Constitution Amendment Act 2016

Link to law: http://www.parliament.gov.zm/node/4834

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Constitution of Zambia (Amendment), 2016-Act No. 2.pmd
Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 9

An Act to amend the Constitution of Zambia.
[ 5th January, 2016

ENACTED by the Parliament of Zambia.
1. This Act may be cited as the Constitution of Zambia

(Amendment) Act, 2016, and shall be read as one with the
Constitution of Zambia, in this Act referred to as the Constitution.

2. The Constitution is amended by the repeal of the Preamble
and the substitution therefor of the following:

PREAMBLE
WE, THE PEOPLE OF ZAMBIA:

ACKNOWLEDGE the supremacy of God Almighty;

DECLARE the Republic a Christian Nation while upholding a
person’s right to freedom of conscience, belief or religion;

UPHOLD the human rights and fundamental freedoms of every
person;

COMMIT ourselves to upholding the principles of democracy and
good governance;

RESOLVE to ensure that our values relating to family, morality,
patriotism and justice are maintained and all functions of the State
are performed in our common interest;

CONFIRM the equal worth of women and men and their right to
freely participate in, determine and build a sustainable political, legal,
economic and social order;

Enactment

Short title

Cap. 1

Repeal and
replacement
of Preamble

GOVERNMENT OF ZAMBIA

ACT
No. 2 of 2016

Date of Assent: 5th January, 2016

Single copies of this Act may be obtained from the Government Printer
P.O. Box 30136, 10101 Lusaka. Price K220.00

RECOGNISE AND UPHOLD the multi-ethnic, multi-racial, multi-religious
and multi-cultural character of our Nation and our right to manage
our affairs and resources sustainably in a devolved system of
governance;

RESOLVE that Zambia shall remain a unitary, multi-party and
democratic sovereign State;

RECOGNISE AND HONOUR the freedom fighters who fought for the
independence of our Nation in order to achieve liberty, justice
and unity for the people of Zambia;

AND DIRECT that all State organs and State institutions abide by
and respect our sovereign will;

DO HEREBY SOLEMNLY ADOPT AND GIVE TO OURSELVES THIS
CONSTITUTION:

3. The Constitution is amended by the repeal of Parts I and II
and the substitution therefor of the following Parts:

PART I
SUPREMACY OF CONSTITUTION

1. (1) This Constitution is the supreme law of the Republic of
Zambia and any other written law, customary law and customary
practice that is inconsistent with its provisions is void to the extent
of the inconsistency.

(2) An act or omission that contravenes this Constitution is
illegal.

(3) This Constitution shall bind all persons in Zambia, State
organs and State institutions.

(4) The validity or legality of this Constitution is not subject to
challenge by or before a State organ or other forum.

(5) A matter relating to this Constitution shall be heard by the
Constitutional Court.

2. Every person has the right and duty to—
(a) defend this Constitution; and
(b) resist or prevent a person from overthrowing, suspending

or illegally abrogating this Constitution.
3. The operation of this Constitution shall not be affected by

an unlawful act to overthrow, suspend or illegally abrogate its
provisions.

Repeal and
replacement
of Parts I
and II

Supremacy
of
Constitution

10 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Defence of
Constitution

Continuous
effect of
Constitution

4. (1) Zambia is a sovereign Republic under a constitutional
form of governance.

(2) The Republic consists of the territory defined in an Act of
Parliament.

(3) The Republic is a unitary, indivisible, multi-ethnic, multi-racial,
multi-religious, multi-cultural and multi-party democratic State.

(4) The Republic shall not be ceded in whole or in part.

(5) The Republic may enter into a union or other form of inter-
state organisation, which action shall not be construed as ceding
the Republic.

5. (1) Sovereign authority vests in the people of Zambia, which
may be exercised directly or through elected or appointed
representatives or institutions.

(2) Power that is not conferred by or under this Constitution on
any State organ, State institution, State officer, Constitutional office
holder or other institution or person is reserved for the people.

(3) The people of Zambia shall exercise their reserved power
through a referendum, as prescribed.

6. (1) The national symbols of the Republic are the—

(a) National Flag;

(b) National Anthem;

(c) Coat of Arms;

(d) Public Seal; and

(e) National Motto.

(2) The form, words, description and use of the national symbols
shall be as prescribed.

7. The Laws of Zambia consist of—

(a) this Constitution;

(b) laws enacted by Parliament;

(c) statutory instruments;

(d) Zambian customary law which is consistent with this
Constitution; and

(e) the laws and statutes which apply or extend to Zambia,
as prescribed.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 11

Republic of
Zambia

Sovereign
authority

National
symbols

Laws of
Zambia

PART II

NATIONAL VALUES, PRINCIPLES AND ECONOMIC POLICIES

8. The national values and principles are—
(a) morality and ethics;
(b) patriotism and national unity;
(c) democracy and constitutionalism;
(d) human dignity, equity, social justice, equality and non-

discrimination;

(e) good governance and integrity; and
(f) sustainable development.

9. (1) The national values and principles shall apply to the —
(a) interpretation of this Constitution;
(b) enactment and interpretation of the law; and
(c) development and implementation of State policy.

(2) The President shall, once in every year, report to the National
Assembly the progress made in the application of the values and
principles specified under this Part.

10. (1) The Government shall create an economic environment
which encourages individual initiative and self-reliance among the
people, so as to promote investment, employment and wealth.

(2) The Government shall promote the economic empowerment
of citizens so that they contribute to sustainable economic growth
and social development.

(3) The Government shall promote local and foreign investment
and protect and guarantee such investment through agreements
with investors and other countries.

(4) The Government shall not compulsorily acquire an investment,
except under customary international law and subject to Article 16
(1).

(5) Where the investment compulsorily acquired under clause
(4) was made from the proceeds of crime no compensation shall
be paid by the Government.

4. The Constitution is amended by the repeal of Part IV and
the substitution therefor of the following Part:

12 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

National
values and
principles

Application
of national
values and
principles

Basis of
economic
policies

Repeal and
replacement
of Part IV

PART IV

CITIZENSHIP

33. A person who was a citizen of Zambia, immediately before
the commencement of this Constitution, shall continue to be a citizen
of Zambia and shall retain the same citizenship category from the
date the citizenship was acquired.

34. Citizenship may be acquired by birth, descent, registration
or adoption in accordance with this Part.

35. (1) A person born in Zambia is a citizen by birth if, at the
date of that person’s birth, at least one parent of that person is or
was a citizen.

(2) A child found in Zambia who is, or appears to be, of not
more than eight years of age and whose nationality and parents
are not known, shall be presumed to be a citizen by birth.

(3) For the purposes of this Part, a person born aboard—

(a) a registered ship or aircraft of a country, shall be deemed
to have been born in the country of registration of the
ship or aircraft; or

(b) an unregistered ship or aircraft of a country, shall be
deemed to have been born in that country.

36. A person born outside Zambia is a citizen by descent if, at
the date of that person’s birth, at least one parent of that person is
or was a citizen by birth or descent.

37. (1) Subject to clause (2), a person is entitled to apply to
the Citizenship Board of Zambia to be registered as a citizen if that
person has attained the age of eighteen years and—

(a) was born in Zambia and has been ordinarily resident in
Zambia for a period of at least five years;

(b) was born outside Zambia, has or had an ancestor who is,
or was, a citizen and has been ordinarily resident in
Zambia for a period of at least five years; or

(c) has been ordinarily resident in Zambia for a continuous
period of at least ten years;

immediately preceding that person’s application for registration, as
prescribed.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 13

Existing
citizenship

Categories
of citizenship

Citizenship
by birth

Citizenship
by descent

Citizenship
by
registration

(2) Notwithstanding clause (1), a person who is, or was married
to a citizen, for a period of at least five years, is entitled to apply to
the Citizenship Board of Zambia, to be registered as a citizen, as
prescribed.

38. A child who is not a citizen and who is adopted by a citizen
shall be a citizen on the date of the adoption.

39. (1) A citizen shall not lose citizenship by acquiring the
citizenship of another country.

(2) A citizen who ceased to be a citizen, before the
commencement of this Constitution as a result of acquiring the
citizenship of another country, shall be entitled to apply, as
prescribed, to the Citizenship Board of Zambia, for citizenship and
the Citizenship Board of Zambia shall bestow citizenship on that
person.

40. (1) A citizen—
(a) may renounce citizenship as prescribed; or
(b) shall be deprived of citizenship if that citizenship was

acquired by means of fraud, false representation or
concealment of a material fact.

(2) The process and procedures to be followed by the
Citizenship Board of Zambia when granting or depriving a person
of citizenship shall be prescribed.

41. (1) There is established the Citizenship Board of Zambia.
(2) The composition, appointment and tenure of office of

members of, and procedures to be followed by, the Citizenship
Board of Zambia shall be prescribed.

42. A citizen is entitled to—
(a) the rights, privileges and benefits of citizenship as provided

in this Constitution or as prescribed; and

(b) a document of identification issued by the State to citizens.
43. (1) A citizen shall —

(a) be patriotic to Zambia and promote its development and
good image;

(b) pay taxes and duties lawfully due and owing to the State;
(c) protect and conserve the environment and utilise natural

resources in a sustainable manner;

14 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Citizenship
by adoption

Dual
citizenship

Renunciation
and
deprivation
of
citizenship

Citizenship
Board of
Zambia

Entitlements
of citizen

Responsibilities
of citizen

(d) maintain a clean and healthy environment;
(e) provide national, defence and military service when called

upon by the State; and

(f) co-operate with law enforcement agencies for the
maintenance and enforcement of law and order.

(2) A citizen shall endeavour to—

(a) acquire basic understanding of this Constitution and
promote its ideals and objectives;

(b) register and vote, if eligible, in national and local government
elections and referenda;

(c) develop one’s abilities to the greatest possible extent
through acquisition of knowledge, continuous learning
and the development of skills;

(d) foster national unity and live in harmony with others; and
(e) understand and enhance Zambia’s place in the international

community.
44. A reference in this Part to the citizenship of the parent of

a person at the time of the birth of that person shall, in relation to a
person born after the death of that person’s parent, be construed
as a reference to the citizenship of the parent at the time of the
parent’s death.

PART V
REPRESENTATION OF THE PEOPLE

Electoral Systems and Process
45. (1) The electoral systems provided for in Article 47 for

the election of President, Member of Parliament or councillor shall
ensure—

(a) that citizens are free to exercise their political rights;

(b) universal adult suffrage based on the equality of a vote;

(c) fair representation of the various interest groups in society;
and

(d) gender equity in the National Assembly or council.

(2) The electoral process and system of administering elections
shall ensure—

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 15

Reference to
citizenship
of parent

Principles of
electoral
systems and
process

(a) that elections are free and fair;

(b) that elections are free from violence, intimidation and
corruption;

(c) independence, accountability, efficiency and transparency
of the electoral process;

(d) a simple and practical system of voting and tabulating
votes; and

(e) timely resolution of electoral disputes.

46. A citizen who has attained the age of eighteen years is entitled
to be registered as a voter and vote in an election by secret ballot.

47. (1) Elections to the office of President shall be conducted
directly, under a majoritarian electoral system, where the winning
candidate must receive more than fifty percent of the valid votes
cast, and in accordance with Article 101.

(2) Elections to the National Assembly shall be conducted under
a first-past-the-post electoral system in accordance with Article
68.

(3) Elections to councils shall be conducted under a first-past-
the-post electoral system, and in accordance with Articles 153 and
154.

(4) A constituency and a ward shall return only one member
to the National Assembly and council, respectively.

48. The electoral process for electing a President, Member
of Parliament or councillor shall be prescribed.

49. The system of administering elections shall be prescribed.

50. A political party and a candidate contesting an election
shall have access to the media, especially during election campaigns.

51. A person is eligible for election as an independent
candidate for a National Assembly seat if the person—

(a) is not a member of a political party and has not been a
member of a political party for at least two months
immediately before the date of the election; and

16 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Franchise

Electoral
systems

Electoral
process

System for
administering
elections

Access to
media

Independent
candidates

(b) meets the qualifications specified in Article 70 for election
as a Member of Parliament.

52. (1) A candidate shall file that candidate’s nomination paper
to a returning officer, supported by an affidavit stating that the
candidate is qualified for nomination as President, Member of
Parliament or councillor, in the manner, on the day, and at the time
and place set by the Electoral Commission by regulation.

(2) A returning officer shall, immediately on the filing of a
nomination paper, in accordance with clause (1), duly reject the
nomination paper if the candidate does not meet the qualifications
or procedural requirements specified for election to that office.

(3) The information contained in a nomination paper and
affidavit shall be published by the Electoral Commission, as
prescribed.

(4) A person may challenge, before a court or tribunal, as
prescribed, the nomination of a candidate within seven days of the
close of nomination and the court shall hear the case within twenty-
one days of its lodgement.

(5) The processes specified in clauses (1) to (4) shall be
completed at least thirty days before a general election.

(6) Where a candidate dies, resigns or becomes disqualified in
accordance with Article 70, 100 or 153 or a court disqualifies a
candidate for corruption or malpractice, after the close of
nominations and before the election date, the Electoral Commission
shall cancel the election and require the filing of fresh nominations
by eligible candidates and elections shall be held within thirty days
of the filing of the fresh nominations.

53. (1) Where only one candidate is nominated for election
as President, Member of Parliament or councillor, by the date and
time set by the Electoral Commission for receiving nominations
and at the close of the nomination period, that candidate shall be
declared duly elected.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 17

Nominations

Unopposed
candidates

(2) A person may, within seven days of a declaration made in
accordance with clause (1), challenge the declaration, as
prescribed.

(3) The processes specified in clauses (1) and (2) shall be
completed at least thirty days before a general election.

54. A candidate and a political party shall comply with a
prescribed electoral code of conduct.

55. A candidate who loses an election as a President, Vice-
President, Member of Parliament or councillor is not eligible, during
the term of that National Assembly or council, for appointment
as—

(a) Minister; or
(b) Provincial Minister.

56. (1) A general election shall be held, every five years after
the last general election, on the second Thursday of August.

(2) The day on which a general election is held shall be a public
holiday.

57. (1) Where a vacancy occurs in the office of Member of
Parliament, mayor, council chairperson or councillor, a by-election
shall be held within ninety days of the occurrence of the vacancy.

(2) A by-election shall not be held within the one hundred-and-
eighty day period that precedes a general election.

(3) The Electoral Commission shall, by regulation, set the place
where, and the date and time when, a by-election is to be held.

Constituencies, Wards and Delimitation

58. (1) Zambia shall be divided into constituencies and wards
for purposes of elections to the National Assembly and councils,
respectively.

(2) The number of constituencies shall be equal to the number
of seats of elected members in the National Assembly.

(3) The number of wards in a district shall be prescribed.

(4) The Electoral Commission shall determine the names and
boundaries of constituencies and wards.

18 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Electoral
code of
conduct

Losing
candidate
not eligible
for certain
appointments

Election date
for general
elections

By-elections

Constituencies,
wards and
delimitation

(5) The Electoral Commission shall, at intervals of not more
than ten years, review the names and boundaries of constituencies
and wards.

(6) The names and details of the boundaries of constituencies
and wards shall be published in the Gazette and shall come into
effect on the next dissolution of Parliament or councils.

(7) A person may apply to the Constitutional Court for review
of a decision of the Electoral Commission made under this Article.

59. The Electoral Commission shall, in delimiting the boundaries
of constituencies and wards—

(a) take into account the history, diversity and cohesiveness
of the constituency or ward;

(b) have regard to population density, trends and projections;
(c) ensure that the number of inhabitants in each constituency

or ward is reasonable, taking into account the means of
communication and geographical features;

(d) ensure that constituencies and wards are wholly within
districts; and

(e) seek to achieve an approximate equality of constituency
and ward population, subject to the need to ensure
adequate representation for urban and sparsely populated
areas.

Political Parties
60. (1) A political party has the right to—

(a) disseminate information on social and economic
programmes of a national character and of its political
ideology;

(b) sponsor candidates for election or nomination to a State
office in respect of which elections are required to be
held; and

(c) conduct primary elections for the selection of candidates.
(2) A political party shall—

(a) promote the values and principles specified in this
Constitution;

(b) have a national character;
(c) promote and uphold national unity;

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 19

Matters to
take into
account
when
delimiting
constituencies
and wards

Political
parties

(d) promote and practice democracy through regular, free
and fair elections within the party;

(e) respect the right of its members to participate in the affairs
of the political party;

(f) respect the right of its members to seek redress from a
court or tribunal when aggrieved by a decision of the
political party; and

(g) subscribe to and observe the code of conduct for political
parties, as prescribed.

(3)A political party shall not—

(a) be founded on a religious, linguistic, racial, ethnic, tribal,
gender, sectoral or provincial basis or engage in
propaganda based on any of these factors;

(b) engage in or encourage violence or intimidate its members,
supporters, opponents or other persons;

(c) engage in corrupt practices; and

(d) except as prescribed, use public resources to promote its
interest or that of its members.

(4) The following shall be prescribed with regard to political
parties:

(a) the establishment and management of a Political Parties’
Fund to provide financial support to political parties with
seats in the National Assembly;

(b) the accounts of political parties which are funded under
the Political Parties’ Fund and the submission of audited
accounts by political parties;

(c) the sources of funds for political parties;

(d) the maximum amount of money to be used for campaigns
during elections; and

(e) matters incidental to matters specified in this clause.

5. The Constitution is amended by the renumbering of Part V
as Part VI, and the deletion of the heading to that Part and the
substitution therefor of the following heading and sub-heading:

Renumbering
and renaming
of Part V

20 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

LEGISLATURE

Legislative Authority
6. The Constitution is amended by the repeal of Articles 62 to

78 inclusive and the substitution therefor of the following:

61. The legislative authority of the Republic derives from
the people of Zambia and shall be exercised in a manner
that protects this Constitution and promotes the democratic
governance of the Republic.

62. (1) There is established the Parliament of Zambia which
consists of the President and the National Assembly.

(2) The legislative authority of the Republic is vested in and
exercised by Parliament.

(3) A person or body, other than Parliament, shall not have
power to enact legislation, except as conferred by this Constitution.

(4) A member of the National Assembly shall be referred to as
a Member of Parliament.

63. (1) Parliament shall enact legislation through Bills passed
by the National Assembly and assented to by the President.

(2) The National Assembly shall oversee the performance of
executive functions by—

(a) ensuring equity in the distribution of national resources
amongst the people of Zambia;

(b) appropriating funds for expenditure by State organs, State
institutions, provincial administration, local authorities and
other bodies;

(c) scrutinising public expenditure, including defence,
constitutional and special expenditure;

(d) approving public debt before it is contracted; and
(e) approving international agreements and treaties before

these are acceded to or ratified.

64. (1) A Member of Parliament or Minister may introduce a
Bill in the National Assembly.

(2) The expenses of drafting and introducing a Bill in the National
Assembly shall be a charge on the Consolidated Fund.

65. (1) A Money Bill shall be introduced by a Minister.

Repeal and
replacement
of Articles 62
to 78

Principles of
legislative
authority

Parliament,
vesting of
legislative
authority
and
Members of
Parliament

Functions of
Parliament
and National
Assembly

Introduction
of Bills in
National
Assembly

Money Bills

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 21

(2) A Money Bill means a Bill that provides for, among other
matters—

(a) the imposition, repeal, remission, alteration or regulation
of taxes;

(b) the imposition of charges on the Consolidated Fund or
any other public fund, or the variation or repeal of any
of those charges;

(c) the appropriation, receipt, custody, investment, issue or
audit of accounts of public monies;

(d) the grant of public money to a person or authority or the
variation or revocation of such grant;

(e) the raising or guaranteeing of a loan or the repayment of
it; or

(f) matters incidental to matters specified in this clause.

(3) A Bill that confers emoluments on State officers or
Constitutional office holders shall only be introduced in the National
Assembly if the emoluments are recommended by the Emoluments
Commission.

66. (1) Where a Bill is presented to the President for assent,
the President shall, within twenty-one days after receipt of the
Bill—

(a) assent to the Bill; or

(b) refer the Bill to the National Assembly for reconsideration,
indicating any reservation that the President has
concerning the Bill.

(2) Where the President refers the Bill to the National Assembly
for reconsideration, in accordance with clause (1) (b), the National
Assembly may—

(a) amend the Bill taking into account the President’s
reservation; or

(b) pass the Bill, without amendment, by a vote supported by
at least two-thirds of the Members of Parliament.

22 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Presidential
assent and
referral

(3) Where the National Assembly passes the Bill with
amendments, in accordance with clause (2) (a), the Speaker shall
submit the Bill to the President for assent.

(4) Where the National Assembly passes the Bill, in accordance
with clause (2) (b)—

(a) the Speaker shall, within seven days of passing the Bill,
resubmit the Bill to the President; and

(b) the President shall, within seven days of receipt of the
Bill, assent to the Bill.

(5) Where the National Assembly fails to pass the Bill, in
accordance with clause (2) (b), the Bill shall not be presented to
the National Assembly in that session.

(6) Where the President does not assent to a Bill within the
periods prescribed in clauses (1) and (4), the Bill shall be considered
assented to upon the expiry of those periods.

67. (1) Article 62 or 63 shall not prevent Parliament from
conferring on a person or authority power to make statutory
instruments.

(2) A statutory instrument shall be published in the Gazette—
(a) not later than twenty-eight days after it is made; or
(b) in the case of a statutory instrument which will not have

the force of law unless it is approved by a person or an
authority, other than a person or an authority by which it
was made, not later than twenty-eight days after it is so
approved;

and if the statutory instrument is not so published, it is void from the
date on which it was made.

(3) A person may challenge a statutory instrument, for its
constitutionality, within fourteen days of the publication of the
statutory instrument in the Gazette.

(4) Where the Constitutional Court considers that a challenge
of a statutory instrument is frivolous or vexatious, the Constitutional
Court shall dismiss the action.

(5) Where the Constitutional Court decides that a provision of
a statutory instrument is inconsistent with a provision of this
Constitution, that statutory instrument is void from the date on which
it was made.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 23

Statutory
instruments

(6) A Member of Parliament who intends to challenge a
statutory instrument, on its constitutionality, shall follow the procedure
laid down in the Standing Orders of the National Assembly.

Elections to National Assembly and Members of Parliament

68. (1) A Member of Parliament shall be elected in
accordance with Article 47 (2) and this Article.

(2) The National Assembly shall consist of—

(a) one hundred and fifty-six members directly elected on
the basis of a simple majority vote under the first-past-
the-post system;

(b) not more than eight nominated members;

(c) the Vice-President;

(d) the Speaker; and

(e) the First and Second Deputy Speakers.

69. (1) The President may nominate a person referred to in
Article 68 (2) (b) where the President considers it necessary to
enhance the representation of special interests, skills or gender in
the National Assembly.

(2) A person may be nominated as a Member of Parliament if
the person qualifies to be elected as such under Article 70.

(3) A person who was a candidate for election in the last
preceding general election or a subsequent by-election is not eligible
to be nominated as a Member of Parliament

70. (1) Subject to clause (2), a person is eligible to be elected
as a Member of Parliament, if that person—

(a) is a citizen;

(b) is at least twenty-one years old;

(c) is a registered voter;

Election and
composition
of National
Assembly

Nominated
Members of
Parliament

Qualifications
and
disqualifica-
tions of
Members of
Parliament

24 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

(d) has obtained, as a minimum academic qualification, a grade
twelve certificate or its equivalent; and

(e) declares that person’s assets and liabilities, as prescribed.

(2) A person is disqualified from being elected as a Member of
Parliament if that person—

(a) is validly nominated as a candidate in a presidential
election;

(b) is a public officer or Constitutional office holder;

(c) is a judge or judicial officer;

(d) has a mental or physical disability that would make the
person incapable of performing the legislative function;

(e) is an undischarged bankrupt;

(f) is serving a sentence of imprisonment for an offence
under a written law;

(g) has, in the immediate preceding five years, served a term
of imprisonment of at least three years;

(h) has, in the immediate preceding five years, been removed
from public office on grounds of gross misconduct; or

(i) holds or is acting in an office, as prescribed, the
functions of which involve or are connected with the
conduct of elections.

71. A nomination for election to the National Assembly is valid
if the candidate—

(a) has paid a prescribed election fee to the Electoral
Commission; and

(b) is supported by at least fifteen persons registered as voters
in the constituency in which the candidate is standing
for election.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 25

Nominations
for election
to National
Assembly

72. (1) A Member of Parliament shall, except the Speaker and
the First Deputy Speaker, vacate the seat in the National Assembly
upon a dissolution of Parliament.

(2) The office of Member of Parliament becomes vacant if
the member—

(a) resigns by notice, in writing, to the Speaker;

(b) becomes disqualified for election in accordance with Article
70;

(c) acts contrary to a prescribed code of conduct;

(d) resigns from the political party which sponsored the member
for election to the National Assembly;

(e) is expelled from the political party which sponsored the
member for election to the National Assembly;

(f) ceases to be a citizen;

(g) having been elected to the National Assembly, as an
independent candidate, joins a political party;

(h) is disqualified as a result of a decision of the Constitutional
Court; or

(i) dies.

(3) The office of a nominated Member of Parliament becomes
vacant if the member—

(a) resigns by notice, in writing, to the speaker;

(b) is disqualified under Article 70;

(c) acts contrary to a prescribed code of conduct;

(d) ceases to be a citizen;

(e) dies; or

(f) has the member’s nomination revoked by the President.

26 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Vacation of
office as
Member of
Parliament
and
dissolution
of political
party

(4) A person who causes a vacancy in the National Assembly
due to the reasons specified under clause (2) (a), (b), (c), (d), (g)
and (h) shall not, during the term of that Parliament—

(a) be eligible to contest an election; or

(b) hold public office.

(5) Where a Member of Parliament is expelled as provided in
clause (2) (e), the member shall not lose the seat until the expulsion
is confirmed by a court, except that where the member does not

challenge the expulsion in court and the period prescribed for
challenge lapses, the member shall vacate the seat in the National
Assembly.

(6) Where a court determines that an expulsion of a member,
as provided in clause (2) (e), was not justified, there shall be no by-
election for that seat and the member shall opt to—

(a) remain a member of the political party and retain the seat;
or

(b) resign from the political party and retain the seat as an
independent member.

(7) Where a court determines that an expulsion of a member,
as provided in clause (2) (e), was justified, the member shall vacate
the seat in the National Assembly.

(8) Where a vacancy occurs in the National Assembly, the
Speaker shall, within seven days of the occurrence of the vacancy,
inform the Electoral Commission of the vacancy, in writing, and a
by-election shall be held in accordance with Article 57.

(9) If a political party is dissolved, a Member of Parliament
shall retain the member’s seat as an independent member.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 27

73. (1) A person may file an election petition with the High
Court to challenge the election of a Member of Parliament.

(2) An election petition shall be heard within ninety days of the
filing of the petition.

(3) A person may appeal against the decision of the High Court
to the Constitutional Court.

(4) A Member of Parliament whose election is petitioned shall
hold the seat in the National Assembly pending the determination
of the election petition.

74. (1) The President shall appoint the Vice-President to be
the Leader of Government Business in the National Assembly.

(2) The opposition political party with the largest number of
seats in the National Assembly shall elect a Leader of the Opposition
from amongst the Members of Parliament who are from the
opposition.

Proceedings of National Assembly

75. (1) The Speaker shall, within thirty days after a general
election, by notice in the Gazette, appoint a date for the first sitting
of the National Assembly for that term.

(2) There shall be at least three sittings of the National Assembly
in a session of Parliament which shall be held at such times and on
such days as the Speaker appoints.

(3) Notwithstanding clause (2), the President, or two-thirds of
the Members of Parliament, may, in writing, request the Speaker to
summon a sitting of the National Assembly, as prescribed.

76. (1) A Member of Parliament has freedom of speech and
debate in the National Assembly and that freedom shall not be
ousted or questioned in a court or tribunal.

(2) A Member of Parliament shall have the powers, privileges
and immunities, as prescribed.

28 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Petition of
election of
Member of
Parliament

Leader of
Government
Business and
Leader of
Opposition

Sittings of
National
Assembly

Freedom of
speech,
powers,
privileges
and
immunities

77. (1) Subject to this Article and Article 78, the National
Assembly shall regulate its own procedure and make Standing
Orders for the conduct of its business.

(2) The proceedings of the National Assembly shall not be
invalid due to—

(a) a vacancy in its membership; or

(b) the presence or participation of a person not entitled to be
present at, or to participate in, the proceedings of the
National Assembly.

(3) There shall preside at a sitting of the National Assembly—

(a) the Speaker;

(b) in the absence of the Speaker, the First Deputy Speaker;

(c) in the absence of the First Deputy Speaker, the Second
Deputy Speaker; or

(d) in the absence of the Second Deputy Speaker, another
Member of Parliament as the members may elect for
that sitting.

(4) The quorum for a meeting of the National Assembly shall
be one-third of the Members of Parliament.

78. (1) Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, a
question proposed for decision in the National Assembly shall be
determined by a majority of the Members of Parliament present
and voting.

(2) On a question proposed for decision in the National Assembly —

(a) the Speaker shall have no vote; and

(b) in the case of a tie, the question shall be lost.

7. The Constitution is amended by the repeal of Articles 80 to
90 inclusive and the substitution therefor of the following:

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 29

Procedure of
National
Assembly

Voting in
National
Assembly

Repeal and
replacement
of Articles 80
to 90

80. (1) The National Assembly may establish parliamentary
committees.

(2) Parliamentary committees shall be established at the first
sitting of the National Assembly after a general election and after
the election of the Speaker and the Deputy Speakers.

(3) The National Assembly shall, in selecting members of a
parliamentary committee, ensure that there is equitable
representation of the political parties holding seats in the National
Assembly and independent Members of Parliament.

(4) The Standing Orders shall provide for the categories,
functions and procedures of parliamentary committees.

81. (1) The term of Parliament shall be five years commencing
from the date that the Members of Parliament are sworn into office
after a general election and ending on the date that Parliament is
dissolved.

(2) The National Assembly may, when the Republic is at war,
by resolution supported by a simple majority vote of the Members
of Parliament, extend the term of Parliament for not more than
twelve months at a time.

(3) Parliament shall stand dissolved ninety days before the
holding of the next general election.

(4) Subject to clauses (5), (6) and (7), the President may
dissolve Parliament if the Executive cannot effectively govern the
Republic due to the failure of the National Assembly to objectively
and reasonably carry out its legislative function.

(5) Where the President intends to dissolve Parliament in
accordance with clause (4), the President shall inform the public
and refer the matter, within seven days, to the Constitutional Court.

(6) The Constitutional Court shall hear the matter, referred to
it in accordance with clause (5), within seven days of receipt of the
matter.

30 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Committees
of National
Assembly

Term and
prorogation
of Parliament

(7) The Constitutional Court shall, where it decides that the
situation in clause (4) exists, inform the President and the President
shall dissolve Parliament.

(8) Where Parliament is dissolved under clauses (3) and (4),
the President shall, until the President-elect assumes office, continue
to perform the executive functions, in accordance with Article 104.

(9) Where Parliament is dissolved under clauses (3) and (4),
general elections shall be held within ninety days of the dissolution.

(10) The President may, due to a state of war, state of public
emergency or threatened state of public emergency, after the
dissolution of Parliament and before the holding of general elections,
recall the National Assembly that was dissolved.

(11) The President may, in consultation with the Speaker,
prorogue Parliament by proclamation.

Speaker, Deputy Speakers and Officers of National
Assembly

82. (1) The Members of Parliament shall elect, by secret ballot,
a Speaker of the National Assembly from a list of names of persons,
who are qualified to be elected as Members of Parliament, but are
not Members of Parliament, submitted to the National Assembly
by—

(a) the President; and

(b) political parties holding seats in the National Assembly.

(2) A person is qualified to be elected as Speaker of the
National Assembly if that person—

(a) is a citizen by birth or descent;

(b) does not have dual citizenship;

(c) has been ordinarily resident in Zambia;

(d) is at least thirty-five years old;

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 31

Speaker and
Deputy
Speakers of
National
Assembly

(e) has obtained, as a minimum academic qualification, a grade
twelve certificate or its equivalent;

(f) declares that person’s assets and liabilities, as prescribed;

(g) has paid that person’s taxes or made arrangements
satisfactory to the appropriate tax authority for the
payment of the taxes; and

(h) is not a Member of Parliament.

(3) There shall be two Deputy Speakers of the National
Assembly who are not members of the same political party and of
the same gender.

(4) The Members of Parliament shall elect, by secret ballot,
the First Deputy Speaker from a list of three names, selected by
the political parties represented in the National Assembly, from
among persons who are qualified to be elected as Members of
Parliament but are not Members of Parliament.

(5) The Members of Parliament shall elect, by secret ballot,
the Second Deputy Speaker from among their number.

(6) The Members of Parliament shall elect a Speaker and the
Deputy Speakers—

(a) when the National Assembly first sits after a general
election; and

(b) if the office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker becomes
vacant.

(7) The office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall become
vacant if the Speaker or Deputy Speaker—

(a) becomes disqualified under Article 70 (2);

(b) resigns by notice, in writing, to the President;

(c) is removed from office in accordance with Article 83; or

(d) dies.

(8) When the office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker becomes
vacant, business shall not be transacted in the National Assembly,
other than an election to the office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker.

32 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

83. (1) A Member of Parliament, supported by at least one-
third of the Members of Parliament, may move a motion for the
removal of the Speaker or a Deputy Speaker, alleging that the
Speaker or Deputy Speaker has—

(a) violated this Constitution;
(b) a mental or physical disability that makes the Speaker or

Deputy Speaker incapable of performing the functions
of the office of Speaker or Deputy Speaker; or

(c) committed gross misconduct.
(2) The motion shall specify the particulars of the allegation.
(3) Where a motion is supported by a resolution of two-thirds

of the Members of Parliament, the Speaker or Deputy Speaker
shall be suspended from office and the National Assembly shall
refer the matter to a parliamentary committee.

(4) The parliamentary committee, to which the matter has been
referred in accordance with clause (3), shall, within seven days of
the reference—

(a) investigate the matter, and the Speaker or Deputy Speaker
has the right to appear, be heard and be represented
before the parliamentary committee; and

(b) report to the National Assembly whether or not the
particulars of the allegations specified in the motion have
been substantiated.

(5) Where the parliamentary committee reports that the
particulars of the allegation against the Speaker or Deputy
Speaker—

(a) are not substantiated, the National Assembly shall, on a
motion supported by the votes of not less than two-thirds
of the Members of Parliament, taken by secret ballot,
resolve that the Speaker or Deputy Speaker—

(i) did not commit the violations specified in the
motion; and

(ii) be reinstated; or
(b) are substantiated, the National Assembly shall, on a motion

supported by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the
Members of Parliament, taken by secret ballot, resolve
that the Speaker or Deputy Speaker has committed the
violations specified in the motion and that the Speaker
or Deputy Speaker cease to hold office forthwith.

Removal of
Speaker on
specified
grounds

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 33

(6) Where a resolution is made, in accordance with clause (5)
(b), an election of Speaker or Deputy Speaker shall be conducted
within seven days of the resolution, in accordance with Article 82.

84. (1) There shall be a Clerk of the National Assembly who
shall be appointed by the Parliamentary Service Commission, subject
to ratification by the National Assembly.

(2) A person shall not be appointed Clerk of the National
Assembly unless that person has the academic qualifications,
experience and skills prescribed.

(3) Subject to clause (5), the Clerk of the National Assembly
shall retire on attaining the age of sixty-five years.

(4) The Clerk of the National Assembly may retire, with full
benefits, on attaining the age of sixty years.

(5) The National Assembly may, by a resolution supported by
the votes of not less than two-thirds of the Members of Parliament,
remove the Clerk of the National Assembly on the same grounds
and procedure that apply to the removal of a judge.

(6) The Clerk of the National Assembly may resign from office
by three months’ notice, in writing, to the Speaker.

85. There shall be appointed such officers in the department
of the Clerk of the National Assembly, as prescribed.

General Parliamentary Matters

86. (1) The President shall, at least twice in every year, attend
and address the National Assembly.

(2) The President may, at any time during the term of
Parliament, send a message to the National Assembly which shall
be read by the Leader of Government Business or by a Minister
designated by the President.

87. (1) The National Assembly may censure a Minister or
Provincial Minister where the Members of Parliament are
dissatisfied with the conduct or performance of the Minister or
Provincial Minister.

(2) The proceedings to censure a Minister or Provincial
Minister shall be commenced by a notice of motion, submitted to
the Speaker, signed by at least one-third of the Members of
Parliament, stating the grounds in support of the motion.

Clerk of
National
Assembly

Presidential
address to
National
Assembly
and
presidential
messages

Officers of
National
Assembly

34 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Vote of
censure

(3) The Speaker shall, on receipt of the notice of motion
submitted in accordance with clause (2), cause a copy of the notice
of motion to be given to the Minister or Provincial Minister.

(4) The notice of motion to censure a Minister or Provincial
Minister shall not be debated until after the expiry of seven days
from the date the notice of motion is submitted to the Speaker.

(5) The National Assembly may pass a vote of censure on a
Minister or Provincial Minister by resolution supported by two-
thirds of the votes of the Members of Parliament.

88. (1) A citizen may petition the National Assembly to initiate
the enactment, amendment or repeal of legislation.

(2) A citizen may comment on a deliberation, statement or
decision of the National Assembly.

(3) The manner of petitioning and commenting referred to in
this Article shall be prescribed.

89. (1) The National Assembly shall facilitate public
involvement in the legislative process.

(2) The National Assembly or a parliamentary committee shall
not exclude the public or media from its sittings, unless there are
justifiable reasons for the exclusion and the Speaker informs the
public or media of the reasons.

8. The Constitution is amended by the repeal of Parts VI to
XIV inclusive and the substitution therefor of the following:

PART VII
EXECUTIVE

Executive Authority

90. The Executive authority derives from the people of Zambia
and shall be exercised in a manner compatible with the principles
of social justice and for the people’s well-being and benefit.

91. (1) There shall be a President of the Republic who shall
be the Head of State and Government and Commander-in-Chief
of the Defence Force.

(2) The executive authority of the State vests in the President
and, subject to this Constitution, shall be exercised directly by the
President or through public officers or other persons appointed by
the President.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 35

Right to
petition and
make
comments

Public access
and
participation

Repeal and
replacement
of Parts VI
to XIV

Principles of
executive
authority

Presidency
and vesting
of executive
authority

(3) The President shall, in exercise of the executive authority
of the State—

(a) respect, uphold and safeguard this Constitution;
(b) safeguard the sovereignty of the Republic;
(c) promote democracy and enhance the unity of the Nation;
(d) respect the diversity of the different communities of

Zambia;
(e) promote and protect the rights and freedoms of a person;

and

(f) uphold the rule of law.
92. (1) The President shall perform, with dignity, leadership

and integrity, the acts that are necessary and expedient for, or
reasonably incidental to, the exercise of the executive authority.

(2) Without limiting the other provisions of this Constitution,
the President shall—

(a) appoint ambassadors, high commissioners, plenipotentiaries,
diplomatic representatives and consuls;

(b) receive and accredit foreign ambassadors, high
commissioners, plenipotentiaries, diplomatic
representatives, consuls and heads of international
organisations;

(c) negotiate and sign international agreements and treaties
and, subject to the approval of the National Assembly,
ratify or accede to international agreements and treaties;

(d) establish, merge and dissolve Government ministries,
subject to the approval of the National Assembly;

(e) appoint persons as are required by this Constitution or
any other law to be appointed by the President;

(f) appoint persons as are required to perform special duties
for the Executive;

(g) confer honours;

(h) sign and promulgate proclamations as specified in this
Constitution or as prescribed;

(i) initiate Bills for submission to, and consideration by, the
National Assembly; and

36 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Executive
functions of
President

(j) perform other functions specified by this Constitution or
as prescribed.

93. (1) A decision or instruction of the President shall be in
writing under the President’s signature.

(2) The signature of the President on an instrument shall be
under Public Seal.

94. (1) Where the performance of an executive function is
expressed by this Constitution to be subject to approval by the
National Assembly, the National Assembly shall, in the sitting next
after receipt of the request for approval, give the approval within
twenty-one days of the commencement of the sitting.

(2) Where an approval is not given within the period specified
in clause (1) or the National Assembly unreasonably refuses to
give an approval as requested, the President shall refer the matter
to the Constitutional Court for hearing and the decision of the
Constitutional Court is final.

(3) Where the Constitutional Court decides that the refusal or
delay by the National Assembly was justified, the President shall
comply with the order of the Court.

(4) Where the Constitutional Court decides that the refusal or
delay by the National Assembly was unreasonable, the National
Assembly shall proceed to approve the matter.

95. (1) Where in this Constitution an appointment to an office
or the taking of a measure by the President is subject to ratification
by the National Assembly, the National Assembly shall, in the sitting
next after receipt of the request for ratification, give its ratification
within twenty-one days of the commencement of the sitting.

(2) Where ratification is not given within the period specified
in clause (1), the President shall propose another measure or appoint
another person to that office and submit that measure or appointment
for ratification by the National Assembly.

(3) Where the National Assembly refuses or delays the
ratification for the second time, the President shall propose another
measure or appoint another person to that office and shall submit
that measure or appointment for ratification by the National
Assembly.

(4) Where the National Assembly refuses or delays the
ratification of the measure or appointment for the third time, that
measure or appointment shall take effect.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 37

Confirmation
of
presidential
decisions
and
instructions

Approval of
appointments
and measures
by National
Assembly

Ratification
of
appointments
and
measures by
National
Assembly

96. (1) There shall be an Advisory Committee on the
prerogative of mercy which shall consist of persons appointed by
the President.

(2) The Advisory Committee shall advise the President on an
action or a decision to be taken in relation to a person convicted of
an offence by a court or court-martial.

(3) A member of the Advisory Committee shall hold office at
the pleasure of the President.

(4) The President may preside at a meeting of the Advisory
Committee.

(5) The Advisory Committee shall determine its own procedure
for meetings.

97. (1) The President may, on the advice of the Advisory
Committee—

(a) conditionally or unconditionally, pardon a person convicted
of an offence;

(b) substitute a less severe form of punishment imposed on a
person by a court; or

(c) remit the whole or part of a fine, penalty or forfeiture.
(2) A person who is sentenced to death may request the

President, either directly or through a representative, for a pardon
or commutation of the sentence.

98. (1) A person shall not institute or continue civil
proceedings against the President or a person performing executive
functions, as provided in Article 109, in respect of anything done or
omitted to be done by the President or that person in their private
capacity during the tenure of office as President.

(2) The President shall not, in the President’s private capacity
during the tenure of office as President, institute or continue civil
proceedings against a person.

(3) For purposes of clauses (1) and (2), where a law limits the
time within which proceedings may be brought against a person,
the term of office shall not be taken into account in calculating the
period of time.

(4) Subject to clause (9), the President or a person performing
executive functions, as provided in Article 109, is immune from
criminal proceedings which immunity continues after that person
ceases to hold or perform the functions of that office.

Advisory
Committee
on
prerogative
of mercy

Prerogative
of mercy

Protection of
President
from legal
proceedings

38 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

(5) Where there is prima facie evidence that a person who
held the office of President or who performed executive functions
committed an offence whilst in office or during the period that
person performed executive functions, the President shall submit a
report, outlining the grounds relating to the offence allegedly
committed, to the National Assembly, requesting the National
Assembly to remove the immunity from criminal proceedings of
that person.

(6) Where the National Assembly receives a report, submitted
in accordance with clause (5), the National Assembly shall constitute
a select committee to scrutinise the grounds submitted and determine
whether or not there is a prima facie case, based on the grounds
submitted, that warrants the removal of the immunity from criminal
proceedings, and recommend its decision to the National Assembly.

(7) The person who held the office of President or who performed
executive functions has the right to appear, be represented and be
heard before the select committee constituted under clause (6).

(8) Where the select committee, constituted under clause (6),
recommends the removal of immunity from criminal proceedings
from the person who held the office of President or who performed
executive functions, the National Assembly may remove the
immunity in respect of the alleged offence, by a resolution supported
by a vote of not less than two-thirds of the Members of Parliament.

(9) Where immunity is removed, in accordance with clause (8),
the person who held the office of President or who performed
executive functions, shall be charged with the offence for which
the immunity from criminal proceedings was removed.

(10) Where a court acquits the person who held the office of
President or who performed executive functions, of an offence for
which that person’s immunity from criminal proceedings was
removed, the immunity of that person shall, for all purposes, be
deemed not to have been removed, without further proceedings.

(11) The process for the removal of immunity, provided for
under this Article, shall not apply to an impeachable offence under
Article108.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 39

Election of President
99. The Chairperson of the Electoral Commission shall be the

Returning Officer in an election to the office of President.

100. (1) A person qualifies to be nominated as a candidate
for election as President if that person—

(a) is a citizen by birth or descent;
(b) has been ordinarily resident in Zambia;
(c) is at least thirty-five years old;
(d) is a registered voter;
(e) has obtained, as a minimum academic qualification, a grade

twelve certificate or its equivalent;
(f) is fluent in the official language;
(g) has paid that person’s taxes or has made arrangements,

satisfactory to the appropriate tax authority, for the
payment of the taxes;

(h) declares that person’s assets and liabilities, as prescribed;
(i) pays the prescribed election fee on, or before, the date

fixed for the delivery of nomination papers; and
(j) is supported by at least one hundred registered voters from

each Province.
(2) A person is disqualified from being nominated as a

candidate for election as President if that person—
(a) is a public officer;
(b) has dual citizenship;
(c) is holding or acting in a Constitutional office or other

public office;
(d) is a judge or judicial officer;
(e) was removed from public office on grounds of gross

misconduct in the immediate preceding five years;
(f) has a mental or physical disability that would make the

person incapable of performing the executive functions;
(g) is an undischarged bankrupt;
(h) is serving a sentence of imprisonment; or
(i) has, in the immediate preceding five years, served a term

of imprisonment of at least three years.

Returning
officer for
presidential
elections

Qualifications
and
disqualifica-
tions for
nomination
as
presidential
candidate

40 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

101. (1) A President shall be elected by registered voters in
accordance with Article 47 (1) and this Article.

(2) The Returning Officer shall declare the presidential
candidate who receives more than fifty percent of the valid votes
cast during the election as President-elect.

(3) If at the initial ballot a presidential candidate does not receive
more than fifty percent of the valid votes cast, a second ballot shall
be held within thirty-seven days of the initial ballot, where the only
candidates shall be the presidential candidates who obtained—

(a) the highest and second highest number of valid votes cast
in the initial ballot; or

(b) an equal number of the valid votes cast in the initial
ballot, being the highest votes amongst the presidential
candidates that stood for election to the office of
President.

(4) A person may within seven days of the declaration made
under clause (2), petition the Constitutional Court to nullify the
election of a presidential candidate who took part in the initial ballot
on the ground that—

(a) the person was not validly elected; or
(b) a provision of this Constitution or other law relating to

presidential elections was not complied with.

(5) The Constitutional Court shall hear an election petition filed
in accordance with clause (4) within fourteen days of the filing of
the petition.

(6) The Constitutional Court may, after hearing an election
petition—

(a) declare the election of the presidential candidate valid;
(b) nullify the election of the presidential candidate; or
(c) disqualify the presidential candidate from being a candidate

in the second ballot.

(7) A decision of the Constitutional Court made in accordance
with clause (6) is final.

(8) The presidential candidate who obtains the majority of the
valid votes cast in the second ballot shall be declared President-
elect.

Election of
President

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 41

102. (1) If a presidential candidate—
(a) resigns for a reason other than health;
(b) becomes disqualified as specified in Article 100; or
(c) is disqualified by a decision of the Constitutional Court in

accordance with Article 101;
the presidential candidate shall not take part in the second ballot
and the candidate who scored the third highest number of valid
votes cast in the initial ballot shall be a presidential candidate in the
second ballot, together with the remaining presidential candidate
that had initially qualified for the second ballot.

(2) If a presidential candidate—

(a) dies; or
(b) resigns due to ill-health;

before the taking of a second ballot, the running mate to that
presidential candidate in the initial ballot shall assume the place of
that presidential candidate.

(3) The presidential candidate who assumed the place of the
previous presidential candidate in accordance with clause (2) shall
appoint a running mate.

(4) Where both presidential candidates—
(a) resign;
(b) become disqualified under Article 100;
(c) become disqualified by a decision of the Constitutional

Court under Article 101; or
(d) die;

before the taking of the second ballot, fresh nominations shall be
filed with the Electoral Commission, as prescribed.

103. (1) A person may, within seven days of the declaration
of a President-elect, petition the Constitutional Court to nullify the
election of the President-elect on the ground that—

(a) the person was not validly elected; or
(b) a provision of this Constitution or other law relating to

presidential elections was not complied with.

(2) The Constitutional Court shall hear an election petition
relating to the President-elect within fourteen days of the filing of
the petition.

Disqualifi-
cation for
run-off

Election
petition

42 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

(3) The Constitutional Court may, after hearing an election
petition—

(a) declare the election of the President-elect valid; or
(b) nullify the election of the President-elect and Vice-

President-elect.
(4) A decision of the Constitutional Court under clause (3) is

final.

(5) Where the election of the President-elect and Vice-
President-elect is nullified by the Constitutional Court, a presidential
election shall be held within thirty days from the date of the
nullification.

104. (1) The President-elect shall be sworn into office and
assume office in accordance with Article 105.

(2) Subject to clauses (3) and (4), where the Returning Officer
declares a presidential candidate as President-elect, the incumbent
shall continue to perform the executive functions until the President-
elect assumes office, except the power to—

(a) make an appointment; or
(b) dissolve the National Assembly.

(3) Where an election petition is filed against the incumbent,
under Article 103 (1), or an election is nullified, under Article 103(3)
(b), the Speaker shall perform the executive functions, except the
power to—

(a) make an appointment; or
(b) dissolve the National Assembly.

(4) Subject to Article 105 and except where the incumbent is
the President-elect, the incumbent President shall, on the assumption
of office by the President-elect, begin and complete the procedural
and administrative handing over of the executive functions, to the
President-elect, within fourteen days from the day the President-
elect assumes office.

Assumption of Office, Tenure of Office and Vacancy
105. (1) The President-elect shall assume office after being

sworn in by the Chief Justice or, in the absence of the Chief Justice,
the Deputy Chief Justice.

(2) The President-elect shall be sworn into office on the Tuesday
following—

Transition
period
before
assuming
office

Assumption
of office

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 43

(a) the seventh day after the date of the declaration of the
presidential election results, if no petition has been filed
in accordance with Article 103; or

(b) the seventh day after the date on which the Constitutional
Court declares the election to be valid.

(3) Subject to clause (4), where the President-elect dies, resigns
or is for a reason unable to assume office, the Vice-President-
elect shall be sworn into, and assume the office of President, in
accordance with clause (1).

(4) Subject to clause (5), where the inability of the President-
elect to assume office is as a result of an event or circumstance
beyond the control of the President-elect, the Vice-President-elect
shall not be sworn into office.

(5) A political party whose presidential candidate was declared
President-elect or another person shall, within three days from the
date on which the President-elect should have been sworn into
office, petition the Constitutional Court to determine whether or
not the inability of the President-elect to assume office is permanent.

(6) Where the Constitutional Court decides that the inability of
the President-elect to assume office is permanent, the Vice-
President-elect shall be sworn into office as President and assume
office in accordance with clause (1).

(7) The Vice-President-elect who assumes office as President,
in accordance with clause (3) or (6), shall appoint a person as
Vice-President, subject to approval by the National Assembly,
signified by a vote of not less than two-thirds of the Members of
Parliament.

(8) Where the Vice-President elect who is supposed to assume
the office of President as specified in clause (3) or (6) dies, resigns
or is for another reason unable to assume the office of President—

(a) the Speaker shall perform the executive functions; and
(b) a presidential election shall be held within sixty days of

the occurrence of the vacancy.
(9) The Speaker shall, perform the executive functions assumed

in accordance with clause (8) except the power to make an
appointment or dissolve the National Assembly.

(10) The Speaker shall, when the President-elect assumes
office, complete the procedural and administrative handing over
process within thirty days.

44 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

106. (1) The term of office for a President is five years which
shall run concurrently with the term of Parliament, except that the
term of office of President shall expire when the President-elect
assumes office in accordance with Article 105.

(2) A President shall hold office from the date the President-
elect is sworn into office and ending on the date the next President-
elect is sworn into office.

(3) A person who has twice held office as President is not
eligible for election as President.

(4) The office of President becomes vacant if the President—
(a) dies;
(b) resigns by notice in writing to the Speaker of the National

Assembly; or
(c) otherwise ceases to hold office under Article 81,107 or

108.
(5) When a vacancy occurs in the office of President, except

under Article 81—
(a) the Vice-President shall immediately assume the office

of President; or
(b) if the Vice-President is unable for a reason to assume the

office of President, the Speaker shall perform the
executive functions, except the power to—

(i) make an appointment; or
(ii) dissolve the National Assembly;

and a presidential election shall be held within sixty days
after the occurrence of the vacancy.

(6) If the Vice-President assumes the office of President, in
accordance with clause (5)(a), or a person is elected to the office
of President as a result of an election held in accordance with
clause 5(b), the Vice-President or the President-elect shall serve
for the unexpired term of office and be deemed, for the purposes
of clause (3)—

(a) to have served a full term as President if, at the date on
which the President assumed office, at least three years
remain before the date of the next general election; or

(b) not to have served a term of office as President if, at the
date on which the President assumed office, less than
three years remain before the date of the next general
election.

Tenure of
office of
President
and vacancy

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 45

107. (1) A Member of Parliament, supported by at least one-
third of the Members of Parliament, may move a motion for the
investigation of the physical or mental capacity of the President to
perform executive functions.

(2) The motion moved in accordance with clause (1) shall
specify the particulars of the allegation.

(3) Where the motion is supported in the National Assembly
by a resolution of two-thirds of the Members of Parliament—

(a) the Speaker shall, within forty-eight hours of the adoption
of the resolution, inform the Chief Justice of the
resolution; and

(b) the Chief Justice shall immediately inform the President
of the resolution, whereupon the President shall cease
to perform the executive functions and the Vice-
President shall perform the executive functions, except
the power to—

(i) make an appointment; or

(ii) dissolve the National Assembly.

(4) The Chief Justice shall, within seven days of being informed
of the resolution of the National Assembly, constitute a medical
board, in consultation with the body responsible for regulating health
practitioners, to inquire into the physical or mental capacity of the
President.

(5) A medical board shall consist of not less than three persons
selected from among persons who are registered as health
practitioners.

(6) A medical board, constituted under clause (5), shall examine
the President and report to the Chief Justice, within fourteen days
of the constitution of the medical board, whether or not the President
is capable of performing the executive functions.

(7) Where the medical board reports that the President is
capable of performing the executive functions, the Chief Justice
shall, within forty-eight hours of the receipt of the medical report,
cause a copy of the report to be presented to the National Assembly
which shall resolve that the President should resume performing
the executive functions.

Removal of
President on
grounds of
incapacity

46 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

(8) Where the medical board reports that the President is not
capable of performing the executive functions, the Chief Justice
shall, within forty-eight hours of the receipt of the medical report,
cause a copy of the report to be presented to the National Assembly
which shall resolve that the President should cease to hold office
and the Vice-President shall assume the office of President in
accordance with Article 106 (5).

(9) This Article applies to the Vice-President.

108. (1) A Member of Parliament, supported by at least one-
third of the Members of Parliament, may move a motion for the
impeachment of the President alleging that the President has
committed—

(a) a violation of a provision of this Constitution or other law;
(b) a crime under international law; or
(c) gross misconduct.

(2) The motion, moved in accordance with clause (1), shall
specify the particulars of the allegation.

(3) Where a motion, moved in accordance with clause (1), is
supported, in the National Assembly, by a resolution of two-thirds
of the Members of Parliament—

(a) the Speaker shall, within forty-eight hours of the adoption
of the resolution, inform the Chief Justice of the
resolution; and

(b) the Chief Justice shall immediately inform the President
of the resolution, whereupon the President shall cease
to perform the executive functions and the Vice-
President shall perform the executive functions, except
the power to—

(i) make an appointment; or
(ii) dissolve the National Assembly.

(4) The Chief Justice shall, within seven days of being informed
of the resolution of the National Assembly, appoint a tribunal, in
consultation with the Judicial Service Commission, which shall
consist of a chairperson and not less than two other members from
among persons who hold, have held or qualify to hold, the office of
judge.

(5) The tribunal appointed under clause (4) shall, within thirty
days of its appointment—

Impeachment
of President

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)( [No. 2 of 2016 47

(a) investigate the matter relating to the impeachment of the
President; and

(b) report to the Chief Justice as to whether or not the
particulars of the allegations specified in the motion have
been substantiated.

(6) The President has the right to appear and be represented
before the tribunal during its investigation.

(7) The Chief Justice shall, on receipt of the report referred to
in clause (5) (b), immediately submit the report to the National
Assembly.

(8) Where the tribunal reports that the particulars of an
allegation against the President—

(a) is not substantiated, the National Assembly shall, on a
motion supported by the votes of not less than two-thirds
of the Members of Parliament, taken by secret ballot,
resolve that—

(i) the President did not commit the violations
specified in the motion; and

(ii) further proceedings shall not be taken with respect
to the allegation; or

(b) is substantiated, the National Assembly shall, on a motion
supported by the votes of not less than two-thirds of the
Members of Parliament, taken by secret ballot, resolve
that the President has committed the violations specified
in the motion and that the President should cease to
hold office forthwith.

(9) The President shall, on the passing of a resolution in
accordance with—

(a) clause (7) (a), resume to perform the executive functions;
or

(b) clause (7) (b), cease to hold office and be amenable to
prosecution without the need to lift the immunity under
Article 98.

(10) Where a motion is moved in accordance with clause (1),
the President shall not dissolve Parliament.

(11) This Article applies to the Vice-President.

48 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

109. (1) If the President leaves Zambia or is absent from
office, the Vice-President shall perform the executive functions
specified, in writing, by the President until the President returns to
office or revokes the authority.

(2) Where the Vice-President is incapable of performing the
executive functions, as specified under clause (1), the President
shall appoint a member of the Cabinet to perform the executive
functions until the—

(a) Vice-President is able to perform those functions;

(b) President returns to office; or

(c) President revokes the authority.

(3) Where the President is unable to appoint a member of
Cabinet to perform the executive functions, in accordance with
clause (2), Cabinet may elect one of its members to perform the
executive functions until the—

(a) Vice-President is able to perform those functions;

(b) President returns to office; or

(c) President revokes the authority.

Vice-President

110. (1) There shall be a Vice-President for the Republic who
shall be the running mate to a presidential candidate in a presidential
election.

(2) The qualifications and disqualifications applying to a
presidential candidate apply to the person selected by the presidential
candidate to be the running mate.

(3) An election to the office of Vice-President shall be
conducted at the same time as that of an election to the office of
President so that a vote cast for a presidential candidate is a vote
cast for the running mate, and if the presidential candidate is elected,
the running mate shall be considered to have been elected.

(4) A Vice-President-elect shall be sworn into office by the
Chief Justice or, in the absence of the Chief Justice, the Deputy
Chief Justice.

(5) The Vice-President shall assume office on the same day
that the President assumes office.

Performance
of executive
functions
during
absence of
President

Vice-
President,
election to
office and
swearing in

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 49

111. (1) The term of office for a Vice-President is five years.

(2) A Vice-President shall hold office from the date the Vice-
President-elect is sworn into office and ending on the date the next
President-elect is sworn into office.

(3) A person who has twice held the office of Vice-President
shall not be selected as a running mate.

(4) The office of Vice-President becomes vacant if the Vice-
President—

(a) dies;
(b) resigns by notice in writing to the President;
(c) otherwise ceases to hold office under Article 81,107 or

108; or
(d) assumes the office of President.

(5) Where a vacancy occurs in the office of Vice-President,
except as provided under Article 81, the President shall appoint
another person to be Vice-President and the National Assembly
shall, by a resolution supported by the votes of not less than two-
thirds of the Members of Parliament, approve the appointment of
that person as Vice-President.

(6) The person who assumes office as Vice-President, in
accordance with clause (5), shall serve for the unexpired term of
office and be deemed for the purposes of clause (3)—

(a) to have served a full term as Vice-President if, at the date
on which the Vice-President assumed office, more than
three years remain before the date of the next general
election; or

(b) not to have served a term of office as Vice-President if,
at the date on which the Vice-President assumed office,
less than three years remain before the date of the next
general elections.

112. (1) The Vice-President shall be answerable to the
President in the performance of the functions of Vice-President.

(2) The Vice-President shall—
(a) perform the functions that are assigned to the Vice-

President by the President;

Tenure of
office of
Vice-
President
and vacancy

Functions of
Vice-
President

50 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

(b) perform the executive functions during the periods
specified in this Constitution; and

(c) assume the office of President as specified in Article 106
(5).

Cabinet Ministers
113. There shall be a Cabinet consisting of the—

(a) President;
(b) Vice-President;
(c) Ministers; and
(d) Attorney-General, as ex-officio member.

114. (1) The functions of Cabinet are as follows:
(a) approve and cause to be implemented Government policy;
(b) approve Government Bills for introduction to the National

Assembly;
(c) approve and cause the national budget to be presented to

the National Assembly;
(d) recommend the accession and ratification of international

agreements and treaties to the National Assembly;
(e) recommend, for approval of the National Assembly—

(i) loans to be contracted by the State; and
(ii) guarantees on loans contracted by State institutions

or other institutions; and
(f) advise the President on matters relating to the performance

of executive functions.
(2) Cabinet shall take collective responsibility for Cabinet

decisions.
115. (1) Subject to this Article, Cabinet shall regulate its own

procedure.
(2) Cabinet shall meet at least once in every month to perform

its functions as specified in Article 114.
(3) The Secretary to the Cabinet shall, in consultation with the

President, call for meetings of Cabinet.
(4) There shall preside at meetings of Cabinet—

(a) the President;
(b) in the absence of the President, the Vice-President; or

Cabinet

Functions of
Cabinet

Proceedings
of Cabinet
meetings

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 51

(c) in the absence of the Vice-President, a member of Cabinet
appointed by the President.

(5) Where the President is unable to appoint a member of
Cabinet to preside at a meeting of Cabinet, the members of Cabinet
present at the meeting may elect one of the members to preside.

(6) The President may, in consultation with the Secretary to
the Cabinet, invite a person whose presence is desirable to attend
and participate in the deliberations of a meeting of Cabinet but that
person shall have no vote.

116. (1) The President shall appoint a prescribed number
of Members of Parliament as Ministers.

(2) A Minister shall be responsible, under the direction of the
President, for the policy and strategic direction of a Ministry,
department or other State institution, as assigned by the President.

(3) The office of Minister becomes vacant if—
(a) the Minister is removed from office by the President;
(b) the Minister resigns, by notice in writing to the President;
(c) in the case of a nominated Member of Parliament, the

nomination is revoked;
(d) the Minister dies;
(e) another person assumes the office of President; or
(f) the Minister has a mental or physical disability that makes

the Minister incapable of performing the functions of
that office.

117. (1) The President shall appoint a Provincial Minister for
each Province from among Members of Parliament.

(2) The office of Provincial Minister becomes vacant if—

(a) the Provincial Minister is removed from office by the
President;

(b) the Provincial Minister resigns, by notice in writing to the
President;

(c) the Provincial Minister dies;

(d) another person assumes the office of President;

(e) the Provincial Minister has a mental or physical disability
that makes the Provincial Minister incapable of
performing the functions of that office; or

Ministers

Provincial
Minister

52 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

(f) in the case of a nominated Member of Parliament, the
nomination is revoked.

(3) A Provincial Minister shall—
(a) be the head of Government in the Province;
(b) ensure that national policies are implemented in all districts

in the Province; and
(c) ensure that the concurrent functions of the Province and

the exclusive functions of the local authorities are
performed in accordance with this Constitution and other
laws.

PART VIII
JUDICIARY

Judicial Authority, System of Courts and Independence

118. (1) The judicial authority of the Republic derives from
the people of Zambia and shall be exercised in a just manner and
such exercise shall promote accountability.

(2) In exercising judicial authority, the courts shall be guided
by the following principles:

(a) justice shall be done to all, without discrimination;
(b) justice shall not be delayed;
(c) adequate compensation shall be awarded, where payable;
(d) alternative forms of dispute resolution, including traditional

dispute resolution mechanisms, shall be promoted,
subject to clause (3);

(e) justice shall be administered without undue regard to
procedural technicalities; and

(f) the values and principles of this Constitution shall be
protected and promoted.

(3) Traditional dispute resolution mechanisms shall not—
(a) contravene the Bill of Rights;
(b) be inconsistent with other provisions of this Constitution

or other written law; or
(c) be repugnant to justice and morality.

119. (1) Judicial authority vests in the courts and shall be
exercised by the courts in accordance with this Constitution and
other laws.

(2) The courts shall perform the following judicial functions:

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 53

Principles of
judicial
authority

Vesting of
judicial
authority
and
performance
of judicial
function

(a) hear civil and criminal matters; and
(b) hear matters relating to, and in respect of, this Constitution.

(3) Except as otherwise provided in this Constitution, other
law or as ordered by a court, the proceedings of a court shall be in
public.

120. (1) The Judiciary shall consist of the superior courts and
the following courts:

(a) subordinate courts;
(b) small claims courts;
(c) local courts; and
(d) courts, as prescribed.

(2) The courts shall be courts of record, except that local
courts shall progressively become courts of record.

(3) The following matters shall be prescribed:
(a) processes and procedures of the courts;
(b) jurisdiction, powers and sittings, of the Industrial Relations

Court, Commercial Court, Family Court, Children’s Court
and other specialised courts;

(c) classification and divisions of the subordinate courts;
(d) classification and divisions of the local courts;
(e) jurisdiction and composition of subordinate courts, small

claims courts, local courts and other prescribed courts;
and

(f) grading of judicial officers and staff of subordinate courts,
local courts and other prescribed courts.

(4) The courts, except the Supreme Court and the Constitutional
Court, shall be devolved to the Province and progressively to
districts.

(5) Superior courts shall sit as circuit courts in districts, in
accordance with a circuit schedule issued by the Chief Justice.

121. The Supreme Court and Constitutional Court rank
equivalently.

122. (1) In the exercise of the judicial authority, the Judiciary
shall be subject only to this Constitution and the law and not be
subject to the control or direction of a person or an authority.

System of
court

54 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Ranking of
Supreme and
Constitutional
Courts

Functional
independence
of Judiciary

(2) A person and a person holding a public office shall not
interfere with the performance of a judicial function by a judge or
judicial officer.

(3) The Judiciary shall not, in the performance of its
administrative functions and management of its financial affairs,
be subject to the control or direction of a person or an authority.

(4) A person and a person holding a public office shall protect
the independence, dignity and effectiveness of the Judiciary.

(5) The office of a judge or judicial officer shall not be abolished
while there is a substantive holder of the office.

123. (1) The Judiciary shall be a self-accounting institution
and shall deal directly with the Ministry responsible for finance in
matters relating to its finances.

(2) The Judiciary shall be adequately funded in a financial year
to enable it effectively carry out its functions.

Establishment, Jurisdiction and sittings of Superior Courts

124. There is established the Supreme Court which consists
of—

(a) the Chief Justice;

(b) the Deputy Chief Justice; and

(c) eleven other judges or a higher number of judges, as
prescribed.

125. (1) Subject to Article 128, the Supreme Court is the final
court of appeal.

(2) The Supreme Court has—
(a) appellate jurisdiction to hear appeals from the Court of

Appeal; and
(b) jurisdiction conferred on it by other laws.

(3) The Supreme Court is bound by its decisions, except in the
interest of justice and development of jurisprudence.

126. (1) The Supreme Court shall be constituted by an uneven
number of not less than three judges, except when hearing an
interlocutory matter.

(2) The Supreme Court shall be constituted by one judge when
hearing an interlocutory matter.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 55

Financial
independence
of Judiciary

Establishment
and
composition
of Supreme
Court

Jurisdiction
of Supreme
Court

Sittings of
Supreme
Court

(3) The full bench of the Supreme Court shall be constituted
by an uneven number of not less than five judges.

(4) The Supreme Court shall be presided over by—

(a) the Chief Justice;

(b) in the absence of the Chief Justice, the Deputy Chief
Justice; and

(c) in the absence of the Deputy Chief Justice, the most senior
judge of the Supreme Court, as constituted.

127. There is established the Constitutional Court which
consists of—

(a) the President of the Constitutional Court;

(b) the Deputy President of the Constitutional Court; and

(c) eleven other judges or a higher number of judges, as
prescribed.

128. (1) Subject to Article 28, the Constitutional Court has
original and final jurisdiction to hear—

(a) a matter relating to the interpretation of this Constitution;

(b) a matter relating to a violation or contravention of this
Constitution;

(c) a matter relating to the President, Vice-President or an
election of a President;

(d) appeals relating to election of Members of Parliament
and councillors; and

(e) whether or not a matter falls within the jurisdiction of the
Constitutional Court.

(2) Subject to Article 28 (2), where a question relating to this
Constitution arises in a court, the person presiding in that court
shall refer the question to the Constitutional Court.

(3) Subject to Article 28, a person who alleges that—

(a) an Act of Parliament or statutory instrument;
(b) an action, measure or decision taken under law; or

Establishment
and
composition
of
Constitutional
Court

Jurisdiction
of
Constitutional
Court

56 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

(c) an act, omission, measure or decision by a person or an
authority;

contravenes this Constitution, may petition the Constitutional Court
for redress.

(4) A decision of the Constitutional Court is not appealable to
the Supreme Court.

129. (1) The Constitutional Court shall be constituted by an
uneven number of not less than three judges, except when hearing
an interlocutory matter.

(2) The Constitutional Court shall be constituted by one judge
when hearing an interlocutory matter.

(3) The full bench of the Constitutional Court shall be constituted
by an uneven number of not less than five judges.

(4) The Constitutional Court shall be presided over by—

(a) the President of the Constitutional Court;

(b) in the absence of the President of the Constitutional Court,
the Deputy-President of the Constitutional Court; and

(c) in the absence of the Deputy-President of the Constitutional
Court, the most senior judge of the Constitutional Court,
as constituted.

130. There is established the Court of Appeal which consists
of such number of judges as prescribed.

131. (1) The Court of Appeal has jurisdiction to hear appeals
from—

(a) the High Court;
(b) other courts, except for matters under the exclusive

jurisdiction of the Constitutional Court; and
(c) quasi-judicial bodies, except a local government elections

tribunal.

(2) An appeal from a decision of the Court of Appeal shall be
made to the Supreme Court with leave of the Court of Appeal.

132. (1) The Court of Appeal shall be constituted by an uneven
number of not less than three judges, except when hearing an appeal
in an interlocutory matter.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 57

Sittings of
Constitutional
Court

Establishment
and
composition
of Court of
Appeal

Jurisdiction
of Court of
Appeal

Sittings of
Court of
Appeal

(2) The Court of Appeal shall be constituted by one judge when
hearing an interlocutory matter.

133. (1) There is established the High Court which consists
of—

(a) the Chief Justice, as an ex-officio judge; and
(b) such number of judges as prescribed.

(2) There are established, as divisions of the High Court, the
Industrial Relations Court, Commercial Court, Family Court and
Children’s Court.

(3) The Chief Justice may constitute, by statutory instrument,
specialised courts of the High Court to hear specific matters.

(4) The composition of courts specified in clauses (2) and (3)
shall be prescribed.

134. The High Court has, subject to Article 128—

(a) unlimited and original jurisdiction in civil and criminal
matters;

(b) appellate and supervisory jurisdiction, as prescribed; and

(c) jurisdiction to review decisions, as prescribed.

135. The High Court shall be constituted by one judge or such
other number of judges as the Chief Justice may determine.

Chief Justice and other Judges

136. (1) There shall be a Chief Justice who is the head of the
Judiciary.

(2) The Chief Justice shall—

(a) be responsible for the administration of the Judiciary;

(b) ensure that a judge and judicial officer perform the judicial
function with dignity, propriety and integrity;

(c) establish procedures to ensure that a judge and judicial
officer independently exercise judicial authority in
accordance with the law;

(d) ensure that a judge and judicial officer perform the judicial
function without fear, favour or bias; and

(e) make rules and give directions necessary for the efficient
and effective administration of the Judiciary.

Establishment
and
composition
of High
Court

Jurisdiction
of High
Court

Sittings of
High Court

Chief Justice

58 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

137. (1) There shall be a Deputy Chief Justice who shall—

(a) perform the functions of the Chief Justice, when the Chief
Justice is absent or there is a vacancy in the office of
Chief Justice;

(b) assist the Chief Justice in the administration of the
Judiciary; and

(c) perform the functions assigned by the Chief Justice.

(2) The President shall, in consultation with the Judicial Service
Commission, designate a judge of the Supreme Court to perform
the functions of the Deputy Chief Justice where—

(a) the office of the Deputy Chief Justice is vacant;

(b) the Deputy Chief Justice is acting as Chief Justice; or

(c) the Deputy Chief Justice is for a reason unable to perform
the functions of that office.

138. (1) There shall be a President of the Constitutional Court
who is the head of the Constitutional Court.

(2) The President of the Constitutional Court shall be
responsible for the administration of the Constitutional Court under
the direction of the Chief Justice.

139. (1) There shall be a Deputy President of the Constitutional
Court who shall—

(a) perform the functions of the President of the Constitutional
Court, when the President of the Constitutional Court is
absent or there is a vacancy in the office of President
of the Constitutional Court;

(b) assist the President of the Constitutional Court in the
administration of the Constitutional Court; and

(c) perform the functions assigned by the President of the
Constitutional Court.

(2) The President shall, in consultation with the Judicial Service
Commission, designate a judge of the Constitutional Court to perform
the functions of the Deputy President of the Constitutional Court
where—

(a) the office of the Deputy President of the Constitutional
Court is vacant;

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 59

Deputy
Chief Justice

President of
Constitutional
Court

Deputy
President of
Constitutional
Court

(b) the Deputy President of the Constitutional Court is acting
as President of the Constitutional Court; or

(c) the Deputy President of the Constitutional Court is for a
reason unable to perform the functions of that office.

140. The President shall, on the recommendation of the Judicial
Service Commission and subject to ratification by the National
Assembly, appoint the—

(a) Chief Justice;

(b) Deputy Chief Justice;

(c) President of the Constitutional Court;

(d) Deputy President of the Constitutional Court; and

(e) other judges.

141. (1) A person qualifies for appointment as a judge if that
person is of proven integrity and has been a legal practitioner, in
the case of the—

(a) Supreme Court, for at least fifteen years;

(b) Constitutional Court, for at least fifteen years and has
specialised training or experience in human rights or
constitutional law;

(c) Court of Appeal, for at least twelve years; or

(d) High Court, for at least ten years.

(2) A person appointed as judge to a specialised court shall have
the relevant expertise, as prescribed.

142. (1) A judge shall retire from office on attaining the age
of seventy years.

(2) A judge may retire, with full benefits, on attaining the age of
sixty-five years.

(3) The Chief Justice and President of the Constitutional Court
shall hold office for not more than ten years and may, thereafter,
continue as a judge of the Supreme Court or Constitutional Court,
subject to clause (1).

(4) A judge who has retired is not eligible for appointment as a
judge.

60 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Appointment
of judges

Qualification
for
appointment
as judge

Tenure of
office of
judge

(5) A judge may resign from the office of judge by notice, in
writing, to the President.

(6) Where a judge is appointed or assigned to an office, which
is not an office in the judiciary and that judge wishes to take up the
appointment, the judge shall resign from the office of judge.

143. A judge shall be removed from office on the following
grounds:

(a) a mental or physical disability that makes the judge
incapable of performing judicial functions;

(b) incompetence;

(c) gross misconduct; or

(d) bankruptcy.

144. (1) The removal of a judge may be initiated by the Judicial
Complaints Commission or by a complaint made to the Judicial
Complaints Commission, based on the grounds specified in Article
143.

(2) The Judicial Complaints Commission shall, where it decides
that a prima facie case has been established against a judge,
submit a report to the President.

(3) The President shall, within seven days from the date of
receiving the report, submitted in accordance with clause (2),
suspend the judge from office and inform the Judicial Complaints
Commission of the suspension.

(4) The Judicial Complaints Commission shall, within thirty days
of the judge being suspended from office, in accordance with clause
(3)—

(a) hear the matter against the judge on the grounds specified
in Article 143 (b), (c) and (d); or

(b) constitute a medical board, in consultation with the body
responsible for regulating health practitioners, to inquire
into the matter against the judge based on the ground
specified in Article 143(a).

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 61

Removal of
judge from
office

Procedure
for removal
of judge

(5) Where the Judicial Complaints Commission decides that an
allegation based on a ground specified in Article 143(b), (c) and
(d) is—

(a) not substantiated, the Judicial Complaints Commission shall
recommend, to the President, the revocation of the
judge’s suspension and the President shall immediately
revoke the suspension; or

(b) substantiated, the Judicial Complaints Commission shall
recommend, to the President, the removal of the judge
from office and the President shall immediately remove
the judge from office.

(6) The proceedings under clause (4) (a) shall be held in camera
and the judge is entitled to appear, be heard and be represented by
a legal practitioner or other person chosen by the judge.

(7) The medical board, constituted in accordance with clause
(4) (b), shall consist of not less than three registered health
practitioners.

(8) The medical board shall, within thirty days of being
constituted, examine the judge and report to the Judicial Complaints
Commission on the judge’s capacity to perform the judicial functions.

(9) Where the medical board recommends to the Judicial
Complaints Commission that the judge is—

(a) physically or mentally capable of performing the judicial
functions, the Judicial Complaints Commission shall
recommend to the President the revocation of the judge’s
suspension and the President shall immediately revoke
the suspension; or

(b) not physically or mentally capable of performing the judicial
functions, the Judicial Complaints Commission shall
recommend to the President the removal of the judge
from office and the President shall immediately remove
the judge from office.

(10) A judge who refuses to submit to an examination, in
accordance with clause (8), shall immediately be removed from
office by the President.

62 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Judicial Officers and Chief Administrator

145. (1) The Judicial Service Commission shall appoint judicial
officers, as prescribed.

(2) The qualification for appointment as judicial officer shall be
prescribed.

(3) A judicial officer shall retire on attaining the age of sixty-
five years.

(4) A judicial officer may retire, with full benefits, on attaining
the age of fifty-five years.

146. (1) There shall be a Chief Administrator for the Judiciary
who shall be appointed by the Judicial Service Commission.

(2) The functions and qualifications of the Chief Administrator
for the Judiciary shall be prescribed.

PART IX
GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF DEVOLVED GOVERNANCE

System of Devolved Governance

147. (1) The management and administration of the political,
social, legal and economic affairs of the State shall be devolved
from the national government level to the local government level.

(2) The concurrent and exclusive functions of the national,
provincial and local government levels are as listed in the Annex
and as prescribed.

(3) The different levels of government shall observe and adhere
to the following principles:

(a) good governance, through democratic, effective and
coherent governance systems and institutions;

(b) respect for the constitutional jurisdiction of each level of
government;

(c) autonomy of the sub-structures; and

(d) equitable distribution and application of national resources
to the sub-structures.

148. (1) Local governance shall be undertaken through sub-
structures.

(2) The Government shall provide adequate resources for the
performance of the functions of the sub-structures.

Appointment
and
retirement
of judicial
officers

Chief
Administrator
of Judiciary

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 63

System of
devolved
governance

Sub-
structures of
local
government

PART X
PROVINCES, DISTRICTS, WARDS AND PROVINCIAL ADMINISTRATION

Provinces, Districts and Wards

149. (1) The President may, subject to the approval of the
National Assembly, create or divide a Province or merge two or
more Provinces, as prescribed.

(2) A Province shall consist of such number of districts, as
prescribed.

(3) A district shall consist of such number of wards, as
prescribed.

(4) A Province, district and ward shall be delimited, as
prescribed.

(5) Without prejudice to clause (1), sixty percent or more of
the registered voters in a Province may petition the President to—

(a) merge a Province with another Province; or

(b) divide a Province into two or more Provinces.

(6) Where the President receives a petition under clause (5),
and after due inquiry, the President may, by statutory order, declare
the merger of the Province with another Province or the division of
the Province into two or more Provinces, subject to ratification by
the National Assembly.

(7) Where the National Assembly ratifies the establishment of
a new Province under this Article, the Electoral Commission shall
delineate the boundaries of the Province created.

Provincial Administration

150. (1) There shall be established for each Province an
administrative secretariat, which shall consist of—

(a) a Provincial Minister;

(b) a provincial Permanent Secretary; and

(c) other staff, as prescribed.

(2) The provincial secretariat shall have overall responsibility
of the Province and perform other functions as prescribed.

Provinces,
districts and
wards

64 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Provincial
administration

PART XI

LOCAL GOVERNMENT
System of Local Government

151. (1) There is established a local government system
where—

(a) functions, responsibilities and resources from the national
Government and provincial administration are transferred
to the local authorities in a co-ordinated manner;

(b) the people’s participation in democratic governance is
promoted;

(c) co-operative governance with the national Government,
provincial administration and local authorities is promoted
to support and enhance the developmental role of local
government;

(d) the capacity of local authorities to initiate, plan, manage
and execute policies in respect of matters that affect
the people within their respective districts is enhanced;

(e) social, spatial, financial and economic planning, at the
district level, is developed, prioritised and promoted;

(f) a sound financial base is established for each local
authority with reliable and predictable sources of
revenue;

(g) the performance of persons employed by the national
Government and provincial administration to provide
services in the sub-structures is overseen by local
authorities;

(h) the provision of Government services is monitored and
projects are implemented in sub-structures;

(i) accountability of local authorities is ensured; and
(j) the right of local authorities to manage their affairs and

to form partnerships, networks and associations to assist
in the management of their respective districts and
further their development is recognised.

(2) The local government system shall—
(a) be based on democratically elected councils;
(b) promote democratic and accountable exercise of power;
(c) foster national unity;

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 65

System of
local
government

(d) ensure that services are provided to sub-structures in an
equitable and sustainable manner;

(e) promote social and economic development;
(f ) promote a clean, safe and healthy environment; and
(g) encourage the involvement of communities and community

organisations in matters of local government.

152. (1) A local authority shall—
(a) administer the district;
(b) oversee programmes and projects in the district;
(c) make by-laws; and
(d) perform other prescribed functions.

(2)The national Government and the provincial administration
shall not interfere with or compromise a local authority’s ability or
right to perform its functions.

(3) There shall be a council for each local authority.
(4) There shall be a Town Clerk or Council Secretary for each

local authority and other staff of the local authority, as prescribed.

153. (1) A councillor shall be elected in accordance with Article
47(3) by registered voters resident within the district.

(2)A council shall consist of the following councillors—

(a) persons elected in accordance with clause (1);

(b) a mayor or council chairperson elected in accordance
with Article 154; and

(c) not more than three chiefs representing chiefs in the district,
elected by the chiefs in the district.

(3) The system of electing chiefs specified in clause (2) (b) shall
be prescribed.

(4)A person qualifies to be elected as a councillor, excluding
councillors specified under clause (2) (b), if that person—

(a) is not a Member of Parliament;

(b) is not less than nineteen years of age;

(c) has obtained, as a minimum academic qualification, a grade
twelve certificate or its equivalent;

66 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Local
authorities

Election of
councillors,
composition
of councils
and tenure

(d) is a citizen or a holder of a resident permit, resident in the
district; and

(e) has a certificate of clearance showing the payment of
council taxes, where applicable.

(5) A council may invite a person, whose presence is in its opinion
desirable, to attend and to participate in the deliberations of the
council but that person shall have no vote.

(6) The term of a council shall be five years commencing from
the date the councillors are sworn into office after a general election
and ending on the date Parliament is dissolved.

154. (1) There shall be a mayor and deputy mayor or council
chairperson and deputy council chairperson for every council, as
prescribed.

(2) A mayor and council chairperson shall be elected—

(a) directly, in accordance with Article 47 (3) during elections
for councillors, as prescribed; and

(b) for a term of five years and may be re-elected for one
further term of five years.

(3)A deputy mayor and a deputy council chairperson shall be
elected by the councillors from amongst themselves.

155. A councillor shall act in a manner that is consistent with
a councillor’s civic duties and responsibilities, as prescribed.

156. Councillors shall be collectively and individually
accountable to the national Government and residents in their wards
and districts, for the performance of their functions.

157. (1) A councillor shall vacate office on dissolution of a
council.

(2) The office of councillor becomes vacant if—
(a) the councillor ceases to be a resident of the district;
(b) the councillor resigns by one month’s notice, in writing, to

the mayor or council chairperson;

(c) the councillor becomes disqualified for election under
Article 153;

(d) the result of an election for that councillor is nullified by a
local government elections tribunal established in
accordance with Article 159;

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 67

Mayor,
deputy
mayor,
council
chairperson
and deputy
council
chairperson

Conduct of
councillor

Accountability
of
councillors

Vacation of
office of
councillor
and
vacancies

(e) the councillor acts contrary to the code of ethics provided
for in Article 155;

(f) the councillor has a mental or physical disability that
makes the councillor incapable of performing the
functions of councillor; or

(g) the councillor dies.
(3) Where a councillor resigns in accordance with clause (2)

(b), (c), (d) and (e) the councillor shall not be eligible for re-election
as councillor for the duration of the term of that council.

158. (1) Where a vacancy occurs in the office of mayor, council
chairperson or councillor—

(a) the Town Clerk or Council Secretary of the local authority
shall, within seven days of the occurrence of the
vacancy, inform the Electoral Commission, in writing,
of the vacancy; and

(b) a by-election shall be held in accordance with Article 57.

(2) If a person is elected to the office of mayor, council
chairperson or councillor in a by-election, that mayor, council
chairperson or councillor shall serve for the unexpired term of the
council and be deemed—

(a) to have served a full term as mayor, council chairperson
or councillor if, at the date on which the councillor
assumed office, at least three years remain before the
date of the next general election; or

(b) not to have served a term of office as mayor, council
chairperson or councillor, if, at the date on which the
councillor assumed office, less than three years remain
before the date of the next general election.

159. (1) The Chief Justice shall establish such number of
ad hoc local government elections tribunals as are necessary to
hear whether—

(a) a person has been validly elected as a councillor; or

(b) the office of a councillor has become vacant.

(2) A local government elections tribunal shall be presided over
by a magistrate of competent jurisdiction sitting with two legal
practitioners appointed by the Chief Justice.

68 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

By-election
for council

Local
government
elections
tribunals and
petitions

(3) A person may file an election petition with a local government
elections tribunal to challenge the election of a councillor.

(4) An election petition shall be heard within thirty days of the
filing of the petition.

(5) A person may appeal a decision of a local government
elections tribunal to the Constitutional Court.

(6) A councillor whose election is petitioned shall hold the seat
in the council pending the determination of the election petition.

(7) The Chief Justice shall make rules for the functions,
composition, appointment of members, tenure of office of members,
procedures and jurisdiction of a local government elections tribunal.

160. A person who obtains a judgment against a local authority
may enforce the judgment against the local authority after one
year from the date of the delivery of the judgment.

161. A local authority is competent to levy, impose, recover
and retain local taxes, as prescribed.

162. (1) There is established the Constituency Development
Fund.

(2) The appropriation of monies to the Constituency
Development Fund and the management, disbursement, utilisation
and accountability of the Constituency Development Fund shall be
prescribed.

163. (1) There is established the Local Government
Equalisation Fund.

(2) Parliament shall annually appropriate monies to the Local
Government Equalisation Fund which shall be disbursed by the
Ministry responsible for finance to local authorities.

(3)The Government may provide additional funds and grants to
a local authority, as prescribed.

164. The following shall be prescribed:
(a) regulation of local authorities;
(b) sub-structures and their relationships;
(c) financial control and accountability of a local authority;
(d) raising of loans, grants and other financial instruments by

local authorities;

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 69

Enforcement
of judgment
against local
authority

Revenue of
local
authorities

Constituency
Development
Fund

Local
Government
Equalisation
Fund and
funds for
local
authorities

Legislation
on local
authorities

(e) election of councillors; and
(f) the effective implementation of this Part.

PART XII

CHIEFTAINCY AND HOUSE OF CHIEFS
165. (1) The institution of chieftaincy and traditional institutions

are guaranteed and shall exist in accordance with the culture,
customs and traditions of the people to whom they apply.

(2) Parliament shall not enact legislation which—

(a) confers on a person or authority the right to recognise or
withdraw the recognition of a chief; or

(b) derogates from the honour and dignity of the institution of
chieftaincy.

166. The institution of chieftaincy—

(a) is a corporation sole with perpetual succession and
capacity to sue and be sued; and

(b) has capacity to hold property in trust for its subjects.

167. A chief—

(a) may own property in a personal capacity; and

(b) shall enjoy privileges and benefits—

(i) bestowed on the office of chief by or under
culture, custom and tradition; and

(ii) attached to the office of chief, as prescribed.

168. (1) Subject to clause (2), a chief may seek and hold a
public office.

(2) A chief who seeks to hold office in a political party or election
or appointment to a State office, except that of councillor, shall
abdicate the chief’s throne.

(3) The role of a chief in the management, control and sharing
of natural and other resources in the Chiefdom shall be prescribed.

169. (1) There is established a House of Chiefs.

(2) The House of Chiefs shall consist of five chiefs from each
province, elected by the chiefs in a Province, as prescribed.

70 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Institution of
chieftaincy
and
traditional
institutions

Status of
institution of
chieftaincy

Rights and
privileges of
chiefs

Participation
of chiefs in
public affairs

House of
Chiefs and
function

(3) The members of the House of Chiefs shall annually elect a
Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of the House of Chiefs, from
amongst themselves.

(4) Notwithstanding clause (3), the assumption of office as
Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson of the House of Chiefs shall
rotate annually amongst the chiefs from each province.

(5) The functions of the House of Chiefs are to —

(a) consider and discuss a Bill relating to custom or tradition
referred to it by the President, before the Bill is
introduced into the National Assembly;

(b) initiate, discuss and make recommendations to the National
Assembly regarding socio-economic development in the
Province;

(c) initiate, discuss and decide on matters relating to customary
law and practice;

(d) initiate, discuss and make recommendations to a local
authority regarding the welfare of communities in a local
authority;

(e) make proposals on areas in customary law that require
codification;

(f) advise the Government on traditional and customary
matters; and

(g) perform other functions as prescribed.

170. (1) A Member of the House of Chiefs—

(a) shall hold office for a term of five years and is eligible for
election for a further term of five years; and

(b) may resign by one month’s notice, in writing, to the
Chairperson.

(2) The office of a member of the House of Chiefs becomes
vacant if the Chief—

(a) dies;

(b) ceases to be a chief;

(c) resigns;

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 71

Tenure of
office and
vacancy

(d) is convicted of an offence;

(e) is an undischarged bankrupt; or
(f) has a mental or physical disability that makes the chief

incapable of performing the functions of a member of
the House of Chiefs.

171. (1) There shall be a Clerk of the House of Chiefs and
other staff, as prescribed.

(2) The office of the Clerk of the House of Chiefs and other
staff of the House of Chiefs are offices in the public service.

172. The following matters shall be prescribed—
(a) the procedures and processes of the House of Chiefs;
(b) the emoluments of the Clerk and other staff of the House

of Chiefs;

(c) the application of the privileges and immunities of a Member
of Parliament to a member of the House of Chiefs; and

(d) other matters necessary for the better carrying out of the
purposes of this Part.

PART XIII
PUBLIC SERVICE

Values and Principles
173. (1) The guiding values and principles of the public service

include the following—
(a) maintenance and promotion of the highest standards of

professional ethics and integrity;

(b) promotion of efficient, effective and economic use of
national resources;

(c) effective, impartial, fair and equitable provision of public
services;

(d) encouragement of people to participate in the process of
policy making;

(e) prompt, efficient and timely response to people’s needs;
(f) commitment to the implementation of public policy

and programmes;

(g) accountability for administrative acts;

72 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Staff of
House of
Chiefs

Legislation
on House of
Chiefs

Values and
principles of
public
service

(h) proactively providing the public with timely, accessible
and accurate information;

(i) merit as the basis of appointment and promotion;

(j) adequate and equal opportunities for appointments, training
and advancement of members of both gender and
members of all ethnic groups; and

(k) representation of persons with disabilities in the composition
of the public service at all levels.

(2) The values and principles specified in clause (1) apply to
service—

(a) at national, provincial and local government levels; and

(b) to all State organs and State institutions.

(3) A public officer shall not be—

(a) victimised or discriminated against for having performed
functions in good faith in accordance with this
Constitution or other law; or

(b) removed from office, reduced in rank or otherwise
punished without just cause and due process.

Constituting Offices for Public Service

174. (1) Subject to the recommendations of the relevant
Service Commission, the power to constitute offices for the public
service and to abolish those offices vests in the President.

(2) The President shall not abolish an office in the public service
while there is a substantive holder of the office.

(3) The President may, by statutory instrument, declare that
an office constituted by the President shall not be an office in the
public service.

(4) Appointment to an office declared by the President not to
be an office in the public service shall be made by the President.

175. For the purposes of this Constitution, a person shall not
be considered as holding an office in the public service by reason
only that the person is in receipt of emoluments in respect of service
under or for the Government.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 73

Constituting
offices for
public
service

Holding of
office in
public
service

Constitutional Office Holders

176. (1) There shall be a Secretary to the Cabinet who shall
be appointed by the President, in consultation with the Civil Service
Commission, subject to ratification by the National Assembly.

(2) The Secretary to the Cabinet shall—

(a) be chief advisor to the President on the management of
the public service;

(b) be the head of the public service and responsible to the
President for securing the general efficiency and
effectiveness of the public service;

(c) ensure that public services are delivered to the public
efficiently;

(d) in accordance with instructions of the President—

(i) arrange the affairs of Cabinet;

(ii) attend meetings of Cabinet;

(iii) cause to be written and kept minutes of meetings
of Cabinet; and

(iv) convey decisions made by Cabinet to appropriate
authorities;

(e) monitor the implementation of Government policies and
Cabinet decisions; and

(f) perform other functions as prescribed.
(3) A person qualifies to be appointed as Secretary to the

Cabinet if that person has or had at least ten years experience as a
permanent secretary or equivalent rank.

(4) The term of office of the Secretary to the Cabinet shall be
five years, subject to renewal for further terms.

(5) The Secretary to the Cabinet may resign from office by
giving three months’ notice, in writing, to the President.

177. (1) There shall be an Attorney-General, who shall be
appointed by the President, subject to ratification by the National
Assembly.

(2) The Attorney-General shall not hold another public office.

(3) The Attorney-General shall be a person qualified to be
appointed as a judge.

74 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Secretary to
Cabinet

Attorney-
General

(4) The Attorney-General shall not be subject to the direction
or control of a person or an authority in the performance of the
Attorney-General’s functions.

(5) The Attorney-General is the chief legal adviser to the
Government and shall—

(a) be head of the Attorney-General’s Chambers;
(b) sign Government Bills to be presented to the National

Assembly;

(c) represent the Government in civil proceedings to which
Government is a party;

(d) give advice on an agreement, treaty or convention to which
Government intends to become a party or in respect of
which the Government has an interest before they are
concluded, except where the National Assembly
otherwise directs, and subject to conditions as prescribed;
and

(e) perform other functions, as prescribed.
(6) The Attorney-General’s Chambers shall be devolved to

the Provinces and progressively to districts.

178. (1) The office of the Attorney-General becomes vacant
if—

(a) the Attorney-General is removed from office by the
President;

(b) another person assumes the office of President;
(c) the Attorney-General dies; or
(d) the Attorney-General has a mental or physical disability

that makes the Attorney-General incapable of performing
the functions of that office.

(2) The Attorney-General may resign from office by giving
three months’ notice, in writing, to the President.

179. (1) There shall be a Solicitor-General who shall be
appointed by the President, subject to ratification by the National
Assembly.

(2) A person qualifies for appointment as Solicitor-General if
that person is qualified for appointment as a judge.

(3) The Solicitor-General shall not hold another public office.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 75

Vacancy in
office of
Attorney-
General

Solicitor-
General

(4) The office of Solicitor-General becomes vacant if—

(a) the Solicitor-General is removed from office by the
President;

(b) another person assumes the office of President;

(c) the Solicitor-General dies; or

(d) the Solicitor-General has a mental or physical disability
that makes the Solicitor-General incapable of performing
the functions of that office.

(5) The Solicitor-General shall assist the Attorney-General in
the performance of the Attorney- General’s functions.

(6) A function conferred on the Attorney-General by this
Constitution or other law shall be performed by the Solicitor-General
when the Attorney-General is unable to act owing to illness or
absence from office for a reason.

(7) The Solicitor-General may resign from office by giving
three months’ notice, in writing, to the President.

180. (1) There shall be a Director of Public Prosecutions who
shall be appointed by the President, subject to ratification by the
National Assembly.

(2) A person qualifies for appointment as Director of Public
Prosecutions if that person—

(a) has experience in undertaking criminal trials; and

(b) is qualified to be appointed as a judge.

(3) The Director of Public Prosecutions is the chief prosecutor
for the Government and head of the National Prosecutions Authority.

(4)The Director of Public Prosecutions may—

(a) institute and undertake criminal proceedings against a
person before a court, other than a court-martial, for an
offence alleged to have been committed by that person;

(b) take over and continue criminal proceedings instituted or
undertaken by another person or authority; and

(c) discontinue, at any stage before judgment is delivered,
criminal proceedings instituted or undertaken by the
Director of Public Prosecutions or another person or
authority.

76 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Director of
Public
Prosecutions

(5) For the purposes of clause (4), an appeal from a judgment, a
case stated or to a question of law reserved shall be part of the
criminal proceedings.

(6) The power conferred on the Director of Public Prosecutions
under clause (4)(c) shall not be exercised in relation to an appeal
by a convicted person, a case stated or a question of law reserved
at the instance of that person.

(7) The Director of Public Prosecutions shall not be subject to
the direction or control of a person or an authority in the performance
of the functions of that office, except that the Director of Public
Prosecutions shall have regard to the public interest, administration
of justice, the integrity of the judicial system and the need to prevent
and avoid abuse of the legal process.

(8)The functions of the Director of Public Prosecutions may
be exercised in person or by a public officer or legal practitioner,
authorised by the Director of Public Prosecutions, acting under the
general or special instructions of the Director of Public Prosecutions.

(9) The National Prosecutions Authority shall be established as
prescribed and shall devolve to the provinces and progressively to
the districts.

181. Where the Director of Public Prosecutions is absent from
Zambia or is unable to perform the functions of office due to illness
or other cause, the President shall appoint a person qualified to
perform the functions of Director of Public Prosecutions to perform
those functions until that appointment is revoked or until the Director
of Public Prosecutions returns to office.

182. (1) Subject to this Article, the Director of Public
Prosecutions shall retire from office on attaining the age of sixty
years.

(2) The Director of Public Prosecutions may retire, with full
benefits, on attaining the age of fifty-five years.

(3) The Director of Public Prosecutions may be removed from
office on the same grounds and procedure as apply to a judge.

(4) The Director of Public Prosecutions may resign from office
by three months’ notice, in writing, to the President.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 77

House of
Chiefs and
functions

Performance
of functions
of Director
of Public
Prosecutions
during
absence,
illness or
other cause

Tenure of
office of
Director of
Public
Prosecutions

183. (1) There shall be a Secretary to the Treasury who shall
be appointed by the President, in consultation with the Civil Service
Commission, subject to ratification by the National Assembly.

(2) The Secretary to the Treasury shall be the chief controlling
officer of the Government.

(3) The Secretary to the Treasury shall—

(a) be responsible and accountable for—

(i) the proper financial management and expenditure
of public monies appropriated to a State organ,
Province, local authority, State institution or
other prescribed body; and

(ii) monies raised from sources within or outside
Zambia by a Province, local authority, State
institution or other prescribed body;

(b) oversee the formulation and implementation of the macro-
economic frameworks and socio-economic plans of the
Republic;

(c) provide a regulatory framework for sound financial
management;

(d) cause to be prepared annual estimates of revenue and
expenditure, supplementary estimates of expenditure and
the budget; and

(e) carry out other prescribed functions.

(4) A person qualifies to be appointed as Secretary to the
Treasury if that person qualifies for appointment as Governor of
the Bank of Zambia.

(5) The term of office of the Secretary to the Treasury shall
be five years, subject to renewal for further terms.

(6) The Secretary to the Treasury may resign from office by
three months’ notice, in writing, to the President.

184. (1) The President shall, on the advice of the Civil Service
Commission, appoint a Permanent Secretary for a Province,
ministry or department.

(2) A Permanent Secretary shall—

(a) carry out or cause to be carried out the portfolio functions
of the provincial administration, ministry or department;

78 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Secretary to
Treasury

Permanent
Secretaries

(b) advise the Minister or provincial Minister with respect to
the activities, projects and programmes of the Province,
ministry or department;

(c) cause to be implemented the policies of the Government
and decisions of Cabinet;

(d) be responsible and accountable for the proper financial
management and expenditure of public monies
appropriated to the Province, ministry or department;
and

(e) be responsible and accountable for the management of
human resources in the provincial secretariat, ministry
or department.

Public Officers
185. (1) The President has, in accordance with and subject

to the other provisions of this Constitution, the power to—
(a) appoint and confirm public officers;
(b) exercise disciplinary control over public officers; and
(c) terminate the employment of a public officer.

(2) The President’s functions, as specified in clause (1), shall
be exercised by the relevant Service Commission as specified in
this Constitution and as prescribed.

(3) A person shall not be regarded as disqualified for
appointment to an office to which a public officer is qualified to be
appointed by reason only that the office is held by a person who is
on leave of absence pending relinquishment of that office.

(4) A function of a service commission may be delegated to a
public officer, as prescribed.

186. (1) A public officer who seeks election, or is appointed,
to a State office shall resign.

(2) Clause (1) applies to a Constitutional office holder.

PART XIV
PENSION BENEFIT

187. (1) An employee, including a public officer and
Constitutional office holder, has a right to a pension benefit.

(2) A pension benefit shall not be withheld or altered to that
employee’s disadvantage.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 79

Appointment
of public
officers

Participation
in politics

Pension
benefit

(3) The law to be applied with respect to a pension benefit–

(a) before the commencement of this Constitution, shall be
the law that was in force immediately before the date
on which the pension benefit was granted or the law in
force at a later date that is not less favourable to that
employee; and

(b) after the commencement of this Constitution, shall be the
law in force on the date on which the pension benefit
was granted or the law in force at a later date that is not
less favourable to that employee.

188. (1) A pension benefit shall be reviewed periodically to
take into account actuarial assessments.

(2) A pension benefit shall be exempt from tax.

189. (1) A pension benefit shall be paid promptly and regularly.
(2) Where a pension benefit is not paid on a person’s last

working day, that person shall stop work but the person’s name
shall be retained on the payroll, until payment of the pension benefit
based on the last salary received by that person while on the payroll.

PART XV
DEFENCE AND NATIONAL SECURITY

190. (1) The Defence Force and national security services
shall—

(a) be nationalistic, patriotic, professional, disciplined and
competent;

(b) be non-partisan;
(c) not further the interests or cause of a particular

organisation; and
(d) not act against a political interest or cause permitted in

this Constitution or as prescribed.

(2) Clause (1) shall not prevent a member of the Defence
Force and national security services from registering as a voter or
voting in an election or a referendum.

191. The Defence Force and national security services shall
be—

(a) subordinate to civilian authority, as vested in the State
organs; and

80 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Review of
pension
benefit and
tax
exemption

Payment of
pension
benefits

Principles
relating to
Defence
Force and
national
security
services

Status of
Defence
Force and
national
security
services

(b) adequately and properly equipped to enable them effectively
perform their functions.

192. (1) There is established the Defence Force of Zambia
consisting of—

(a) the Zambia Army;

(b) the Zambia Air Force;

(c) the Zambia National Service, as an auxiliary unit; and

(d) other units, as prescribed.

(2) The Defence Force shall—

(a) preserve and defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity
of the Republic;

(b) foster harmony and understanding between the Zambia
Army, Zambia Air Force, an auxiliary unit and members
of society; and

(c) co-operate with State organs and State institutions in times
of public emergencies and national disasters.

193. (1) There are established the following national security
services—

(a) the Zambia Police Service;

(b) the Zambia Security Intelligence Service;

(c) the Zambia Correctional Service; and

(d) any other national security service, as prescribed.

(2) The Zambia Police Service shall—

(a) protect life and property;

(b) preserve peace and maintain law and order;

(c) ensure the security of the people;

(d) detect and prevent crime;

(e) uphold the Bill of Rights;

(f) foster and promote good relationships with the Defence
Force, other national security services and members of
society; and

(g) perform other functions as prescribed.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 81

Establishment
of Defence
Force and
functions

Establishment
of national
security
services and
functions

(3) The Zambia Security Intelligence Service shall—

(a) ensure national security by undertaking security intelligence
and counter intelligence;

(b) prevent a person from suspending, overthrowing or illegally
abrogating this Constitution; and

(c) perform other functions as prescribed.
(4) The Zambia Correctional Service shall—

(a) manage, regulate and ensure the security of prisons and
correctional centres; and

(b) perform other functions as prescribed.
194. A person is qualified to serve as a member of the Defence

Force and national security services if the person is—

(a) a citizen who does not hold dual citizenship; and
(b) qualified as prescribed.

195. (1) The President may deploy personnel of the Defence
Force outside the Republic.

(2) Where the President deploys personnel of the Defence
Force outside the Republic, the President shall, as soon as is
reasonably practicable, inform the National Assembly of the
deployment.

196. Except as provided in this Constitution, a person shall not—
(a) raise or participate in the raising of an armed force;
(b) establish or participate in the establishment of a defence

force or national security service; or
(c) establish or participate in the establishment of a unit of

the Defence Force or national security service.

197. The following shall be prescribed:
(a) the regulation of the Defence Force and national security

services;
(b) the organs and structures of the Defence Force and

national security services;
(c) the operations and administration of the Defence Force

and national security services;
(d) the recruitment of persons into the Defence Force and

national security services, which shall reflect the regional
diversity of the people of Zambia;

82 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Qualification
to serve in
Defence
Force and
national
security
service

Deployment
outside
Republic

Prohibition
of activities
relating to
defence and
national
security

Legislation
on Defence
Force and
national
security
services

(e) the appointment, qualifications, placement, transfer,
discipline and retirement of defence and security chiefs
and other personnel of the Defence Force and national
security services;

(f) the emoluments of personnel and members of the Defence
Force and national security services;

(g) the procedures and processes for deployment of the
personnel of the Defence Force; and

(h) other functions as prescribed.

PART XVI
PUBLIC FINANCE AND BUDGET

198. The guiding principles of public finance include the
following:

(a) transparency and accountability in the development or
formulation of macro-economic frameworks, socio-
economic plans and the budget;

(b) promotion of a public finance system that ensures that—

(i) the burden of taxation is shared fairly;

(ii) revenue raised nationally is shared equitably among
the different levels of government; and

(iii) expenditure promotes the equitable development
of the country;

(c) sustainable public borrowing to ensure inter-generational
equity; and

(d) prudent and responsible use of public resources.

199. (1) A tax shall not be imposed, except as prescribed.

(2) Where legislation confers power on a person or an authority
to waive or vary a prescribed tax the power shall be exercised
through a statutory instrument.

(3) A report explaining the waiver or variation of a tax shall be
submitted to the National Assembly within twenty-one days of the
publication of the statutory instrument.

200. (1) There is established a Consolidated Fund to which
shall be credited the revenues and other monies accruing to the
Treasury.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 83

Principles
relating to
public
finance

Imposition
of tax

Consolidated
Fund

(2) Clause (1) does not apply to monies—

(a) prescribed for a public fund established for a specific
purpose; or

(b) that a State organ or State institution may retain for the
purpose of defraying the expenses of the State organ or
State institution, as prescribed.

201. (1) Monies shall not be withdrawn from the Consolidated
Fund except—

(a) to meet expenditure charged on the Consolidated Fund by
this Constitution or as prescribed; or

(b) where the issuance of those monies has been authorised
by a warrant signed by the President, an Appropriation
Act or a Supplementary Appropriation Act in accordance
with Article 203.

(2) The investment or lending of monies forming part of the
Consolidated Fund, in accordance with Articles 206 and 207,
respectively, shall not be considered a withdrawal from the
Consolidated Fund.

202. (1) The Minister responsible for finance shall prepare
and lay before the National Assembly in each financial year, not
later than ninety days before the commencement of the next financial
year, estimates of revenue and expenditure for the Republic.

(2) The Minister responsible for finance shall, when presenting
the estimates of revenue and expenditure, in accordance with clause
(1), specify the maximum limits that the Government intends to
borrow or lend in that financial year.

(3) In a year where a general election is held, the Minister
responsible for finance shall cause to be prepared and laid before
the National Assembly, within ninety days of the swearing in of the
President, estimates of revenue and expenditure for the Republic
for the next financial year.

(4) The National Assembly may vary estimates of revenue
and expenditure but shall not amend the total amount of estimates
of revenue and expenditure.

(5) The National Assembly shall, by a resolution of the Members
of Parliament, approve the financial estimates of revenue and
expenditure for the next financial year.

84 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Withdrawal
from
Consolidated
Fund

Annual
financial
estimates of
revenue and
expenditure

203. (1) Where estimates of revenue and expenditure have
been approved by the National Assembly in accordance with Article
202, the Minister responsible for finance shall lay, before the National
Assembly for enactment, an Appropriation Bill in respect of the
approved estimates of expenditure.

(2) The Minister responsible for finance shall, where the
amount appropriated in an Appropriation Act for a financial year is
insufficient to meet expenditure in that financial year, lay before
the National Assembly for approval, in accordance with Article
202 (5), a supplementary estimate of expenditure.

(3) Where a supplementary estimate of expenditure has been
approved by the National Assembly, the Minister responsible for
finance shall lay, before the National Assembly for enactment, a
Supplementary Appropriation Bill in respect of the approved
supplementary estimate of expenditure.

(4) Where there is an urgent need to incur expenditure for a
purpose that has not been appropriated under the Appropriation
Act for that financial year and it would not be in the public interest
to delay the appropriation of the expenditure until a supplementary
estimate is approved by the National Assembly, in accordance with
clauses (2) and (3), the President may, subject to Article 204, issue
a warrant authorising the expenditure and withdrawal from the
Consolidated Fund.

(5) The Minister responsible for finance shall present the warrant
referred to in clause (4) to the relevant parliamentary committee
for approval.

(6) The parliamentary committee shall consider the warrant
within forty-eight hours of its presentation by the Minister
responsible for finance.

(7) Where expenditure is incurred in accordance with clause
(4), the Minister responsible for finance shall, in that financial year,
lay an Excess Expenditure Appropriation Bill before the National
Assembly for enactment.

(8) Where it is not practicable to lay an Excess Expenditure
Appropriation Bill before the National Assembly, in accordance
with clause (7), the Minister responsible for finance shall lay the
Excess Expenditure Appropriation Bill before the National Assembly
during the first sitting of the National Assembly after the end of the
preceding financial year.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 85

Appropriation
Act,
Supplementary
Appropriation
Act and
Excess
Expenditure
Appropriation
Act

204. (1) The issuance of a warrant, in accordance with Article
203 (4), shall be subject to limitations and conditions, as prescribed.

(2) The President shall, immediately after signing a warrant in
accordance with Article 203 (4), cause a copy of the warrant to be
transmitted to the Auditor-General and Parliament.

205. The following shall be prescribed:

(a) the financial management and regulation of public funds;

(b) the preparation of medium and long-term financing
frameworks and development plans;

(c) the budget preparation process;

(d) public participation, at all levels of government, in the
formulation of financing frameworks, development plans
and preparation of annual budgets;

(e) the content of the financial report of the Republic provided
for in Article 211; and

(f) the control and disbursement of appropriated funds.

206. (1) Monies forming part of the Consolidated Fund may
be invested into readily marketable securities and deposits or other
secure investments, with a financial institution approved by the
Minister responsible for finance.

(2) The investment of monies made in accordance with clause
(1) shall be prescribed.

207. (1) The Government may, as prescribed—

(a) raise a loan or grant on behalf of itself, a State organ,
State institution or other institution;

(b) guarantee a loan on behalf of a State organ, State institution
or other institution; or

(c) enter into an agreement to give a loan or grant out of the
Consolidated Fund, other public fund or public account.

(2) Legislation enacted under clause (1) shall provide—

(a) for the category, nature and other terms and conditions of
a loan, grant or guarantee, that will require the approval
by the National Assembly before the loan, grant or
guarantee is executed; and

86 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Limitation
and
conditions of
warrant

Budget and
planning
legislation

Investment
of public
funds

Borrowing
and lending
by
Government

(b) that any monies received in respect of a loan or grant
approved by the National Assembly shall be paid into
the Consolidated Fund, or other public fund or public
account.

208. (1) A public debt shall be a charge on the Consolidated
Fund or other public fund.

(2) For the purposes of this Article, “public debt” includes the
interest on that debt, sinking fund payments in respect of that debt
and the costs, charges and expenses incidental to the management
of that debt.

209. (1) There is established a Compensation Fund for the
purpose of settling claims against the State.

(2) The management of the Compensation Fund shall be
prescribed.

210. (1) A State organ, State institution and other public office
shall procure goods or services, in accordance with a system that
is fair, equitable, transparent, competitive and cost-effective, as
prescribed.

(2) A major State asset shall be sold, transferred or otherwise
disposed of, as prescribed, subject to the approval of the National
Assembly signified by a vote of at least two-thirds of the Members
of Parliament.

(3) For the purposes of this Article, “major State asset” includes
a parastatal and equity held by the Government, as prescribed.

211. (1) The Minister responsible for finance shall, within three
months after the end of each financial year, prepare and submit to
the Auditor-General the financial report of the Republic in respect
of the preceding financial year.

(2) The Auditor-General shall, within two months of receipt of
the financial report, examine the financial report and express an
opinion on the report.

(3) The Minister responsible for finance shall, within one month
after the receipt of the Auditor-General’s opinion, lay the financial
report, with the Auditor-General’s opinion, before the National
Assembly.

(4) The financial report shall include information on—
(a) revenue received by the Republic during that financial

year;

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 87

Public debt

Compensation
Fund

Public
procurement
and disposal
of State
assets

Financial
report of
Republic

(b) the expenditure of the Republic during that financial year;

(c) gifts, donations and aid-in-kind received on behalf of the
Republic in that financial year, their value and how they
were disposed of;

(d) debt repayments;

(e) payments made in that financial year for purposes other
than expenditure;

(f) the financial position of the Republic at the end of that
financial year; and

(g) other information as prescribed.

212. The Auditor-General shall, not later than nine months
after the end of a financial year, submit an audit report to the
President and the National Assembly, on the accounts of the
Republic audited in respect of the preceding financial year.

PART XVII
CENTRAL BANK

213. (1) There is established the Bank of Zambia which shall
be the central bank of the Republic.

(2) The functions of the Bank of Zambia are to—

(a) issue the currency of the Republic;

(b) determine monetary policy; and

(c) regulate banking and financial services, banks, financial
and non-banking institutions, as prescribed.

(3) There is constituted a Board of Directors for the Bank of
Zambia whose composition shall be prescribed.

(4) The functions of the Bank of Zambia vest in the Board of
Directors and shall be performed as prescribed.

(5) The Bank of Zambia shall not be subject to the direction or
control of a person or an authority in the performance of its
functions.

214. (1) There shall be a Governor of the Bank of Zambia
who shall be appointed by the President, subject to ratification by
the National Assembly, and who shall be—

(a) a citizen;

88 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Auditor-
General’s
report

Bank of
Zambia

Governor of
Bank of
Zambia

(b) a person who has specialised training and experience in
economics, finance, accounting, banking, law or other
field relevant to banking, as prescribed; and

(c) a person of proven integrity.
(2) The Governor shall be the Chairperson of the Board of

Directors.

215. The following shall be prescribed:
(a) additional functions, operations and management of the

Bank of Zambia;
(b) appointment, qualifications and tenure of office of the

Board of Directors;
(c) election of a Vice-Chairperson of the Board of Directors;
(d) tenure of office and emoluments of the Governor;
(e) appointment, qualifications, tenure of office, functions and

emoluments of the Deputy-Governor;
(f) recruitment, and emoluments of members of staff of the

Bank of Zambia; and
(g) other matters necessary for the performance of the

functions of the Bank of Zambia.

PART XVIII
SERVICES, COMMISSIONS AND OTHER INDEPENDENT OFFICES

216. A commission shall—
(a) be subject only to this Constitution and the law;
(b) be independent and not be subject to the control of a

person or an authority in the performance of its functions;
(c) act with dignity, professionalism, propriety and integrity;
(d) be non-partisan; and
(e) be impartial in the exercise of its authority.

Parliamentary Service Commission

217. (1) There is established the Parliamentary Service.

(2) The office of the Clerk of the National Assembly, members
of staff of the Parliamentary Service Commission and members
of staff of the office of the Clerk, as prescribed, are offices in the
Parliamentary Service.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 89

Legislation
on Bank of
Zambia

Principles
relating to
commissions

Parliamentary
Service

218. (1) There is established the Parliamentary Service
Commission.

(2) The Parliamentary Service Commission shall—
(a) appoint the Clerk of the National Assembly;

(b) constitute offices in the Parliamentary Service;

(c) appoint, confirm, promote and hear appeals from officers
of the Parliamentary Service;

(d) ensure efficient and effective functioning of the National
Assembly;

(e) have financial oversight of the Parliamentary Service and
the National Assembly; and

(f) perform such other functions as prescribed.

Judicial Service Commission

219. (1) There is established the Judicial Service.

(2) The office of judge, judicial officer, the members of staff
of the Judicial Service Commission and such other officers as
prescribed, are offices in the Judicial Service.

220. (1) There is established the Judicial Service Commission.
(2) The Judicial Service Commission shall—

(a) constitute offices in the Judicial Service;

(b) make recommendations to the President on the appointment
of judges;

(c) appoint, confirm, promote and hear appeals from judicial
officers; and

(d) carry out a function provided for in this Constitution, or as
prescribed.

Civil Service Commission

221. (1) There is established the Civil Service.

(2) The office of the Secretary to the Cabinet, Secretary to
the Treasury, Deputy Secretary to the Cabinet, civil servants, the
members of staff of the Civil Service Commission and other public
officers as prescribed, are offices in the Civil Service.

90 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Parliamentary
Service
Commission

Judicial
Service

Civil Service

Judicial
Service
Commission

222. (1) There is established the Civil Service Commission.
(2) The Civil Service Commission shall—

(a) constitute offices in the Civil Service;
(b) appoint, confirm, promote and hear appeals from officers

in the Civil Service, excluding a Constitutional office
holder; and

(c) perform such other functions as prescribed.

Teaching Service Commission
223. (1) There is established the Teaching Service.
(2) The teachers serving as public officers excluding civil

servants, the members of staff of the Teaching Service Commission
and other public officers, as prescribed, are offices in the Teaching
Service.

224. (1) There is established the Teaching Service Commission.
(2) The Teaching Service Commission shall—

(a) constitute offices in the Teaching Service;
(b) appoint, confirm, promote and hear appeals from officers

of the Teaching Service; and
(c) perform such other functions as prescribed.

Zambia Correctional Service Commission
225. (1) There is established the Zambia Correctional Service

Commission for the Zambia Correctional Service established in
Article 193.

(2) The office of Commissioner-General of Correctional
Service, Deputy Commissioners-General of Correctional Service,
Commissioners of Correctional Service, Assistant Commissioners
of Correctional Service, Correctional officers and wardens,
members of staff of the Zambia Correctional Service Commission
and such other public officers as prescribed, are offices in the
Zambia Correctional Service.

(3) The Zambia Correctional Service Commission shall—
(a) constitute offices in the Zambia Correctional Service;
(b) appoint, confirm, promote and hear appeals from officers

of the Zambia Correctional Service; and
(c) perform such other functions as prescribed.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 91

Civil Service
Commission

Teaching
Service

Teaching
Service
Commission

Zambia
Correctional
Service
Commission

Zambia Police Service Commission

226. (1) There is established the Zambia Police Service
Commission for the Zambia Police Service established in Article
193.

(2) The office of the Inspector-General of Police, the Deputy
Inspector-General of Police, police officers, the members of staff
of the Zambia Police Service Commission and other public officers
as prescribed, are offices in the Zambia Police Service.

(3) The Zambia Police Service Commission shall—

(a) constitute offices in the Zambia Police Service;

(b) appoint, confirm, promote and hear appeals from officers
of the Zambia Police Service; and

(c) perform such other functions as prescribed.

Local Government Service Commission

227. (1) There is established the Local Government Service.

(2) The office of the Town Clerk, Council Secretary, members
of staff of the Local Government Service Commission, the members
of staff of local authorities and other local government staff, as
prescribed, are offices in the Local Government Service.

228. (1) There is established the Local Government Service
Commission.

(2) The Local Government Service Commission shall—

(a) appoint the Town Clerk and Council Secretary of a local
authority;

(b) constitute offices in the Local Government Service;

(c) appoint, confirm, promote and hear appeals from officers
of the Local Government Service;

(d) ensure efficient and effective functioning of local
authorities; and

(e) perform such other functions as prescribed.

Electoral Commission of Zambia

229. (1) There is established the Electoral Commission of
Zambia which shall have offices in Provinces and progressively in
districts.

92 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Zambia
Police
Service
Commission

Local
Government
Service

Local
Government
Service
Commission

Electoral
Commission
of Zambia

(2) The Electoral Commission shall—

(a) implement the electoral process;

(b) conduct elections and referenda;

(c) register voters;

(d) settle minor electoral disputes, as prescribed;

(e) regulate the conduct of voters and candidates;

(f) accredit observers and election agents, as prescribed;

(g) delimit electoral boundaries; and

(h) perform such other functions as prescribed.

Human Rights Commission

230. (1) There is established the Human Rights Commission
which shall have offices in the Provinces and progressively in
districts.

(2) The Human Rights Commission shall ensure that the Bill
of Rights is upheld and protected.

(3) The Human Rights Commission shall—

(a) investigate and report on the observance of rights and
freedoms;

(b) take necessary steps to secure appropriate redress where
rights and freedoms are violated;

(c) endeavour to resolve a dispute through negotiation,
mediation or conciliation;

(d) carry out research on rights and freedoms and related
matters;

(e) conduct civic education on rights and freedoms; and

(f) perform such other functions as prescribed.

Gender Equity and Equality Commission

231. (1) There is established the Gender Equity and Equality
Commission which shall have offices in the Provinces and
progressively in districts.

(2) The Gender Equity and Equality Commission shall promote
the attainment and mainstreaming of gender equality.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 93

Human
Rights
Commission

Gender
Equity
Equality
Commission

(3) The Gender Equity and Equality Commission shall—

(a) monitor, investigate, research, educate, advise and report
on issues concerning gender equality;

(b) ensure institutions comply with legal requirements and
other standards relating to gender equality;

(c) take steps to secure appropriate redress to complaints
relating to gender inequality, as prescribed; and

(d) perform such other functions as prescribed.

Emoluments Commission

232. (1) There is established the Emoluments Commission.

(2) The Emoluments Commission shall determine, on the
recommendation of the relevant authority or commission, the
emoluments of public officers, chiefs and members of the House
of Chiefs, as provided in this Constitution or as prescribed.

Lands Commission
233. (1) There is established the Lands Commission which

shall have offices in all Provinces and progressively in districts.

(2) The Lands Commission shall administer, manage and
alienate land, on behalf of the President, as prescribed.

State Audit Commission
234. (1) There is established the State Audit Commission.
(2) The State Audit Commission shall—

(a) subject to Article 249 (2) oversee the operations of the
office of the Auditor-General, as prescribed;

(b) make recommendations to the President on the appointment
of the Auditor-General; and

(c) perform such other functions as prescribed.

Investigative Commissions
235. There is established the following investigative commissions:

(a) the Anti-Corruption Commission;
(b) the Drug Enforcement Commission; and
(c) the Anti-Financial and Economic Crimes Commission.

94 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Emoluments
Commission

Lands
Commission

State Audit
Commission

Investigative
Commissions

Judicial Complaints Commission

236. (1) There is established the Judicial Complaints Commission.

(2) The Judicial Complaints Commission shall—

(a) enforce the Code of Conduct for judges and judicial
officers;

(b) ensure that judges and judicial officers are accountable to
the people for the performance of their functions;

(c) receive complaints lodged against a judge or judicial officer,
as prescribed;

(d) hear a complaint against a judge or judicial officer, as
prescribed;

(e) make recommendations to the appropriate institution or
authority for action; and

(f) perform such other functions as prescribed.

Police Public Complaints Commission

237. (1) There is established the Police Public Complaints
Commission.

(2) The Police Public Complaints Commission shall—

(a) receive and investigate complaints against police actions;

(b) investigate complaints against police actions which result
in serious injury or death of a person;

(c) make recommendations to the appropriate institution or
authority for action; and

(d) perform such other functions as prescribed.

General Provisions Relating to Commissions

238. (1) A commission shall be a self-accounting institution
which deals directly with the Ministry responsible for finance in
matters relating to its finances.

(2) A commission shall be adequately funded in a financial
year to enable it to effectively perform its functions.

239. The expenses of a commission, including emoluments
payable to, or in respect of, persons serving with that commission,
shall be a charge on the Consolidated Fund.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 95

Judicial
Complaints
Commission

Police Public
Complaints
Commission

Financial
independence
of
commissions

Expenses of
commissions

240. A person qualifies to be appointed as a member of a
commission if that person—

(a) is a citizen;
(b) is permanently resident in Zambia;
(c) has not, in the immediate preceding five years, served a

term of imprisonment of at least three years;

(d) declares that person’s assets and liabilities, as prescribed;
(e) has paid that person’s taxes or has made arrangements

satisfactory to the appropriate tax authority for the
payment of the taxes;

(f) does not have a mental or physical disability that would
make the person incapable of performing the functions
of office;

(g) is not serving a sentence of imprisonment for an offence
under a law; and

(h) has other qualifications, as prescribed.
241. A commission—

(a) shall appoint its staff;

(b) may refer matters within its mandate to appropriate State
organs or State institutions for action;

(c) may initiate its own investigations and receive complaints
from a person on matters within its mandate;

(d) shall take measures to ensure that State institutions and
other persons comply with its decisions; and

(e) shall submit annual reports to the National Assembly on
its accounts and activities as prescribed.

242. The functions, composition, appointment of members,
tenure of office of members, processes and procedures, operations,
administration, structures, finances and financial management of a
commission shall be prescribed.

Other Independent Offices
Public Protector

243. (1) There shall be a Public Protector who shall be
appointed by the President, on the recommendation of the Judicial
Service Commission, subject to ratification by the National
Assembly.

96 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Qualifications
of members
of
commissions

General
powers of
commissions

Legislation
on
commissions

Public
Protector

(2) A person qualifies for appointment as Public Protector if
that person—

(a) is qualified to be appointed as a judge; and
(b) does not hold a State office or Constitutional office.

(3) The office of Public Protector shall be decentralised to the
Provinces and progressively to districts, as prescribed.

(4) The procedures, staff, finances, financial management,
administration and operations of the office of the Public Protector
shall be prescribed.

244. (1) The Public Protector may investigate an action or
decision taken or omitted to be taken by a State institution in the
performance of an administrative function.

(2) For purposes of clause (1), an action or decision taken or
omitted to be taken is an action or decision which is—

(a) unfair, unreasonable or illegal; or
(b) not compliant with the rules of natural justice.

(3) For purposes of clauses (1) and (2), the Public Protector
may—

(a) bring an action before a court;
(b) hear an appeal by a person relating to an action or decision

taken or omitted to be taken in respect of that person;
and

(c) make a decision on an action to be taken against a public
officer or Constitutional office holder, which decision
shall be implemented by an appropriate authority.

(4) The Public Protector shall not be subject to the direction or
control of a person or an authority in the performance of the
functions of office.

(5) The Public Protector has the same powers as those of the
High Court in—

(a) enforcing the attendance of witnesses and examining them
on oath;

(b) examining witnesses outside Zambia;
(c) compelling the production of documents;
(d) enforcing decisions issued by the Public Protector; and
(e) citing a person or an authority for contempt for failure to

carry out a decision.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 97

Functions of
Public
Protector

(6) A person summoned to give evidence or to produce a
document before the Public Protector is entitled, in respect of that
evidence or the production of the document, to the same privileges
and protection as those that a person would be entitled to before a
court.

(7) An answer by a person to a question put by the Public
Protector is not admissible in evidence against that person in civil
or criminal proceedings, except for perjury.

245. The Public Protector shall not investigate a matter which—
(a) is before a court, court martial or a quasi-judicial body;
(b) relates to an officer in the Parliamentary Service or Judicial

Service;
(c) involves the relations or dealings between the Government

and foreign government or an international organisation;

(d) relates to the exercise of the prerogative of mercy; or
(e) is criminal in nature.

246. Where the Public Protector is absent from Zambia or is
unable to perform the functions of office due to illness or other
cause, the President shall appoint a person qualified to perform the
functions of the Public Protector until that appointment is revoked
or until the Public Protector returns to office.

247. (1) Subject to this Article, the Public Protector shall retire
from office on attaining the age of sixty years.

(2) The Public Protector may retire, with full benefits, on
attaining the age of fifty-five years.

(3) The Public Protector may be removed from office on the
same grounds and procedure as apply to a judge.

(4) The Public Protector may resign from office by three months’
notice, in writing, to the President.

248. The office of the Public Protector shall report to the
National Assembly on matters concerning its affairs.

Auditor-General

249. (1) There shall be an Auditor-General who shall be
appointed by the President, on the recommendation of the State
Audit Commission, subject to ratification by the National Assembly.

98 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Limitation of
powers of
Public
Protector

Performance
of functions
of Public
Protector
during
absence,
illness or
other cause

Tenure of
office of
Public
Protector

Report to
National
Assembly

Auditor-
General

(2) The office of Auditor-General shall be decentralised to the
Provinces and progressively to districts, as prescribed.

(3) The following shall be prescribed:

(a) the qualifications of the Auditor-General;

(b) the operations and management of the office of the
Auditor-General;

(c) the recruitment, supervision, grading, promotion and
discipline of the staff of the Auditor-General; and

(d) the finances of the office of the Auditor-General.

250. (1) The Auditor-General shall—

(a) audit the accounts of—

(i) State organs, State institutions, provincial
administration and local authorities; and

(ii) institutions financed from public funds;

(b) audit the accounts that relate to the stocks, shares and
stores of the Government;

(c) conduct financial and value for money audits, including
forensic audits and any other type of audit, in respect of
a project that involves the use of public funds;

(d) ascertain that money appropriated by Parliament or raised
by the Government and disbursed—

(i) has been applied for the purpose for which it was
appropriated or raised;

(ii) was expended in conformity with the authority
that governs it; and

(iii) was expended economically, efficiently and
effectively; and

(e) recommend to the Director of Public Prosecutions or a
law enforcement agency any matter within the
competence of the Auditor-General, that may require to
be prosecuted.

(2) The Auditor-General shall not be subject to the direction or
control of a person or an authority in the performance of the
functions of office.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 99

Functions of
Auditor-
General

251. Where the Auditor-General is absent from Zambia or is
unable to perform the functions of office due to illness or other
cause, the President shall appoint a person qualified to perform the
functions of the Auditor-General until that appointment is revoked
or until the Auditor-General returns to office.

252. (1) Subject to this Article, the Auditor-General shall
retire from office on attaining the age of sixty years.

(2) The Auditor-General may retire, with full benefits, on
attaining the age of fifty-five years.

(3) The Auditor-General may be removed from office on the
same grounds and procedure as apply to a judge.

(4) The Auditor-General may resign from office by three
months’ notice, in writing, to the President.

PART XIX
LAND, ENVIRONMENT AND NATURAL RESOURCES

Land
253. (1) Land shall be held, used and managed in accordance

with the following principles:

(a) equitable access to land and associated resources;
(b) security of tenure for lawful land holders;
(c) recognition of indigenous cultural rites;
(d) sustainable use of land;
(e) transparent, effective and efficient administration of land;
(f) effective and efficient settlement of land disputes;
(g) river frontages, islands, lakeshores and ecologically and

culturally sensitive areas—
(i) to be accessible to the public;
(ii) not to be leased, fenced or sold; and

(iii) to be maintained and used for conservation and
preservation activities;

(h) investments in land to also benefit local communities and
their economy; and

(i) plans for land use to be done in a consultative and
participatory manner.

100 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Performance
of functions
of Auditor-
General
during
absence,
illness or
other cause

Tenure of
office of
Auditor-
General

Principles of
land policy

254. (1) Land shall be delimited and classified as State land,
customary land and such other classification, as prescribed.

(2) The President may, through the Lands Commission, alienate
land to citizens and non-citizens, as prescribed.

(3) Land shall be held for a prescribed tenure.

Environment and Natural Resources

255. The management and development of Zambia’s
environment and natural resources shall be governed by the following
principles:

(a) natural resources have an environmental, economic, social
and cultural value and this shall be reflected in their
use;

(b) the person responsible for polluting or degrading the
environment is responsible for paying for the damage
done to the environment;

(c) where there are threats of serious or irreversible damage
to the environment, lack of full scientific certainty shall
not be used as a reason for postponing cost-effective
measures to prevent environmental degradation;

(d) the conservation and protection of ecologically sensitive
areas, habitats, species and other environment shall be
done in a sustainable manner;

(e) respect for the integrity of natural processes and ecological
communities;

(f) benefits accruing from the exploitation and utilisation of
the environment and natural resources shall be shared
equitably amongst the people of Zambia;

(g) saving of energy and the sustainable use of renewable
energy sources shall be promoted;

(h) reclaiming and rehabilitation of degraded areas and those
prone to disasters shall be promoted;

(i) unfair trade practices in the production, processing,
distribution and marketing of natural resources shall be
eliminated;

(j) origin, quality, methods of production, harvesting and
processing of natural resources shall be regulated;

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 101

Classification
and
alienation of
land and land
tenure

Principles of
environmental
and natural
resources
management
and
development

(k) equitable access to environmental resources shall be
promoted;

(l) effective participation of people in the development
of relevant policies, plans and programmes; and

(m) access to environmental information to enable people
preserve, protect and conserve the environment.

256. A person has a duty to co-operate with State organs,
State institutions and other persons to—

(a) maintain a clean, safe and healthy environment;
(b) ensure ecologically sustainable development and use of

natural resources;
(c) respect, protect and safeguard the environment; and
(d) prevent or discontinue an act which is harmful to the

environment.
257. The State shall, in the utilisation of natural resources and

management of the environment—
(a) protect genetic resources and biological diversity;
(b) implement mechanisms that minimise waste;
(c) promote appropriate environment management systems

and tools;
(d) encourage public participation;
(e) protect and enhance the intellectual property in, and

indigenous knowledge of, biodiversity and genetic
resources of local communities;

(f) ensure that the environmental standards enforced in Zambia
are of essential benefit to citizens; and

(g) establish and implement mechanisms that address climate
change.

PART XX
GENERAL PROVISIONS

258. (1) The official language of Zambia is English.
(2) A language, other than English, may be used as a medium of

instruction in educational institutions or for legislative, administrative
or judicial purposes, as prescribed.

(3) The State shall respect, promote and protect the diversity of
the languages of the people of Zambia.

102 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Protection of
environment
and natural
resources

Utilisation of
natural
resources
and
management
of
environment

Official
language and
use and
status of
local
languages

259. (1) Where a person is empowered to make a nomination
or an appointment to a public office, that person shall ensure—

(a) that the person being nominated or appointed has the
requisite qualification to discharge the functions of the
office, as prescribed or specified in public office circulars
or establishment registers;

(b) that fifty percent of each gender is nominated or appointed
from the total available positions, unless it is not
practicable to do so; and

(c) equitable representation of the youth and persons with
disabilities, where these qualify for nomination or
appointment.

(2) A person empowered to make a nomination or appointment
to a public office shall, where possible, ensure that the nomination
or appointment reflects the regional diversity of the people of
Zambia.

260. A person assuming a public office, member of the House
of Chiefs, and presidential appointee, shall take an Oath of Office
and such other oath, as prescribed, before carrying out the duties
of office.

261. A person holding a public office shall act in accordance
with a code of conduct and ethics, as prescribed for that office.

262. A person holding a public office shall not act in a manner,
or be in a position, where the personal interest of that person conflicts,
or is likely to conflict, with the performance of the functions of
office.

263. A person holding a public office shall, before assuming
office or leaving office, make a declaration of their assets and
liabilities, as prescribed.

264. (1) A public officer, chief and member of the House of
Chiefs, shall be paid such emoluments as recommended by the
relevant authority or commission and determined by the Emoluments
Commission.

(2) The emoluments of a State officer, councillor, Constitutional
office holder and a judge shall be determined by the Emoluments
Commission, as prescribed.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 103

Nominations
and
appointments

Emoluments
payable
under
Constitution

Oath of
office and
prescribed
oaths

Code of
conduct and
ethics

Conflict of
interest

Declaration
of assets

(3) The emoluments of a person holding a public office, chief
and member of the House of Chiefs shall not be altered to the
disadvantage of that person during that person’s tenure of office.

(4) A person holding a public office shall not, while in office,
hold another office which pays emoluments.

265. (1) A public office shall be adequately funded to enable
it to effectively perform its functions.

(2) The expenses of a State organ, State institution and public
office shall be a charge on the Consolidated Fund.

(3) The emoluments payable under this Constitution or as
prescribed, shall be a charge on the Consolidated Fund.

266. In this Constitution, unless the context otherwise requires—

“ adult ” means a person who has attained, or is above, the
age of nineteen years;

“ Bill ” means a draft of a proposed law to be enacted by
Parliament;

“ Bill of Rights ” means the human rights and fundamental
freedoms set out in Part III, and includes their status,
application, interpretation, limitations, derogations, non-
derogations and enforcement;

“ by-election ” means an election to fill a vacancy in the
office of a Member of Parliament or councillor;

“ candidate ” means a person contesting a presidential,
parliamentary or local government election;

“ chief ” means a person bestowed as chief and who derives
allegiance from the fact of birth or descent, in accordance
with the customs, traditions, usage or consent of the people
in a chiefdom;

“ child ” means a person who has attained, or is below, the
age of eighteen years;

“ circuit schedule ” means a table showing dates, districts,
time and place where a court is to sit and hear matters in
any period of twelve months;

104 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Funding,
expenses and
emoluments
charge on
Consolidated
Fund

Definitions

“ citizen ” means a citizen of Zambia;

“ civil servant ” means a public officer appointed by the Civil
Service Commission;

“ civil society ” means a group of persons, who are not part
of the Government, who associate for the purpose of
advancing or protecting particular interests;

“ commission ” means a commission established under Part
XVIII of this Constitution;

“ constituency ” means an area into which Zambia is divided
for purposes of elections to the National Assembly;

“ Constitutional Court ” means the Constitutional Court
established in this Constitution;

“ Constitutional office ” means the office of the Attorney-
General, Solicitor-General, Director of Public Prosecutions,
Public Protector, Auditor-General, Secretary to the Cabinet,
Secretary to the Treasury and Permanent Secretary;

“ Constitutional office holder ” means a person holding or
acting in a Constitutional office;

“ council ” includes a city, municipal or town council;

“ council chairperson ” means a person elected chairperson
of a town council in accordance with Article 154;

“ councillor ” means a member of a council elected in
accordance with Article 153;

“ court ” means a court of competent jurisdiction established
by or under this Constitution;

“ Court of Appeal ” means the Court of Appeal established in
this Constitution;

“ devolution ” means a form of decentralisation where there
is a transfer of rights, functions and powers or an office
from the central government or State institution to a sub-
national authority or the bringing of a service that is provided
at central government level to, or opening of a branch of a
public office or institution at, a sub- national level, and the
word “devolved” shall be construed accordingly;

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 105

“ disability ” means a permanent physical, mental, intellectual
or sensory impairment that alone, or in combination with
social or environmental barriers, hinders the ability of a
person to fully or effectively participate in an activity or
perform a function as specified in this Constitution or as
prescribed;

“ discrimination ” means directly or indirectly treating a person
differently on the basis of that person’s birth, race, sex,
origin, colour, age, disability, religion, conscience, belief,
culture, language, tribe, pregnancy, health, or marital, ethnic,
social or economic status;

“ district ” means an administrative unit of a Province as
provided in Article 149;

“ election ” means an election to the office of President,
National Assembly or a council;

“ Electoral Commission ” means the Electoral Commission
of Zambia established in this Constitution;

“ emoluments ” include salaries, allowances, benefits and
rights that form an individual’s remuneration for services
rendered, including pension benefits or other benefits on
retirement;

“ Emoluments Commission ” means the Emoluments
Commission established in this Constitution;

“ executive authority ” means the power and the right to
execute executive functions;

“ executive functions ” means the functions of the President
set out in this Constitution;

“ ex-officio ” means a person who is appointed as a member
by virtue of office;

“ First Deputy Speaker ” means the person elected as First
Deputy Speaker in accordance with Article 82 (4);

“ freedom fighter ” means a person who fought for the
independence of the former protectorate of Northern
Rhodesia to become the Republic of Zambia;

106 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

“ function ” includes powers and duties;

“ gender ” means female or male and the role individuals play
in society as a result of their sex and status;

“ general election ” means Presidential, National Assembly
and local government elections when held on the same
day;

“ gross misconduct ” means—

(a) behaviour which brings a public office into disrepute,
ridicule or contempt;

(b) behaviour that is prejudicial or inimical to the economy
or the security of the State;

(c) an act of corruption; or

(d) using or lending the prestige of an office to advance
the private interests of that person, members of
that person’s family or another person;

“ health practitioner ” means a person registered as a health
practitioner as prescribed;

“ High Court ” means the High Court established in this
Constitution;

“ individual ” means a natural person;

“ judge ” means a person appointed as a judge of a superior
court;

“ judgment ” includes a decision, an order or decree of a
court or an authority, as prescribed;

“ judicial authority ” means the power and right to perform
judicial functions;

“ judicial function ” means the functions of the Judiciary set
out in this Constitution;

“ judicial officer ” includes a magistrate, local court magistrate,
registrar and such officers as prescribed;

“ legislative authority ” means the power and right to perform
legislative functions;

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 107

“ legislative functions ” means the functions of the legislature
set out in this Constitution;

“ local authority ” means a council and it’s secretariat
consisting of persons appointed by the Local Government
Service Commission;

“ local government ” means governance at the local level;

“ local government elections tribunal ” means a tribunal
established in accordance with Article 159;

“ Local Government Equalisation Fund ” means a fund
established in accordance with Article 163;

“ mayor ” means a person elected mayor of a city or municipal
council in accordance with Article 154;

“ Member of Parliament ” means a person who is member of
the National Assembly;

“ Minister ” means a Cabinet Minister;

“ oath ” includes an affirmation;

“ older member of society ” means a person who has attained,
or is above, the age of sixty years;

“ opposition ” means a political party which is not the political
party in government;

“ ordinarily resident ” means residing in a place for a prescribed
period of time;

“ Parliament ” means the President and the National
Assembly;

“ parliamentary committee ” means a committee established
in accordance with Article 80;

“ pension benefit ” includes a pension, compensation, gratuity
or similar allowance in respect of a person’s service;

“ person ” means an individual, a company or an association
of persons, whether corporate or unincorporate;

“ person with disability ” means a person with a permanent
physical, mental, intellectual or sensory impairment;

108 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

“ political party ” means an association whose objectives
include the contesting of elections in order to form
government or influence the policy of the national or local
government;

“ power ” includes privilege, authority and discretion;

“ prescribed ” means provided for in an Act of Parliament;

“ President-elect ” means the presidential candidate who has
been declared by the Returning Officer as having won the
presidential election;

“ presidential candidate ” means a person nominated to stand
for election as President in accordance with Article 52
(1);

“ presidential election ” means an election to the office of
President, and includes the election of a Vice-President as
a running mate to the President;

“ property ” includes a vested or contingent right to, or interest
in, or arising from—

(a) land, permanent fixtures on, or improvements to,
land;

(b) goods or personal property;

(c) intellectual property; or

(d) money, choses in action or negotiable instruments;

“ provincial administration ” means the administrative
secretariat established in accordance with Article 150;

“ Provincial Minister ” means a person appointed Provincial
Minister by the President;

“ public media ” means media owned, operated or controlled
by the Government;

“ public office ” means an office whose emoluments and
expenses are a charge on the Consolidated Fund or other
prescribed public fund and includes a State office,
Constitutional office and an office in the public service,
including that of a member of a commission;

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 109

“ public officer ” means a person holding or acting in a public
office, but does not include a State officer, councillor, a
Constitutional office holder, a judge and a judicial officer;

“ public service ” means service in the Civil Service, the
Teaching Service, Defence Force and National Security
Service, the Zambia Correctional Service, the Zambia
Police Service, Emoluments Commission, State Audit
Commission, Lands Commission, Electoral Commission,
Human Rights Commission, Gender Equity and Equality
Commission, the Anti-Corruption Commission, Drug
Enforcement Commission, the Anti-Financial and Economic
Crimes Commission, the Police and Public Complaints
Commission, and service as a constitutional office holder,
service in other offices, as prescribed;

“ rights and freedoms ” means the human rights and
fundamental freedoms provided for in the Bill of Rights;

“ Republic ” means the Republic of Zambia;

“ returning officer ” means a person who is a returning officer
for a parliamentary or local authority election and
“Returning Officer” means the Chairperson of the Electoral
Commission in a presidential election;

“ running mate ” means a person who is selected by a
presidential candidate to stand with the presidential
candidate in a presidential election so that the person
becomes the Vice-President if that presidential candidate
is elected as President;

“ Second Deputy Speaker ” means the person elected as
Second Deputy Speaker in accordance with Article 82 (5);

“ Service Commission ” means a commission established under
Articles 218, 220, 222, 224, 225, 226, and 228;

“ session ” means a period not exceeding twelve months,
within the term of the National Assembly, of sittings of the
National Assembly, which commence on the first day of
sitting after a general election or prorogation of Parliament
and ends with a prorogation or dissolution of Parliament;

110 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

“ sitting ” means a meeting of the National Assembly, within
a session, which concludes with an adjournment, and
includes a parliamentary committee meeting;

“ Speaker ” means the person elected Speaker of the National
Assembly in accordance with Article 82 (1);

“ State institution ” includes a ministry or department of the
Government, a public office, agency, institution, statutory
body, commission or company in which the Government or
local authority has a controlling interest, other than a State
organ;

“ State office ” includes the office of President, Vice-
President, Speaker, Deputy Speaker, Member of
Parliament, Minister and Provincial Minister;

“ State officer ” means a person holding or acting in a State
office;

“ State organ ” means the Executive, Legislature or Judiciary;

“ statutory instrument ” means a proclamation, regulation,
rule, by-law, order or other similar legal instrument made
under a power conferred by this Constitution or an Act of
Parliament;

“ subordinate court ” means a court subordinate to the High
Court;

“ sub-national ” means an administrative division of
government at provincial or district level;

“ sub-structure ” includes a district, ward and village;

“ superior court ” means the Supreme Court, Constitutional
Court, Court of Appeal and High Court established in
accordance with this Constitution;

“ Supreme Court ” means the Supreme Court established in
this Constitution;

“ tax ” includes rates, levies, charges, tariffs, fees, tolls and
duties;

“ term ” means a period of five years commencing when the
National Assembly first sits, after a general election, and
ending when Parliament is dissolved;

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 111

“ Treasury ” means the office, in the Ministry responsible
for finance, which receives, keeps, receipts, manages and
disburses public funds;

“ Vice-President-elect ” means the person declared as having
been duly elected as a Vice-President after a presidential
election;

“ ward ” means a unit into which a district is divided for
purposes of electing councillors;

“ young person ” means a person who has attained the age of
fifteen years, but is below the age of nineteen years; and

“ youth ” means a person who has attained the age of nineteen
years, but is below the age of thirty-five years.

267. (1) This Constitution shall be interpreted in accordance
with the Bill of Rights and in a manner that—

(a) promotes its purposes, values and principles;

(b) permits the development of the law; and

(c) contributes to good governance.

(2) If there is a conflict between the English version of this
Constitution and a different language version, the English version
shall prevail.

(3) A provision of this Constitution shall be construed according
to the doctrine that the law is continuously in force and accordingly—

(a) a function may be performed, as occasion requires, by
the person holding the office to which the function is
assigned;

(b) a reference to a person holding an office includes a
reference to the person lawfully performing the functions
of that office at a particular time;

(c) a reference to an office, State organ, State institution or
locality shall be read with any modification necessary
to make it applicable in the circumstances;

(d) a reference in a provision applying that provision to another
provision shall be read with any modification necessary
to make it applicable in the circumstances and any
reference to the modified provision shall apply as
modified; and

112 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Interpretation
of
Constitution

(e) a reference to an office, body or organisation, where that
office, body or organisation has ceased to exist, is a
reference to its successor or to the equivalent office,
body or organisation performing the functions.

(4) A provision of this Constitution to the effect that a person,
an authority or institution is not subject to the direction or control of
a person or an authority in the performance of a function, does not
preclude a court from exercising jurisdiction in relation to a question
as to whether that person, authority or institution has performed
the function in accordance with this Constitution or other laws.

268. In this Constitution, unless the context otherwise requires—

(a) a word in the singular includes the plural and a word in
the plural includes the singular; and

(b) a word or expression defined, shall be read with any
grammatical variation or similar expression of that word
or expression.

269. For the purposes of this Constitution, in computing time,
unless a contrary intention is expressed—

(a) a period of days from the happening of an event or the
doing of an act shall be considered to be exclusive of
the day on which the event happens or the act is done;

(b) if the last day of the period is a Saturday, Sunday or public
holiday (“excluded day”), the period shall include the
next day;

(c) where an act or a proceeding is directed or allowed to be
done or taken on a specified day and that day is an
excluded day, the act or proceeding shall be considered
as done or taken in due time if it is done or taken the
next day; and

(d) where an act or a proceeding is directed or allowed to be
done or taken within a time not exceeding six days, an
excluded day shall not be counted in the computation of
the time.

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 113

Grammatical
variation

Computation
of time

270. In this Constitution, unless a contrary intention is
expressed, power to appoint a person to hold or act in an office
includes the power to confirm appointments, to exercise disciplinary
control over the person holding or acting in the office and to remove
that person from office.

271. In this Constitution, a power given to a person or an
authority to do or enforce the doing of an act, includes the necessary
and ancillary powers to enable that person or authority to do or
enforce the doing of the act.

272. Parliament may enact legislation to give effect to an
Article or a provision in this Constitution which—

(a) confers a function or jurisdiction on a person, office,
institution, council or commission;

(b) provides for a process or procedure to be taken, followed
or prescribed;

(c) requires an action, a measure or decision to be taken or
provided;

(d) requires a remedy or compensation to be given;
(e) prohibits an action or measure;
(f) deals with a specific subject-matter or general matter that

would require to be legislated on in order to give effect
to the Constitution; or

(g) generally requires something to be prescribed.
273. In this Constitution, a power conferred on a person or an

authority to make a statutory instrument, a resolution or direction,
includes the power to amend or revoke the statutory instrument,
resolution or direction.

274. A function conferred in this Constitution may be
performed as occasion requires.

275. Where an Article provides for a power exercisable by
making a statutory instrument to—

(a) make an appointment; or
(b) do any other thing for the purposes of the Article;

the power may be exercised at any time on or after the date of
publication of the statutory instrument in the Gazette.

114 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

Power to
appoint
includes
power to
remove

Implied
power

Legislation
to give effect
to
Constitution

Power to
make
statutory
instrument,
resolution or
direction

Time for
performance
of function

Exercise of
power
between
publication
and
commencement
of Acts

ANNEX
(Article 147 (2))

FUNCTIONS OF NATIONAL, PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL LEVELS OF
DEVOLVED GOVERNMENT

A. Exclusive national functions
· Elections
· Foreign and international affairs
· Budget
· Taxation including customs and excise
· Airports, other than district airports
· Casinos, racing, gambling and wagering, excluding lotteries
and sports pools

· Disaster management and public emergency
· National parks, national botanical gardens and resources
· National forests
· passports and National Registration
· Prisons
· Refugees
· Registration of Births and Deaths
· Wildlife
· Water resources management
· Energy and hydro electricity
· Petroleum and lubricants
· Public roads
· Defence, security, maintenance of law and order
· Citizenship and immigration
· Public enterprises
· Regulation of commerce and manufacturing
· Road traffic regulation
· Land, mines, minerals and natural resources
· Census and statistics
· Traditional leadership
· National archives
· National libraries
· National museums
· Tertiary Education

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 115

B. Concurrent national and provincial functions

· administration of justice
· legal affairs
· Administration of forests
· Agriculture
· Animal control and diseases
· Consumer protection
· Cultural matters
· Customary law
· Education at all levels, excluding tertiary education
· Environmental management
· Health services
· Housing
· Industrial promotion
· Language policy and the regulation of official languages
· Nature conservation
· Parliamentary Business
· legislative procedures and processess
· Pollution control
· Population development
· Property transfer tax
· Public procurement
· Public transport
· Public works only in respect of the needs of provincial

administration
· Provincial spatial planning and development
· Soil conservation
· Tourism, trade and commerce
· Urban and rural development
· Welfare services
· Industrial and labour relations
· Resettlement
· Investment
· Telecommunication

116 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)

C. Local Authorities exclusive functions
· Pollution control

· Building regulations

· Child-care facilities

· Electricity
· Fire fighting services

· Local tourism

· District airports, Aerodromes and Airships

· District planning

· District health services

· District public transport
· District public works only in respect of the needs of Districts
in the discharge of councils responsibilities to administer
functions specifically assigned to them under this Constitution
or other law

· Levies, tariffs and tolls

· Pontoons, ferries, jetties, piers and harbours, excluding the
regulation of international and national shipping and matters
related thereto

· Storm water management systems in built-up areas

· Trading
· Water and sanitation services limited to potable water supply
systems and domestic waste-water and sewage disposal
systems

· Veterinary services, excluding regulation of the veterinary
profession

· Vehicle licensing

· Abattoirs

· Ambulance services

· Archives
· Libraries

· Liquor licencing

· Museums

Constitution of Zambia (Amendment) [No. 2 of 2016 117

· Local spatial planning
· Cultural matters
· Recreation and amenities
· Sport
· Roads and traffic automation and maintenance
· Amusement facilities
· Billboards and the display of advertisements in public places
· Cemeteries, funeral parlours and crematoria
· Local cleansing
· Control of public nuisances
· Control of undertakings that sell liquor to the public
· Facilities for the accommodation, care and burial of animals
· Fencing and fences
· Licensing of dogs
· Licensing and control of undertakings that sell food to the

public
· Local amenities
· Local sport facilities
· Markets
· Local parks and recreation
· Local roads
· Noise pollution
· Pounds
· Public places
· Refuse removal, refuse dumps and solid waste disposal
· Street trading
· Street lighting
· Traffic and parking
· Gardens and landscaping

118 No. 2 of 2016] Constitution of Zambia (Amendment)