The Additional Protocols I And Ii To The Geneva Conventions Of 12.8. 1949

Original Language Title: o Dodatkových protokolech I a II k Ženevským úmluvám z 12.8. 1949

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Read the untranslated law here: https://portal.gov.cz/app/zakony/download?idBiblio=39171&nr=168~2F1991~20Sb.&ft=txt

169/1991.



The communication from the



the Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs



The Federal Ministry of Foreign Affairs says that the 8 March. June 1977

were in Geneva adopted the additional protocol to the Geneva Conventions of 12.

August 1949 on the protection of victims of international armed conflicts

(Protocol I) and the additional protocol to the Geneva Conventions of 12. August 1949

on the protection of victims of armed conflicts, which have international character

(Protocol II). On behalf of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic have been

The additional protocols signed in Berne on 6. December 1978.



With the additional protocols have expressed their approval of the Federal Assembly of the

The Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the President of the Czechoslovak

the Socialist Republic is ratified. The instruments of ratification have been

deposited with the Swiss Federal Council, depositary of the conventions, on 14 June 2005. February

1990.



The additional protocols entered into force on the basis of articles 95

paragraph. 1 and the decision. 1 day 7. December 1978. For Czech and Slovak

Federative Republic entered into force in accordance with articles 95

paragraph. 2 and the decision. 2 day 14. August 1990.



The Czech translation of additional protocols shall be published at the same time.



The additional protocol



to the Geneva Conventions of 12. August 1949 on the protection of victims of international

armed conflicts (Protocol I)



The High Contracting Parties,



declaring that you urgently want to make peoples live in peace,



Recalling that every State has the obligation, in accordance with the Charter of

The United Nations cut out in their international

the relations of the threat or use of force against the sovereignty, territorial

integrity or political independence of any State, as well as

in any other manner inconsistent with the objectives of the United

of the Nations,



However, having a need to reaffirm and develop the provisions

protecting the victims of armed conflicts and to supplement the measures which are

intended to ensure their more effective application,



Expressing its conviction that no provision of this Protocol, or

The Geneva Conventions of 12. August 1949 shall be construed as if

justify or permit any act of aggression or any other

the use of force inconsistent with the Charter of the United Nations,



Reaffirming also the provisions of the Geneva Conventions, of 12. August 1949 and

This Protocol must be fully applied in all circumstances to all

persons who are protected by these documents, without any

the unfavourable difference based on the nature or origin of the armed

or the causes of conflicts, which claimed or that they

attribute parties in conflict,



have agreed as follows:



Part I



General provisions



Article 1



General principles and scope of application



1. The High Contracting Parties undertake, under all circumstances will be

to maintain this Protocol and ensure its observance.



2. in cases not covered by this Protocol or by other international

the agreement, civilians and kombatanti remain under the protection and in the framework of the

the scope of the principles of international law resulting from the steady

Customs, from the principles of humanity and of the requirements of social conscience.



3. this Protocol, which supplements the Geneva Conventions of 12. August 1949 about

the protection of victims of war, will be applied to the situation referred to in the common

Article 2 of these conventions.



4. the Situations referred to in the preceding paragraph means the armed

conflicts in which peoples are fighting against colonial domination and alien

occupation and against racist regimes, that exercised their right to

self-determination, as enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations and in

Declaration of principles of international law concerning friendly relations and

cooperation among States in accordance with the Charter of the United Nations.



Article 2



The definition of the



For the purposes of this Protocol:



and the Convention) "first", "Second Convention", "third Convention" and "Fourth Convention"

are synonymous with the Geneva Convention for the amelioration of raněnýcha

the sick members of the armed forces in the field of 12. August 1949

The Geneva Convention for the amelioration of the wounded, sick and shipwrecked

the armed forces at sea of 12 August. August 1949 Geneva Convention on

the treatment of prisoners of war of 12 August. August 1949 Geneva Convention on

the protection of civilian persons in time of war of 12 August. August 1949; the term "Convention"

indicates the four Geneva Conventions of 12 August August 1949 on the protection of

victims of war;



(b)) "rules of international law applicable in armed conflict"

are the standards applicable in armed conflict, which

are contained in international agreements, the parties are parties

conflict, and generally recognized principles and standards of international law

applicable in armed conflicts;



(c)) "protective power" is a neutral or other State which is not a party in the

the conflict, which has been appointed by one party in the conflict and other

party in the conflict accepted and that he agreed to perform

the functions prescribed by the conventions and this Protocol for protective power;



(d)) "Substitute" is an organization acting on behalf of the trade powers in the

accordance with article 5.



Article 3



Beginning and end of application



Without prejudice to the provisions which shall be applied at any time:



and the Convention and this Protocol) will be applied from the beginning of any

the situation referred to in article 1 of this Protocol;



(b)), the application of this Protocol, the conventions and ends up on the territory of the parties in conflict

in general the termination of military operations in the occupied territories and in

ending the occupation. An exception is in both cases, those individuals whose

final release, repatriation or resettlement occurs later.

These persons will continue to benefit from the relevant provisions of those

Of the conventions and of this Protocol until their final release,

repatriation or resettlement.



Article 4



The legal position of the parties in conflict



The application of the conventions and of this Protocol, as well as the conclusion of agreements envisaged

These documents, they will not affect the legal position of the parties in the

the conflict. The occupation of the territory or the application of the conventions and of this Protocol will not be

have an effect on the legal status of the territory.



Article 5



The appointment of the protective powers and their substitutes



1. the obligations of the parties in the conflict since the beginning of the conflict between them is

ensure the control and application of the conventions and of this Protocol using the system

protective powers, which includes in particular the appointment and acceptance of these

powers in accordance with the following paragraphs. Protective power will be

have the obligation to defend the interests of the parties in conflict.



2. From the beginning of a situation referred to in article 1, each party to the conflict

appoint without delay a trade power for the purpose of the application of conventions and

This Protocol and without delay, and also for the same purpose permits

the activity of the protective powers, approved by, and with the appointment of

agreed to the opposite side.



3. If the protective power has not been designated or accepted from the beginning

the situation referred to in article 1, the International Committee of the Red Cross, without

prejudice to the right of any other impartial humanitarian organization

proceed similarly, will offer its good offices to the parties in the conflict for

the purpose of the prompt appointment of the protective powers, with which the parties (f)

the conflict agree. For this purpose, among other things, will be able to ask each

He added that a list of at least five States which it considers

acceptable to act on its behalf as a trade power in relation to the

the opposite side, and ask each other side to it with a list of

at least five States which would be adopted as a trade power the second

party. These lists must be sent to the Committee, within two weeks of receipt of the

request. The Committee lists and compares each require the consent of the State whose

name on these lists.



4. If, notwithstanding the above, there will be a trade

power, conflict, the Parties shall, without delay, the menu you will

able to make the International Committee of the Red Cross or any other

the Organization, which offers all guarantees of impartiality and ability,

to act as a substitute, after appropriate consultations with the parties

and taking into account the outcome of these consultations. The activities of such

subject to the consent of the parties in substituta conflict; the parties in conflict

make every effort to facilitate the activity in the performance of substituta

its tasks in accordance with the conventions and this Protocol.



5. in accordance with article 4 does not have an appointment and the adoption of safeguard

powers for the purpose of the application of the conventions and this Protocol shall affect the legal

position of the parties in conflict or of any territory, including the territory of the

-occupied.



6. The maintenance of diplomatic relations between the parties in conflict or

the credentials of a third State protection the interests of some parties and the interests of its

Members in accordance with the standards of international law on diplomatic

relations is not an obstacle to trade the appointment powers of the application

The conventions and this Protocol.



7. any mention of protective powers in this Protocol also indicates

substituta.



Article 6



Qualified staff



1. The High Contracting Parties to pursue even in times of peace to a

the assistance of the national Red Cross (Red Crescent,

Red Lion and Sun) was prepared by qualified personnel, which would

to assist the application of the conventions and of this Protocol, and in particular the activities of the

protective powers.




2. the Recruitment and training of such personnel are within the national jurisdiction.



3. The International Committee of the Red Cross will have for the High Contracting Parties

lists of the persons thus prepared, drafted and to

this purpose shall forward to the High Contracting Parties.



4. the conditions governing the use of such non-State territory will be in the

each case regulated in special agreements between the competent

parties.



Article 7



Meeting



The depositary of this Protocol shall convene at the request of one or more of the high

of the Contracting Parties and, after the consent of the majority of these parties meeting these

The High Contracting Parties in order to discuss the General issues

relating to the application of the conventions and of this Protocol.



Part II



The wounded, sick and shipwrecked men



Section I



General protection



Article 8



Definition of terms



For the purposes of this Protocol:



"the wounded") and "sick" are military or civilian persons for

personal injury, disease or other physical or mental disorders or inability to

in need of medical assistance or care and present any

enemy activity. These concepts also apply to mothers,

babies and other persons that might need immediate

medical advice or care, such as sick people or pregnant women and which

present any enemy activity;



(b)) "Castaways" are military or civilian persons, that are in the

a dangerous situation at sea or in other waters as a result of the disaster,

that hit them, or ship or aircraft which carried, and which

present any hostile activities. These persons, provided that the

continue to present any enemy activity, continue to be treated as

for rescue operations for survivors until, in accordance with the conventions

or this Protocol shall take a different status;



(c)) "medical staff" are persons who are party to the conflict

intended solely for medical purposes, as listed in paragraph (e)), or

to manage the health care units, or to control or manage

of medical units or to the management or administration of health care

means of transport. This determination may be permanent or temporary. This

the term includes:



I) medical staff parties in conflict, military or civilian,

including staff, that is listed in the first and second Convention, and which is

assigned to civil defence organizations;



II) medical personnel of national Red Cross

(Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun), and other national

voluntary organisations duly recognised and authorised party in the

conflict;



III) medical personnel of medical units or medical

the transport referred to in article 9, paragraph 2;



(d)) "spiritual" are military or civilian persons, such as

priests, which is exclusively concerned with spiritual activities and are allocated to:



I) to armed forces of the parties in the conflict; or



II) to medical units or medical transport

resources the parties in conflict; or



(iii)) to medical units or medical transport

the resources referred to in article 9, paragraph 2; or



IV) to civil defense organizations, the parties to the conflict.

Spiritual staff may be assigned permanently or temporarily and is subject to

the relevant provisions referred to in paragraph k);



e) "Medical units" are devices and other units, military or

civilian, organized for medical purposes, to search,

the collection, transportation, diagnosis or treatment and to provide the first

to help the wounded, the sick and victims or to disease prevention. This

the term includes, inter alia, hospitals and other similar units, blood transfusion

the Centre, the Centre and the institutes of medical prevention, medical warehouse

and the medical and pharmaceutical stores of such units. Medical

units may be fixed or mobile, permanent or temporary;



(f)), "Health" is the transport of the wounded, sick, shipwrecked,

medical staff, personnel, medical equipment

and medical consignments protected conventions and this Protocol, after

the ground, water or air;



g) "Medical means of transport" is any shipping

resources, military or civilian, permanent or temporary, designed exclusively

for medical transportation and controlled by the competent authority of the parties a.

conflict;)



h) "Medical vehicles" are ground-based medical resources

transport;



I) "Medical ships and craft" are all medical resources

transport by water;



j) "Medical aircraft" are all means of medical transport

air;



k) "Permanent medical personnel", "permanent medical units" and

"permanent medical transportation resources" are those which are

intended solely for medical purposes on a non-defined period. "The temporary

medical personnel "," temporary medical units "and" temporary

medical transportation resources "are those which are intended

exclusively to medical purposes for a limited period and throughout the

of such period. Unless otherwise specified, the terms "medical

staff "," medical units "and" medical transport

means "shall include both permanent and temporary categories;



l) "Distinguishing character" is a special designation of the Red Cross, the Red

the Crescent or Red Lion and Sun on a white background, if used

for the purposes of protection of medical units and medical transport

resources, or medical and personnel, equipment or

consignments;



m) "Distinguishing signal" is any signaling device intended for

identify solely medical units or medical

transport in accordance with Chapter III of annex I to this

Protocol.



Article 9



Application scope



1. This section, whose provisions aim to improve the fate of the wounded,

sick and shipwrecked, will be applied to all persons

from getting into the situation referred to in article 1, without any negative

the distinction based on race, colour, sex, language, religion or

faith, political or other opinion, national or social origin,

property, ancestry or other status, or on other similar

criteria.



2. the relevant provisions of article 27 and 32 of the first Convention shall apply

on permanent medical units and medical means of transport (with

the exception of the hospital ship, which is covered by article 25 of the second

the Convention) and their staff made available side in the conflict to

humanitarian purposes:



and a neutral or other State), which is not a party to the conflict;



(b)) and voluntary organisations recognised empowered such State;



(c)) the impartial international humanitarian organization.



Article 10



Protection and care



1. all the wounded, sick and shipwrecked men, whether they belong to any party,

will be respected and protected.



2. In all circumstances be treated humanely, and they will be

granted to the greatest extent possible, and as quickly as possible medical care and

the treatment, which requires their status. Among them will be made no

the difference from other than medical reasons.



Article 11



Protection of persons



1. health and physical or mental integrity of persons who are in

can the other side or who are interned, imprisoned, or other

deprived of freedom in a way as a result of the situation referred to in article 1 are not

endangered by any unjustified act or omission. It is therefore

forbidden subject the persons referred to in this article of a medical procedure,

that is not justified by the medical condition of those persons and that is in violation of the

with generally accepted medical standards applicable in similar

medical circumstances to persons who are nationals of, nezbavenými

freedom, the party that such procedure is carried out.



2. it is prohibited to these persons Separately, even with their consent:



physically, a maiming,)



(b)) used for medical or scientific experiments,



c) withdraw them tissues or organs for transplantation, except

those cases, which are in accordance with the conditions laid down in paragraph

1.



3. Exceptions to the prohibition in paragraph 2 c) may be made only in

the case of the blood donation to transfusion or skin for transplant for

provided that the donation is voluntary and is made without any

coercion or pressure, only for medicinal purposes and under the conditions

that are in accordance with generally accepted medical standards, and under the

the supervision of serving both in favour of the donor and the recipient.



4. any intentional act or omission seriously harmful,

physical or mental integrity of the person, which is located in the power of other

than that to which it belongs, and which either violates any of the prohibitions referred to in

paragraph 1 and 2 or fails to comply with the requirements of paragraph 3, it is a serious violation of the

of this Protocol.



5. the persons referred to in paragraph 1 have the right to refuse any surgical

the surgery. In the case of a refusal should be that the medical staff has earned

the written statement signed or acknowledged by the patient.



6. Each party to the conflict will lead to medical records for each donation

blood to blood transfusion or skin for grafting by persons referred to in paragraph


1 if it is responsible for making such a donation. In addition, the

each party to the conflict shall endeavour to keep a record of all medical

procedures carried out on persons who are interned, predominance or

otherwise deprived of liberty as a result of the situation referred to in article 1.

These records will be available at any time for the purpose of trade powers

the inspection.



Article 12



Protection of medical units



1. Medical units will always be respected and protected and do not become

the subject of the attack.



2. paragraph 1 shall be applied to a civilian medical unit for the

provided that the



and) belong to the one of the parties in the conflict;



(b)) are recognised and authorised by the competent authority of one of the parties in

conflict, or



(c)) are authorised in accordance with article 9, paragraph 2, of this Protocol

or with article 27 of the first Convention.



3. the parties in conflict are encouraged to inform each other of

the location of your permanent medical units. Failure to provide this

information does not relieve any party the obligation to respect the provisions of the

of paragraph 1.



4. Under no circumstances, be applied to the health unit

to try to protect his presence military objects before

attacks. If possible, the parties to the conflict shall ensure that

medical units were positioned so that attacks on military installations

do not jeopardize their safety.



Article 13



Interruption of protection of civilian medical units



1. the protection to which civilian medical units to the right, the

interrupted only in the case if they are used outside the framework of their

humanitarian functions of acts which are damaging to the opponent. However, the protection

may be interrupted only when a warning will be issued, which shall specify

where appropriate, a reasonable time limit, and only then, when this warning

will not be obeyed as they stand.



2. for acts harmful to the enemy will not be considered:



and if the staff of the unit will be) armed with light personal weapons

to self-defence or the defence of the wounded and the sick, who are in their

care;



(b)) if the unit will be guarded by a guard or guards unit,

armed escort;



c) if hand guns and ammunition removed the wounded and the sick have not been

still passed to the relevant services and units have been found;



d) if members of the armed forces or other kombatanti

located in the unit for medical reasons.



Article 14



Restrictions in the civilian medical units foreclosures



1. The occupying power has the duty to ensure that they continue to

managed by the medical needs of the civilian population in the occupied

territory.



2. The occupying power cannot therefore take up civilian medical units,

their device, material, or force their staff to other work,

as long as there is a need to provide adequate health-care services

the civilian population and to provide more care for the wounded and the sick,

who are already treated.



3. provided that the general rule referred to in paragraph 2 shall

complied with, the occupying power may take these resources under the following

specific conditions:



and if these products are) necessary for immediate and appropriate

medical treatment of the wounded and sick members of the armed forces of occupation

powers or prisoners of war;



(b)) if the occupation lasts only while such necessity exists;



c) if immediate measures are taken to ensure that they continue to

managed by the medical needs of the civilian population, as well as

the wounded and the sick, who are already treated and who would be forced

affected.



Article 15



Protection of civilian medical and personnel



1. Civilian medical staff will be respected and protected.



2. In an area where civilian medical services are disrupted for a combat

activities will be provided, if necessary, civilian medical

all possible assistance to the staff.



3. The occupying power shall afford civilian medical personnel on

occupied territories every assistance so that it can carry out as much as possible

their humanitarian function. The occupying power may not require this

staff in carrying out their functions, give priority to any person from

other than medical reasons. This staff may be forced to

to perform tasks which are incompatible with its humanitarian mission.



4. Civilian medical personnel will have access to all places where they are

his services must, under the condition that it will comply with the inspection and

security measures, which the party concerned in the conflict can be considered

necessary.



5. Civilian staff will be respected by the spiritual and protected. The provisions of the

Of the conventions and of this Protocol for the protection and identification of the medical

staff also apply to such persons.



Article 16



General protection of persons carrying out health activities



1. Under no circumstances will not be penalized for the execution of any person

health care operations that are in accordance with medical ethics, without

regardless of the circumstances, and the person to whom such a service it provides.



2. the persons carrying out health activities, will not be forced to

perform acts or to carry out work that is not in accordance with the rules

medical ethics or other rules designed for the benefit of the wounded and

patients, or that are not in accordance with the provisions of the conventions or of this

Protocol, or to ensure that they did not perform the tasks that these rules and

the provisions require.



3. None of the people carrying out health activities, will not be forced to

provide to anyone from the other side, or from his own party, with the

except where required by law, any

information about the wounded and sick who are, or have been in her care,

If in its opinion such information could harm these

patients or their families. However, compliance with the provisions of

the compulsory reporting of infectious diseases.



Article 17



The role of the civilian population and auxiliary companies



1. The civilian population shall respect the wounded, sick and shipwrecked,

even though they belong to the opposite side, and not use violence against them.

The civilian population and auxiliary companies such as the national

Society of the Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and

the Sun) will be allowed to and from its initiatives to collect the wounded, sick

and shipwrecked, even in infected areas, or occupied

foster them. No one will be persecuted, prosecuted, convicted or

punished for such humanitarian activities.



2. the parties to a conflict may call on the civilian population and auxiliary

the company referred to in paragraph 1, to collect the wounded, sick and

shipwrecked, foster them, units of the dead and report about

where they are located; those who answer to such an invitation, shall provide the

protection and the necessary resources. If the opposite side gets or retrieves the

control over such areas will also provide, as long as it will be

need the same protection and resources.



Article 18



The identification of the



1. Each party to the conflict shall endeavour to ensure that medical and

spiritual staff and medical units and medical transport

It was possible to identify resources.



2. Each party to the conflict will also care for the adoption and application of the methods

and ways of enabling the resolution of medical units and

medical transport vehicles, that use rozeznávacích

characters and rozeznávacích signals.



3. In the occupied territories and in areas where it occurs or may occur to

the fight, is a civilian medical personnel and civilian staff of the spiritual

usually recognizable by rozeznávacího character and identity card,

confirming their status.



4. Medical units and medical means of transport will be

approval of the competent authority to carry a sign. The ship and the

the vessels referred to in article 22 of this Protocol shall be marked in accordance

with the provisions of the second Convention.



5. In addition to the rozeznávacích characters can a struggling side in accordance with Chapter

(III) of annex I to this Protocol allow use of rozeznávacích

signals to identify medical units and medical

means of transport. Exceptionally, in the special cases envisaged

in that chapter, the medical means of transport used

distinguishing signals without distinguishing characters were used.



6. application of the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 5 of this article shall be governed by the provisions of chapters

(I) to (III) of annex I to this Protocol. Signals provided for in chapter III of

the annex and intended solely for the use of medical units and

medical transportation resources may not be used except as

the cases there referred to for any purpose other than the identification of the medical

units and medical transport vehicles, which are listed in the

This chapter.



7. This article shall not entitle to a wider use of the character in rozeznávacího

a peaceful time, than as set out in article 44 of the first Convention.



8. the provisions of the conventions and of this Protocol concerning the control of the use of

rozeznávacího character, the prevention of and penalties for its misuse is subject

also distinguishing signals.



Article 19



Neutral and other States not parties to the conflict



Neutral and other States not parties to the conflict, will be

to apply the relevant provisions of this Protocol to persons protected by this


parts that are received or interned in their territory and on the

the dead person of the parties in the conflict, which has been found.



Article 20



Prohibition of reprisals



Represálie against persons or objects protected by this part are

disabled.



Section II



Medical transport



Article 21



Medical vehicles



Medical vehicles will be respected and protected in the same way

as mobile medical units under the conventions and this Protocol.



Article 22



Hospital ships and coastal rescue craft



1. the provisions of the conventions, which relate to:



and ship) referred to in articles 22, 24, 25 and 27 of the second Convention,



(b)) their lifeboats and small craft,



(c)) and their staff and crew



(d)) the wounded, sick and shipwrecked who are on board,

will be applied also in the case when such ships, boats or vessels

transporting civilian wounded, sick and shipwrecked who do not belong to the

any of the categories referred to in article 13 of the second Convention. These civil

However, they cannot be issued to a party who is not their party, or

captured at sea. If they find themselves in the power of the parties in the conflict, which

not their party, will be covered by the Fourth Convention and this

Protocol.



2. The protection afforded by the conventions, the ships referred to in article 25 of the second Convention

extends to hospital ships made available by the side of the

the conflict for humanitarian purposes:



and a neutral or other State), which is not a party in the conflict, or



(b)), the impartial international humanitarian organization,

provided that in both cases, compliance with the requirements contained in the

that article.



3. the vessels referred to in article 27 of the second Convention shall be protected, even

If it is not executed, the notification envisaged in this article. The parties in the

the conflict is still invited to inform each other of

details of such vessels, which would facilitate their

identify and recognise.



Article 23



Other medical ships and craft



1. Medical ships and craft, which are not identical with those for which the

referred to in article 22 of this Protocol and article 38 of the Convention in Other-let

no longer are at sea or in other waters-will be respected and

protected in the same way as mobile medical units in accordance

with the conventions and this Protocol. Since this protection can be effective

only in the case that will be identified and recognized as a medical

ship or vessel, the ship must be marked with the distinguishing character and

If possible, observe the provisions of article 43, paragraph 2 of the second Convention.



2. The ship and craft referred to in paragraph 1 shall remain subject to the laws of war.

Any warship sailing on the surface, which is capable to force them

immediately to fulfill his command, you may order them to stop,

have left the area or a specific course. These ships and vessels shall

each such command to obey. However, they cannot in any way be

drawn from the performance of their medical mission, it is necessary

for the wounded, sick and shipwrecked who are on board.



3. the protection enshrined in paragraph 2 ceases to be provided only for

the conditions laid down in articles 34 and 35 of the second Convention. Obvious denial

to obey an order given in accordance with paragraph 2 shall be deemed to act

detrimental to the opponent in accordance with article 34 of the second Convention.



4. a party may in the conflict as soon as possible before the departure to inform

the other side of the name, the technical data, the expected time of departure,

of the course and estimated speed of the medical ship or vessel,

especially in the case of ships weighing more than 2,000 gross tons, and may

provide any other information that would facilitate the identification and

recognition. The opposite party shall acknowledge receipt of such information.



5. The provisions of article 37 of the second Convention shall apply to the medical and

spiritual staff, which is located on such ships and craft.



6. the provisions of the second Convention shall apply to the wounded, sick and shipwrecked

referred to in article 13 of the second Convention and in article 44 of this Protocol who

found on board such medical ships and craft. Civil

the wounded, sick and shipwrecked men, who do not belong to any of the categories

referred to in article 13 of the second Convention will not be, if they are to

the sea at the side that is not their own party, or forced to

leave these ships or vessels. If, however, find themselves in the power of the party

in a conflict that is not their own party, will be subject to

The Fourth Convention and this Protocol.



Article 24



Protection of medical aircraft



Medical aircraft shall be respected and protected in accordance with the

the provisions of this section.



Article 25



Medical aircraft in areas that are not under the control of the opposite

the parties



In land areas and in the airspace above them, which are

physically controlled by friendly forces, or in marine areas and

in the airspace above them, that are not physically inspected

the opposite party, the respect for and protection of medical aircraft by

conflict is not dependent on the agreement with the other party. But the party in

the conflict, which used its medical aircraft in areas such

for greater security, you may notify in accordance with article 29 of the opposite

side, especially when these aircraft during the flight, get into the realm

range of weapons-air "the opposite side.



Article 26



Medical aircraft in touch or similar zones



1. in those parts of the zone, which is physically checked

friendly forces, and above these sections, and in those areas over which the

physical control is not exactly determined, and in the air

space may be the protection of medical aircraft fully effective only on

the basis of a prior agreement between the competent military authorities of the parties in the

the conflict, as provided for in article 29. Even if there is no such agreement, the

medical aircraft flying at your own risk if

will be recognized as such.



2. "touch zone" is any area on the Earth where the front of the unit against

competing parties are in contact with each other, especially where they are

exposed to direct fire from the ground.



Article 27



Medical aircraft in areas controlled by the opposite party



1. Medical aircraft, the parties to the conflict will be protected while flying above the

land or sea areas physically controlled by the opposite

party, provided that prior consent has been obtained relevant

authorities across with such flights.



2. Medical aircraft which flies over an area physically controlled

the other party, without the consent of the potential to do so in paragraph 1, or

wandered away from the conditions under which such consent was given, in

due to a navigation error or as a result of exceptional circumstances, which

related to the safety of the flight, will try to identify itself, and

to inform the other party of such circumstances. As soon as the

medical aircraft shall use the other party recognized this page

all reasonable efforts to give the command to the landing on the ground or on

water, as it anticipates the article 30, paragraph 1, or to take other

measures to protect their interests, and in any case will provide the aircraft

time to comply with the order, before he decides to attack the plane.



Article 28



Restrictions on the use of medical aircraft



1. the parties to the conflict shall be prohibited to use their health

aircraft to achieve any military advantage over the other party.

The presence of medical aircraft shall not be used to protect the

military objects against attack.



2. Medical aircraft shall not be used to collect or

message passing military character and shall keep on board equipment

intended for such a purpose. It shall be prohibited to carry them to the person or

costs that are not included in the definition contained in article 8 (b)).

Transport of personal possessions of persons who are on board, or device

intended only for the purposes of navigation, communications, or identification with the

not be considered disabled.



3. Medical aircraft shall not carry weapons except small

weapons and ammunition that were withdrawn, the wounded, the sick, and the slow,

who are on board, and which have not yet been passed to the relevant services,

and light personal weapons necessary to ensure that the medical staff,

who is on the Board, he could defend himself and the wounded, sick and shipwrecked,

who are in his care.



4. during the years referred to in articles 26 and 27 shall be health

the aircraft used to search for the wounded, sick and her former companions,

If the opposite side did not give prior approval.



Article 29



Notifications and agreements concerning medical aircraft



1. the Notification referred to in article 25, or of the application for granting a prior

consent in accordance with articles 26, 27, 28, paragraph 4, or 31 shall contain

details of the expected number of medical aircraft, their flight

plans and resources identification and must include an assurance that every

flight will be conducted in accordance with article 28.



2. the party which receives the notification referred to in article 25, immediately

confirms its receipt.



3. A party which receives a request for the granting of prior consent by

articles 26, 27, 28, paragraph 4, or 31 shall communicate as soon as possible


the requesting party:



and that the application,)



(b)) that the application is rejected or



c) reasonable alternative proposals in response to the request. It can also

suggest a ban or restrictions on other flights in the area in the

the corresponding time. If the requesting party accepts the alternative proposals,

will notify their adoption to the other party.



4. the Parties shall take the necessary measures to ensure that notifications and agreements were made

as quickly as possible.



5. the Parties shall take the necessary measures also to as quickly as possible

informed about the nature of such notifications and agreements in the military

drive and instruovaly is the identification of the resource, which will be

the medical aircraft used.



Article 30



Landing and inspection of medical aircraft



1. Medical aircraft flying over areas physically controlled by the

the opposite party or over areas the physical control is not

well defined, can be commanded to according to the situation on the ground had landed

or on the water, in order to be subject to an inspection in accordance with

in the following paragraph. Medical aircraft must such a command

to obey.



2. If such a plane lands on land or water on the basis of

a command or for other reasons, may be subject to inspection only by

the purpose, in order to determine whether it conforms to the conditions referred to in paragraphs 3

and 4. Such inspection shall be commenced without delay and shall be conducted

quickly. The party that performs the inspection, will not require the wounded and

sick leave, unless this is necessary to fulfill the purpose

tours. In any case, the Party shall ensure that the condition of the wounded and

sick is not adversely affected or their departure from

the aircraft.



3. If the inspection discloses that the aircraft:



and) is a medical aircraft in accordance with article 8 point (j)),



(b) does not infringe the conditions prescribed) in article 28, and



(c)) not without the prior consent or in violation of this agreement in

where such consent is required,

will power the aircraft and its occupants belonging to the opposite side of the

or a neutral or other State which is not a party in the conflict, what

soon as possible to continue the flight.



4. If the inspection discloses that the aircraft:



and it is not a medical aircraft) in accordance with article 8 point (j)),



b) violates the terms prescribed in article 28, or



(c)) flew without the prior consent or in violation of this agreement in

where such consent is required,

the aircraft may be seized. With persons on board are treated

under the relevant provisions of the conventions and of this Protocol. Detained

the plane, which was previously marked as a permanent medical aircraft

can then be used only as a medical aircraft.



Article 31



Neutral or other States not parties to the conflict



1. Medical aircraft may fly over the territory of a neutral or other

a State which is not a party in the conflict, and in that territory to land only

on the basis of the previous agreement. If such an agreement exists, the

aircraft respected throughout their flight and during any

stops on this territory. They must, however, abide by the circumstances

any orders for landing on land or on the water.



2. If a medical aircraft flying over the territory of a neutral or

another State which is not a party to the conflict, without a prior agreement, or

departs from the conditions laid down by the agreement for reasons of navigation errors

or for exceptional circumstances relating to the safety of the flight, it shall take all

to make your flight information submitted and their identification. As soon as the

such medical aircraft is identified, that State a reasonable

steps to issue a command to the landing on land or on water, in accordance with

Article 30, paragraph 1, or other steps to ensure their own

interests, in any case, however, will provide the aircraft time to comply with the command,

before the attack begins against him.



3. If the medical plane on the basis of an agreement or in the circumstances

referred to in paragraph 2, lands on land or water in the territory of

of a neutral or other State not a party to the conflict,

According to the statement, or for other reasons, it will be subjected to inspection in order to

determine whether it is truly a medical plane. Inspection must be

launched without delay and must be carried out quickly. The party that

performing, does not require that the wounded and sick belonging

the party, which sent a plane, they left the plane, if it is not, however,

for a tour of the must. The party which conducts the tour in any case

shall ensure that the condition of the wounded and sick is not adversely affected

examination or leaving the aircraft. If the inspection shows that the

the plane is actually a medical aircraft, the aircraft will be able to

persons on board, with the exception of those that must be detained in accordance with the

norms of international law applicable in armed conflicts,

continue to fly and to set up the necessary conditions.

If, during such inspection, it is shown that the aircraft is not a medical

by plane, it will be seized and the persons on board are treated in

accordance with paragraph 4.



4. The wounded, sick and shipwrecked men, except for those who had to temporarily

leave the medical plane, will be with the consent of the local authorities on

the territory of a neutral or other State not a party to the conflict,

unless otherwise agreed between that State and the parties to the conflict,

detained by that State, if required by the rules of international law

applicable in armed conflict, so that they could not again

take part in the hostilities. The cost of hospital treatment and internment

will be borne by the State to which the person belongs.



5. Neutral or other States not parties to the conflict, will be

apply the conditions and restrictions relating to the passage of

medical aircraft over its territory, or the landing of medical

aircraft on its territory in the same way for all parties to the conflict.



Section III



Gone missing and deceased



Article 32



A general principle



In the application of this section, the activities of the High Contracting Parties, of the parties

conflict and international humanitarian organizations referred to in

Conventions and in this Protocol be based primarily from the right families have

for information about the fate of their relatives.



Article 33



Missing persons



1. as soon as circumstances permit, not later than upon completion of the

hostilities, each party to the conflict will be a search for persons,

which have been declared missing the opposite party. This opposite

the Party shall transmit all necessary information concerning such persons for the purpose of

facilitate the search for them.



2. In order to facilitate the collection of information under the

the preceding paragraph, each party to the conflict will, as regards the

persons who do not benefit from more favourable terms by the conventions and

This Protocol:



and) record the information referred to in article 138 of the Fourth Convention on the

persons who have been detained, imprisoned or otherwise deprived of the

freedom after more than two weeks as a result of enemy action or

occupation or that have died during captivity;



(b)) to facilitate as much as possible and, if necessary, search and

record information concerning such persons, if these persons

have died in other circumstances as a result of hostilities or occupation.



3. the information on persons declared missing pursuant to paragraph 1 and

requests for such information will be provided directly or through

protective powers or the Central Search service of the International Committee of the

The Red Cross or national Red Cross (by Black

Crescent, Red Lion and Sun). If the information will not be passed to the

through the International Committee of the Red Cross and its central

search services, each party to the conflict shall ensure that such information

have also been forwarded to the Central Search service.



4. the parties to a conflict shall endeavour to reach agreement on the establishment of the

groups for the search, identify and collect the dead from battlefields, including

the agreement, if appropriate, accompanied by these groups of staff

the other parties in the implementation of this mission in areas controlled by the

the opposite party. The staff of such groups will be respected and protected

solely in the performance of this mission.



Article 34



The remains of deceased persons



1. The mortal remains of persons who have died as a result of the occupation, or

the detention resulting from the occupation or hostilities, and those persons

that are not citizens of the country that have died as a result of enemy

actions will be carefully kept and the graves of these persons will be maintained and

marked in accordance with article 130 of the Fourth Convention, if these

the remains or graves do not qualify for more favourable treatment under the Conventions

and this Protocol.



2. As soon as circumstances and relations between the parties in conflict will allow

The High Contracting Parties in whose territories graves are located or

other sites containing the mortal remains of people who died in the

as a result of hostilities or during occupation or in detention,

the agreement in order to:



and) accessibility related of deceased persons and representatives of the official

the graves registration service to graves and establishing practical measures to


to ensure such an approach,



(b) the permanent protection and maintaining) of such graves,



(c) facilitate the return of the remains of deceased) and their personal possessions in the

his country, at the request of this country or, if this country does not object, on the

the request of the next of kin of deceased persons.



3. In the absence of the agreement envisaged in paragraph 2 (b)), or (c)), and

If the home country of the deceased is not willing to provide for the maintenance of

these graves at his own expense, a high contracting party in whose territory the

the graves are located, can suggest that will facilitate the return of the body

the remains of the deceased to the home country. If such an offer

is not taken, High Contracting Party may, after the expiry of five years from the date of

such offers and after proper notification of the home country to adopt measures

laid down in its own laws relating to cemeteries and graves.



4. the High Contracting Party in whose territory they are situated the graves mentioned in the

This article will be able to exhume the remains only:



and) in accordance with paragraph 2 (c)), and 3, or



(b)) where exhumation motivated by higher public interest, including cases

medical necessity or in cases of administrative or judicial

the investigations; However, in this case a High Contracting Party will always

to respect the remains and will inform the home country of its intention to

unearth the remains, as well as on the details of the intended location of their

the new store.



Part III



Ways and means of conducting war, the Status of combatants and prisoners of war



Section I



Ways and means of warfare



Article 35



The basic rules



1. in the armed conflict, the parties to the conflict do not have the unlimited right to

the choice of ways and means of waging war.



2. it is prohibited to use weapons, munitions, materials, and methods of management

the war, which by their nature cause excessive injury or unnecessary

the hardships.



3. it is prohibited to use the methods or means of warfare, which

the aim is to cause, or which can be expected, it can cause

widespread, long-term and severe damage to the environment.



Article 36



New types of weapons



In the study, development, acquisition or deployment of new types of weapons,

means or method of warfare is a high contracting party is obliged to

to determine whether their use is in some or in all circumstances

prohibited by this Protocol or by any other norm of international law

applicable to the High Contracting Party.



Article 37



Prohibition of treachery



1. it is prohibited to kill, injure or capture an adversary by using

treachery. For the treacherous acts that are regarded as abusing the good faith of the

your opponent throw him the mistaken presumption that it has the right to protection or

that is required to provide such protection in accordance with international standards

the law applied in armed conflicts. Examples of treachery are

These acts:



and intend to negotiate under the pretense of) the flag or parlamentářů

feigning surrender,



(b) as a result of the inability of the obfuscation) injury or illness,



(c) the civil status of persons obfuscation) or nekombatanta,



(d) the status of protected person obfuscation) using markup, markup, or

the uniforms of the United Nations or of neutral or other

States which are not parties to the conflict.



2. ruses of war are not prohibited. Through deception means such acts, which

the purpose is to mislead an adversary or to induce them to nerozvážnému

the negotiations, which, however, do not constitute a violation of the norms of international law

applicable in armed conflicts which are not treacherous,

since they don't abuse the good faith of the opponent, as regards the provision of

protection under this law. Examples of such are: the use of ruses of war

camouflage ambush, Sham operations and misinformation.



Article 38



Recognized characters



1. It is prohibited to exploit the distinguishing signs of the Red Cross, the Red

Crescent, Red Lion and Sun or of other characters, symbols, or

signals set by the Conventions or this Protocol. Also it is forbidden to

intentionally abuse in armed conflict other internationally recognized

trade characters, symbols or signals including the flag parlamentářů and

the protective emblem of cultural values.



2. it is prohibited to use the distinctive markings of the United

the Nations with the exception of cases that are allowed in this organization.



Article 39



Coat of arms



1. it is prohibited to use in armed conflict of the flags or military

characters, insignia or uniforms of neutral or other States that

are not parties to the conflict.



2. it is prohibited to use flags or military character, reign or

the uniforms of the opposite side at the time of the attack, or for the purpose of camouflage,

support, protection or impede military operations.



3. Nothing in this article or in article 37, paragraph 1 (d))

affect the existing generally recognized rules of international law

applicable to espionage or to the use of flags in the conduct of

the armed conflict at sea.



Article 40



Grace



It is forbidden to give an order that no one will be spared, threatened by

the opponent or to lead the enemy action on this basis.



Article 41



Protection of persons excluded from the opposite side of the battle (hors de combat)



1. a person who is recognised by, or under the circumstances should be recognized

per person from the fight, a retired cannot be the subject of attack.



2. a person who is disqualified from combat if:



and it is in the power of the other) side,



(b) clearly expressed an intention to give up), or



(c)) is a unconscious or otherwise removed for reasons of injury or

disease, and is therefore unable to defend themselves,

provided, that in all these cases, the lives of any

hostile acts and does not try to escape.



3. where the persons entitled to protection as prisoners of war,

find themselves in the power of opposite parties under unusual conditions of combat, which

prevent their evacuation as provided for in part III, section I, of the third Convention,

they will be released and will be taken all measures possible to ensure

their security.



Article 42



Passengers on the plane



1. the person that his parachute from the aircraft, which is threatened with destruction

shall not be subject to attack during the jump.



2. When you reach the country on the territory of the other party, it will be controlled

a person jumping off a parachute from the aircraft, which is threatened with destruction, given by

the option to give up before they become subject to attack if it is not

clearly, committing a hostile act.



3. Airborne troops are not protected by this article.



Section II



Status of combatants and prisoners of war



Article 43



The armed forces



1. The armed forces of the parties in conflict consist of all

organised by the armed forces, groups and units that are under the

the command of those responsible for the acts of this side of his subordinates, and that

even in cases where a party is represented by a Government or authority, which

the opposite party does not recognise. These forces will be subject to internal

the disciplinary system, which among other things, will promote compliance with the

rules of international law applied in armed conflicts.



2. Members of the armed forces of the parties in the conflict (with the exception of

medical and personnel, how about that article 33, third

the Convention) are kombatanty, IE. they have the right to directly participate in the

hostilities.



3. If a party to a conflict shall include an auxiliary military unit or

armed public order protection official folder in your

the armed forces, it shall inform the other party in the conflict.



Article 44



Kombatanti and prisoners



1. each kombatant, as defined in article Q3 becomes a war

prisoner of war, if he finds himself in the power of the other side.



2. Even if all kombatanti are required to abide by the standards of the international

the law applicable in armed conflicts, does not relieve the violation of

These rules, kombatanta his right to be considered kombatanta, or

If he finds himself in the power of the other party, its right to be considered

prisoners of war except in the cases referred to in paragraphs 3 and 4.



3. in order to strengthen the protection of the civilian population from the consequences of

hostilities are kombatanti must be distinguished from civil

the population at the time of the attack or military operations serving the preparation

the attack. However, taking into account the fact that there are situations in armed

conflicts, when as a result of the nature of the hostilities, the armed

kombatant cannot distinguish from the civilian population, the status of

kombatanta, provided that in such situations wear publicly weapon:



and during each military engagement),



(b)) during a time when an opponent can be spotted when taking a combat

the report before the attack, to participate.

The acts, which are in accordance with the requirements of this paragraph will not be

considered to be treacherous in the meaning of article 37, paragraph 1 (c)).



4. the Kombatant, who finds himself in the power of the other side in the time in which

does not meet the requirements laid down in the second sentence of paragraph 3, loses the right to be

considered the war prisoners, but will be provided protection

equal protection in all directions provided by prisoners of war in

accordance with the third Convention and by this Protocol. This protection includes the

protection that is equal to the protection provided by the prisoners of war in accordance


with the third Convention in cases where such a person is tried and punished for

any infringements committed by.



5. the Kombatant, who finds himself in the power of the other side in a time when the

not participating in the attack or military operations serving the preparation of an attack,

does not lose the right to be treated as a prisoner of war in kombatanta and

due to their previous activities.



6. This article shall not relieve any person of the right to be considered

prisoners of war under article 4 of the third Convention.



7. This article does not amend the generally accepted practice of States

regarding the uniforms, you have to wear kombatanti the allocation to

regular, uniformed armed units of the parties in conflict.



8. In addition to the categories of persons referred to in article 13 of the first and second Convention

all members of the armed forces of the parties in conflict, how to

are defined in article 43 of this Protocol, the right to protection in the

accordance with these conventions, if they are wounded or the hospital, or in the

the case of the second Convention, if stranded at sea or in other

waters.



Article 45



Protection of persons taking part in the hostilities



1. a person who will take part in hostilities, and finds himself in the power of

the other parties will be considered prisoners of war, and will therefore be

protected by the third Convention, if the status of the prisoner will ask

or if it is shown that it has the right to such status, or if the

page on which it is dependent, asks for her to such a status on the basis of

notifications addressed to the powers in whose power is the person

located, or on the basis of a notification addressed to the powers. If there is a

doubts as to whether such person has the right to the status of a war

the prisoners, that person will be continue to have such status, and will thus be protected

The third Convention and by this Protocol until the time when her status will be determined by the

by the competent court.



2. If the person who was in the power of the other side, it is not

held as a prisoner of war and has to be judged for this party

offences related to the hostilities, that person will be

entitled to claim their right to prisoner-of-war status before

the Court and the right to judgment on this issue. If it is not

contrary to the process-orientated management, this decision will be made before

own the court verdict of that infringement. The representatives of the

protective powers will have the right to attend the court proceedings, the

which will be taken on this issue, if, in exceptional cases, and

in the interest of national security, this procedure does not take place in private

meeting. In this case, the power, the power of the person

centrally located, this fact is appropriately protective powers.



3. a person who participated in the hostilities, and that does not have the right to

the status of the prisoner, nor the right to more favourable treatment in accordance

with the Fourth Convention, in all cases, will have the right to protection under

Article 75 of this Protocol. In the occupied territories will have such a person,

If it is not held as a spy, notwithstanding article 5 of the Fourth Convention,

also the right to join under this Convention.



Article 46



Spies



1. Notwithstanding any other provisions of the conventions or of this Protocol

No member of the armed forces of the parties in a conflict that is in

can the other side at a time when dealing with vyzvědačstvím, will not have a

the right to the status of prisoners of war, and can be treated as a

for England.



2. the Member of the armed forces of the parties in a conflict that for this party

on the territory of the other party controlled collects or attempts to

collect information, will not be considered to be a person who is engaged in the

vyzvědačstvím, if this work wears the uniform of their

of the armed forces.



3. the Member of the armed forces of the parties in the conflict, who resides in the territory of

occupied the opposite party for the side on which it is dependent,

collects or attempts to collect information of a military nature on the

within this territory, shall not be regarded as the person who deals with

vyzvědačstvím, if not fraudulently or with intent

neuchyluje to secret methods. In addition, such a person does not lose the right to

the status of prisoners of war and cannot be treated as England,

If it is not captured in the vyzvědačské activity.



4. a member of the armed forces of the parties in the conflict, who do not live on

territory occupied the opposite party and which dealt with vyzvědačstvím on

within this territory, does not lose its right to prisoner-of-war status, and not

him be treated as for England, if not captured before

He joined the armed forces to which they belong.



Article 47



The mercenaries



1. A mercenary is not entitled to the status of prisoner of war or kombatanta.



2. A mercenary is a person who:



and specially hired) is in place or abroad to fight in

armed conflict;



(b)) actually directly participating in hostilities;



(c)), their participation in hostile actions motivated mainly by personal gain and

a party to the conflict or on its behalf, it is really a material which

reward substantially exceeding the reward promised or paid kombatantům

of similar rank and functions in the armed forces of that party;



(d)) is not a citizen, the parties in the conflict, nor does not have a domicile in

controlled party in conflict;



(e)) is not a member of the armed forces of the parties in the conflict, and



(f)) has not been sent by the State, which is not a party to the conflict to fulfil

official tasks as a member of its armed forces.



Part IV



Civilian population



Section I



General protection against effects of hostilities



Chapter I



The basic rule and the application scope



Article 48



The basic rule



In order to ensure respect for and protection of the civilian population and objects

civilian parties to the conflict will always make the difference between a civil

population and kombatanty and between civilian objects and military

objects, and in accordance with the will of their operations only against military

objects.



Article 49



Definition of attacks and scope of application



1. "attacks" are acts of violence against the adversary, both offensive as well as

defensive nature.



2. the provisions of this Protocol with respect to attacks apply to all

attacks on any of the territory, including the territory of the State party, in

the conflict, which, however, is under the control of the opposing party.



3. the provisions of this section shall apply to any land, air

or naval military operation which may affect the civilian

population, individual civilians or civilian objects on

the country. Also apply to any attacks from the sea or from the air against

objects on the ground, but do not affect in any other manner the standards

international law applicable in armed conflict at sea

or in the air.



4. the provisions of this section are complementary to the rules concerning humanitarian

the protection contained in the Fourth Convention, particularly in part II and, in

other international agreements binding for the High Contracting Parties,

as well as other rules of international law relating to the protection of

civilians and civilian objects on land, sea or in the air

from the effects of hostilities.



Chapter II



Civilians and civilian population



Article 50



Definition of civilians and civilian population



1. civil person is a person who does not belong to any of the categories of persons

referred to in article 4 A), 1), 2), 3), (6)) the third Convention and article 43

of this Protocol. In case of doubt whether a person is a civilian person,

such a person will be considered a civil person.



2. The civilian population are all persons who are civilian

persons.



3. the presence of individuals not satisfying the definition of civilian persons

inside the civilian population does not deprive the population of its civilian

character.



Article 51



Protection of the civilian population



1. The civilian population and individual civilians shall enjoy general

protection against the dangers arising from military operations. In order to

This protection is to be effective, must be respected in all circumstances

the following standards, which complement the other applicable standards

of international law.



2. The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians

shall not be subject to attack. Violent acts or threats of acts,

the basic goal is to terrorize the civilian population, are

disabled.



3. Civilians shall enjoy the protection provided by this section, with the exception of

case, when directly participating in hostilities and for these actions.



4. Indiscriminate attacks are prohibited. To indiscriminate attacks include:



and which are not) attacks directed at a specific military objects;



(b)), in which attacks are used to combat the ways or means, that

they cannot be directed at a specific military objects, or



c) attacks, in which used fighting ways or means,

the effects of which cannot be limited as required by this Protocol, so

in each such case, military and civilian persons or objects

civilian objects without distinction.



5. Among other things, is to be considered indiscriminate these kinds of attacks:



and) attacks by bombing, regardless of the ways or means,


which is considered to be a single military object a number of clearly

separate and identifiable military objects located in the city,

the village or other area in which are concentrated civilian persons or

civilian objects, and



b) attacks, for which it can be expected that can cause loss of life

civil, personal injury, damage to civilian objects, or a

the combination of these cases that exceed the expected specific

and direct military advantage.



6. Attacks against the civilian population or civilians for reasons of

reprisals are prohibited.



7. The presence or movements of the civilian population or individual

civilians must not be used to protect specific points or areas

before the military operations, mainly to protect military experiments

objects from the attacks or to disguise, favouritism or distortions

military operations. The parties in conflict will not control the movement of the civil

the population or individual civilians so as to protect the

military installations from attack or to camouflage the military operation.



8. Any breach of these provisions does not relieve the parties of their

legal obligations to the civilian population and civilians, including

commitments to make preventive safety measures provided for in article 57.



Chapter III



Civilian objects



Article 52



General protection of civilian objects



1. civilian Objects shall not be the object of attack or of reprisals.

Civilian objects are all objects which are not military

objects, as defined in paragraph 2.



2. Attacks must be strictly limited to military objects. With regard to the

objects are military objects to those objects which by their nature,

location, purpose or use an effective contribution to

military action and whose total or partial destruction, casting, or

neutralization in the circumstances provides overt military advantage.



3. In case of doubt whether an object which is usually intended for

civilian purposes, such as venue for bohuslužeb, House, or other

dwelling or a school, is used for the effective promotion of military actions, the

assume that this object is not used to support military actions.



Article 53



Protection of cultural objects and places of worship



Without prejudice to the provisions of the Hague Convention on the protection of cultural property in the

of armed conflict of 14. in May 1954, and of other relevant

international documents is prohibited:



and) take any hostile actions directed against the historical

the sights, the artistic aims or locations for holding bohuslužeb, which are

the cultural or spiritual heritage of peoples;



(b)) use such objects to support the military effort;



(c)) to make such objects subject of reprisals.



Article 54



Protection of objects necessary for the survival of the civilian population



1. it is prohibited to use starvation of civilians as a method of management

war.



2. it is prohibited to attack and destroy the objects, delete, or

depreciate the objects necessary for the survival of the civilian population, such as

are food supplies, agricultural areas for the production of food,

harvesting, cattle, equipment for water supply and the water supply and

irrigation equipment in order to prevent their use of civil

population or the other party, regardless of the theme, whether

It's going on with the intention of starvation of civilians, forced them to leave

or for other reasons.



3. the prohibitions contained in paragraph 2 shall not apply to objects in this

paragraph referred to, which uses the opposite side:



and) solely as a means of subsistence for members of their

the armed forces, or



(b)) unless it is a subsistence resources, then at least for direct support

military action, provided, however, that in no case will not be

carried out actions against such objects, which could ultimately

leave the civilian population without sufficient food and

the water, which would cause its starvation or forced him to vacating

space.



4. These objects shall not be the object of reprisals.



5. Based on the recognition of the vital requirements of any party in the

the conflict in the defence of its national territory against invasion, a party may, in

conflict derogovat the prohibitions contained in paragraph 2 to that territory under

your own control, if required by the urgent military necessity.



Article 55



Protection of the environment



1. In the conduct of military actions has to be taken of the protection of

environment from the extensive, long-term and severe damage. This protection

includes a ban on the use of methods or means of warfare, which

the aim is to cause such damage to the environment, or

can be expected to cause such damage that threatens the health or survival of the

of the population.



2. Attacks against the environment for reasons of reprisals are prohibited.



Article 56



Protection of buildings and installations containing dangerous forces



1. Buildings or installations containing dangerous forces, in particular the dam,

dams and nuclear power plants, shall not be subject to attack, even when they are

military objects, if such attack may cause the release of

dangerous forces and as a result, lead to serious loss of civil

to the population. Other military objects located in these buildings or

the device or in its vicinity may not be subject to attack if

such an attack may cause the release of dangerous forces from these structures

or device, and as a result, lead to serious loss of civil

to the population.



2. the special protection against attack provided for in paragraph 1 shall cease to be

validity:



and in the case of dams) or dam only if they are used for other

than its normal function and is used to the regular, significant and direct

support of military operations and if such attack is the only possible way,

How to disable such support;



(b)) in the case of the nuclear plants only produce the electrical

the energy for regular, significant and direct support of military operations

and if such attack is the only possible way to prevent such

support;



(c)) in the case of other military objects located in these buildings

or or near devices only if they are used

for regular, significant and direct support of military operations and if the

such an attack is the only possible way of preventing such support.



3. The civilian population and individual civilians have in all

cases continue to be entitled to the full protection granted them international

law, including the protection based on the precautionary measures laid down

Article 57. If such protection shall cease to be valid and buildings,

device or military objects referred to in paragraph 1 are the subject of

the attack, all the practical measures to be taken in order to release the

dangerous forces.



4. it is prohibited to buildings, facilities or military objects referred to in

paragraph 1 have become the subject of reprisals.



5. the parties in the conflict to try to neumisťovaly military

objects in the vicinity of buildings or equipment referred to in paragraph 1.

However, the device was built only to defend the protected buildings

or device against attacks that do not become subject to attack under the

conditions that are not used to conduct of hostilities, with the exception of

defensive actions necessary to repel attacks against the protected buildings or

device, and that they are armed with weapons that are capable of only exclusively

to fend off the attack against a protected buildings or facilities.



6. The High Contracting Parties and parties to the conflict are encouraged to

to conclude further agreements among themselves, in order to ensure additional protection

objects containing dangerous forces.



7. In order to facilitate the identification of the objects protected by this article,

can the parties in conflict to mark a special sign consisting of a

a group of three bright orange circles placed on the same axis, as

provided for in article 16 of annex I to this Protocol. The absence of such

the designation does not relieve the party in any way in conflict with their

obligations under this article.



Chapter IV



Preventive measures



Article 57



Precautions in attack



1. In the conduct of military operations, constant care must be taken to ensure

in order to be spared the civilian population, civilian persons and objects

civilian.



2. With regard to the attacks, it is necessary to make these preventive measures:



and you, who planning to) attack or decide about him:



I shall do everything possible) in order to verify that the aim of the attack is not civil

persons or objects, or civilian objects for special protection, but

that these are military objects within the meaning of paragraph 2 of article 52 and that is not

disabled in accordance with the provisions of this Protocol to attack them;



II) shall take all possible preventive measures in the choice of means and

ways to prevent attacks, and in any case the maximum limit

accidental loss of life of civilian persons, on the number of injured civilian

persons and damage to civilian objects;



III) started the attack, for which it can be presumed that causes random

the loss of life, injury to civilians, damage to civilian persons


civilian objects, or a combination of these cases that would

exceeded the anticipated concrete and direct military advantage;



(b)) attack will be revoked or suspended if it becomes apparent that the object is not

a military object, or is subject to special protection or that the attack could

cause incidental loss of life of civilians, civilian injuries

people, damage to civilian objects, or a combination of these cases,

that would be higher than the anticipated concrete and direct military

advantage;



(c)) should be made in proper time and impressive resources

warning of attacks which may affect the civilian population,

unless the circumstances so allow.



3. If the option to choose between several military objects to achieve

the same military advantage, the object will be selected, for which it can be expected,

the attack on it will cause the least danger to the lives of civilians and

civilian objects.



4. In the conduct of military operations at sea or in the air will make every

party in the conflict in accordance with their rights and obligations under the standards

international law applicable in armed conflict, take all

reasonable precautions to prevent the loss of life

the civilian population and damage to civilian objects.



5. Nothing in this article shall be construed so as to

justify attacks against the civilian population, civilians or

civilian objects.



Article 58



Preventive measures against the effects of attacks



The parties in the conflict to the extent possible:



and) without prejudice to article 49 of the Fourth Convention, shall take measures to

have been relocated from the vicinity of military objects, each civilian

people, the civilian population and civilian objects under their

control;



(b) shall avoid placing military) objects to the densely populated

areas or in their vicinity;



(c)) to take other necessary preventive measures to protect the civilian

the population, individual civilians and civilian objects under

their control against the dangers resulting from military operations.



Chapter V



Places and zones under special protection



Article 59



Nebráněná space



1. the parties to the conflict to attack, by whatever means, shall be prohibited on

nebráněná space.



2. the competent authorities of the parties in the conflict can be declared nebráněné

instead of any inhabited place in the contact zone of the armed forces or in the

near her, which is open to the occupation of the opposite party. Such

Instead you must meet the following conditions:



and all kombatanti), as well as mobile combat means and mobile

military equipment must be evacuated;



(b) permanent military structures or) device may not be used to

enemy action;



(c)) the authorities or the population may not commit hostile acts;



(d)) shall not be carried out actions in support of military operations.



3. the presence of persons specially protected under the conventions and this Protocol and

the police forces retained for the purpose of maintaining law and order on the

such a place is not contrary to the conditions laid down in paragraph 2.



4. a declaration made pursuant to paragraph 2 shall be addressed to the opposite

side, and must define and describe as accurately as possible the boundaries

nebráněného space. Party in the conflict, which is such a statement

addressed shall acknowledge its receipt and will be treated as with this site

nebráněným, unless the conditions laid down in paragraph 2 have not been in

really met, in which case it will be immediately

inform the party which made the Declaration. Even if the conditions laid down

in paragraph 2 are not met, such a place will continue to be deprived of the protection

provided by the other provisions of this Protocol and the other standards

international law applicable in armed conflicts.



5. the parties to the conflict may agree to the establishment of the nebráněných and

If such places do not meet the conditions laid down in paragraph 2.

The agreement will define and describe as accurately as possible the boundaries

nebráněného space; in the case of buying may provide ways of checking.



6. The party which controls the place that is the subject of the agreement, it

shall, to the extent possible, the signs, which may be agreed with the

the other party and that will be placed on the clearly visible locations,

especially after his circuit on borders and highways.



7. the area loses its status of nebráněného space, when it ceases to meet the

conditions laid down in paragraph 2 or by agreement, referred to in paragraph

5. In this case, this space will continue to enjoy the protection provided by the

the other provisions of this Protocol and in other international standards

the law applicable in armed conflicts.



Article 60 of the



The demilitarized zone



1. the parties to the conflict are prohibited to extend military operations into zones,

that agreement provided the status of the demilitarized zone, if such

the extension is in violation of the terms of this agreement.



2. this Agreement shall be an express agreement, may be concluded in the oral

or in written form, either directly or through the protective powers or

impartial humanitarian organization, and may take the form of mutual and

the same statement. Agreement may be concluded in time of peace, as well as after

the outbreak of hostilities and must define and describe what you may

as accurately as possible the border demilitarised zone and, if necessary, lay down the

ways of checking.



3. Subject to such agreement may be any zone which fulfils the following

terms and conditions:



and all kombatanti), as well as mobile combat means and mobile

military equipment must be evacuated;



(b)) the permanent military structures and equipment shall not be used for hostile

action;



(c)) the authorities and the population must not commit hostile acts, and



(d)) any activity associated with the military effort must be stopped.

The parties in the conflict to agree on the interpretation of the conditions laid down in

subparagraph (d)) and to persons who, in addition to the persons referred to in paragraph 4

will be admitted into the demilitarised zone.



4. the presence of persons specially protected under the conventions and this Protocol and

the police forces retained for the purpose of maintaining law and order in the

This zone is not contrary to the conditions laid down in paragraph 2.



5. a party in whose power is such a zone is located, shall, so far as it is

possible signs that may be agreed upon with the other party and that

will be placed on the clearly visible locations, particularly after its perimeter,

at the borders and roads.



6. If the fight gets close to the demilitarized zone and if the parties

in the conflict, so agreed, none of them may use the zone for purposes

that are related to the leadership of the military actions, or unilaterally cancel

her status.



7. If one of the parties in the conflict commits a gross breach of a

the provisions of paragraphs 3 or 6, the other party will be deprived of their

obligations under the agreement conferring the status of demilitarized zone, such

zone. In this case, the zone loses its status, but will continue to

deprived of the protection provided by the other provisions of this Protocol and

other norms of international law applicable in armed

conflicts.



Chapter VI



Civil Defense



Article 61



Definition and scope



For the purposes of this Protocol:



1. "civil defense" is the performance of some or all of the below

humanitarian missions, whose goal is to protect the civilian population from

the danger, to help him remove the immediate effects of hostilities

or disasters and also to create the conditions necessary for its survival. These

the tasks are:



and notification services;)



(b)) evacuation;



(c) the organisation and provision of shelters);



d) blackout;



e) rescue work;



f) medical services, including first aid and religious assistance;



g) fighting fires;



h) detection and marking of hazardous areas;



I) decontamination and similar protective measures;



(j) provision of emergency accommodation and) supply;



to the immediate aid for reconstruction) and the maintenance of order in the affected

areas;



l) immediate repair is necessary public facilities;



m) urgent funeral services;



n) help protect the objects necessary for survival;



o) complementary necessary to fulfil the above tasks, including

planning and organizing, but not limited only to this activity.



2. "the Organization of civil defense" are institutions and units that are

organized or authorized by the competent authorities, the parties in the conflict to

performance of the tasks referred to in paragraph 1 and which is intended and used

exclusively to perform these tasks.



3. the "Staff" of civil defence organisations are persons designated by the party in

the conflict exclusively to the performance of the tasks referred to in paragraph 1, including the

staff designated by the competent authorities of that party exclusively to control

These organizations.



4. "material" organisation of civil defence is a device inventory and shipping

the resources used by these organizations for the performance of the tasks referred to in

paragraph 1.



Article 62



General protection



1. Civilian civil defence organizations and their personnel will be

respected and protected in accordance with the provisions of this Protocol,

above all, the provisions of this section. Will have the right to discharge their stored

civil defence tasks except in cases of urgent military necessity.




2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to civilians,

which, although they are not members of civilian civil defence organizations, the

civil defence tasks based on challenges of the competent authorities and under their

control.



3. Article 52 of this Protocol applies to buildings and material

used for civil defence purposes and shelters provided by the

the civilian population. Objects used for civil defence purposes

No person shall, in addition to the party they belong to, destroy or to specify a different

the use of the.



Article 63



Civil defense in the occupied territories



1. In the occupied territories, civilian civil defence organizations will receive from

the relevant institutions aid necessary for the performance of their tasks. In

no case shall be their staff forced to actions that would

obstructing the proper execution of these tasks. The occupying power must not be

changes in the structure or personnel of these organizations so that it

jeopardise the effective accomplishment of their tasks. On these organizations cannot be

seek to prioritize the interests of the citizens or the power.



2. The occupying power may not compel, coerce or encourage civil

civil defence organizations to perform their tasks in a manner that would be

detrimental to the interests of the civilian population.



3. The occupying power may disarm civil defence personnel for reasons of

safety.



4. The occupying power shall not use a building or material belonging to or

used by civil defence organizations for any other purpose, or seize,

If this other use or seizure of the damaging civil

the population.



5. Provided that the general rule in paragraph 4 shall continue to fulfil, it may

the occupying power to confiscate the funds or to specify a different purpose for the

These special conditions:



and that building or material) are necessary for other needs of the civilian

population and



(b)) that the seizure or other designation only lasts for the duration of such needs.



6. The occupying power must not be used for any other purpose specified or shelters

necessary for the civilian population and neither is nezabaví.



Article 64



Civilian civil defence organizations of neutral or other States that

are not parties to the conflict, and the International Organization for the coordination of

civil defence



1. articles 62, 63, 65 and 66 shall also apply to the staff and material

civilian civil defence organizations of neutral or other States,

that are not parties to the conflict and which perform civil defence tasks

referred to in article 61 in the territory of the parties in conflict with the agreement and under the

the control of that party. Notification of such assistance must be made as

as soon as possible to all competent opposite parties. In any case,

This activity cannot be considered as interference in the conflict, this activity

However, it must be carried out with due regard to security interests

the parties concerned in the conflict.



2. the parties to the conflict receiving the assistance referred to in paragraph 1, and

The High Contracting Parties, which must provide such assistance in the case of

the need to facilitate international coordination of such activities in the area

the civil defence. In such cases, the relevant international

organizations subject to the provisions of this chapter.



3. In the occupied territory, the occupying power may exclude or restrict the

the activities of civilian civil defence organizations of neutral or other

States which are not parties to the conflict, and international coordination

the organization only if it can ensure the appropriate

the performance of civil defence tasks from its own resources or from resources in the

occupied territory.



Article 65



Their protection



1. the protection to which they are entitled to civilian civil defence organizations,

their staff, buildings, shelters, and the material will end only if,

If the tasks are carried out in addition to its own activities, or are

used for activity that damages the opponent. Protection may, however,

finish up after the warning, which, if necessary, shall provide adequate

the time limit, and then, when this warning has remained without effect.



2. for activities detrimental to the opponent is not considered this activity:



and the performance of the tasks of civil defence) under the management or control of the military

authorities;



(b)) cooperation with the civilian civil defence personnel, military personnel

in the performance of civil defence tasks, or the assignment of specific military

personnel to civilian civil defence organizations;



(c)), the fact that the performance of civil defence tasks may also be the beneficial

for military sacrifice, especially for those that are taken out of the fight.



3. for an act detrimental to the opponent also does not consider, if civil

staff of civil defence has available light personal weapons to maintain

order or self-defence. However, in areas where the ground

fighting or where such fights is likely to occur, the parties must in

the conflict to take the necessary measures to limit these weapons to manual

weapons, such as pistols or revolvers, in order to more easily distinguish it staff

civil defense from the combatants. Although the staff of civil defence in such

areas available to other light personal weapons, however, will

respected and protected once it is recognized as such.



4. The creation of civilian civil defence organizations, according to a military pattern

and the fact that the service is declared liable, shall not relieve the

civilian civil defence organizations the protection provided by this chapter.



Article 66



The identification of the



1. Each party to the conflict shall endeavour to ensure that its organization

Civil Defense, their personnel, buildings and material have been

identifiable if they are exclusively intended for the performance of the tasks of the civilian

Defense. As well as to be identifiable shelters intended for civilian

the population.



2. Each party to the conflict shall also endeavour to adopt and apply

the methods and procedures that will allow the detection of civilian shelters and also

civil defence personnel, buildings and materials on which it is located

International distinguishing sign of civil defence.



3. In the occupied territories and in areas where fighting occurs or where to

the fighting is likely to occur, there must be a civilian staff of civil defence

identifiable by the international character of civil rozeznávacích

Defense and identity cards confirming their status.



4. International distinguishing sign of civil defence is, if used

for the protection of civil defence organizations, their personnel, buildings and

material and for civilian shelters, a blue isosceles triangle on the

orange background.



5. In addition to this rozeznávacího character the parties may conflict

agree on the use of rozeznávacích signals for identification purposes

the civil defence.



6. the application of the provisions of paragraphs 1 to 4 of chapter V of the annex is modified to

This Protocol.



7. in time of peace may be a distinguishing sign described in paragraph 4 applied to

the consent of the relevant State bodies for the purposes of identification of the civil

Defense.



8. The High Contracting Parties and parties to the conflict shall take the measures necessary to

check the placement of the international civil defence and rozeznávacích characters

to prevent and sanction abuse.



9. identification of medical and civil defense personnel,

medical units and medical transport is

also modified article 18.



Article 67



Members of the armed forces and military units assigned to the

civil defense organizations



1. Members of the armed forces and military units assigned to the

civil defence organizations shall be respected and protected for the

provided that:



and this staff and these) units are permanently assigned and exclusively to the

dedicated to the performance of the tasks mentioned in article 61;



(b)) this staff to fulfil other military duties during the conflict,

If assigned;



(c)) this staff is clearly distinguishable from the other members of the

the armed forces that is marked with a sufficiently large international

distinguishing sign of civil defence worn in a visible place and that

This staff is equipped with ID cards, confirming the status of the

individual members of staff, which are discussed in chapter V of annex I

to this Protocol;



d) this staff and these units are armed with only light

personal weapons to keep order or for self-defence. The provisions of the

Article 65 paragraph 3 shall also apply in this case;



e) this staff is not directly involved in hostilities and outside their

civil defence tasks does not or is not being used for activities that would

doing away with the opposite side;



f) this staff and these units perform their civil defence tasks only

on the national territory.

Non-compliance with the conditions referred to in point (e)) by any of the national

the armed forces, that is bound to the conditions laid down in paragraph 1 and)

and 1 (b)), is prohibited.



2. Military personnel serving on civil defense organizations will have

the status of the prisoner if he finds himself in the power of the other side. On

occupied territory may be used if necessary for tasks

Civil Defense, but only in the interest of the civilian population of such

the territory, however, if such work is dangerous, then just

provided that the tasks involved will meet voluntarily.



3. the buildings, large equipment and means of transport of military units

assigned to civil defence organizations shall be clearly marked with the


International distinguishing sign of civil defence. This distinguishing character

must be large enough.



4. Material and buildings of military units permanently assigned to the

civil defence organizations and exclusively intended for the performance of the tasks of the civilian

the defense will continue to be subject to the laws of war, if they fall into the hands of

the opposite side. May not be used otherwise than for the purposes of civil

Defense, until there is a need for the performance of civil defence tasks except the

in cases of urgent military necessity, if it has not previously been made

measures to ensure the needs of the civilian population.



Section II



Assistance for the benefit of the civilian population



Article 68



Application scope



The provisions of this section shall be applied to the civilian population, as

defined in this Protocol, and the following articles 23, 55, 59, 60, 61 and 62

and other relevant provisions of the Fourth Convention.



Article 69



Basic needs in occupied territories



1. in addition to the obligations set out in article 35 of the Fourth Convention on

the supply of food and medical needs will ensure the occupation

power also as far as possible from the resources available to it,

and without any negative difference in clothing, linens, shelter

and other basic resources necessary to the survival of the civilian population

occupied territories and objects necessary for worship.



2. Supporting actions in favour of the civilian population of the occupied territories

are governed by articles 59, 60, 61, 62, 108, 109, 110 and 111 of the Fourth Convention

and article 71 of this Protocol and shall be implemented without delay.



Article 70



Helper actions



1. If the civilian population of any territory which, without the

the occupied territory is under the control of one of the parties in the conflict,

It will not be enough to secure supplies mentioned in article 69,

auxiliary action taken humanitarian and impartial nature, which

will be carried out without any adverse distinction based on agreement

parties concerned by these actions relate to auxiliary. Such deals help

will not be considered as interference in the armed conflict or for

hostile acts. In the distribution of supplies within the framework of this assistance will be

preferable to such persons, such as children, pregnant women, mothers and

nursing mothers, which under the Fourth Convention or under this Protocol

enjoy special benefits or special protection.



2. the parties to the conflict and each High Contracting Party shall allow and facilitate the

fast and smooth transport of all supplies, equipment and personnel in the

accordance with this section, even if such assistance is intended for

the civilian population of the opposite party.



3. the parties to the conflict and each High Contracting Party shall allow the

transporting supplies, equipment and staff in order to provided assistance in

accordance with paragraph 2:



and) will have the right to determine technical measures, including tours, whose

the fulfilment of the condition for the authorisation of such transport;



(b)) will be able to make this authorization by the distribution of this assistance will be

done under the local control of the protective powers;



(c) does not make use in any way supply) within the framework of this assistance to another

purpose than for which they are intended, and shall not delay their delivery,

except in cases of urgent necessity in the interest of the civilian population,

which it refers to.



4. the parties in conflict will protect supplies to help and facilitate the

their rapid distribution.



5. the parties to the conflict and each High Contracting Party to whom it may concern,

It will encourage and facilitate effective international coordination of these

supporting the actions referred to in paragraph 1.



Article 71



Staff involved in supporting actions



1. In the case of buying may support staff form part of the assistance

granted under any ancillary events, and in particular to

the transportation and distribution of supplies in the context of this assistance. The participation of such

staff will be dependent on the consent of the party in whose territory the staff

carry out their duties.



2. This staff will be respected and protected.



3. upon acceptance of the supplies within the framework of this assistance, each party will be in

as far as possible to assist the personnel referred to in paragraph 1 in

the performance of his mission. Only in the case of urgent military necessity can

the activity of this staff or temporarily restricted his movement.



4. Under no circumstances shall this exceed the scope of your staff

Mission under this Protocol. Must in particular take account of the

security requirements of the party in whose territory he performs his duties.

Activity of any member of staff who does not respect these conditions,

can be stopped.



Section III



The treatment of persons who are in the power of the parties in conflict



Chapter I



The range of application and protection of persons and objects



Article 72



Application scope



The provisions of this section supplement the rules of humanitarian protection

civilians and civilian objects, which are in the power of the parties in the

the conflict contained in the Fourth Convention, particularly in part I and III

as well as other rules of international law applicable to the protection of

fundamental human rights in international armed conflicts.



Article 73



Refugees and stateless persons



Persons who, before the beginning of hostilities, were considered

stateless or a refugee in accordance with applicable

international documents adopted by the parties concerned, or in accordance

the legislation of the State have fled, or the State in which they have

residence, will be protected persons within the meaning of parts I and III of the fourth

of the Convention in all circumstances and without any adverse distinction.



Article 74



Merging the divided families



The High Contracting Parties and parties to the conflict shall facilitate in every possible way to merge

families divided due to the armed conflict and will support the

in particular, the activities of humanitarian organizations engaged in this task in the

accordance with the provisions of the conventions and of this Protocol and in accordance with their

the relevant safety regulations.



Article 75



Base warranty



1. persons who are in the power of the parties in the conflict, they have, if they are

affected by the situations referred to in article 1 of this Protocol and a lack of

them more favourable treatment in accordance with the conventions or this Protocol,

the right to human treatment in all circumstances and at least will be

to enjoy the protection provided by this article without any adverse

the distinction based on race, colour, sex, language, religion or

faith, political or other opinion, national or social origin,

property, ancestry or other status, or on other similar

criteria. Each Party shall respect the person, honour, conviction and

all these religious people.



2. At any time and in any place, regardless of whether they are committed

representatives of the civil or military authorities, are and will remain

These actions are prohibited:



and life-threatening, health), physical or mental state of the people,

in particular:



I) murder;



II) torture of all kinds, whether physical or mental;



III) corporal punishment and



IV) mutilation;



(b) an affront to personal dignity), especially humiliating and insulting

treatment, forced prostitution and any form of indecent acts;



c) prevents the hostages;



(d) collective punishments and)



e) threats to execute any of the above acts.



3. Any person detained, imprisoned or Internet for acts

related to the armed conflict will be in a language which he understands,

informed immediately, why these measures have been taken. With the exception of

cases of imprisonment or detention for offences they will

released at the earliest opportunity and in any event immediately after

When you pass away, the circumstances justifying the imprisonment, arrest or internment.



4. no judgment shall be handed down, and no penalty shall be executed on the

a person who has been found guilty of a criminal offence related to the

except in the case of armed conflict, when the judgment was handed down

impartial and duly designated by the Court respecting the generally recognized

the principles of proper judicial proceedings, which include guarantees that the



and judicial proceedings the accused shall provide) the opportunity to be promptly

informed about the details of the crime from which the accused, and

shall provide the defendant before driving and during the proceedings, all the necessary

the rights and means of defence;



(b)) no one will be convicted of the offence otherwise than on the basis of personal

criminal liability;



(c)) no one will be charged with or sentenced for an act or omission,

that was not a criminal offence under the law of the State or

international law applicable to such person at the time of

the said Act or omission. Will not be liable to a penalty more severe,

than what could be saved at the time when the offence was committed.

If the law issued after the offence a lighter sentence, the

This law is applied in favour of the offender;



(d) each defendant) presumed innocent, until in accordance

legally proven guilty;



e) each defendant will have the right to take legal proceedings held in his

the presence of;



f) nobody will be forced to testify against themselves or to confess to

blame;



g) each defendant has the right to examine or have hear witnesses


giving evidence against him and the right to demonstrate and the hearing of witnesses

his behalf under the same conditions as witnesses against him;



h) nobody will be prosecuted or punished by the same party for an offence for

that has already been handed down the final judgment of the liberating or judgmental

This person under the same law and judicial procedure;



I) each defendant is entitled to judgment was handed down publicly;



(j)) to the offender will be informed when judgment has been given, what are the legal and

other remedies and the periods within which it can assert.



5. Women whose freedom is restricted for reasons connected with the armed

the conflict, will be located separately from the men. Will be under the direct

the supervision of women. However, in cases where they are detained or interned

the family, in the case of options will be located in the same place and accommodated

as family units.



6. persons who are arrested, detained or interned for reasons of

related to the armed conflict, shall enjoy the protection provided for

This article even after the termination of the armed conflict until his

the final release, repatriation or resettlement.



7. In order to avoid any doubt concerning the prosecution and

the trial of persons indicted of war crimes or crimes against

humanity, the following principles will apply:



and) persons indicted by the of these crimes will be prosecuted and judged in accordance

with the applicable norms of international law and



(b)) with all persons who do not benefit from more favourable treatment in accordance

with the conventions or this Protocol shall be treated in accordance with this article

regardless of whether the crimes from which they are taken against companies, or

they are not a serious violation of the conventions or of this Protocol.



8. None of the provisions of this article shall be construed as limiting

or invasive of any other more favourable provisions providing, in

accordance with the applicable standards of international law more protection to the persons for

referred to in paragraph 1.



Chapter II



Measures in favour of women and children



Article 76



Protection of women



1. on the special account will be taken of women and will be protected in particular against

rape, forced prostitution and any other forms of indecent assault

the negotiations.



2. Pregnant women and mothers of small or dependent children, that have been

trapped, zdrženy or interned for reasons related to the armed

the conflict, have the right to make their case was discussed

as a priority.



3. the parties in conflict will as far as possible seek to

the death penalty has not been carried over in pregnant women or mothers of small and

their dependent children for an offence related to the armed conflict.

The death penalty for such acts will not be enforced on these women.



Article 77



The protection of children



1. Children shall be taken into account and special will be protected from any

forms of immoral conduct. The parties in the conflict to ensure the protection and

the help they need because of their age and other reasons.



2. the parties to a conflict shall take all possible measures to ensure that children

they have not reached the age of 15 years, directly participate in hostilities, and

in particular, they shall refrain from that is to povolávaly of their armed forces.

In recruiting among those persons who have attained the age of 15 years, but have not reached the age of 18

years, the parties in the conflict to try to give priority to the elderly.



3. where, in exceptional cases, and despite the provisions of paragraph 2,

children who have not reached the age of 15 years, will immediately attend the

hostilities and fall into the power of the other side, will continue to be

enjoy the special protection provided by this article, regardless,

whether they are prisoners of war.



4. In the case of imprisonment, detention or internment for reasons associated with the

armed conflict, children will be located separately from the adults, with

the exception of those cases where the family will be accommodated as family units in

accordance with article 75, paragraph 5.



5. The death penalty for an offence related to the armed conflict will not be

carried out on persons who have not reached the age of 18 years at the time when this

Act was committed.



Article 78



Evacuation of children



1. Any party to a conflict shall not take a measure to evacuate other children than

children of its nationals to a foreign country with the exception of the temporary evacuation of

urgent reasons having to do with health or Pediatrics

or, if you are not located in the occupied territory, with their

safety. In cases where it can be found, the parents or legal

guardians, is such an evacuation of their written consent. If

These persons cannot be found, it should be written consent with this

evacuation from persons who by law or custom of the bear the main

responsibility for the care of children. Over any such evacuation will have supervision

protective power in agreement with the interested parties, notably the

party to ensure the evacuation, party receiving the children and parties,

whose nationals are evacuated. In any case, shall take all

the parties in the conflict to take all possible preventive measures to ensure that the evacuation

has not been compromised.



2. in all cases evacuation made under paragraph 1 shall each

the baby all the time with the greatest possible continuity provided

education, including religious and moral education according to the wishes of his parents.



3. In order to facilitate the return of the children evacuated in accordance with this article to

their families and to their country, the authorities of parties handling the evacuation, and

If this is feasible, the authorities of the receiving country shall issue to each child

an identification card with photo, which will be sent to the Central Search service

The International Red Cross. Each card will contain, according to

options, and if that doesn't mean injury or risk to safety

the child, the following information:



and child's name);



(b)) the name (or names);



(c) the sex of the baby);



d) place and date of birth (if the date is not known, therefore the approximate age);



(e) the full name of the father);



(f) the full name of the mother) and her maiden name;



g) next of kin of the child;



h) nationality of the child;



I) the native language of the child and all other languages spoken;



j) address family of the child;



to) any identifying number of the child;



l) the State of health of the child;



m) blood group;



n) special characteristics;



about) the date and the place where the child was found;



p) the date and place where the child has left the country;



q) religion of the child, if any;



r the child's current address) in the recipient country;



with the death of a child) before returning the date, place and circumstances of death

and the place of his burial.



Chapter III



Journalists



Article 79



Measures to protect journalists



1. Journalists filling a dangerous professional tasks in the areas of

the armed conflict will be considered as civilians within the meaning of

Article 50, paragraph 1.



2. As such, will be protected by the conventions and this Protocol in

provided that it shall not take any action incompatible with their status

civilian people, and is without prejudice to the right of war correspondents

accredited by the armed forces on the enjoyment of the status within the meaning of article 4 of the

And the third), 4) of the Convention.



3. They can get personal licence based on the model appearing in annex II to

This Protocol. This card, which will be issued by the Government of the State whose

the journalist is a national or in whose territory he is resident or at

whose territory it is situated, the information agency which employs the

to confirm his status as a journalist.



Part V



Implementation of the conventions and of this Protocol



Section I



General provisions



Article 80



Implementing measures



1. The High Contracting Parties and parties to the conflict shall, without delay, all

the measures necessary for the implementation of the commitments, which they are stored to the conventions

and by this Protocol.



2. The High Contracting Parties and parties to the conflict shall issue orders and instructions to the

ensuring compliance with the conventions and this Protocol and on the co-operative

their implementation.



Article 81



The activities of the Red Cross and other humanitarian organizations



1. the parties in conflict to the International Committee of the Red Cross shall provide in

to the extent possible all resources for the performance of the humanitarian functions,

to it by the conventions and this Protocol are stored in order to ensure

protection of and assistance to victims of conflicts. The International Committee of the Red Cross

It may also carry out any other humanitarian activities in favour of the

These victims with the consent of the parties concerned in the conflict.



2. the parties to a conflict shall provide to the competent organizations of the Red

Cross (Red Crescent, Red Lion and Sun) the resources necessary

for the performance of their humanitarian activities in favour of victims of conflicts in

accordance with the provisions of the conventions and this Protocol and basic principles

The Red Cross on international conferences of the Red zformulovanými

Cross.



3. The High Contracting Parties and the parties in conflict in all possible ways

assist organizations of the Red Cross (Red Crescent, Red

the lion and the Sun) and the League of Red Cross in providing assistance

the victims of the conflicts in accordance with the provisions of the conventions and of this Protocol and shall

the fundamental principles of the Red Cross on international zformulovanými

conferences of the Red Cross.



4. The High Contracting Parties and parties to the conflict shall provide, if it will be


possible resources similar to those referred to in paragraphs 2 and 3,

other humanitarian organizations referred to in the conventions and, in this

The Protocol which are duly authorised by the relevant parties in the

conflict and which perform their humanitarian activities in accordance with

the provisions of the conventions and of this Protocol.



Article 82



Legal advisers in the armed forces



The High Contracting Parties at all times and the parties in the conflict at the time of

armed conflict shall ensure that legal advisers are available,

who could, if necessary, to provide military commanders on

the appropriate level of legal advice with regard to the application of the conventions and of this

Of the Protocol and on the appropriate instruction to be in this direction to the armed

the forces of the awarded.



Article 83



Dissemination Of Conventions



1. The High Contracting Parties undertake, in time of peace, as well as in

the time of armed conflict, to disseminate the Convention in their respective countries, and this

Log in as far as possible and, in particular, their study be included in the

military training programs and will support their study of civil

the population so as to familiarise themselves with these documents, the armed forces and

the civilian population.



2. the military or civilian authorities who, in time of armed conflict

take responsibility for the application of the conventions and of this Protocol, shall be

fully familiar with their lyrics.



Article 84



Application rules



The High Contracting Parties shall communicate, as soon as possible

through the depositary or through trade

powers of their official translations of this Protocol, as well as laws and

the regulation, which they have adopted to ensure its application.



Section II



Prosecutions for violations of the Conventions and of this Protocol



Article 85



Prosecution for the violation of this Protocol



1. the provisions of the conventions relating to prosecution for violation of and serious

violation of, this section will be subject to prosecution for

the breach and the serious violations of this Protocol.



2. Acts qualified as serious violations of the conventions are serious

breaches of this Protocol, when committed against persons in the power of

the opposite side of a protected article 44, 45 and 73 of this Protocol, or

against the wounded, sick, and search across the protected this

Protocol, or against the medical or spiritual staff

medical units or medical transportation resources

which are controlled by the opposite party and are protected by this

Protocol.



3. In addition to serious breach as defined in article 11 shall be

for serious violations of this Protocol, when committed intentionally,

představujíce as a violation of the relevant provisions of this Protocol, and

If he causes death or serious bodily injury or damage to health, these

actions:



and attack civilian populations or) individual civilians;



(b) the indiscriminate attack affecting) initiation of the civilian population

or civilian objects, with the knowledge that such attack will cause

excessive loss of life, injury to civilians or damage to the

civilian objects, as defined in paragraph 2, and article 58)

(iii));



(c)) begin attack against buildings and equipment containing dangerous

the force, if it is known that such an attack will cause excessive loss of

lives, injuries of civilians or damage to civilian objects,

as defined in article 57, paragraph 2), and (iii));



(d)) infestation of unprotected sites and demilitarizovaných zones;



(e)) infestation of the person about whom it is known that he is unable to fight;



(f) the use of the rozeznávacího character untrue) of the Red Cross, the Red

the Crescent or Red Lion and Sun or of other protective character

accepted conventions and this Protocol, and thus a violation of article 37.



4. in addition to serious violations as defined in the preceding paragraphs and in the

The conventions will be considered serious violations of this Protocol, provided that the

committed intentionally, představujíce violation of the Conventions or of this so

The Protocol, these acts:



the transfer parts of its own) and of the civilian population the occupation powers

not the territory that it occupies, deportation or transfer of all or part of the

the population of the occupied territory within or outside this territory, which is

violation of article 49 of the Fourth Convention;



(b) unjustified delay) repatriation of prisoners of war or civilian

people;



(c)) the application of apartheid or commit other inhumane and humiliating

offences, including insulting human dignity, based on racial

discrimination;



(d)) infestation of recognizable historical monuments clearly, artistic

works of art and places of worship that are cultural and spiritual

heritage of peoples and to which special agreement was concluded for example. in the framework of the

relevant international organizations given particular protection, and in whose

as a result of their considerable damage has occurred, if there is no evidence,

that the opposite party violated article 53, paragraph (b)) and, if such

the historic monuments, works of art and places of worship, for Congress

not in the immediate vicinity of military objects;



(e) deprivation of the person protected by the Conventions) or that referred to in paragraph 2 of this

Article the right to proper and impartial judicial procedure.



5. Without prejudice to the application of the conventions and of this Protocol will be a serious breach of the

These documents are considered to be war crimes.



Article 86



The omission of



1. The High Contracting Parties and parties to the conflict must prosecute serious

violations and take the necessary measures to prosecute all other

violations of the conventions or of this Protocol, which originated from the omission of

the obligation to act.



2. the fact that violations of the conventions or of this Protocol was committed

a child of the person, does not relieve his superiors of criminal or disciplinary

liability, depending on whether you knew or should have information which would

enable them to in the circumstances existing at that time to conclude that the

a child of a person has committed or is about to commit, such violations, and

If not done all possible measures within their power to

prevent the violation or to his prosecution.



Article 87 of the



Obligation to the masters



1. The High Contracting Parties and parties to the conflict shall require the

military commanders, as regards members of the armed forces under their

command and other persons child, did not suffer violations of conventions and

This Protocol and, if necessary, prosecuted and violations of this

gave them to the competent authorities.



2. In order to avoid and prevent breaches, High Contracting Parties

and the parties in the conflict from the commanders to require within their

responsibility to ensure that the members of the armed forces under their

the command of understand your obligations under the conventions and this Protocol.



3. The High Contracting Parties and parties to the conflict shall require the

the Commander, who is aware of the fact that his subordinates or other persons

under his control are about to violate or breach the Convention or this

The Protocol, has taken the necessary steps to prevent such

violations of the conventions or of this Protocol and where there is a need to

initiated disciplinary or criminal prosecution of those who make those

infringement committed.



Article 88



Mutual legal assistance in criminal matters



1. The High Contracting Parties shall provide each other the greatest possible legal aid

in the criminal proceedings instituted in cases of serious violations of the conventions or

of this Protocol.



2. Without prejudice to the rights and obligations laid down in the conventions and in article 85

paragraph 1 of this Protocol, the High Contracting Parties will, if it

circumstances, to cooperate on the issue of extradition. Duly consider the request

State in whose territory the alleged violation occurred.



3. the Laws of the requested High Contracting Parties will, in all cases

apply. However, the provisions of the preceding paragraphs shall not affect

obligations arising from the provisions of other bilateral or multilateral

the Treaty, which is fully or partially modifies or edited

mutual legal assistance in criminal matters.



Article 89



Cooperation



In the event of serious violations of the conventions or of this Protocol, the high

the Contracting Parties undertake to act, jointly or individually, in the

cooperation with the United Nations and, in accordance with the Charter of

Of the United Nations.



Article 90



The International Commission of inquiry



1.



and) will be created investigative Commission (hereinafter

"The Commission"), composed of the 15 members of high moral qualities and

a recognised impartiality.



b) after no less than twenty High Contracting Parties shall agree

accept the competence of the Commission, in accordance with paragraph 2, the depositary shall convene and

then at intervals of five years will again convene Conference

representatives of those High Contracting Parties for the purpose of election of the members of the Commission.

The Conference shall elect the representatives of the members of the Commission introduction by secret ballot of the

the list of persons to which each of the High Contracting Parties

propose one person.



(c) the members of the Commission will be in) persona to carry out its functions until the election of new

members at the following Conference.



(d)) in elections the High Contracting Parties shall ensure that persons to be

elected to the Commission, should the qualifications required and that in the Commission as a

a whole, ensure equitable geographical representation.




e) in the case of the Commission itself to free up space, this free space

fill up with due regard to the provisions of the preceding paragraphs.



f) depositary for the Commission the necessary administrative facilities

for the performance of its functions.



2.



and) the High Contracting Parties may at the time of signature, ratification or accession,

to the Protocol, or at any later time declare that they recognize ipso facto and

without a special agreement with any of the other High Contracting Party to the

receiving the same obligation, the competence of the Commission to investigate the other side,

how this justifies this article.



(b)) the above declaration will be deposited with the depositary, which shall transmit

their copy of the High Contracting Parties.



(c)) the Commission is responsible:



I) investigate the fact that to be a serious breach, as

is defined by the conventions and this Protocol or other serious violations of

Of the conventions or of this Protocol;



(ii)) by submitting your good services to help to restore the situation where

the Convention and this Protocol.



(d)) in other situations, commence the investigation at the request of the parties in the

the conflict only with the consent of the other party or relevant others

party.



(e) without prejudice to the preceding provisions) of this paragraph, will continue to be

apply the provisions of article 52 article 53 of the Convention, the first of the second Convention,

Article 132 the third Convention and article 149 of the Fourth Convention when the alleged infringement

Of the conventions and of this Protocol when the alleged infringement.



3.



and if appropriate) unless otherwise agreed by the parties, all investigations will be

perform a Chamber consisting of seven members appointed as follows:



and five members of the Commission), who do not have to be citizens of any of the parties in the conflict,

will be appointed Chairman of the Commission on the basis of equitable geographical

representation in consultation with the parties in the conflict,



II) two ad hoc members who do not have to be citizens of any of the parties in the

the conflict, will be appointed by each Party shall propose one.



(b)) after the request for investigation of the President of the Commission shall set a term for

the creation of the Chamber. If any of the ad hoc members appointed in

the deadline, the President immediately called in the interest of completeness of composition

The Chamber additional member or supplementary members of the Commission.



4.



and the Chamber created) under paragraph 3 to perform the investigation prompts

the parties in the conflict, to assist and to provide evidence. The Chamber also

can discover additional evidence as it considers relevant, and may carry out

investigation of the situation on the ground.



(b)) the parties will fully familiar with all the evidence and will have the right

to submit their comments to the Commission to such evidence.



(c)), each Party shall have the right to raise objections against such evidence.



5.



the Commission shall submit to the parties) and a report on the facts established by the Chamber of

together with the recommendations that it considers appropriate.



(b) if the Chamber does not have the ability) to provide sufficient evidence for

objective and unbiased conclusions, must give the reasons why it did not happen.



(c)) the Commission does not disclose its conclusions, if all parties in the

the conflict demand so that the Commission has made.



6. the Commission shall establish its own rules of procedure, including rules on

the Presidency, the Commission and the Presidency of the Chamber. The rules of procedure has

to ensure that the duties of the President of the Commission have been carried out at all times and

in the event of investigations have been carried out by a person who is not a citizen

the parties in the conflict.



7. the Commission's administrative expenditure will be covered by contributions from the High Contracting

the parties that have made the declaration under paragraph 2, and of the voluntary

contributions. Party in the conflict or a conflict, the Parties requesting

the investigation will provide the necessary means to the backup form expenses Chamber

you will be met by a party or parties against which the claim

filed, and to the extent of 50 per cent of expenses Chamber. If you are

The Chamber presented and protitvrzení, each Party shall provide a fifty percent

the necessary resources.



Article 91



The liability of the



Party in the conflict, which violates any of the provisions of the conventions or of this

The Protocol will be obliged to pay compensation if it occurred. Will

be liable for all damages committed by persons belonging to the

the armed forces.



Part VI



Final provisions



Article 92



The signature of the



This Protocol shall be open for signature by the parties to the Conventions six months after

the signature of the final act and will remain open for signature for twelve

months.



Article 93



The ratification of the



This Protocol shall be ratified as soon as possible. Ratification of the

shall be deposited with the Swiss Federal Council, depositary of the conventions.



Article 94



Access



This Protocol shall be open for accession to any side of the conventions which it

did not sign. The instrument of accession shall be deposited with the depositary.



Article 95



Entry into force of



1. this Protocol shall enter into force six months after the deposit of the two

instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.



2. For each party to the conventions, which ratifies the Protocol, or

Bulgaria shall take effect six months after the deposit of its

instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.



Article 96



Contractual relations after the entry into force of this Protocol



1. If the parties to the conventions are also parties to this Protocol, the

The Convention will apply as supplemented by this Protocol.



2. If one of the parties in conflict is not bound by this Protocol,

Parties to the Protocol will continue to be bound by this Protocol in their

mutual relations. Will continue to be bound by this Protocol in relation to the

each of the parties who are not bound by it, if such parties shall adopt and

they will apply the provisions of this Protocol.



3. the authority that is representative of the nation battling against some of the

The High Contracting Party in the armed conflict of the type that speaks

Article 1, paragraph 4, may be unilateral declaration addressed

commit to the depositary in the conflict, to apply the Convention and the

Protocol. Such a declaration will be in relation to this conflict have

of its receipt by the depositary of the following effects:



and the Convention and this Protocol) are effective for that authority as

side in the conflict with immediate effect;



(b)) the above authority shall have the same rights and obligations as High Contracting

Parties to the conventions and this Protocol, and



(c)) of the Convention and this Protocol are equally binding on all parties in the

the conflict.



Article 97



Changes



1. Any High Contracting Party may propose amendments to this Protocol.

The text of the proposed changes will be sent to the depositary, which, after consultation with the

all High Contracting Parties and the International Committee of the Red

Cross will decide whether it is necessary to convene a Conference to assess the proposed

changes.



2. the depositary shall invite to that Conference all the High Contracting Parties,

as well as the parties to the conventions regardless of whether you have signed this Protocol or

not.



Article 98



The revision of annex I of



1. No later than four years after the entry into force of this Protocol and

then, at intervals of not less than four years, the International Committee of the

Red Cross to consult the High Contracting Parties, as regards annex

And to this Protocol, and, if it considers it necessary, may call a

meeting of technical experts to review annex I and designing

such changes in it, which may be desirable. If during the six months

from the High Contracting Parties, on the proposal for the convening of the meeting does not have

one third of them object, the International Committee of the Red Cross a

the meeting will convene at the same time invite observers and relevant international

organizations. Such a meeting may also be convened by the International Committee

The Red Cross at any time at the request of one third of the High

of the Contracting Parties.



2. the depositary shall convene a Conference of High Contracting Parties and the parties to these

Conventions to discuss the amendments proposed on the advice of technical experts,

If, after such consultation requested by the International Committee of the Red Cross

or one third of the High Contracting Parties.



3. amendments to annex I may be admitted to such a Conference

a two-thirds majority of those present and voting of the High Contracting

party.



4. the depositary shall communicate any amendment thus adopted by the High Contracting Parties to the

and the parties to the conventions. The changes will be considered to be received after the expiry of one

year of such communication, if not in this period to the depositary

Declaration of non-acceptance of the changes at least one third of the High Contracting

party.



5. An amendment deemed to have been accepted in accordance with paragraph 4 shall take

force three months after its acceptance for all the High Contracting Parties

In addition to those that have made a declaration of non-acceptance of these amendments in accordance

with this paragraph. The party that has made such a declaration may in

any time recall and a change in this case, the Party shall take

the validity of three months after such appeal.



6. the depositary shall inform the High Contracting Parties and parties to the conventions on

entry into force of the amendments, about which the parties are bound by them, on the date of

entry into force of these amendments, in relation to each side, of the declarations

about the rejection of the amendments made in accordance with paragraph 4 and appeals

such statements.



Article 99



Notice of termination



1. In the event that a high contracting party, this Protocol is denounced, testimony

shall be effective only for the year of receipt of the instrument of denunciation. If

However, denouncing the party after this year, located in one of the


the situations referred to in article 1, the dismissal before the termination of operative

the armed conflict or occupation and in any case before the end

operations associated with the final release, repatriation or upon

persons protected by the conventions and this Protocol.



2. the Denunciation shall be notified in writing to the depositary, which shall communicate it to all

The High Contracting Parties.



3. The denunciation shall have effect only for the denouncing party.



4. the Notice referred to in paragraph 1 shall not affect the obligations that have already

incurred by reason of the armed conflict under this Protocol for the

such denouncing party in respect of acts committed before

the testimony came into force.



Article 100



Notification



The depositary shall inform the High Contracting Parties, as well as the parties to the conventions

regardless of whether they are signatories of this Protocol or not:



about signatures) annexed to this Protocol and the deposit of instruments of ratification

instruments or of instruments of accession in accordance with articles 93 and 94;



(b)) of the date of entry into force of this Protocol in accordance with article 95;



(c) communications and declarations), received in accordance with articles 84, 90

and 97;



(d)) of the declarations received under article 96, paragraph 3, which must be

What is the fastest way and communicated to the



e) notice in accordance with article 99.



Article 101



Registration



1. after the entry into force of this Protocol the depositary shall send to the Secretariat

The United Nations for registration and publication in accordance with the

Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.



2. the depositary shall also inform the Secretariat of the United

the Nations of all ratifications, approaches and denunciations received in

the context of this Protocol.



Article 102



Authentic texts



The original of this Protocol, of which the English, Arabic, Chinese,

French, Russian and Spanish text being equally authentic, shall be deposited with

the depositary, who shall send certified copies of it to all parties to the conventions.



Annex I



The rules concerning the identification of



Chapter 1



ID cards



Article 1



Identity card for permanent civilian medical and spiritual staff



1. the identity card for permanent civilian medical and spiritual staff

referred to in article 18, paragraph 3 of the Protocol should:



and distinguishing character) have and of such size that it can be worn in a Pocket;



(b)) to be nejtrvanlivějším as possible;



(c)) to be filled in the national or official language (and may be in addition

listed in other languages);



(d)) indicate the name, date of birth (or, if this date is not

There, age at time of release), and social security number of the holder, if any;



e) indicate to what extent the holder is entitled to rely on the protection of the conventions and

This Protocol;



f) contain a photograph of the holder, as well as his signature or mark,

or both;



(g)) be stamped and signed by the competent national authority;



h) bear the date of issue and date of expiry of this licence.



2. Identity card will be uniform for the whole of the territory of each High Contracting

the parties, and, if possible, will be of the same type for all parties in the

the conflict. The parties in the conflict can control the jednojazyčným pattern

listed in table 1. At the beginning of hostilities shall communicate,

the model licence used, if this pattern differs from the model

listed in table 1. ID cards are issued, if this will be

possible, in duplicate; one copy will be in the custody of the issuing authority,

who should carry out the control of licences issued.



3. Under no circumstances shall be the permanent civilian medical and

spiritual his identity card withdrawn staff. In case of loss

the card will be eligible for the issuance of a duplicate.



Article 2



Identity card for temporary civilian medical and spiritual staff



1. the identity card for temporary civilian medical and spiritual

staff should be, if possible, similar to the licence

provided for in article 1 of these rules. The participants in the conflict can

the model set out in table 1.



2. If circumstances do not permit issued for temporary civilian medical and

spiritual staff ID cards, which are similar to those described in the

Article 1 of these rules, this staff may be receipted

signed by the competent authority certifying that the person is

licence has been issued, is intended to carry out the duties as temporary staff and

that, where possible, provides notice of the duration of the task and the

the right of that person to wear distinguishing character. The acknowledgement should contain

holder's name, date of birth (or, if this date is not

There, his age at the time of issue of the licence), its function and birth

the number, if any. It will include his signature or mark, or

both.



The front of the

Red Cross Red Cross



(space reserved for the name of the country and the authority issuing this card)



Identity card



Permanent medical

for civilian staff

the temporary spiritual



--------------------------------------------------



Jméno .......................................................................................................

............................................................................................................

Date of birth (or age).................................................................................

Social security number (if applicable)................................................................................

The holder of this licence is protected by the Geneva Conventions of 12. August 1949 and the additional protocol to the Geneva

Conventions of 12. August 1949 on the protection of victims of international armed conflicts (Protocol I) in his post.. ...



Release date ........................................................... Card Number......................

Signature of issuing authority



Expiry date............................................



Table 1. The pattern of the identity card

(format: 74 mm x 105 mm)



The back page



Výška ................... Oči ....................... Vlasy ..........................



Other special signs or information:

............................................................................................................

............................................................................................................

............................................................................................................



Photograph of the holder



Stamp signature of the holder or

thumbprint, or both



Chapter 2



Distinguishing character



Article 3



The shape and nature of the



1. the Distinguishing sign (red on a white background) will be so large as it

they will require. As regards the shape of the Red Cross, the Crescent

or the lion and the Sun, the High Contracting Parties control patterns listed

in table 2.



2. At night or in poor visibility may be distinguishing character

illuminated or illuminated; It may also be constructed of such materials,

to make it possible to identify the technical means of detection.



the Crescent Red Cross the lion and the Sun



Table 2. Red distinguishing characters on a white background



Article 4



The use of the



1. the Distinguishing character will, if possible, is placed on a smooth

surface or on flags visible from all directions, and at such a great

the distance, as possible.



2. Depending on the instructions of the competent authority will be the medical and

staff carrying out their spiritual duties in the area of the fighting, if it

It will be possible, wear headgear and clothing with distinguishing character.



Chapter 3



Distinguishing signals



Article 5



Voluntary use of



1. Without prejudice to the provisions of article 6 of these rules will not be signals intended

in this chapter for exclusive use of medical units and

medical transport means used for no other purposes.

The use of all signals referred to in this section is voluntary.



2. temporary medical aircraft from lack of time or for your

parameters cannot be marked with the distinguishing sign may be used

rozeznávacích signals authorized in this chapter. The best method

effective identification and recognition of medical aircraft, however, is

the use of Visual signals, either rozeznávacího, or the character of the light

the signal specified in article 6, or both, supplemented by other signals

referred to in articles 7 and 8 of these rules.



Article 6



Light signal



1. Light signals consisting of intermittent blue light is

designed to use a medical plane to identify it. This

the signal will not be used by any other aircraft. The recommended blue colour

is manufactured using these three chromatic coordinates:

the boundaries of the Green y = 0.065 + 0.805

the boundaries of the white y =-x 0.400

the boundaries of the purple color x = + y 0.133 0.600



The recommended frequency of flashes of blue light is between 60 and 100 flashes

in one minute.



2. Medical aircraft should be fitted with lights needed in order to

that the light signal seen from as many directions as possible.



3. If a conflict does not exist between the parties in a specific agreement


vyhražující the use of intermittent blue light for identification

medical vehicles, ships and vessels, not the use of such signals

for other vehicles and ship disabled.



Article 7



Radio signals



1. The radio signal will consist of radiotelefonické or

radiotelegraphy messages that will be preceded by a clear distinguishing

priority signal, which will be determined and approved by the world administrative

the International Telecommunications Union radio conferences. Will be posted

three times before the aircraft call sign medical transport

resource. This message will be broadcast in English in the relevant

intervals on the frequency or frequencies specified in accordance with paragraph

3. using the priority signal is only authorised for medical

and the medical transport units resources.



2. the Radio message, which will be preceded by a clear priority signal

referred to in paragraph 1 shall contain the following information:



and the callsign of the medical transport);



(b)) of the Habitat of the medical transport;



(c) the number and type of health care) means of transport;



(d) the intended route of movement;)



e) depending on the circumstances during the move and the estimated time of departure time and

arrival;



(f) any further information such as) flight altitude, controlled radio

frequencies, the agreed languages, ways of working and secondary systems codes

radar control.



3. in order to facilitate the submission of the reports referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2, as well as

the reports referred to in articles 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 and 31 of this

The Protocol, the High Contracting Parties which are parties to a conflict, or

one party in the conflict, acting in agreement or alone, may, in

accordance with the overview of allocated frequencies in the Radio Regulations

annexed to the International Telecommunication Convention, determine and publish

selected national frequencies that will be used for such communication. These

the frequencies will be communicated to the International Telecommunication Union in accordance with

the procedure, which will be approved by the World Administrative Radio

conferences.



Article 8



Electronic identification



1. the system of secondary radar control, as described in annex 10 to the

The Chicago Convention on international civil air transport of 7. December

1944 along with later modifications, can be used to identify and

flight tracking rates of medical aircraft. The way you work and the code

the CSF system intended for the exclusive use of medical aircraft will

determined by the High Contracting Parties, the parties in conflict or one

of the parties in the conflict, acting in agreement or separately in accordance with

the procedure, which will be recommended by the international civil

Aviation.



2. the parties to a conflict may conclude a special agreement, and

provide for the application of a similar electronic system to identify

medical vehicles and medical ships and craft.



Chapter 4



Connection



Article 9



Radio link



Priority signal provided for in article 7 of these rules can prevent

relevant radio communication transmitted by health care units and

medical transportation resources when you use the procedure set out in

articles 22, 23, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30 and 31 of the Protocol.



Article 10



The use of international codes



Medical units and medical transportation resources may also

use of codes and signals laid down by the International Telecommunication Union,

International Civil Aviation Organization and the Intergovernmental Maritime Consultative

organizations. These codes and signals will be used in accordance with the standards,

practice and procedures set forth by these organizations.



Article 11



Other means of connection



If it is not possible to two-way radio contact, the signals may be used

laid down by the international code signal, taken by Intergovernmental Maritime

the advisory organization or the appropriate annex to the Chicago Convention on

international civilian air transport of 7. December 1944, together with the

later modifications.



Article 12



Flight plans



The agreement and the notice concerning flight plans provided for in article 29 of the

The Protocol will be based on the options formulated in accordance with the procedures

laid down by the International Civil Aviation Organisation.



Article 13



Signals and procedures for the detention of medical aircraft



If it is detaining the plane used to verify the identity of the medical

the aircraft in flight, or to ensure that it is applied to land in accordance with the

articles 30 and 31 of the Protocol, it should signal system and medical aircraft

use standard Visual and radio procedures for detention prescribed

Annex 2 to the Chicago Convention on international civil air transport of

on December 7, 1944, together with later modifications.



Chapter 5



Civil Defense



Article 14



Identity card



1. card of identification of personnel civil defence provided for in article 66

paragraph 3 of the Protocol shall be governed by the provisions of article 1 of these

the rules.



2. card of identification for civil defence personnel may drive the pattern

listed in table 3.



3. where the Civil Defense personnel allowed to wear lightweight personal

weapons, it should be mentioned in the certificate.



Table 3. A model identity card for staff of civil defence

(format: 74 mm x 105 mm)



the blue triangle blue triangle

on the orange background on orange background

The front of the



(Instead of reserved for the name of the country and the authority that issued this card)



Identity card

for the staff of civil defence

-----------------------------



Jméno .......................................................................................................

............................................................................................................

Date of birth (or age).................................................................................

Social security number (if applicable)................................................................................

The holder of this licence is protected by the Geneva Conventions of 12. August 1949 and the additional protocol to the Geneva

Conventions of 12. August 1949 on the protection of victims of international armed conflicts (Protocol I) in his post.. ...



Release date ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ID...........................................

Signature of issuing authority



The expiration date ... ... ... ... ... ... ...



The back page



Výška .......................... Oči ............................ Vlasy.............................



Other special signs or information:

............................................................................................................

............................................................................................................

............................................................................................................

Weapons

............................................................................................................



Photograph of the holder



Stamp signature of the holder or

thumbprint, or both



Article 15



International distinguishing sign



1. International distinguishing sign of civil defence provided for in article

66 paragraph 4 of Protocol is an isosceles triangle on the Orange Blue

the background. A specimen is given in table 4.

the blue triangle

on orange background



Table 4. The blue triangle on an orange background



2. It is recommended that:



and if the blue triangle) on the flag, tape or clothing, background

the triangle formed the Orange flag, tape or clothing;



(b) one of the angles of a triangle) pointing vertically upwards;



(c) none of the angles of a triangle), does not touch the edges of the Orange order.



3. International distinguishing character is as great as it will require

the circumstances. Distinguishing character will, if possible, located on a flat

surface or on flags visible from all directions and such

the distance, as possible. In accordance with the instructions of the competent

the authority will be a civil defense staff to wear, if possible,

headgear and clothing with international distinguishing sign. At night, or

When visibility is a character might shine or be illuminated; It may also

be made of materials that enable its detection technical

detection means.



Chapter 6



Construction and installations containing dangerous forces



Article 16



International special character



1. the international special sign for works and installations containing

dangerous forces, as provided for in article 56, paragraph 7 of the Protocol,

will consist of 3 groups of bright orange circles of the same size

placed on the same axis, while the distance between each circle will be

a RADIUS in accordance with table 5 depicted below.



2. Character will be as large as required by circumstances. If it is hosted

over a larger area, it can be repeated as often as required

the circumstances. If possible, it will be placed on a flat surface or on the

flags so as to be visible from all directions, and at such a distance,

as soon as possible.



3. On the flag will be the distance between the outer edges of the character and the adjacent

party flag a circle's RADIUS. The flag will be rectangular with white


background.



4. At night or in poor visibility can be a lit or

lit. It can also be made from PII to discover materials to

technical means of detection.



Yeah Yeah Yeah

Orange Orange Orange



Table 5. International special sign for construction

and equipment containing dangerous forces



Annex A, Part II



Identity card of the journalist who satisfies the dangerous professional tasks

The front of the



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



This identity card is issued

journalists who satisfies the dangerous

Professional tasks in the areas of

of armed conflicts. The holder is

entitled to the name of the country with him

treated as a civilian by the person issuing the licence

in accordance with the Geneva Conventions

of the 12. August 1949 and with their

Additional Protocol I.

The holder of the licence must be constantly

at all times. If apprehended, it immediately

shall transmit to the authorities, who have detained him, the identity card of journalist,

in order to assist them finding their who satisfies the dangerous

identity. Professional tasks



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



The back page



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Released by whom (competent authority).................... The height of the................. Oči ........................



Photos Of The Place ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Váha .................. Vlasy ......................

the holder of the

Datum ................................ Blood group. RH factor



The official seal of Religion (optional)..........................



.................................. Signature of the holder's fingerprints (optional)



Příjmení ......................................... The imprint left the imprint of the right

the index finger index finger

Jméno ............................................



Place and date of birth...........................



Correspondent...................................... Special signs



Kind of employment..................................



Platný do ........................................



-----------------------------------------------------------------



The additional protocol



to the Geneva Conventions of 12. August 1949 on the protection of victims of armed

governmental and international character of the conflicts (Protocol II)



The High Contracting Parties,



připojímajíce that the humanitarian principles enshrined in common article 3 of the

The Geneva Conventions of 12. August 1949 form the basis of respect for the human personality

in cases of armed conflict, which does not have international character,



Recalling further that the international documents relating to the human

rights provide the basic protection of the human person,



Stressing the need to ensure a better protection of victims of armed

conflicts,



Recalling that, in cases not covered by the law,

remains of human personality under the protection of the principles of humaneness and requirements

social consciousness,



have agreed as follows



Part I



The scope of application of this Protocol



Article 1.



Material scope of application



1. this Protocol, which develops and supplements common article 3

The Geneva Conventions of 12. August 1949 and does not change the existing conditions of its

application, will apply to all armed conflicts that

they are not included in article 1 of the additional protocol to the Geneva Conventions of

12 August 1949 on the protection of victims of international armed conflicts

(Protocol I) and occurring on the territory of a high contracting party between

its armed forces and dissident armed forces or

in other organized armed groups integrity under the

the responsible command of such control over part of its territory, which they

allows you to maintain a sustained and concerted military operations and to apply this

Protocol.



2. this Protocol will be applied in the case of internal unrest and

tensions, such as riots, isolated and sporadic acts of violence and

other cases of a similar nature that are not considered to be armed

conflicts.



Article 2.



Personal scope of application



1. This Protocol shall be applied without any adverse distinction

based on race, colour, sex, language, religion or belief,

political or other opinion, national or social origin,

property, ancestry or other status, or on other similar

criteria (hereinafter referred to as "adverse distinction") to all persons

affected by armed conflict in the manner referred to in article 1.



2. At the end of the armed conflict, all persons deprived of liberty

or persons whose freedom has been limited because of a related

in such a conflict, as well as persons who have been deprived of their liberty or

whose freedom has been restricted after the conflict for the same reasons, the use of

the protection provided for in articles 5 and 6, as long as such deprivation or restriction of liberty

finishes.



Article 3.



Non-interference



1. No provision of this Protocol will be applied in order to

interfere with the sovereignty of the State or of the obligation of the Government to maintain and again

deploy all legal means of law and order in the State or to defend the

the national unity and territorial integrity of the State.



2. No provision of this Protocol shall be construed as permission to

direct or indirect interference by any reason to the armed

conflict or in the internal or Foreign Affairs High

the Contracting Party in whose territory this conflict occurred.



Part II



Humane treatment



Article 4.



Base warranty



1. All persons who are not directly involved in, or that have stopped

to participate in hostilities, regardless of whether their freedom

limited or not, have the right to respect for their person, honour,

belief and religion. Under all circumstances will be with them

treated humanely, without any adverse distinction. It is forbidden to

give an order that no one will be left alive.



2. Without prejudice to the General provisions referred to above are and will remain disabled

in every age and in every place the following acts against persons referred to in

paragraph 1:



and threaten life, health) and the physical or the mental state of

persons, in particular murder as well as cruel treatment such as torture, mutilation

or any form of corporal punishment;



(b) collective punishments;)



c) hostage taking;



d) terrorist acts;



e) insults the personal dignity, in particular humiliating and insulting

treatment, rape, forced prostitution and any form of indecent assault

the negotiations;



f) slavery and the slave trade in all their forms; g) pillage;



h) threats to execute any of the above acts.



3. children will be given the care and assistance they require, and in particular:



and they will be provided with education), including religious and moral education, in

accordance with the wishes of their parents or, in the absence of the parents of those who

are responsible for the care of them;



(b)), all necessary measures shall be taken, in order to facilitate

the unification of families, who are temporarily separated;



c) children under the age of 15 years into armed forces will be called upon or

groups, and they will not be allowed to participate in hostilities;



d) special protection provided by this article to children under the age of 15

years, they will be covered even if the right to participate in the

of hostilities notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (c)) and are captured;



(e)), if necessary, measures shall be taken, if possible, always

the consent of their parents or persons responsible for them under the law or

the habit mostly correspond to children have been temporarily relocated from the area

in which hostile actions, to safer areas in the country, and

in order to ensure that they are accompanied by persons responsible for their

safety and welfare.



Article 5.



Persons whose liberty has been restricted



1. in addition to the provisions of article 4 shall be complied with at least the following

the provisions relating to persons deprived of their liberty for reasons related to

armed conflict, whether interned or detained:



and with the wounded and the sick) will be treated in accordance with article 7;



(b)) the persons referred to in this paragraph shall be in the same range as

the local civilian population provided food and drinking water and

will be given the guarantees relating to health, hygiene and protection against

the elements of the climate and the dangers arising from the armed conflict;



(c)) will be given the opportunity to receive individual or collective support;



(d)) will be given the opportunity to perform their religious ceremonies, and if requested

about it and, if possible, to receive spiritual assistance from persons exercising

religious acts, for example. from priests, etc.;



(e)) will be forced to work, they will have a working conditions and guarantees

similar to those of the local civilian population.



2. Those who are responsible for the internment or detention of the persons referred to in

paragraph 1, within their capabilities, will also maintain the following

the provisions concerning the following persons:



and) except when they are men and women from the same family staying


together, they will be accommodated in the premises of women separate from men and will be

under the immediate supervision of women;



(b)) a person referred to in paragraph 1 shall be entitled to send and receive letters

and postcards in quantities that may be limited by the competent authority,

If it deems necessary;



(c)) and the detention internment facilities will be located near

the area of the fighting. The persons referred to in paragraph 1 shall be evacuated if they

areas where they are interned or detained, particularly exposed to

the danger arising from the armed conflict, if the

the evacuation be made sufficiently safe conditions;



(d)) will have the right to a medical examination;



(e)), their health and their physical or mental integrity will not be compromised

any unlawful act or omission. It is therefore forbidden to

subjugating persons referred to in this article to any medical procedure,

that the State of health of the person concerned does not require and which is not in accordance

with generally accepted medical standards used in relation to the free

persons under similar medical conditions.



3. Persons not referred to in paragraph 1, but whose freedom

was in any way restricted for reasons connected with the armed

the conflict will be treated humanely in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1

a), c) and (d)) and 2 (b)) of this article.



4. If it is determined to release persons deprived of freedom, those who shall take the

so decided to take the necessary action to ensure their safety.



Article 6.



Criminal prosecution



1. This article applies to the prosecution and punishment of offences

with armed conflict.



2. the Above persons who have been found guilty of a criminal offence, will not be

sentences and enforced penalties except in cases where there has been

judgment of the Court, which provides the basic guarantee of independence and

impartiality, in particular:



and judicial proceedings the accused shall provide) the opportunity to be promptly

informed about the details of the crime, from which it is charged and

shall provide the defendant before driving and during the proceedings, all the necessary

the rights and means of defence;



(b)) no one will be convicted of the offence otherwise than on the basis of personal

criminal liability;



(c)) no one will be convicted for an act or omission that was not in accordance with

the law, a criminal offence at the time a criminal offence. Similarly, it will not be saved

the penalty heavier than what could be saved at the time when the offence was

committed. If the law issued after the offence lighter

punishment, the law applied in favour of the offender;



(d) each defendant) presumed innocent, until in accordance

legally proven guilty;



e) each defendant will have the right to take legal proceedings held in his

the presence of;



f) nobody will be forced to testify against themselves or to confess to

blame.



3. The convicted person shall be informed when judgment has been given, what are the legal and

other remedies and the periods within which it can assert.



4. The death penalty will not be carried on persons younger than 18 years of age at the time of

committing a crime and will not be carried out on pregnant women and on

mothers of small children.



5. After the end of hostilities, the authorities will try to

to grant amnesty, in the widest possible extent persons who participated in the

armed conflict, or those that have been deprived of liberty for reasons of

related to the armed conflict, regardless of whether they were

interned or detained.



Part III



The wounded, sick and shipwrecked men



Article 7.



Protection and care



1. all the wounded, sick and shipwrecked men, regardless of whether the

took part in the armed conflict or not, will be respected and

protected.



2. In all circumstances be treated humanely, and they will be

granted to the greatest extent possible, and as quickly as possible medical care and

the treatment, which requires their status. The difference between them is not made from

for reasons other than health.



8.



Search



Whenever circumstances permit, and particularly after the end of the fight, will be

immediately taken all possible measures to track down and collect

the wounded, sick and shipwrecked, to be protected from spoil and

ill-treatment and to ensure appropriate care for them, as well as

and the search for the dead, in order to avoid spoliation and to be

buried with dignity.



Article 9.



Protection of medical and personnel



1. Medical and spiritual staff will be respected and protected, and when

performance of its duties will be provided all possible assistance. Cannot

be forced to perform tasks which are incompatible with its humanitarian

the Mission of the.



2. It is not possible to demand that medical personnel in performing its functions

give priority to any person other than for medical reasons.



Article 10.



General protection of persons carrying out health activities



1. Under no circumstances is punished by any person for the carrying out

health care operations that are in accordance with medical ethics, without

Regardless, for the benefit of that person, this activity is carried out.



2. the persons carrying out health activities, will not be forced to

perform acts or to carry out work that is not in accordance with the rules

medical ethics or other rules designed for the benefit of the wounded and

sick or with the provisions of this Protocol, or they will not be forced to

ensure that they did not perform the tasks that these rules and provisions require.



3. the Professional obligations of persons engaged in medical activities,

as regards the information they can get about the wounded and sick in the

their care, will be respected, subject to national law.



4. subject to the national law of the person shall not be punished in any way

executing health activities for it to refuse to provide or

that do not provide information about the wounded and sick who are, or have been in the

their care.



Article 11.



Protection of medical units and medical transport



1. Medical units and medical means of transport will always be

respected and protected and do not become the subject of attack.



2. the protection to which they are medical units and medical

the means of transport are entitled will be interrupted only if,

will be used for hostile acts, outside their humanitarian

Mission. However, the protection will be interrupted only when a warning will be issued,

which, if necessary, set a reasonable time limit, and only then, when

This warning will not be obeyed as they stand.



Article 12.



Distinguishing character



Under the supervision of the competent authority will be the medical and spiritual staff

as well as medical units and medical means of transport indicated by the

distinguishing feature of the Red Cross, Red Crescent or red

the lion and Sun on a white background. Will be respected in all conditions and

It will not be improperly used.



Part IV



Civilian population



Article 13.



Protection of the civilian population



1. The civilian population and individual civilians shall enjoy general

protection against the dangers arising from military operations. In order to

This protection is to be effective, it must be observed at all times

the following rules.



2. The civilian population as such, as well as individual civilians

shall not be subject to attack. Violent acts or threats of violence, whose

the main objective is to terrorize the civilian population, are prohibited.



3. Civilians shall enjoy the protection provided by this article, with the exception of

case, when directly participating in hostilities and for these actions.



Article 14.



Protection of the subjects necessary for the survival of the civilian population



It is prohibited to use the starvation of civilians as a method of warfare.

It is therefore prohibited to attack, destroy, remove objects or

depreciate the objects necessary for the survival of the civilian population, such as

are food supplies, agricultural areas for the production of food,

harvest, livestock, water supply facilities and water supply and

irrigation equipment.



Article 15.



Protection of buildings and installations containing dangerous forces



Construction or equipment containing dangerous forces, in particular the dam,

dams and nuclear power plants, shall not be subject to attack, even when they are

military objects, if such attack may cause the release of

dangerous forces and as a result, lead to serious loss of civil

to the population.



Article 16.



Protection of cultural objects and places of worship



Without prejudice to the provisions of the Hague Convention on the protection of cultural property in the

of armed conflict of 14. May 13, 1954, it is prohibited to perform any

hostile acts directed against historical monuments, works of art

or places for worship, which is the cultural and spiritual

the heritage of the Nations and will use it to support the military effort.



Article 17.



The prohibition of forced movement of civilians



1. For reasons related to the conflict may not be required

the movement of the civilian population if it does not require the security

the relevant civilian persons or the inevitable military reasons. If

such a transfer will have to be done, all measures shall be taken,

to ensure that the civilian population may be received at a designated place for

satisfactory conditions as regards accommodation, hygiene, health,

Security and nutrition.




2. Civilians shall not be compelled to leave their own territory for reasons

related to the conflict.



Article 18.



Auxiliary and ancillary events



1. Supporting organizations that are located in the territory of the High Contracting

Parties, such as the Red Cross, Red Crescent,

Red Lion and Sun, may offer their services in order to carry out

their traditional functions in relation to the victims of armed conflict. Civil

the population may also on its own initiative to offer, that will gather

the wounded, sick and shipwrecked and that it will seek them out.



2. If the civilian population is suffering from excessive deprivation as a result of

lack of inventory necessary for its survival, such as food supply and

drugs will be subject to the consent of the High Contracting Parties

helper for action taken to the civilian population, which, however, are

exclusively humanitarian and impartial nature and which are conducted without any

negative difference.



Part V



Final provisions



Article 19.



The spread of



This Protocol shall be distributed in as far as possible.



Article 20.



The signature of the



This Protocol shall be open for signature by the parties to the Conventions six months after

the signature of the final act and will remain open for a period of 12 months.



Article 21.



The ratification of the



This Protocol shall be ratified as soon as possible. Ratification of the

shall be deposited with the Swiss Federal Council, depositary of the conventions.



Article 22.



Access



This Protocol shall be open for accession to any side of the conventions which it

did not sign. The instrument of accession shall be deposited with the depositary.



Article 23.



Entry into force of



1. this Protocol shall enter into force six months after the deposit of the two

instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.



2. For each party to the conventions, which ratifies the Protocol, or

Bulgaria shall take effect six months after the deposit of its

instrument of ratification or instrument of accession.



Of article 24.



Changes



1. Any High Contracting Party may propose amendments to this Protocol.

The text of the proposed changes will be sent to the depositary, which, after consultation with the

all High Contracting Parties and with the International Committee of the Red

Cross will decide whether it is necessary to convene a Conference to assess the proposed

changes.



2. the depositary shall invite to that Conference all the High Contracting Parties,

as well as the parties to the conventions regardless of whether you have signed this Protocol or

not.



Article 25.



Notice of termination



1. In the event that a high contracting party, this Protocol has denounced

termination of validity of only after the expiry of six months from the receipt of the instrument of

the testimony. However, if a meaningful page after six months

in the situation referred to in article 1, the denunciation shall not take effect before

the termination of the armed conflict. Persons who have been deprived of liberty or

whose freedom has been restricted for reasons related to the conflict,

they will, however, continue to benefit from the provisions of this Protocol to the

his final discharge.



2. The denunciation shall be notified in writing to the depositary, who shall send to all

The High Contracting Parties.



Article 26.



Notification



The depositary shall inform the High Contracting Parties, as well as the parties to the conventions

regardless of whether they are signatories of this Protocol or not:



about signatures) annexed to this Protocol and the deposit of instruments of ratification

instruments or of instruments of accession in accordance with articles 21 and 22;



(b)) of the date of entry into force of this Protocol in accordance with article 23;



(c) communications and declarations), received in accordance with article 24.



27.



Registration



1. after the entry into force of this Protocol will be sent to the depositary

the Secretariat of the United Nations for registration and publication in the

accordance with article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.



2. the depositary shall also inform the Secretariat of the United

the Nations of all ratifications, and the approaches it has received in connection with

This Protocol.



Article 28.



Authentic texts



The original of this Protocol, of which the English, Arabic, Chinese,

French, Russian and Spanish text being equally authentic, shall be deposited with

the depositary, who shall send certified copies of it to all parties to the conventions.