THE PRIME MINISTER OF GOVERNMENT
SOCIALIST REPUBLIC OF VIET NAM
Independence - Freedom -
, November 27, 2006
Approving the adjusted and supplemented master Plan on socio-economic development of Hai Phong city up to 2020
THE PRIME MINISTER
Pursuant to the December 25, 2001 Law on Organization of the Government;
Pursuant to the Government's Decree No. 92/2006/ND-CP of September 7, 2006, on elaboration, approval and management of master plans on socio-economic development;
At the proposal of the Minister of Planning and Investment in Document No. 6836/BKH-TD&GSDT of September 14, 2006, and of the People's Committee of Hai Phong city in Report No. 53/TT-UB of December 23, 2005, on the scheme on review, adjustment and supplementation of the master plan on socio-economic development of Hai Phong city up to 2020,
Article 1.- To approve the adjusted and supplemented master plan on socio-economic development of Hai Phong city up to 2020 (hereinafter referred to as the master plan for short) with the following principal contents:
1. Development viewpoints
a/ The master plan on socio-economic development of Hai Phong city up to 2020 must be consistent with the national socio-economic development strategy; ensure the relationship between economic growth and proper settlement of social issues, hunger eradication, poverty reduction and assurance of social equity;
b/ To mobilize all resources of different economic sectors, bring into play the strengths in its geo-economic position and natural resources and create an environment conducive to economic development in close association with rational economic restructuring; to proactively integrate into the world economy and closely cooperate with the northern key economic region and the whole country, facilitating northern provinces to develop foreign trade;
c/ To combine economic development with environmental protection and protection of cultural heritages and ecological balance to ensure sustainable development. Not to harm and degrade natural landscape;
d/ To closely associate socio-economic development with strengthening of defense and security and consolidation of the political system and a strong administration.
2. Development objectives
a/ General objectives
- To build Hai Phong into a civilized and modern city in the capacity as a national-level urban center and a major gateway to the sea; an industrial, commercial, tourist, service and fishery hub of North Vietnam; with an economic structure switching toward industrialization and modernization, a developed infrastructure, a protected environment, preserved political stability, social order and safety and assured defense and security;
- To maintain a higher and more sustainable and efficient economic growth rate than the past period; to raise economic competitiveness; to proactively integrate into the world economy and effectively exploit foreign trade;
- To improve the quality of education and training of human resources; to ensure cultural and social development in synchrony with economic growth; to constantly improve the people's life, incrementally eradicate hunger and alleviate poverty, create more jobs, reduce and strive to abolish social evils;
- To associate urban with suburban development, take appropriate steps in making Hai Phong city a locality taking the lead in the cause of industrialization and modernization and, together with other growth poles, accelerating the development of the whole northern region;
- To develop science and technology and take appropriate steps in combining mechanization and modernization with application of information technology and bio-technology with a view to considerably raising the technological level of the national economy.
b/ Specific objectives
- To strive to increase the city's share in national GDP to about 4.5% by 2010 and 7.3% by 2020. The average GDP growth rate will reach 13-13.5% in the 2006-2010 period and 13.5-14% in the 2011-2020 period, 1.3 times higher than the growth rate of the northern key economic region; average per capita GDP (calculated according to current prices) will reach USD 1,800-1,900 by 2010 and USD 4,900-5,000 by 2020. To strive to have a modern economic structure with highly competitive staple products in industry, services and agriculture.
The average annual growth rates are projected as follows:
Agriculture, forestry and fishery
Shares of sectors in the GDP structure
Agriculture, forestry and fishery
- To strive to achieve an export value of USD 1.9-2.0 billion by 2010 and about USD 6 billion by 2020.
- To basically complete a modern infrastructure similar to those in developed cities in the region.
- The natural population growth rate will be 1-1.1%/year in the 2006-2020 period.
- The percentage of trained labor will reach 60-65% by 2010 and 85-90% by 2020. To create jobs for 225,000 laborers in the 2006-2010 period and for 500,000 laborers in the 2011-2020 period.
- The urban population percentage will be 55-60% by 2010 and 80-85% by 2020.
- To reduce the poor household rate to about 5% by 2010 (according to the new poverty line).
- The urban unemployment rate will drop to below 5% and the rural working time will reach 90% by 2010, and 4% and 95% respectively by 2020.
- By 2010, 90% of communes will have health stations up to national standards and this percentage will increase to 100% by 2020.
- To strive to have 90% of urban solid waste collected and treated up to hygienic standards by 2010 and between 90% and 100% by 2020.
3. Orientations for development of branches and domains
a/ Development of economic branches and domains
+ The average annual growth rate will be 14-14.5% in the 2006-2010 period and 14.4-15% in the 2011-2020 period; the share of services in the city's GDP will reach 52-53% by 2010 and about 63-64% by 2020;
+ Marine, tourist and trade services are identified as major ones to be developed at high rates; urban, financial, insurance, banking, consultancy, health and education services will be developed to serve also nearby localities;
+ For a number of staple products, the volume of cargo handled at ports will reach 25-30 million tons by 2010 and 80-100 million tons by 2020; the volume of cargo transported by sea will surpass 20 million tons by 2010 and reach about 55 million tons by 2020; the city will have 3,700,000 tourist arrivals (including 1,200,000 foreign tourist arrivals) by 2010 and 6,900,000 tourist arrivals (including 4,200,000 foreign tourist arrivals) by 2020; the export value will reach USD 1.9-2 billion by 2010 and USD 5.5-6 billion by 2020 (with exported services accounting for 6-10% of total export value);
+ To develop Hai Phong city into a major maritime and ocean shipping center of Vietnam; a big commercial, foreign trade, market promotion and investment mobilization hub of North Vietnam, the whole country and the region; a tourist center of the northern coastal area; the third-ranking information, post, telecommunications and international convention center of Vietnam; a big education, training and scientific research center of North Vietnam (with international-standard universities meeting the learning needs of high-income earners and international students); a big medical center of the northern coastal area to reduce the load for Hanoi; and a national financial center which will strive to become an international financial center after 2020.
- Industry and construction:
+ To develop industry at a high rate and with high quality and efficiency. The average GDP growth rate of industry and construction will be 14% in the 2006-2010 period and also in the 2011-2020 period. To achieve the share of industry and construction in the city's GDP to 39-40% by 2010 and 33-34% by 2020;
- To incrementally raise the position of Hai Phong's industry in the regional and national industry; to strive for the target that after 2015, certain industrial sub-sectors and products of Hai Phong will have big influences in the region and the world. To attach importance to cooperating with other localities in the country and with other countries in the process of development.
+ Hai Phong will have a number of staple industrial products by 2010, including building of ships with a tonnage exceeding 80,000 tons, cement, steel, informatics equipment, mechanical products, electronic parts and accessories, combustion engines, electric engines, garments and textiles, leather and footwear and processed seafood. After 2010, in addition to these products, Hai Phong will manufacture automation products (automatic equipment, robots and so on), high-grade magnetic materials, hi-tech materials (insulating and corrosion-resistant), insulated polymer porcelain, conductive polymer, new materials, composite materials, synthetic polymer, etc.;
+ To prioritize resources and adopt preferential policies for major industries and industrial products of the city, such as building and repair of vessels, mechanical and electronic industries, high-class consumer goods, chemicals and construction materials;
+ The value of exported industrial goods will reach USD 1.3-1.5 billion by 2010 and about USD 3 billion by 2020;
+ Industry will be restructured in the direction of quickly increasing major traditional industries with advantages, forming new industries and creating new industrial products, especially those which have been identified as development priorities in the northern key economic region, increasing industries that manufacture high-class consumer goods, especially those for export; reasonably increasing support industries, raising the share of private industries, especially the share of foreign investment, in major industries, and moving labor-intensive industrial establishments to rural areas;
+ To develop industrial parks and centers in association with developing urban centers, developing diversified types of enterprises, increasing investment in modernizing and renewing equipment and technology;
+ To effectively mobilize domestic resources; to attract to the utmost external resources, particularly from trans-national companies; to encourage all economic sectors to invest in different industries;
+ To revitalize traditional trade villages that operate efficiently and combine traditional with modern techniques. To set up rural industrial clusters and spots together with service establishments in townships and at road junctions to operate as satellites of industrial parks and export processing zones.
The development process must be closely combined with protecting the environment and ecology and assuring sustainable development.
- Agriculture, forestry and fishery:
+ To be developed toward concentration, high technology, quality, high productivity, efficiency, competitiveness and food safety; to connect the processing industry with urban markets. To ensure a high and sustainable growth rate of over 5%/year in the 2006-2010 period and about 6.4% in the 2011-2020 period;
+ Agriculture will be restructured along the line of vigorously increasing the share of husbandry, developing plants and animals of high value suitable to local conditions, effectively using agricultural land areas by practicing intensive cultivation, increasing crops and the quality and value of products. Staple products will include rice, maize, vegetables, flowers, bonsai, fruit trees, porkers and piglets for export, poultry and cows;
+ Regarding aquaculture, to develop Hai Phong city into an aquaculture center of the region in terms of breeds, feeds, science and technology, processing and export, a major supplier of aquatic and marine products for northern provinces, especially Hanoi and industrial parks;
+ Regarding forestry, to attach importance to managing the tending and protection of forests, especially existing protective forests. To consolidate forest belts to protect sea dykes against waves on the basis of protecting existing forests and planting forests on high sand banks.
+ To develop a multi-sectoral agriculture. To encourage household-based economy and farm economy. The state-run agricultural sector should focus on producing and supplying plant varieties and livestock breeds, research, application and renewal of techniques and technologies. To encourage the collective sector to develop with a view to promoting the role of groups of farmers' households in the process of renewing the organization of agricultural cooperatives in a socialist-oriented market economy. To quickly apply scientific and technical advances and new technologies to production and use high-yield varieties and breeds; to concentrate efforts on building the irrigation system and solidifying the system of canals and ditches, ensuring proactive irrigation and drainage, prevention of salinization and control of floods;
+ Rural economy will develop in the direction of increasing the share of products and labor of industries and services and incrementally reducing the agricultural share and labor; to build an equitable and civilized countryside and constantly improve rural inhabitants' material and cultural life.
b/ Development of technical infrastructure
- Regarding communications:
+ To renovate and upgrade the system of roads linking to neighboring provinces, national highways 5 and 10 and the extended section of national highway 5 leading to the deep-water port of Lach Huyen, and the road linking to Hanoi's belt road III in order to increase traffic between Hai Phong and Hanoi and the provinces in the northern delta region. To form and upgrade three belt roads, upgrade and extend inner roads with a view to considerably improving the traffic system in the city;
+ Regarding the system of seaports: To renovate and dredge channels, modernize Hai Phong port and build Dinh Vu port. After completing these projects, the total handling capacity of Hai Phong ports will reach 15-18 million tons/year by 2010 and 29 million tons/year by 2020;
+ Regarding the system of railways: To renovate and upgrade the railway of Lao Cai-Hanoi-Hai Phong. To open new routes from Cam Lo to various harbors, industrial parks and urban centers; to build a railway running through coastal provinces;
+ Regarding riverways: To clear up riverways and channels; to build a system of river wharves in districts and inland wharves for passengers visiting Cat Ba, Cat Hai and Quang Ninh;
+ Regarding airways: To renovate and upgrade Cat Bi airport into an international one; to upgrade Kien An military airport, study the possibility of using this airport also for medical activities; to build airfields for small tourist planes in Cat Ba and Do Son.
- Regarding water supply and drainage:
+ To invest in improving the reserves and quality of existing water sources. To build some big water plants at Hoa Binh canal (Kien Thuy), in Thuy Nguyen, Do Son and Kien An to supply fresh water together with district water plants. To explore on-spot fresh water sources. By 2010, 95% of population will be supplied with clean water and this rate will increase to 99% by 2020;
+ To renovate and build water drainage systems and put an end to inundation in the inner city. To solidify and renovate all open ditches into underground sewers. To build a system of sluices to prevent tides and salt water. To establish separate systems for drainage of wastewater and surface water;
+ To upgrade and consolidate sea and river dykes to ensure safety for the city. To build five irrigation works in service of aquaculture and agricultural production. To increase the flood drainage capacity of coastal estuaries.
- Regarding electricity supply:
To speed up the building of a 600 MW thermo-power plant in Minh Duc industrial park; to build complete medium- and low-tension electricity systems in the inner city; to increase the supply of electricity for newly built industrial parks and export processing zones and carry out rural electrification. To increase average per capita commercial electricity to 2,077 kWh by 2010 and 7,460 kWh by 2020; to strive for the target that 100% of communes and 100% of households will have access to electricity by 2010.
- Regarding communication:
To prioritize investment in post and telecommunications. To strive for the target that there will be 35 telephone sets per 100 persons by 2010 and 65 telephone sets per 100 persons by 2020.
c/ Orientations for development of social infrastructure
To attach importance to investing in physical foundations and socializing education and training, health, cultural and information, physical training and sports activities and other social domains, specifically:
- Regarding population development:
To continue stepping up population and family planning work in order to stabilize the natural population growth rate of 1-1.1%; to maintain a reasonable mechanical population growth rate 0.1-0.15%. The population of Hai Phong city is projected to be 1.9 million by 2010 and 2.1 million by 2020.
- Regarding education and training:
+ Education and training must be developed one step ahead to create sufficient human resources capable of acquiring advanced techniques and modern technology and competitive on the regional and international labor markets. Education development must ensure a reasonable balance among educational levels and training disciplines. To socialize education and build a learning society;
+ To build Hai Phong into the biggest center of tertiary education and training and marine scientific research in the northern delta region. After 2010, the Maritime University will reach not only the national standard but also regional and international standards in training maritime disciplines; to build and reorganize the system of vocational training schools; general education will be much more advanced than the national level at the same point of time, striving to approach the levels of Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City;
+ By 2010, 80% of primary schools and 80% of lower secondary schools will reach the national standard; by 2020, 100% of schools and classrooms at all educational levels will reach the national standard. To universalize upper secondary education by 2010. From 2010 on, 100% of teachers will reach the standards set by the Ministry of Education and Training;
+ To give priority to developing vocational training at three levels (elementary, intermediary and collegial levels). By 2010, skilled laborers will account for 65-70% of the workforce and this percentage will reach 85-90% by 2020. In addition, Hai Phong city must participate in training technical workers for the whole region, with 50,000 technical workers by 2010 and 150,000 technical workers by 2020.
- Regarding medical services and people's healthcare:
+ To build Hai Phong city into a big health center of the northern coastal area in order to reduce the load for Hanoi. After 2010, the city will have an international-standard hospital. To quickly modernize municipal specialized hospitals; to upgrade and expand Viet-Tiep hospital; to procure more medical equipment for district-level hospitals. To expand and develop private health services. To increase training and retraining for health workers and adopt policies to encourage physicians to work at the grassroots level. To build a contingent of senior specialized physicians. There will be an average of eight physicians, 50 patient beds with modern medical equipment per 10,000 persons by 2010 and 12 physicians and 70 patient beds per 10,000 persons;
+ To pay adequate attention to the issues of food hygiene and safety, labor health and environment. To set up a center for testing foodstuffs, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics.
- Regarding culture and information, physical training and sports:
+ To develop culture for the goal of developing comprehensive human beings and an equitable, democratic and civilized society. To associate culture with social life and direct all cultural activities to build a new type of cultured man. To continue developing, and improving the quality of, the movement "The entire people unite to build a cultured life", promoting traditional cultural values and harmoniously developing modern cultural values. To perfect the system of grassroots culture and information institutions in a coordinated manner in communes and districts and the city as a whole. To conserve and promote historical and cultural monuments and spots of beauty in association with services and tourism. To improve the quality of human resources and enhance the state management in the culture and information domain;
+ To build Hai Phong city into a strong physical training and sports center of the country and the northern coastal area, with modern physical foundations in service of training athletes and adequate conditions for organizing national and international tournaments. To step up mass physical training and sports movements and socialize physical training and sports;
+ To strive for the target that in the city cultured families will account for 85% and wards, communes and street quarters that reach cultural standards will account for 70% by 2010. These percentages will be 95% and 80% respectively by 2020.
- To eradicate hunger and alleviate poverty, adopt policies for persons with meritorious services, implement social welfare and fight against social evils:
+ To implement hunger eradication and poverty alleviation programs in a coordinated, comprehensive and effective manner. To strive for the target that there will be only 5% of poor households (according to the new poverty line) and no hungry households by 2010 and only 1% of poor households by 2020, with such measures as vocational training, credit, and assistance in infrastructure development, etc.
+ To properly implement social policies, mobilize the entire people to participate in implementing policies toward persons with meritorious services, and step up charity activities. To closely control, prevent and stop social evils.
d/ Environmental protection:
- To protect the quality of water, air and land; to protect the environment in tourist resorts; to protect the ecological systems in coastal areas and estuaries; to protect the environment in the urban areas by selecting clean technologies, concretizing regulations on import of technology and equipment, promulgating waste standards for application by each branch and domain in the city and formulating financial policies to encourage investment in waste treatment equipment and technologies. To ensure that by 2010, 90% of urban solid waste will be collected and treated up to hygienic standards and this percentage will increase to 95-100% by 2020. To complete the project on constructing a complex for treating solid waste; to build a system of water drainage and waste treatment facilities.
- To enhance inspection and supervision of waste sources from production establishments and vessels; to zone off the environment (tourist area, urban area, industrial area and agricultural area) so as to work out appropriate handling measures. To step up community education and promote the training of human resources engaged in environmental protection.
e/ Defense and security
To properly address the relationship between the policy on openness and encouragement of foreign investment and tourism and the task of assuring national security and social order and safety in Hai Phong. To proactively manage immigrants and prevent social evils. To pay attention to the protection of defense and security during the process of socio-economic restructuring in the city, ensuring security in North Vietnam, particularly the Red River delta. To prioritize investment funded with economic and defense budgets in completely building infrastructure facilities in coastal areas and islands.
f/ Planning on spatial and territorial development
- Urban areas: By 2020, the system of urban centers in the city will consist of the existing urban areas (five urban districts); new urban centers (Tay Bac urban center, Cat Bi urban center, Pham Van Dong avenue urban center and the urban center north of Cam river); satellite urban centers (Minh Duc - Ben Rung, Do Son, Nui Deo, An Lao, Kien Thuy and Cat Ba); and townships (An Duong, Tien Lang, Vinh Bao and Cat Hai).
- Rural areas: To form the following agricultural belts:
+ Belt I: To develop the production of vegetables, flowers and bonsai mainly in the wards and communes of Dang Lam, Dang Hai (Hai An district), Dong Thai, An Dong (An Duong district), Du Hang Kenh (Le Chan district), Hoa Dong, Lam Dong, Tan Duong, Duong Quan and Thuy Duong (Thuy Nguyen district);
+ Belt II: To develop the production of food and foodstuffs mainly in the wards and communes of Nam Hai (Hai An district), Hong Thai, Dong Thai, Nam Son (An Duong district), Hoa Binh, Ngu Lao, Kien Bai, Hoang Dong (Thuy Nguyen district) and Anh Dung (Kien Thuy district);
+ Belt III: To develop concentrated food production and husbandry, mainly rearing of porkers, poultry and milch cows, to meet the demand of Hai Phong and Quang Ninh and for export;
+ Belt IV: To develop food production and planting of fruit trees, mainly in the communes of Dai Ban, Hong Phong, An Hung (An Duong district), Cao Nhan, Chinh My, Hop Thanh, Quang Thanh and Minh Tan (Thuy Nguyen district), Hoa Nghia, Dai Dong, Huu Bang and Thuan Thien (Kien Thuy district);
+ Belt V: To develop the planting of forest trees and fruit trees, mainly in the communes of Le Thien, An Hoa (An Duong district), Ky Son, Lai Xuan, Phu Ninh, An Son (Thuy Nguyen district), Tan Phong, Tu Son, Dai Hop, Doan Xa, Ngu Doan, Tan Trao, Kien Quoc, Ngu Phuc and Thuy Huong (Kien Thuy district).
- Sea areas and coastal areas:
+ To develop the system of seaports with integrated resources and develop in a synchronous manner modern ports (harbors, channels, production and administration equipment, etc.) capable of servicing cargo handled at these ports with a volume of 25-30 million tons by 2010 and 70-80 million tons by 2020;
+ To develop industries and coastal urban centers: To form a number of industrial parks and complexes and coastal urban corridors connected with the strategic industrial axis along national highway 5 and national highway 10 and with Hai Phong port, forming an urban and industrial cluster which is highly attractive and pervasive and acts as a driving force in the development of North Vietnam.
4. Solutions to implementing the master plan:
a/ Mobilizing investment capital sources
The total investment capital demand is projected at about VND 500,000 billion in the 2006-2020 period (according to current prices), with more than VND 90,000 billion in the 2006-2010 period and an average increase rate of 14%/year.
In order to mobilize investment capital as projected above, it is necessary to accelerate the mobilization of domestic resources to the utmost, diversify forms of mobilization and generation of capital, attach importance to attracting capital from non-state sectors, further socialize healthcare, education, cultural and sports activities and actively attract FDI and ODA capital, etc.
b/ Developing human resources
To adopt policies to attract, use, train and develop human resources to meet the requirements of the new period. To train laborers, administrators and enterprise managers.
c/ Promoting research and application of scientific and technological achievements to production and daily life:
To select appropriate technologies for different branches; to build and develop scientific and technological potential.
d/ Ensuring close coordination with other provinces and cities
In order to effectively bring into play its favorable geographical position (closeness to Hanoi capital and the main gateway of northern provinces to the sea) and contribute to the stable development of the whole Red River delta and the northern key economic region, Hai Phong city should take the initiative in making plans on coordination and cooperation with Hanoi and other provinces and cities nationwide (first of all provinces in the northern key economic region) to develop crucial industries, agricultural activities and services. To take the initiative in coordinating with other localities within the "two economic corridors and one economic belt" in formulating a specific program of cooperation to effectively implement the cooperation program between Vietnam and China.
e/ To adopt flexible foreign policies to expand domestic and overseas markets. To accelerate investment promotion work and apply measures to seek and expand outlets for products (at home and abroad).
f/ Environmental policies
On the basis of the Law on Environmental Protection, to promulgate regulations on the implementation and concretization of the program on environmental protection for each district. Administrations at all levels should take the initiative in providing specific guidance for agencies, enterprises and the entire population to participate in environmental protection.
g/ Administering and organizing the implementation of the master plan
As soon as the master plan is approved, to promptly popularize the master plan on socio-economic development of the city among agencies, units and the people; to concretize the contents of the master plan in accordance with the practical situation into five-year and annual socio-economic development plans; to take measures to supervise and evaluate development investment according to the master plan and five-year plans; to elaborate action programs and development programs in each period in line with the orientations laid down in the master plan on socio-economic development of Hai Phong city till 2020.
At the same time, to regularly update, review and evaluate the master plan's consistencies and inconsistencies with reality so as to submit in time to competent authorities adjustments and supplements to the master plan with a view to ensuring that the city's socio-economic development achieves the set objectives; to collaborate with central branches and neighboring provinces and cities in implementing programs of development and cooperation for mutual development. To revise the promulgated development guidelines and policies of the city in the direction of promoting cooperation and expanding inter-regional relations in order to ensure uniformity for mutual development.
Article 2.- The approved master plan serves as a basis for elaborating, submitting for approval and implementing specialized plannings (construction planning, land use plannings and plans and other specialized plannings) and investment projects in the city according to regulations.
Article 3.- To assign the People's Committee of Hai Phong city to base itself on the city's socio-economic development objectives, tasks and orientations specified in the approved report on the master plan to coordinate with concerned ministries and branches in directing the elaboration, submission for approval and implementation of the following contents according to regulations:
- A strategic environmental impact assessment report;
- A planning on development of the system of urban centers and residential spots, a construction planning, land use planning and plan, and plannings on development of different branches and sectors to ensure comprehensive and coordinated development;
- Studying, formulating and promulgating or submitting to competent state agencies for promulgation mechanisms and policies that meet the city's development requirements in each period in order to attract and mobilize resources for implementing the master plan.
Article 4.- To assign concerned ministries and branches to assist the People's Committee of Hai Phong city in studying and formulating the above plannings; to study, formulate and submit competent state agencies for promulgation mechanisms and policies that meet the city's development requirements in each period in order to mobilize and efficiently use resources, encourage and attract investment to ensure proper materialization of the city's socio-economic development objectives, tasks and orientations specified in the master plan. To accelerate investment in and execution of works and projects of regional scale and nature which are important for the city's development and in which investment has been decided. To study and consider the revision and addition of related works and projects in which investment has been planned and mentioned in the report on the socio-economic development master plan to branch development plannings and investment plans.
Article 5.- This Decision takes effect 15 days after its publication in "CONG BAO."
Article 6.- The president of the People's Committee of Hai Phong city, ministers, heads of ministerial-level agencies and heads of government-attached agencies shall implement this Decision.
Nguyen Tan Dung