Other appropriate floor coating materials are artificial plastic turf or thick rubber carpet pile. On the floor is to be applied to the appropriate substrate, pecking like a straw.
Newly hatched birds and young birds must be provided with the substrate on which they can stand to prevent development, for example, expanded outwards. If necessary, the juvenile birds are pecking substrate should be encouraged, for example, using light finger tap, to develop proper pecking behavior.
4.7 cleaning (see. General section 4.9.)
4.8 handling the bird catching and processing is to use suitable equipment, such as the appropriate size nets in good condition and the dark network with padded hoops for catching small birds.
If the trial involves the use of adult birds in the regular procedures of the welfare and the trial is recommended during the growing chicks radin at the human, reducing their fear of people.
4.9. Humane killing of juvenile and adult birds in birds is recommended to kill the pārdozēt anesthetic agent, using a suitable substance and route of administration. This is the preferred technique than carbon dioxide inhalation, because carbon dioxide can cause birds to suffer.
As the diving birds and other birds, such as wild ducks, unable to lower the heart rate and long-term holding my breath, killing them with carbon dioxide, is scrutinized to prevent the death of the birds after some time recovering from this procedure. Carbon dioxide is not suitable for diving ducks, birds and a very young chickens killed.
4.10. the documentation (see. The General section 4.12.)
4.11. Identification we recommend using non-invasive or less invasive techniques such as physical differences, mark apgredzenošan, using closed or open rings and hair dye, rather than more invasive techniques, such as electronic tagging or wing marking. Colorful leg ring combination use decreases the need to touch the bird identification purposes, but should take into account the potential impact of color on behavior of certain species. If the temporary distinction quickly growing chicks use the rings, you should regularly check that the ring does not interfere with the growth of the leg.
You may not use the particular invasive techniques such as finger or peldplēv cropping of piercing, as they are painful.
(b)) additional provisions for the home and the care and accommodation of hens in stock and during procedures home vista (Gallus gallus domesticus) is in many ways retained its wild ancestor, jungle chicken-biology and behavior. The most important species are nesting behaviour (females), sitting on the stool and the use of nutrient uzlasīšan litter, kašņāšan, pecking and flying sand. Chicken is a social bird, and they must be housed in groups of five to twenty birds, the number of females exceeds the number of adult males in the group, such as birds, one male to five females. Attempts are made in the breeding of Chicken breeds which exhibit reduced aggression and hair tugging. Each project must consider the use of the following varieties and acquisition opportunities.
Laying hens must ensure access to the nesting boxes for at least two weeks before arrival and no later than 16 weeks with life. Each individually or in pairs to the bird in the House is to provide access to the nesting box, larger groups with at least one nesting box for two birds. Nesting boxes should be separated and large enough so that one could turn it on vista. Nesting boxes must be covered with loose floor substrates such as wood chips or straw, to encourage nesting behaviour. The substrate must be clean, and it should be changed regularly.
Chickens from one day old age must be assured possibility to squat on the anvil, a suitable substrate for pecking, gather up the feed and Perth to the sand. Applied materials sand flies are sand and soft wood chips.
Perches must be 3-4 cm in diameter, round and flat surface. Optimum height from the floor of the anvil is dependent on species, age and holding a bird, but anvil is placed 5-10 cm above the floor, older birds installing perch 30 cm above the floor. Anvil height needs to be adjusted for observing bird behaviour, how easily could jump up to the birds roost and jumping from them, as well as move from perch to perch. There must be sufficient space to the anvil could squat all the birds, and one adult bird perches, each must contain 15 cm. in particular, when you create a group, dark day stages is to check whether all the birds have gone to bed.
Chickens are very characteristic of the "wellness" manifestations as wing flapping, feathers and feet staipīšan bužināšan, which strengthens the leg bones. Therefore, the birds must be kept the floor enclosures which are large enough to allow the birds as possible to implement the behavioral manifestations. Best if birds are provided access to the outdoor enclosure; to encourage the birds to go out, it is important to ensure adequate cover, such as bushes.
Chickens need solid flooring, because it can be covered with the substrate to facilitate the feed uzlasīšan and may reduce the frequency of hair knābšan. If the scientific purpose chicken need to lock up, you must insert enclosures that meet the requirements of their behaviour. However, if the hard floor coverings is not scientifically substantiated, must provide solid coverage area with loose substrate and pecking for objects like string bundles, pecking blocks, ropes, sod or straw.
Fast growing Chicken breeds (broilers) have expressed inclination to limp, and it is possible to avoid these varieties to use in experiments. However, if the boiler is used at least once a week is to check the bird, and the bird are lameness be grown relatively slower than commercial farming, unless the growth rate is not relevant to the study.
H. table 2. Domestic fowl: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required area of body mass (g) minimum enclosure size (m2) minimum area per bird (m2) minimum height (cm) minimum power trough length per bird (cm) to over 200 and 200 1.00 0.025 to 30 3 300 300 and above up to 1.00 0.03 30 3 600 600 up to 1.00 0.05 40 7 over and over 1200 1200 2.00 0.09 50 15 and up to 1800 and 1800 up to 2.00 0.11 75 15 above 2400 2.00 0.13
over 2400 2.00 0.21 75 15 75 15

If the fence minimum sizes cannot be provided for scientific reasons, trial investigator must justify the duration of the incarceration of a bird, and it is to be determined in consultation with the zootehniķ and a competent person responsible for consulting on matters of animal welfare. In such circumstances, birds can be housed in smaller enclosures containing ensure enough diverse environment and a minimum floor area of 0.75 m2. These enclosures can accommodate two laying hens or a small group of birds within the above areas required.
c) additional provisions for the accommodation of Turkey and home care both in stock and during procedures wild turkeys live in very diverse environments, and their behavior specific to the various expressions, including sand flies, feed uzlasīšan and hunting. In particular, the breeding season wild turkeys have a complex social behavior. House turkeys (Meleagris gallopav) has saved the wild birds in nature, but there are some important differences, such as the home of Turkey could not fly, but can run fast, jump and soar, particularly characteristic of this is the younger birds.
Home Turkeys are very sociable birds, and they may not be housed separately. Stable groups to be created immediately after the acquisition, and it is important to observe the birds because the health hair head surgery or knābšan may appear in the first day of life.
Lameness is a common problem, which is carefully monitored. About limp measures should consult a veterinarian.
Need a Turkey perches that are placed high enough on the ground to birds could easily reach out to anvil tupošo birds and pull out their hair. However, if birds are older and not as agile, is facilitating their access to perches, using dedicated equipment, such as a ramp. If this is not possible, the anvil must be placed below (for example, 5 cm from the ground). The anvil shape and size should match the bird quickly growing nails. Perches must be oval or rectangular shape with polished corners, made of wood or plastic.
So the birds could sand them to Perth is always available to the substrate. Applied to the substrate material is sawdust or sand. Enclosure and refuge for dominant birds can use straw bales, but they have to be changed frequently and older, heavier birds may need a ramp to access them.
H. table 3. Home Turkey: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required surface area to body mass (kg) minimum enclosure size (m2) minimum area per bird (m2) minimum height (cm) minimum power trough length per bird (cm) to over 50 3 0.3 0.3 2.00 0.13 and up to 0.6 0.6 2.00 0.17 50 7 over and over 1 100 15 2.00 0.30 to 1-4 over 4 and up to 2.00 0.35 100 15 8 100 15 over 2.00 0.40 8 and 12 2.00 0.50
over 150 20 12 and up to 16 over 16 and up to 2.00 0.55 150 20 20 150 20 20 150 20 2.00 0.60 over 3.00 1.00 All enclosure sides shall be at least 1.5 m long. If the fence minimum sizes cannot be provided for scientific reasons, trial investigator must justify the duration of the incarceration of a bird, and it is to be determined in consultation with the zootehniķ and a competent person responsible for consulting on matters of animal welfare. In such circumstances, birds can be kept in smaller enclosures, which has enough diverse environment with minimum area of 0.75 m2 and a minimum height of 50 cm, 75 cm, and 100 cm for birds weighing not more than 0.6 kg respectively, shall not exceed 4 kg and exceeds 5 kg. These enclosures can also be used for small group accommodation according to the above for the required areas.
d) additional provisions for the accommodation of quail and care both in stock and during procedures wild quails live in small groups and devotes much time to such activities as the kašņāšan and the uzlasīšan of seeds and invertebrates from the ground. Quail living in habitats with dense vegetation, such as meadows, bushes and the beach of cereal fields. Quail of domestication is not significantly affected by their behavior, and that fact is important to take into account in the planning of the housing systems that make it possible to provide a substrate for kašņāšan, pecking and flying, sand boxes and Sockets cover. Therefore, it is highly recommended that you quail housed birds at home or living quarters, rather than cages.
Quail Coturnix spp (; Colin for Virginians; Lophortyx californic; Excalfactori chinensis) of the females should be housed in groups or in mixed groups. Mixed groups must ensure that small males and females ratio (for example, one male and four females) to reduce aggression between males and females of the injury. Males can accommodate pairs, where cultivation has led to stable male pair. Skin injuries and the loss of feathers in knābšan of injurious predatory decreases, if not held tight the partridges and do not mix solid group.
Quail are very rapid response, so they tend to gain head injuries. Therefore, employees must always approaching birds slowly and calmly, and quail, especially young birds, must be available in adequate cover and holding enhancements that reduce their fear. Quail chicks need different coloured objects such as balls, tubes and cubes through which they could reduce fear and from the people and from the adult birds. Adult birds have the necessary items, such as pecking stones, pine cones, balls, branches. You must provide sand, wood chips or straw feed uzlasīšan and the place where the birds can hide, as well as additional sand bath of sand or sawdust if feed uzlasīšan substrate is not suitable for sand flying. The case is required in boxes and Sockets socket installation, such as a wall.
If the quail should be housed in cages, it is desirable to consolidate multiple enclosures and put those holding improvement items. Solid enclosure roof will allow the birds to feel safer, although if a bird enclosure are positioned in rows on top of another, lower level of lighting enclosures may not be permissible under this roof. Bird cage for holding must be shorter, because the birds get older, will exacerbate many of the welfare problems (especially when the birds there for more than one year).
H. table 4. Quail: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required area of body mass (g) minimum enclosure size (m2) area per bird (m2) of birds across the area for each additional Bird Bird (m2) minimum height (cm) * minimum length of feed trough per bird (cm) to 150 over 150 30 4 20 4 1.00 0.5 0.10 1.00 0.6 0.15 * enclosure roof must be made from flexible material to reduce head injury risk.
(b)) additional provisions for the accommodation of ducks and geese and care both in stock and during procedures in the trials and tests usually uses the following houses ducks and geese species, Anas platyrhynchos, Anser Anser domesticus and (Cairina moschata). All birds are adapted to swimming and water ingestion, and water is very necessary for such activities as the "wellness" washing and sorting of feathers. Ducks and geese must provide the pool with gravel and rocks covered the basis to promote diversity of avian behaviour and encourage birds to set the hair. Waterfowl should be able at least to immerse the water head and apšļakstī the body with water. Waterfowl for drinkers and pools need to be placed on a grid with gutters below them, to reduce flooding.
Home of geese and ducks used for the production of meat and eggs, but all species are mostly retained their "wild nature" and are more brittle and faster satraucam (especially the hair changes) than other poultry.
The first twenty-four hours after hatching and during the first week of life should provide water to encourage swimming skills, but need to reduce the risk of drowning, for example, offering shallow swimming Bowl. From the second week of life baby birds provide a shallow basin (the size specified in table 6 H) with large rocks on the bottom and between the stones scattered food and grants to encourage the desire to dabble and dive. If the birds do not supervise their young parents, juvenile access pool must be monitored, if necessary, to help them get out of the water and prevent colds. Such monitoring is necessary until the baby birds are capable of completely independently to get out of the water and when they start to appear waterproof feathers. Monitor the temperature of the water is not necessary. Pools are regularly cleaned and the water has to be changed to ensure good water quality.

Ducks and geese must be placed on a hard floor, giving them ample feedingstuff uzlasīšan, walking, jogging, and wing flapping. You must provide a diverse environment, including, for example, natural and artificial cover, boxes and straw bales. If one is not scientific or veterinary justification for keeping the birds indoors, ducks and geese must always hold out or they must ensure access to open-air runs. If birds are available outside the fence, they are protected from predators and provide a dry shelter for relaxation. If necessary, you must ensure that the vegetation the birds may use the screen and/or grazing. Special attention is to be given for each species important habitat element in rendering, regardless of whether the birds are housed indoors or out. For example, shallow water with vegetation of ducks, geese and peat deeper water with boulders for those bird species that live in the wild rocky beach.
Ducks and geese are fit to be housed in groups, and the size of the bird during the isolation must be the shortest possible. The breeding season of many species of birds started to protect their sites, so it may be necessary to reduce the Group and to ensure sufficient area for bird enclosure, to reduce the risk of getting injured (especially females).
H. table 5. Ducks and geese: minimum size of the enclosure and the required area of body mass (g) minimum enclosure size (m2) per bird the required surface area (m2) * maximum height (cm) minimum power trough length per bird (cm) ducks up to 300 over 300 and 50 10 2.00 0.10 to 1200 * 1200 and 200 10 over 2.00 0.20 up to 200 15 over 3500 3500 2.00 0.25 2.00 0.50 200 15 geese up to 2.00 0.20 200 10 500 and 500 to 2000 over 200 15 over 2.00 0.33 2000 2.00 0.50 includes 200 15 pool with a minimum depth of 30 cm and a minimum area of 0.5 m2 per 2 m2 enclosure. The pool can take up to 50% of the fence area.
** No adult birds can be held in enclosures with minimum height of 75 cm.
If the fence minimum sizes cannot be provided for scientific reasons, trial investigator must justify the duration of the incarceration of a bird, and it is to be determined in consultation with the zootehniķ and a competent person responsible for consulting on matters of animal welfare. In such circumstances, birds can be housed in smaller enclosures containing ensure enough diverse environment and a minimum floor area of 0.75 m2. These enclosures can be used for a small group of birds in the accommodation, subject to the following areas of need.
H. table 6. Ducks and geese: minimum pool size * area (m2) depth (cm) ducks geese 0.5 0.5 30 From 10 to 30 Pool area to 2 m2 enclosure. The pool can take up to 50% of the fence area.
f. additional provisions for accommodation and care of the pigeons and the item, both during the procedure, it is considered that the various species of pigeon houses originate from the rock pigeon Columbia Livia. Rock pigeons nest and live on the rocks or in caves, and feral pigeons are also used for cover ledge man-made structures. In their natural habitat pigeons usually live in pairs or in larger herds, feeding and resting together, while protecting your rest and nesting sites. Pigeons can hold a mixed groups; pigeons can lay eggs, but they will, if not per will be unavailable boxes Sockets.
For laboratory use designed pigeon varieties should be chosen very carefully, because some of the species may show inadequate and undesirable behaviour, so they are not usable. Pigeons mainly eat seeds, but are generally omnivorous, so they regularly have to offer animal protein for feedingstuffs.
If possible, the pigeons have to provide sufficient space for flying, as well as a separate site for each bird perches, attached to at least one of the enclosure wall. Ensure blocks spaced 30 cm x 15 cm high box perches. The landing site can also use the branches hanging from the roof, and scaffolding. You must provide the chains hanging toys, for example, bird calls, mirrors and commercially available toys for pets. Each enclosure must be inserted into the shallow water bath. If the birds are often required to take hands, birds can capture the specially created "nesting place" or the cameras, which the birds learn to resign in the event of danger.
If possible, the keeping of pigeons must use larger enclosures, supplemented with shelves, perches and toys rather than "ordinary" pigeon enclosure. Pigeons like to gather up food, and may not be kept on grid floors without serious scientific justification.
H. table 7. Pigeons: the minimum size of the enclosure and the desired area group size the minimum enclosure size (m2) minimum height (cm) minimum power trough length per bird (cm) minimum length of perch per bird (cm) to 7 to 12 3 200 5 30 6 2 200 5 30 for each additional bird groups, greater than 12 birds 0.15 5 30 fences have to be long and narrow (for example , 2 m x 1 m), rather than in the form of a cube to the bird to make the short flight.
g) additional provisions for the accommodation of the zebra finches and care both in stock and during procedures of Zebra Finches (Taeniopygi-guttat) are widespread in Australia. They are very active and foraging covers a wide territory. Zebra Finches (Taeniopygi-guttat) live in herds composed of several hundreds of specimens. The species is monogām, and species characteristic of the male gender, dimorfism feathers were ornately than female. The breeding season, and it starts when the birds are available from the ripe grass seeds. Zebra Finches (Taeniopygi-guttat) Sockets used for both sleeping and reproduction purposes; sleeping nests often are used in cold weather, and they may be old breeding nests or designed as sleeping nests.
Zebra Finches (Taeniopygi-guttat) is a social birds, and birds do not breed, are to be housed in groups. Unwanted reproduction can be accommodating same-sex groups of the birds; can also be used in mixed groups, not allowing the birds to build a sleeping nest and breeding and nourishing them with dry seeds, which added to the Green, not soaked or sprouting seeds. Birds that breed, must ensure the socket, for example, from Wicker or plastic shaped baskets or wooden boxes of dry grass, strips of paper or coconut fibres as nest-building materials. The birds will protect their nest from other birds, so it is important to monitor their behavior to make sure that it is secure enough. As dietary supplements for birds is continuously should be available for millet Panicum spike. Whereas the zebra finches (Taeniopygi-guttat), mostly feeding on the ground, birds must be housed on a hard floor to facilitate their natural food uzlasīšan.
Poultry for toys, perches and swings will enhance the zebra finches (Taeniopygi-guttat), wellness, and it is therefore appropriate to ensure, whenever possible. Perches are particularly important for the well-being of the birds, and they must be placed at a different height to promote natural feeding and sleeping behavior. At least once a week the birds must be available in the water swimming in shallow containers for 0.5-1 cm deep water.
Zebra Finches (Taeniopygi-guttat) marking with colorful leg bandages for identification purposes may significantly affect their social and reproductive behavior (for example, the red color of the bird, while the authority to bar the green or blue color reduces it). Leg bandage colors and drawings should be chosen very carefully.
Zebra Finches (Taeniopygi-guttat) the minimum size of the enclosure are shown in table 8 H. Fences must be long and narrow (for example, 2 m x 1 m), rather than in the form of a cube, to the birds they could take a short passage. Zebra Finch (Taeniopygi-guttat) like to stay outdoor enclosures where they have provided shelter and sleeping nests, if necessary. Cold weather outside housed birds is to provide additional heating.
H. table 8. Zebra Finch (Taeniopygi-guttat): the minimum size of the enclosure and the desired area group size the minimum enclosure size (m2) minimum height (cm) minimum number of feeders to 6 100 2 from 7 to 12 1.0 1.5 2.0 200 3 200 2 from 13 to 20 for each additional bird groups that are larger than 20 birds 0.05 1 6 feeder birds by studying the reproduction, the pairs can be housed in smaller enclosures with necessary holding improvement articles , the minimum floor area of 0.5 m2 and a minimum height of 40 cm. trial investigator must be able to justify the chosen length of incarceration, and to determine, in consultation with the zootehniķ and a competent person responsible for consulting on matters of animal welfare.
I. rules relating to amphibian introduction 1.

According to the classification of amphibians are broken down into three main stages: Urodel (Caudata), Gymnophion (Apod) and Anur (Ecaudat). Anur Salienti belongs to the round. This document applies to Urodel (salamanders, newts) and Anur (frogs, toads). They vary greatly by geographic distribution and lifestyle, and they can be divided into, for example, in the abinieko aquatic (e.g. Xenop for laevis), volcano abinieko, part of the time spent in the water (Rana temporari), volcano abinieko, part of the time spent on the land (for example, the Bufo Marinus) and living in abinieko trees (such as the Hyl cinerea). Amphibians live in different habitats, from dry deserts to deep freshwater lakes. Some amphibians most of life spent under the ground or high in the rain forest canopy. Some are found beyond the Arctic circle and able to withstand the cold, while others have adapted to life in dry, hot regions of the world.
Amphibians are very well adapted to the substrate on which or on which they live. In this respect, an important body skin of water and soluble substances, including toxic substances and oxygen transport function. Thus the skin ensure the survival of amphibians important processes, as well as the amphibian interactions with the environment and their ability to adapt to diverse habitats and ecological conditions. Amphibian health depends on some parts of the body the skin properties and characteristics, so amphibians are important biological indicators of environmental health.
If possible, for experimental or other scientific purposes be amphibians must be reared in captivity. It is desirable to use a specially bred animals, not wild animals are bred.
(I). table 1 contains the four main habitats and amphibian Habitat each dwelling species, which are often used for experimental and other scientific purposes. Recommendations below provide information about the most important accommodation and care conditions in these habitats the amphibians present. Specific procedures may be necessary to use other species that live in these habitats into four categories. To properly ensure the specific needs of the species (or the following behavior or breeding difficulties), on this and other species of requirements should consult with experienced professionals and care workers. More information on less common species and their habitats are available in the expert group on the content in the document.
I. table 1. The main Habitat categories and the most frequently used examples of the habitats of species Habitat amphibian species size (cm)/geographical distribution of Habitat optimal temperature relative air humidity, the main period of activity the aquatic amphibians Newt and salamanders Ambystoma Mexicana (Mexican aksolotl) from 24 to 27 Mexico/Hočimilk Lakes channels from 15 ° C to 22 ° C 100% twilight aquatic amphibians are frogs and toads are Xenop laevis (African piešuvard) from 6 to 12 and South Africa/Central Africa and groundwater source created ponds No18 ° C to 22 ° C 100% Chair/ night of the amphibians that Volcano part time spent in water frogs and toads Rana temporari (normal frog) From 7 to 11 from Europe (Central and North Europe) and Asia (except the southern Balkans)/pie ponds, lakes, streams (shores, meadows) from 10 ° C to 15 ° C from 50% to 80% of day/night Volcano of amphibians that spend time on terrestrial frogs and toads of the Bufo Marinus (Jūraskrup) from 12 to 22, Central America and South America/mangrovj stands Woods, from 23 ° C to 27 ° C 80% night trees living amphibians frogs and toads Hyl cinerea (green kokuvard) from 3 to 6 in the US Southeast/open scrub Cypress swamp edges, flat fields, forest from 18 ° C to 25 ° C from 50% to 70% for day/night 2. environment and its control 2.1. amphibian enclosures Ventilation must be adequate air exchange. The aquatic amphibian enclosures must use filtered, aerēt water, providing water circulation (see also paragraph 4.3.1.).
2.2. Temperature amphibians are cold-blooded animals. Amphibians need areas with different temperatures and humidity levels, so the animals can choose those suitable for micro. Frequent temperature and humidity fluctuations can adversely affect amphibians, and keeping animals in such an environment can be more susceptible to disease. You must control rooms and the temperature of the water.
Amphibian leaving hibernation can influence by controlling light and dark cycle and the room temperature. Before hibernation stimulus captivity must ensure that the animals are in good health and physical condition. If necessary, animals used for breeding purposes can stimulate mood approaching the winter position (for example, through a sliver of darkness and maintaining or room temperature from 8 ° C to 10 ° C). In these circumstances, the animals can be kept without the power supply 4-5 months. Restoring before hibernation existing conditions will stimulate animal activity and mating period-specific behavior.
Hibernation not assurance laboratory environment deterioration amphibian welfare.
2.3. Humidity Amphibians do not take liquids drinking, but rather takes the moisture through the skin. Captive amphibian and the terrestrial amphibian, which most of the time spent on the road, especially the essential problem is water loss, because due to blemishes are essential for hydrotreated amphibian skin for normal operation. Amphibians favourably affect it, if the enclosure is provided with different zones of relative air humidity level. Humid environment should be available even for the amphibian, which is adapted to life in the desert.
2.4. Lighting must use the fotoperiod corresponding to the place of origin of the animals natural cycle. Light level enclosures must match the light level that might exist in the natural conditions. Both amphibian that most of life spent on land and aquatic amphibian in the enclosure should be able to hide in the shadows.
2.5. The noise of amphibians are very sensitive to noise (stimuli that spreads through the air) and vibrations (stimuli that spread along the ground), and the new, suddenly disturbed them stimuli. Therefore such unfamiliar air or earth tremors are likely to be reduced.
2.6. If the alarm system is used in the circulation system and/or aeration is required, it is recommended that you use the appropriate signalling system.
3. Health (see. The General section 4.1.)
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation for most amphibian social behavior is observed only in the mating period. However, amphibians are recommended to accommodate the group, for example, to increase their power and to reduce the fear reaction. For example, the feeding of piešuvarž group promotes animal feed all craving. If the enclosure has a low population density, the animals do not arise a tendency to feed, and food is not eaten often.
To prevent cannibalism in some species (especially among Ambystoma species and Scaphiop not full-blown form), this species is kept in small groups. Cannibalism may minimize, sorted into groups according to their size.
4.2. improving the holding of land habitats for Amphibians have to create, insert, such as branches, leaves, bark, stones, or other suitable artificial materials. This improved the usefulness of holding gets different, for example, amphibians can be used inside the enclosure, to hidden behind them, and they provide the Visual and space amphibian landmarks. The side walls of the terrarium should be granted a certain texture to create surface impression.
It is recommended to provide suitable amphibian needs hiding/place of refuge because they can mitigate the captive amphibian stress. For example, species of amphibian Xenop enclosure for this purpose, you can insert a ceramic or plastic pipe. Patveršan site is regularly checked, or those not in a sick or injured animal. Dark reservoir floor can increase the animal a sense of security.
Holding for the improvement of the materials used shall not harm the health of amphibians. To reduce the risk of injury to the skin of amphibians, fences and holding improvement structures must have smooth surfaces and rounded edges.
4.3. Fence-size and flooring 4.3.1. the aquatic amphibian fencing water resident amphibians, such as the amphibian Xenop laevis or immature forms, accommodating reservoirs and aquariums. It can be equipped with a large water flow system that ensure clean (e.g. chlorine-free) water circulation heating equipment suitable for temperature, and the compressed air supply and suitable aeration installations. Must ensure that aeration is not savaino animals. If not installed proper water flow system water enclosure must be restored in accordance with quality about twice a week.
Xenop-amphibian species the required water quality (e.g., reduced ammonia level) is sufficient to ensure the use of systems that ensure regular water exchange (filling and discharge). Xenop-amphibian species using stones of aeration is required.
Long, narrow enclosures are not suitable for amphibian because they can restrict lokomotor activity and social behavior, such as common barošano.

I. table 2.-aquatic Newt and salamanders, Ambystoma species such as amphibians: the minimum size of the enclosure and the area required body length * (cm) minimum water surface area (cm2) minimum water surface area for each additional animal in Group enclosures (cm2) minimum water depth (cm) to over 10 and up to 50 13 10262.5 15 525 110 13 above 15 and up to 20 875 200 15 above 20 and up to 30 over 30 3150 800 20 * 1837.5 440 15 measured from head to tail.
I. table 3. Aquatic frogs and toads, such as the Xenop of the species amphibians: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required length of the body URplatība.* ** (cm) minimum water surface area (cm2) minimum water surface area for each additional animal in Group enclosures (cm2) minimum water depth (cm) less than 6 160 40 6 from 6 to 9 300 75 8 over 9 and up to 12 600 150 10 over 12 920 230 12.5 * these recommendations apply to the holding tanks but not applicable to tanks used for natural mating and superovulācij, not to reduce the effectiveness of these procedures, because they need a smaller individual tanks. The areas of concern indicated adult amphibian in the body size categories; they do not apply to juveniles and tadpoles of amphibians, which, if necessary, the required area shall be determined in accordance with the principle of scaling.
** Measured from the head to the anal opening.
4.3.2. the volcano of amphibian Fencing that part of the time spent in the water, and the volcano of amphibian that portion of time spent on terrestrial amphibians of the Volcano, part of the time spent in the water, and that part of the time spent on sauszen, there's enclosures, which consists of land and water. Water area in the terrarium has to be so deep, so the animals could completely immersed in it. If you do not use the flow system, the water must be restored at least twice a week.
All the terrarium should be covered to prevent the animal from escaping. To reduce the harm to the animals, it is recommended that you paint or overlay transparent wall outside. Furnishings can be complemented with floor coating around the pool, create a soft and porous plastic, stones, artificial material made from bark, branches and artificial leaves, as well as with the bumps. You may not use the fine sawdust or other small particles as medium because they can accumulate pathogens and are difficult to clean and reuse, so they do not adversely affect the sensitive body skin.
I. table 4. Frogs and toads, which part of the time spent in the water, such as Rana temporari: the minimum size of the enclosure and the area required body length * (cm) minimum enclosure size ** (cm2) minimum area for each additional animal in Group enclosures (cm2) minimum enclosure height *** (cm) minimum water depth (cm) to over 1500 200 20 10 5.0 5.0 to 7.5 3500 500 30 10 and above 7.5 4000 700 30 15 * measured from the head to the anal opening.
* One third of land, two thirds of the water that is deep enough to allow the animals to completely immersed in it.
Part of the land surface to the inside of the roof of the terrarium; In addition, the enclosure must be adjusted in height enclosure design.
I. table 5. Frogs and toads, which spend time on land, such as Bufo Marinus: the minimum size of the enclosure and the required area of body length * cm) minimum enclosure size ** (cm2) minimum area for each additional animal in Group enclosures (cm2) minimum enclosure height *** (cm) minimum water depth (cm) to over 1500 200 20 10 5.0 5.0 to 7.5 3500 500 30 10 and above 7.5 4000 700 30 15 * measured from the head to the anal opening.
** Two-thirds land, one third of the water that is deep enough to allow the animals to completely immersed in it.
Part of the land surface to the inside of the roof of the terrarium; In addition, the enclosure must be adjusted in height enclosure design.
4.3.3. The trees living amphibian fencing taking into account different amphibian species living in the trees, must do everything possible to implement it in animals in captivity, also giving them suitable for climbing and leisure design (see. section 4.3.2). In addition you must also provide the water in which they can soak up and get them the needed moisture. If you use a shallow water containers, they must be arranged so that amphibians can easily penetrate them or get out of them.
I. table 6. Trees in living frogs and toads, such as the Hyl cinerea: the minimum size of the enclosure and the area required body length * (cm) minimum enclosure size ** (cm2) minimum area for each additional animal in Group enclosures (cm2) minimum enclosure height *** (cm) to over 1500 200 30 * 3.0 900 100 30 3.0 measured from the head to the anal opening.
** Two-thirds land, one third of the water that is deep enough to allow the animals to completely immersed in it.
Part of the land surface to the inside of the roof of the terrarium; In addition, the fencing height should be adapted to the fence, including workplaces, ribs, large branches and artificial climbing structures intended.
4.4 feeding most of the amphibian's predators that prefer a diet of small live invertebrate animals (such as larvae, insects, and worms). Animals in captivity must ensure their natural food or feed that resembles their natural diet. However, the aquatic amphibians in captivity like to eat fish fillets or pieces of liver or heart frozen chips. Power frequency is to be determined according to environmental conditions such as temperature and light intensity. Adult animals is not recommended to feed each day, but three times a week, ensuring the animals as much as they can feed to eat.
4.5. Water quality must be regularly checked, a quality water is available for aquatic animals and those who spend time in the water, including the need to check the concentration of ammonia in water and water pH level.
4.6. the substrate, litter and material (see the installing the mig. The General section 4.8.)
4.7 cleaning to prevent the illness, terrarium land and water area should be carefully cleaned, removed the dirt, excrement and food particles.
4.8. The handling of amphibian skin can easily hurt. Amphibians must move very carefully and possibly less so.
4.9. Anesthesia and the humane killing of invasive and potentially painful procedures must be carried out using the pain management and anaesthesia. Whereas the amphibian skin provides a significant part of gas exchange, then reducing or interrupting the operation of the animal's lungs with anaesthesia of the animals is necessary to ensure that the skin is constantly moist, using, for example, a damp cloth.
4.10. the documentation (see. The General section 4.12.)
4.11. Identification, there are several techniques that can be used for individual identification of animals, such as the use of the transponder, the marking of the tank where it is housed in a single animal skin pigment or wart disposition; small differences in the use of the mark, which is attached with colored thread. You may not use the chemical markup, because substances impregnates the skin and may cause food poisoning. Finger pruning is harmful, and it is prohibited.
5. Transport Transport of amphibians, they have to provide enough air and moisture and, if necessary, you must use the appropriate device for the required temperature and humidity.
J. provisions for reptiles 1. introduction according to the morphological classification of reptiles can be divided into the following main stages: Rhynchocephali (tuatar), Squamat (lizards, snakes) (turtles) and Cheloni Crocodili (alligators, crocodiles, caimans and gavial). The geographic distribution and the lifestyle is very different.
In contrast to the relatively smooth and wet to the skin of the amphibian reptile skin protects the scales (snakes, lizards), coffin-like armor (turtles) or bone plate (crocodiles, alligators and caimans). A thick skin is better protected against water loss in reptiles, amphibian skin by porous cannot provide.
(J). table 1 contains two main reptile habitats and habitats of species in each dwelling, which is often used for experimental and other scientific purposes. Recommendations below provide information about the main habitats of these species of reptiles present accommodation and care conditions. Certain procedures may be required for the use of other species that do not fall within these categories, such as reptiles that spend time in the water, the trees kept reptiles and reptiles prowling over the rocks. If you have a behavioral and reproductive difficulties or need more information on a specific range of other species and use requirements, must consult with experts who are competent with the species related issues, and care staff to ensure that it is properly complied with all the requirements of the species. Additional information on the species and habitats are included in the Group of experts on the content prepared document.
If possible, tests and other scientific studies intended reptiles must be purchased from suppliers with a good reputation.

Q: 1. table for two Habitat categories with each dwelling, commonly used in the experiments of reptile species of the habitats of the species for example, length (cm) geographic distribution/Habitat optimal temperature relative air humidity, the main period of activity the aquatic reptiles of the Trachemy scripts elegans Florida red turtle from 20 to 28 Mississippi Valley drainage channels/calm waters with muddy bottom from 20 ° C to 25 ° C from 80% to 100% of the terrestrial reptiles Thamnoph Day by ordinary prievīščūsk by sirtal from 40 to 70 North/woodlands damp areas from 22 ° C to 27 ° C from 60% to 80% day 2. environment and its control 2.1. Ventilation the reptile enclosures must provide sufficient air exchange. To prevent the reptile escaped, the ventilation opening must be closed with a cover.
2.2. Temperature reptiles are cold-blooded animals. To maintain the necessary body temperature, natural conditions they will choose appropriate micro that warm or cool. Therefore, the reptile enclosures must provide the area with different temperatures (stepwise temperature changes).
Temperature requirements for the different species vary greatly, and even one species at different stages of the year may require different temperatures. The laboratory must control rooms and the temperature of the water. Many reptiles sex and gonad differentiation is dependent on temperature.
Incandescent, which is placed over the reptile resting platform, allow its sleeping reptiles raise your temperature. If the lights are turned off, you can use the flat heaters. In tropical habitats-the snake and lizard terārijo must provide at least one heat plate. Heating systems must be controlled to prevent overheating and apdegšan.
2.3. the relative air humidity to adjust relative air humidity, will be also regulates ventilation. Relative air humidity of 70-90% can be maintained, steaming water from the tank, located next to the heater. Reptiles have a beneficial effect on the environment with different humidity zones (with the gradual change of air humidity).
2.4. Lighting must be provided for each species suited to the light and dark cycles under the animal's life stage and time of year. Fencing must also provide shade, which cover the reptiles. Light or sunlight simulating lamp must not be the only heat source. You must also provide ultraviolet radiation to stimulate formation of vitamin D in the body of the animal.
2.5. The noise of reptiles are very sensitive to noise (stimuli that spreads through the air) and vibrations (stimuli that spread along the ground), and a new, unexpected stimuli is upsetting them. Therefore such unfamiliar air or earth tremors are likely to be reduced.
2.6. If the alarm system is used in the water circulation system and/or the aeration is required, you must use the appropriate signalling system.
3. Health of different species in different state of health to be housed with particular care.
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation (see. The General section 4.5.2.)
4.2. improving the holding Must reproduce the natural habitats for reptiles, including, for example, natural or artificial branches, leaves, bark and stones. This improved the usefulness of holding gets different reptiles, for example, you can use the objects inside the enclosure to hidden behind them, and they ensure the reptiles of the premises and the Visual landmarks. To prevent the reptile collisions with transparent glass, the side walls of the terrarium should be granted a certain texture to create a structured surface impression.
4.3. Fence-size and flooring fences and insert objects must have a smooth surface and rounded edges, to reduce the risk of injury, and for the most sensitive species is to use opaque materials.
4.3.1. the aquatic reptile enclosures in the aquatic reptiles need to be housed with the filter and the water circulation system equipped in aerēt containers. The water must be restored about two times a week. To reduce bacterial pollution of water, the water temperature must not exceed 25 ° c. The water level in the tank should be so high that the reptile could be completely submerged in water.
Leisure reptiles should provide a platform on which they can climb or below which they can shelter. Such platforms must be made of suitable material, for example, from the tree to the animals it could get caught in the claws and extract themselves from the water. From time to time the platform has to be replaced. Made from epoxy resin or polyurethane platform is not suitable for that purpose, and shall, if perishable is constantly kept at a warm temperature.
J table 2. the aquatic turtles, such as species of turtle Trachemy: the minimum size of the enclosure and the area required body length * (cm) minimum water surface area (cm2) minimum water surface area for each additional animal in Group enclosures (cm2) minimum water depth (cm) to 5 600 100 10 over 5 and up to 10 1600 300 15 over 10 and up to above 15 to 20 6000 1200 30 15 3500 600 20 and above 20 and up to 30 10000 2000 35 30 20000 5000 40 * measured over a straight line from the front edge of the shell to the back edge.
4.3.2. terrestrial reptile enclosure land reptiles are kept in enclosures that have secured sufficient land area and water area. Water area in the terrarium has to be so deep, so it could totally immersed. Water is recommended to restore at least two times a week, if one is not installed in the terrarium water flow system.
Terrarium must be constructed of a translucent material, with tightly connected sutures securely sealed openings and equipped with a tight-fitting, lockable lids or doors. All doors and covers must be fitted with a lock, hooks or bolts. Doors and lids are recommended to build it to be possible to open the entire terrarium roof, or sides, thus facilitating the terrarium cleaning (except for the terrarium there poisonous reptiles). Some species all terrarium walls, except the front wall, must be opaque. If staying in the terrarium irritable or very scary reptile, transparent wall can obstruct with removable covers. Venomous snake in the holding must comply with certain security requirements.
All terrestrial reptiles need a suitable place of refuge where they could hide and sometimes pick up the feed. Place of refuge, for example, clay pipe, will simulate the cave dark.
J table 3. terrestrial snakes, such as the Thamnoph species of snakes: the minimum size of the enclosure and the area required body length * (cm) minimum floor area (cm2) minimum area for each additional animal in Group enclosures (cm2) minimum enclosure height *** (cm) to over 30 and 40 400 200 12 30 300 150 10 to over 40 and up to 50 600 300 15 above 50 and up to 75 1200 600 20 over 75 2500 1200 28 * measured from head to tail.
** Part Of the land surface to the inside of the roof of the terrarium; In addition, the fencing height should be adapted to the fence, including the furnishings of the ribs, large artificial branches.
4.4 feeding the reptiles in captivity must ensure their natural food or feed that resembles their natural diet. Many reptiles are carnivores (all snakes and crocodiles, most of the lizard and some turtles), but some reptiles are vegetarians, and others – the omnivore. Some species have very specific feeding habits. Reptiles, except some of the snakes, it is possible to tame eat dead prey. So usually it is not necessary to feed with a Live vertebrate animals. If using a dead vertebrates, they are humanely killed using a method that does not cause poisoning risk reptiles. The power mode is to be applied to the specific needs of the animal according to its species, the development and the existing care system.
4.5 Drinking the potable water is a must for all reptiles.
4.6. the substrate, litter and dens in the Terrarium can be used for different substrates according to the specific needs of the species. You may not use the fine sawdust or other small particles as medium because it can cause serious foot and internal injuries or intestinal obstruction, especially snakes.
4.7 cleaning (see. The General section 4.9.)
4.8 handling reptiles should be handled carefully, as they are very vulnerable. For example, some lizards can drop its tail (autotomij) if they do not properly take arms, and the other species is probably easily hurt.
4.9. Humane killing (see. The General section 4.11.)
Appropriate killing method is the anesthesia overdose.
4.10. the documentation (see. The General section 4.12.)
4.11. Identification of individual identification of the animals, you can use several techniques: the use of the transponder, the marking of the tank where it is housed in a single animal, reptile recognition after the skin signs (by color, skin damage, etc.); skin marks, which must be renewed by replacement of the skin; small differences in characters with colorful thread tied to the legs. Circumcision is harmful to your finger, and it is prohibited.
5. Transport

Transporting reptiles, they have to provide enough air and moisture and, if necessary, you must use the appropriate device required for maintenance of temperature and humidity.
K. rules for fish 1. introduction the use of fish experiments over the last decade has increased significantly for a variety of reasons, including the increase of aquaculture, which has determined the need of different study nutrition, Physiology and genetics, environmental toxicology and other poisons; fish are also used in fundamental genetics and immunology research, the results of which have may be attributed to the higher groups, including vertebrates to mammals. Trials are used in many of the fish species that live in different habitats and have different behaviour and environmental and care needs.
The fish are cold-blooded animals, so they are adapted to life in a certain underwater environment. To stress situations they respond very quickly, and it leads to immediate physiological effects, which can be relatively long, and these changes will affect not only the welfare of fish, but also the results of the trial.
Researchers and care staff must be familiar with the trials of selected fish species, to ensure prior to purchasing suitable equipment and develop appropriate care procedures. The Group of experts on the content prepared document provides additional information about a particular species, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), tilapij of ciklīd, zebrziv (Danio rerio), sea bass (Dicentrarch to labrax), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus Hippogloss), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), turbot (Scophthalmus Maximus) and African catfish (Claria's gariepen). In order to ensure that there is enough all this and other species of the specific requirements of the species concerned experts and care workers should be asked to provide more detailed information and recommendations.
If the conditions of the study of aquaculture provides fish farming under conditions similar to the conditions of the commercial fisheries, livestock must meet the minimum standards laid down in the European Convention for the protection of animals kept for farming purposes (ETS No. 87).
2. environment and its control 2.1. Water supply Is important to constantly ensure adequate water supply of adequate quality. Water stream enclosures used in water circulation and filtration system must be strong enough to wash away the water to the existing particulate matter and dirt and ensure that water quality meets acceptable levels. You must use a monitoring system to make sure that the fish is available in sufficient quantity of water of appropriate quality. The water flow must be such that the fish in the water would normally swim and implement natural manifestations. Usually the enclosures, which are kept in fish fry, the water supply is best against the water surface of the inclined angle.
2.2. Water quality water quality is the most important factor for ensuring the well-being of the fish, as well as stress and disease risk reduction. Water quality indicators must always meet the quality level required for normal functioning of the species concerned and physiology. The required quality level is difficult to determine, since many species optimum housing conditions are not laid down, and in some species the quality requirements may vary depending on the stage of development of the fish (larval, juvenile, adult fish) or physiological condition (metamorphosis, spawning, feeding, previous housing conditions).
Fish species have different adaptability to changes in water quality. You might discover that you must take acclimation, and it must be provided as long as the fish species concerned needs it.
Since most of the fish are unable to function normally in water containing high levels of suspended particulates, it is necessary to ensure that the quantity of particles in the water meets acceptable norm. If necessary, the supply of fish fences is to filter the water to purify it from the harmful substances in fish and provide suitable water physico-chemical indicators.
2.2.1. Oxygen oxygen concentration must meet the specific species and the conditions in which they are kept. Need the oxygen concentration will depend on temperature, carbon dioxide concentration, salinity, power and manipulation. If necessary, you must provide additional water aeration.
2.2.2. The nitrogen compounds ammonia excretion is the main fish products. Izšķīdus urea, feed and feces turn into inorganic compounds, such as ammonia and phosphate. Ammonia and nitrites is divided into nitrāto. Ammonia and nitrite in fish is very harmful, and the accumulation of these substances must be eliminated by increasing the caurplūsm, reducing the population density or temperature or through biological filtration.
Sensitivity to ammonia in the different species is different, and usually it is more pronounced for marine fish and younger fish. Non-ionised ammonia is toxic, and its quantity depends not only of the total ammonia concentrations, but also from the pH, salinity and temperature of water.
2.2.3. Carbon dioxide (CO2) fish breathing causes carbon dioxide, and it dissolves in water, creating carbon dioxide and thereby lowering the pH. The accumulation of carbon dioxide can be problematic precincts with high population density, if necessary to maintain the level of oxygen in the water is used to clean oxygen, rather than air. Although high concentration of free carbon dioxide can be deadly to fish in normal range, it would most likely not cause such problems. However, it is necessary to ensure that the water supply system, especially if used in groundwater systems, enclosures are not pumped into the amount of carbon dioxide that can harm fish.
2.2.4. the pH level pH level depends on many water quality factors, such as the carbon dioxide and calcium content in the water. You must provide a potentially more stable pH level, the changes will also affect other water quality indicators. Fresh water is usually lower the pH level than saline. If necessary, the water needs to be enriched with the buffer.
2.2.5. Salinity fish need water salinity level depends on whether the fish are suitable or adapted to life in sea water or fresh water. Some species can adapt to a wide range of salinity. The other ability to adapt water salinity may be dependent on the stage of development. Salinity is to change gradually.
2.3. Temperature temperature must be maintained for the fish species concerned the appropriate level and the temperature is to be changed gradually. There is a high temperature, may require additional aeration of the water enclosure.
2.4. Lighting Many fish light is necessary for the reception of feedingstuffs and other activities. As far as possible, the fish must be provided appropriate for fotoperiod, because the light/dark cycle affects fish Physiology and behavior.
Bright light is not suitable for many species, although some tropical species in the wild live in very bright light. Depending on the species the backlight should be reduced or overlap the tanks and containers must ensure adequate hiding places for fish. As much as possible, it is necessary to prevent a sudden change in light intensity.
2.5. the noise the fish can be very sensitive to sounds, even very quiet sounds. Noise level testing is reduced. If possible, the noise and vibration generating devices, such as power generators or filtration systems must be placed outside the fish holding facilities. Within an environment of fish will have grown accustomed to these environmental stimuli, and move to an unfamiliar environment can cause them stress.
(See the alarm system. General section 2.6.)
3. Health 3.1. General Information Is to pay attention to the hygienic conditions of test objects. Fish health is closely linked with the available environmental and housing conditions. Most diseases are associated with stress, caused by non-compliance with these conditions, and to successfully eradicate the disease, everyone disease containment measures must be linked with the required conditions. Whereas fish health care almost always refers to the entire group of fish, not only to individual fish, should develop appropriate control measures.
3.2. the hygiene and disinfection of fish holding facilities, including related pipe system must be cleaned and disinfected, where necessary. Closed systems cleaning and disinfection must meet the microbiological conditions of optimal conditions of maintenance. Equipment such as nets, the use of breakout is disinfected. Employees must take precautions to prevent transfer of contamination among fish fences.
3.3. The quarantine

The fish, which just acquired the wild or from fish farms, for a specific period of time are to be put in quarantine after they separated from the rest of possible fish. In the period of quarantine should be carefully observed; If the disease is detected, they must be treated, or all quarantined fish are discarded. Farmed fish must be purchased from reliable suppliers, and desirable that their health status should be checked in advance.
4. Accommodation, holding the improvement and care 4.1. Accommodation stocking density enclosure is dependent on fish behavior, and should take into account the behaviour of fish bar or territorial behavior. Density must be determined having regard to all the circumstances of the environment, health and welfare needs of the fish. The fish has to provide sufficient water for normal swimming. You must implement measures to reduce aggression between members of the same species, while not affecting animal welfare. The permissible stocking density species depends on water flows and currents, water quality, fish size, health and feeding techniques. The group is to be created from the same size fish, to reduce the risk of injury and cannibalism.
4.2. The holding of Some species to improve the holding of improvement may be needed to ensure the behavior of features, such as special breeding or hunting techniques. For example, Labrida is the family fish may need hiding places, but some of the fish-plekstveidīgaj substrate such as sand. Improving the holding must not impair the quality of water, but this consideration must not prevent the application of measures to improve the welfare of the fish.
4.3 4.3.1. Fish farming in the Enclosure object in the fish can keep on bottom based enclosures or specially designed buildings or external objects, or enclosures that are created in open water systems. If it's practical, you must control access to these fences, and they must be designed in such a way that the fish is disturbed as little as possible and that they be able to provide the right conditions.
4.3.2. At the bottom of the following fencing fencing created must be composed of non-toxic and durable materials with smooth internal surface for fish not get bruises. Fences must be sufficiently large so that they can accommodate the required quantity of fish, and they must provide the necessary water flow. Enclosure form must match the relevant experimental species used behavioural needs, for example, salmonid fish best suited to be a circular enclosure. Fencing should be designed so as to prevent the escape of fish should be. If required, enclosures must provide a self-cleaning function, thus contributing to the rails from waste treatment and nutrient surpluses.
4.3.3. the Fence into open water fishes, in particular marine species may be kept in large floating enclosures. Enclosure size, including the depth, must be such as to ensure the possibility of actively swim and fish to congregate in herds. The mesh size shall provide sufficient water exchange, while not allowing the fish to escape from the enclosure. Fences must be designed in such a way as to minimise the risk of predators attack. Fencing properly secured to tides or water stream that should not be distorted and not trapped fish.
4.4. Feeding fish can be fed artificial food or fresh/frozen natural feed. Artificial feed is preferably used if it provides the necessary nutrients for the species and when fish eat it. Some fish species or fish in certain stages of development do not eat artificial feed. Artificial feed is also less affected by water quality.
The fish is essential to feeding in accordance with appropriate feeding timetable that depends on factors such as water temperature, fish size and maturity. Whereas the high temperature increase metabolism, the power level is raised. The fish is not always necessary to feed each day. The essential consideration is the correct power feed type of presentation. Attention must be paid to the number of meal one day, fish, water temperature and feed pellets or pieces of the size. The selected feeding regime, food flavoring and food presentation is to guarantee that all the fish receiving sufficient nutrition. Particular attention must be paid to the feeding of fish larvae, especially when natural food is changed by artificial feed.
4.5 cleaning the Enclosure All fencing must be purified from the generated waste and excess food. If these wastes allows you to accumulate, they adversely affect water quality and fish health. Fencing must be regularly processed and cleaned to prevent clogging and water exchange. It is necessary to prevent the risk that dirty water could back off into the enclosure, the enclosure water polluted, as well as the risks of infection. If the enclosure is not designed for a self-cleaning function, from fencing to be extracted, at best, right after feeding. Fence edge and base must be regularly cleaned to prevent algae and other sediment formation. Cleaning must be carried out carefully, so as not to upset the fish.
4.6. Handling of interacting with people fish can seriously fuss, so it is possible to be cut. Fish from the enclosure to the network, and before ripping the procedures they anestez and insert a smaller tank. Anesthesia exposure time should be shorter, and the fish must be placed in a clean, aerēt water, which they can recover. Anaesthesia should last all the time of the procedure.
Catch fish to be used with a suitable frame and mesh size. You may not use knotted networks. Before using the network are disinfected and rinsed in clean water.
Fish out of water may be a touch with wet gloves or wet hands, and the fish is placed on moist surfaces to avoid abrading the scales and slime. Particular attention must be paid to the processing methods used does not cause the fish from drying out, slāpšan or hurt fish other damage.
4.7. Humane killing of fish must be killed normally, using the following techniques:-anesthetic overdose of using fish size and species according to the means and methods of administration. If the fish kills, dipping them in a solution, after anesthetic Gill movement and/or vestibulār in the eyepiece end of the reflex it is left in the solution for at least five minutes;
-brain suspension, breaking the skull.
Death to be confirmed, such as physically destroying fish brains or lowering the fish blood.
4.8. the documentation must be documented in the relevant water quality indicators.
4.9. the identification is not always necessary or possible to identify each of the fish hold.
If the fish need marked for identification purposes, for the least invasive method of marking is identified as a subcutaneous injection of dye. Prior to more invasive techniques (such as circumcision or fins pit label) is the use of carefully considered it a necessity. Mechanical tagging can be used only when other methods are not suitable for marking.
Marking usually take fish from anaesthesia, in order to facilitate the discharge of the procedure and reduce injury, illness or stress.
5. Transport Before transporting the fish fed as long as it takes to enjoy them in the gut, thereby reducing the faecal contamination of the transport system. Fish catching, training, transport and release must be handled carefully, so as not to injure the fish and do not cause excessive stress to it. Not allow rapid temperature change, slāpšan and excrement-induced deterioration in water quality.
(B) the statistical ANNEX tables and explanatory notes to fill it, as provided for in this Convention and article 27 requirements introduction in accordance with Convention article 27 and 28, each Party shall collect statistical information about certain aspects of the proceedings to which the Convention applies and shall forward this information to the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe, which shall publish the information received.
With the method to collect information, to decide each party and, of course, in accordance with national legal requirements can collect any additional statistical information. However, in order to facilitate the work of the Secretary-General, the information submitted must be comparable and, in accordance with the attached table. Data compiled for the calendar year.
General rules should account for these animals, the use of which procedures they can cause pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm (see article 1.2 of the Convention "c"). Tracking begins when the animal started to perform the procedures. Each animal the same table listed once. Animals which are not used in the procedure, as provided for in article 12, point (c), are not listed in this Convention for the purpose of collecting the information.

Nature of biological research will inevitably lead to a situation where it will be difficult to decide which column of the table in the procedure used in animals should be recorded. There is no right or wrong method of solving this problem. It is a matter of individual choice. According to the guidelines specified by the competent authority of the scientists themselves have to decide which animal to list.
However, it is essential to ensure that no animal is listed twice.
table 1 number of animals used in procedures and types in this table provides the total number of animals used in procedures. Total number of animals is divided into animal types or classes.
table 2 number of animals used in procedures, with the specific goal of this table is designed to show the number of animals used in basic research, extensive new product development, security assessment, disease diagnosis, as well as in the field of education and training. In the first vertical column "medical" includes veterinary medicine.
table 3 number of animals used for the specific purpose of human, animal and environmental protection purposes by toxic or other safety evaluations in this table is intended to provide a more detailed breakdown of the procedures are performed in the general human, animal and environmental protection purposes, except for medical purposes. 6. vertical column includes the harmful radiation.
table 4 number of animals used in procedures in connection with diseases and disabilities in this table is designed to display medical purposes the number of animals used, including veterinary medicine, with particular reference to the three human disease areas that are special on society.
5. the table set out in the legislative procedures, the number of animals used for entry in the vertical column "Just the party" is done when the procedure is for the party within the framework of national law, which this procedure is performed, including international commitments entered into by the Party (such as the Convention on the elaboration of a European Pharmacopoeia joined the party or as a member of the European Community).
Entry in the vertical box "only the other party" means: If the specific objective of the procedure's requirements, including requirements to trade in other countries, including the requirements of the Convention, which do not form part of the latter.
The column "two" is used, if the procedure is for both group for enforcement purposes; in this case, nothing is recorded in one of the other two tabs.
table 1 number of animals used in procedures, and (on) during (half) mouse (Mus muscul) rats (norvegicus Ratt) Guinea (Cavi's porcell) other rodents (others Rodenti) rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) monkey (Hominoide) else pērtiķveidīg (Cercopithecoide & Ceboide) Lemūr (Prosimi) dogs (Canis familiar) cats (Felis cat) the rest of the meat eaters (others Carnivor) horses, donkeys and crossbreeds (Wild), pigs (Sus) goats and sheep (Ovis & Capra) cattle (BOS) other mammals (other Mammali), birds (Aves), reptiles (Reptili) amphibians (Amphibi), fish (PISCES) total table 2 Determine objectives designated procedures used number of animals (annual) (party) all species designated species of rodents and rabbits dogs and cats primates 1. Fundamental biological nature (including medical) research in the medical or veterinary 2 product or device discovery, development, and quality control (including security rating) 3. diagnose Diseases 4. Human, animal and environmental protection by toxic or other security reviews, 5. education and training in table 3, the number of Animals used for the specific purpose of human, animal and environmental protection purposes by toxic or other safety evaluations 2. table 4 further classification in all species of rodents species Chosen and rabbit dogs and cats primates 1. substances that are used or intended to be used mainly in agriculture 2. substances used or intended to be used mainly in industry 3. substances used or intended for use primarily household substances 4. used or intended to be used mainly as cosmetics or toiletries 5. substances used or intended for use primarily as food supplements for human consumption potential or actual 6. environmental pollution hazard table 4 number of animals used in procedures in connection with diseases and disorders (year) (party) all species designated species of rodents and rabbits dogs and cats rodents and rabbits 1. Cancer (except karcinoģenētisk hazard) 2. Cardiovascular diseases, 3. Nervous and mental disorders 4. other human and animal diseases. If the procedure involves cancer research under any of paragraphs 2 to 4, the classification of cancer is a priority.
5. the table set out in the legislative procedures, the number of animals used (year) (party) all species designated species of rodents and rabbits dogs and cats rodents and rabbits only half Only two other parties to the Protocol of amendment to the European Convention for the protection of vertebrate animals used for experimental or other purposes Strasbourg, 22 June 1998, the Council of Europe and the European Community Member States which have signed this Protocol to the European Convention for the protection of vertebrate animals used for experimental and other scientific objectives, which was opened for signature March 18 1986 in Strasbourg (hereinafter referred to as the Convention), having regard to the Convention which includes general provisions designed to protect the scientific purposes for animals from suffering, pain and distress and the Member States ' decision to limit the use of animals for experimental and other scientific purposes, with the aim to replace these as far as possible, in particular seeking alternative measures and encouraging the use of such alternative measures of in the light of the provisions contained in the annexes to the Convention of technical nature, recognizing the need to ensure compliance with the relevant fields of the results of the studies conducted, have agreed as follows: article 1 article 30 of the Convention shall be amended as follows: ' 1. Within five years from the entry into force of this Convention and thereafter every five years, or more often if the majority of the parties should so request, the parties to the Council of Europe organised multilateral consultations to review the application of this Convention and its usefulness for review or its extension.
2. These consultations shall take place at meetings convened by the Secretary General of the Council of Europe. The parties declare their representative to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe at least two months before the meeting.
3. Subject to the provisions of this Convention, the Parties shall adopt rules of procedure for the consultations. "
Article 2 of the Convention shall be supplemented by a new part XI "amendments" including a new article 31: "1. all amendments to annexes A and B, proposed by a party or the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe shall notify the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe, and he sent them to the Member States of the Council of Europe, the European Community and to any non-Member States which have acceded or has been invited to accede to the Convention in accordance with the provisions of article 34.
2. Any amendment proposed in accordance with the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the multilateral consultation, in which the parties may adopt by a two-thirds majority, no earlier than six months after they were sent by the Secretary-General. The adopted document is sent to the parties.
3. An amendment shall enter into force twelve months after the adoption of a multilateral consultation, where one-third of the parties have not expressed objections. "
3. Article 37 of the Convention article 31 to become relevant to the Convention article 32 38.
4. Article 1 this Protocol is available for signing by the signatories to the Convention, who may become parties to this Protocol: (a)) signature without reservation as to ratification, acceptance or approval, or (b)) with the subsequent ratification, acceptance or approval.
2. States which have signed the Convention, not to sign the Protocol without reservation as to ratification, acceptance or approval, or deposit an instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, if they are not already deposited or simultaneously deposits an instrument of ratification, the Convention acceptance or approval.
3. The States which have acceded to the Convention may also accede to this Protocol.
4. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the General Secretariat of the Council of Europe.
Article 5 this Protocol shall enter into force on the 30th day after all the Contracting Parties to the Convention have become parties to this Protocol in accordance with article 4.
Article 6 the Secretary-General of the Council of Europe shall notify the Member States of the Council of Europe, to the other Contracting Parties to the Convention and the European Community of: (a)) States that signed the Convention without reservation as to ratification, acceptance or approval;

(b)) States that any signature with reservation in respect of ratification, acceptance or approval;
c) each instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession depositing;
d) the day on which the Protocol enters into force in accordance with article 5;
(e) any other Act), notification or communication relating to this Protocol.
In witness thereof, the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Protocol.
Protocol signed on 22 June 1998 in Strasbourg in English and French, both texts being equally authentic, in a single copy which shall be deposited in the archives of the Council of Europe. The Secretary General of the Council of Europe send certified copies to each Member State of the Council of Europe, the other parties to the Convention and the European Community.