Section 40-1-2Lien for taxes - Generally.
(a) If any person liable to pay any tax, other than ad valorem taxes, neglects or refuses to pay the same the amount, including any interest, penalty, additional amount, or addition to such tax, together with any costs which may accrue in addition thereto, shall be a lien in favor of the State of Alabama upon all property and the rights to property, real or personal, belonging to such person. Unless another date is specifically fixed by law, the lien shall arise at the time the assessment list, return therefor or the payment thereof, as the case may be, was due to have been filed with or made to the Department of Revenue or other agency of the state or county and shall continue until the liability for such amount is satisfied or becomes unenforceable by reason of the lapse of time.
(b) Such lien shall not be valid against any mortgagee, purchaser in the usual course of trade, or conventional judgment creditor with an actual money judgment of some court until after the time a notice thereof has been filed by the Department of Revenue or other agency of the state or county in the office of the judge of probate of the county in which such property, real or personal, is located, but the recordation thereof as to any other person, receiver, trustee, creditor, or committee shall not be required.
(c) The Department of Revenue or other agency of the state or county with whom the assessment list, return or to whom the payment of the tax was due to have been made or paid may file in the office of the judge of probate of any county in this state a certificate which shall show the agency of the state filing the same, the amount and kind of the tax for which a lien is claimed, including any interest, penalty, additional amount, or addition to such tax, together with any costs that may have accrued in addition thereto, the names of all persons against whose property a lien for such tax is claimed and the date of the said notice. Any error in the certificate of the amount shall not invalidate the lien for the amount actually due. If the taxpayer shall file with the Department of Revenue a bond in double the amount of the lien filed, with surety or sureties satisfactory to the Commissioner of Revenue, such surety or sureties to be either a surety company authorized to do business in Alabama or such individual resident property owners, not less than three in number, as are recommended by the judge of probate of the county in which the notice of lien is recorded, conditioned to pay all such tax, interest, penalty, additional amount, or addition to such tax, together with any costs which may accrue in addition thereto as may be assessed against the taxpayer, principal in said bond, the Commissioner of Revenue, upon approving the same, may withdraw or cancel said certificate of lien filed under the provisions of this section, and, upon a determination that the said taxpayer owes any of said taxes to the state, the assessment (judgment) therefor shall be entered against said taxpayer and the surety or sureties on said bond; and, if not paid within 30 days from the date of said final assessment (judgment), then execution shall issue therefor against said principal and the surety or sureties on said bond. If the bond hereinabove provided for is not given and approved by the said commissioner, and a final assessment (judgment) is entered against said taxpayer and he duly and legally appeals therefrom within the time and in the manner provided for by this title, the Commissioner of Revenue may cancel or withdraw from record said certificate of lien.
(d) Such certificate shall be indexed and recorded under the same provision of law of this state relating to the filing and recording of certificate of judgment, without cost, but no acknowledgment or probate of such certificate shall be required.
(Acts 1935, No. 194, p. 256; Code 1940, T. 51, §883; Acts 1953, No. 691, p. 942; Acts 1992, No. 92-186, p. 349, §16.)