902 KAR 100:155.
RELATES TO: KRS
AUTHORITY: KRS 194.050, 211.090, 211.844
FUNCTION, AND CONFORMITY: The Cabinet for Human Resources is authorized by KRS
211.844 to provide by administrative regulation for the registration and
licensing of the possession or use of sources of ionizing or electronic product
radiation and the handling and disposal of radioactive waste. The purpose of
this administrative regulation is to provide radiation safety requirements for
particle accelerator operations.
Applicability. The requirements in this administrative regulation apply to the
use of particle accelerators by persons registering the machines under the
provisions of these administrative regulations. The requirements of this
administrative regulation are in addition to, and not in substitution for,
other applicable provisions of these administrative regulations.
Equipment. (1) A label bearing essentially the words "CAUTION - RADIATION
- THIS MACHINE PRODUCES RADIATION WHEN ENERGIZED" shall be placed near
switches which energize portions of the machine. Labels shall use the
conventional colors (magenta or purple on yellow background) and bear the
conventional radiation symbol.
utilized in beam alignment procedures shall be designed in a way that radiation
greater than limits prescribed in 902 KAR 100:020 shall not strike the
(3) A switch or
device which may cause the radiation machine to produce radiation if actuated
shall be located on a control panel or console, and shall cause a warning light
immediately adjacent to the switch or device to light; this light shall remain
lit if, and only if, the associated control circuit is energized.
designated as high radiation areas, and entrances to the locations shall be
equipped with easily observable flashing or rotating red or magenta warning
lights that operate automatically if, and only if, radiation is being produced
or may be produced.
entrance into a target room or other high radiation area shall be provided with
a safety interlock designed to terminate radiation production for the possible
modes of machine operation under conditions of barrier penetration.
(6) Only a
device on the accelerator control console shall be used to turn the accelerator
beam on and off. The safety interlock system shall not be used to turn off the
accelerator beam, except in an emergency. If the interlock system does turn off
the accelerator, it shall not be possible to resume operation without resetting
the accelerator "ON" device at the control console.
interlocks shall not be dependent upon the operation of a single circuit; i.e.,
they shall be of redundant or fail-safe design. Each safety interlock shall be
on a circuit which shall allow it to operate independently of other safety
(8) A scram
button or other emergency power cutoff switch shall be located and easily
identifiable in high radiation areas. The cutoff switch shall include a manual
reset, so that the accelerator cannot be restarted from the accelerator console
without resetting the cutoff switch.
diagrams of the accelerator and the associated interlock systems shall be kept
current and maintained for inspection by the cabinet and shall be available to
(10) A lock
shall be provided on the control panel or console.
Instrumentation, readouts, and controls on the particle accelerator control
console shall be clearly identified and easily discernible.
interlocks shall be designed so that a defect or component failure in the
safety interlock system prevents operation of the accelerator.
Administrative Responsibilities. (1) A person at each facility shall be appointed
as the radiation safety officer, and shall be delegated responsibility for
ensuring the following:
and maintaining operational procedures so that the radiation dose received by a
person is as low as reasonably achievable and below the maximum permissible
dose as is practical;
personnel who work with or near radiation producing machines, in radiation
a system of personnel monitoring;
for establishment of radiation control areas, including placement of
appropriate radiation warning signs and devices;
for radiation safety inspection of radiation producing machines on a routine
modifications to apparatus, shielding, and safety interlocks;
Investigating and reporting to proper authorities excessive exposure to
personnel and taking remedial action;
familiar with applicable administrative regulations for the control of ionizing
operations at the facility because of radiation safety considerations; and
records of these actions to document compliance with these administrative
individual shall be permitted to act as an operator of an accelerator until the
training in radiation safety and has been approved by the radiation safety
competence to use the accelerator, related equipment, and radiation survey
instruments to be employed.
registrant shall ensure that each operator shall:
radiation exposure to himself and to others as low as practical;
(b) Be familiar
with safety procedures as they apply to each machine;
personnel monitoring devices, if applicable; and
(d) Notify the
radiation safety officer of conditions or situations which may have resulted
in, or threatens to result in, unnecessary radiation exposure.
registrant shall establish a radiation safety committee to approve in advance,
proposals for uses of particle accelerators, if deemed necessary by the
(5) A registrant
authorized to use a particle accelerator in the healing arts shall:
(a) Appoint a
medical committee of at least three (3) members to evaluate proposals for
research, diagnostic, and therapeutic use of a particle accelerator if deemed
necessary by the cabinet. Membership of the committee shall include physicians
expert in internal medicine, hematology, therapeutic radiology, and a person
experienced in depth dose calculations and protection against radiation;
individuals designated as users have substantial training and experience in
deep therapy technique, or in the use of particle accelerators to treat humans;
individual designated as a user is a physician.
(6) The radiation
safety committee or the radiation safety officer shall have the authority to
terminate the operations at a particle accelerator facility if this action is
deemed necessary to minimize danger to public health and safety or property.
Operating Procedures. (1) Written operating procedures pertaining to radiation
safety shall be established for each accelerator facility.
emergency procedures pertaining to radiation safety shall be established and
posted in a conspicuous location. These shall list the telephone number(s) of
the radiation safety officer and shall include the following actions to be
taken if a known, or suspected, accident involving radiation exposure occurs:
radiation safety officer; and
(b) Arrange for
registrant shall assure that operators and other appropriate personnel are
familiar with and have been given a copy of the written operating and emergency
procedures pertaining to radiation safety. Each operator shall demonstrate an
understanding of these procedures and the applicable requirements of 902 KAR
100:020 and 902 KAR 100:165. These procedures shall be maintained at the
accelerator control panel.
accelerators shall be secured if not in operation to prevent unauthorized use.
registrants shall assure that personnel do not expose a part of their body to
the radiation beam.
(6) If it is
necessary to intentionally alter safety devices, e.g., bypassing interlocks or
removing shielding action shall be:
(a) Specified in
writing and posted on the control console and at each entrance requiring a
safety interlock as required by this administrative regulation so that other
persons know the existing status of the machine;
as soon as possible; and
by the radiation safety committee or radiation safety officer.
shall not be left unattended while energized.
devices shall be tested for proper operation at intervals not to exceed three
(9) Records of
personnel monitoring results and safety device tests shall be maintained for
inspection by the cabinet.
Appropriate, portable radiation monitoring equipment shall be available at the
accelerator facility, properly maintained and calibrated, and sensitive to
those radiations being monitored. The monitoring equipment shall be tested for
proper operation and calibrated at intervals not to exceed one (1) year and
after each servicing and repair.
levels in high radiation areas shall be continuously monitored. The monitoring
devices shall be electrically independent of the accelerator control and safety
interlock systems and capable of providing a readout at the control panel. Area
monitors shall be calibrated at intervals not to exceed one (1) year and after
each servicing and repair.
radiation dosimeters that measure the expected radiations and are of sufficient
range to be useful under normal and accident conditions shall be worn by
persons designated by the radiation safety officer.
(13) Before a
new installation is placed in routine operation, a radiation protection survey
shall be made by a qualified expert.
(14) A radiation
protection survey shall be performed by a qualified expert if changes have been
made in shielding, operation, equipment, or occupancy of adjacent areas, and
periodically to check for unknown changes and malfunctioning equipment.
(15) Records of
radiation protection surveys, inspections, and maintenance performed on the
accelerator and related components shall be kept current and on file at each
accelerator facility, and maintained for inspection by the cabinet. (1 Ky.R.
419; eff. 2-5-75; Am. 12 Ky.R. 1416; eff. 3-4-86; 18 Ky.R. 1574; eff. 1-10-92.)