AFFRAYS; RIOTS; ROUTS; UNLAWFUL ASSEMBLIES
870.01 Affrays and riots.
870.02 Unlawful assemblies.
870.03 Riots and routs.
870.04 Specified officers to disperse riotous assembly.
870.041 Preservation of the public peace by local authority.
870.042 Designation of local authority.
870.043 Declaration of emergency.
870.044 Automatic emergency measures.
870.045 Discretionary emergency measures.
870.046 Filing and publication.
870.047 Duration and termination of emergency.
870.05 When killing excused.
870.06 Unauthorized military organizations.
870.01 Affrays and riots.—
(1) All persons guilty of an affray shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
(2) All persons guilty of a riot, or of inciting or encouraging a riot, shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
History.—s. 35, Feb. 10, 1832; RS 2406; GS 3239; RGS 5072; CGL 7174; s. 1, ch. 67-407; s. 1125, ch. 71-136.
870.02 Unlawful assemblies.—If three or more persons meet together to commit a breach of the peace, or to do any other unlawful act, each of them shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
History.—RS 2407; GS 3240; RGS 5073; CGL 7175; s. 1126, ch. 71-136.
870.03 Riots and routs.—If any persons unlawfully assembled demolish, pull down or destroy, or begin to demolish, pull down or destroy, any dwelling house or other building, or any ship or vessel, each of them shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.
History.—s. 7, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2408; GS 3241; RGS 5074; CGL 7176; s. 1127, ch. 71-136.
870.04 Specified officers to disperse riotous assembly.—If any number of persons, whether armed or not, are unlawfully, riotously, or tumultuously assembled in any county, city, or municipality, the sheriff or the sheriff’s deputies, or the mayor, or any commissioner, council member, alderman, or police officer of the city or municipality, or any officer or member of the Florida Highway Patrol, or any officer or agent of the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission, any beverage enforcement agent, any personnel or representatives of the Department of Law Enforcement or its successor, or any other peace officer, shall go among the persons so assembled, or as near to them as may be done with safety, and shall in the name of the state command all the persons so assembled immediately and peaceably to disperse. If such persons do not thereupon immediately and peaceably disperse, such officers shall command the assistance of all such persons in seizing, arresting, and securing such persons in custody. If any person present being so commanded to aid and assist in seizing and securing such rioter or persons so unlawfully assembled, or in suppressing such riot or unlawful assembly, refuses or neglects to obey such command, or, when required by such officers to depart from the place, refuses and neglects to do so, the person shall be deemed one of the rioters or persons unlawfully assembled, and may be prosecuted and punished accordingly.
History.—ss. 1, 2, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2409; GS 3242; RGS 5075; CGL 7177; s. 1, ch. 61-223; s. 1, ch. 61-237; s. 1, ch. 67-2203; s. 3, ch. 67-2207; ss. 20, 25, 35, ch. 69-106; s. 34, ch. 73-334; s. 1, ch. 77-174; s. 29, ch. 79-8; s. 477, ch. 94-356; s. 1399, ch. 97-102; s. 233, ch. 99-245; s. 30, ch. 2012-88.
870.041 Preservation of the public peace by local authority.—In the event of overt acts of violence, or the imminent threat of such violence, within a county or municipality and the Governor has not declared a state of emergency to exist, local officers shall be empowered to declare such a state of emergency exists in accordance with the provisions of ss. 870.041-870.048.
History.—s. 1, ch. 70-990.
870.042 Designation of local authority.—
(1) The sheriff of each of the several counties of this state, or such other county official having the duties of a sheriff in counties operating under home rule charter, by whatever name known, shall be empowered to declare that a state of emergency exists within the unincorporated areas of the county and to exercise the emergency powers conferred in ss. 870.041-870.047.
(2) The governing body of any municipality within this state may designate by duly adopted ordinance a city official who shall be empowered to declare that a state of emergency exists within the boundaries of the municipality and to exercise the emergency powers conferred in ss. 870.041-870.047. The designated city official shall be either the mayor or chief of police or the person who performs the duties of a mayor or chief of police in such municipality. In the absence of a duly adopted ordinance so designating the official so to act, the chief of police of such municipality is designated as the city official to assume the duties and powers hereof.
History.—s. 2, ch. 70-990.
870.043 Declaration of emergency.—Whenever the sheriff or designated city official determines that there has been an act of violence or a flagrant and substantial defiance of, or resistance to, a lawful exercise of public authority and that, on account thereof, there is reason to believe that there exists a clear and present danger of a riot or other general public disorder, widespread disobedience of the law, and substantial injury to persons or to property, all of which constitute an imminent threat to public peace or order and to the general welfare of the jurisdiction affected or a part or parts thereof, he or she may declare that a state of emergency exists within that jurisdiction or any part or parts thereof.
History.—s. 3, ch. 70-990; s. 1400, ch. 97-102.
870.044 Automatic emergency measures.—Whenever the public official declares that a state of emergency exists, pursuant to s. 870.043, the following acts shall be prohibited during the period of said emergency throughout the jurisdiction:
(1) The sale of, or offer to sell, with or without consideration, any ammunition or gun or other firearm of any size or description.
(2) The intentional display, after the emergency is declared, by or in any store or shop of any ammunition or gun or other firearm of any size or description.
(3) The intentional possession in a public place of a firearm by any person, except a duly authorized law enforcement official or person in military service acting in the official performance of her or his duty.
Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to authorize the seizure, taking, or confiscation of firearms that are lawfully possessed, unless a person is engaged in a criminal act.
History.—ss. 4, 5, ch. 70-990; s. 1401, ch. 97-102; s. 2, ch. 2006-100.
870.045 Discretionary emergency measures.—Whenever the public official declares that a state of emergency exists, pursuant to s. 870.043, he or she may order and promulgate all or any of the following emergency measures, in whole or in part, with such limitations and conditions as he or she may deem appropriate:
(1) The establishment of curfews, including, but not limited to, the prohibition of or restrictions on pedestrian and vehicular movement, standing, and parking, except for the provision of designated essential services such as fire, police, and hospital services, including the transportation of patients thereto, utility emergency repairs, and emergency calls by physicians.
(2) The prohibition of the sale or distribution of any alcoholic beverage, with or without the payment or a consideration therefor.
(3) The prohibition of the possession on any person in a public place of any portable container containing any alcoholic beverage.
(4) The closing of places of public assemblage with designated exceptions.
(5) The prohibition of the sale or other transfer of possession, with or without consideration, of gasoline or any other flammable or combustible liquid altogether or except by delivery into a tank properly affixed to an operable motor-driven vehicle, bike, scooter, boat, or airplane and necessary for the propulsion thereof.
(6) The prohibition of the possession in a public place of any portable container containing gasoline or any other flammable or combustible liquid.
Any such emergency measure so ordered and promulgated shall be in effect during the period of said emergency in the area or areas for which the emergency has been declared.
History.—ss. 4, 6, ch. 70-990; s. 1402, ch. 97-102.
870.046 Filing and publication.—Any state of emergency or emergency measure declared or ordered and promulgated by virtue of the terms of ss. 870.041-870.045 shall, as promptly as practicable, be filed in the office of the municipal clerk or clerk of the circuit court and delivered to appropriate news media for publication and radio and television broadcast thereof. If practicable, such state of emergency declaration or emergency measure shall be published by other means such as by posting and loudspeakers.
History.—s. 7, ch. 70-990.
870.047 Duration and termination of emergency.—A state of emergency established under ss. 870.041-870.046 shall commence upon the declaration thereof by the public official and shall terminate at the end of a period of 72 consecutive hours thereafter unless, prior to the end of such 72-hour period, the public official, the Governor, county commission, or city council shall have terminated such state of emergency. Any extension of the 72-hour time limit must be accomplished by request from the public official and the concurrence of the county commission or city council by duly enacted ordinance or resolution in regular or special session.
History.—s. 8, ch. 70-990.
870.048 Violations.—Any violation of a provision of ss. 870.041-870.047 or of any emergency measure established pursuant thereto shall be a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
History.—s. 9, ch. 70-990; s. 1128, ch. 71-136.
870.05 When killing excused.—If, by reason of the efforts made by any of said officers or by their direction to disperse such assembly, or to seize and secure the persons composing the same, who have refused to disperse, any such person or other person present is killed or wounded, the said officers and all persons acting by their order or under their direction, shall be held guiltless and fully justified in law; and if any of said officers or any person acting under or by their direction is killed or wounded, all persons so assembled and all other persons present who when commanded refused to aid and assist said officer shall be held answerable therefor.
History.—s. 6, ch. 1637, 1868; RS 2410; GS 3243; RGS 5076; CGL 7178.
870.06 Unauthorized military organizations.—No body of persons, other than the regularly organized land and naval militia of this state, the troops of the United States, and the students of regularly chartered educational institutions where military science is a prescribed part of the course of instruction, shall associate themselves together as a military organization for drill or parade in public with firearms, in this state, without special license from the Governor for each occasion, and application for such license must be approved by the mayor and aldermen of the cities and towns where such organizations may propose to parade. Each person unlawfully engaging in the formation of such military organization, or participating in such drill or parade, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.
History.—s. 15, ch. 1466, 1866; RS 2411; s. 10, ch. 5202, 1903; GS 3246; RGS 5077; CGL 7179; s. 1129, ch. 71-136; s. 1403, ch. 97-102.