The Senate and Chamber of Deputies
of the Argentine Nation
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LawARTICLE 1 Approved by the TAMPERE CONVENTION ON THE SUMINISTER OF RESOURCES OF TELECOMMUNICATIONS FOR THE MITIGATION OF CATASTROFES AND SOCORRO OPERATIONS IN CATASTROFE CASES, adopted in .Tampere REPUBLIC OF FINLAND el on June 18, 1998, which consists of DutCISIETE (17) articles, whose photocopy ARTICLE 2 Contact the national executive branch.
DADA IN THE SESSION OF THE ARGENTINE CONGRESS, IN GOOD AIRES, TO THE FIRST DAY OF THE NAME YEAR
ALBERTO E. BALESTRINI. . JOSE J. B. PAMPURO. . Enrique Hidalgo. . Juan H. Estrada.
ON THE SUMINISTER OF RESOURCES
TELECOMMUNICATIONS FOR MITIGATION
AND SOCORRO OPERATIONS IN
STATES PARTIES IN THE SUBMISSION
that the magnitude, complexity, frequency and impact of disasters are increasing at an extraordinary rate, which particularly seriously affects developing countries,
that humanitarian relief and assistance agencies require reliable and flexible telecommunications resources to carry out their vital activities,
the essential role of telecommunications resources in facilitating the safety of relief and humanitarian personnel,
the vital role of broadcasting in order to disseminate accurate information to threatened populations in case of disasters,
that the effective and timely deployment of telecommunications resources and a rapid, effective, accurate and truthful flow of information are essential to reducing the loss of life and human suffering and damage to things and the environment caused by disasters,
the impact of disasters on telecommunications facilities and the flow of information,
of the special technical assistance needs of least developed and disaster-prone countries, with a view to producing telecommunications resources for disaster mitigation and relief operations,
the absolute priority given to emergency communications to save human lives in more than fifty international legal instruments and, in particular, in the Constitution of the International Telecommunication Union,
the history of international cooperation and coordination in disaster mitigation and relief operations, including the timely deployment and use of telecommunications resources, which has been shown to contribute to saving human lives,
also taking note
of the International Conference on Disaster Relief Communications (Geneva, 1990), which notes the effectiveness of telecommunications systems in responding to disasters and subsequent rehabilitation,
also taking note
of the urgent appeal in the Tampere Declaration on Disaster Relief Communications (Tempere, 1991) for reliable telecommunications systems for disaster mitigation and relief operations and the preparation of an international convention on disaster communications to facilitate the use of such systems,
also taking note
resolution 44/236 of the United Nations General Assembly, proclaiming the period 1990-2000 as the International Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction, and resolution 46/182, calling for an intensification of international coordination of emergency humanitarian assistance,
also taking note
of the outstanding role assigned to communications resources in the Yokohama Strategy and Plan of Action for a Safer World, adopted by the World Conference on Natural Disaster Reduction, held in Yokohama in 1994,
also taking note
resolution 7 of the World Conference on Telecommunications Development (Buenos Aires, 1994), reaffirmed in Resolution 36 of the Conference of Plenipotentiaries of the International Telecommunication Union (Kyoto, 1994), urging Governments to take all practical arrangements necessary to facilitate the rapid deployment and effective use of telecommunications equipment, with a view to mitigating the effects of disasters and for relief operations where possible,
also taking note
resolution 644 of the World Radiocommunication Conference (Geneva, 1997), in which Governments are urged to give their full support to the adoption of this Convention and its implementation at the national level,
also taking note
resolution 19 of the World Conference on Telecommunications Development (La Valetta, 1998), in which Governments are urged to continue consideration of this Convention to determine whether they contemplate supporting the adoption of the Convention,
also taking note
of United Nations General Assembly resolution 51/94, which calls for the establishment of a transparent and orderly procedure for the implementation of effective mechanisms for the coordination of disaster assistance, as well as for the introduction of ReliefWeb as a global information system for the dissemination of reliable and timely information on natural emergencies and disasters,
to the conclusions of the Working Group on Emergency Telecommunications concerning the crucial role of telecommunications in mitigating the effects of disasters and in disaster relief operations,
in the activities of a large number of States, United Nations agencies, governmental, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, humanitarian agencies, providers of telecommunications equipment and services, social media, universities and relief organizations to improve and facilitate communications in the event of disasters,
to ensure prompt and reliable provision of telecommunications resources to mitigate the effects of disasters and to conduct disaster relief operations, and
to facilitate international cooperation to mitigate the impact of disasters,
agreed as follows:
For the purposes of this Convention, except where the context in which they are used indicates otherwise, the following terms shall have the meaning specified:
1. "State Party" means any State which has expressed its consent to be bound by this Convention.
2. "Aiding Party" means a State Party to this Convention to provide telecommunications assistance under the Convention.
3. "An applicant State Party" means a State Party to this Convention requesting telecommunications assistance under the Convention.
4. "This Convention" means the Tampere Convention on the Provision of Telecommunications Resources for Disaster Mitigation and Disaster Relief Operations.
5. "Deposit" means the depositary of this Convention as provided for in Article 16.
6. "castrophe" means a serious disruption of the functioning of society that poses a considerable and widespread threat to human life, health, things or the environment, regardless of whether the catastrophe is caused by an accident, nature or human activities, and whether it comes suddenly or as a result of a dilated and complex process.
7. The "mitigation of catastrophes" means measures aimed at preventing, predicting, observing and/or mitigating the effects of disasters, and to prepare and react to them.
8. "danger to health" means the sudden outbreak of an infectious disease, such as an epidemic or pandemic, or any other event that significantly threatens human life or health and can trigger a catastrophe.
9. "natural danger" means an event or process, such as earthquakes, fires, floods, bandages, landslides, alludes, cyclones, tsunamis, insect pests, droughts or volcanic eruptions, which can trigger a catastrophe.
10. "non-governmental organization" means any organization, including private entities or societies, other than the State or a governmental or intergovernmental organization, interested in disaster mitigation and relief operations or in the provision of telecommunications resources for disaster mitigation and relief operations.
11. "non-State entity" means any entity, other than the State, including non-governmental organizations and the Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, interested in disaster mitigation and relief operations or the provision of telecommunications resources for disaster mitigation and relief operations.
12. " Relief operations" means activities aimed at reducing the loss of life and human suffering and material damage and/or the environment as a result of a catastrophe.
13. "Telecommunications assistance" means the provision of telecommunications resources or any other resource or support intended to facilitate the use of telecommunications resources.
14. "Telecommunications resources" means personnel, equipment, materials, information, training, radio frequency spectrum, networks or means of transmission or any other resource required by telecommunications.
15. "telecommunications" means the transmission, emission or reception of signs, signals, written messages, images, sound or information of any kind, by cable, radioelectric waves, optical fiber or other electromagnetic system.
1. The United Nations Emergency Relief Coordinator will be the operational coordinator for the purposes of this Convention and will serve as the focal point for the operations specified in articles 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9.
2. The coordinator of the operations will seek the cooperation of other appropriate United Nations agencies, in particular the International Telecommunication Union, to assist him in the achievement of the objectives of this Convention and, in particular, the fulfilment of the functions set out in articles 8 and 9, and to provide the necessary technical support in line with the respective objectives of those agencies.
3. The responsibilities of the coordinator of operations under this Convention shall be confined to international coordination activities.
1. States Parties shall cooperate with each other and with non-State entities and intergovernmental organizations, in accordance with this Convention, to facilitate the use of telecommunications resources for disaster mitigation and disaster relief operations.
2. Such use may include:
(a) The installation of terrestrial and satellite telecommunications equipment to predict and observe natural hazards, health hazards and catastrophes, as well as to provide information on these events;
(b) the exchange between and between States parties and other States, non-State entities and intergovernmental organizations of information on natural hazards, health hazards and disasters, as well as the communication of such information to the public, particularly to threatened communities;
(c) the prompt provision of telecommunications assistance to mitigate the effects of a catastrophe; and
(d) The installation and operation of reliable and flexible telecommunications resources for relief and humanitarian assistance organizations.
3. In order to facilitate such use, States Parties may conclude other multinational or bilateral agreements or arrangements.
4. States Parties shall request the operational coordinator, in consultation with the International Telecommunication Union, to deposit or, other relevant United Nations entities and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, to make every effort, in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, to:
(a) develop, in consultation with States Parties, models of agreement that may serve as a basis for multilateral or bilateral agreements that facilitate the provision of telecommunications resources to mitigate disasters and carry out relief operations;
(b) To make available to States parties, other States, non-State entities and intergovernmental organizations, by electronic means and other appropriate mechanisms, models of agreement, best practices and other relevant information with reference to the provision of telecommunications resources for disaster mitigation and disaster relief operations;
(c) Develop, implement and maintain procedures and systems for the collection and dissemination of information necessary to implement the Convention; and
(d) To inform States about the provisions of this Convention, as well as to facilitate cooperation between States parties under the Convention.
5. States Parties shall cooperate to improve the capacity of governmental organizations, non-State entities and intergovernmental organizations to establish training mechanisms in equipment management and operation techniques, as well as learning courses in innovation, design and construction of emergency telecommunications elements that facilitate disaster prevention, monitoring and mitigation.
Provision of telecommunications assistance.
1. A State Party requiring telecommunications assistance to mitigate the effects of a catastrophe and carry out relief operations may seek it from any other State Party, either directly or through the operations coordinator. If the request is made through the operations coordinator, the request shall be communicated immediately to the other States Parties concerned. If assistance is sought directly from another State Party, the requesting State Party shall inform the operational coordinator as soon as possible.
2. The State party requesting telecommunications assistance shall specify the extent and type of assistance required, as well as the measures taken pursuant to articles 5 and 9 of this Convention and, where possible, shall provide the State party to whom the request for assistance is directed and/or to the operational coordinator any other information necessary to determine to what extent the request may be addressed by the State party.
3. The State Party to which a request for telecommunications assistance is directed, either directly or through the operational coordinator, shall promptly determine and communicate to the requesting State Party if it is to provide the required assistance, whether or not directly, as well as the scope, conditions, restrictions and, where appropriate, the cost of such assistance.
4. The State party which decides to provide telecommunications assistance shall inform it of the operational coordinator as soon as possible.
5. The States Parties shall not provide any telecommunications assistance pursuant to this Convention without the consent of the requesting State Party, which shall retain the power to reject fully or partially the telecommunications assistance offered by another State Party pursuant to this Convention, in accordance with its own national political legislation.
6. States Parties recognize the right of a requesting State Party to directly request telecommunications assistance from non-State entities and intergovernmental organizations, as well as the right of any non-State entity governmental entity to provide, in accordance with the legislation to which they are subject, telecommunications assistance to requesting States Parties under this Article.
7. A non-State entity cannot be "the requesting State Party" or request telecommunications assistance under this Convention.
8. Nothing in this Convention shall prejudice the right of States parties to direct, control, coordinate and supervise, under their national legislation, the assistance of telecommunications provided in accordance with this Convention within their territory.
Privileges, immunities and facilities
1. The requesting State Party shall, to the extent permitted by its national legislation, grant to natural persons who are not their nationals, as well as to organizations that do not have their headquarters or domicile within its territory, acting under the provisions of this Convention to provide telecommunications assistance and which have been notified to the requesting State Party and accepted by it, the privileges, immunities and facilities necessary for the proper performance of its functions:
(a) Immunity of arrest or detention or of the criminal, civil and administrative jurisdiction of the requesting State Party for acts or omissions related specifically and directly to the provision of telecommunications assistance;
(b) Exoneration of taxes, tariffs or other charges, with the exception of those normally incorporated in the price of goods or services, as regards the performance of their assistance functions, or on equipment, materials and other goods transported to or acquired by the requesting State Party to provide telecommunications assistance under this Convention;
(c) immunity from confiscation, embargo or requisition of such equipment, materials and property.
2. To the extent of its capabilities, the requesting State Party shall provide local facilities and services for the proper and effective administration of telecommunications assistance, and shall ensure that the appropriate licence is issued promptly to the telecommunications equipment transported to its territory under this Convention, or that it is exempted from licence under its national legislation and regulations.
3. The requesting State Party shall ensure the protection of personnel, equipment and materials transported to its territory under the terms of this Convention.
4. The right of ownership of equipment and materials provided under this Convention shall not be affected by its use in accordance with the provisions of this Convention. The requesting State Party shall ensure the prompt return of such equipment, material and property to the State Party concerned.
5. The requesting State Party shall not allocate the installation or use of the telecommunications resources provided pursuant to this Convention for purposes that are not directly related to the prediction, observation and mitigation of the effects of a catastrophe, or to the preparation and response to it or the conduct of relief operations during and after it.
6. The provisions of this article shall not require any requesting State Party to grant privileges and immunities to its permanent nationals or residents, nor to organizations with headquarters or domicile in its territory.
7. Without prejudice to the privileges and immunities accorded to them in accordance with this article, all persons who access the territory of a State Party for the purpose of providing telecommunications assistance or otherwise facilitating the use of telecommunications resources under this Convention, and organizations providing telecommunications assistance or otherwise facilitating the use of telecommunications resources under this Convention, shall respect the laws and regulations of that State Party. Such persons and organizations shall not interfere in the internal affairs of the State party to whose territory they have acceded.
8. The provisions of this article shall without prejudice to the rights and obligations regarding privileges and immunities granted to persons and organizations directly or indirectly involved in telecommunications assistance, in application of other international agreements (including the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations, adopted by the General Assembly on 13 February 1946, and the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the Specialized Agencies, 21 November 1947.
Termination of assistance
1. At any time and through written notification, the requesting State Party or the assisting State Party may terminate the telecommunications assistance received or provided under article 4. Upon receipt of such notification, the States Parties concerned shall consult with each other to proceed in an appropriate and orderly manner to terminate such assistance, bearing in mind the possible impact of such termination on human life and on ongoing relief operations.
2. States Parties providing or receiving telecommunications assistance pursuant to this Convention shall be subject to the provisions of this Convention upon termination of such assistance.
3. The State Party requesting the termination of telecommunications assistance shall notify the operational coordinator, which shall provide the requested and necessary assistance to facilitate the termination of telecommunications assistance.
Payment or reimbursement of expenses or canons
1. States Parties may subordinate the provision of telecommunications assistance to mitigate disasters and perform relief operations to a payment or reimbursement agreement for specified expenses or canons, always bearing in mind the provisions of paragraph 9 of this article.
2. When these conditions arise, States Parties shall establish in writing, prior to the provision of telecommunications assistance;
(a) the obligation to pay or refund;
(b) the amount of such payment or reimbursement or the basis on which the payment is to be calculated; and
(c) any other condition or restriction applicable to such payment or refund, including, in particular, the currency in which such payment or refund shall be made.
3. The conditions set out in paragraphs 2 (b) and 2 (c) of this article may be met on the basis of rates, rates or prices communicated to the public.
4. In order for the negotiation of payment or reimbursement agreements not to unduly withdraw the provision of telecommunications assistance, the coordinator of the operations shall prepare, in consultation with the States Parties, a model of payment or reimbursement agreement that may serve as a basis for negotiating payment obligations or reimbursed under this article.
5. No State Party shall be obliged to pay or reimburse expenses or fees under this Convention if it has not expressly accepted the conditions established by the State Party concerned in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article.
6. If the provision of telecommunications assistance is subject to payment or reimbursement of expenses or canons under this article, such payment or reimbursement shall be made without delay once the State Party concerned has requested payment or reimbursement.
7. The amounts paid or reimbursed by an requesting State Party in connection with the provision of telecommunications assistance may be freely transferred outside the jurisdiction of the requesting State Party without delay or with any retention.
8. In order to determine whether the provision of telecommunications assistance should be conditioned on an agreement on the payment or reimbursement of the expenses or canons specified, as well as on the amount of such expenses or canons and applicable conditions and restrictions, States Parties shall take into account, among other relevant factors, the following:
(a) United Nations principles on humanitarian assistance;
(b) the nature of the disaster, natural hazard or danger to the health concerned;
(c) the effects or potential effects of the catastrophe;
(d) The place of origin of the catastrophe;
(e) the area affected or potentially affected by the catastrophe;
(f) The existence of previous disasters and the likelihood of future catastrophes in the affected area;
(g) the capacity of the State affected by the catastrophe, natural hazard or health hazard to prepare or react to the event; and
(h) the needs of developing countries.
9. This article will also apply to situations in which telecommunications assistance is provided by a non-State entity or governmental organization, provided that:
(a) The requesting State Party has agreed to provide telecommunications assistance for disaster mitigation and relief operations and has not terminated it;
(b) The non-State or intergovernmental organization providing such telecommunications assistance has notified the requesting State Party of its willingness to implement this article and articles 4 and 5;
(c) The application of this article is not incompatible with any other agreement concerning the relations between the requesting State Party and the non-State or intergovernmental organization providing such telecommunications assistance.
Inventory of information on assistance
1. States Parties shall communicate to the operational coordinator the authority or authorities:
(a) competent in matters arising from the provisions of this Convention and authorized to request, offer, accept or terminate telecommunications assistance;
(b) Competent to identify governmental, intergovernmental or non-governmental resources that could be made available to facilitate the use of telecommunications resources for disaster mitigation and relief operations, including the provision of telecommunications assistance.
2. States Parties shall endeavour to communicate to the operational coordinator promptly any changes in the information provided pursuant to this article.
3. The coordinator of the operations may accept the notification by a non-State entity or an intergovernmental organization of its own procedure applicable to the authorization to offer and terminate the telecommunications assistance provided in accordance with this article.
4. States Parties, non-State entities or intergovernmental organizations may at their discretion include information on specific telecommunications resources and plans for the use of such resources in response to a request for telecommunications assistance by a State party.
5. The operations coordinator shall retain copies of all lists of authorities and shall promptly communicate this information to States Parties, other States, non-State entities and intergovernmental organizations concerned, except where a State Party, a non-State entity or an intergovernmental organization has previously indicated in writing that the distribution of its information is restricted.
6. The coordinator of the operations shall treat the material deposited by non-State entities and intergovernmental organizations as deposited by States Parties.
1. As far as possible and in accordance with national legislation, States Parties shall reduce or remove regulatory barriers to the use of telecommunications resources to mitigate disasters and carry out relief operations, including the provision of telecommunications assistance.
2. Regulatory obstacles include:
(a) Regulations restricting the import or export of telecommunications equipment:
(b) regulations restricting the use of telecommunications equipment or the radio frequency spectrum;
(c) regulations restricting the movement of personnel operating the telecommunications equipment or which is essential for its effective use;
(d) regulations restricting the transit of telecommunications resources through the territory of a State party; and
(e) delays in the administration of such standards.
3. The reduction of regulatory barriers may, inter alia, take the following forms:
(a) Reviewing the provisions;
(b) Exonerate certain telecommunications resources from the application of these standards while being used to mitigate disasters and carry out relief operations;
(c) Advance customs clearance of telecommunications resources for disaster mitigation and relief operations, in accordance with these provisions;
(d) recognition of the foreign approval of telecommunications equipment and exploitation licences;
(e) simplified inspection of telecommunications resources for disaster mitigation and relief operations, in accordance with those provisions; and
(f) The temporary suspension of the application of such provisions in the use of telecommunications resources to mitigate disasters and carry out relief operations.
4. Each State Party shall, at the request of the other States Parties, and to the extent permitted by its national legislation, facilitate the transit to and through its territory of personnel, equipment, materials and information requiring the use of telecommunications resources to mitigate a catastrophe and carry out relief operations.
5. States Parties shall inform the operational coordinator and other States Parties, either directly or through the operations coordinator, of:
(a) Measures taken in the implementation of this Convention to reduce or eliminate such regulatory obstacles;
(b) the procedures that may follow, in implementation of this Convention, States Parties, other States, non-State entities or intergovernmental organizations to exempt the specified telecommunications resources used to mitigate disasters and conduct relief operations from the application of such provisions, to apply the advance customs clearance or simplified inspection of such resources in accordance with the relevant rules, accept the foreign approval of such resources or temporarily suspend the application of provisions that would normally be applicable;
(c) Conditions and, where appropriate, restrictions on the application of such procedures.
6. The operational coordinator will regularly and promptly notify States parties, other States, non-State entities and intergovernmental organizations of an updated list of such measures, indicating the scope, conditions and, where appropriate, applicable restrictions.
7. Nothing in this article will permit the violation or abrogation of obligations and responsibilities imposed by national legislation, international law or multilateral or bilateral agreements, including obligations and responsibilities for customs inspection and export controls.
Relationship with other international agreements
This Convention shall not affect the rights and obligations of States parties arising from other international agreements or international law.
1. In the event of a dispute between States parties regarding the interpretation or application of this Convention, the States Parties concerned shall consult with each other in order to resolve it.
Consultations shall be initiated without delay once a State Party communicates in writing to another State Party the existence of a dispute relating to this Convention. A State Party which makes a written statement in this regard shall promptly transmit a copy thereof to the depositary.
2. If the dispute between States Parties cannot be resolved within six (6) months of the date of communication of the above written declaration, the States Parties concerned may request the good offices of any other State Party, or another State, non-State entity or intergovernmental organization to facilitate the settlement of the dispute.
3. In the event that none of the States parties to the dispute requests the good offices of another State Party, or another State, non-State entity or intergovernmental organization, or if the good offices do not facilitate the settlement of the dispute within six (6) months of the date on which the good offices, any, of the States Parties to the dispute were requested, may:
(a) request that the arbitration be subject to compulsory arbitration; or
(b) submit it to the decision of the International Court of Justice, provided that the States Parties to the dispute have accepted at the time of signature or ratification of this Convention or accession to it or at any later time the jurisdiction of the Court with respect to that dispute.
4. In the event that the States Parties to the dispute request that the dispute be subject to compulsory arbitration and submit it to the decision of the International Court of Justice, the proceedings before the Court shall take precedence.
5. In the event of a dispute between a State party requesting telecommunications assistance and a non-State entity or an intergovernmental organization that has its headquarters or domicile outside the territory of that State party regarding the provision of telecommunications assistance under article 4, the claim of the non-State entity or of the intergovernmental organization may be directly endorsed by the State party in which such non-State or intergovernmental organization has its headquarters or domicile as is incompatible with an international claim under this article,
6. In proceeding to signature, ratification, acceptance or approval of or accession to this Convention, a State may declare that it is not bound by the dispute settlement procedures provided for in paragraph 3 or by any of them. The other States Parties shall not be bound by the dispute settlement procedure or procedures set out in paragraph 3 with respect to the State party whose declaration is in force for that purpose.
Entry into force
1. This Convention shall be open for signature by all States Members of the United Nations or the International Telecommunication Union at the Intergovernmental Conference on Emergency Telecommunications in Tampere on 18 June 1998 and thereafter at United Nations Headquarters in New York from 22 June 1998 to 21 June 2003.
2. Any State may express its consent to be bound by this Convention by:
(a) signature (final signature);
(b) signature subject to ratification, acceptance or approval, followed by the deposit of an instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval; or
(c) The deposit of an instrument of accession.
3. The Convention shall enter into force thirty (30) days after the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession or of the final signature by thirty (30) States.
4. This Convention shall enter into force for each State which has signed it definitively or deposited an instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, after the requirement specified in paragraph 3 of this article, thirty (30) days after the date of the final signature or the manifestation of consent to be bound.
1. Any State Party may propose amendments to this Convention, to which effect it shall bring them to the depositary, which shall communicate them for approval to the other States Parties.
2. States Parties shall notify the depositary if they accept or do not accept the proposed amendments within one hundred and eighty (180) days of their receipt.
3. The amendments adopted by two thirds of States Parties shall be incorporated into a Protocol to be opened for signature by all States Parties at the depositary headquarters.
4. The Protocol shall enter into force just as this Convention. For States that have signed it definitively or deposited an instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, and once the requirements stipulated for that purpose have been met, the Protocol shall enter into force thirty (30) days after the date of the final signature or the manifestation of the consent to be bound.
1. By signing, ratifying or acceding to this Convention or amending it, States Parties may make reservations.
2. A State Party may at all times withdraw its reservations by written notification to the depositary. The withdrawal of a reservation shall take effect at the time of its ratification to the depositary.
1. States Parties may denounce this Convention by written notification to the depositary.
2. The complaint shall take effect 90 days after the date of deposit of the written notification.
3. At the request of the reporting State Party, the date on which the complaint takes effect will cease to use copies of the lists of authorities, of the measures taken and of the procedures in place to reduce the regulatory obstacles provided by the State party reporting this Convention.
This Convention shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
The original of this Convention, the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the depositary. Only authentic texts in English, French and Spanish will be opened for signature in Tampere on 18 June 1998. The depositary will then prepare authentic Arabic, Chinese and Russian texts as soon as possible.