About Agrochemical Testing Of Agricultural Land

Original Language Title: o agrochemickém zkoušení zemědělských půd

Read the untranslated law here: https://portal.gov.cz/app/zakony/download?idBiblio=46970&nr=275~2F1998~20Sb.&ft=txt

275/1998 Sb.



DECREE



The Ministry of agriculture



of 12 October. November 1998



about agrochemical testing of agricultural soils and soil survey

characteristics of forest land



477/2000: Sb.



400/2004: Sb.



The Ministry of agriculture shall be determined according to section 16 (a). (d)), and (e)) Law No.

156/1998 Coll., on fertilisers, soil conditioners, Assistant

herbal medicines and substrates and agrochemical testing

agricultural land (law about fertilizers):



§ 1



Sampling of agricultural land



(1) the person in charge of the central control and testing Institute of agricultural

(hereinafter referred to as "the Institute") to ensure the implementation of the sampling collection

documentation material consisting of a protocol for the sampling and

maps to register points.



(2) soil samples of agricultural soils are collected in the period from 1. February to

31 May and from 1. July to 30. November calendar

of the year.



(3) the sample is taken solely on agricultural land, probing rods,

at least 30 punctures spaced evenly across the surface of the land with the same

single crop and fertilization by.



(4) the Area for the collection of a single sample is on average



a) for arable land in mountain areas of potato and 7 ha of arable land and in

beet and corn area of 10 ha. Sampling shall be carried out always on

depth of the deepest topsoil, however, to a depth of 30 cm,



(b)) in the case of permanent grassland in the mountain area of potato and 7 ha and u

grasslands in the beet and corn area of 10 ha. Sampling is

performs to a depth of 15 cm, with the drnová layer of the soil from the used

probing rods resolves,



(c)) for hop-3 ha. Sampling shall be carried out to a depth of 40 cm with the fact that

the top layer of the soil from the deseticentimetrová used probing rods

removes,



d) for 2 ha of vineyards. Sampling shall be carried out separately from the layers of soil to

depth of 30 cm and 30 cm to 60 cm



(e)) for intensive orchards 3 ha. Sampling shall be carried out to a depth of 30 cm.



(5) the authorized person conducting soil samples, if subscriptions subscriptions

the Institute does not provide, it passes the samples taken, map data and the Protocol on

sampling in the arrangement referred to in annex No. 1 of the Institute responsible for

the person conducting the chemical analysis of soil samples by 1

months after the end of the sampling.



Agrochemical properties of the compounds of agricultural land



§ 2



(1) in the soil samples is determined



and the soil reaction, content) carbonates and need liming,



(b)) the content accessible to the phosphorus, potassium, magnesium and calcium,



(c) cation-exchange capacity).



(2) in soil samples from plots of land under hops, vines, orchards and

market areas, determines the content of copper, zinc, manganese, iron,

boron and molybdenum as trace elements selectively according to the grown

cultures.



(3) in soil samples from plots of land, with the risk of entry of undesirable substances in

the food chain, the Institute monitors the risk elements and the risk of a substance

listed in annex No. 2.



(4) the Agrochemical testing of agricultural soils and risk monitoring elements

and hazardous substances shall include



and the results of chemical analyses of detection) of each test

of land, including the average values of those results,



(b) assessment of the status of individual student) of test plots,



(c) assessment of the development of the agro-chemical properties) of the test of agricultural

soils continuously and over a period of 6 years,



d) current status of contamination of agricultural soils, including

maintenance of a list of contaminated land



e) detection and monitoring of interim evaluation results for agricultural

soils with a focus on protecting the food chain before the input side

substances.



(5) in the cases provided for by law about fertilizers agro-chemical testing

agricultural soils also includes microbiological and chemical analyses.



§ 3



(1) principles of chemical analyses of agricultural land are listed in the annex

# 3.



(2) the authorized person conducting chemical analyses of soil samples, if

the Institute does not provide these analyses, it passes the Protocol on the results of the analyses

the Institute in the arrangement referred to in the annex No. 4 within 1 month after receipt

samples, sampling log and maps.



(3) the criteria for the evaluation of the results of the chemical analyses are listed in

Annex No 5.



(4) the principles of microbiological analyses of agricultural land and the criteria for

evaluation of their results are listed in annex 7.



(5) principles of physical analyses of agricultural land and the criteria for

evaluation of their results are given in annex 8.



§ 4



Sampling the soil samples of forest land



(1) from each reception space at least removes organic layer

composed of 3 horizons (MPACT, fermentation and humusový horizon) from the desktop

25 x 25 cm. sampling shall be carried out quantitatively to interface with the mineral

soil. In the case of the occurrence of the term T (peat), take a sample of the

This term specifically.



(2) from the mineral soil is taken from the same place separately at least

a sample from a depth of up to 10 cm and the depth of 10 cm to 20 cm.



(3) collected soil samples, including the characteristics of consumption location

(coordinates, description of the stand and site conditions at the place of sampling)

be forwarded to the Institute for analysis.



§ 5



The coverage of soil properties of forest land



(1) a chemical analysis of the soil samples shall be



and in the organic horizons) weighing the amount of soil organic layers,

reaction (pH), oxygenated carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium

and magnesium, as well as other elements, if required by local conditions,



(b)) in the horizons of soil reaction (pH), oxygenated carbon,

total nitrogen, nutrients, and any other accessible elements, if required

local conditions.



(2) principles of chemical analyses are listed in annex 6.



§ 6



This Decree shall enter into force on 1 January 2000. on 1 January 1999.



Minister:



Ing. Fencl in r.



Č. 1



Protocol on sampling



Č. 2



Risk controls and risk substances tracked in agrochemical testing

agricultural soils



1.



Risk elements



As, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, F, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, Tl.



2.



The risk of a substance



Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons-established as the sum of 16

individual hydrocarbons [naphthalene, acenaphthene, Fluorene, acenaftylen,

fenantren, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo (a) anthracene, chrysen,

benzo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo (a) pyrene,

dibenzo (ah) anthracene, benzo (ghi) perylen, ideno (1, 2, 3-cd) pyrene],



Chlorinated hydrocarbons,



Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),



Extractable organically bound chlorine (EOCl)



Adsorbovatelný organically bound chlorine (AOCl)



Persistent organochlorine pesticides,



Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFS).



Č. 3



Principles of chemical analyses of agricultural land



1. Basic soil parameters



and) determination of pH



Between the vyluhovacím solution and soil is constituted a balance between ions

hydrogen and hydrogen ions in the solution are bound in the sorption complex soil.

Hydrogen ion activity is measured in soil suspension glass ion

selective electrode.



(b) determination of the carbonate content)



Carbonates in the soil decompose with hydrochloric acid. The volume of the

the carbon dioxide released is proportional to the carbonate content of the sample.



(c)) the determination of the hydrogen (H +) in the sorption complex soil



the pH of the buffer solution added to soil changes due to suspension

released hydroxoniových ion. Addiction is in the normal range of soil

samples linear and changing the pH of the suspension after the addition of buffer solution is

expressed as quantities of the hydroxoniových ion of sorption

the complex of the soil.



d) determination of acceptable nutrient by Mehlicha III



The soil is extracted with acid solution, which contains ammonium fluoride for

increasing the solubility of different forms of phosphorus bound in iron and aluminum.

In a solution of ammonium nitrate is present and influencing the desorption process of potassium,

magnesium and calcium. Vyluhovacího solution of the acid reaction is set

acetic acid and nitric acid. Digestion solution well

models the accessibility of nutrients in the soil for plants. Magnesium concentration and

calcium in the extractant determined by atomic absorption method

spectrophotometry after removing the interferences by the addition of lanthanum.

The concentration of potassium by flame photometry and

the concentration of phosphorus is determined spectrophotometrically by reaction with

molybdenanem in an acidic environment, such as molybdenum blue. Fix

magnesium, potassium, and calcium can also be optical emission spectrometry method in

Inductively coupled plasma. In all cases, the method uses the

the calibration curve.



2. determination of micro-nutrients



and) the determination of copper, zinc, manganese and iron in the extract under Lindsay, and

Norvella



Soil extracted solution: 0.1 mol 1-1, triethanolamine, 0.01 mol 1-1

calcium chloride and 0.005 mol 1-1 DTPA (acid

dietylentriaminopentaoctová), adjusted to pH value of 7.3. Extraction

takes place under strictly defined conditions, when the ratio of 00půda: extraction

solution 1:2 (w/v). The determination of each element is performed by the method

atomic absorption spectrophotometry or by optical emission

Inductively coupled plasma spectrometry method for the calibration curve.



(b) determination of boron)



A soil sample is extracted with a defined way water to boil. In the extract


shall be determined by spectrophotometry method of the calibration curve the bor after the reaction

with azomethinem-H, oranžovožlutý complex at pH 4-5.

Coloured organic substances are removed by oxidation of permanganate. The effect of

interfering ions are removed by the addition of Ascorbic acid. BOR is possible

determine the method in optical emission spectrometry inductively bound

plasma method of the calibration curve.



c) determination of molybdenum



Molybdenum in soil extract by atomic absorption

spectrophotometry with elektrotermickou atomizací the extraction of complex

molybdenum with 8-hydroxychinolinem in chloroform at pH 5.6 1.6-. When

the extraction occurs at the same time to remove the most disturbing elements and

the zakoncentrování molybdenum. Molybdenum concentrations shall be determined by the method

the calibration curve.



3. determination of foreign matter



and determination of risk elements)



Modified a soil sample is extracted with a mixture of hydrochloric acid and

nitric acid (3 + 1 + v) frenzy. The contents of each element in

the extract is determined the most appropriate method in optical emission spectrometry

Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method, where appropriate, in

Inductively coupled plasma. You can also use atomic absorption

in the flame spectrophotometry with atomizací or elektrotermickou, or

hydridovou method.



(b)) the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH)



The soil is extracted by a suitable organic solvent (acetone, toluene,

a mixture of hexane + acetone). The content of individual PAHS in the extractant determined by

the method of high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence

detector or by gas chromatography with mass detector.



(c) determination of extractable) organically bound chlorine (EOCl)



In the extractant determined by the contents of the EOCl after the decomposition at high temperature

mikrocoulometrickou titration.



d) determination of adsorbovatelného organically bound chlorine (AOCl)



Compounds with organically bound chlorine is being adsorbed on activated carbon. After

thermal decomposition of their content provides mikrocoulometrickou titration.



e) determination of chlorinated hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs),

persistent pesticides, polychlorinated organochlorovaných

dibenzo-dioxin (PCDD) and dibenzofurans (PCDFS)



The soil is extracted by a suitable organic solvent (hexane + acetone).

The extract is after cleaning process on the modified silica gel column analyzes

by gas chromatography-mass detector.



4. determination of oxygenated carbon

Assay procedure: Oxygenated organic bound carbon in soil is

chromic acid oxidizes in the environment of excess sulphuric acid

defined conditions. Results expressed as% it is possible to recalculate the Cox

the% of humus, provided that humic acids contain 58% (C).



5. Determination of total nitrogen

Procedure for determining the soil sample is digested by wet concentrated

sulphuric acid in the presence of catalyst (Kjeldahl method),

which organic compounds are oxidized by N to NH4 +, which is after distillation

provides for the neutralization titration of the excess acid

the standard solution for the policy.



6. determination of the potential for cation exchange capacity

Assay procedure: Sorption complex soil with barium ions recurring

extraction of the barium chloride solution to a pH value of 8.1. In

the eluate is acidimetrickou by titration of hydrogen Exchange provides. In the second step

the sorbované barium from the sample displace magnesium chloride solution. In

the second of the eluate down barium, whose concentration is directly proportional to the

the potential for cation exchange capacity.



Č. 4



The Protocol on results of agro-chemical analyses of soil samples



Č. 5



Criteria for the evaluation of the results of chemical analyses of agricultural land

1. Criteria for the evaluation of the content of phosphorus, potassium and magnesium (Mehlich

(III))



Arable land



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

the content of PHOSPHORUS potassium (mg.kg-1) magnesium (mg.kg-1)

(mg.kg-1)

----------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------

soil soil

----------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------

light medium heavy light medium heavy

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

low 50 to 100 to 105 to 170 to 80 to 120 do105

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

matching the 51-80 101-160 106-170 171-260 81-135 106-160 121-220

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

for 81-115 161-275 171-310 261-350 136-200 161-265 221-330

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

high 116-185 276-380 311-420 351-510 201-285 266-330 331-460

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

very over 185 over 380 over 420 over 510 over 285 over 330 over 460

high

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Permanent grassland



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

the content of PHOSPHORUS potassium (mg.kg-1) magnesium (mg.kg-1)

(mg.kg-1)

----------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------

soil soil

----------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------

light medium heavy light medium heavy

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

low 25 to 70 to 80 to 110 within 60 to 120 do85

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

26-50 71-150 81-160 111-210 61-90 86-130 121-170-compliant

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

for 51-90 151-250 211-240 161-300 91-145 131-170 171-230

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

high 91-150 241-350 251-400 301-470 146-220 171-245 231-310

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

very over 150 350 400 over over over over over 245 470 220 over 310

high

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Set and vineyards (special cultures)



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

the content of PHOSPHORUS potassium (mg.kg-1) magnesium (mg.kg-1)

(mg.kg-1)

----------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------

soil soil

----------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------

light medium heavy light medium heavy

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

low to 55 to 100 to 125 to 180 to 80 do105 to 170

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

matching 56-100 101-220 126-250 181-310 81-180 106-225 171-300

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

for 101-170 221-340 251-400 311-320 226-490 181-365 301-435

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

high 171-245 341-500 401-560 491-680 321-425 366-480 436-580

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

very over 245 above 500 over 560 over 680 over 425 over 480 over 580

high

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Hop garden



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

the content of PHOSPHORUS potassium (mg.kg-1) magnesium (mg.kg-1)

(mg.kg-1)

----------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------

soil soil

----------- -----------------------------------------------------------------------

light medium heavy light medium heavy

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

low to 155 to 170 to 220 to 290 to 135 to 160 to 210

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

complying with the 156-220 171-275 221-370 291-400 136-210 161-250 211-300

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

for 221-290 276-400 371-515 401-570 211-300 251-350 301-395

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------


high 291-390 401-560 516-650 571-680 301-400 351-460 396-530

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

very over 390 over 560 over 650 of 680 over 400 over 460 above 530

high

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



2. Criteria for evaluating the content of carbonates in soils



--------------------------------------------

% of carbonates carbonates content rating

--------------------------------------------

0 no

--------------------------------------------

0.1-0.5 low

--------------------------------------------

0.6-3.0 medium

--------------------------------------------

3.1-5.0 high

--------------------------------------------

over 5.0 very high

--------------------------------------------



3. criteria for the assessment of soil reaction



--------------------------------------------

the pH of the soil reaction

--------------------------------------------

to 4.5 extremely acidic

--------------------------------------------

4.6-5.0 a strong acid

--------------------------------------------

5.1-5.5 sour

--------------------------------------------

5.6-6.5 weakly acidic

--------------------------------------------

6.6-7.2 neutral

--------------------------------------------

7.3-7.7 alkaline

--------------------------------------------

over 7.7 strongly alkaline

--------------------------------------------



4. the need for liming



Arable land and fruit orchards



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

light soil moderate soil heavy soil

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ph t CaO/ha pH t CaO/ha pH t ha-1 of the CaO.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

to 4.4 1.20 to 4.5 1.50 to 4.5 1.70

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.6-5.0 0.80 4.6-5.0 1.00 4.6-5.0 1.25

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-5.5 0.60 5.1 5.1-5.5 0.70 5.1-5.5 0.85

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.6-5.7 0.30 5.6-6.0 0.40 5.6-6.0 0.50

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-6.5 0.20 6.1 6.1-6.5 0.25

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

6.6-6.7 0.20

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Permanent grassland



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

light soil moderate soil heavy soil

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ph t CaO/ha pH t CaO/ha pH t ha-1 of the CaO.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

to 4.5 0.50 to 4.5 0.70 to 4.5 0.90

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.6-5.0 0.30 4.6-5.0 0.50 4.6-5.0 0.70

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Vineyard



----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

light soil moderate soil heavy soil

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ph t CaO/ha pH t CaO/ha pH t ha-1 of the CaO.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

to 4.5 0.60 to 4.5 1.00 to 4.5 1.30

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

4.6-5.0 0.45 4.6-5.0 0.70 4.6-5.0 0.90

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-5.5 0.30 5.1 5.1-5.5 0.50 5.1-5.5 0.60

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

5.6-6.0 0.20 5.6-6.5 0.30 5.6-6.5 0.40

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

-6.6 6.9 0.20

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------



Hop garden



----------------------------------------------------------------

the pH of the soil medium heavy soil light soil

----------------------------------------------------------------

t ha-1 of the CaO.

----------------------------------------------------------------

to 4.5 0.60 1.00 1.30

----------------------------------------------------------------

4.6-5.0 0.45 0.70 0.90

----------------------------------------------------------------

5.1-5.5 0.30 0.50 0.60

----------------------------------------------------------------

5.6-6.5 0.20 0.30 0.40

----------------------------------------------------------------

-6.6 6.9 0.20 0.20 0.20

----------------------------------------------------------------



Č. 6



Principles of chemical analyses of forest land



1. Determination of moisture



The exact weight of the soil is dried at a temperature of 105th. (C) to a constant

weight. The difference of the weight before and after drying, the moisture is calculated

the soil sample.



2. determination of soil reaction



Between the vyluhovacím solution and soil is constituted a balance between ions

hydrogen and hydrogen ions in the solution are bound in the sorption complex soil.

Hydrogen ion activity is measured in soil suspension glass ion

selective electrode.



3. determination of oxygenated carbon



The carbon is oxidized hot excess chromsírové mixture. Any unreacted

dichromate is determined by titration or spectrophotometrically. Alternatively, you can

use automatic analyzers of carbon, in which CO2 is released after

perfect burning precision of the test portion shall lay down an appropriate detection

technique (for example, infra-red spectroscopy).



4. Determination of total nitrogen



The sample is located by the method Kjeldahl digestion. In the mineralizátu shall be

the nitrogen content by titration after distillation or spectrophotometrically. As an optional extra

You can use automatic analyzers based on the determination of nitrogen by

Dumas.



5. determination of phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and other elements in

soil extract by Agua Royal



Modified a soil sample is extracted with a mixture of hydrochloric acid and

nitric acid (3 + v + v) frenzy. The contents of each element is

by optical emission spectrometry inductively coupled in

plasma, by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry or in

the case of phosphorus by spectrophotometry.



6. determination of acceptable nutrient by Mehlicha III



The soil is extracted with acid solution, which contains ammonium fluoride for

increasing the solubility of different forms of phosphorus bound in iron and aluminum.

In the solution is present as well as ammonium nitrate, which positively affects the

desorption of potassium, magnesium and calcium. The acid reaction vyluhovacího

the solution is to set the acetic acid and nitric acid. A digestion

well the solution models the accessibility of nutrients in the soil for plants.

Concentration of magnesium and calcium in the extractant determined by Atomic method

absorption spectrophotometry after the addition of interference removal

lanthanum. The concentration of potassium by flame photometry

and the concentration of phosphorus is determined spectrophotometrically by reaction with

molybdenanem in an acidic environment, such as molybdenum blue. The determination of the

potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium is also possible using the method of optical emission

Inductively coupled plasma spectrometry. In all cases the

uses the method of the calibration curve. In the extract, it is possible to establish some

other elements.



7. Determination of copper, zinc, manganese and iron in the extract under Lindsay, and

Norvella



The soil is extracted solution: 0.1 mol/l 0.01 m triethanolamine, l-1

calcium chloride and 0.005 mol l-1 DTPA (acid

dietylentriaminopentaoctová), adjusted to pH value of 7.3. Extraction

takes place under defined conditions when the ratio of soil extraction solution: 1:2

(w/v). The determination of each element is done by the method of Atomic

absorption spectrophotometry or by optical emission

Inductively coupled plasma spectrometry method for the calibration curve.



8. determination of cation exchange capacity and exchangeable acidity



Cations in soil sorption complex-bound to displace the soil extraction

with a dilute solution of barium chloride. In the extractant determined by the contents of the

calcium, magnesium, potassium, sodium, aluminum, iron and manganese method

ICP-AES or AAS method. The resulting cation exchange capacity is

calculates the sum of the representation of the potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium in the

Sorption complex soil. The proportion of hydrogen ions the saturation is determined by titration


extract to pH = 7.8 or from the content of aluminium, iron and manganese.



9. Determination of selected elements after mineralization on dry road



The sample is incinerated in a gradual increase in temperature at 550th. C. ash

dissolved in nitric acid. The resulting concentration of acid is 2 m.

1-1. In mineralizátu down the content of phosphorus, potassium, calcium,

magnesium and other elements of the spektrofometricky and the AAS method or

the method of ICP-AES.



Č. 7



Microbiological analyses of agricultural land



1. principles of microbial analyses of agricultural land



Determining the abundance and soil microflora activity measurement of respiratory

curves (ISO DIS 17155)



Fresh soil samples with a water content of 40-60% of the maximum matching

water holding capacity are before you start measuring 3-4 days at preinkubovány

constant temperature. The recommended temperature is in the range 20-25

degrees C During measurements at regular intervals (recommended every

an hour) was established as the carbon dioxide released or oxygen consumed.

The speed of the basal respiration is defined as the amount of CO2 released by the

or the O2 consumed per unit of time without the addition of substrate.

Respiratory curves are measured after addition of easily biodegradable

substrate (e.g., glucose). The measurement takes place, until there is a decrease in the

the speed of respiration. For the measurement of respiration can be applied to any device

to enable continuous measurement of evolved carbon dioxide or

consumed by oxygen.



From respiratory curves are subtracted the values of parameters characterizing the

biomass and activity of microbial communities: substrate induced

respiration, lag phase, growth speed and time tpeakmax. Substrate

We understand the constant losses by respiration induced increased respiration rate

immediately after addition of the substrate, the lag phase time to begin

the exponential growth the speed of respiration and the growth speed

speed constant measured during exponential growth rate

respiration. Tpeakmax time is the time from the addition of the substrate to a maximum

respiratory rate. Of the proportion of the basal and the substrate-induced

respiration is the calculated value of the activation of the respiratory quotient QR.



Nitrifying potential-a quick test by measuring the rate of oxidation of ammonium

ions (ISO DIS 15685)



The rate of oxidation of ammonium ions to destroy is measured within 6 hours

incubation in soil suspension buffered to pH 7.2. Substrate is a suspension

added in the form of ammonium sulphate. The oxidation of nitrite to nitrate is

inhibited by the addition of sodium chlorate. Destroy the ions are

set a suitable analytical method.



To determine whether the soil contains a contaminant that affects

nitrification, the control soil sample with a known value

nitrifikačního potential in the range of 500-800 ng N g-1 h-1. Samples

the test and control soils are preinkubovány two days when humidity

the corresponding water content at 60% of the maximum water capacity. It is then

ready to sample in the ratio of 1:1 (calculated on dry soil).

Pooled sample and samples of soil test and inspection are incubated for 1 day

at a temperature of 20 ° C, and then specified in them nitrification potential.



2. Evaluation criteria



Determining the abundance and soil microflora activity measurement of respiratory

curves



Contaminated soil show higher values of QR and longer lag phase and the

tpeakmax. QR values > 0.3 or lag phase > 20 h and 50 h at tpeakmax > R

0.2-0.3 indicate contaminated soil.



Nitrifying potential-a quick test by measuring the rate of oxidation of ammonium

ions



Test the soil is considered contaminated when nitrifying

the potential of a collective specimen is less than 90% of the average value

nitrifying potential samples of the test and control of land laid down

separately.



As + 0.9 * SD < Avyp



As-mechanically assisted pooled sample activity



Aprum-activity, calculated as the average of the control and test of soil



SD – standard deviation.



Č. 8



Physical analyses of agricultural land



Determination of the composition of the zrnitostního.

Assay procedure: according to the size of the soil particles divided into shares

zrnitostních factions. The basic skeleton of the dělítkem jemnozemě is the dimension of the

2 mm, which was chosen because it is the upper limit of the capillary movement of

water. For the classification of zrnitostních fractions is most commonly used

sedimentation the pipetting method. Lies in depths from certain

sedimentující suspension in the cylinder after the sedimentačním of the respective

the times takes a small share, which after drying. The results of the

zrnitostního of analysis is usually adjusted to the table. Criteria

Reviews For agronomic purposes is used: classification of soils

According to Buchanan, which graded the soil under the representation of the fraction under 0.01 mm.

---------------------------------------------------------------------

The content of the particles (grains) smaller land Classification indicate the type of soil

0.01 mm in%

---------------------------------------------------------------------



---------------------------------------------------------------------

Sandy P 0-10 light

---------------------------------------------------------------------

10-20 HP hlinitopísčitá light

---------------------------------------------------------------------

20-30 moderate PH písčitohlinitá

---------------------------------------------------------------------

30-45 aluminum H medium difficulty

---------------------------------------------------------------------

45-60 jílovitohlinitá JH heavy

---------------------------------------------------------------------

heavy clay JV 60-75

---------------------------------------------------------------------

over 75 clay (or prchlice) J heavy

---------------------------------------------------------------------



Determination of the content of the skeleton

Assay procedure: Water in the measuring cylinder down the volume of the sample, the

shall be distributed to the screens of the factions, the volume gradually lays down

again in the measuring cylinder. The result-the volume of individual fractions are expressed

in% of the total volume of the sample. Evaluation criteria: classification scale,

created for a comprehensive survey of soil, divides the land of the jemnozem (under 2 mm) and

skeleton. It is made up of the three factions (2-4 mm coarse sand, gravel, 4-

30 mm, stones over 30 mm). Application range is suitable for larger samples

(the order of kg), taken exclusively for this determination. The contents of the skeleton in the

ornici to 20% usually will not adversely affect the growth of plants, or even

When you cultivate. The higher the volume goes to the detriment of jemnozemě and particularly adversely

It exhibits the skeleton with a heavy clay layers of sealer.



Determination of the physical properties.

Assay procedure: physical properties means indicators,

discovered on the intact soil sample, taken to a metal ring.

The procedure is suitable for fine grained cohesive soil without crude skeleton

or large organic debris. In the sample, taken from the best of the probe,

identifies the weight of the fresh water saturated, expressed and dried

sample and determination of its apparent density will provide the basic data for

the calculation of the volumetric moisture content searching parameters: momentní (instant,

the original), maximum capillary water capacity, momentní (original)

airiness, the minimum air capacity, absorption power, density

reduced (dry land), porosity. The evaluation criteria are expressed

the properties of the soil. Momentní humidity (%), and the airiness of momentní

(vol.%) depends on the particular situation and the climate. Maximum capillary

water capacity (%)-the coarser soil, the less. U

fine-grained, dense soils and vazkých is larger (usually 20-40%).

The minimum volumetric air capacity (%)-below 10% in field soils and under

5% of meadow soils-prone to waterlogging, if this is a permanent state-land

waterlogged, above 20% for the fields-soil vysychavé, if this is a permanent condition-

soil wizened. Absorption power density (%)-indicates the saturation of the entire column

soil. capillary pores. The clay soil is higher than in

Sandy. According to the density of dry soil and according to the porosity

We can roughly assess the structural State of the humusového term medium

heavy soils (Kutílek, 1966):

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The structural State of the humusového dry bulk density Porosity%

the horizon of the soil g.cm-3

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excellent less than 1.2 more than 54

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for 1.2-1.4 46-54

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unsatisfactory 1.4-1.6 39-46

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nestrukturní 1.6-1.8 31-39

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