13 USC Ch. 7: OFFENSES AND PENALTIES

Link to law: http://uscode.house.gov/view.xhtml?path=/prelim@title13/chapter7&edition=prelim
Published: 2015-08-07

Subscribe to a Global-Regulation Premium Membership Today!

Key Benefits:

Subscribe Now
13 USC Ch. 7: OFFENSES AND PENALTIES

From Title 13—CENSUS

CHAPTER 7—OFFENSES AND PENALTIES

SUBCHAPTER I—OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES

Sec.

211.
Receiving or securing compensation for appointment of employees.

212.
Refusal or neglect of employees to perform duties.

213.
False statements, certificates, and information.

214.
Wrongful disclosure of information.

        
SUBCHAPTER II—OTHER PERSONS

221.
Refusal or neglect to answer questions; false answers.

222.
Giving suggestions or information with intent to cause inaccurate enumeration of population.

223.
Refusal, by owners, proprietors, etc., to assist census employees.

224.
Failure to answer questions affecting companies, businesses, religious bodies, and other organizations; false answers.

225.
Applicability of penal provisions in certain cases.

        
SUBCHAPTER III—PROCEDURE

241.
Evidence.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—OFFICERS AND EMPLOYEES

§211. Receiving or securing compensation for appointment of employees

Whoever—

(1) receives or secures to himself any fee, reward, or compensation as a consideration for the appointment of any person as supervisor, enumerator, clerk, or other officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof, referred to in subchapter II of chapter 1 of this title; or

(2) in any way receives or secures to himself any part of the compensation paid to any person so appointed—
shall be fined not more than $3,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1022.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., §§122, 207, 252, and section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., The Public Health and Welfare (June 18, 1929, ch. 28, §7, 46 Stat. 23; June 19, 1948, ch. 502, §2, 62 Stat. 479; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title VI, §607, 63 Stat. 441; Sept. 7, 1950, ch. 910, §2, 64 Stat. 784.)
Section consolidates section 207 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which was a part of chapter 4 of such title relating to the censuses of population, agriculture, irrigation, etc. (subchapter II of chapter 5 of this revised title), with those parts of sections 122 and 252 of such title which made such section 207 applicable to the censuses of manufactures, the mineral industries, and other businesses, and governments (subchapters I and III of chapter 5 of this revised title), and with that part of subsection (b) of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952, ed., which made such section 207 applicable to the censuses of housing (subchapter II of chapter 5 of this revised title). For remainder of sections 122 and 252 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., and of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed. (which section has been transferred in its entirety to this revised title), see Distribution Table.
This section, as revised, relates to appointments of all officers and employees referred to in subchapter II of chapter 1 of this title, which was the probable original legislative intent.
Reference in section 207 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., to the offense, herein described, as a felony, and words in such section, "and upon conviction thereof," were omitted from this revised section, the former, as covered by section 1 of title 18, U.S.C., 1952 ed., Crimes and Criminal Procedure, classifying offenses, and the latter, as surplusage.
The reference "Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof" was inserted in recognition of 1950 Reorganization Plan No. 5, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263 (see Revision Note to section 4 of this title). However, the qualifying words, "referred to in subchapter II of chapter 1 of this title," limits the provisions to appointment or employment of persons in connection with the statistics and censuses provided for in this title.
Changes were made in phraseology.

§212. Refusal or neglect of employees to perform duties

Whoever, being an employee referred to in subchapter II of chapter 1 of this title, and having taken and subscribed the oath of office, neglects or refuses, without justifiable cause, to perform the duties enjoined on such employee by this title, shall be fined not more than $500.

(Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1022.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., §§122, 208, 252, and section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., The Public Health and Welfare (June 18, 1929, ch. 28, §8, 46 Stat. 23; June 19, 1948, ch. 502, §2, 62 Stat. 479; June 19, 1949, ch. 338, title VI, §607, 63 Stat. 441; Sept. 7, 1950, ch. 910, §2, 64 Stat. 784).
Section consolidates part of section 208 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which was a part of chapter 4 of such title relating to the censuses of population, agriculture, etc., with those parts of sections 122 and 252 of such title which made such section 208 applicable to the censuses of manufacturers, the mineral industries and other businesses, and governments, and with that part of subsection (b) of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which made such section 208 applicable to the housing censuses. For remainder of sections 122, 208 and 252 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., and of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., (which section has been transferred in its entirety to this revised title), see Distribution Table.
Section has been made applicable to all employees referred to in subchapter II of chapter 1 of this title, and to duties enjoined on them by any provision of this title, which was probably the original legislative intent.
The words "being an employee referred to in subchapter II of chapter 1 of this title" were substituted for the enumeration in section 208 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., of "supervisor, supervisor's clerk, enumerator, interpreter, special agent, or other employee", since such reference will cover those employees.
Reference in section 208 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., to the offense, herein described as a misdemeanor, and words therein ", and upon conviction thereof", were omitted, the former, as superseded and covered by section 1 of title 18, U.S.C., 1952 ed., Crimes and Criminal Procedure, classifying offenses, and the latter, as surplusage.
Changes were made in phraseology.

§213. False statements, certificates, and information

(a) Whoever, being an officer or employee referred to in subchapter II of chapter 1 of this title, willfully and knowingly swears or affirms falsely as to the truth of any statement required to be made or subscribed by him under oath by or under authority of this title, shall be guilty of perjury, and shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(b) Whoever, being an officer or employee referred to in subchapter II of chapter 1 of this title—

(1) willfully and knowingly makes a false certificate or fictitious return; or

(2) knowingly or willfully furnishes or causes to be furnished, or, having been such an officer or employee, knowingly or willfully furnished or caused to be furnished, directly or indirectly, to the Secretary or to any other officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof, any false statement or false information with reference to any inquiry for which he was authorized and required to collect information provided for in this title—
shall be fined not more than $2,000 or imprisoned not more than five years, or both.

(Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1022.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., §§122, 208, 252, and section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., The Public Health and Welfare (June 18, 1929, ch. 28, §8, 46 Stat. 23; June 19, 1948, ch. 502, §2, 62 Stat. 479; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title VI, §607, 63 Stat. 441; Sept. 7, 1950, ch. 910, §2, 64 Stat. 784).
Section consolidates part of section 208 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., with that part of section 122 of such title which made such section 208 applicable to the quinquennial censuses of manufacturers, the mineral industries, and other businesses (see subchapter I of chapter 5 of this revised title), that part of section 252 of such title which made such section 208 applicable to the quinquennial censuses of governments (see subchapter III of chapter 5 of this revised title), and that part of subsection (b) of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which made such section 208 applicable to the decennial censuses of housing (see subchapter II of chapter 5 of this revised title). For remainder of sections 122, 208, and 252 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., and of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed. (which section has been transferred in its entirety to this revised title), see Distribution Table.
As set out in this revised section, the provisions relate to all investigations, surveys, collections of statistics, and censuses provided for in this title, and to officers as well as employees, which was probably the original legislative intent.
References to the offenses described in subsection (b) of this revised section as being felonies, were omitted as covered by section 1 of title 18, U.S.C., 1952 ed., Crimes and Criminal Procedure, classifying offenses; and words "upon conviction thereof" and "upon conviction of" were omitted as surplusage.
Changes were made in phraseology and arrangement.

§214. Wrongful disclosure of information

Whoever, being or having been an employee or staff member referred to in subchapter II of chapter 1 of this title, having taken and subscribed the oath of office, or having sworn to observe the limitations imposed by section 9 of this title, or whoever, being or having been a census liaison within the meaning of section 16 of this title, publishes or communicates any information, the disclosure of which is prohibited under the provisions of section 9 of this title, and which comes into his possession by reason of his being employed (or otherwise providing services) under the provisions of this title, shall be fined not more than $5,000 or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both.

(Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 94–521, §12(a), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2464; Pub. L. 103–430, §2(c), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4394.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., §§73, 83, 122, 208, 252, and section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., The Public Health and Welfare (Aug. 7, 1916, ch. 274, §3, 39 Stat. 437; Apr. 2, 1924, ch. 80, §3, 43 Stat. 31; June 18, 1929, ch. 28, §§8, 21, 46 Stat. 23, 26; July 25, 1947, ch. 331, 61 Stat. 437; June 19, 1948, ch. 502, §2, 62 Stat. 479; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title VI, §607, 63 Stat. 441; Sept. 7, 1950, ch. 910, §2, 64 Stat. 784).
Section consolidates parts of sections 73, 83 and 208 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., that part of section 122 of such title which made such section 208 applicable to the quinquennial censuses of manufactures, the mineral industries, and other businesses (see subchapter I of chapter 5 of this revised title), that part of section 252 of such title which made such section 208 applicable to the quinquennial censuses of governments (see subchapter III of chapter 5 of this revised title), and that part of subsection (b) of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which made such section 208 applicable to the decennial censuses of housing (see subchapter II of chapter 5 of this title).
Words "Secretary or other authorized officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof" were substituted for reference to the Director of the Census. See Revision Note to section 9 of this title, into which other parts of sections 73, 83 and 208 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., have been carried.
The provision in section 208 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., designating the offense as a felony, was omitted as covered by section 1 of title 18, U.S.C., 1952 ed., Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and words in such section "upon conviction thereof" and "in the discretion of the court", were omitted as surplusage.
Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1994—Pub. L. 103–430 inserted "or whoever, being or having been a census liaison within the meaning of section 16 of this title,".
1976—Pub. L. 94–521 provided that staff members would be liable for wrongful communication of information under this section, inserted "or having sworn to observe the limitations imposed by section 9 of this title" after "oath of office", substituted a provision predicating liability under this section upon disclosure of information prohibited by section 9 of this title for a former provision predicating such liability upon disclosure of information without the written authority of the Secretary or other authorized officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof, substituted "being employed (or otherwise providing services)" for "employment", increased maximum amount of fine under this section to $5,000 from $1,000, and increased maximum prison term to 5 years from 2 years.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–521 effective Oct. 17, 1976, see section 17 of Pub. L. 94–521, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER II—OTHER PERSONS

§221. Refusal or neglect to answer questions; false answers

(a) Whoever, being over eighteen years of age, refuses or willfully neglects, when requested by the Secretary, or by any other authorized officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof acting under the instructions of the Secretary or authorized officer, to answer, to the best of his knowledge, any of the questions on any schedule submitted to him in connection with any census or survey provided for by subchapters I, II, IV, and V of chapter 5 of this title, applying to himself or to the family to which he belongs or is related, or to the farm or farms of which he or his family is the occupant, shall be fined not more than $100.

(b) Whoever, when answering questions described in subsection (a) of this section, and under the conditions or circumstances described in such subsection, willfully gives any answer that is false, shall be fined not more than $500.

(c) Notwithstanding any other provision of this title, no person shall be compelled to disclose information relative to his religious beliefs or to membership in a religious body.

(Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 85–207, §15, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 484; Pub. L. 94–521, §13, Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2465.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., §§122, 209, and section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., The Public Health and Welfare (June 18, 1929, ch. 28, §9, 46 Stat. 23; June 19, 1948, ch. 502, §2, 62 Stat. 479; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title VI, §607, 63 Stat. 441).
Section consolidates the first paragraph of section 209 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which section related to the decennial censuses of population, agriculture, etc. (see subchapter II of chapter 5 of this revised title), with that part of section 122 of such title which made such section 209 applicable to the quinquennial censuses of manufactures, the mineral industries, and other businesses (see subchapter I of chapter 5 of this revised title) and applicable to the surveys provided for by section 121(b) of such title (see subchapter IV of chapter 5 of this revised title), and that part of subsection (b) of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which made such section 209 applicable to the decennial censuses of housing (see subchapter II of chapter 5 of this revised title). For remainder of sections 122 and 209 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., and of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed. (which section has been transferred in its entirety to this revised title), see Distribution Table.
The language of section 209 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., providing that it should "be the duty" of all persons over eighteen years of age, to answer correctly, to the best of their knowledge, when requested, etc., was omitted as unnecessary and redundant. The provisions, as herein revised, define offenses and prescribe penalties for committing them, and are deemed sufficient for the purpose of enforcement. However, some of the language used in the omitted provisions was necessarily included in the description of the offense.
The designation of the first offense, herein described, as a "misdemeanor", was omitted as covered by section 1 of title 18, U.S.C., 1952 ed., Crimes and Criminal Procedure, classifying crimes; and words "upon conviction thereof" were omitted as surplusage.
References to the Secretary (of Commerce) and to any "authorized officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof", etc., were substituted for references to the Director of the Census and to any "supervisor, enumerator, or special agent, or other employee of the Census Office", to conform with 1950 Reorganization Plan No. 5, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263. See revision note to section 4 of this title.
Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–521, §13(1), struck out provision authorizing imprisonment for not more than sixty days for refusing or willfully neglecting to answer questions under this section.
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–521, §13(2), struck out provision authorizing imprisonment for not more than one year for willfully giving a false answer to a question under this section.
Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–521, §13(3), added subsec. (c).
1957—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–207 substituted "I, II, IV, and V" for "I, II, and IV".

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–521 effective Oct. 17, 1976, see section 17 of Pub. L. 94–521, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

§222. Giving suggestions or information with intent to cause inaccurate enumeration of population

Whoever, either directly or indirectly, offers or renders to any officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof engaged in making an enumeration of population under subchapter II, IV, or V of chapter 5 of this title, any suggestion, advice, information or assistance of any kind, with the intent or purpose of causing an inaccurate enumeration of population to be made, shall be fined not more than $1,000 or imprisoned not more than one year, or both.

(Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 85–207, §16, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 484.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., §§122, 209 (June 18, 1929, ch. 28, §9, 46 Stat. 23; June 19, 1948, ch. 502, §2, 62 Stat. 479).
Section consolidates the second paragraph of section 209 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which was a part of chapter 4 of that title relating to censuses of population, agriculture, etc., with that part of section 122 of such title which made such section 209 applicable to the interim surveys provided for by section 121(b) of such title (see subchapter IV of chapter 5 of this revised title). For remainder of such sections 122 and 209, see Distribution Table.
Section 122 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., made section 209 of such title applicable to the quinquennial censuses of manufactures, the mineral industries, and other businesses provided for by section 121(a) thereof (subchapter I of chapter 5 of this revised title), and applicable, with certain qualifications and exceptions, to the interim surveys, which section 121(b) thereof provided for, not only with respect to those censuses but also the censuses provided for in "other Acts" (chapter 5 of this title). However, the particular provisions of such section 209 that have been carried into this revised section related only to population enumerations, and this section has accordingly been restricted to the population censuses authorized under subchapter II of chapter 5 of this title, and to the interim surveys authorized under subchapter IV of such chapter only in so far as they relate to population enumerations. The exceptions and qualifications with respect to the application of this section to such interim surveys are set out elsewhere in this subchapter.
Reference to "any officer or employee" was substituted for "any supervisor, supervisor's clerk, enumerator, interpreter, special agent, or other officer or employee", as the latter enumeration of the types of employees is unnecessary and redundant; and "Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof" was substituted for "Census Office", to conform with 1950 Reorganization Plan No. 5, §§1, 2, effective May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263. See Revision Note to section 4 of this title.
Subsection (b) of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., The Public Health and Welfare (which section has been transferred in its entirety to this revised title), made section 209 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., applicable to the censuses of housing (subchapter II of chapter 5 of this revised title). However, the particular provisions of such section 209 that have been carried into this revised section, could not, by their terms, be relevant to housing censuses, hence no reference is made in this section to such censuses.
Words in section 209 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., "either as to the number of persons resident in any district or community, or in any other respect", were omitted from the revised section as unnecessary and superfluous.
Reference to the offense described as a "misdemeanor" was omitted as covered by section 1 of title 18, U.S.C., Crimes and Criminal Procedure, classifying offenses; and words "and upon conviction thereof" were omitted as surplusage.
Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1957—Pub. L. 85–207 substituted "II, IV, or V" for "II or IV".

§223. Refusal, by owners, proprietors, etc., to assist census employees

Whoever, being the owner, proprietor, manager, superintendent, or agent of any hotel, apartment house, boarding or lodging house, tenement, or other building, refuses or willfully neglects, when requested by the Secretary or by any other officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof, acting under the instructions of the Secretary, to furnish the names of the occupants of such premises, or to give free ingress thereto and egress therefrom to any duly accredited representative of such Department or bureau or agency thereof, so as to permit the collection of statistics with respect to any census provided for in subchapters I and II of chapter 5 of this title, or any survey authorized by subchapter IV or V of such chapter insofar as such survey relates to any of the subjects for which censuses are provided by such subchapters I and II, including, when relevant to the census or survey being taken or made, the proper and correct enumeration of all persons having their usual place of abode in such premises, shall be fined not more than $500.

(Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 85–207, §17, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 484.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., §§122, 209, and section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., The Public Health and Welfare (June 18, 1929, ch. 28, §9, 46 Stat. 23; June 19, 1948, ch. 502, §2, 62 Stat. 479; July 15, 1949, ch. 338. title VI, §607, 63 Stat. 441).
Section consolidates the third paragraph of section 209 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which was a part of chapter 4 of that title relating to censuses of population, agriculture, etc. (subchapter II of chapter 5 of this revised title), with that part of section 122 of such title which made such section 209 applicable to the quinquennial censuses of manufactures, the mineral industries, and other businesses provided for by section 121(a) of such title (subchapter I of chapter 5 of this revised title) and, with certain qualifications and exceptions, applicable to the interim surveys provided for by section 121(b) of such title (subchapter IV of chapter 5 of this revised title), and with that part of subsection (b) of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which made such section 209 applicable to the decennial censuses of housing (subchapter II of chapter 5 of this revised title). For remainder of sections 122 and 209 of this revised title, and of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed. (which section has been transferred in its entirety to this revised title), see Distribution Table.
Section 122 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., made section 209 of such title applicable to the interim surveys (provided for by section 121(b) thereof) not only with respect to the censuses of manufacturers, the mineral industries, and other businesses provided for by section 121(a) thereof, but also with respect to the censuses provided for by "other Acts" (chapter 5 of this title). However, section 252 of that title, which was a part of a chapter thereof relating to the quinquennial censuses of governments (subchapter III of chapter 5 of this revised title), in making certain sections of chapter 4 thereof applicable to such censuses, did not specify such section 209. Therefore, this revised section is not made so applicable, either to the censuses of governments provided for in subchapter III of chapter 5 of this title, or to surveys provided for in subchapter IV thereof in so far as such surveys relate to governments.
The language of section 209 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., providing that it should "be the duty" of every owner, proprietor, etc., to furnish the described information or assistance was omitted as unnecessary and redundant. The provisions, as herein revised, define an offense and prescribe a penalty for committing it, and are deemed sufficient for the purpose of enforcement. However, some of the language used in the omitted provisions was necessarily included in the description of the offense.
References to the Secretary (of Commerce) and to "any other officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof" were substituted for references to the Director of the Census and the Census Office, to conform with 1950 Reorganization Plan No. 5, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263. See Revision Note to section 4 of this title.
The enumeration of the different types of employees, in section 209 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., "supervisor, enumerator,", etc., was omitted as unnecessary and covered by the reference in this revised section to "officer or employee".
Reference in section 209 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., to the described offense as a "misdemeanor" was omitted as covered by section 1 of title 18, U.S.C., 1952 ed., Crimes and Criminal Procedure, classifying offenses, and words in such section "and upon conviction thereof" were omitted as surplusage.
Changes were made in phraseology.
The qualifications and exceptions contained in that part of section 122 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which made section 209 of such title applicable to the surveys provided for in section 121(b) thereof (subchapter IV of chapter 5 of this revised title), are set out elsewhere in this subchapter.

Amendments

1957—Pub. L. 85–207 inserted "or V" after "subchapter IV".

§224. Failure to answer questions affecting companies, businesses, religious bodies, and other organizations; false answers

Whoever, being the owner, official, agent, person in charge, or assistant to the person in charge, of any company, business, institution, establishment, religious body, or organization of any nature whatsoever, neglects or refuses, when requested by the Secretary or other authorized officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof, to answer completely and correctly to the best of his knowledge all questions relating to his company, business, institution, establishment, religious body, or other organization, or to records or statistics in his official custody, contained on any census or other schedule or questionnaire prepared and submitted to him under the authority of this title, shall be fined not more than $500; and if he willfully gives a false answer to any such question, he shall be fined not more than $10,000.

(Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1024; Pub. L. 85–207, §18, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 484; Pub. L. 94–521, §14, Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2465.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., §§74, 84, 122, 210, and section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., The Public Health and Welfare (Aug. 7, 1916, ch. 274, §4, 39 Stat. 437; Apr. 2, 1924, ch. 80, §4, 43 Stat. 32; June 18, 1929, ch. 28, §§10, 21, 46 Stat. 24, 26; June 14, 1938, ch. 358, 52 Stat. 678; July 25, 1947, ch. 331, 61 Stat. 457; June 19, 1948, ch. 502, §2, 62 Stat. 479; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title VI, §607, 63 Stat. 441).
Section consolidates parts of sections 74 and 84 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., relating to cotton statistics and statistics on oilseeds, nuts and kernels, fats, oils and greases (subchapters I and II of chapter 3 of this revised title), all of section 210 of such title, which section was a part of chapter 4 thereof relating to the decennial censuses of population, agriculture, etc. (subchapter II of chapter 5, of this revised title), with that part of section 122 of such title which made such section 210 applicable to the quinquennial censuses of manufactures, the mineral industries, and other businesses provided for in section 121(a) of such title (subchapter I of chapter 5 of this revised title), and, with certain qualifications and exceptions, applicable to the interim surveys provided for by section 121(b) of such title (subchapter IV of chapter 5 of this revised title), and that part of subsection (b) of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which made such section 210 applicable to the decennial censuses of housing (subchapter II of chapter 5 of this revised title). For remainder of sections 74, 84 and 122 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., and of section 1442 of title 42, U.S.C., 1952 ed. (which section has been transferred in its entirety to this revised title), see Distribution Table.
Section 210 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., by its own terms was applicable to the collection of miscellaneous statistics provided for by section 111 of such title (subchapter III of chapter 3 of this revised title), except that such section 111 placed certain restrictions upon the collection of statistics on religion. These restrictions, along with those of section 122 of such title with respect to the making of surveys, and along with provisions excepting this section from application to the censuses of governments provided for by section 251 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed. (subchapter III of chapter 5 of this revised title), are set out as another section in this revised title. Subject to those exceptions and restrictions, this section applies to all collections and censuses provided for in this title, in so far as it is relevant.
Sections 74, 84 and 210 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., described the same type of offenses, but the penal provisions varied. Section 74 prescribed maximum fine of $1,000 and maximum imprisonment of one year, for refusal to answer or giving a false answer; section 84 prescribed maximum fine of $1,000 for refusal to answer or giving false answer, with no imprisonment; and section 210 prescribed maximum fine of $500 and maximum imprisonment of sixty days for refusal to answer, and maximum fine of $10,000 and maximum imprisonment of one year for giving a false answer. In addition, such section 74 prescribed a minimum fine of $300 for refusal to answer or giving a false answer. This revised section adopts the penalties of such section 210, which was the latest enactment on the subject, and which might have been regarded as having superseded the penal provisions of such sections 74 and 84. According to its own terms, its penal provisions were applicable not only to the censuses of population, agriculture, etc., provided for in chapter 4 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., but also to any schedules prepared under the act of March 6, 1902 (sections 1–6, 77, 101, 111, and 112 of such title), or under acts amendatory thereof "or supplemental thereto." This reference did not cover sections 74 and 84 specifically, but such sections, enacted in 1924 and 1916, respectively, could probably be regarded as having been "supplemental" to the 1902 act. In any event, this revised section establishes uniform penalties for refusal to answer, or giving a false answer in the circumstances stated. Further, the prescribed penalties are the maximum, and any lesser penalty can be imposed if the facts of the case warrant it.
Reference to the "Secretary [of Commerce] or other authorized officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof" was substituted for references to the Director of the Census and employees of the Bureau of the Census, to conform with 1950 Reorganization Plan No. 5, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263. See Revision Note to section 4 of this title.
References to the offenses as being in each case a "misdemeanor" were omitted as covered by section 1 of title 18, U.S.C., 1952 ed., Crimes and Criminal Procedure, classifying crimes; and words "upon conviction thereof" and "at the discretion of the court" were omitted as surplusage.
The provision permitting the requests to be made by registered mail, by telegraph, by visiting representative, or by one or more of these methods, was contained in sections 74 and 84 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., but not in section 210 of such title. It is retained in this section as probably a desirable provision to apply generally.
Provisions in sections 74, 84 and 210 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., that it "shall be the duty" of the persons referred to, to answer correctly, etc., were omitted as unnecessary and redundant. This section defines offenses and prescribes penalties for committing them, and are deemed sufficient for the purpose of enforcement. However, some of the language used in the omitted provisions was necessarily included in the description of the offenses.
Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–521 struck out provision enumerating methods by which the Department of Commerce may transmit a request to answer census questions under this section, substituted "schedule or questionnaire" for "schedule", struck out provision authorizing a sixty day maximum prison term for neglecting or refusing to answer census questions submitted under this section and a similar provision authorizing a one year maximum prison term for willfully giving a false answer to any such questions.
1957—Pub. L. 85–207 inserted "by certified mail," after "by registered mail,".

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–521 effective Oct. 17, 1976, see section 17 of Pub. L. 94–521, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

§225. Applicability of penal provisions in certain cases

(a) In connection with any survey conducted by the Secretary or other authorized officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof pursuant to subchapter IV of chapter 5 of this title, the provisions of sections 221, 222, 223 and 224 of this title shall apply—

(1) with respect to the answering of questions and furnishing of information, only to such inquiries as are within the scope of the schedules and questionnaires and of the type and character heretofore used in connection with the taking of complete censuses under subchapters I and II of chapter 5 of this title, or in connection with any censuses hereafter taken pursuant to such subchapters;

(2) only after publication of a determination with reasons therefor certified by the Secretary, or by some other authorized officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof with the approval of the Secretary, that the information called for is needed to aid or permit the efficient performance of essential governmental functions or services, or has significant application to the needs of the public, business, or industry and is not publicly available from nongovernmental or other governmental sources;

(3) in the case of any new survey, only after public notice, given by the Secretary or other authorized officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof at least thirty days in advance of requesting a return, that such survey is under consideration.

(b) The provisions for imprisonment provided by section 222 of this title shall not apply in connection with any survey conducted pursuant to subchapter II of chapter 3 of this title, or to subchapter IV of chapter 5 of this title.

(c) The provisions of sections 221, 222, 223, and 224 of this title shall not apply to any censuses or surveys of governments provided for by subchapters III and IV of chapter 5 of this title, nor to other surveys provided for by subchapter IV of such chapter which are taken more frequently than annually.

(d) Where the doctrine, teaching, or discipline of any religious denomination or church prohibits the disclosure of information relative to membership, a refusal, in such circumstances, to furnish such information shall not be an offense under this chapter.

(Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1024; Pub. L. 94–521, §15(a), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2465.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., §§111, 122 (Mar. 2, 1902, ch. 139, §7, 32 Stat. 52; June 7, 1906, ch. 3048, 34 Stat. 218; June 18, 1929, ch. 28, §3, 46 Stat. 26; 1939 Reorg. Plan No. II, §4(e), eff. July 1, 1939, 4 F.R. 2731, 53 Stat. 1431; 1940 Reorg. Plan No. III, §3, eff. June 30, 1940, 5 F.R. 2107, 54 Stat. 1232; June 25, 1947, ch. 124, 61 Stat. 163; June 19, 1948, ch. 502, §1, 62 Stat. 478; Sept. 7, 1950, ch. 910, §4, 64 Stat. 785).
Section consolidates parts of sections 111 and 122 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., with changes in phraseology necessary to effect consolidation and to preserve the intent, scope and meaning of the parts of such sections so consolidated. For remainder of such sections 111 and 122, see Distribution Table.
Subsections (a) and (b) of this revised section are from section 122 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., and in subsection (a) references to the Secretary (of Commerce) and to "other authorized officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof" were substituted for references to the Director of the Census to conform with 1950 Reorganization Plan No. 5, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263. See Revision Note to section 4 of this title.
Subsection (c) is partly new (but preserves existing law), and partly from section 122 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed. Section 252 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which related to the censuses of governments provided by section 251 thereof (see subchapter III of chapter 5 of this title), made certain sections in chapter 4 of that title relating to censuses of population, agriculture, etc., applicable to such censuses of governments. However, it did not list sections 209 and 210 of such title among the sections made so applicable, probably because they would hardly be relevant and capable of application to such censuses. Subsection (c) makes it clear that sections 221–224 of this revised title, into which were carried the provisions of such sections 209 and 210, and which speak in general terms, are not applicable to the censuses and surveys of governments.
Subsection (d) is from section 111 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed. Words in this subsection, "a refusal, in such circumstances, to furnish such information shall not be an offense under this chapter", read "such information shall not be required". It was felt that such exception in such section 111 was actually more in the nature of an exception to the penal provisions, and it has been so treated in this revised title. The collection of statistics on religion are provided for in section 102 of this title.

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–521, §15(a)(1), inserted "and questionnaires" after "schedules".
Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–521, §15(a)(2), struck out reference to imprisonment provisions provided by sections 221 and 224 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–521 effective Oct. 17, 1976, see section 17 of Pub. L. 94–521, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

SUBCHAPTER III—PROCEDURE

§241. Evidence

When any request for information, made by the Secretary or other authorized officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof, is made by registered or certified mail or telegram, the return receipt therefor or other written receipt thereof shall be prima facie evidence of an official request in any prosecution under such section.

(Aug. 31, 1954, ch. 1158, 68 Stat. 1025; Pub. L. 85–207, §19, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 484; Pub. L. 94–521, §15(b), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2465.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Based on title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., §§74, 84 (Aug. 7, 1916, ch. 274, §4, 39 Stat. 437; Apr. 2, 1924, ch. 80, §4, 43 Stat. 32; June 18, 1929, ch. 28, §21, 46 Stat. 26; June 14, 1938, ch. 358, 52 Stat. 678; July 25, 1947, ch. 331, 61 Stat. 457).
Section consolidates part of section 74 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., which section related to the collection of cotton statistics, with part of section 84 of such title, which section related to the collection of statistics on oilseeds, nuts and kernels, fats, oils and greases. For remainder of such sections 74 and 84, see Distribution Table.
Section 74 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., authorized the making of requests for information by registered mail, and provided that, if so made, the registry receipt should be "accepted as evidence of such demand". Section 84 thereof authorized the making of requests by registered mail, or "by telegraph", and provided that, if so made, the "return" receipt therefor should be "prima facie evidence of an official request". The authorizations contained in such sections have been carried into section 224 of this title, and the evidentiary provisions thereof have been carried into this section, and they apply to investigations other than those to which such sections 74 and 84 related. See Revision Note to section 224 of this title.
In this revised section, the language of section 84 of title 13, U.S.C., 1952 ed., was largely followed as probably being the more desirable, but "or other written receipt thereof" was inserted since there is no return receipt with respect to a telegram, and words "in any prosecution under such section" were inserted for the purpose of completeness.
Further, words "Secretary or other authorized officer or employee of the Department of Commerce or bureau or agency thereof" were substituted for references to the Director of the Census, to conform with 1950 Reorganization Plan No. 5, §§1, 2, eff. May 24, 1950, 15 F.R. 3174, 64 Stat. 1263. See Revision Note to section 4 of this title.
Changes were made in phraseology.

Amendments

1976—Pub. L. 94–521 struck out "as authorized by section 224 of this title" after "telegram".
1957—Pub. L. 85–207 inserted "or certified" after "registered".

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–521 effective Oct. 17, 1976, see section 17 of Pub. L. 94–521, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.