Notice On The Curriculum For Driver Training To Large Passenger Car (Category D)

Original Language Title: Bekendtgørelse om undervisningsplan for køreuddannelsen til stor personbil (kategori D)

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Read the untranslated law here: https://www.retsinformation.dk/Forms/R0710.aspx?id=124411

Overview (table of contents) Annex 1

Annex 2

Annex 3

Annex 4

Annex 5

Annex 6

Annex 7

Annex 8

Annex 9

Annex 10

Annex 11

Annex 12 The full text of the ordonnance on curriculum for driver training to large passenger car (category D) 1)

Under section 56, paragraph 5, article 64, paragraph 5, and under the authority pursuant to section 134 (b) in the highway code, see. lovbekendtgørelse nr. 1058 of 4. November 2008, fixed:

§ 1. Teaching students with a view to the acquisition of a driving licence for category D shall be carried out in accordance with the curriculum of driver education to category D (large motor car), which is annexed to this order.

§ 2. The notice shall enter into force on the 15. May 2009.

(2). At the same time repealed Executive Order No. 734 of 6. August 1996 on the curriculum for driver training for truck (category C) and large car (category D) as well as the order of 11. June 1996 on curriculum for driver training to large passenger car (category D).

(3). Students who have begun driving training before the 15. May 2009, can finish the training and driving test after the previously applicable rules up to the end of september 2009.
The national police, the 1. May 2009 Jens Henrik Højbjerg/Mogens Hendriksen Annex 1









CONTENT





 

 

 





0.





CONTENT



 





1.





BUS INTERIOR DESIGN, EQUIPMENT AND DOCUMENTS



 



 



1.1





The steering mechanism



 



 

 



1.1.1





The steering function, etc.



 



 



1.2





Brakes



 



 

 



1.2.1





Service brakes



 



 

 



1.2.2





Emergency brake



 



 

 



1.2.3





Parking brakes



 



 

 



1.2.4





Supplementary brakes



 



 

 



1.2.5





Control of brakes



 



 

 



1.2.6





Moreover, statutory provisions on brakes



 



 



1.3





Electric installations, lights, reflectors, horn, etc.



 



 

 



1.3.1





El-facility function



 



 



1.4





Load-bearing parts



 



 

 



1.4.1





Supporting shared function, etc.



 



 



1.5





Engine, transmission and energy-and environmentally friendly driving



 



 

 



1.5.1





The engine and the transmission function, as well as energy-and environmentally friendly driving



 



 



1.6





Bodywork and structure



 



 

 



1.6.1





Bodywork, building and its fastening



 



 



1.7





Interior fittings, vision and special equipment



 



 

 



1.7.1





Panes, mirrors, vision, etc.



 



 



1.8





Recording equipment (tachograph)



 



 

 



1.8.1





Recording equipment (tachograph) function



 



 



1.9





Bus documents



 



 

 



1.9.1





Registration certificate



 



 



1.10





Special vehicles



 



 

 



1.10.1





Articulated bus



 



 



1.11





Bus control equipment



 



 

 



1.11.1





Control equipment



 



 



1.12





Preventive maintenance and necessary repairs



 



 

 



1.12.1





Maintenance, etc.



 



 

 

 





2.





INTRODUCTORY EXERCISES ON THE WAY



 



 



2.1





Preparation for running



 



 

 



2.1.1





Inspection, adjustment, etc.



 



 



2.2





Buses mirrors



 



 

 



2.2.1





Special conditions



 



 

 



2.2.2





Adjustment of mirrors



 



 

 



2.2.3





The use of mirrors



 



 



2.3





Starting and stopping at the road edge



 



 

 



2.3.1





Start, gear control, starting and braking



 



 



2.4





Right turn on corners



 



 

 



2.4.1





Skills by oscillation



 



 



2.5





Reversing with målbremsning



 



 

 



2.5.1





Orientation and assessment of bus length



 



 

 

 





3.





VEHICLE MANOEUVRING CHARACTERISTICS



 



 



3.1





Manoeuvring characteristics, etc.



 



 

 



3.1.1





Generally about various vehicles manoeuvring characteristics, etc.



 



 

 

 

 

 
4.





ROAD USER BEHAVIOUR



 



 



4.1





Road user behaviour, etc.



 



 

 



4.1.1





Perception, reaction, vision, health, other road users and the behaviour and attitudes



 



 

 

 

 

 





5.





ROAD CONDITIONS



 



 



5.1





Road conditions, etc.



 



 

 



5.1.1





Risk factors and road safety design



 



 

 

 

 

 





6.





BASIC RULES FOR DRIVING WITH BUSES, INCLUDING DIMENSIONS, WEIGHT AND LOADING



 



 



6.1





Instructions for traffic



 



 

 



6.1.1





Road Traffic Act's validity



 



 

 



6.1.2





Instructions for batch job



 



 



6.2





Bus width, length, height and weight



 



 

 



6.2.1





Bus width



 



 

 



6.2.2





Bus length



 



 

 



6.2.3





Buses height



 



 

 



6.2.4





Buses weight



 



 

 



6.2.5





Persons, baggage and cargo



 



 

 



6.2.6





Road traffic accident



 



 

 



6.2.7





Insurance obligation



 



 

 



6.2.8





The supply of the vehicle to other



 



 



6.3





Driving times and rest periods, as well as the use of recording equipment



 



 

 



6.3.1





Driving and rest rules



 



 

 



6.3.2





The use of recording equipment



 



 



6.4





Passenger services, etc.



 



 

 



6.4.1





Street maps



 



 

 



6.4.2





Commercial and non-commercial carriage of passengers by coach and bus



 



 



6.5





Additional training



 



 

 



6.5.1





Evidence of formal qualifications, etc.



 



 

 

 

 

 





7.





EXTENDED EXERCISES ON THE WAY



 



 



7.1





Exercise 1



 



 



7.2





Exercise 2



 



 



7.3





Exercise 3 (Drive outside closer developed area)



 



 



7.4





Exercise 4



 



 



7.5





Exercise 5



 



 



7.6





Exercise 6



 



 



7.7





Exercise 7



 



 

 

 

 

 





8.





SPECIAL RISK FACTORS IN TRAFFIC



 



 

 

 

 

 





9.





MANEUVERS ON THE TECHNICAL INSTALLATIONS



 



 



9.1





Grip and loading



 



 

 



9.1.1





Vejgrebets importance



 



 

 



9.1.2





Loading, tire pressure, etc.



 



 



9.2





Speed, centrifugal force, braking distance and vejgrebets utilization



 



 

 



9.2.1





Reduced energy and speed



 



 

 



9.2.2





Centrifugal force



 



 

 



9.2.3





Braking distance



 



 

 



9.2.4





Vejgrebets utilization



 



 



9.3





Obstacles on the road



 



 

 



9.3.1





Slalom



 



 

 



9.3.2





Double Dodge maneuver without braking



 



 

 



9.3.3





Combined braking and evasive action



 



 



9.4





Recover from the effects of grip after skidding



 



 

 



9.4.1





Drive in curve



 



 

 



9.4.2





Bagh's-skid



 



 

 



9.4.3





Front-wheel-skid



 



 

 



9.4.4





Manøvrernes implementation



 



 

 

 

 

 
10.





PREPARATION FOR DRIVING TEST



 



 



10.1





Conditions for obtaining a driving licence



 



 

 



10.1.1





Driving instruction



 



 

 



10.1.2





Setting for driving test



 



 

 



10.1.3





Licence categories and entitlements



 



 



10.2





Run the sample implementation



 



 

 



10.2.1





Requirements for the driving test



 



 

 



10.2.2





Theory test



 



 

 



10.2.3





The practical test



 



 



10.3





Moreover, statutory provisions on driving licences



 



 

 



10.3.1





The validity of driving licences



 



 

 



10.3.2





Withdrawal and recovery of driving licence



 





Annex 2

0. introduction

The overall objective of driver training for category D is:




1) to give students an insight into and understanding of the dangers and difficulties, the drivers of the buses as meetings in traffic, as well as give them knowledge about the traffic rules and other legal provisions, that are important in this respect,

2) to give students such a knowledge of the bus and its control, that they can see encountered is missing of importance for safety,

3) to give the students skill in judging traffic critical and lead bus without danger to himself and others,



Driver training for category D must, moreover, be perceived as a superstructure on driver training for category b. must therefore teaching to category D begin only when the foundations are in order, IE. When the student has acquired a driving licence for category b. the instructor tells the must, however, by repetition of learning the substance for category (B) ensure that the pupil remains in possession of the basic knowledge and skills, to the extent they importance of drive by bus, as evidenced by the comments on milestones.

This curriculum contains a detailed specification of training objectives divided into main sections and subsections.

Each main section begins with a brief description of the purpose of education. Then follows a breakdown in subsections indicating the main objectives and detailed Milestones Milestones represent the actual guidelines for teaching as well as assessment by the driving test, since they further clarifies what the student should know and be able to after finishing teaching.

For clarification of the performance requirements of the pupil are used the following expression in the delmåls descriptions:

The student must




4) be familiar with, will say that the pupil must be as informed about a topic, that it is not unknown for eleven, or that it can support and facilitate the understanding of a subsequently more targeted and more thorough training,

5) designate, means that in practice the student must be able to locate certain vehicle parts including control equipment,

6) read and understand the significance of, say, to eleven in practice to be able to use instruments and optical in the vehicle, understand the meaning of these and respond as necessary,

7) check means that the pupil without the use of tools in practice must be able to examine and adopt a position on whether the requirements set out in the relevant control section to the vehicle are fulfilled, including could explain how checks are carried out,

8) specify the reasons, content or importance of, will say that the student should be able to find the correct answer among several possible on issues concerning road markings, the contents of a statutory provision and the like, as well as other matters of major importance,

9) Master Guide and manoeuvring skills and other skills, in other words, the pupil in practice must be able to orient themselves in a critical, deal with vehicle control equipment properly, perform maneuvers flawlessly as well as perform other skills correctly,

10) perceive and judge, will say that the student must be able to observe certain conditions in a traffic situation or on images, understand the importance of the relationship and how to respond to them, or find the correct answer among several possible on the question of the relevant facts,

11) recognize, will say that in practice, the student must be able to recognize the importance of instructions of the traffic, and observe the significance of these,

12) react appropriately, in other words, the pupil in practice must be able to lead the vehicle and change the speed, location or direction in accordance with the rules of the road, for reasons of safety and traffic flow,

13) by exercise gain experience on, means that the pupil while driving in a vehicle driving technical facilities will have the opportunity to observe the reactions of the vehicle while performing certain maneuvers,

14) obtain any skill in, will say to the student during the execution of the vehicle on the technical plant must be able to operate the vehicle properly, without the maneuver as a whole required flawlessly executed and

15) by exercise to achieve skill in, in other words, the pupil while driving in the vehicle on the technical plant must be able to perform maneuvers correctly.



In delmåls the descriptions the performance requirements can be combined or requirements may be applied partially. E.g. is there in the performance requirement» recognize and specify the meaning of ' used descriptions from two performance requirements.

Performance requirement ' specify reasons ' content or importance of used for the theory test.

Performance requirement ' recognize ' used for the practical test.

At the theory test to be eleven out of situations on the photos could indicate the importance of the ' fx ' road markings, by finding the correct answer among several possible.

By the practical test, eleven in a traffic situation could ' recognize ' e.g., road markings and observe the significance of these.

There are about målbeskrivelserne not distinguish sharply between theoretical and practical teaching. This is because the consideration of that theoretical and practical teaching should be integrated as far as possible, and that therefore the instructor tells made more freely in the choice of teaching method and learning situation.

A sharp distinction between theory and practice is also less useful, since a lot of practical instruction, IE. the teaching of practical skills can be learned in a theory, very good room with the appropriate assistive devices, and part theory classes, IE. teaching in theoretical issues could usefully be imparted during practical exercises in the traffic.

About the detailed planning and implementation of teaching refers to the teacher's Guide to learning plan.

Practice (i.e. introductory exercises en route, extended exercises on the road and exercises on driving technical facilities) and driving test for category D shall be carried out in a large passenger car, which comply with the provisions for a large passenger car category (D), as stated in the licence notice with relevant supporting documents.

About the detailed guidelines for the driving test referred to licence notice with relevant supporting documents.

Definitions

The student must have knowledge of the following definitions:

Buses can be divided into




16) passenger car M2, which is designed to be used for the transport of more than nine persons including the driver, and which has a permitted gross vehicle weight not exceeding 5000 kg.

17) passenger car M3, which is designed to be used for the transport of more than nine persons including the driver, and which has a permitted gross vehicle weight of more than 5000 kg.



Including articulated bus, which shall mean a car that consists of 2 parts. The front and the rear part is connected with an articulated section, which allows passengers free passage between the two parts.
Annex 3

1. The BUS INTERIOR DESIGN, EQUIPMENT and DOCUMENTS

The purpose of education is to give the student knowledge about such a bus device, equipment and documents, as well as such understanding of bus functions that facilitate the learning of the correct and gentle treatment of the bus and a safe execution of the different maneuvers.

The teaching is also aimed to make the student familiar with the main legal provisions on the bus equipment, so that the learner can determine whether it is in the legal position. The student must also have such an understanding of the signs of deficiencies, which reveals itself through the shuttle's control systems, functions and reactions, that the student can decide whether the ongoing or planned drive is valid and sound.
It should also be emphasized in teaching that the targets set out in the procedures for the inspection and testing of bus equipment is not exhaustive or comprehensive for all kinds of systems, and that the learner must be aware of the constant changes of buses as well as the legal provisions.

Teaching has finally designed to make the student aware of legal provisions on the most important administrative documents in connection with bus operation.

1.1 the steering mechanism

Main objectives

The pupil should learn about the steering function and signs of errors that have a bearing on road safety.

The student must also be able to ascertain whether the legal requirements for the steering mechanism are met, as well as the main legal provisions on the steering mechanism could.

Milestones

1.1.1 Styreaparatets function, etc.

The student must be familiar with the following features:




1) steering mechanism works in principle, on the way to a twist on the steering wheel is transmitted to the front wheels through the steering column, wheelhouse, control lever, control balls, steering rods, swing arms and front spindles.

2) power steering is achieved by complementing the steering mechanism with a servoapparat, whereby the ratdrejningens influence of the front wheels is enhanced.

3) Oil pressure in the servoapparatet generated by a hydraulic pump (servopumpe), which is operated by the bus engine either directly or with the straps. Power steering assistance can thus only be achieved with started engine.

4) malfunctioning in servoapparatet can bus is controlled with the steering mechanism alone, but the management will be so heavy that continue driving is dangerous and illegal.

5) Any straps for the hydraulic pump should be excited after the motor manufacturer's instructions.

6) Certain newer buses with a maximum authorised weight of 12 tons and above shall be provided with an electronic stability programme (ESP), which can counteract the overturning and slipping by means of afbremsning of one or more wheels.



Control of the Steering

The student must on a fun bus could check for the following conditions by the steering mechanism are met:




7) servo system must be filled with oil in sufficient quantity, measured on the oil level in the fluid container, possibly by means of tell-tale.



By power steering checked in accordance with the following points with started engine after motor manufacturer's instructions.




8) play of the steering is controlled by the wheels immediately follows the steering movements. Possibly permissible play of the steering is demonstrated by the motor manufacturer's instructions.

9) Tubes and hose connections must be tight in servo system, judged on readily available parts.



The learner must drive be able to check whether the following conditions by the steering mechanism are met:




10) when running at low speed to the wheel could easily turn from limit position to the limit position without meeting abnormal resistance in the steering mechanism.

11) Bus must not pull to the sides during the gears on the smooth road.

12) There must not be noise from wheel bearings, blow in the steering wheel or shaking in the front wheel and steering wheel.



Signs of faults in the Steering

The student must be able to specify reasons for the following signs of faults in the steering mechanism and designate where errors may occur:




13) play of the steering can be signs of looseness in the Steering linkages, the wheelhouse is loose on the chassis or on veils in front wheel bearings or suspension.

14) Less veils can be allowed in control balls, in the wheelhouse and – when the engine is stopped-in the wheelhouse with power steering.

15) Noise in steering power steering may be due to lack of oil in the servo system.

16) Great or offensive resistance in the Steering with power steering by oscillation can, among other things, due to lack of oil, faulty power steering, including servopumpe.

17) Uneven/crooked tire wear can be signs of incorrect setting of the steering mechanism.



Moreover, statutory provisions on the Steering

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




18) Control equipment shall be so arranged that the bus can be controlled easily, safely and quickly.

19) Significantly veils in the steering mechanism as a whole or in its individual parts must not occur.



1.2 Brakes

Main objectives

The student must learn about the transmission function and for signs of bugs that have a bearing on road safety.

The student must also be able to determine whether the statutory requirements for brakes are fulfilled as well as the main legal provisions on the brakes could.

Milestones

1.2.1 Operating brakes

The student must have knowledge of the following Division and arrangement of compressed air braking systems as well as the individual shared mode of operation:

Supply circuit supplying compressed air to the brake circuit and consists of the following parts:




1) Compressor, which sucks air from the surroundings through a filter that compresses the air and thereby build pressure in the supply circuit. The compressor is driven by the bus engine.

2) pressure regulator, which regulates air pressure automatically in the supply circuit so that it is kept within the prescribed limits.

3) Frost protection system to prevent ice formation in compressed air plant during the winter season, with cut off otherwise could lead to brake failure. This can be avoided by adding antifreeze to the air (frost protection pump) or dry air before it headed to the compressed air reservoir (lufttørre plants).

4) compressed-air reservoir that stores the compressed air and must be bottled for condensation water, possibly automatically. On lufttørre plant can drain option be omitted.

5) Alarm device that makes the driver aware of too low air pressure. The device can be replaced or supplemented with pressure gauge that displays the air pressure in the supply circuit and possibly also in the brake circuit.

6) pressure security valve, (flerekredssikringsventilen), to be in the event of leaks ensure a certain air pressure in the supply circuit.

7) tubes, pipes and hoses that connect the individual parts in the supply circuit.



Brake circuit is the part of the braking system, which put under pressure when the brake pedal is activated. Brake circuit consists of the following parts:




8) brake pedal, there by control regulates the pressure of the supply circuit of the braking circuit. This pressure (brake pressure) determines how strongly that braked.

9) Brake actuators, that affect the wheel brakes when braking pressure to the brake circuit is headed. On compressed air-hydraulic brake plant, it is a hydraulic wheel cylinder, that affect the wheel brakes.

10) braking force regulator (ALB-valve), which regulates brake pressure in relation to the bus loading. By buses with mechanical suspension is ALB-valve mounted on the chassis frame and is in mechanical connection with the wheel shaft. The distance between the chassis frame and axle regulates the brake press ALB-valve control out. By bus with air suspension adjusted ALB-valve of pressure in the air bellows. If the braking system is equipped with anti-lock brakes, will in some cases not available brake force regulator.

11) tubes, pipes and hoses that connect the individual parts of the braking circuit.

12) wheel brake, which reduces wheel rotation, a set of brake pressed against a brake drum, trays or brake pads pressed against a brake disc when the brake cylinder/-membrane is affected by the pressure in the brake circuit. Wheel brake is equipped with an adjustment device, whereby the distance between the brake hills (brake pads) and brake drum (brake disc) can be adjusted, as the brake lining wear. The adjustment can be done manually or automatically.



The student must be able to determine the contents of the following types of compressed-air braking systems and their special device and mode of action:




13) compressed air-mechanical brakes, where the brake pedal affects a brake valve, which regulates the air supply to the brake circuit and where the power of the brake cylinder/membrane mechanically transferred to the wheel brakes, possibly via a brake.




 



In the absence of compressed air brakes will be without effect.










14) pneumatic-hydraulic brakes, where the brake pedal affects a brake valve, which regulates the air pressure to a transformer. The transformer converts air pressure into a hydraulic line pressure by a compressed air cylinder affects a hydraulic master cylinder, who heads the hydraulic pressure on to the wheel brakes.




 



In the absence of compressed air brakes will be without effect.







The braking system may be a combination of pneumatic-mechanical and pneumatic-hydraulic brakes.

The student must have knowledge of the following device and operation of hydraulic brakes with vacuum amplification (only small buses):




15) brake pedal affects a hydraulic master cylinder with its vacuum amplifier. Vacuum amplifier increases the hydraulic pressure in addition to the wheel brake.

16) Vacuum to the amplifier are supplied either from a pump or from the engine's intake manifold.

17) in case of non-vacuum can bus braked only by the driver's pedal pressure, but braking will be weaker and continued driving would be dangerous and illegal.



The student must be able to determine the contents of the following conditions:




18) Device and effect of anti-lock brakes (anti-lock brakes). All types of brake system can be built up as ABS brakes.
19) ABS system is arranged so that each wheel is placed sensors, by means of a beach wreath detects rotation of the wheel. The sensors send signals on each reel rotation to an electronic control box. If one or more wheels under braking tend to block, will the electronic control box to adjust the pressure to the wheel brakes in such a way that the wheel-locking is avoided. The ABS brake system is arranged so that, in a certain extent allows management and braking at the same time.

20) by braking with a bus with ABS brakes ABS brake system ensures that the wheels are kept in rotation and is not blocking. When the ABS braking system regulates, may be on some smaller buses occur vibration in the brake pedal. This is normal and means that the system is in function. Regardless of the vibrations, the pressure on the brake pedal will be maintained as long as braking is desired. If the ABS brake system does not work will slow down the properties changed and only drive to the nearest repair shop is allowed.



1.2.2 emergency brake

The student must have knowledge of the following device and operation of emergency brake:




1) emergency brake is designed to be able to brake the bus, if there are any errors in the service braking system.

2) emergency brake is either contained in the service brake or parking brake.



1.2.3 Parking brakes

The student must have knowledge of the following types of car interior design and operation: bremsers




1) Mechanical parking brake works by, the driver activates a control system, which transferred forces to activation of wheel brakes on one or more axles.

2) spring brake works by, to the driver's operation of a brake valve triggers a spring that is ad mechanical means affecting the wheel brakes on one or more axles.



1.2.4 Additional brakes

The student must have knowledge of the following supplementary bremsers décor and functioning:




1) Motor brake is an auxiliary brake, where a damper blocks the exhaust gases, while at the same time be closed of for fuel supply, thus resulting a braking effect on the drive wheels.

2) the electric or hydraulic brake (retarder) causes a braking effect upon activation at the drive wheels.

3) Bakbremse is a system that automatically slows the bus by means of operating or parking brake when bus is put in reverse and a feel list on the back of the bus.



1.2.5 Control of brakes

The student must be able to check whether the following conditions by compressed air supply circuit and its individual parts bremsers is met:




1 Pressure regulator must regulate pressure) so it is kept within the limits of the car manufacturers ' prescribed limits, which may be judged by reading the pressure gauge.

2) Frost protection system must have a fluid between the min.-and Max.-marks on the fluid container or measuring stick. By lufttørre facilities, there must be no condensation water in the compressed air tank.

3) reservoirs must be belted and must not be visibly corroded or dented, and must be able to empty the containers for condensation (automatically or manually) on containers with drain option.

4) Alarm device shall come into operation when the pressure in the supply circuit is less than 2/3 (65%) of the of the car manufacturer prescribed pressure in the braking system, and step out of the function, when the pressure is over this limit.

5) Pipes and hoses must be belted and with no pitting, cracks or leaks, judged on readily available parts.



The student must be able to check whether the following conditions by compressed air-mechanical bremsers braking circuit and its individual parts are met:




6) brake pedal must be in the Centre, must have a less clearance.

7) brake pedal must be broken down to the fixed stop, so the brake valve is completely opened.

8) Pipes and hoses must be belted and with no pitting, cracks or leaks, judged on readily available parts.

9) Mechanical braking force regulator (ALB-valve) must be intact mechanical connection. Valve arm must be able to move freely depending on the type. By changing the valve position should the air pressure in the membrane changes. This can possibly be heard as leakage of air.

10) Air consumption at one full brake application with stopped motor must as a general rule, not exceed 0.5 bar, as this may indicate a lack of adjustment of the brakes.



The student must be able to check whether the following conditions by compressed air-hydraulic bremsers brake circuit is met:




11) brake pedal must be in the Centre, must have a less clearance.

12) brake pedal must be broken down to the fixed stop, so the brake valve is completely opened.

13) tubes, pipes and hoses must be belted and with no pitting, cracks or leaks, judged on readily available parts.

14) Mechanical braking force regulator (ALB-valve) must be intact mechanical connection. Valve arm must be able to move freely depending on the type.

15) Air consumption at one full brake application with stopped motor must as a general rule, not exceed 0.5 bar, as this may indicate a lack of adjustment of the brakes.

16) Trans formerens actuator stroke shall not exceed the limits prescribed by the car manufacturer, judged by pindens hiking or by optical measurement.

17) master cylinder brake fluid container must have a fluid able between container min.-and Max.-brands. For low fluid condition led should light on instrument panel.



By combined braking systems checks shall be carried out as indicated by both the compressed air-mechanical and pneumatic-hydraulic brakes.

The student must be able to verify compliance with the requirements for compressed air-mechanical and pneumatic-hydraulic bremsers density and load are met in both supply circuit and brake circuit, judged by the following tests:




18) Leak test must be carried out by bringing the pressure in the supply circuit down to the lowest working pressure. With the brake pedal in bottom position starts the motor and the pressure is brought up to the highest working pressure, stop the engine, keep the brake pedal trodden and listen for leakage.




 



If this seems impossible without sudden pressure drop (read on possibly manometer) and without audible leaks after leaving the engine running, the plant can withstand sufficient load.







The student must be able to check, before departure, that works involving compressed air, must have the required working pressure after motor manufacturer's instructions.

The student must be able to check whether the following conditions by the parking brakes are met:




19) spring brake actuators shall upon activation close compressed air out of brake cylinder, rated at audible leakage of air.

20) Brake lever must by other mechanical parking brakes could not be deducted in the bottom position.



The student must have knowledge of the following matters relating to the testing of compressed-air braking systems:




21) the brake has a term of which results in a slightly delayed braking effect This term is included in the brake lengths as indicated in the section on control of the brakes while driving.

22) Brake chamber push water ring must, as a general rule, not exceed one quarter of the diaphragm casing buckle band diameter.



The learner must drive on a horizontal, dry the carriageway with asphalt pavement could check for the following conditions by the brakes are met:




23) service brake must be on buses have such an effect that the stopping distance by 30 km/h does not exceed approximately 10 metres.

24) by slow nedtrædning of the brake pedal, the braking performance must be evenly rising, rated by a test.



The student must have knowledge of the following matters relating to the testing of the hydraulic brakes on smaller buses:




25) service brake will on smaller buses (more than 3500 kg) with hydraulic brakes in practice have such an effect that the stopping distance by 30 km/h at all load conditions, does not exceed approx. 6 metres.



Signs of errors by brakes

The student must be able to specify reasons for the following signs of errors by brakes and designate where errors may occur:




26) For long oppumpningstid can be an indication of worn compressor, clogged air filter, leaks in the brake system.

27) Shorter oppumpningstid than usual or large pressure drop at full braking can be signs of water in reservoirs.

28) Water in reservoirs can be signs of null and void lufttørre installations.

29) Olietilsøling of anchor plate or the inside of the tire can be signs of leaking hydraulic wheel cylinder.

30) pressure drop at the density test, can be signs of leakage of compressed air plant.

31) For pedal stroke by hydraulic works with/without amplification can be signs of a lack of adjustment of the brake or a faulty brake circuit.

32) Larger consumption of compressed air than normal can be signs of too long hiking in brake membranes or transformer and lead to reduced and/or delayed braking effect. This may be due to the lack of adjustment of brakes. (By one full brake application, where the brake pedal broken down, as a general rule, the pressure drop must not be greater than 0.5 bar).

33) Skewed contraction during braking or uneven braking indicate moisture or dirt on the brake linings or on defective wheel brakes, brake cylinders or brake membranes.

34) Uneven braking or sudden hugninger from one or more wheels suggests error in brake drums/brake discs or brake linings.
35) Reduced braking effect suggests a lack of adjustment of brakes or incorrectly set, possibly faulty ALB-valve.

36) Rear blockade under moderate slowdown may be indicative of incorrectly set or defective ALB-valve.



The student must be able to determine the contents of the following signs of defect of brakes:




37) If the indicator for the ABS brake system is not switched off shortly after starting, it is sign of failure in the ABS brake system, and only drive to the nearest repair shop is allowed.

38) Newer buses may be equipped with display that warns of flaw in the braking system.



1.2.6 Furthermore, statutory provisions on brakes

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




1) Bus must be equipped with two-circuit service brake, emergency brake and parking brake.

2) most buses must be fitted with ABS brakes.

3) service brake shall act on all the wheels and could afbremse and stop the bus at a safe, fast and firm manner at any speed and under all load conditions.

4) service brake required effect should be achieved at the first activation of the brake pedal.

5) the compressor should, at the plant without pressure gauge, in less than 3 minutes could fill the empty reservoirs, until led turns off, or step out of the alarm function. On installations with manometer must be 2/3 (65%) of the required pressure for the brakes of the car manufacturer be achieved in less than 3 minutes.

6) emergency brake must be able to afbremse and stop the bus safe and powerful, if a fault occurs in the service braking system.

7) the parking brake must be able to keep the bus stopped on a road with an increase of 18% and must be able to be standing tightened.



1.3 electrical installations, lights, reflectors, horn, etc.

Main objectives

The pupil should learn about the electrical fixed function.

The student must also be able to check whether the statutory requirements for lamps, reflectors, etc. have been met as well as Förordning om el-could the main plants, lamps and reflectors.

Milestones

1.3.1 the electricity plant's function

The student must be familiar with the following features and conditions:




1) most buses have maintenance-free battery. The accumulator is not maintenance-free, each cell must be sufficiently filled up and possibly refilled with distilled water, so that the lead plates are covered. Powder formation around the accumulator must be washed away in order to avoid chemical burns around poles and connectors.

2) in order to ensure effective power supply of the electrical installations must all wiring, switches and fuses be clean, whole and well insulated, and ground connections must be seated firmly and be free of pits.



The student must specify the contents of the following:




3) Bus starter motor, blower, wipers and washer, horn, lights and signal lights, telltales, works by electric current.

4) Flow available from the accumulator and transferred from one pole of wires, such as the battery contacts and fuses for the power consuming components such as the battery and back over the frame to the other pole.

5) in order to get the full use of the accumulator, each cell must be sufficiently filled up and possibly refilled with distilled water, so that the lead plates are covered. Powder formation around the accumulator must be washed away in order to avoid chemical burns around poles and connectors.

6) in order to ensure effective power supply of the electrical installations must all wiring, switches and fuses be clean, whole and well insulated, and ground connections must be seated firmly and be free of pits.



Legal provisions on the mandatory lighting devices and reflectors

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions concerning mandatory lighting devices and reflectors:




7) Bus must only be equipped with prescribed or lighting and reflectors.

8) The required lighting and reflexes include:





a) two lamps with beam,

(b)) two lamps with asymmetrical passing beam,

c) two lamps with position lights,

d) two lamps with a backlight,

e) two lamps with stoplights,

f) at least one rear registration plate lamp

g) two lamps, front and back and one on each side of the bus. Lamps must be used as the hazard warning signal and

h) two approved and tagged rearward facing red reflectors (must not be triangular).





9) On buses that are wider than 2.10 m, there must also be two forward-looking and two rear end-outline marker lamps, respectively, with white and red light, which can clearly be seen in the 300 m distance without dazzle.

10 the headlamp beam to be able to inform the way) at least 100 metres in front of the bus, the dipped-beam must be able to inform the way at least 30 metres in front of the bus without dazzle, and position light must be clearly visible in at least 300 m distance without dazzle.

11) the headlamp light must be white or yellowish.

12) rear lights must have a red light, which can clearly be seen in at least 300 m distance without dazzle.

13) Compulsory front position lamps rear position (side) lamps, rear registration plate lamps and end-outline marker lamps, if any, must be kept switched on with stopped motor and must not be switched off when a passing beam, driving beam or tågelys is switched on.

14) Buses, which are longer than 6 metres, shall be equipped with approved and tagged yellow side reflectors and side-marker lamp, there must be distributed on bus sides.

15) Side marker lamps must clearly be visible for at least 300 m distance without dazzle.

16) Older buses can be fitted with either side reflectors or side marker lamps.

17) rear registration plate lamps must illuminate the rear license plate so that it can clearly be read in at least 20 m distance.



Statutory provisions on lighting and reflectors

The student must have knowledge of the following provision:




18) The lighting and reflexes include:





a) Extra main-beam headlamps, daytime running lamps, direction indicator lamps, rear position (side) lamps, extra extra extra stop lamps, front fog lamps, rear fog lamps, reversing lamps, search and worklights, marking and end-outline marker lamps, parking lamps, as well as the fast blink, for which special rules apply. In addition, the bus may be equipped with white reflectors at the front, yellow reflectors on the sides and additional red reflectors on the back. Bus with total weight over 3.5 tons may be equipped with advertising or destination signs over the windshield.





19) light bulbs must be properly seated in the headlamp holders, (possibly evaluated from the outside on light/dark limit location).



Control of lighting, etc.

The student must be able to check whether the following conditions by lamps, reflectors and horn are met:




20) All lighting and reflectors must be whole and clean, and all lamps shall be bright.

21) the passing beam shall not dazzle (judged on that lysgrænsen falls over the edge of 1 cm per metre).

22) Stop lamps must give significantly stronger light than taillights.

23) lamps must Flash with yellow light, which can clearly be seen in sunlight.

Hazard warning signal must be able to turn on 24) all indicator lamps at the same time.

25) rear registration plate lamps must have the white light that can illuminate the rear license plate.

26) Lamps in a two lamps must have the same color and brightness.

27) Hornet must have a clear, steady tone.

28) Additional rear-facing red reflectors must not be triangular and shall be located symmetrically.



Moreover, legislative provisions on the electricity plant

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions concerning the electrical installations:




29) the accumulator must be attached and so placed or covered, that there is no short circuit may occur.

30) electric plant must be equipped with fuses to counter fire by possible short circuit. Electric extra equipment must be connected with a fuse.

31) All lighting and reflectors must be whole and clean, and all lamps shall be bright.

32) Hornet must have a clear, steady tone.




The student must be able to specify reasons for the following signs of errors by lamps, etc.:



33) if the lamps flashes significantly faster than usual, it's usually a sign that one or more direction indicator lamps do not work.



1.4-bearing parts

Main objectives

The student must learn about the load-bearing function is shared and whether signs of errors that have a bearing on road safety.

The student must also be able to ascertain whether the legal requirements for the load-bearing parts are met as well as could the main law-bearing parts.

Milestones

1.4.1-bearing shared function, etc.

The student must be familiar with the following conditions and features:




1) Bus load-bearing parts include the following:





a) Chassis/self-supporting constructions,

b) suspension, which consists of axles/bogies, spring brackets, spring bolts, lasker, springs and shock absorbers and

(c)), which consists of wheel bearings wheels, rims and tires.





2) Bus weight transmitted to the road through the load-bearing parts.

3) Spring system function is, together with shock absorbers to smooth out and record the forces that occur when driving on uneven road, as well as ensure the wheels in contact with the roadway. Some spring systems must also transmit the forces that occur when starting, braking and oscillation.

4) suspension with leaf springs and air spring bellows are the commonest spring systems.
5) fjedrenes Leaf shape may be different, but usually consists of a leaf spring of several together held fjederlag of different lengths. The upper fjederlag (control layer) are usually fitted with an eye. The spring is attached to the chassis frame to the front with a spring bolt and rear via a glideled or a strap connection.

6) air suspension consists in principle of a number of air spring bellows, pinned between the chassis frame and the wheel shaft. Since air pods can only record the vertical forces are supplemented with reaction arms system, which must absorb the forces that occur when starting, braking and oscillation. Spring bellows contains air, and air pressure is regulated through valves depending on the bus load.

7) A bogie is a system where a single axle has been replaced by two shafts in order to increase the load capacity of the bus.

8) At the rear axle can be bogie autonomous, which has positive impact on bus maneuverability at low speed. The shaft must be automatically locked at speeds of approximately 40 km/h By reversing driver must ensure that the rear axle is locked in ligeudstilling.



Risk characteristics of the load-bearing parts

The student must be able to indicate the importance of the following conditions:




9) a deck may be constructed as bias ply or radial tires.

10) driving with tires that are not intended for the current vehicle and the current driving purpose, would result in a risk of tire damage and possible dæksprængning.

11) driving with tires that are damaged can also cause risk of dæksprængning. Dæksprængningen will usually happen at high speed, and so are the consequences so much the worse, especially in tires on steering axles.

12) Errors in load-bearing parts (suspension, bearings, etc.) would result in a risk of collapse.

13) lack of afbremsning by vehicle at wheels shift, would result in a risk of damage to the vehicle and occupants.



Control of load-bearing parts

The student must be able to check whether the following characteristics of the load-bearing parts are met:




14) Tires must on all wheels have at least 1 mm tread depth in the main pattern. For buses with a maximum authorized mass exceeding 3500 kg must be at least 1.6 mm depth pattern. The wear should not be uneven and covered must be without damage.

15) Nav and wheel nuts must be shielded by hubcap or similar, if they are outside of the outer surface of the tyre.

16) Chassis frame must not be deformed, cracked, or damaged incidentally.

17) Leaf Spring individual layers must not be broken.

18) Air spring bellows must be tight, judged by the leaks could be heard as a Swish, and the bus will be ' skewed ' at major leaks and air consumption is abnormally large, which may be read on the pressure gauge.

19) Shaft must be fastened to the spring.



Legal provisions, moreover, about the load-bearing parts

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




20) in suspension as a whole or in its individual parts must not be due to wear or similar occur significantly veils.

21) Tires, rims and wheel bearings must be undamaged.

22) Tires must be inflated to an air pressure after the car manufacturers ' requirements.

23) Tyres on same axle must combined have a carrying capacity of which at least must correspond to the maximum axle load. Wear the ability shown by dækmærkningen. Tires must also be of a dimension and shape which correspond to the rim.

24) Tyres on same axle must be of the same dimension and type.

25) Bus must be sprung on all axles.

26) Bus must be equipped with shock absorbers on all wheels, with the exception of buses over 5000 kg, only to have shock absorbers at the front wheels.



Signs of errors at load-bearing parts

The student must be able to specify reasons for the following signs of errors at load-bearing parts and designate where errors may occur:




27) Uneven/crooked tire wear can often be caused by incorrectly set steering, faulty shock absorbers, or that the shaft has shifted on the springs. By impact of curbs or similar will there could be damage to the tyre (tread and casing).

28) Abnormal dækform close to the ground, abnormally warm tires after some time driving or tendency for the bus pulls to one side indicates incorrect tire pressure, which in the long run can destroy the deck. The tyre pressure should in such cases be controlled by use of tyre pressure gauge.

29) Oil extraction on the shock absorber indicate defects in the shock absorber.

30) Cracks in the paint or concentrated rust formation (rust stripes) on the chassis, frame or springs may be due to breakage. Rust formation around the bolts and studs suggest that they have loosened up due to wear or lack of maintenance.

31) Shaking and vibration of front wheels can be an indication of error in suspension or imbalance in the wheels.



1.5 engine, transmission and energy-and environmentally friendly driving

Main objectives

The pupil should learn about the engine and the transmission function, if signs of failure, of steering errors and on energy-and environmentally friendly driving.

The student must also be able to ascertain whether certain requirements for the engine and transmission are fulfilled, be the most important pieces of legislation on the environment really driving.

Milestones

1.5.1 the engine and the transmission function, as well as energy-and environmentally friendly driving

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following conditions and features:




1) Engine works, in principle, in the sense that the Pistons set in motion when a fuel mixture ignited.

2) Stemplernes movement is translated into a rotary motion of a crankshaft, and this movement be continued through the clutch, gear and differential for bus driving wheel.

3) in a diesel engine sucked air into the cylinder, after which the fuel under high pressure by means of nozzles is injected into the cylinders. In front of air entrained is interposed a air filter to retain impurities in the air. In front of the fuel pump is interposed a fuel filter to retain impurities in the fuel. These filters must be replaced periodically.

4) in a diesel engine combustion occurs by spontaneous combustion due to the high pressure inside the cylinder (compression). Even igniting it requires high temperature/pressure. Consequently, the air in the cylinders at the start of the engine often heated. It happens in General by means of a glow plug, which is powered by a control switch on the dash Panel or by control of the startup key.



The student must have knowledge of the following feature on clutch and gearbox:




5) Positive feature is that-to and disconnect the connection between motor and gearbox when stationary and when changing gears.

6) Coupling must be able to transfer the engine's full power without slipping when it is connected to.

7) the activation of the clutch is usually done by pedal pressure, which is often transferred to the clutch using hydraulics and compressed air if necessary.

8) necessary adjustments to speed and traction requires that the bus is equipped with a gearbox containing a number of tandhjulssæt, which can be used in various combinations.

9) For certain driving purpose used automatic transmissions, where Automation provides gear breaks by using information about the bus speed, engine load and pressure on the throttle.

10) ASR system (anti spin Regulation) task is to prevent the driving wheels from spinning when starting and during operation. A warning light warns the driver when the system is in function (spinner wheels).



The student must be familiar with the following conditions and functions concerning differential and differential lockout:




11) Differential consists in principle of a gear mechanism, interposed between the axles to bus driving wheel. The differential is connected to the gearbox through a shaft drive and designed so that the engine's drive power is distributed equally to both wheels, while the wheels can rotate at different rates, which is necessary during oscillation.

12) With a differential lock can differentialets effect is abolished, so that the wheels can only rotate at the same speed. Thus, where the wheels have wheel spin countered different grip, e.g. in smooth or oily lead.

13) Differential lock-off can be linked to and from the operation of a switch on the instrument panel, either when the bus is stopped, or under gears, where both wheels have the same grip and rotates at the same speed.



The student must be able to determine the contents of the following:




14) Newer buses must be equipped with an overspeed Governor that is set up in such a way that the speed cannot exceed 100 km/h.



Risk by operating errors

The student must be able to specify reasons for the following control errors of importance for operational safety:




15) teething problems by cold diesel engine without the need or by too short use of the preheater.

16) risk of destruction of the clutch by too slow operation of the clutch on the coupling point.

17) Drive in the wrong gear, who overwhelm the engine and developer unnecessary smoke.

18) Risk of clogging of the fuel filter and pipes between the oil tank and diesel engine by the use of incorrect gas oil in the frost periods.

19) Drive in turn coupled with a differential lock causes a high risk of ruining differential and change the run properties significantly.



Control of engine and transmission, etc.

The student must be able to check whether the following characteristics of the engine and transmission are fulfilled:
20) Motor oil must be filled in sufficient amount, read on oil pindens max-and min-brands, or by control lamps, etc.

21) coolant shall be loaded in sufficient amount, assessed in terms of instructional book's instructions.

22) For buses, which included hydraulic clutch, check the system for adequate fluid condition.

23) the exhaust system must be close and have sufficient noise reducing effect, judged by the exhaust sound.



The student must have knowledge of the engine usually cannot start without bleeding the fuel system in the following cases:




24) the bus has been run empty for diesel oil.

25) engine has stood still for a very long time.

26) Fuel system has been opened for cleaning or e.g. replacement of filters.

27) Fuel system has been faulty, so air is penetrated.



Any venting shall be carried out according to the instruction book's requirements.

Signs of faults in the engine and transmission, etc.

The student must be able to specify reasons for the following signs of faults in the engine and transmission and designate where errors may occur:




28) Unnecessary smoke from engine exhaust could indicate worn motor or faults in the fuel system.

29) Noise in abnormal extent by use of the accelerator pedal suggests error in the exhaust system.

30) Motoropspeedning without speed increases, suggests error in coupling.

31) Difficult gearshift with loud murmurs suggest errors in transmission or clutch or incorrect operation.



Lubrication, etc.

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following conditions:




32) Lubrication, antifreeze and maintenance shall be carried out according to the vehicle manufacturer's instructions.



Energy-and environmentally friendly driving

The student must be familiar with the following conditions:




33) in order to prevent air and noise pollution, one should not let the engine idle for any length of time. The engine must first be started immediately prior to drive, or the short time beforehand, as is necessary in order to achieve adequate working pressure in the braking system.

34) Run method has a significant impact on energy consumption. High speeds and aggressive driving with powerful accelerations, e.g. in connection with overtaking leads to increased fuel consumption, while energy-efficient driving techniques can provide 5-10% savings of fuel. This can also result in very substantial savings in operating costs.

35) By energy efficient running technique means that you generally omit unnecessary and constant speed changes.

36) during the stop at signalized intersections, one should anticipate about stopping for yellow or red will be necessary, and, where appropriate, adapt the speed the final stretch towards the intersection, rather than continue with high speed and then braking sharply at the end.

37) at speed reduction in fuel consumption can be reduced by releasing the accelerator pedal completely and use the engine brake instead of linking out.



Furthermore, statutory provisions on environmentally sound drive

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




38) Bus must be operated in such a way that it does not make unnecessary or developer smoke and gases in unnecessarily.

39) Unnecessary and disruptive drive must not take place at the settlement, and if necessary the driver must run the batch job in such a way that other disturbed as little as possible.

40) Any ban on idling drive.



1.6 bodywork and structure

Main objectives

The pupil should learn about bus bodywork and structure, including attachment, control and risk conditions.

The student must be the main legal provisions on bus bodywork and structure.

Milestones

1.6.1 Bodywork, building and its fastening

The student must have knowledge of the following designations:




1) bodywork includes mainly roof, sides, doors and screens.

2) most newer buses have a self-supporting body and therefore have no real chassis frame.

3) A not self-supporting body is mounted on a chassis frame.



Risk ratio at high coachwork

The student must be able to indicate the importance of the following risk factors:




4) A bus with high body and thus high Centre of gravity (e.g. a double-decker bus) are at increased risk of rollover in swing.



Legal regulations on bodywork and structure

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions and conditions:




5) Bodywork, including self-supporting body, must be firmly attached to the shuttle's load-bearing parts.

6) bodywork and structure should be no sharp edges or projections that may be unnecessary danger to other road users.

7) Bus wheels shall be so shielded, possibly by body design that other road users are protected against splashes.

8) A bus must in every page in accordance with detailed rules laid bear a number of outputs (required outputs), corresponding to the number of people the bus is designed for.

9) Output can be udstigningsdør (i.e. door used for normal entry and exit of passengers), nødudgangsdør, emergency exit window or taglem.

10) A bus must be equipped with exit in the back. This may, however, be replaced by a taglem on condition that there are output in both sides as close to the rear as possible.

11) Prescribed outputs must meet special Interior, functional and necessary consideration.

12) Automatic doors that cannot be seen directly from the driving position must be monitored by means of a signal device which provides signal until the doors are fully closed, and also by means of mirrors or television equipment.

13) By automatic doors must be immediately at the door on the outside as well as inside are a device that can put automatic is out of function, so the door can be opened manually. Device shall be clearly marked and with instructions on how it is applied. The same requirements apply to any lift device (person lift).

14) The outputs that can be regarded as emergency exits (nødudgangsdør, emergency exit window and taglem) must be marked clearly on the outside as well as inside with ' emergency exit ' or standardised emergency exit symbol. There must, if necessary, be provided a clear operating instructions.

15) tool to crush the glass in an emergency exit window must always be present.

16) Every passenger shall have access to required outputs. Access to a udstigningsdør and a nødudgangsdør can, however, after special rules be blocked by seat/seats, when the seat/seats are arranged so that they could be folded away.



The student must be able to verify the following:




17) emergency exits must be clearly marked and tools must be present.



1.7 Internet device, vision and special equipment

Main objectives

The student must learn the most important pieces of legislation of the bus interior fittings, etc.

Milestones

1.7.1 Panes, mirrors, vision, etc.

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions and conditions:




1) Windows must be kept clean and dugfrie.

2) must be able to be kept clean with Windshield wipers and washer.

3) Windshield must be able to be kept free from dew and rhymes, e.g. with a hot air blower.

4) front side Windows must be kept free from dew, e.g. by a hot-air blower or by passing by double glazing.

5) must not be fitted in the driver's field of vision objects, which reduce visibility unnecessarily.

6) Bus must be equipped with an exterior rear-view mirror in each page.

7) On a bus designed to carry more than 19 persons are the exterior mirror on the right side could be kept free from dew when heated.

8) Newer buses (except certain urban buses and the like) must be equipped with safety belts on all forward facing and rear-facing seats.

9) Bus must be equipped with speed sensor (speedometer), which can be combined with the recording equipment (tachograph).

10) A bus shall be equipped with at least one approved extinguisher placed near the driver's seat.



The student must have knowledge of the following aspects of special equipment:




11) Every exterior rear-view mirror must have a reflecting surface of at least 200 cm2 if it is convex (arched), and at least 300 cm2 if it is plant.



The student must be able to specify reasons for the following signs of errors by special equipment:




12) Can the windshield are not kept clean, is the sign of the error in the wiper or washer.



The student must be able to verify the following:




13) washer fluid should be filled in sufficient quantity.

14) fire extinguisher must be approved and the company rated by e.g. pressure gauge.



1.8 recording equipment (tachograph)

Main objectives

The student must learn the basic rules about tachograph function, laid down in European Parliament and Council regulation on road transport.

Milestones

1.8.1 recording equipment (tachograph) function

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following provisions of the recording equipment:




1) recording equipment to be used in a vehicle, if the maximum permissible laden weight, including trailer or semi-trailer exceeds 3500 kg. However, certain vehicles are exempt from the driving and rest rules.

2) recording equipment and driver card to function correctly and used correctly.
3) recording equipment must be properly installed, be tested and sealed by an authorized workshop and provided with an installation plate.

4) recording equipment shall be inspected at least once every two years by an authorised workshop. In connection with 2-years after the sight to the workshop to replace the installation plate.



The detailed provisions on recording equipment are laid down in European Parliament and Council regulation on the harmonisation of certain social legislation relating to road transport and in the Council regulation on recording equipment in road transport.

1.9 Bus documents

Main objectives

The student must have knowledge of the information contained in the documents, as well as learn the bus, when these documents should be taken.

Milestones

1.9.1 registration certificate

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




1) to a bus can be used, it must be registered and be issued a registration certificate.

2) registration certificate, which shows bus unladen weight/run clear emphasis, its allowable gross vehicle weight as well as possibly what size trailer which may be coupled with the.

3) on the basis of registration certificates, the driver can determine whether the bus and trailer must be interconnected.

4) when driving with a trailer to the bus and trailer registration certificates are allowed. When driving abroad, the original certificates, or one of a motor Office issued copy, allowed.

5) when driving in Denmark may bring their own copies.



The student must have knowledge of the following:




6) Many countries require that carried the original registration certificate when driving in countries concerned.



1.10 special vehicles

Main objectives

The pupil should learn about other vehicles.

Milestones

1.10.1 articulated bus

The student must be familiar with the following conditions:




1) certain large buses are decorated like articulated bus, there is a car that is made up of 2 parts. The front and rear are connected by an articulated section, which allows passengers free passage between the two parts. For this vehicle, which may be carried out on driving licences for large passenger car (category D), special rules apply for furnishings and equipment, etc.



1.11 Bus control equipment

1.11.1 Operating equipment

Repetition after learning plan for category B, section 1.1.1 ' Control equipment '.

1.12. Preventive maintenance and necessary repairs

Main objectives

The pupil should learn about the importance of preventive maintenance and necessary repairs.

Milestones

1.12.1 Maintenance, etc.

The student must be able to indicate the importance of the following conditions:




1) Emergency repairs, best avoided by following the manufacturer's service plan for the vehicle.

2) error occurred on the vehicle of vital importance for road safety, it shall immediately be repaired.

Annex 4

2. preliminary EXERCISES on the WAY

The purpose of teaching into the initial exercises is to give the student proficiency in basic mastery of the bus at low speeds and including make the student familiar with the bus length and width, special maneuverability, as well as the driver's orientation possibilities through the use of mirrors.

The exercises can be assigned to a closed practice space or part of a driver's technical facilities, but must otherwise be carried out at an appropriate place, e.g. a quiet industrial neighborhood outside normal working hours or an unused parking lot.

The individual maneuvers must be taught with so much certainty and precision, to eleven in the subsequent extended exercises under way mainly to concentrate on to customize the batch job to road and traffic conditions and the applicable rules of the road.

Each practice precise content are laid down in the interim. The duration is determined by the individual student's needs. The individual exercises are considered learned satisfactorily when they can be performed with the degree of precision, as shown by delmåls descriptions.

2.1 Preparation to drive

Main objectives

The student must learn how to make the necessary security preparations for the run and get familiar with operating the equipment descriptions and location.

Milestones

2.1.1 Overhaul, setting, etc.

The student must master the following skills before departure:




1) clean the possibly dewy or soiled panes, mirrors and lenses.

2) Remove possibly solved the underlying objects from the instrument Board, sun visors, and square below and in front of the driver's seat.

3) ensure that there are no mounted objects that takes the view through the panes.

4) ensure that any baggage is securely positioned and fastened.

5) operate the doors close-and låsetøj.

6) set the driver's seat in order to achieve a comfortable driving position, the best possible vision and to be able to operate the bus equipment, including read instruments and optical.

7) buckle and adjust any safety harness and headrest.

8) Could release itself quickly from a possibly mounted seat belt.

9) Operate the clutch, accelerator and brake pedals.

10) operate the gear and parking brake.

11) operate the switches for lights, signs and signals, markings, wiper and washer, fan and sun visor, etc.



The student must be able to read and understand the importance of instruments and optical.

The student must have knowledge of the following:




12) operation of the clutch, accelerator and brake pedal with inappropriate footwear, can result in a risk of incorrect operation.



2.2 Buses mirrors

Main objectives

The pupil should learn about correctly setting the mirrors as well as for their optimal use.

Milestones

2.2.1 Special conditions

The student must be familiar with the following conditions:




1) Mirrors on the bus is usually convex (convex).

2) the more curved mirror is, the bigger point of view you get in the mirror-but at the same time, the things you see in the mirror ' smaller '.

3) due to the concave curvature, it is difficult to judge the distance to the things one sees. If the bus is equipped with several mirrors in the same page with different curvature, made more difficult assessment of distances further.

4) Improper designate mirrors reduces the driver's ability to orient themselves towards the rear and along the side of the bus.

5) Dirty or cracked mirrors can reduce the driver's Guide options or give a distorted mirror image.

6) regardless of how well the mirrors are set, there will always be blind spots.



2.2.2 setting the mirrors

The student must master the following skills:




1) Set the exterior mirrors so that the best possible vision is achieved (the side of the bus should be a maximum fill 1 cm in each mirror).

2) Set the rear-view mirror on every page so that the side of the bus just can be seen in the inner part of the mirror and so that the horizon is visible in the upper part of the mirror.



The student must be able to check that the mirrors are:




3) Properly tuned.

4) Clean and whole.



2.2.3 use of mirrors

The student must master the following skills:




1) regularly inform themselves in the mirrors and especially in right-hander orient themselves several times before and during the oscillation.

2) be aware of blind spots, also the often large blind spots as the mirrors danner.

3) check out the hidden areas (blind spots), by moving it forward and to the side.

4) especially at right turns in cross frequently to check the area to the right of the bus by orient themselves both by the use of mirrors and through the windshield and side Windows.



The student must be able to apply these skills in the coming maneuvers on the way.

2.3 starting and stopping at the road edge

Main objectives

The student must learn soft starting and stopping after careful orientation, among other things. having regard to the blind spots and the lack of opportunity for direct orientation by head turning towards the rear and along the right side of the bus.

The student will also learn how to stop or Park at the forward edge of the road in the driveway to the right side and including ensure safe assessment of bus width, wheel location and the bus length direction in relation to the road's edge.

Milestones

2.3.1 Starting, gear control, starting and braking

Orienteering skills

The student must master the following orientation skills by starting and stopping:




1) look ahead, to the sides and rear for traffic or other obstacles.

2) orient themselves towards the rear and along bus pages alone by means of mirrors.

3) Check blind spots, in so far as it is possible.

4) Judging from the rear kommendes speed, distance and intention.

5) Judge own acceleration ability compared to rear kommendes speed.



Maneuver-skills

The student must master the following maneuver-skills-starting and stopping:




6) Take a seat belt on.

7) start the engine correctly.

8) turn on the light.

9) Put in gear, give signs with Flashers and slacken handbrake.

10) put the soft going, run a piece of straight ahead and stop with hand signals.

11) Provide characters for forward stopping at the road edge or other selection with stoplights and, possibly, blinlys and brake soft up to a halt.
12) stop at road edge, first with ample and later with limited maneuver space, and so that the right wheel is as close as possible to the road edge and stands alongside this.

13) Cease with hand signals, put in neutral, stop the engine and pull the hand brake.

14) turn off the lights.



2.4 right turn on corners

Main objectives

The student must learn forward and backward right turn with a regular speed on corners under the careful orientation.

The student must achieve certain skill in correct position before and during the oscillations, orientation of mirrors, properly ratbetjening and safe feeling for wheel placement.

If it is appropriate for a convenient settlement of the exercise, the left turn.

Milestones

2.4.1 skills by oscillation

Orienteering skills

The student must master the following orientation skills by right turn:




1) look ahead, to the sides and rear for traffic or other obstacles.

2) orient themselves backward along the bus pages alone by means of mirrors.

3) Check blind spots, in so far as it is possible.



During reversing can be usefully open side Windows in order to orient themselves for sounds.

Maneuver-skills

The student must master the following manoeuvre skills at the forward right turn:




4) Give character to the right turn in the appropriate distance.

5) Adjust the speed with the shift to the appropriate gear.

6) keep the targeted exchange rate and steady rate towards the corner or side of the road.

7) Run so close to the road edge or curb (or kantlinie) as possible for, among other things. to prevent cyclists and moped drivers in driving forward on the right side of the bus.

8) comply with any rights of way for any intersecting highway.

9) Commence right bend if there is plain line track, but by later ratdrejning than in ordinary car.

10) Perform right bend being at the road's edge (or kantlinien) and do the bend as small as possible (keep right rear wheel as close to the road's edge as possible).




 



Where space conditions make it necessary, provision should be made in good time before the oscillations are pulled to the left. Right bend must as far as possible, be completed in the right half of the road.







The student must master the following maneuver-skills by backward right turn in places where it can be done without inconvenience to the rest of the traffic:




11) reversing is carried out with very low speed.

12) Give character to the right turn in the appropriate distance.

13) Run so close to the road edge or curb (or kantlinie) as possible for, among other things. to prevent cyclists and moped drivers in driving forward on the right side of the bus.

14) comply with any rights of way for any intersecting highway.

15) Start ratdrejning if there is a free course immediately before the rear wheels are out for corner or corner rundingens beginning.

16) Perform right bend by allowing the right rear wheels follow the road edge or curb (or kantlinie) as close as possible.

17) Start straightening at the opposite corner or corner rundingens ratdrejning just before the end, so the bus keeps straight course along the road edge on the road that swung in to.



2.5 Backward driving with målbremsning

Main objectives

The student must learn how to keep a straight course during reversing straight ahead and by thorough orientation of mirrors alone.

The pupil must also know målbremsning ensure safe feeling for the bus length.

Milestones

2.5.1 Orientation and judgement of bus length

Orienteering skills

The student must master the following orientation skills by reversing with målbremsning:




1) View backwards and along bus pages after traffic or other obstacles simply by using mirrors and including switch between several mirrors.

2) Check blind spots in so far as that is possible.

3) judge the appropriate distance to selected targets for start of braking.

4) Certainly judge the location of the bus at the rear (or any other back protruding part) in relation to the selected targets.



During reversing can be usefully open side Windows in order to orient themselves for sounds.

Maneuver-skills

The student must master the following maneuver-skills by reversing with målbremsning in places where it can be done without inconvenience to other:




5) reversing is carried out with very low speed.

6) Keep straight rate 20-30 metres during reversing.

7) Begin braking with adequate strength and in appropriate distance from selected targets and then stop with the rear end (or rear projection part i might add) by the selected target.

Annex 5

3. VEHICLE manoeuvring CHARACTERISTICS

The purpose of education is to ensure that the pupil, as necessary, is still in the possession of knowledge of vehicle manoeuvring properties, as discussed in the curriculum for driver training for category (B).

Pupils ' knowledge about the theoretical substance should be exploited in practice, where there is opportunity for it during the exercises in the drive on the way.

3.1 manoeuvring characteristics, etc.

Main objectives

The student must have refreshed her knowledge about the different vehicles manoeuvring characteristics and the rules applicable to different conditions of orientation in order to be able to understand and assess the hazards in traffic and react appropriately to them.

Milestones

3.1.1 General on various vehicles manoeuvring characteristics, etc.

Repetition of milestones in 3.1.1 – 3.2.6 in the learning plan for category (B). Annex 6

4. USER CONDUCT

The purpose of education is to ensure that the pupil, as necessary, is still in the possession of knowledge of road user behaviour as discussed in the curriculum for driver training for category B

4.1 road user behaviour, etc.

Main objectives

The student must have refreshed her knowledge about the different basic psychological characteristics of one's own and other road users ' behaviour, the legal provisions on motorists driving ability and health and about showing special consideration for other road users in order to be able to understand and assess the hazards in traffic and react appropriately to them.

Milestones

4.1.1 Perception, reaction, vision, health, other road users and the behaviour and attitudes

Repetition of milestones in 4.1.1 – 4.7.3 in the learning plan for category b. Annex 7

5. ROAD CONDITIONS

The purpose of education is to ensure, as necessary, the student is still in possession of knowledge about road conditions, as discussed in the curriculum for driver training for category (B).

5.1 road conditions, etc.

Main objectives

The student must have refreshed his knowledge of risk factors by the roads in order to be able to understand and assess the hazards in traffic and react appropriately to them.

Milestones

5.1.1 Risk conditions and road safety design

Repetition of milestones in 5.1.1 – 5.2.6 in the learning plan for category (B). Annex 8

6. BASIC RULES FOR DRIVING with BUSES, INCLUDING DIMENSIONS, WEIGHT and LOADING

The purpose of education is to make the student familiar with some general legislative provisions for the driving of buses in addition to the provisions applicable to category B.

The student should also be familiar with the legal provisions for buses dimensions, weight, loading as well as the placing of persons and baggage.

The student should also be familiar with the rules for driving times and rest periods, passenger transport, as well as additional training.

Pupils ' knowledge about the theoretical substance should be exploited in practice, where there is opportunity for it during the exercises in the drive on the way.

6.1 notes on the traffic

Main objectives

The student must learn where the legal provisions for the driving of buses and that, moreover, must comply with road markings in the form of road signs, etc. as well as the police instructions.

Milestones

6.1.1 Traffic Act's validity

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




1) rules of the road apply on all streets and roads, bike paths and sidewalks, plazas, bridges and tunnels, passages, paths and similar places where there is regular traffic, whether these sites are public or private.

2) Buses must usually only run on the part of the road intended for cars and motorcycles (motor vehicles) as well as large mopeds.

3) Transport Minister can in tøbruds periods or in similar special circumstances temporarily prohibit the movement of heavy vehicles. Messages to that effect is given in the press.



6.1.2 Instructions for batch job

The student must be able to recognize and specify the importance of the following road signs:




1)» Bus prohibited ' (23 C, 2).

2)» Total weight ' (C 31).

3)» Total weight of the combination ' (32 C).

4) ' axle ' (C 35).

5) ' group of axles ' (C 36).

6)» Cart width ' (C 41).

7)» Cart height ' (C 42).

8) ' Carriage length ' (C 43).

9)» Electrified railway ' (UA 73)

10) ' Under the boards ' (d 4).

11)» bus station for long-distance ' (E31, 1)

12)» bus station for local transport ' (E31, 2)



At the latest after teaching in title 7 ' Manoeuvres on the way ' should the student be able to recognize the importance of the instructions, as discussed in section 6.1.2, including could live up to the meaning of these.

In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

6.2 Buses width, length, height and weight

Main objectives
The student must learn the legal provisions for buses with a maximum width, length, height and weight as well as requirements for special caution when driving with large buses.

Milestones

6.2.1 Bus width

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




1) A bus may with or without read not be wider than 2.55 m.




 



The width is measured over the parts that go furthest out to each side, with the exception of fx exterior mirrors and side direction indicator lamps, etc.










2) when driving with a bus on a narrow road one must pay particular attention to other traffic, keep as far to the right as possible and, if necessary, stop, so others can get past.



6.2.2 Buses length

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




1) A bus with two axles with or without read must not be longer than 13.5 m.

2) A bus with more than 2 axles with or without read must not be longer than 15 metres.

3) An articulated vehicle with or without the read must not be longer than 18.75 m.




 



The length is measured over the parts that go the furthest forward and backward, with the exception of e.g. coupling devices.







6.2.3 Buses height

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




1) A bus may with or without read not be higher than 4 m.




 



The height measured vertically from the roadway to the part that reaches more than up, however, with the exception of e.g. an antenna.










2) regardless of the height the driver must ensure that the drive under bridges, wires and similar can happen without danger or disadvantage.



6.2.4 Buses weight

The student must be able to indicate the importance of the following expression:




1) Bus axle, it is press that is transmitted to the road by the wheels on the axle or bogie in question.

2) maximum permissible laden weight is the Bus upon registration maximum weight of the bus with operating funds, driver and cargo.



The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




3) Bus total weight and axle load must not exceed what is specified in the registration certificate.

4) A bus must be fitted on each side with an inscription that indicates the maximum total weight (T) maximum load (L), allowed passenger number of seats and standing places and distributed on maximum baggage weight. To load (L) included weight of driver, passengers, luggage, fuel, oil and water.



The student must have knowledge of the following legal provisions:




5) permissible axle load must not exceed 10 metric tons.

6) Buses in international traffic may have permitted the driving akseltryk of up to 11.5 tonnes if the driving axle is fitted with twin mounted wheels and vejvenlig suspension.

7) at the maximum permissible weight to be at least 20% of which rest on the steering axles.

8) Bus permitted total weight must not exceed the following limits:





a) Bus with 2 axles: 18 tonnes,

b) bus with 3 axles: 24 tons, however, up to 26 tonnes of international traffic,

c) bus with 4 or more axles: 29.5 tonnes, or 32 tonnes, provided that particular requirements are met.

d) articulated bus with 3 axles: 28 tonnes and

e) articulated bus with 4 or more axles: 34 tonnes.





9) Buses which are authorized for international traffic shall, when they are only used in national traffic, observe the national weight limits.



6.2.5 Persons, baggage and cargo

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




1) Persons and baggage/cargo shall be stowed so that the driver has unobstructed view and sufficient opportunity to maneuver the bus.

2) There must never be more than the number of passengers in a bus, the bus is approved. Passengers must not be positioned so that it is dangerous to themselves or others. For buses for commercial passenger transport and for buses with safety belts as well as for the transport of children, special rules apply.

3) Baggage/cargo must not cover the flashers, lights and license plate, no slip or fall down on the road or otherwise be obstacle or hazard to traffic.

4) in cases where transport of luggage/cargo bag on the bus cover for one or more mandatory lighting devices and reflectors, must be affixed a lightboard on the back of the cargo/luggage.

5) in case the bus license plate cover, use a 3. license plate, which must be arranged in such a way that this can be read without difficulty. If the 3. license plate used in the lamp ignition time, should this be clarified with the rear registration plate lamp (s). When using a lightboard, may 3. license plate lamp shall be placed on the boom.



Labelling of luggage/cargo.

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions and conditions:




6) Baggage/cargo that extends more than 1 m beyond the front or the rear of the bus, or more than 15 cm beyond the bus page, must be indicated by signs.

7) Marking of luggage/cargo shall be carried out with a white cylinder with at least two red reflective stripes. The cylinder must be at least 30 cm high and have a diameter of at least 10 cm. for the non-commercial transport of luggage/cargo outside the lamp ignition time, however, the marking can be done with a light cloth or similar.

8) in the lamp ignition time must the marking by any type of transport in addition made with lamps that lights up red to the rear and white forward, clearly visible in at least 300 m distance.

9) the marking must be placed on the part of the baggage/cargo that goes furthest in addition to the bus and as low as possible, but not less than 35 cm. The marking shall also be affixed so that the driver has visibility, and so it is not a danger to other road users.



6.2.6 traffic accident

Repetition after section 6.2.7 of the learning plan for category (B).

6.2.7 insurance obligation

Repetition after section 6.2.8 of the learning plan for category (B).

6.2.8 the supply of vehicle for other

Repetition after section 6.2.9 in the learning plan for category (B).

6.3 the driving and rest periods, as well as the use of recording equipment

Main objectives

The student must have general knowledge of driving and rest rules and be able to operate the equipment properly.

Milestones

6.3.1 driving and rest rules

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following provisions concerning driving times and rest periods:

Driving time




1) running time is the time of recording equipment is recorded as driving.

2) the daily driving time between two daily rest periods must not exceed 9 hours. Twice in the course of a week the daily driving time may be up to a maximum of 10 hours.

3) the weekly driving time shall not exceed 56 hours.

4) total accumulated driving time during 2 consecutive weeks shall not exceed 90 hours.



Running time without a break




5) A driving time without breaks may not be more than 4 ½ hour, then there must be maintained an uninterrupted break of not less than 45 minutes, unless the driver begins a rest period.

6) this break may be replaced by a break of at least 15 minutes followed by a break of at least 30 minutes distributed over the driving period. There can not be swapped on the order of the breaks. At the two-man operation can break is held in a running vehicle.

7) the driver shall not drive or perform other work during this break.



Rest period




8) within any period of 24 hours after the end of the previous daily or weekly rest period, the driver must have held a regular daily rest period of at least 11 consecutive hours (regular daily rest period).

9) The regular daily rest period may be taken in two periods, the first of which period must be of at least 3 consecutive hours and the other at least 9 consecutive hours.

10) dwell time can be reduced to a minimum of 9 consecutive hours (reduced daily rest period) up to 3 times between any two weekly rest periods.

11) if there are multiple drivers in the vehicle each driver must have a daily rest period of at least 9 consecutive hours within a period of 30 hours.

12) A regular daily rest period, are kept, while the driver accompanies a vehicle on board the ferry or train, must not be interrupted twice by other activities not exceeding one hour in combined. The driver must have access to a bunk or couchette.

13) in any two consecutive weeks a driver shall hold at least:





a) 2 regular weekly rest periods, each of which is at least 45 hours, or

(b)) a regular weekly rest period of at least 45 hours and one reduced weekly rest period of at least 24 hours. The reduced time at fx 21 hours (regular weekly rest period of 45 hours minus reduced weekly rest period of 24 hours) must be compensated by an equivalent rest, there will be assembled within three weeks after the end of that week.





14) Rest taken as compensation for a reduced weekly rest period, to be held in the wake of another rest period of at least 9 hours. In the example of a reduced weekly rest period of 24 hours, the compensation must be at least 30 hours (reduction of 21 hours plus 9 hours).
15) a weekly rest period shall start no later than at the end of 6 consecutive 24 hour periods after the end of the previous weekly rest period.

16) daily rest periods and reduced weekly rest periods that are taken away from the home site, can be held in the vehicle if this is equipped with suitable sleeping facilities for each driver and the vehicle is stationary.



6.3.2 use of recording equipment

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following provisions of the recording equipment:




1) recording equipment can either be analogous to the record sheet or driver card with digital. An analog recording equipment detects the driver's activities on a chart sheet. A digital recording equipment detects the driver's activities, on the one hand on a driver card, partly in the recording equipment. In certain special cases, e.g. damage to or theft of the driver card, it may be necessary to use a printout from the digital recording equipment to record the driver's activities.

2) record sheets/driver card must be used every day from the moment the vehicle is taken over and until the end of the daily working period.

3) Used record sheet to be used a sheet to suit the recording equipment. It shall be ensured by having a look at the printed numbers on the back of the record sheet, where a number must match the number on the type plate of the recording equipment.

4) Before the record sheet of the recording equipment, the driver must be on easy-to-read and indicate clearly the following information sheet:





a) surname and given name. It is not enough to indicate the initials, and stamp shall not be used.

(b) the starting date and the starting place). The starting point can be specified either with country code (e.g., DK), or country (e.g. Denmark) or city name (e.g., Esbjerg).

(c) the registration number of the vehicle), which is to be used. Change of vehicle during a working period, the registration number for each of the following vehicles shall be entered in the order on the back of the sheet.

d) odometer value at boot time. Change of vehicle during a working period to the first vehicle-kilometres should be entered on the front end, and the new vehicle start mileage included on the back along with the new registration number.

(e)) the time of change of vehicle. The time shall be entered on the back of the chart sheet.





5) end date and end point as well as odometer value shall be stated on the record sheet, when it is not to be used more.

6) the driver shall operate recording equipment the settings buttons in such a way that all timing groups (running time, other work, on-call time and rest) are recorded and that the driver's activities are clearly visible on the chart sheet/data on driver card and in the digital recording equipment, as well as on any printouts.

7) the record sheet must be replaced at the end of the daily working period. The record sheet must be taken by change of vehicle, or when the chart sheet is not expected to be used further in the same vehicle.

8) driver card must first be taken at the end of the daily working period. The driver card can be taken by change of vehicle, or when the driver card is not expected to be used further in the same vehicle.

9) record sheet of the recording equipment in no more than sit 24 hours.

10) record sheets/driver card and all manual records and transcripts for that day and the previous 28 calendar days must be taken while driving, and shall be produced whenever the police.

11) will cause malfunctions or faulty functioning of the recording equipment, the driver on the record sheet or on a separate sheet, which shall be attached to either the chart sheet or driver card shall indicate all the information on which the recording equipment would otherwise have registered.



6.4 passenger services, etc.

Main objectives

The student must have knowledge of how to read a road map.

The student must also have knowledge of the rules for the execution of commercial passenger services and the non-commercial carriage of passengers (-free spectrum drive) by bus.

Milestones

6.4.1 street maps

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following conditions:




1) road map must be used in planning of passenger services in a safe and sound manner.



6.4.2 Professional passenger services and non-commercial carriage of passengers by coach and bus

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following concerning the carriage of passengers:




1) The performing commercial passenger transport by a Danish registered motor vehicle designed to carry more than nine persons, including the driver, must have permission to do so by the traffic Agency. The authorization shall apply to commercial carriage of one bus and gives the right to perform some kind of bus service than tourist drive. Execution of regular services requires in addition a special permission, unless this drive conducted by or on behalf of public companies or authorities at the same time, the issuing authority.

2) Execution of international regular services, shuttle services to non EU-countries as well as certain kinds of occasional services require special permission. International shuttle service with accommodation, to EU countries and occasional services, moreover, carried out under cover of a control document.

3) International non-commercial carriage of passengers is carried out on the basis of a special certificate, as road traffic agency issuer.

4) Buses, used for commercial passenger transport, shall be provided with licence holders





(a)) the registered user's name and phone number.

(b)) the words shall be located outside next to the driving position on the bodywork and in a color that differs from the shuttle's color.





5) Driver is responsible for the passenger transport operation follows the agreed conditions.



6.5 additional training

Main objectives

The pupil should learn when required additional training in addition to the driver's license.

Milestones

6.5.1 evidence etc.

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




1) By commercial driving be drivers have acquired a driver qualification card as proof that they have completed a basic qualification training. Drivers must also implement a one-week in-service training every five years. Periodic training shall have a duration of at least 5 days and must be implemented within a period of 12 months.

2) By private or non-commercial driving be drivers of buses as a starting point in addition to the driver's licence must be in possession of the Red evidence of specific training. However, there are several situations where domestic bus service is not a requirement for evidence. This applies, among other things:





a) Purely private drive with bus designed for a maximum of 17 people, including the driver. The bus must be carried out by registered user or a bus in his household. As a passenger may only be transported members of the registered user's family.

(b)) private, non commercial and commercial passenger services on lines within a radius of 50 km from the bus home.







The details, including the other exceptions set out in the ' notice of qualification requirements for certain drivers of vehicles in road transport '.
Annex 9

7. EXTENDED EXERCISES on the WAY

The purpose of teaching in extended exercises is to give the student skill in safely and considerately to customize the batch job to the changing risk conditions and risk opportunities as well as the applicable traffic rules on different types of roads with different traffic density during the execution of all normally occuring maneuvers.

Each practice precise content are laid down in the interim. The duration is determined by the individual student's needs. The individual exercises/maneuvers are considered learned satisfactorily when they can be performed with the degree of precision, as shown by delmåls descriptions.

The exercises/maneuvers to be conducted in an order which ensures that student continually transferred from a lighter to a more difficult exercise/maneuver. It will correspond to the order indicated in the training objectives.

Driver training for category D assumes that students have a driving licence for category B and thus someone driving experience. Therefore, it is not considered necessary to practice every maneuver separately as in driver training for category (B). The following exercises are therefore composed of several maneuvers.

The teacher's Guide to learning plan describes the requirements to practice lines for the individual exercises.

As driver training for category B is considered fundamental to the programme to the category (D) are there in the sub-objectives of the expanded exercises on the road alone set out conditions of special importance for drive by bus. In addition to this, the teaching, as necessary, include repetition of milestones in maneuvers en route for driver training for category (B).

7.1 exercise 1

The exercise includes the following maneuvers:

(The number in parentheses refer to the corresponding section in the curriculum for driver training for category B).

Starting and stopping at the road edge (7.1).

Location under gears (7.2).

Speed gears (7.3).

Changing lanes and merge (7.4).

Right turn at the intersection (roads) (7.13).

Left turn at the intersection (roads) (7.14).

Main objectives
The student must learn the gears under the appropriate high speed with shift through all the gears, and proper placement on the roadway. The student will also learn thorough orientation rearwards only using mirrors in connection with starting, changing lanes and merge, necessary drive past the fun-filled, etc. as well as swinging to the right and left on smaller side roads.

Milestones

Starting and stopping at the road edge

7.1.1 Accidents

The student must have knowledge of the following circumstances of accidents during starting and stopping:




1) Counterparties are mainly from behind coming motorists, cyclists and moped riders.



7.1.2 risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk factors-starting and stopping:




1) Limited the Guide options from the driving position due to blind spots and the lack of opportunity for direct orientation rearwards by head turning.

2) Error rating of rear kommendes speed and distance, in particular by use of convex mirrors and rear kommendes any willingness to make room.

3) Call acceleration ability.

4) need big maneuver space.



7.1.3 Orienteering skills

The student must be able to understand and assess the following risk opportunities by starting and stopping and react appropriately to them:




1) Running and cutting, which can be hidden in the blind spots.

2) Narrow margins for manoeuvre that requires special attention to several things at the same time.



The learner must master guide and maneuver-skills-starting as listed under introductory exercises en route, section 2.3» starting and stopping at the road edge '.

Location under gears

7.2.1 Accidents

Accidents on location are stated separately, but not during the maneuvers, in which location is included, e.g. meeting, overtaking and oscillation.

7.2.2 risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk factors by location under gears:




1) Error evaluation of bus width at the risk of getting too close to road users in the roadside or run out in soft discount, etc.

2) Error evaluation of the shuttle's altitude by driving under the bridges, etc.



7.2.3 7.2.4 Orientation-and-Maneuver-skills

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

Speed gears

7.3.1 Accidents

The student must have knowledge of the following circumstances by single car accidents:




1) happens part single car accidents with buses. They hang together with among others for high speed as appropriate, but not necessarily very high speed, given that many accidents happen at a speed around 20-40 km/h.

2) Spirits influence or disease makes itself felt at around every seven eneulykke.

3) Other circumstances of importance for the eneulykkerne is dark, smooth or oily lead and inadequate stowage of passenger and baggage/cargo.

4) happens approximately equal numbers of single car accidents with buses on the roads in and outside the cities. Outside the cities is done a bit more than every other accident on straight roads and every third in bends.

5) By many single car accidents coming bus in addition to the wayside on the right side and in every fifth single car accidents fall over the bus.

6) Some bus passengers are injured because they fall when the bus brakes sharply up.



7.3.2 risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk factors by single car accidents:




1) tend to underestimate their own speed as well as vejsvings sharpness.

2) Buses inferior driving characteristics than, say, passenger cars, since high-level structure results in high Centre of gravity and therefore reduced stability and risk for rollover during oscillation and driving through bends.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.3.3 7.3.4 Orientation-and-Maneuver-skills

The student must master the following guidance and maneuvering skills in the choice of speed:




1) look for bumps. Run significantly slower than the on-the-spot current or specified speed.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category B, other than driving on steeper hills and through the sharper bends, forming part of exercise 3 ' Drive outside closer developed area '.

7.3.5 legislative provisions, moreover,

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions regarding speed:




1) Buses, if the maximum permissible laden weight does not exceed 3500 kg, follow the rules for ordinary passenger car.

2) Buses with a maximum authorized weight exceeding 3500 kg, a maximum driving 80 km/h, also on Highway and Expressway. The same applies to articulated buses.

3) Buses must follow any higher in closer developed area the local speed limit than 50 km/h; the same applies to articulated buses.

4) Buses with a maximum authorized mass exceeding 3500 kg coupled with a registration-only trailer, must in closer developed area, with the exception of motorways and expressways, most driving 50 km/h, also on lines with higher local speed limit.



Changing lanes and merge

7.4.1 Accidents

The student must have knowledge of the following event in the event of accidents changing lanes and merge:




1) counterparts are far mostly motorists.



7.4.2 risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk ratio when changing lanes and merge:




1) Limited orientation opportunities because of the blind spots.



7.4.3 7.4.4 Orientation-and-Maneuver-skills

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

Right turn in cross-

7.13.1 Accidents

The student must have knowledge of the following event in the event of accidents right turn in crossroads:




1) happens part accidents during right turns at intersections.

2) By about half of the accidents is the counterparty a cyclist or moped driver who finds himself on the right side of the bus, and the driver of the bus terminals or swings in front of. Many of the cyclists is at the bus right forhjørne when the bus starts oscillation. Many of these kinds of accidents happen in lysregulerede intersection with bicycle lane, where the bus swings for the green light.

3) Each 5. accident takes place by collision with crossing cars, bicycles and mopeds. In these cases, the driver of the bus as a rule not complied with its obligation to give way.

4) part accidents happen by collision with pedestrians crossing the carriageway, the bus swings into.



7.13.2 risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk factors by right turn:




1) For high speed before and during the oscillation, so orientation will be deficient.

2) inadequate briefing on rear view upcoming cyclists and moped riders on the right side of the bus.

3) Tendency to mistakenly perceiving the go-ahead as characters on plain line track to the right turn.

4) error of assessment of the intersecting road speed and distance from the intersection.

5) deficient or wrong orientation after coming from behind cyclists and moped drivers as well as pedestrians who comes out in the lysregulerede cross after there have been green for some time.

6) inadequate assessment of free manoeuvre space relative to the oncoming and coming from behind, especially if the bus has a large overhang, and oscillation to be made into a narrow road.

7) For high speed during the oscillation, so the bus coming over in modkørendes lane on the road which swung in to.

8) inadequate briefing on crossing pedestrians on the road which swung in to.

9) Backwards right turn from less to more high-traffic road.



7.13.3 Orienteering skills

The student must be able to understand and assess the following risk opportunities by right turn and react appropriately to them:




1) Any cyclists and moped riders, who stops at the stop line on the right side of the bus.

2) where applicable, from the rear coming cyclists and moped riders on the right side of the bus on the roadway or bike path.

3) Any cyclists, moped riders and pedestrians coming out in the lysregulerede cross, after there has been a green light for some time.

4) sign that pedestrians will cross the carriageway, which swung in to.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

The learner must master guide-skills by right-hander listed under introductory exercises en route, section 2.4» right turn on corners ' and section 2.2.3» use of mirrors «, as well as the following:




5) in the drive against cross-orient themselves thoroughly through the panes and mirrors (possibly camera) after cyclists and moped riders, who also is on the way towards the intersection.

6) continue to keep informed through the panes and mirrors (possibly camera) about any cyclists and moped riders to the right of the bus, while holding a red light.

7) orient themselves thoroughly about traffic and other obstacles, too, in the drive for the go-ahead.

8) Possibly stop before crossing of bikers ' course in order to give themselves extra time for orientation.

9) judge the space situation for the manøvrens execution, including the carriageway width and traffic density in view of the possible use of the adjacent lane or overrun by vejmidte on the way, we come from or to swing in to.

10) Judge rear kommendes speed, distance and intention.
11) Inform itself about crossing pedestrians and oncoming on the road that swung in to.



7.13.4 manoeuvring skills

The learner must master manoeuvring skills by forward and backward right turn as listed under introductory exercises en route, section 2.4» right turn on corners ' as well as the following:




1) Where right turn is performed by first dragging to the left on the roadway, this maneuver is carried out away from the side road with subsequent hand signals to the right turn.

2) Make right bend with appropriate low-speed and possibly stop before crossing of bikers ' course to give it sufficient time for thorough briefing.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for to category B.

Left turns in cross-

7.14.1 Accidents

The student must have knowledge of the following event in the event of accidents left turn at the crossroads:




1) happens many accidents during left turns at intersections.

2) Every sixth accident happening know that from behind upcoming cars and motorcycles which hit the bus, which puts the speed down or stops in connection with oscillation or starts to swing.

3) Every fourth accident happens because the bus swings to the left in front of an oncoming car to be straight ahead at the intersection.

4) Approximately every third accident takes place by collision with intersecting highway. Here it is in the vast majority of cases the bus who has unqualified giving way. Most counterparties are intersecting cars, but cyclists and moped riders also occurs in some cases.

5) Every fifth accident takes place by collision with pedestrians crossing the carriageway, as the bus swings into.



7.14.2 risk factors

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.14.3 Orienteering skills

The student must master the following orientation skills by left turn in crossroads:




1) orient themselves in the right mirror.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category B

7.14.4 manoeuvring skills

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.2 exercise 2

The exercise includes the following maneuvers:

(The number in parentheses refer to the corresponding section in the curriculum for driver training for category B).

Drive past the stationary vehicles, cutting, etc. (7.6).

Meeting (7.7).

Drive before or after other (7.8).

To stop at a junction (7.11).

Gears in cross-(7.12).

Right turn at the intersection (7.13).

Left turns in cross (7.14).

Drive in the roundabout (7.15).

Main objectives

The pupil must gradually learn the more demanding maneuvers, but at this stage of training under relatively simple and uncomplicated way and road conditions. The exercise be carried out preferably on less busy routes, therefore.

There must, however, an emphasis on the careful execution of all listed guide and maneuver skills also in preparation for the subsequent driving under the more complicated relationship.

Milestones

Drive past the stationary vehicles, cutting, etc.

7.6.1 Accidents

The student must have knowledge of the following circumstances of accidents while driving past the fun and cutting, etc.:




1) some of the accidents are a direct collision with a stationary passenger car or truck usually in the right side of the road.

2) Other counterparts are pedestrians, including children who steps out on the roadway in either the right or left side of the road, e.g. hidden by a fun vehicle.



7.6.2 risk factors

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.6.3 7.6.4 – orientation and manoeuvring skills

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

Meeting

Frontal collisions are the incident type, resulting in the biggest consequences in connection with accidents with buses, and it is therefore important to learn the student to be aware of the possibilities in order to avoid these accidents. The student must learn to be aware and prescient as well as learn how important it is to comply with the speed limit.

7.7.1 Accidents

The student must have knowledge of the following circumstances of meeting accident:




1) happens many accidents in connection with the meeting, often on the narrow, two-lane roads.

2) about half of the accidents happen as a frontal impact with oncoming in the bus lane.

3) About a third of the accidents happen as a frontal impact with oncoming middle on the carriageway or in the modkørendes lane.

4) Counterparties are first and foremost person-and vans.

5) A smaller proportion of accidents happening in connection with a counterparty overtaking.

6) most meeting accidents involving buses happening outside cities and barely a quarter of the smooth lead with snow or ice on the road or in usigtbart weather.



7.7.2 risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk factors at the meeting:




1) relatively large width of the bus, which increases the risk of meeting accident on narrow roads.

2) Bus size, which at higher speed produces strong wind pressure and sheltered in crosswinds, whereby modkørendes management or market is affected.

3) Bus General directional stability under sharper oscillation.

4) Larger buses can only by size and engine noise seem scary.

5) prolonged monotonous drive can cause the attention levels drop.

6) Fatigue, disease, control of appliances, the use of mobile phone/intercom or similar goes beyond awareness level.



7.7.3 Orienteering skills

The student must be able to understand and assess the following risk opportunities by meeting and react hensigtsmæsigt to you:




1) Anticipate the oncoming who have an uncertain or erratic driving, can exceed vejmidten.

2) Narrowed carriageway, bends and hills ahead.

3) weather conditions and particularly smooth or oily lead, which can cause the oncoming or that one even coming over the center of the road.

4) obstacles, including also slowly running and cutting into their own half as well as the width of the road free traffic lane to the left of the obstacle.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.7.4 manoeuvring skills

The student must master the following manoeuvre skills at the meeting:




1) Reduce speed and give the signal and pull so far to the right as possible, if oncoming in critical show comes over in the bus lane. Similarly, if an oncoming during overtaking finds himself in his own lane.

2) If you will be overtaken and can see that there is emerging a danger situation due to oncoming, we must alleviate the danger situation, possibly by braking.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.7.5 legislative provisions, moreover,

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

Drive before or after other

7.8.1 Accidents

The student must have knowledge of the following circumstances of accidents while driving in front of or after the other:




1) happens many accidents by driving in front of or after the other.

2) Counterparties are usually personal or vans, but in some cases, trucks or buses and in some cases two-wheeled road users.

3) By a little less than half of the accidents which hit the bus a front car, which has reduced the speed or is stationary (e.g. because the motorist must swing).

4) By the other accidents off the road the bus from behind.

5) part accidents involving buses happening in usigtbart weather or bad conduct.

6) Some accidents could have been avoided if the driver had maintained the necessary awareness level.



7.8.2 risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk factors when running in front of or after the other:




1) Bus blind spots to the rear makes it difficult for the driver to see behind driving, there is close.

2) Bus inferior braking ability gives the risk of collision of vehicle in front, which suddenly reduces speed or brakes.

3) prolonged monotonous drive can cause the attention levels drop.



7.8.3 Orienteering skills

The student must be able to understand and assess the following risk opportunities by driving in front of or after the other and react appropriately to them:




1) Behind driving, which is close to, because they are waiting for the fast option or undoes started overtaking and pulls in behind the bus again.

2) Overtaking opportunity ahead for behind the running (e.g. cessation of bends or crossing of the hilltop) after driving over a longer stretch without the fast option.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.8.4 manoeuvring skills

The student must master the following maneuver-skills by driving in front of or after the other:




1) in good time to prepare for maneuvers and by hand signals or changing the speed and location of clarify the intent, because behind the running may be close to, or hidden in the blind spots.

2) Help behind running for overtaking, when conditions permit, by pulling as far to the right as possible and, where appropriate, reduce the speed, but refrain from waving behind propelled forward.

3) Keep sufficient safety distance to the front. This will in most cases be equivalent to 2-3 sec. time distance in normally lead depending on the driver's routine and road conditions.
4) Increase the distance to the vehicle in front, if road and traffic conditions, weather or centuries makes it necessary.

5) outside closer developed area, to be kept as much distance to the front, the rear coming that will overtake, have enough space to pull in front of.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

Forward drive against cross-

7.11.1 Accidents

Accidents relating to stop at intersections are stated separately, but not during maneuvers in the intersection, where the batch is included, such as gears and oscillation in the cross.

7.11.2 risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk factors in the drive against cross:




1) Lack respect to bus inferior braking ability in the choice of speed.

2) For high speed to stop at lysreguleret intersection, especially taking into account the location of passenger and baggage/cargo.



7.11.3-7.11.4 orientation and manoeuvring skills

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

Gears in cross-

7.12.1 Accidents

The student must have knowledge of the following event in the event of accidents gears in crossroads:




1) That happen very many accidents during the gears in the intersection, which is the most common type of accident for buses.

2) a little over a third of the accidents happening in a lysreguleret cross, and at each fifth of these accidents is the bus run over for a red light.

3) accidents in intersections without traffic lights have the defendant had rights of way in the majority of cases and the driver of the bus in 1/6 of the cases.

4) Counterparties are first and foremost person-and vans, but also many cyclists and moped riders and part crossing pedestrians.

5) most counterparts are ligeudkørende in almost equal number of from the right or left side. Here are the drivers of the buses most inclined to override the obligation to give way for those coming from the right side.

6) Other counterparts are oncoming, especially cars that swings to the left without holding the back of the bus. These accidents often happen for buses in lysregulerede cross.



7.12.2 risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk factors by gears in crossroads:




1) tend to run on own strength against weaker counterparts and therefore fail to fulfil own giving way.

2) Bus length and poor acceleration ability, which in the context of error assessment of cross-Tinah speed increases the risk of collision, especially in the drive after stopping.

3) For high speed and too little attention to side roads when driving in the cross-roads where the page has giving way.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.12.3-7.12.4 guidance and maneuvering skills

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

Right turn in cross-

Refer to Lab 1.

Left turns in cross-

Refer to Lab 1.

Drive in roundabout

7.15.1 Accidents

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.15.2 risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk factors when driving in roundabout:




1) Error evaluation of round the conception and thus the required oscillation sharpness, thus the access speed is often chosen for high.

2) For high speed by the driveway at the roundabout leads to a high risk of rollover, and in smooth and oily lead high risk of skidding with the subsequent roll-over.

3) For high speed in the roundabout leads to enhanced heeling with increased risk of rollover.

4) For high speed or premature acceleration at exit of the roundabout also leads to increased risk of rollover.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.15.3 Orienteering skills

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.15.4 manoeuvring skills

The student must master the following manoeuvre skills at driving in roundabout:




1) Adapt the speed through the roundabout in relation to the structure and location of bus passengers and baggage/cargo.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.3 exercise 3 (Drive outside closer developed area)

The exercise includes in particular the following maneuvers:

(The number in parentheses refer to the corresponding section in the curriculum for driver training for category B).

Location under gears (7.2).

Speed gears (7.3).

Drive past the stationary vehicles, cutting, etc. (7.6).

Meeting (7.7).

Drive before or after other (7.8).

Overtaking (7.9).

Main objectives

The student must learn targeted, smooth ride over longer stretches with necessary adaptation of location and speed after changing traffic and road conditions.

The maneuvers are mainly repetition from exercise 1 and 2, but must now be implemented under more demanding conditions, which makes it possible to teach the pupil in all manøvrernes Milestones in addition to pupil learn to overtake the other running as far as possible, as well as learn how to react appropriately when the pupil even overtaken.

Milestones

Location under gears

Refer to Lab 1.

Speed gears

Please refer to the exercise 1, supplemented by the following:

7.3.2 risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk factors when driving in sharper turns:




1) A bus with high body have increased risk of tipping over.



7.3.3 Orienteering skills

The student must be able to understand and assess the following risk opportunities by selecting speed and react appropriately to them:




1) Bends or trays to reduce the list and hide any obstacles, including slower running and cutting.

2) Sharp bends that require reduced speed because of the grip or the vehicle structure.



The student must master the following orientation skills with a view to the choice of speed:




3) see from behind coming, especially heavy goods vehicles, which accelerates immediately prior to drive uphill.

4) see behind driving, possibly accelerating downhill.

5) judge the bakkers steepness for proper time to gear shift or the use of any engine braking or assist brake (retarder).

6) Judge vejsvings sharpness for correct choice of speed and gear.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.3.4 manoeuvring skills

The student must master the following maneuver-skills in order to adapt the speed, as appropriate:




1) Choose the proper time to switch to a lower gear when driving uphill.

2) selecting the appropriate gear at the proper time to drive downhill, depending on the steepness and length of the Hill, and the use of any engine braking or auxiliary brake (retarder).

3) refrain from persistent braking downhill over a longer stretch.

4) Select the appropriate speed and gear at correct time before bends, depending svingets sharpness and possible location of passenger and baggage/cargo.

5) Make soft ratbetjening while driving through bends in the interests of passengers, etc.

6) Accelerate easily by the end of the turn, while the bus righted.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

Drive past the stationary vehicles, cutting, etc.

Meeting and

Drive before or after other

Reference is made to exercise 2.

Overtaking

7.9.1 Accidents

The student must have knowledge of the following circumstances of accidents during overtaking:




1) When there are accidents with buses during overtaking is the opposing party, in most cases, the vehicle-usually a cyclist overtook or moped is running.

2) Only in a few cases, we are talking about oncoming as counterparties.

3) most accidents with over halende buses within closer developed area. The counterparties are predominantly cars completely.



7.9.2 risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk factors by overtaking:




1 Bus size), which at higher speed produces strong wind pressure to the rear or sheltered in crosswind, thus overtook cyclists and knallertkøreres management or market is affected.

2) Error evaluation of bus width at the risk of getting too close to overtaking cyclists and moped riders.

3) Error evaluation of bus length with the risk of pulling too early in front of the cyclists and moped riders, especially overtook.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.9.3 Orienteering skills

The student must be able to recognize and specify the importance of the following road signs:









1)





' Overtaking prohibited ' (C 51) prohibits the overtaking of vehicles other than two-wheeled bicycles and two-wheeled small mopeds. The ban can be reduced by SubPanel that it applies only to specific vehicles, e.g. bus and bus with trailer.







2)





» Termination of overtaking ' (C 53).









In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.9.4-codec.Pack.v7.9.5 manoeuvring skills and legal provisions, moreover,

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).
On the teaching of appropriate response, when you as a driver of bus even overtaken refer to exercise 2, section 7.8» Drive in front of or after the other '.

7.4 Exercise 4

The exercise includes:

(The number in parentheses refer to the corresponding section in the curriculum for driver training for category B).

Drive on the highway (7.16).

Main objectives

The student must learn the more intensive guidance and manoeuvring skill, which is necessary because of the special design and highway traffic weighed engine special character.

Drive on the highway is mandatory where a double lesson allows drive both forward and back to the highway and drive on the highway. In other cases, the instructor tells together with eleven thoroughly examine the possibilities to get on the highway by extended class hours or by forming teams with several students, who take turns to run.

Where conditions completely exclude driving on highways, the instructor tells a special obligation to carry out exercises in joining with the merge to a larger road, where higher speed is permitted.

Milestones

Drive on Highway

7.16.1 Accidents

The student must have knowledge of the following circumstances of accidents on the Highway:




1) most accidents with buses on the highway is done by obtaining the front cars or by bus is impacted by and obtained from behind coming.

2) happens also accidents involving buses changing lanes or merging, including for-and exit to Highway.

3) More rare is the single car accidents and accidents associated with overtaking, but when they happen, their scope is often very seriously.



7.16.2 risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk factors when driving on the motorway:




1) difficulty in judging the distance to the other running as well as judge one's own and others ' speed, especially at the gathering.

2) difficulties in orientation, in particular because of the blind spots.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.16.3-7.16.4 orientation and manoeuvring skills

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.16.5 legislative provisions, moreover,

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




1) On highways with three or more lanes in the same direction of traffic may buses with a maximum permissible weight exceeding 3.5 tonnes and combination of vehicles whose length exceeds 7 m, only run in one of the two lanes on the far right.




 



The rule does not apply at the fork in the road or by preparation of left turn by motorway.










2) On Highway buses must with the registration-only trailers and buses with a maximum authorized weight exceeding 3.5 tonnes maximum driving 80 km/h.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.5 exercise 5

The exercise includes the following maneuvers:

(The number in parentheses refer to the corresponding section in the curriculum for driver training for category B).

To stop at a junction (7.11).

Gears in cross-(7.12).

Right turn at the intersection (7.13).

Left turns in cross (7.14).

Drive in the roundabout (7.15).

Drive next to the other (7.17).

Main objectives

The student must learn to perform all manoeuvres at junctions under difficult road conditions as possible and in as many different types of intersections as possible. The exercise should therefore be implemented at some point with dense traffic, so that the pupil will also be taught in sequential driving on roads with multiple lanes in the same direction and if possible in larger roundabouts.

Milestones

Forward drive against cross-

Gears in cross and

Drive in roundabout

Reference is made to exercise 2.

Right turns at intersections and

Left turns in cross-

Refer to Lab 1.

Drive next to the other

7.17.1 Accidents

The student must have knowledge of the following circumstances of accidents while driving next to the other:




1) happens part accidents with buses under the drive next to the other.

2) Counterparties is most commonly medkørende cars, bikes and mopeds that swings to the left in front of the bus at the intersection, or suddenly turns from the right road edge.

3) Other counterparts are especially bicycles and mopeds that draws in towards or ' pinching ' into the bus on the left or right side.



7.17.2-7.17.3-7.17.4 Risk conditions, guidance and Maneuvering skills

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.6 exercise 6

The exercise includes:

(The number in parentheses refer to the corresponding section in the curriculum for driver training for category B).

Stopping and parking (7.18).

Main objectives

The student must learn to perform more demanding parking maneuvers.

The exercise can be carried out in the same place as the initial exercises. On the spot must appropriate marking of parking stalls, etc. could be carried out. The practice continued thereafter under normal road conditions in the industrial district, at berth or in urban areas, with the possibility of forward and backward drive along narrow approaches, through ports, or similar. The student must learn that the parked buses can be a contributory cause of the accident.

Milestones

Stopping and parking

7.18.1-7.18.2 Accidents and risk factors

The student must have knowledge of the following risk factors by stopping and parking:




1) Indiscriminately stopping and parking with large buses without sufficient regard for others ' orientation options and security. This is especially true in the dark and usigtbart weather.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.18.3 Orienteering skills

The student must master the following orientation skills:




1) Judge on the recommended bus will pose any risk or significant impediment to the rest of the traffic.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.18.4 Maneuver-skills

The student must master the following skills by stopping and parking:




1) Park by forwards and backwards driveway in parking lot approximately 3.5-4 m wide, perpendicular to the direction of travel.

2) Park at the driveway to the road edge in ' backwards car pocket ' (ca. 20 m long). The right pair of wheels must be approx. 30 cm from the roadside.

3) Perform reverse parking against selected targets, as set out in section 2.5» reversing with målbremsning '.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.18.5 legal provisions, moreover,

The student must be able to determine the contents of the following legal provisions:




1) Buses with a maximum authorized mass exceeding 3500 kg shall not stop or Park on the sidewalk.

2) Opening of car doors, on-or egress and on-or reading must take place in such a way that there is no danger or undue inconvenience.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.7 exercise 7

The exercise includes:

(The number in parentheses refer to the corresponding section in the curriculum for driver training for category B).

Driving in the dark and in the lamp ignition time, incidentally (7.19).

Driving in the tunnel (7.20).

Main objectives

The student must learn to perform the previously learned maneuvers during the more difficult orientation relationship that occurs in the dark, especially with an emphasis on exercise 3 and 5. The exercise must be scheduled for the period from 1 hour after sunset to one hour before sunrise and carried out on lines inside and outside urban areas with good and less good lighting as well as on very dark roads with bends and hills.

Milestones

Driving in the dark and in the lamp ignition time, moreover,

7.19.1 Accidents

The student must have knowledge of the following circumstances of accidents while driving in the dark:




1) Approximately every 5. accident involving buses happening in dark, Dark accidents with buses is usually done on roads with street lighting.

2) most counterparties are cars, but also in many cases cyclists, moped riders and pedestrians.



7.19.2 risk factors

Repetition after learning plan for category (B).

7.19.3-7.19.4-7.19.5 orientation and manoeuvring skills as well as Förordning incidentally

The student must master the following maneuver skill:




1) Perform backward right turn on the corner, as set out in section 2.4» right turn on corners '.



In addition, repetition after learning plan for category (B).

Driving in tunnel

7.20.2 – 7.20.4 risk factors as well as orientation and manoeuvring skills

Repetition after learning plan for category b. Annex 10

8. specific RISK FACTORS in traffic

Not taught in special risk factors, but refers to repetition for learning plan for category b. Annex 11

9. MANEUVERS on the TECHNICAL INSTALLATIONS

The purpose of education is to give the student a such a knowledge of some basic physical matters relating to driving by bus, that it helps the student to understand the importance of adapting the speed, steering and braking, as appropriate.
Teaching has also designed to give the student some skill in mastering the bus under moderate speed in certain critical situations. There must therefore be carried out in the shortest possible stopping distance, braking and evasive maneuvers on the road with high-and low-adhesion surface and straightening of the bus after slipping.

The exercises does not aim to encourage students to run faster or less gently than they otherwise would have done, but on the contrary, give them insight in the speed's crucial for whether an avoidance manoeuvre may be carried out. Students will also gain insight into the shuttle's reaction in critical situations, so that the panic reactions can be avoided.

The order of the exercises should follow this paragraph split. The exercises on the regular way should be carried out before the exercises on the slippery road to learn how much speed on smooth road to be reduced, for that one can safely perform them the same maneuver as on regular road. If appropriate, several of the exercises on the plain path before they carried out similar exercises conducted on slippery road.

Each practice precise content are laid down in the interim.

The individual exercises are considered learned satisfactorily when they can be performed with the degree of precision, as shown by delmåls descriptions. The student must complete at least 4 flying lessons á at least 45 minutes duration in maneuvers on the technical installations. In addition to the running time must be devoted time to instruction for the individual exercises. The overall course experience will take at least 4 hours. The pupil must previously have completed the teaching on the technical conditions in the theory room.

The instructor tells may not be responsible for 6 buses at the same time. During the exercises, as well as to be the instructor tells-and exit to these, could monitor the students properly. Students must not return journey complete the exercises.

Requirements for driving technical facilities

The driving technical facilities must be licensed. On the approval and arrangement of the driving technical facilities reference is made to the licence notice with relevant supporting documents.

On a run the technical plant must be placed on the lists of the students who have received driving lessons in the exercises described in section 9. The lists shall contain information on:




1) The teaching run teacher's name and address.

2) student's name and address.

3) Date and time (from and to) for teaching.




 



The lists shall be kept for at least 3 years and must be presented at the request of the police.







Speed

Exercises on the technical plant must – for the sake of students ' rings routine – as a general rule, not be executed at higher speed than 50 km/h Some of the braking exercises in section 9.2 can be carried out at speeds up to 60 km/h.

9.1 Grip and loading

Main objectives

The student must learn to grip necessary to carry out any manoeuvre and that the grip change over centuries. By loading and especially by wrong loading of the bus, improper tire pressure, worn tread pattern and defective shock absorbers changed the grip and control properties as well.

The student will also learn that the speed and operation of the accelerator and the brake must be adapted to the road mode and down carefully.

Milestones

9.1.1 Vejgrebets significance

The pupil should revise some of the milestones in ' Road surface type and mode ' in section 5.2.3 of the curriculum for driver training for category B and gain insights into the following conditions:




1) Grip occurs partly by frictional resistance (friction) between the tires and the road, and partly by the fact that the tires grabs down in and gets a hold of bumps in the road surface.

2) engine power, braking power and control movements can be exploited only through the grip, which is a condition for any manoeuvre (acceleration, braking and steering).

3) Grip is reduced significantly in wet and oily lead and especially in snow, sand and on slippery road, where the accelerator, clutch, brake, and steering wheel, therefore, must be operated with great caution, and the speed is kept appropriately low.



9.1.2 Loading, tire pressure, etc.

The pupil must revise milestones in section 3.1.2» Control Properties ' and location of goods, as set out in section 6.2.5 ' cargo ', and gain insights into the following conditions:




1) Heavy load placed behind the bus rear axle increases pressure on the rear wheels, while pressure on the front wheels is facilitated. It may mean that the bus can get a strong trend and overload-by special heavy cargo-grip can be reduced so much, that the possibility of management is reduced.



The student must be familiar with the following conditions:




2) Incorrect loading of the bus provides a substantial change in CG position. Especially at the wrong location of the goods allows increased risk of rollover.

3) Both too high and too low tire pressure gives bad contact between the tires and the road, thereby reducing the grip deteriorates and bus control properties can be changed significantly.

4) Worn tread pattern reduces the grip in the wet. When driving in the rain or through water puddles, strongly can cause akvaplaning.



In all these circumstances it is essential that the speed is kept appropriately low. This is particularly important if more of these conditions are true at the same time.

9.2 Speed, centrifugal force, braking distance and vejgrebets utilization

Main objectives

The student must learn that there is a certain correlation between the speed, reduced energy and stopping distance, and braking distance also depends on braking force, vejgrebets size, road gradient and possible strong winds.

The student will also learn about the importance of centrifugal force when driving in bends and learn that the speed must be reduced on slippery road compared to ordinary road.

Milestones

9.2.1 Motion energy and speed

The student must be familiar with the following conditions:




1) A bus that is put in motion, thereby reduced energy, which means that it can continue to run a piece, even after the connection between the motor and the wheel is broken.

2) Motion energy size depends on the weight and speed. By doubling the weight is doubled its kinetic energy, while doubling speed quadruples its kinetic energy.

3) with the help of the brakes can you shorten it some way, the bus can run only by means of kinetic energy.

4) kinetic energy is transformed into heat in the brakes when braking. Whereas kinetic energy by collision is converted to the detriment of the person and the vehicle. Damage increases significantly when the speed is increased.



9.2.2 Centrifugal force

The student must be familiar with the following conditions:




1) A bus travelling through a turn or make an evasive action, is affected by a force that works across the vehicle and which will seek to ' pull ' the bus ' out of the bend (curve) '. This force is called the centrifugal force.

2) There is such a correlation between the speed and centrifugal force, that a doubling of speed gives a quadrupling of centrifugal force.

3) when driving in curves will halve the curve radius double centrifugal force, whereas doubling the radius of curvature will halve the centrifugal force.

4) These conditions are of great importance, especially when running with high buses. When driving in curves with too high speed with such vehicles there will be risk for rollover or skid.



9.2.3 braking distance

The student must be familiar with the following conditions:




1) stopping distance is the piece of road, the bus runs from the moment the brake pedal is activated, and until the bus stops. (Transmission term is thus included).

2) stopping distance depends on the speed at which a doubling of speed means a quadrupling of stopping distance. (Transmission term is not included).

3) stopping distance depends on, among other things, of how strongly you brakes, IE. pedal pressure, or how far you will enter the brake pedal down.

4) at a speed of 60 km/h on fx horizontal plain road is the stopping distance of a bus:





a) 50-60 m by a soft braking or

(b)) 30-40 metres by a hard braking (without wheel blockade).





5) stopping distance will almost be doubled by relatively small increases in speed, e.g.





(a)) from approximately 25 to 35 km/h and

(b)) from approximately 35 to 50 km/h.





6) braking distance also depends on vejgrebets size (or ' down '), and to maintain a braking distance of approx. 35 m as at 60 km/h on a horizontal plain road without blocking the wheels, you should reduce speed to:





a) approx. 50 km/h on wet asphalt or gravel,

b) ca. 30 km/h on real snow, and

c) approximately 20 km/h on the icy road.





7) stopping distance will be increased when driving downhill. It may also be increased/decreased in heavy with-or headwind.

8) If the service braking system is of lawful condition must the stopping distance by 30 km/h maximum 10 metres of a regular bus.

9) If parking brake is in lawful status, should the stopping distance by 30 km/h not exceed 20 m.



The student must know about the following conditions gain experience on exercises ordinary way:




10) Make a pretty soft braking at a speed of about 60 km/h, equivalent to a braking distance of approx. 50 m.
11) Make a pretty heavy slowdown at a speed of about 60 km/h, equivalent to a stopping distance of approximately 30 metres.

12) Make a very hard braking at a speed of about 60 km/h, equivalent to pure stopping distance of approximately 25 m.



9.2.4 Vejgrebets utilization

The student must be familiar with the following conditions:




1) Braking on slippery road due to the diminished grip must be performed with light pressure on the brake pedal in order to avoid blocked wheels (i.e. wheels that do not rotate).

2) Braking with blocked wheels increases the stopping distance in relation to the wheel kept in appropriate rotation.

3) by braking with a bus without anti-lock brakes is the driver that you want to adjust the pressure on the brake pedal, so the wheels are kept in rotation and thus still slows optimally.

4) On buses with the ABS brakes to brake pedal violated all the way down and hold to achieve maximum braking.

5) by braking with a bus with ABS brakes ABS brake system ensures that the wheels are kept in rotation and is not blocking. When the ABS braking system regulates, may be susceptible to vibrations. This is normal and means that the system is in function. Regardless of the vibrations, the pressure on the brake pedal will be maintained as long as braking is desired.

6) Sharp ratdrejning on slippery road causes the bus does not follow the wheel's movement due to the reduced grip on the road or for high speed to the desired slant.

7) Heavy braking or acceleration during oscillation on slippery road gives a high risk that the bus cannot be kept on track through the bend because of the reduced grip on the road or the high speed (the same risk can be present on plain road).

8) Braking with one pair of wheels on the regular way and the second pair of wheels on slippery road causes strong uneven contraction of the bus. Even by buses with the ABS braking system may appear lopsided draw.

9) use of engine braking, retarderbremse or deleveraging on smooth road is extremely risky. Use of these forms of braking can cause skidding due to blocked the rear wheel.

10) starting on slippery road (especially tray) can be difficult with large buses, especially if the bus is equipped with double rear axle (bogie), which only draws on the one.

11) use of installed and antispinregulering (ASR).

12) driving uphill on slippery road, should as far as possible be made without changing gears and thus, to stopping can be avoided. Under possible gear changes to clutch and accelerator operated with caution, so avoid wheel spin.



The student must achieve proficiency in following exercise at regular way:




13) Brake by stepwise increasing speeds up to 60 km/h and by adapting the pressure on the brake pedal, so the stopping distance will be the shortest possible without wheels blockade and skid.



The exercise must be carried out with or without ABS brake system in operation.

The student must achieve proficiency in the following exercise on slippery road:




14) Brake in the shortest distance by stepwise increasing speed up to about 50 km/h.

15) Adjust the speed so that the pupil even scores, what it should be reduced to a minimum, in order to curb the length of ca. 30 m-which was achieved on common road at approximately 50 km/h-can be maintained.



The exercise must be carried out with or without ABS brake system in operation.




16) put in the time on slippery road without wheel spin or skid.

17) Possibly put in the time on slippery slope with an increase of 5-8% with no wheel spin and skid.

18) Possibly make gear changes up the slippery slope with no wheel spin and skid, including applying any differential lock correctly.



The exercise must be carried out with or without the ASR system in operation.

The student must know about the following conditions gain experience on the labs, plain/smooth road:




19) Brake by stepwise increasing speeds (up to 50 km/h) with the one pair of wheels on the regular way and the second pair of wheels on slippery road, by adjusting the pressure on the brake pedal, so braking can be achieved without skidding.



The exercise must be carried out with or without ABS brake system in operation.

9.3 obstacles on the road

Main objectives

The student must learn to respond true face of sudden obstacles on the road, where stopping alone cannot be reached, partly by steering around obstacles, and partly by braking and steering. The student will also learn how much the speed must be reduced on slippery road compared to ordinary road. When driving with the bus without ABS, it must be avoided to steer and brake at the same time.

Milestones

9.3.1 Slalom

The learner needs to operate the bus correctly and achieve any skill in the following maneuver at the regular way:




1) Run forwards slalom by suitable high speed (step by step growing 30-40 km/h, depending on the pupil's abilities) between 5-7 marker cones with 15-20 metre intervals. The impact of the bus (thrust) should be as small as possible and control must be carried out in such a way that the bus falls down between each turn.



9.3.2 Double Dodge maneuver without braking

The learner needs to operate the bus correctly and achieve any skill in the following manoeuvres on the regular way:




1) Make fast track switching by means of appropriate high speed (40-50 km/h depending on the pupil's abilities) in order to avoid collision with marked obstacle, and then quickly switch to the original track, when the obstacle is passed.



The learner needs to operate the bus correctly and achieve any skill in the following maneuvers on slippery road:




2) Make fast track switching by means of appropriate high speed to avoid collision with marked obstacle, and then quickly switch to the original track, when the obstacle is passed. The pupil must themselves judge what speed must be reduced to a minimum in order to exercise can be carried out safely.



Practice the layout must be the same as in the ordinary way.

9.3.3 Combined braking and evasive action

The learner needs to operate the bus correctly and achieve any skill in the following manoeuvres on the regular way:




1) Braking without wheel blockade by suitable high speed (40-50 km/h depending on the pupil's abilities) before a selected obstacle, which is so close, that stopping is not possible, then release the brake pedal, steer past the obstacle and then slow to a halt.



The exercise must be carried out with or without ABS brake system in operation.

The learner needs to operate the bus correctly and achieve any skill in the following maneuvers on slippery road:




2) Braking without wheel blockade by adapting the speed before a selected obstacle, which is so close, that stopping is not possible, then release the brake pedal, steer past the obstacle and then slow to a halt. The pupil must themselves judge what speed must be reduced to a minimum in order to exercise can be carried out safely.



Practice the layout must be the same as in the ordinary way.

The exercise must be carried out with or without ABS brake system in operation.

9.4 Recovery of grip after skidding

Main objectives

The student must learn to respond true to regain grip and get the bus on course after a skid on slippery road.

Milestones

9.4.1 Drive in curve

The pupil shall exercise the following manoeuvres gain experience when driving in cornering on slippery road:




1) Learn the rate's significance when driving in bends of differing radii.



9.4.2 Bagh's-skid

The learner needs to operate the bus correctly and achieve any skill in the following manoeuvres at rear-wheel skid on slippery road:




1) Immediate replace clutch pedal in bottom and keep the trodden under the entire alignment.

2) never touch either brake or accelerator because it only aggravates the udskridningen.

3) turn the steering wheel in the original direction,-IE. to the same page, as the bus rear dislocating.

4) when the bus then directed up, turn the steering wheel at the same time back toward the straight-ahead position, otherwise cracks a new skid to the opposite side.

5) When the grip is recycled, and the bus on the new one is on the right course, lifted the clutch slowly and provides a little gas.



9.4.3 front-wheel-skid

The learner needs to operate the bus correctly and achieve any skill in the following maneuvers if the bus does not follow the wheel's movement during cornering or driving through a turn on slippery road:




1 Turn the wheel against ligeudstilling).

2) Replace clutch pedal in bottom and keep the trodden under the entire alignment.

3) When the grip is recovered, continued fluctuation or batch job through the bend in as flat an arc as possible.

4) never touch either the brake or accelerator because it only aggravates the udskridningen.



9.4.4 Manøvrernes implementation

On ordinary straight course must be practised:

9.2.3 braking distance. Indøvelse of brake længdens dependence of opbremsningens strength of ordinary road.

9.2.4 Vejgrebets exploitation. Braking on the regular way without wheels blockade and with the shortest possible stopping distance.

9.3.1 Slalom. Correct ratbetjening/management.

9.3.2 Double evasive action. Fast track switching at regular road and without braking.

9.3.3 Combined braking and evasive action. Braking on the regular way without wheels blockade and then steering past the obstacle.

On smooth straight course must be practised:

9.2.4 Vejgrebets exploitation. Starting without wheel spin or skid, braking on plain and smooth road and braking with a page on plain road and a page on slippery road.
Possible starting and shifting on slippery Hill.

9.3.2 Double evasive action. Fast track switching on slippery road and without braking.

9.3.3 Combined braking and evasive action. Braking on slippery road without wheels blockade and then steering past the obstacle.

9.4.2 rear wheel skid. Straightening and recover from the effects of the grip.

In smooth transfer curve must be practised:

9.2.4 Vejgrebets exploitation. Braking or acceleration as well as running through the basket with the right price.

9.4.1 Drive in baskets. The rate's significance when driving in curves with different radius.

9.4.2 rear wheel skid. Straightening and recover from the effects of the grip.

9.4.3 front-wheel skid. Straightening and recover from the effects of the grip.
Annex 12

10. PREPARATION for DRIVING TEST

The purpose of education is to give the student knowledge about conditions in order to prepare for the driving test and obtain driving licences for categories D and to make the student familiar with the main legal provisions on driving licences.

Teaching has also intended to inform the student about the demands made by the driving test, and through evaluative tests in driving school give learners the opportunity to acquire experience on the conditions and procedures in the course of implementation of the theoretical and practical part of the test.

10.1 Conditions for obtaining a driving licence

Main objectives

The student must be informed about the most important legal provisions concerning driving instruction, application for a driver's license with the appropriate certificates, etc. as well as about what leads the Court to driving licence category D includes.

Milestones

10.1.1 driving instruction

The student must have knowledge of the following legal provisions:




1) If you have not previously held a driving licence for category D before the driving test, you must receive training in an approved driving instructor to category D.

2) teaching for category D shall only commence when the student has acquired a driving licence for category b.

3) teaching must be in accordance with the learning plan for category D and include both the theoretical and practical curriculum.

4) to be in driving education used a lesson plan. The lesson plan must be drawn up in two copies, one of which shall be given to the student in accordance with the provisions in the licence notice. The lesson plan shall among other things are divided into lessons, respectively, in theory local (theoretical subjects) and in practical driving instruction (practice). After the end of each lesson, driving instructor and driver's pupil with their signatures in the schoolmaster's copy of the lesson plan confirm the implementation of the lesson.

5) During practice at regular way should an approved driving instructor to be in the bus and take a seat next to the pupil. The instructor tells deemed to be the driver of the bus. On the technical plant must be alone in the bus during the student run the schoolmaster's monitoring from the outside.

6) learning plan with accompanying teacher's Guide can be found on the national police force's website (www.politi.dk) and www.retsinfo.dk.



10.1.2 Setting for driving test

The student must have knowledge of the following legal provisions:




1) driving licences shall be issued by the police after passing the driving test.

2) driving test shall be reported to the police examiner. For military personnel and for personnel at Emergency preparedness must undergo a driving test for special run judges.

3) Option to driving test is done by completing and signing an approved application form and mail it to the municipality.

4) When teaching is completed, the instructor tells with his signature on the application form to confirm that the applicant has received training in accordance with the curriculum.

5) application form must be accompanied by:





a) medical certificate with information about applicant's health and State of health.

b) health card or similar proof of social security number.

(c)) look alike photo (portrait with no headgear) size 35 x 45 mm and without stamps, but with a doctor's endorsement on the back.







10.1.3 licence categories and entitlements

The student must have knowledge of that driving licence category D gives the right to the following vehicles:




1) passenger cars with more than eight seats, excluding the driver's seat (great car).

2) large passenger car coupled with a trailer with a maximum authorized weight exceeding 750 kg.

3) articulated bus.



The student must also have knowledge of that driving licences for categories D can only be issued to a person who is at least 21 years old.

10.2 Run sample implementation

Main objectives

The student must be informed of the applicable guidelines for running the test content and implementation and by the ex-ante evaluation tests in the run the school gain experience in test situation conditions.

Milestones

10.2.1 requirement for driving test

The student must have knowledge of the following legal provisions:




1) driving test the driving examiner must judge whether applicants have acquired the knowledge and skills that are determined by the description of milestones in the curriculum for that licence categories.

2) driving test shall be divided into a theory test and a practical test. Theory test must be passed before moving up to the practical test.

3) Applicants must know the theory test and the practical test bring the application for driving license and run the schoolmaster's copy of the lesson plan.

4) Applicants can not submit a driving test unless the driver training has been conducted in accordance with the provisions of the licence notice. Theory test can be sat at first, when the pupil has received training in teaching plan 1. title up to and including 8. section, as well as in the relevant sections from the teaching plan 10. section. The practical test may be presented when the learner has received instruction in all sections of the curriculum.



10.2.2 theory test

The student must be familiar with the following guidelines for the theory test and by evaluative tests in driving school have obtained knowledge of test conditions:




1) Test usually has a duration of approximately half an hour.

2) Sample is written and implemented upon presentation of a randomly selected series among national police approved lysbilledsæt with spoken questions and corresponding check form for reply.

3) Applicants who, because of special circumstances, there should be documented, cannot take an usual written examination, may be referred to a special test, where the qualified e.g. Narrator questions or stops the tape recorder between each question. Slide series and check forms shall also be used during special test. Dyslexia can not justify a special test.

4) the enclosure is closed at the specified meeting time. Applicants who meets too late and after the test has begun, can not get access to the enclosure and must schedule new trial against payment.

5) before the test will be advised on the implementation and test applicants conditions, including how the check form must be filled out, and it made abundantly clear that the use of assistive devices is not allowed.

6) during the test have only driving examiner and the applicants access to the enclosure.

7) at the theory test aspirant must bring:





(a) duly filled out the application in condition.)

(b) the Special identification):









 

 



in)





Any previously issued driving licences (Community model (credit card-type)), or





 

 



(ii))





Valid passport, or





 

 



(iii))





the original baptismal or birth certificate names, as well as photo identification.





 

 



(iv))





If the social security number or date of birth and place of birth is not clear from the passport or driving licence must also be presented a paper credential issued by a public authority, of which social security number or name and birth place is clear.





 

 



v)





If there are changed its name, and this name does not appear in the above mentioned documents, should the name change be documented upon presentation of a marriage certificate, name certificate or documentation for review to marriage authority or the population register.





 



(c))





Run the schoolmaster's copy of the lesson plan in the duly completed condition.












8) Sample is assessed in accordance with the national police force's paper.

9) the result of sample must be notified immediately after the test rating. Applicants must be informed which items in the curriculum that is incorrectly answered.



10.2.3 the practical test

The student must be familiar with the following guidelines for the practical test and by evaluative tests in driving school have obtained knowledge of test conditions:




1) The run time devoted to the assessment of the applicant's behaviour on the road must not be less than 45 minutes by the practical test for category D.




 
In addition to the run time should be set aside time for verification of the applicant's identity, information on the test course, control of the vehicle's equipment, the evaluation of the test cycle, etc. The probationary period may be extended if necessary and can be interrupted, if the applicant's driving skill is very poor.










2) test drive implemented with the examiner beside the aspirant in an approved school which the applicant must place at the disposal. The instructor tells the can, unless the applicant or the examiner has major objections to it, witness the test. As part of the test site quality assurance of the practical test, a sample can be further qualified by prior orientation of the instructor tells the witness test.

3) during the test shall be deemed to be the applicant as a bus driver with the resulting responsibilities and obligations.

4) Skill in control of bus statutory equipment included as part of the practical test. Under control without the use of tools, the aspirant must examine and adopt a position on whether the parts tested, abide, including could explain how checks are carried out. In addition, the applicant could designate where the specified error may occur, as indicated in the learning plan section.

5) applicants must run after the test expert instructions on route and maneuvers. Instructions be given clearly and in good time to the aspirant can perceive and understand them and reach to prepare and perform the assigned. The examiner looking sample in such a way that applicants are not forced out of abnormal traffic situations or be encouraged to act against traffic rules and safety in General.

6) The maneuvers, which is rehearsed in the introductory exercises on the road and on the technical plant must not know the test is carried out separately, but are included in connection with the normal operation of the vehicle while driving. However, backward drive, including reversing around corners included at random, but can only be required performed with any precision.

7) the examiner must intervene using bus control equipment, if it is necessary for reasons of safety or in order to avoid collision.

8) Individual less serious error may not in itself mean that the sample is judged as not-passed, since the applicant's driving should be assessed as a whole.

the result of the test is to be 9) shall be notified immediately after the end of the test. Applicants who have not passed, must be informed, what skill requirements in the curriculum that is not satisfactorily fulfilled.

10) By the practical test, the aspirant must bring:





(a) the application is completed and signed) condition.

(b)) any previously issued driver's license.

(c) the Special identification):









 

 



in)





Any previously issued driving licences (Community model (credit card-type)), or





 

 



(ii))





Valid passport, or





 

 



(iii))





the original baptismal or birth certificate names, as well as photo identification.





 

 



(iv))





If the social security number or date of birth and place of birth is not clear from the passport or driving licence must also be presented a paper credential issued by a public authority, of which social security number or name and birth place is clear.





 

 



v)





If there are changed its name, and this name does not appear in the above mentioned documents, should the name change be documented upon presentation of a marriage certificate, name certificate or documentation for review to marriage authority or the population register.





 



(d))





Run the schoolmaster's copy of the lesson plan in filled condition.









10.3 Furthermore, statutory provisions on driving licences

Main objectives

The student must be informed about the most important legal provisions relating to driving licences.

Milestones

10.3.1 Running the card's validity

The student must have knowledge of the following legal provisions:




1) driving licence is normally valid until it is filled 50 years, but may in exceptional cases be issued with shorter validity and subject to specified conditions.

2) When the period of validity expires, the licence is renewed for shorter periods of time by applying to the municipality.

3) while driving, one must have the licence with him and, on request, show it to the police.

4) if the card is damaged or lost, you must contact the municipality in order to obtain a new one.



10.3.2 participation and recovery of driving licence

The student must have knowledge of the following legal provisions:




1) If police have reason to believe that a driver can no longer fulfil the conditions for having a driving licence, can the police involve or summon the person concerned to a controlling driving test.

2) Is leading the Court denied, can run the card usually only recovered after passing the controlling driving test. If the controlling driving test must be carried out by a first-time transferee, who previously carried out special driving instruction. The special driving instruction must be carried out in an approved driving instructor and must include at least a number of lessons in theory and in practical driving instruction room (practice).

3) If the right is denied as a result of drunk driving (or before september 1, 2005 for the alcohol drive) must be carried out to a course in alcohol and traffic (A/T course) and passed a controlling driving test.

4) first-time transferees of licences (i.e. holders of driving licences either to category A or category B) will by certain violations of traffic law get a driving ban or an unconditional disqualification. This applies to all who have not yet had the first driving licence for 3 years.

5) driving licence holders will get by certain traffic offences in addition to a fine also a» clip in the driving licence '. For example, if you run over 30% for strong, running out for red, or if children under the age of 15 years are not strapped in the car. 3 clips within 3 years leads to a suspended disqualification. Cut card apply to gross violations of traffic law, which does not in itself entail disqualification, but as exposing others to danger.

6) For first-time transferees of licences is the rules tighter, since driving ban is achieved already after 2 clips within 3 years.

Official notes 1) Ordinance contains provisions implementing Council Directive No. 91/439/EEC on driving licences (Official Journal 1991 L 237, p. 1), as amended, and certain parts of the European Parliament and Council Directive 2006/126/EC of 20. December 2006 on driving licences (the official journal of the European Union 2006 nr. L 403, page 18).