902 Kar 100:155. Particle Accelerator

Link to law: http://www.lrc.ky.gov/kar/902/100/155.htm
Published: 2015

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      902 KAR 100:155.

Particle accelerator.



211.842-211.852, 211.990(4)


AUTHORITY: KRS 194.050, 211.090, 211.844


FUNCTION, AND CONFORMITY: The Cabinet for Human Resources is authorized by KRS

211.844 to provide by administrative regulation for the registration and

licensing of the possession or use of sources of ionizing or electronic product

radiation and the handling and disposal of radioactive waste. The purpose of

this administrative regulation is to provide radiation safety requirements for

particle accelerator operations.


      Section 1.

Applicability. The requirements in this administrative regulation apply to the

use of particle accelerators by persons registering the machines under the

provisions of these administrative regulations. The requirements of this

administrative regulation are in addition to, and not in substitution for,

other applicable provisions of these administrative regulations.


      Section 2.

Equipment. (1) A label bearing essentially the words "CAUTION - RADIATION


switches which energize portions of the machine. Labels shall use the

conventional colors (magenta or purple on yellow background) and bear the

conventional radiation symbol.

      (2) Apparatus

utilized in beam alignment procedures shall be designed in a way that radiation

greater than limits prescribed in 902 KAR 100:020 shall not strike the


      (3) A switch or

device which may cause the radiation machine to produce radiation if actuated

shall be located on a control panel or console, and shall cause a warning light

immediately adjacent to the switch or device to light; this light shall remain

lit if, and only if, the associated control circuit is energized.

      (4) Locations

designated as high radiation areas, and entrances to the locations shall be

equipped with easily observable flashing or rotating red or magenta warning

lights that operate automatically if, and only if, radiation is being produced

or may be produced.

      (5) Each

entrance into a target room or other high radiation area shall be provided with

a safety interlock designed to terminate radiation production for the possible

modes of machine operation under conditions of barrier penetration.

      (6) Only a

device on the accelerator control console shall be used to turn the accelerator

beam on and off. The safety interlock system shall not be used to turn off the

accelerator beam, except in an emergency. If the interlock system does turn off

the accelerator, it shall not be possible to resume operation without resetting

the accelerator "ON" device at the control console.

      (7) Safety

interlocks shall not be dependent upon the operation of a single circuit; i.e.,

they shall be of redundant or fail-safe design. Each safety interlock shall be

on a circuit which shall allow it to operate independently of other safety


      (8) A scram

button or other emergency power cutoff switch shall be located and easily

identifiable in high radiation areas. The cutoff switch shall include a manual

reset, so that the accelerator cannot be restarted from the accelerator console

without resetting the cutoff switch.

      (9) Circuit

diagrams of the accelerator and the associated interlock systems shall be kept

current and maintained for inspection by the cabinet and shall be available to

the operator.

      (10) A lock

shall be provided on the control panel or console.


Instrumentation, readouts, and controls on the particle accelerator control

console shall be clearly identified and easily discernible.

      (12) Safety

interlocks shall be designed so that a defect or component failure in the

safety interlock system prevents operation of the accelerator.


      Section 3.

Administrative Responsibilities. (1) A person at each facility shall be appointed

as the radiation safety officer, and shall be delegated responsibility for

ensuring the following:

      (a) Establishing

and maintaining operational procedures so that the radiation dose received by a

person is as low as reasonably achievable and below the maximum permissible

dose as is practical;

      (b) Instructing

personnel who work with or near radiation producing machines, in radiation

safety practices;

      (c) Maintaining

a system of personnel monitoring;

      (d) Arranging

for establishment of radiation control areas, including placement of

appropriate radiation warning signs and devices;

      (e) Providing

for radiation safety inspection of radiation producing machines on a routine


      (f) Reviewing

modifications to apparatus, shielding, and safety interlocks;


Investigating and reporting to proper authorities excessive exposure to

personnel and taking remedial action;

      (h) Being

familiar with applicable administrative regulations for the control of ionizing


      (i) Terminating

operations at the facility because of radiation safety considerations; and

      (j) Maintaining

records of these actions to document compliance with these administrative


      (2) No

individual shall be permitted to act as an operator of an accelerator until the

person has:

      (a) Received

training in radiation safety and has been approved by the radiation safety

officer; and

      (b) Demonstrated

competence to use the accelerator, related equipment, and radiation survey

instruments to be employed.

      (3) The

registrant shall ensure that each operator shall:

      (a) Keep

radiation exposure to himself and to others as low as practical;

      (b) Be familiar

with safety procedures as they apply to each machine;

      (c) Wear

personnel monitoring devices, if applicable; and

      (d) Notify the

radiation safety officer of conditions or situations which may have resulted

in, or threatens to result in, unnecessary radiation exposure.

      (4) The

registrant shall establish a radiation safety committee to approve in advance,

proposals for uses of particle accelerators, if deemed necessary by the


      (5) A registrant

authorized to use a particle accelerator in the healing arts shall:

      (a) Appoint a

medical committee of at least three (3) members to evaluate proposals for

research, diagnostic, and therapeutic use of a particle accelerator if deemed

necessary by the cabinet. Membership of the committee shall include physicians

expert in internal medicine, hematology, therapeutic radiology, and a person

experienced in depth dose calculations and protection against radiation;

      (b) The

individuals designated as users have substantial training and experience in

deep therapy technique, or in the use of particle accelerators to treat humans;


      (c) An

individual designated as a user is a physician.

      (6) The radiation

safety committee or the radiation safety officer shall have the authority to

terminate the operations at a particle accelerator facility if this action is

deemed necessary to minimize danger to public health and safety or property.


      Section 4.

Operating Procedures. (1) Written operating procedures pertaining to radiation

safety shall be established for each accelerator facility.

      (2) Written

emergency procedures pertaining to radiation safety shall be established and

posted in a conspicuous location. These shall list the telephone number(s) of

the radiation safety officer and shall include the following actions to be

taken if a known, or suspected, accident involving radiation exposure occurs:

      (a) Notifying

radiation safety officer; and

      (b) Arrange for

medical examination.

      (3) The

registrant shall assure that operators and other appropriate personnel are

familiar with and have been given a copy of the written operating and emergency

procedures pertaining to radiation safety. Each operator shall demonstrate an

understanding of these procedures and the applicable requirements of 902 KAR

100:020 and 902 KAR 100:165. These procedures shall be maintained at the

accelerator control panel.

      (4) Particle

accelerators shall be secured if not in operation to prevent unauthorized use.

      (5) The

registrants shall assure that personnel do not expose a part of their body to

the radiation beam.

      (6) If it is

necessary to intentionally alter safety devices, e.g., bypassing interlocks or

removing shielding action shall be:

      (a) Specified in

writing and posted on the control console and at each entrance requiring a

safety interlock as required by this administrative regulation so that other

persons know the existing status of the machine;

      (b) Terminated

as soon as possible; and

      (c) Authorized

by the radiation safety committee or radiation safety officer.

      (7) Accelerators

shall not be left unattended while energized.

      (8) Safety

devices shall be tested for proper operation at intervals not to exceed three

(3) months.

      (9) Records of

personnel monitoring results and safety device tests shall be maintained for

inspection by the cabinet.


Appropriate, portable radiation monitoring equipment shall be available at the

accelerator facility, properly maintained and calibrated, and sensitive to

those radiations being monitored. The monitoring equipment shall be tested for

proper operation and calibrated at intervals not to exceed one (1) year and

after each servicing and repair.

      (11) Radiation

levels in high radiation areas shall be continuously monitored. The monitoring

devices shall be electrically independent of the accelerator control and safety

interlock systems and capable of providing a readout at the control panel. Area

monitors shall be calibrated at intervals not to exceed one (1) year and after

each servicing and repair.

      (12) Personal

radiation dosimeters that measure the expected radiations and are of sufficient

range to be useful under normal and accident conditions shall be worn by

persons designated by the radiation safety officer.

      (13) Before a

new installation is placed in routine operation, a radiation protection survey

shall be made by a qualified expert.

      (14) A radiation

protection survey shall be performed by a qualified expert if changes have been

made in shielding, operation, equipment, or occupancy of adjacent areas, and

periodically to check for unknown changes and malfunctioning equipment.

      (15) Records of

radiation protection surveys, inspections, and maintenance performed on the

accelerator and related components shall be kept current and on file at each

accelerator facility, and maintained for inspection by the cabinet. (1 Ky.R.

419; eff. 2-5-75; Am. 12 Ky.R. 1416; eff. 3-4-86; 18 Ky.R. 1574; eff. 1-10-92.)