Civil Aviation (Safety) Regulations

Link to law: http://laws.bahamas.gov.bs/cms/images/LEGISLATION/SUBORDINATE/2001/2001-0060/CivilAviationSafetyRegulations_1.pdf
Published: 2001-04-17

Civil Aviation (Safety) Regulations
CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 37






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

BAHAMAS CIVIL AVIATION (SAFETY) REGULATIONS, 2001

SECTION

PART I — ENFORCEMENT OF THESE REGULATIONS
PART II — FLIGHT STANDARDS INSPECTORATE
PART II — REPORTS, DOCUMENTS, AND RECORDS
PART IV — REGISTRATION AND MARKING OF
AIRCRAFT
PART V — AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT
PART VI — AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS AND
EQUIPMENT
PART VII — PERSONNEL LICENSING
PART VIII — OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT
PART IX — AERIAL WORK OPERATIONS
PART X — COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT
OPERATIONS
PART XI — CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS
PART XII — GENERAL
SCHEDULES

ARRANGEMENT OF REGULATIONS

REGULATION

1. Citation.
2. Commencement.
3. Applicable laws and interpretation.
4. Interpretation.
PART I
ENFORCEMENT OF THESE REGULATIONS

5. Enforcement of Directions.
6. Minister’s Decision.
7. Revocation, Suspension and Variation of Documents.
8. Revocation, Suspension and Variation of Permits.
9. Penalties.
10. Appeal to Supreme Court.

CH.3 – 38] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

PART II
FLIGHT STANDARDS INSPECTORATE


11. Function of the Flight Standards Inspectorate.
12. Delegation of powers.
13. Authorising Credential.
14. Possession of Credential.
15. Authorized Persons: Powers and Duties.
16. Access and Inspection.
17. Power to Inspect and Copy.
18. Production of Documents and Records.
19. Power to Prevent Aircraft Flying.
PART III
REPORTS, DOCUMENTS, AND RECORDS

20. Mandatory Reporting.
21. Documents to be carried.
22. Preservation of Documents.
23. Offences in relation to Documents and Records.
PART IV
REGISTRATION AND MARKING OF
AIRCRAFT

24. Aircraft to be registered.
25. Registration of aircraft.
26. Nationality and registration marks.
PART V
AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT

27. Type Certificate.
28. Certificate of Airworthiness.
29. Airworthiness Directives, Modifications and Repairs.
30. Continued Airworthiness.
31. Aircraft Records.
32. Inspection, Overhaul, Repair, Replacement and Modification.
33. Approval of Maintenance Organizations.
34. Aircraft, engine and propeller Logbooks.
35. Aircraft Weight Schedule.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 39






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

PART VI
AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS AND

EQUIPMENT

36. Instruments and Equipment.
37. Radio Equipment of Aircraft.
38. Minimum Equipment Requirements.
39. Required Instruments and Equipment.
PART VII
PERSONNEL LICENSING

40. Personnel Licensing Approvals.
41. Valid Airmen Certificates.
42. Instruction in Flying.
43. Aircraft Maintenance Licences.
44. Grant, Renewal and Effect of Flight Crew Licences.
45. Airman Medical Certificate.
46. Airman medical certificate.
47. Validation of Licences.
48. Personal Flying Logbook.
49. Approval of Training Organizations.
PART VIII
OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT

50. Careless or Reckless Action.
51. Authority of Pilot in Command.
52. Interference with a Crew Member.
53. Applicable Aircraft Requirements.
54. Applicable Flight Crew Requirements.
55. Crew Duties and Responsibilities.
56. All Passenger Carrying Operations.
57. Flight planning and preparation.
58. Applicable Flight Rules.
59. Operations in Controlled Flight.
PART IX
AERIAL WORK OPERATIONS

60. Aerial Work Activity.
61. Issue of Aerial Application Certificates.
62. Towing, Picking up or Raising of Persons or Articles.
63. Dropping of Animals and Articles.
64. Dropping of Persons.
65. Aerial Photography and Survey from Aircraft.
66. Exhibitions of Flying, Aircraft Races or Contests.

CH.3 – 40] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

PART X
COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT
OPERATIONS

67. Issue of Air Operator’s Certificate.
68. Initial certification required.
69. Continued Conformance.
70. Aircraft Authorized.
71. Security Requirements.
72. Maintenance Requirements.
73. Passenger Requirements.
74. Qualified Personnel.
75. Crew Fatigue.
76. Flight Release Requirements.
77. Mass and Balance and Performance.
PART XI
CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS

78. Shipping and Acceptance of Dangerous Goods.
79. Munitions of War.
PART XII
GENERAL

80. Accident Reporting and Investigation.
81. Fees.
82. Validation of Documents.
83. Extra-territorial Effect of these Regulations.
84. Application to Aircraft not Registered in The Bahamas.
85. Waivers.
86. Deviations.
87. Exemptions.
88. Power to Prohibit or Restrict Flying.
89. Ultra-Small Aircraft.
90. Transitional provisions.


SCHEDULES

Schedule 1 — General Policies, Procedures and Definitions.
Schedule 2 — Penalties.
Schedule 3 — Aircraft Registration.
Schedule 4 — Aircraft and Component Original Certification.
Schedule 5 — Continuing Airworthiness of Aircraft.
Schedule 6 — Approved Maintenance Organizations.
Schedule 7 — Required Instruments and Equipment.
Schedule 8 — Personnel Licensing.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 41






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

Schedule 9 — Approved Training Organizations.
Schedule 10 — Operations of Aircraft.
Schedule 11 — Aerial Work Operations.
Schedule 12 — Air Operator Certification and Administration.
Schedule 13 — Passenger Carrying Requirements for AOC Holders

and Operators of Large Aircraft.
Schedule 14 — AOC Personnel Qualification.
Schedule 15 — AOC Key Operations Personnel: Duty Periods, Rest

Periods and Flight Time.
Schedule 16 — Air Operator Flight Release Requirements.
Schedule 17 — Mass and Balance and Performance for Aircraft Used

in Commercial Air Transport.
Schedule 18 — Carriage of Dangerous Goods By Air.
Schedule 19 — Aircraft Accident Reporting And Investigation

Requirements.

CIVIL AVIATION (SAFETY) REGULATIONS, 2001
(SECTION 5)

[Commencement 17th April, 2001]
1. These Regulations may be cited as the Civil

Aviation (Safety) Regulations, 2001.
2. These Regulations shall come into force on

such date as the Minister may appoint by Notice in the
Gazette ∗

3. For the purposes of the Civil Aviation Act and of
these Regulations, the provisions of the Convention on
International Civil Aviation signed at Chicago on the 7th
December, 1944 (“the Chicago Convention”) and the
Annexes thereto together with the Standards and Recom-
mended Practices established by the International Civil
Aviation Organization (ICAO) thereunder and such other
internationally recognised standards and practices shall be
adopted and applied (as appropriate) in The Bahamas.

4. (1) In these Regulations, unless the context
otherwise requires —

“Aerial work” means any purpose (other than
commercial air transport) for which an aircraft is
flown if valuable consideration is given or
promised in respect to the business or purpose of
the flight;


∗ Date of commencement: 17th April, 2001 (S.I. 146 of 17th September 2001).

S.I. 60/2001

Citation.

Commencement.

Applicable laws
and
interpretation.
Ch. 284.

Interpretation.

CH.3 – 42] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

“Aerodrome” means any area of land or water
designed, equipped, set apart or commonly used
for affording facilities for the landing and
departure of aircraft and includes any area or
space, whether on the ground, on the roof of a
building or elsewhere, which is designed,
equipped or set apart for affording facilities for
the landing and departure of aircraft capable of
descending or climbing vertically, but shall not
include any area the use of which for affording
facilities for the landing and departure of aircraft
has been abandoned and has not been resumed;

“Aerodrome operating minima” in relation to the
operation of an aircraft at an aerodrome means the
cloud ceiling and runway visual range for take-
off, and the decision height or minimum descent
height, runway visual range and visual reference
for landing, which are the minimum for the
operation of that aircraft at that aerodrome;

“Airman” means any person certificated to perform a
service relating to an aircraft, maintenance or
flight operation;

“Airman certificate” means any certificate issued to
an airman under these Regulations;

“Air Operator Certificate” or “AOC” means a
certificate issued by The Bahamas or competent
authority of another State authorizing the holder
to conduct passenger or cargo operations for
remuneration, hire or valuable consideration (see
definition of “commercial air transport”)

“AOC holder” means the person or entity to which
the AOC has been issued.

“Approach to landing” means that portion of the flight
of the aircraft, when approaching to land, in
which it is descending below a height of 1000 ft
above the relevant specified decision height or
minimum descent height;

“Appropriate aeronautical radio station” means in
relation to an aircraft an aeronautical radio
station serving the area in which the aircraft is
for the time being;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 43






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

“Appropriate air traffic control unit” means in
relation to an aircraft the air traffic control unit
serving the area in which the aircraft is for the
time being;

“Authorized person” means any person authorized by
the Minister either generally or in relation to a
particular case or class of cases, and references
to a person authorized by the Minister include
reference to the holder for the time being of any
office designated by the Minister;

“Cargo” includes mail and animals;
“Certificate of airworthiness” includes any validation

thereof and any flight manual, performance
schedule or other document, whatever its title,
incorporated by reference in that certificate
relating to the certificate of airworthiness;

“Class A airspace”, “Class B airspace”, “Class C
airspace”, “Class D airspace” and “Class E
airspace” means airspace respectively notified as
such, in accordance with the appropriate Inter-
national Civil Aviation Organization definition;

“Ceiling” in relation to an aerodrome means the
vertical distance from the elevation of the
aerodrome to the lowest part of any cloud visible
from the aerodrome which is sufficient to
obscure more than one-half of the sky so visible;

“Pilot in command” in relation to an aircraft means
the member of the flight crew designated as pilot
in command of that aircraft by the operator
thereof, or, failing such a person, the person who
is for the time being the pilot in command of the
aircraft;

“Commercial air transport” means an undertaking
whose business includes the carriage by air of
passengers or cargo for remuneration, hire or
valuable consideration that is not considered
aerial work;

“Competent authority” means in relation to The
Bahamas, the Minister, and in relation to any
other country the authority responsible under
the law of that country for promoting the safety
of civil aviation;

CH.3 – 44] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

“Contracting state” means any State (including The
Bahamas) which is party to the Convention on
International Civil Aviation;

“Controlled airspace” means airspace which has been
notified as Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D
or Class E airspace;

“Second in command” in relation to an aircraft
means a pilot who in performing his duties as
such is subject to the direction of another pilot
carried in the aircraft;

“Crew member” means any person required to
perform duties on an aircraft in flight;

“Flight” and “to fly” in relation to an aircraft means
the time from which it lifts off the surface until
it again lands on the surface;

“Flight crew” in relation to an aircraft means those
members of the crew of the aircraft who
respectively undertake to act as pilot and flight
engineer of the aircraft;

“Flight simulator” means apparatus by means of
which flight conditions in an aircraft are
simulated on the ground;

“General aviation operation” means any aircraft
flight operation other than for the purpose or
business of commercial air transport or aerial
work.

“Licence” includes any certificate of competency or
certificate of validity issued with the licence or
required to be held in connection with the
licence by the law of the country in which the
licence is granted;

“Logbook” in the case of an aircraft logbook, engine
logbook or variable pitch propeller logbook, or
personal flying logbook, includes a record kept
either in a book, or by any other means approved
by the Minister in the particular case;

“Maximum total weight authorized” in relation to an
aircraft means the maximum total weight of the
aircraft and its contents at which the aircraft
may take off anywhere in the world, in the most
favorable circumstances in accordance with the
certificate of airworthiness in force in respect of
the aircraft;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 45






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

“Military aircraft” means the naval, military or air
force aircraft of any country and any aircraft in
respect of which there is in force a certificate
issued by the Minister that the aircraft is to be
treated for the purposes of these Regulations as
a military aircraft;

“Minister” means the Minister responsible for Civil
Aviation;

“Night” means the time between half an hour after
sunset until half an hour before sunrise, sunset
and sunrise being determined at surface level;

“Notified” means shown in any of the following
publications for the time being in force and
issued in The Bahamas whether before or after
the coming into operation of these Regulations
that is to say, “NOTAMs (notices to airmen)”,
“Aeronautical information publications (AIP)”,
or such other official publications so issued for
the purpose of enabling any of the provisions of
these Regulations to be complied with;

“Operator” means any person who is responsible for
the aircraft for a particular flight;

“Parascending parachute” means a parachute which is
towed by cable in such a manner as to cause it to
ascend;

“Passenger” means a person other than a member of
the crew;

“Pilot in command” in relation to an aircraft means a
person who for the time being is in charge of
the piloting of the aircraft without being under
the direction of any other pilot in the aircraft;

“Prescribed” means prescribed by regulations made
by the Minister under these Regulations, and
the expression “prescribe” shall be construed
accordingly;

“Pressurised aircraft” means an aircraft provided
with means of maintaining in any compartment
a pressure greater than that of the surrounding
atmosphere;

CH.3 – 46] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

“Record” includes, in addition to a record in
writing —
(a) any disc, tape, sound-track or other device

in which sounds or signals are embodied so
as to be capable (with or without the aid of
some other instrument) of being reproduced
therefrom;

(b) any film, tape or other device in which
visual images are embodied so as to be
capable (as aforesaid) of being reproduced
therefrom; and

(c) any photograph;
and any reference to a copy of a record includes, in
the case of a record falling within paragraph (A) only
of this definition, a transcript of the sounds or signals
embodied therein, in the case of a record falling
within paragraph (B) only of this definition, a still
reproduction of the images embodied therein. and in
the case of a record falling within both those
paragraphs such a transcript together with such a still
reproduction;
“Replacement” in relation to any part of an aircraft or

its equipment includes the removal and
replacement of that part whether or not by the
same part, and whether or not any work is done
on it; but does not include the removal and
replacement of a part which is designed to be
removable solely for the purpose of enabling
another part to be inspected, repaired, removed
or replaced or cargo to be loaded;

“To land” in relation to aircraft includes alighting on
the water;

“Valuable consideration” means the exchange of
services, goods, equipment, or money.

(2) Additional definitions are contained in the
Schedules to these Regulations, beginning with Schedule 1.

(3) An aircraft shall be deemed to be in flight from
the moment when, after the embarkation of its crew for the
purpose of taking off, it first moves under its own power,
until the moment when it next comes to rest after landing;
and the expressions “a flight,” “to fly” and “flight time”
shall be construed accordingly.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 47






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(4) Every person employed or engaged in an aircraft
in flight on the business of the aircraft shall be deemed to
be a member of the crew thereof.

(5) References in these Regulations to the operator
of an aircraft are, for the purposes of the application of any
provision of these Regulations in relation to any particular
aircraft, references to the person who at the relevant time
has the management of that aircraft, and cognate
expressions shall be construed accordingly.

(6) A power to issue directions under these Regula-
tions shall include the power to make different provisions
with respect to different classes of aircraft, aerodromes,
persons or property and with respect to different circum-
stances and with respect to different parts of The Bahamas
and to make such incidental and supplementary provisions
as are necessary or expedient for carrying out the purposes
of these Regulations.

(7) Any power conferred by these Regulations to
issue, make, serve or grant any instrument shall be
construed as including a power exercisable, in the like
manner and subject to the like conditions, if any, to vary,
revoke, cancel or otherwise terminate the instrument.

(8) For the purpose of these Regulations, the term
“instrument” will refer to a document issued by the
Government of The Bahamas and includes any regula-
tions, direction, instruction, rule or other requirement, any
notice and any certificate, licence, approval, permission,
exemption, authorizations, logbook record or other
document. The term “instruments” will refer to aircraft
components used by the flight crew for the purpose of
flight and navigation.

PART I
ENFORCEMENT OF THESE REGULATIONS

5. Any person who without reasonable excuse fails
to comply with any directive given to him under any
provision of these Regulations or directions made there-
under shall be deemed for the purposes of these Regula-
tions to have contravened that provision.

Enforcement of
directions.

CH.3 – 48] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

6. The Minister may, if he thinks fit, provisionally
issue a decision to take action to enforce the regulations
that have been contravened, including but not limited to —

(a) re-examination for original certification basis or
competence;

(b) assess a monetary penalty for contravention of
the requirements of a regulation or Schedule;

(c) suspend or vary a document;
(d) revoke, suspend or vary a permit; and
(e) prevent flying.
7. (1) The Minister may, if he thinks fit,

provisionally suspend or vary any certificate, licence,
approval, permission, exemption, authorizations or other
document issued, granted or having effect under these
Regulations, pending inquiry into or consideration of the
case. The Minister may, on sufficient ground being shown
to his satisfaction after due inquiry, revoke, suspend or
vary any such certificate, licence, approval, permission,
exemption, authorizations or other document.

(2) The holder or any person having the possession
or custody of any certificate, licence, approval, permission,
exemption or other document which has been revoked,
suspended or varied under these Regulations shall
surrender it to the Minister within a reasonable time after
being required to do so by the Minister.

(3) The breach of any condition subject to which
any certificate, licence, approval, permission, exemption or
other document, other than a licence issued in respect of an
aerodrome, has been granted or issued, or which has effect
under these Regulations shall, in the absence of provision
to the contrary in the document, render the document
invalid during the continuance of the breach.

(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this
regulation, a flight manual, performance schedule or other
document incorporated by reference in the certificate of
airworthiness may be varied on sufficient ground being
shown to the satisfaction of the Minister, whether or not
after due inquiry.

8. (1) Subject to the provisions of this regulation, the
Minister may revoke, suspend or vary any permit to which
this regulation applies.

Minister’s
decision.

Revocation,
suspension and
variation of
documents.

Revocation,
suspension and
variation of
permits.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 49






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) Save as provided by paragraph (3), the Minister
may exercise his powers under paragraph (1) only after
notifying the permit holder of his intention to do so and
after due consideration of the case.

(3) If, by reason of the urgency of the matter, it
appears to the Minister to be necessary for him to do so, he
may provisionally suspend or vary a permit to which this
regulation applies without complying with the require-
ments of paragraph (2); but he shall in any such case
comply with those requirements as soon thereafter as is
reasonably practicable and shall then, in the light of his due
consideration of the case, either:

(a) revoke the provisional suspension or variation of
the permit; or

(b) substitute therefor a definitive revocation, susp-
ension or variation, which, if a definitive
suspension, may be for the same or a different
period as the provisional suspension (if any) or,
if a definitive variation, may be in the same or
different terms as the provisional variation (if
any).

(4) The powers vested in the Minister by paragraph
(1) or paragraph (3) may be exercised by him whenever, in
his judgment and whether or not by reason of anything
done or omitted to be done by the permit-holder or
otherwise connected with the permit-holder, it is necessary
or expedient that the permit-holder should not enjoy, or
should no longer enjoy, the rights conferred on him by a
permit to which this regulation applies or should enjoy
them subject to such limitations or qualifications as the
Minister may determine. In particular, and without
prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, the Minister
may exercise his said powers if:

(a) it appears to him that the person to whom the
permit was granted has committed a breach of
any condition to which it is subject;

(b) it appears to him that any agreement between the
Government of The Bahamas and the Govern-
ment of any other country in pursuance of which
or in reliance on which the permit was granted is
no longer in force or that that other Government
has committed a breach thereof;

CH.3 – 50] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(c) it appears to him that the person to whom the
permit was granted, or such other Government
as aforesaid (that is to say, a Government which
is a party to such an agreement as aforesaid with
the Government of The Bahamas), or the
aeronautical authorities of the country con-
cerned, have acted in a manner which is
inconsistent with or prejudicial to the operation
in good faith, and according to its object and
purpose, of any such agreement as aforesaid, or
have engaged in unfair, discriminatory or re-
strictive practices to the prejudice of the holder
of a licence granted under regulation 8 of the
Civil Aviation (Licensing of Air Services) Re-
gulations, 1976 or the holder of a permit granted
under regulation 23 of the said regulations in his
operation of air services to or from points in the
country concerned; or

(d) it appears to him that the person to whom the
permit was granted, having been granted it as a
person designated by the Government of a
country other than The Bahamas for the
purposes of any such agreement as aforesaid, is
no longer so designated or that that person has
so conducted himself, or that such circumstances
have arisen in relation to him, as to make it
necessary or expedient to disregard or qualify
the consequences of his being so designated.

(5) The permit-holder or any person having the
possession or custody of any permit which has been
revoked, suspended or varied under this regulation shall
surrender it to the Minister within a reasonable time of
being required by him to do so.

(6) The breach of any condition subject to which any
permit to which this regulation applies has been granted
shall render the permit invalid during the continuance of the
breach.

(7) The permits to which this regulation applies are
permissions granted by the Minister under these Regula-
tions, and any approvals or authorizations of, or consents
to, any matter which the Minister has granted, or is deemed
to have granted, in pursuance of a permission which he has
so granted.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 51






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(8) References in this regulation to the “permit-
holder” are references to the person to whom any permit to
which this regulation applies has been granted or is deemed
to have been granted.

9. (1) If any provision of these Regulations or any
directions thereunder is contravened in relation to an
aircraft, the operator of that aircraft and the pilot in
command thereof shall (without prejudice to the liability of
any other person under these Regulations for that contra-
vention) be deemed for the purposes of the following
provisions of this regulation to have contravened that
provision unless he proves that the contravention occurred
without his consent or connivance and that he exercised all
due diligence to prevent that contravention.

(2) If it is proved that an act or omission of any
person which would otherwise have been a contravention
of these Regulations was due to any cause not avoidable by
the exercise of reasonable care by that person the act or
omission shall be deemed not to be a contravention by that
person of that provision.

(3) Where a person is charged with contravening any
regulation or associated Schedule by reason of his having
been a member of the flight crew of an aircraft on a flight
for the purpose of commercial air transport or aerial work
the flight shall be treated (without prejudice to the liability
of any other person under these Regulations) as not having
been for that purpose if he proves that he neither knew nor
suspected that the flight was for that purpose.

(4) If any person contravenes these Regulations or
the applicable Schedules, not being a provision referred to
in paragraphs (5) and (6) of this regulation, he shall be
guilty, of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a
fine not exceeding six hundred dollars for each offence and
each flight.

(5) If any person contravenes any provision specified
in Part A of Schedule 2 he shall be guilty of an offence and
liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding fifteen
hundred dollars for each offence and each flight.

(6) If any person contravenes any provision specified
in Part B of the said Schedule he shall be guilty of an
offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine not
exceeding three thousand dollars for each offence and each


Penalties.

CH.3 – 52] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

flight and on conviction on indictment to a fine or
imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or both.

10. (1) An appeal shall lie to the Supreme Court
from any decision of the Minister that a person is not a fit
person to hold a licence to act as an aircraft maintenance
technician, member of a flight crew of an aircraft, or as the
management of an approved maintenance or training
organization, or the management of an air operator, and if
the court is satisfied on the evidence submitted to the
Minister he was wrong in so deciding, the court may
reverse the Minister’s decision and the Minister shall give
effect to the court’s determination:

Provided that an appeal shall not lie from a decision
of the Minister that a person is not qualified to hold the
licence by reason of a deficiency in his knowledge,
experience, competence, skill, physical or mental fitness.

(2) The respondent to any appeal under this regula-
tion shall be the Attorney General of The Bahamas.

(3) For the purposes of any provision relating to the
time within which an appeal may be brought, the
Minister’s decision shall be deemed to have been taken on
the date on which the Minister furnished a statement of his
reasons for the decision to the applicant for the licence, or
as the case may be, the holder or former holder of it.

PART II
FLIGHT STANDARDS INSPECTORATE

11. The Minister shall establish a Flight Standards
Inspectorate comprised of technically qualified aviation
safety inspectors to conduct the necessary technical
evaluations, inspections and investigations required to meet
The Bahamas’ ICAO responsibilities for safety oversight
for:

(a) registration of aircraft;
(b) airworthiness of aircraft;
(c) personnel licensing;
(d) operations of aircraft;
(e) aerial work;
(f) commercial air transport;
(g) carriage of dangerous goods; and
(h) accident investigation.

Appeal to
Supreme Court.

Function of the
Flight Standards
Inspectorate.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 53






LRO 1/2006 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

12. (1) The Manager of the Flight Standards
Inspectorate shall have the delegated authority to issue any
licence, certificate, approval or other written document in
support of the functions assigned to it and to perform such
acts and to conduct such investigations on behalf of the
Director pursuant to and in accordance with these
Regulations.

(2) The Flight Standards Inspectorate may by means
of Aviation Information Circulars (AIC), Airworthiness
Notices (AWN), Aeronautical Information Publications
(AIP), Notices to Airmen (NOTAMS), Notices of Non
Compliance (NNC), and other documents develop, issue
and revise instructions, directions, rules and procedures or
prescribe requirements to give effect to the provisions of
the Chicago Convention and the Annexes thereto and the
Standards and Recommended Practices of ICAO as well as
the provisions of the Civil Aviation Act and of these
Regulations, relating to the operation, use, possession,
maintenance or operations of aircraft flying in or over The
Bahamas or of aircraft registered in The Bahamas or of
aircraft operated by the holder of an Air Operator
Certificate (AOC) issued under these Regulations.

13. The aviation safety inspectors assigned to the
Flight Standards Inspectorate shall have the status of
authorised persons under these Regulations and shall be
issued a unique credential for the performance of their
functions.

14. No person shall possess or use these aviation
safety inspector credentials unless:

(a) he is employed by the Government of The
Bahamas to perform the functions of the Flight
Standards Inspectorate; and

(b) he is using the credential in the performance of a
specific function of the Flight Standards Inspec-
torate.

15. (1) The Minister, or any authorized person, shall
have the right to carry out audits or surveillance or to
require any person to produce documents or any other
article for the purpose of detecting any contravention of
these Regulations.

Delegation of
powers.

Authorising
credential.

Possession of
credential.

Authorized
persons’ powers
and duties.

CH.3 – 54] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2006

(2) Any person who, having been required in terms
of paragraph (1) to produce any document or other article,
without lawful cause makes a statement that is false in any
material particular, or fails to produce any document or
other article which is in his possession or control or to
which he has access, shall be guilty of an offence.

(3) An authorized person shall have the right to
enter and inspect any aerodrome, hanger or other place (at
which an aircraft is located or stored), aircraft or any
organization performing tasks and services related to
aviation safety and to inspect any aircraft, aircraft
equipment, components, materials, facilities, personnel or
crew members for the purpose of ensuring that the
provisions of the Act and these Regulations have been, or
are being complied with.

(4) Where it appears to any authorized person that
an aircraft is intended or likely to be flown in such
circumstances that the flight would involve an offence
against these Regulations or be a cause of danger to
persons in the aircraft or to persons or property on the
ground, he may take such action by way of detention of the
aircraft or such other action necessary for the purpose of
inspecting the aircraft or causing the circumstances of the
flight to be investigated.

(5) Where an aircraft has been detained pursuant to
(4) above such aircraft shall not be operated until the
Minister, being satisfied that these Regulations are being
complied with, approves or until such modifications or
repairs have been effected as the Minister considers
necessary to render the aircraft fit for flight.

(6) For the purpose of exercising his responsibilities
under these Regulations any authorized person shall be
issued with and carry at all times the means of identifica-
tion referred to in regulation 13.

(7) No person shall intentionally obstruct or impede
any authorized person acting in the exercise of his powers
or the performance of his duties under these Regulations.

16. (1) The Minister may cause such evaluations,
inspections, investigations, tests, experiment, and flight
trials to be made as it deems necessary for the purposes of
these Regulations. Any person authorized in writing by the
Minister to conduct these inspections, investigations and


Access and
inspection.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 55






LRO 1/2006 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

observations may, at any reasonable time, inspect any
aircraft, personnel, facilities, and records in operations
subject to these Regulations. This access shall be free and
uninterrupted.

(2) The Director or any person authorized shall,
have the right of access at all reasonable times —

(a) to any aerodrome for the purpose of inspecting
the aerodrome or any aircraft on the aerodrome
or any document which it has power, in terms of
these Regulations, to demand, or for the purpose
of detaining the aircraft in terms of these
Regulations;

(b) to any place, whether public or private, where an
aircraft is located for the purpose of inspecting
the aircraft or any document which it or such
person has power, in terms of these Regulations,
to demand or for the purpose of detaining the
aircraft in terms of these Regulations;

(c) to any aircraft, for the purpose of checking,
whilst in flight, the performance of the aircraft or
any of its equipment and the efficiency of flight
crew members in the performance of their duties:

Provided that the safety of commercial operations of
the aircraft shall not be unduly prejudiced by the exercise
of the right of access in terms of this regulation.

17. (1) An authorized person shall have the power to
inspect and copy any certificate, licence, logbook, docu-
ment or record which he has the power pursuant to these
Regulations and any directions issued thereunder to require
to be produced to him.

(2) No person may obstruct, impede or otherwise
interfere with the copying of the documents in paragraph
(1) by an authorised person.

18. (1) Each person involved or participating in an
aviation activity shall, within a reasonable time after being
requested to do so by an authorized person, cause to be
produced to that person the certificates and documents
which he is required to have, carry, complete or preserve
during the course of his activities. This will include airmen
and medical certificates, operational and maintenance
manuals and records as required by these Regulations and
the Schedules applicable to that activity.

Power to inspect
and copy.

Production of
documents and
records.

CH.3 – 56] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2006

(2) The holder of a licence granted or rendered valid
under these Regulations shall, within a reasonable time
after being requested to do so by an authorized person,
cause to be produced to that person his licence, including
any certificate of validation. The requirements of this
paragraph shall be deemed to have been complied with,
except in relation to licences required by these Regulations
to be carried in the aircraft or kept at an aerodrome, if the
licence requested is produced within five days after the
request has been made to the Flight Standards Inspecto-
rate.

19. (1) If it appears to the Minister or an authorized
person that any aircraft is intended or likely to be flown —

(a) in such circumstances that the flight would be a
cause of danger to any person or property
whether or not in the aircraft and in contra-
vention of any provision of these Regulations or
any directions issued thereunder; or

(b) while in a condition unfit for the flight, whether
or not the flight would otherwise be in contra-
vention of any provision of these Regulations or
of any directions issued thereunder,

the Minister or that authorized person may direct the
operator or the pilot in command of the aircraft that he is
not to permit the aircraft to make the particular flight or
any other flight of such description as may be specified in
the direction, until the direction has been revoked by the
Minister or by an authorized person, and the Minister or
that authorized person may take such steps as are necessary
to detain the aircraft.

(2) For the purposes of paragraph (1) of this
regulation the Minister or any authorized person may enter
upon and inspect any aircraft.

(3) If it appears to the Minister or an authorized
person that any aircraft is intended or likely to be flown in
such circumstances that any provision under these
Regulations or provision relating to the licensing of air
transport in The Bahamas would be contravened in relation
to the flight the Minister or that authorized person may
direct the operator or the pilot in command of the aircraft
that he is not to permit the aircraft to make a particular
flight or any other flight of such description as may be
specified in the direction until the direction has


Power to prevent
aircraft flying.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 57






LRO 1/2006 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

been revoked by the Minister or any authorized person,
may take such steps as are necessary to detain the aircraft.

(4) For the purposes of paragraph (3) of this
regulation the Minister or any authorized person may enter
upon any aerodrome and may enter upon and inspect any
aircraft.

PART III
REPORTS, DOCUMENTS, AND RECORDS
20. (1) Every person who is the operator or pilot in

command of an aircraft which is registered in The
Bahamas or a commercial air transport aircraft not
registered in The Bahamas but operated by the holder of an
air operator’s certificate issued in The Bahamas; or carries
on the business of inspecting, manufacturing, repairing or
overhauling such an aircraft, or any equipment or part
thereof; or signs a release to service, or release to service in
respect of such an aircraft, part or equipment shall make
the reports to the Minister —

(a) which are specified in these Regulations and
applicable Schedules; or

(b) upon his request for such information as
specified in a notice in writing served upon the
person, being information which is in this
person’s possession or control and which relates
to a reportable occurrence which has been
reported by him or by another person to the
Minister in accordance with this regulation.

(2) The reports shall be made within such time, by
such means, and shall contain such information as is so
specified and it shall be presented in such form as the
Minister may require.

(3) In this regulation “reportable occurrence”
means —

(a) any incident relating to such an aircraft or any
defect in or malfunctioning of such an aircraft or
any part or equipment of such an aircraft, being
an incident, malfunctioning or defect endanger-
ing, or which, if not corrected, would endanger,
the aircraft, its occupants, or any other person;
and

Mandatory
reporting.

CH.3 – 58] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2006

(b) any defect in or malfunctioning of any facility
on the ground used or intended to be used for
purposes of or in connection with the operation
of such an aircraft, being a defect or malfunc-
tioning endangering, or which, if not corrected,
would endanger, such an aircraft or its occu-
pants.

(4) Subject to paragraph (1)(a) of this regulation,
nothing in this regulation shall require a person to report
any occurrence which he has reason to believe has been or
will be reported by another person to the Minister in
accordance with this regulation.

(5) A person shall not make any report under this
regulation if he knows or has reason to believe that the
report is false in any particular.

21. (1) An aircraft shall not fly in or over The
Bahamas unless it carries the documents which it is
required to carry under the law of the country in which it is
registered.

(2) An aircraft registered in The Bahamas shall,
when in flight, carry documents in accordance with these
Regulations provided that, if the flight is intended to begin
and end at the same aerodrome and does not include
passage over the territory of any country other than The
Bahamas, the documents may be kept at that aerodrome
instead of being carried in the aircraft.

22. (1) A person required by these Regulations and
the applicable Schedules to preserve any document or
record shall continue to preserve that document or record,
and in the event of his death the duty to preserve the
document or record shall fall upon his designated
representative.

(2) A person assigned under these Regulations and
the applicable Schedules to preserve any document or
record shall continue to preserve that document or record
until such time as the responsibility may be transferred to
another assigned person.

23. (1) A person shall not with intent to deceive —
(a) use any certificate, licence, approval, permission,

exemption or other document issued or required


Documents to be
carried.

Preservation of
documents.

Offences in
relation to
documents and
records.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 59






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

by or under these Regulations which has been
forged, altered, revoked or suspended, or to
which he is not entitled; or

(b) lend any certificate, licence, approval, permis-
sion, exemption or other document issued or
having effect or required by or under these
Regulations to, or allow it to be used by, any
other person; or

(c) make any false representation for the purpose of
procuring for himself or any other person the
grant, issue, renewal or variation of any such
certificate, licence, approval, permission or
exemption or other document,

and in this paragraph a reference to a certificate, licence,
approval, permission, exemption or other document
includes a copy or purported copy thereof.

(2) A person shall not intentionally damage, alter or
render illegible any logbook or other record required by or
under these Regulations to be maintained or any entry
made therein, or —

(a) knowingly make, or procure or assist in the
making of, any false entry in or material
omission from any such logbook or record; or

(b) destroy any such logbook or record during the
period for which it is required under these
Regulations to be preserved.

(3) All entries made in writing in any logbook or
record referred to in paragraph (2) of this regulation shall
be made in ink or indelible pencil.

(4) A person shall not purport to issue any certificate
for the purposes of these Regulations or any directions made
thereunder unless he is authorized to do so under these
Regulations.

(5) A person shall not issue any such certificate as
aforesaid unless he has satisfied himself that all statements
in the certificate are correct.

PART IV
REGISTRATION AND MARKING OF AIRCRAFT

24. (1) An aircraft shall not fly in or over The
Bahamas unless it is registered in —

(a) a Contracting State; or

Aircraft to be
registered.

CH.3 – 60] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) some other country in relation to which there is
in force an agreement between the Government
of The Bahamas and the Government of that
country which makes provision for the flight
over The Bahamas of aircraft registered in that
country:

Provided that this paragraph shall not apply to any
kite or captive v balloon.

(2) If an aircraft flies over The Bahamas in contra-
vention of paragraph (1) of this regulation in such manner
or circumstances that if the aircraft had been registered in
The Bahamas an offence against these Regulations would
have been committed, the like offence shall be deemed to
have been committed in respect of that aircraft.

25. (1) The Minister shall, subject to the provisions
of this Part, register aircraft in The Bahamas and for this
purpose shall cause a register to be kept and may record
therein the particulars specified in paragraph (7).

(2) Subject to the provisions of this regulation, an
aircraft shall not be registered or continue to be registered
in The Bahamas if it appears to the Minister that —

(a) the aircraft is registered outside The Bahamas
and that such registration does not cease by
operation of law upon the aircraft being regis-
tered in The Bahamas;

(b) an unqualified person holds any legal or
beneficial interest by way of ownership in the
aircraft or any share therein;

(c) it would be inexpedient in the public interest for
the aircraft to be or to continue to be registered
in The Bahamas; or

(d) the aircraft does not qualify for the issue of a
certificate of airworthiness in accordance with
the provisions of regulation 28.

(3) The following persons and no others shall be
qualified to hold a legal or beneficial interest by way of
ownership in an aircraft registered in The Bahamas or a
share therein —

(a) the Government of The Bahamas;
(b) a citizen or permanent resident of The Bahamas

or other such persons as the Minister shall
approve;

Registration of
aircraft.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 61






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(c) a company incorporated in The Bahamas under
the Companies Act and having its principal
place of business in The Bahamas.

(4) If any unqualified person residing or having a
place of business in The Bahamas holds a legal or
beneficial interest by way of ownership in an aircraft, or a
share therein, the Minister, upon being satisfied that the
aircraft may otherwise be properly so registered, may
register the aircraft in The Bahamas and such person shall
not cause or permit the aircraft, while it is registered in
pursuance of this paragraph, to be used for the purpose of
commercial air transport or aerial work.

(5) If an aircraft is sold under a contract of hire-
purchase, let on hire or chartered by demise to a person
qualified under paragraph (3), the Minister may, whether
or not an unqualified person is entitled as owner to a legal
or beneficial interest therein, register the aircraft in The
Bahamas in the name of the hire purchaser, lessee or
charterer upon being satisfied that the aircraft may
otherwise be properly so registered, and subject to the
provisions of this regulation the aircraft may remain so
registered during the continuation of the contract, lease or
charter.

(6) Application for the registration of an aircraft in
The Bahamas shall be made in writing to the Minister, and
shall include or be accompanied by such particulars and
evidence relating to the aircraft and the ownership and
chartering thereof as the Minister may require to enable
him to determine whether the aircraft may properly be
registered in The Bahamas and to issue the certificate
referred to in paragraph (8).

(7) Upon receiving an application for the registration
of an aircraft in The Bahamas and being satisfied that the
aircraft may properly be so registered, the Minister shall
register the aircraft, wherever it may be, and shall include in
the register the following particulars —

(a) the number of the certificate;
(b) the nationality mark of the aircraft, and the

registration mark assigned to it by the Minister;
(c) the name of the constructor of the aircraft and its

designation;
(d) the serial number of the aircraft; and

Ch. 308.

CH.3 – 62] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(e) (i) the name and address of every person who
is entitled as owner to a legal interest in the
aircraft or a share therein, or, in the case of
an aircraft which is the subject of a charter
by demise, the name and address of the
charterer by demise; and

(ii) in the case of an aircraft registered in
pursuance of paragraph (4) or (5) of this
regulation, an indication that it is so
registered.

(8) The Minister shall furnish to the person in
whose name the aircraft is registered (hereinafter in this
regulation referred to as “the registered owner”) a
certificate of registration, which shall include the
particulars specified in paragraph (7) and the date on which
the certificate was issued.

(9) The Minister may grant to any person qualified
under paragraph (3) an aircraft dealer’s certificate if the
Minister is satisfied that such person has a place of
business in The Bahamas for buying and selling aircraft.

(10) Subject to paragraphs (4) and (5), if at any time
after an aircraft has been registered in The Bahamas an
unqualified person becomes entitled to a legal or beneficial
interest by way of ownership in the aircraft or a share
therein, the registration of the aircraft shall thereupon
become void and the certificate of registration shall
forthwith be returned by the registered owner to the
Minister.

(11) Any person who is the registered owner of an
aircraft registered in The Bahamas shall inform the
Minister forthwith in writing of —

(a) any change in the particulars which were
furnished to the Minister upon application being
made for the registration of the aircraft;

(b) the destruction of the aircraft, or its permanent
withdrawal from use; or

(c) in the case of an aircraft registered in pursuance
of paragraph (5), the termination of the demise
charter.

(12) Any person who becomes the owner of an
aircraft registered in The Bahamas shall within twenty-
eight days thereof inform the Minister in writing to that
effect.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 63






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(13) The Minister may, whenever it appears to be
necessary or appropriate to do so for giving effect to this
Part of these Regulations or for bringing up to date or
otherwise correcting the particulars entered on the register,
amend the register or, if he thinks fit, may cancel the
registration of the aircraft, and shall cancel that registration
within two months of being satisfied that there has been a
change in the ownership of the aircraft.

(14) The Minister may issue directions to adapt or
modify the foregoing provisions of this regulation as he
deems necessary or expedient for the purpose of providing
for the temporary transfer of aircraft to or from The
Bahamas register, either generally or in relation to a
particular case or class of cases.

(15) In this regulation references to an interest in an
aircraft do not include references to an interest in an aircraft
to which a person is entitled only by virtue of his
membership of a flying club and the reference in paragraph
(11) to the registered owner of an aircraft includes in the
case of a deceased person, his legal personal representative,
and in the case of a body corporate which has been
dissolved, its successor.

(16) Nothing in this regulation shall require the
Minister to cancel the registration of an aircraft unless in
his opinion it would be in expedient in the public interest to
do so.

26. (1) An aircraft(other than aircraft permitted by
or under these Regulations to fly without being registered)
shall not fly in or over The Bahamas unless it bears painted
thereon or affixed thereto, in the manner required by the
law of the country in which it is registered, the nationality
and registration marks required by that law.

(2) The marks to be borne by aircraft registered in
The Bahamas shall comply with Schedule 3.

(3) An aircraft shall not bear any marks which
purport to indicate —

(a) that the aircraft is registered in a country in
which it is not in fact registered; or

(b) that the aircraft is a State aircraft (as defined in
the Chicago Convention at Article 3) of a
particular country if it is not in fact such an


Nationality and
registration
marks.

CH.3 – 64] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

aircraft, unless the appropriate authority of that
country has sanctioned the bearing of such
marks.

PART V
AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT

27. (1) A Type Certificate with respect to an
aircraft, engine or propeller means a document issued by
the manufacturer, and approved by the appropriate
authority of the State of manufacture, certifying that the
type design of the aircraft, engine or propeller and of the
variants specified on the Type Data Sheet, comply with the
certification basis to which the certificate refers. The Type
Certificate includes; the type certificate data sheet, the type
design, the operating limitations and any other conditions
or limitations prescribed for the aircraft.

(2) Any person who intends to operate an aircraft to
be registered in The Bahamas for commercial air transport
or aerial work purposes shall apply to the Minister for the
issue, acceptance or validation of a Type Certificate as
provided in Schedule 4 for that aircraft, in accordance with
this regulation and the requirements of the Minister from
time to time.

(3) An applicant for a Type Certificate of an
aircraft, or for the acceptance or validation thereof, shall
submit with the application detailed data identifying the
airworthiness standards to which the aircraft was designed
and data which describes the design, construction and
performance of that aircraft.

(4) The Minister shall accept or validate a Type
Certificate, in respect of any aircraft, engine or propeller
that is imported into The Bahamas, subject to such
conditions or limitations as it shall consider appropriate
and in accordance with Schedule 4, provided that —

(a) the airworthiness authority of the State of
manufacture has issued a Type Certificate on the
basis of Federal Aviation Regulations or Joint
Air Regulations; and

(b) the Type Certificate approval basis meets the
airworthiness requirements laid down by the
Minister;

Type Certificate.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 65






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

in any other case, the Minister may in its discretion accept
or validate a Type Certificate that is issued by the
airworthiness authority of the State of manufacture and the
Type Certificate approval basis meets the airworthiness
requirements laid down by the Minister.

(5) It shall be an offence for a person to maintain or
operate an aircraft contrary to the Type Certificate that was
used in the issuance of the certificate of airworthiness.

28. (1) An aircraft shall not fly in or over The
Bahamas unless there is in force in respect thereof a
certificate of airworthiness duly issued or rendered valid in
under the law of the country in which the aircraft is
registered, and any conditions subject to which the
certificate was issued or rendered valid are complied with:

Provided that the foregoing prohibition shall not
apply to flights, beginning and ending in The Bahamas
without passing over any other country, of —

(a) an aircraft flying in accordance with a Special
Airworthiness Certificate issued pursuant to
Schedule 5; or

(b) an aircraft flying in accordance with the condi-
tions of a permit to fly issued by the Minister in
respect of that aircraft.

(2) In the case of an aircraft registered in The
Bahamas the certificate of airworthiness referred to in
paragraph (1) shall be a certificate issued in accordance
with the provisions of these Regulations.

(3) The Minister shall issue in respect of any aircraft
a certificate of airworthiness if he is satisfied that the aircraft
is fit to fly having regard to —

(a) the design, construction, workmanship and
materials of the aircraft (including in particular
any engines fitted therein), and of any equipment
carried in the aircraft which he considers
necessary for the airworthiness of the aircraft;
and

(b) the results of flying trials, and such other tests of
the aircraft as he may require:

Provided that, if the Minister has issued a certificate
of airworthiness in respect of an aircraft which, in his
opinion, is a prototype aircraft or a modification of a


Certificate of
airworthiness.

CH.3 – 66] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

prototype aircraft, he may dispense with flying trials in the
case of any other aircraft if he is satisfied that it conforms
to such prototype or modification.

(4) Every certificate of airworthiness shall specify
such conditions as are, in the opinion of the Minister,
appropriate to the aircraft in accordance with Schedule 5
and the certificate shall be issued subject to the condition
that the aircraft shall be flown only for the purposes
indicated on that certificate or associated certificates.

(5) The Minister may issue the certificate of
airworthiness subject to such other conditions relating to
the airworthiness of the aircraft as he thinks fit.

(6) The certificate of airworthiness may designate the
performance group of the aircraft.

(7) The Minister may, subject to such conditions as
he thinks fit, issue a certificate of validation rendering
valid for the purposes of these Regulations a certificate of
airworthiness issued in respect of any aircraft under the law
of any country other than The Bahamas.

(8) Subject to the provisions of these Regulations, a
certificate of airworthiness or validation issued under this
regulation shall remain in force for such period as may be
specified on the certificate, but may be reviewed by the
Minister from time to time to determine that the aircraft
conforms to the applicable airworthiness requirements.

(9) A certificate of airworthiness or a certificate of
validation issued in respect of an aircraft shall cease to be
in force —

(a) if the aircraft, or such of its equipment as is
necessary for the airworthiness of the aircraft, is
overhauled, repaired or modified, or if any part
of the aircraft or of such equipment is removed
or is replaced, otherwise than in a manner and
with material of a type approved by the Minister
either generally or in relation to a class of
aircraft or to the particular aircraft;

(b) until the completion of any inspection of the
aircraft or of any such equipment as aforesaid,
being an inspection made for the purpose of
ascertaining whether the aircraft remains air-
worthy and —

(i) classified as mandatory by the Minister; or

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 67






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(ii) required by a maintenance program ap-
proved by the Minister in relation to that
aircraft; or

(c) until the completion to the satisfaction of the
Minister of any modification of the aircraft or of
any such equipment as aforesaid, being a
modification required by the Minister for the
purpose of ensuring that the aircraft remains
airworthy.

(10) Nothing in these Regulations shall oblige the
Minister to accept an application for the issue of a
certificate of airworthiness or validation or for the variation
or renewal of any such certificate when the application is
not supported by such reports from such approved persons
as the Minister may specify (either generally or in a
particular case or class of cases).

29. (1) In the interest of safety, the Minister may
order that an aircraft registered in The Bahamas or operated
by a holder of an AOC issued under these Regulations,
aircraft engine, propeller or component shall be modified or
undergo special inspections. Such orders shall constitute
Airworthiness Directives and compliance is mandatory.
Airworthiness Directives, or their equivalent, issued by
other contracting States and Mandatory Service Bulletins
issued by an aircraft manufacturer shall be complied with.

(2) Each owner or operator of a Bahamas registered
aircraft and each holder of an AOC issued under these
Regulations shall ensure that he receives all Airworthiness
Directives and Mandatory Service Bulletins that affect his
aircraft and that are issued by the Minister, the authority in
the State of manufacture, the type certificate holder or the
manufacturer.

(3) On the issue of an applicable Airworthiness
Directive or Mandatory Service Bulletin the owner or
operator of a Bahamas registered aircraft and each holder
of an AOC issued under these Regulations shall take such
action as shall be prescribed by the Minister and shall
record the details of all actions taken in the logbook and
other technical records of the aircraft. Mandatory, or
optional, repairs or modifications shall be embodied only
in accordance with approved data specified and in
accordance with the instructions issued by the Minister or
the State of manufacture, the type certificate holder or the
manufacturer, as the case may be.

Airworthiness
Directives,
modifications
and repairs.

CH.3 – 68] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(4) All modifications or repairs carried out shall be
subject to approval by the Minister in accordance with
detailed drawings and other technical data adequate to
define completely the proposed modification and using
approved materials, parts and processes conforming to the
manufacturer’s specifications and in accordance with a
technical assessment showing compliance with an ap-
proved design standard.

30. (1) An aircraft registered in The Bahamas in
respect of which a certificate of airworthiness is in force
shall not fly unless —

(a) the aircraft (including in particular its engines),
together with its equipment and radio station, is
maintained in accordance with a maintenance
program developed in accordance with the
Regulations applicable to the type of operation;

(b) the required inspections of the aircraft have been
completed in accordance with the Regulations
applicable to the type of operation;

(c) there is a flight manual (or other approved
document) carried on, and available in, the
aircraft, in such form as shall be approved by the
Minister, for the use of the flight crew
containing the limitations within which the
aircraft is considered airworthy, together with
such additional instructions and information as
may be necessary to show compliance with the
Regulations relating to performance and for the
safe operation of the aircraft.

(2) The holder of an AOC issued under these
Regulations, or other operator of an aircraft, shall ensure
that an aircraft registered in The Bahamas shall be
maintained and periodically inspected in accordance with
the requirements of the approved data and manuals issued
by the manufacturer and in accordance with the main-
tenance program issued by the manufacturer and approved
by the Minister and that all Airworthiness Directives and
Mandatory Service Bulletins are complied with, and shall
ensure that an organization, approved by the Minister shall
maintain its aircraft in an airworthy condition and in
accordance with the approved maintenance program.

Continued
airworthiness.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 69






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(3) The approved maintenance program referred to
in paragraph (1) shall specify the occasions on which an
inspection must be carried out for the purpose of issuing a
release to service in accordance with this regulation and the
applicable Schedules.

(4) A release to service may be issued for the
purpose of this regulation only by —

(a) the holder of an aircraft maintenance technician
licence —

(i) granted under these Regulations and the
applicable Schedules and entitling the
holder to issue that release to service; or

(ii) granted under the law of a country other
than The Bahamas and rendered valid
under these Regulations in accordance with
the ratings, privileges and limitations of the
licence;

(b) a person whom the Minister has authorized to
issue a release to service in a particular case, and
in accordance with that authority;

(c) a maintenance organization approved by the
Minister; or

(d) a person approved by the Minister as being
competent to issue such a release to service, and
in accordance with that approval:

Provided that, in approving a maintenance program,
the Minister may direct that a release to service relating to
that program, or to any part thereof specified in its
direction, may be issued only by the holder of such a
licence as is so specified.

(5) A person referred to in paragraph (3) shall not
issue a release to service unless he has first verified that —

(a) maintenance has been carried out on the aircraft
in accordance with the maintenance program
approved for that aircraft;

(b) inspections and modifications required by the
Minister and the applicable requirements have
been completed as certified in the relevant release
to service;

CH.3 – 70] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(c) defects entered in the aircraft logbook or
technical log of the aircraft in accordance with
the Regulations have been rectified or the
rectification thereof has been deferred in accor-
dance with procedures approved by the Minister;
and

(d) certificates of release to service have been
issued in accordance with the Regulations;

and for this purpose the operator of the aircraft shall make
available to that person such information as is necessary.

(6) A release to service shall be issued in duplicate
and one copy of the most recently issued release to service
shall be carried in the aircraft when the Regulations so
require, and the other shall be kept by the operator
elsewhere than in the aircraft.

(7) Subject to the provisions regarding retention of
documents in this Regulation and its applicable Schedules,
each release to service shall be preserved by the operator of
the aircraft for a period of two years after it has been
issued.

31. (1) A aircraft logbook or technical log shall be
kept in respect of an aircraft registered in The Bahamas or
an aircraft operated by the holder of an AOC issued under
these Regulations.

(2) At the end of every flight by an aircraft operated
by the holder of an AOC issued under these Regulations,
the pilot in command shall enter in the aircraft logbook or
technical log the information required under these
Regulations applicable to the type of operation, and sign
and date such entries.

(3) Upon the rectification of any defect which has
been entered in a technical log in accordance with
paragraph (2) a person issuing a release to service required
by Regulation and Schedules in respect of that defect shall
enter that information in the aircraft logbook or technical
log in such a position as to be readily identifiable with the
defect to which it relates.

(4) The aircraft technical log referred to in this
regulation shall be carried in the aircraft as required by the
applicable Regulation and Schedules, and copies of the
entries referred to in this regulation shall be kept on the
ground:

Aircraft records.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 71






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

Provided that, in the case of an aeroplane of which
the maximum total weight authorized does not exceed
2,730 kg, or a helicopter, if it is not reasonably practicable
for the copy of the technical log to be kept on the ground
the copy may be carried in the aeroplane or helicopter, as
the case may be, in a container approved by the Minister
for that purpose.

32. (1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), an
aircraft registered in The Bahamas, being an aircraft in
respect of which a certificate of airworthiness issued or
rendered valid under these Regulations is in force, shall not
fly unless there is in force a release to service issued in
accordance with this regulation if the aircraft or any part of
the aircraft or such of its equipment as is necessary for the
airworthiness of the aircraft has been overhauled, repaired,
replaced, modified, maintained, or has been inspected as
required by the Regulations, as the case may be.

(2) Neither —
(a) equipment provided in compliance with Schedule

7; nor
(b) radio apparatus provided for use in an aircraft or

in any survival craft carried in an aircraft,
whether or not such apparatus is provided in
compliance with these Regulations,

shall be installed or placed on board for use in an aircraft
registered in The Bahamas or operated by a holder of an
AOC issued under these Regulations after being over-
hauled, repaired, modified or inspected, unless there is in
force in respect thereof at the time when it is installed or
placed on board a release to service issued in accordance
with this regulation.

(3) A release to service shall —
(a) certify that the aircraft or any part thereof or its

equipment has been overhauled, repaired, re-
placed, modified or maintained, as the case may
be, in a manner and with material of a type
approved by the Minister either generally or in
relation to a class of aircraft or the particular
aircraft and shall identify the overhaul, repair,
replacement, modification or maintenance to
which the certificate relates and shall include
particulars of the work done; or

Inspection,
overhaul, repair,
replacement and
modification.

CH.3 – 72] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) certify in relation to any inspection required by
the Minister that the aircraft or the part thereof
or its equipment, as the case may be, has been
inspected in accordance with the requirements of
the Minister and that any consequential repair,
replacement or modification has been carried out
as aforesaid.

(4) Subject to the provisions of these Regulations
regarding retention of such documents, a release to service
shall be preserved by the operator of the aircraft to which it
relates for the period of time for which he is required to
preserve the logbook relating to the same part of the
aircraft or to the same equipment or apparatus as the case
may be.

(5) In this regulation, the expression “repair” includes
in relation to a compass the adjustment and compensation
thereof and the expression “repaired” shall be construed
accordingly.

33. (1) An organization engaged, or intending to
engage, in any stage of the design, manufacture, distribu-
tion or maintenance of aircraft, aircraft components or
aircraft materials, or in training activities associated
therewith, may apply to the Minister for a certificate of
approval in respect of those activities. Such a maintenance
organization within The Bahamas shall obtain the approval
of the Minister before commencing operation. This
organization shall hereinafter be termed an “Approved
Maintenance Organization” or “AMO” and subject to the
requirements of Schedule 6.

(2) A maintenance organization situated outside The
Bahamas shall not carry out maintenance work or modify
or repair an aircraft registered in The Bahamas unless
approval for such work has been given by the Minister. In
granting such approval the Minister may accept, in relation
to such organization, the possession of a certificate of
approval issued by the manufacturer of the aircraft, aircraft
components or materials and by the Authority of the State
in which the organization is located.

(3) The Minister shall issue an AMO certificate to
an organization which complies with the requirements of
Schedule 6 as to facilities, resources, tools and equipment,
data and documentation, and systems of quality control,
adequate for the activities applied for.

Approval of
maintenance
organizations.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 73






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(4) The organization shall have in place a main-
tenance manual approved by the Minister that lays out the
processes, procedures and quality systems applicable to its
activities.

(5) An AMO certificate shall be in such form, be
subject to such conditions and limitations and contain such
particulars as may be determined from time to time by the
Minister.

(6) An AMO certificate shall remain in force for
such period as may be specified in the certificate, but may
be reviewed by the Minister from time to time to determine
that the holder is fit and qualified in accordance with
requirements of Schedule 6. An AMO certificate may be
subject to such conditions, including the issue of satisfac-
tory audit reports, as the Minister may think appropriate.

34. (1) In addition to any other logbooks required by
or under these Regulations, the following logbooks shall be
kept in respect of aircraft registered in The Bahamas —

(a) an aircraft logbook;
(b) a separate logbook in respect of each engine

fitted in the aircraft; and
(c) a separate logbook in respect of each variable

pitch propeller fitted to the aircraft.
(2) The logbooks shall include the particulars

respectively specified in the Schedule 5 and in the case of
an aircraft having a maximum total weight authorized not
exceeding 2,730 kg shall be of a type approved by the
Minister.

(3) Each entry in the logbook, other than such an
entry as is referred to in the Schedule 5, shall be made as
soon as practicable after the occurrence to which it relates,
but in no event more than seven days after the expiration of
the release to service (if any) in force in respect of the
aircraft at the time of the occurrence.

(4) Each entry in the logbook, being such an entry
as is referred to in Schedule 5 shall be made upon each
occasion that any maintenance, overhaul, repair, replace-
ment, modification or inspection is undertaken on the
engine or propeller as the case may be.

(5) Entries in a logbook may refer to other
documents, which shall be clearly identified, and any other
document so referred to shall be deemed, for the purposes
of these Regulations, to be part of the logbook.

Aircraft, engine
and propeller
logbooks.

CH.3 – 74] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(6) It shall be the duty of the operator of every
aircraft in respect of which logbooks are required to be
kept as aforesaid to keep them or cause them to be kept in
accordance with the foregoing provisions of this regula-
tion.

(7) Subject to the provisions regarding retention of
these documents, every logbook shall be preserved by the
operator of the aircraft until a date two years after the
aircraft, the engine or the variable pitch propeller, as the
case may be, has been destroyed or has been permanently
withdrawn from use.

35. (1) Every Aircraft in respect of which a
certificate of airworthiness issued or rendered valid under
these Regulations is in force shall be weighed, and the
position of its centre of gravity determined, at such times
and in such manner as the Minister may require or approve
in the case of that aircraft.

(2) Upon the aircraft being weighed as aforesaid the
operator of the aircraft shall prepare a weight schedule
showing —

(a) either the basic weight of the aircraft, that is to
say, the weight of the aircraft empty together
with the weight of unusable fuel and unusable
oil in the aircraft and of such items of equipment
as are indicated in the weight schedule, or such
other weight as may be approved by the Minister
in the case of that aircraft; and

(b) either the position of the centre of gravity of the
aircraft when the aircraft contains only the items
included in the basic weight or such other
position of the centre of gravity as may be
approved by the Minister in the case of that
aircraft.

(3) Subject to the provisions for retention of these
documents, the weight schedule shall be preserved by the
operator of the aircraft until the expiration of a period of
six months following the next occasion on which the
aircraft is weighed for the purposes of this regulation.

Aircraft weight
schedule.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 75






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

PART VI
AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT

36. (1) An aircraft shall not fly in or over The
Bahamas unless it is so equipped as to comply with the law
of the country in which it is registered.

(2) In the case of any aircraft registered in The
Bahamas or operated by the holder of an AOC issued
under these Regulations, the instruments and equipment
required to be provided (in addition to any other equipment
required by or under these Regulations) shall be that
specified in such parts of Schedule 7 as are applicable in
the circumstances and shall comply with the provisions of
that Schedule and the equipment, shall be of a type
approved by the Minister either generally or in relation to a
class of aircraft or in relation to that aircraft and shall be
installed in a manner so approved.

(3) In any particular case the Minister may direct
that an aircraft registered in The Bahamas or operated by
the holder of an AOC issued under these Regulations shall
carry such additional or special equipment or supplies as he
may specify for the purpose of facilitating the navigation of
the aircraft, the carrying out of search and rescue
operations, or the survival of the persons carried in the
aircraft.

(4) The equipment carried in compliance with this
regulation shall be so installed or stowed and kept stowed,
and so maintained and adjusted, as to be readily accessible
and capable of being used by the person for whose use it is
intended.

(5) The position of equipment provided for
emergency use shall be indicated by clear markings in or
on the aircraft and in particular in every aircraft operated
by the holder of an AOC issued under these Regulations.
There shall be provided individually for each passenger, or
if the Minister so permits in writing, exhibited in a
prominent position in every passenger compartment, a
notice relevant to the aircraft in question containing the
pictorial required by these Regulations.

(6) All instruments and equipment installed or
carried in an aircraft, whether or not in compliance with
this regulation, shall be so installed or stowed and so
maintained and adjusted as not to be a source of danger


Instruments and
equipment.

CH.3 – 76] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

in itself or to impair the airworthiness of the aircraft or the
proper functioning of any equipment or services necessary
for the safety of the aircraft.

(7) Without prejudice to paragraph (2), all naviga-
tional equipment when carried in an aircraft registered in
The Bahamas (whether or not in compliance with these
Regulations) shall be of a type approved by the Minister
either generally or in relation to a class of aircraft or in
relation to that aircraft and shall be installed in a manner so
approved.

(8) An aircraft registered in The Bahamas, or
operated by the holder of an AOC issued under these
Regulations, engaged on a flight for the purpose of
commercial air transport shall carry navigational equip-
ment required by Schedule 7, approved by the Minister
under the requirements of the applicable Schedules and
used in accordance with any conditions subject to which
that approval may have been given, if on the route or any
diversion therefrom, being a route or diversion planned
before take-off, the aircraft is intended to be more than 500
nautical miles from the point of take-off measured along
the route to be flown, and to pass any area more than one
hour from a reliable navigation fix using ground aids.

37. (1) An aircraft shall not fly in or over The
Bahamas unless it is so equipped with radio and radio
navigation equipment as to comply with the law of the
country in which the aircraft is registered and to enable
communications to be made and the aircraft to be
navigated, in accordance with the provisions of these
Regulations and the Schedules.

(2) Without prejudice to paragraph (1), the aircraft
shall be equipped with radio and radio navigation
equipment in accordance with Schedule 7.

(3) In any particular case the Minister may direct
that an aircraft registered in The Bahamas or operated by
the holder of an AOC issued under these Regulations shall
carry such additional or special radio or radio navigation
equipment as he may specify for the purpose of facilitating
the navigation of the aircraft, the carrying out of search and
rescue operations or the survival of the persons carried in
the aircraft.

Radio equipment
of aircraft.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 77






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(4) Subject to such exceptions as may be prescribed
the radio and radio navigation equipment provided in
compliance with this regulation in an aircraft registered in
The Bahamas or operated by the holder of an AOC issued
under these Regulations shall always be maintained in
serviceable condition.

(5) All radio and radio navigation equipment
installed in an aircraft registered in The Bahamas or
operated by the holder of an AOC issued under these
Regulations or carried on such an aircraft for use in
connection with the aircraft shall be of a type approved by
the Minister in relation to the purpose for which it is to be
used, and shall, be installed in a manner approved by the
Minister and neither the equipment nor the manner in which
it is installed shall be modified except with the approval of
the Minister.

38. (1) The Minister may, subject to such conditions
as he thinks fit, grant in respect of any aircraft or class of
aircraft registered in The Bahamas an authorization to
allow such aircraft to commence a flight in specified
circumstances notwithstanding that any specified item of
equipment (including radio apparatus) required by or under
these Regulations to be carried in the circumstances of the
intended flight is not carried or is not in a fit condition for
use.

(2) An aircraft registered in The Bahamas or
operated by the holder of an AOC issued under these
Regulations shall not commence a flight if any of the
equipment (including radio apparatus) required by or under
these Regulations to be carried in the circumstances of the
intended flight is not carried or is not in a fit condition for
use —

(a) otherwise than under and in accordance with the
terms of a special authorization which has been
granted to the operator;

(b) unless in the case of an aircraft to which the
flight and operations manuals required thereby
contain the particulars specified for such opera-
tions; and

(c) in accordance with a minimum equipment list
(MEL) approved by the Minister identifying the
minimum equipment and condition for an air-
craft to maintain the certificate of airworthiness


Minimum
equipment
requirements.

CH.3 – 78] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

in force and defining operational procedures
necessary to deal with inoperative equipment and
prescribing maintenance procedures necessary to
maintain the required level of safety and secure
any inoperative equipment.

39. No person may operate an aircraft under these
Regulations unless they are in conformance with the
minimum instrument and equipment requirements of
Schedule 7, and in the case of an AOC holder, an approved
minimum equipment list, for the route, altitude, and type of
operations being conducted.

PART VII
PERSONNEL LICENSING

40. (1) Without prejudice to any other provision of
these Regulations the Minister may, for the purpose of
personnel licensing as provided in Schedule 8 and 9, either
absolutely or subject to such conditions as he thinks fit —

(a) approve any course of training or instruction;
(b) authorize a person to conduct such examinations

or tests as he may specify;
(c) approve a person to provide or conduct any

course of training or instruction;
(d) approve a person as qualified to furnish reports

to him and to accept such reports; and
(e) approve a training organization.
(2) Where any provision of these Regulations

permits a test to be conducted in a flight simulator approved
by the Minister, that approval may be granted subject to
such conditions as the Minister thinks fit.

41. (1) A airman certificate shall remain in force for
the period specified within that certificate, but may be
reviewed by the Minister from time to time to determine
that the holder is fit and qualified in accordance with
applicable requirements.

(2) Upon receiving an airman certificate granted
under this regulation, the holder thereof shall forthwith
sign his name thereon in ink with his ordinary signature.

Required
instruments and
equipment.

Personnel
licensing
approvals.

Valid airmen
certificates.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 79






LRO 1/2006 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(3) A certificate granted under this regulation shall
not be valid unless it bears thereon the ordinary signature
of the holder in ink.

42. Unless otherwise permitted under the Schedules
to these Regulations, a person shall not give any instruction
in flying to which this regulation applies unless —

(a) he holds a certificate, granted or rendered valid
under Schedule 8 of these Regulations, entitling
him to act as pilot in command of the aircraft for
the purpose and in the circumstances under
which the instruction is to be given; and

(b) he holds a flight instructor certificate issued
under Schedule 8 entitling the holder to give the
level of instruction required.

43. (1) The Minister shall grant aircraft maintenance
technician and other certificates relating to maintenance
tasks as provided in Schedule 8, subject to such conditions
as he thinks fit, upon his being satisfied that the applicant
is a fit person to hold the certificate and has furnished such
evidence and passed such examinations and tests as the
Minister may require of him for the purpose of establishing
that he has sufficient knowledge, experience, competence
and skill in aircraft and power plant maintenance.

(2) An aircraft maintenance technician certificate shall
authorize the holder, subject to such conditions as may be
specified in these Regulations, to issue a release to service.

(3) The Minister may issue a special purpose
certificate rendering valid for the purposes of these
Regulations any certificate as an aircraft maintenance
technician granted under the law of any country other than
The Bahamas and such certificate may be issued subject to
such conditions, and for such periods, as the Minister
thinks fit.

44. (1) The Minister shall grant licences, subject to
such conditions as he thinks fit, specified in Schedule 8
authorising the holder to act as a member of the flight crew
of an aircraft registered in The Bahamas, upon his being
satisfied that the applicant is a fit person to hold the
licence, and is qualified by reason of his knowledge,
experience, competence, skill, physical and mental fitness
to act in the capacity to which the licence relates, and for


Instruction in
flying.

Aircraft
maintenance
licences.

Grant, renewal
and effect of
flight crew
licences.

CH.3 – 80] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2006

that purpose the applicant shall furnish such evidence and
undergo such examinations and tests (including in
particular medical examinations) and undertake such
courses of training as the Minister may require of him.

(2) The Minister may include in a certificate a rating,
subject to such conditions as he thinks fit, upon his being
satisfied that the applicant is qualified as aforesaid to act in
the capacity to which the rating relates, and such rating shall
be deemed to form part of the certificate.

(3) Subject to any conditions of the certificate and to
the provisions of these Regulations, a licence of any class
shall entitle the holder to perform the functions specified in
respect of that certificate in the Regulations.

45. (1) The holder of a pilot or a flight engineer
certificate licence shall not be entitled to exercise the
privileges of an aircraft rating contained in the licence on a
flight unless the holder is qualified and current for the
functions the holder is to perform on that flight in
accordance with these Regulations.

(2) The holder of a pilot’s certificate shall not be
entitled to exercise the privileges of an aircraft rating
contained in that licence unless he maintains the currency
requirements required by these Regulations and evidence
of this currency is included in the personal flying logbook
required to be kept by him.

(3) A person shall not be entitled to perform the
functions to which an instrument rating (aeroplanes), an
instrument rating (helicopters), a flight instructor certifi-
cate, or an instrument meteorological conditions rating
(aeroplanes) relates unless his licence is appropriate to the
functions to which the rating relates in accordance with
Schedule 10 and 11 and shall otherwise comply with the
currency requirements of Schedule 8, 10 and 13, as
appropriate.

(4) A person who, on the last occasion when he took
a test for the purposes of qualification, competency or
currency, failed that test shall not be entitled to fly in the
capacity for which that test would have qualified him had
he passed it.

46. (1) The holder of a airman certificate granted
under these Regulations for which a valid medical

Qualified and
current for the
functions.

Airman medical
certificate.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 81






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

certificate is also a prerequisite to perform any of the
functions authorized, shall have such a certificate when
engaged in those functions.

(2) Every applicant for or holder of such an airman
certificate shall upon such occasions as the Minister may
require submit himself to a medical examination by a
person approved by the Minister who shall make a report
to the Minister in such form as the Minister may require.

(3) On the basis of such medical examination, the
Minister or any person approved by him as competent to
do so may issue a medical certificate subject to the
requirements of Schedules 1 and 8 and such conditions as
he thinks fit, to the holder of the licence as medically fit to
perform the functions to which the licence relates and the
certificate shall be valid for such period as is therein
specified and shall be deemed to form part of the licence.

(4) A person shall not be entitled to act as a member
of the flight crew of an aircraft registered in The Bahamas
if he knows or suspects that his physical or mental
condition renders him temporarily or permanently unfit to
perform such functions or to act in such capacity.

(5) Every holder of a medical certificate issued under
these Regulations and the applicable Schedule who —

(a) suffers any personal injury involving incapacity
to undertake his functions as a member of the
flight crew; or

(b) suffers any illness involving incapacity to
undertake those functions throughout a period of
twenty days or more;

shall inform the Minister in writing of such injury or
illness, as soon as possible in the case of injury and as soon
as the period of twenty days has elapsed in the case of
illness and the medical certificate shall be deemed to be
suspended upon the occurrence of such injury or the elapse
of such period of illness. The suspension shall cease upon
the holder being medically examined under arrangements
made by the Minister and pronounced fit to resume his
functions as a member of the flight crew or upon the
Minister exempting, subject to such conditions as he thinks
fit, the holder from the requirement of a medical
examination.

CH.3 – 82] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

47. The Minister may issue a certificate of validation
rendering valid for the purposes of these Regulations any
licence as a member of the flight crew of aircraft granted
under the law of any country other than The Bahamas. A
certificate of validation may be issued subject to Schedules
1 and 8 and such conditions and for such periods as the
Minister thinks fit.

48. Every member of the flight crew of an aircraft
registered in The Bahamas and every person who engages
in flying for the purpose of qualifying for the grant of a
licence or establishing currency under these Regulations
shall keep a personal flying logbook in which the
information specified in Schedule 8 will be entered.

49. (1) An organization engaged, or intending to
engage, in any program of training or checking activities,
may apply to the Minister for a certificate of approval in
respect of those activities. Such a training organization
within The Bahamas shall obtain the approval of the
Minister before commencing operation. This organization
shall hereinafter be termed an “Approved Training
Organization” or “ATO” and subject to the requirements of
Schedule 9.

(2) A training organization situated in another ICAO
Contracting State shall not carry out training on behalf of the
holder of an AOC issued under these Regulations unless
approval for such activities has been given by the Minister.
In granting such approval the Minister may accept, in
relation to such organization, the possession of a certificate
of approval issued by the Authority of the State in which the
organization is located.

(3) The Minister shall issue an ATO certificate to an
organization which complies with the requirements of
Schedule 9 as to facilities, resources, simulators, training
devices, instructors and examiners, adequate for the
activities applied for.

(4) The organization shall use a training and
checking manual approved by the Minister that lays out the
processes, procedures and quality systems applicable to its
activities.

(5) An ATO certificate shall be in such form, be
subject to such conditions and limitations and contain such
particulars as may be determined from time to time by the
Minister.

Validation of
licences.

Personal flying
logbook.

Approval of
training
organizations.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 83






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

PART VIII
OPERATION OF AIRCRAFT

50. A person shall not recklessly or negligently cause
or permit an aircraft to endanger any person or property.

51. Every person in an aircraft registered in The
Bahamas shall obey all lawful commands which the pilot
in command of that aircraft may give for the purpose of
securing the safety of the aircraft and of persons or
property carried therein, or the safety, efficiency or
regularity of air navigation.

52. No person shall while in an aircraft —
(a) use any threatening, abusive or insulting words

towards a member of the crew of the aircraft;
(b) behave in a threatening, abusive, insulting or

disorderly manner towards a member or the
crew of the aircraft; or

(c) intentionally interfere with the performance of
the crew of an aircraft of his duties.

53. (1) No person may operate an aircraft nor cause
an aircraft to be operated over The Bahamas unless this
aircraft is in conformance with the aircraft requirements
specified in these Regulations and Schedule 10.

(2) No person may operate an aircraft registered in
The Bahamas and no holder of an AOC issued under these
Regulations may operate an aircraft outside of The
Bahamas unless this aircraft is in conformance with the
aircraft requirements specified in these Regulations and
Schedule 10.

54. (1) No person may operate an aircraft nor cause
an aircraft to be operated over The Bahamas unless the
flight crew is in conformance with the flight crew
requirements specified in these Regulations and Schedule
10.

(2) No person may operate an aircraft registered in
The Bahamas and no holder of an AOC issued under these
Regulations may operate an aircraft outside of The
Bahamas unless the flight crew is in conformance with the
flight crew requirements specified in these Regulations and
Schedule 10.

Careless or
reckless action.

Authority of
pilot in
command.

Interference with
a crew member.

Applicable
aircraft
requirements.

Applicable flight
crew
requirements.

CH.3 – 84] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

55. (1) No person may operate an aircraft nor cause
an aircraft to be operated over The Bahamas unless the
flight crew is in conformance with the crew duties and
responsibilities specified in these Regulations and Schedule
10.

(2) No person may operate an aircraft registered in
The Bahamas and no holder of an AOC issued under these
Regulations may operate an aircraft outside of The
Bahamas unless the flight crew is in conformance with the
crew duties and responsibilities specified in these
Regulations and Schedule 10.

56. (1) No person may operate an aircraft nor cause
an aircraft to be operated over The Bahamas with
passengers unless such a flight is in conformance with the
requirements specified in these Regulations and Schedule
10 for all passenger carrying operations.

(2) No person may operate an aircraft registered in
The Bahamas and no holder of an AOC issued under these
Regulations may operate an aircraft outside of The
Bahamas with passengers unless such a flight is in
conformance with the requirements specified in these
Regulations and Schedule 10 for all passenger carrying
operations.

57. (1) No person may operate an aircraft nor cause
an aircraft to be operated over The Bahamas unless the
flight plans, flight planning and other preflight preparation
is in conformance with the requirements specified in these
Regulations and Schedule 10.

(2) No person may operate an aircraft registered in
The Bahamas and no holder of an AOC issued under these
Regulations may operate an aircraft outside of The Bahamas
unless the flight plans, flight planning and preflight
preparation is in conformance with the requirements
specified in these Regulations and Schedule 10.

58. (1) No person may operate an aircraft nor cause
an aircraft to be operated over The Bahamas unless the
flight is conducted in conformance with the flight rules
specified in these Regulations and Schedule 10.

(2) No person may operate an aircraft registered in
The Bahamas and no holder of an AOC issued under these
Regulations may operate an aircraft outside of The


Crew duties and
responsibilities.

All passenger
carrying
operations.

Flight planning
and preparation.

Applicable flight
rules.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 85






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

Bahamas unless the flight is conducted in conformance
with the flight rules requirements specified in these
Regulations and Schedule 10, unless such compliance
would result in non-conformance to a law or regulation of
the State being overflown.

59. (1) No person may operate an aircraft nor cause
an aircraft to be operated over The Bahamas unless the
flight is conducted in conformance with the requirements
specified in these Regulations and Schedule 10 for
operations in controlled flight.

(2) No person may operate an aircraft registered in
The Bahamas and no holder of an AOC issued under these
Regulations may operate an aircraft outside of The
Bahamas unless the flight is conducted in conformance
with the requirements for operations in controlled flight as
specified in these Regulations and Schedule 10, unless
such compliance would result in non-conformance to a law
or regulation of the State being overflown.

PART IX
AERIAL WORK OPERATIONS

60. No person may operate an aircraft in an activity
deemed to be aerial work, except as specified by the
Minister and in conformance with the requirements of
these Regulations and Schedule 11.

61. (1) An aircraft shall not be used for the dropping
of articles for the purposes of agriculture, horticulture or
forestry or for training for the dropping of articles for any
of such purposes, otherwise than under and in accordance
with the terms of an aerial application certificate granted to
the operator of the aircraft under paragraph (2) of this
regulation and the requirements of Schedule 11.

(2) The Minister shall grant an aerial application
certificate to any person applying therefor if he is satisfied
that person is a fit person to hold the certificate and is
competent, having regard in particular to his previous
conduct and experience, his equipment, organization,
staffing and other arrangements, to secure the safe
operation of the aircraft specified in the certificate on
flights for the purposes specified in paragraph (1) of this
regulation. The certificate may be granted subject to such


Operations in
controlled flight.

Aerial work
activity.

Issue of aerial
application
certificates.

CH.3 – 86] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

conditions as the Minister thinks fit including without
prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, conditions for
ensuring that the aircraft and any article dropped from it do
not endanger persons or property in the aircraft or
elsewhere. An aerial application certificate shall remain in
force for the period specified in the issued authorization,
but may be reviewed by the Minister from time to time to
determine that the holder is fit and qualified in accordance
with requirements of Schedule 11.

(3) Every applicant for and holder of an aerial
application certificate shall make available to the Minister
upon application and to every member of his operating
staff upon the certificate being granted, an aerial applica-
tion manual which shall contain all such information and
instructions as may be necessary to enable the operating
staff to perform their duties as such. The holder of a
certificate shall make such amendments of or additions to
the manual as the Minister may require.

62. (1) Subject to the provisions of this regulation
and the requirements of Schedule 11, an aircraft in flight
over The Bahamas shall not, by means external to the
aircraft, tow any article, or pick up or raise any person,
animal or article, unless the certificate of airworthiness
issued or rendered valid in respect of that aircraft under the
law of the country in which the aircraft is registered
includes an express provision that it may be used for that
purpose.

(2) Nothing in this regulation shall —
(a) prohibit the towing in a reasonable manner by an

aircraft in flight of any radio aerial, any
instrument which is being used for experimental
purposes, or any signal, apparatus or regulation
required or permitted by or under these Regula-
tions to be towed or displayed by an aircraft in
flight;

(b) prohibit the picking up or raising of any person,
animal or article in an emergency or for the
purpose of saving life.

63. (1) Articles and animals (whether or not attached
to a parachute) shall not be dropped, or permitted to drop,
from an aircraft in flight so as to endanger persons or
property.

Towing, picking
up and raising of
persons and
articles.

Dropping of
animals and
articles.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 87






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) Except under and in accordance with the terms
of an aerial application certificate and the requirements of
Schedule 11, articles and animals (whether or not attached
to a parachute) shall not be dropped, or permitted to drop,
to the surface from an aircraft flying over The Bahamas:

Provided that this paragraph shall not apply to the
dropping of articles by, or with the authority of, the pilot in
command of the aircraft in any of the following
circumstances —

(a) the dropping of articles for the purpose of saving
life;

(b) the jettisoning, in case of emergency, of fuel or
other articles in the aircraft;

(c) the dropping of articles solely for the purpose of
navigating the aircraft in accordance with
ordinary practice or with the provisions of these
Regulations;

(d) the dropping at an aerodrome of tow ropes,
banners, or similar articles towed by aircraft;

(e) the dropping of articles for the purposes of
public health or as a measure against weather
conditions, surface icing or oil pollution, or for
training for the dropping of articles for any such
purposes, if the articles are dropped with the
permission of the Minister and in accordance
with any conditions subject to which that
permission may have been given;

(f) the dropping of wind drift indicators for the
purpose of enabling parachute descents to be
made if the wind drift indicators are dropped
with the permission of the Minister and in
accordance with any conditions subject to which
that permission may have been given.

(3) For the purposes of this regulation dropping
includes projecting and lowering.

(4) Nothing in this regulation shall prohibit the
lowering of any article or animal from a helicopter to the
surface, if the certificate of airworthiness issued or
rendered valid in respect of the helicopter under the law of
the country in which it is registered includes an express
provision that it may be used for that purpose.

CH.3 – 88] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

64. (1) A person shall not drop, be dropped or
permitted to drop to the surface or jump from an aircraft
flying over The Bahamas except under and in accordance
with the terms of an authorization granted by the Minister
under this regulation.

(2) For the purposes of this regulation dropping
includes projecting and lowering.

(3) Notwithstanding the grant of an authorization
under paragraph (1) of this regulation, a person shall not
drop, be dropped or be permitted to drop from an aircraft in
flight so as to endanger persons or property.

(4) An aircraft shall not be used for the purpose of
dropping persons unless the certificate of airworthiness
issued or rendered valid in respect of that aircraft under the
law of the country in which the aircraft is registered
includes an express provision that it may be used for that
purpose and the aircraft is operated in accordance with the
authorization granted by the Minister under this regula-
tion.

(5) Every applicant for and every holder of a
permission shall make available to the Minister if
requested to do so a parachuting manual and shall make
such amendments or additions to such manual as the
Minister may require. The holder of an authorization shall
make available to every employee or person who is or may
engage in parachuting activities conducted by him, the
manual which shall contain all such information and
instructions as may be necessary to enable such employees
or persons to perform their duties.

(6) Without prejudice to any other provision to
these Regulations the Minister may, for the purpose of this
regulation, accept reports furnished to him by a person
whom he may approve, either absolutely or subject to such
conditions as he thinks fit, as qualified to furnish such
reports.

(7) Nothing in this regulation shall apply to the
descent of persons by parachute from an aircraft in an
emergency.

(8) Nothing in this regulation shall prohibit the
lowering of any person in an emergency or for the purpose
of saving life.

Dropping of
persons.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 89






LRO 1/2006 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(9) Nothing in this regulation shall prohibit the
lowering of any person from a helicopter to the surface in
The Bahamas, if the certificate of airworthiness issued or
rendered valid in respect of the helicopter under the law of
the country in which it is registered includes an express
provision that it may be used for that purpose.

65. (1) No person may operate an aircraft over The
Bahamas for the purpose of aerial photography or aerial
survey (whether or not valuable consideration is given or
promised in respect of the flight or the purpose of the
flight) or for the purpose of any other form of aerial work
except with an authorization of the Minister granted under
this regulation to the operator or the charterer of the
aircraft and in accordance with any conditions to which
such authorization may be subject.

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph
(1) of this regulation, any breach by a person to whom an
authorization has been granted under this regulation of any
condition to which that authorization was subject shall
constitute a contravention of this regulation.

66. (1) No person shall act as the organizer (in this
regulation referred to as “the exhibition organizer”) of an
exhibition of flying, an aircraft race or contest at an
organised event (in this regulation referred to as an
“organised event”) which event the exhibition organizer
reasonably believes is likely to be attended by more than
200 persons and which event consists wholly or partly of
an exhibition of flying, aircraft race or contest unless at the
time at which such an organised event commences the
exhibition organizer has obtained the permission in writing
of the Minister for that organised event and complies with
any conditions therein specified and the requirements of
Schedule 10.

(2) The pilot in command of an aircraft intending to
participate in an organised event for which a permission is
required by virtue of paragraph (1) shall take all reason-
able steps to satisfy himself before he participates that —

(a) the exhibition organizer has been granted such
permission;

(b) the flight can comply with any relevant condi-
tions subject to which that permission may have
been granted; and

Aerial
photography and
survey from
aircraft.

Exhibitions of
flying, aircraft
races or contests.

CH.3 – 90] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2006

(c) the pilot has been granted an authorization
appropriate to the intended flight.

(3) The pilot in command of an aircraft participating
in an organised event for which a permission required by
virtue of paragraph (1) has been granted shall comply with
any conditions subject to which that permission may have
been granted.

(4) No person shall act as pilot of an aircraft
participating in an organised event for which a permission
is required by virtue of paragraph (1) unless he holds an
authorization appropriate to the intended flight granted to
him by the Minister and he complies with any conditions
thereof.

(5) The exhibition organizer shall not permit any
person to act as pilot of an aircraft which participates in an
organised event for which a permission is required by
virtue of paragraph (1) unless such person holds a display
authorization appropriate to the intended flight granted by
the Minister.

(6) The Minister shall grant the permission required
under paragraph (1) to any person applying therefor if he is
satisfied that that person is a fit and competent person,
having regard in particular to his previous conduct and
experience, his organization, staffing and other arrange-
ments, to safely organise the proposed exhibition of flying.
The permission may be granted subject to such conditions,
which may include conditions in respect of military
aircraft, as the Minister thinks fit and shall, if there is
continued conformance, remain in force for the period
specified in the permission.

(7) The Minister shall, for the purposes of this
regulation, either unconditionally or subject to such
conditions as he thinks fit —

(a) grant a display authorization authorising the
holder to act as pilot of an aircraft taking part in
an exhibition of flying in respect of which a
permission is required by virtue of paragraph (1)
upon his being satisfied that the applicant is a fit
person to hold the authorization and is qualified
by reason of his knowledge, experience, compe-
tence, skill, physical and mental fitness to fly in
accordance therewith and for that purpose the


CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 91






LRO 1/2006 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

applicant shall furnish such evidence and under-
go such examinations and tests as the Minister
may require of him; and

(b) authorize a person to conduct such examinations
or tests as he may specify.

(8) A display authorization granted in accordance
with this regulation shall, if the Minister finds continued
conformance, remain in force for the period indicated in
the display authorization.

(9) The exhibition organizer shall not permit any
military aircraft to participate in an exhibition of flying for
which a permission is required by virtue of paragraph (1)
unless he complies with any conditions specified in respect
of military aircraft subject to which such permission may
have been granted.

PART X
COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT OPERATIONS

67. (1) A Bahamian operator of aircraft shall not fly
on any flight for the purpose of commercial air transport,
otherwise than under and in accordance with the terms of
an Air Operator’s Certificate (AOC) granted to the
operator under paragraph (3).

(2) Any person shall be deemed to be engaged in
providing commercial air transport and subject to the
requirements of this Part, if —

(a) they, or persons on their behalf, have undertaken
any form of advertising to carry passengers or
property by aircraft for remuneration or valuable
consideration without using the services of an
AOC holder; or

(b) they, or persons on their behalf, verbally offer to
carry passengers or property by aircraft for
remuneration or valuable consideration, without
using the services of an AOC holder; or

(c) they, or other persons on their behalf, provide or
advertise an arrangement for meals, lodging or
travel (or any other “all-inclusive” method of
pricing) for compensation, in which the travel by
aircraft is included at gratis or is compensated,
but is not provided by an AOC holder.

Issue of air
operator’s
certificate.

CH.3 – 92] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2006

(3) The Minister may grant to any person applying
therefore, an AOC if he is satisfied that that person is
competent and capable, having regard in particular to the
person’s previous conduct and experience, his equipment,
organization, staffing, maintenance and other arrang-
ements, to secure the safe operation of aircraft of the types
specified in the certificate on flights of the description and
for the purposes so specified.

(4) An AOC may be granted subject to such
conditions as the Minister deems appropriate. An AOC
shall remain in force for the period specified in Schedule
12, but may be reviewed by the Minister from time to time
to determine that the holder is fit and qualified in
accordance with requirements of this Schedule.

(5) Without prejudice to the generality of paragraph
(3) above, the operator must possess a management
organization capable of exercising operational control and
supervision over any flight operated under the terms of its
air operator’s certificate.

(6) Without prejudice to the generality of paragraph
(2) above, the operator must have nominated an accoun-
table manager, acceptable to the Minister, who has
responsibility for ensuring that all maintenance relating to
the operator’s aircraft is carried out in accordance with the
approved maintenance program and to the standard
required by the Minister.

(7) Without prejudice to the generality of paragraph
(2) above, the operator must be found in conformance with
the Schedules specifically applicable to AOC holders prior
to issuance of the AOC, including but not limited to
Schedules 7, 10, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, and 17;

(8) In exercising the functions under paragraphs (1)
and (2) above, the Minister shall have regard to such of the
following as are applicable —

(a) the nationality of the applicant and the grant or
refusal of the application is in the public interest;

(b) any uneconomic duplication or uneconomic
overlapping of air services that might result from
the grant of the application;

(c) the ability of the applicant to meet its financial
obligations, actual or potential;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 93






LRO 1/2006 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(d) the likelihood of the applicant being able to
provide air services which are satisfactory from
the point of view of safety, regularity, frequency
of operation, level of charges and general
standard and efficiency and, in the case of an
application for renewal or variation of a
certificate, whether the applicant’s existing air
services are satisfactory;

(e) whether or not the aircraft proposed to be used
and the air services proposed to be provided are
suited to the airports and airport facilities to be
used;

(f) any obligations imposed upon The Bahamas by
international agreement or treaty;

(g) any other matter which is, in the opinion of the
Minister, relevant to the application.

(9) Each AOC holder shall maintain the required
standards of operations established in these Regulations in
the conduct of its commercial air transport operations.

(10) The Minister shall establish a system of
certification and continued surveillance to ensure that AOC
holders maintain the required standards of operations
established in these Regulations.

68. No person may operate, or cause to be operated,
an aircraft subject to these Regulations in commercial air
transport unless the AOC holder has completed the initial
certification requirements of Schedule 12 for such opera-
tions;

69. No person may operate, or cause to be operated,
an aircraft subject to these Regulations in commercial air
transport unless these operations are in conformance with
the authorizations and limitations of their AOC issued
under the requirements of Schedule 12.

70. No person may operate, or cause to be operated,
an aircraft subject to these Regulations in commercial air
transport unless the aircraft is specifically authorized by
serial and registration number for the AOC holder’s
operation in accordance with Schedule 12.

71. No person may operate, or cause to be operated,
an aircraft subject to these Regulations in commercial air
transport unless those operations are in conformance with
the applicable requirements of the security program
specified in Schedule 12.

Initial
certification
required.

Continued
conformance.

Aircraft
authorized.

Security
requirements.

CH.3 – 94] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2006

72. No person may operate, or cause to be operated,
an aircraft subject to these Regulations in commercial air
transport unless the aircraft is maintained in accordance
with the applicable maintenance requirements of Schedules
5, 6 and 12.

73. No person may operate, or cause to be operated,
an aircraft subject to these Regulations carrying passengers
in commercial air transport unless they are in conformance
with the passenger-carrying requirements of Schedule 13.

74. No person may operate, or cause to be operated,
an aircraft subject to these Regulations in commercial air
transport unless the assigned aviation personnel are
qualified and current in conformance with the minimum
qualification, training and checking of Schedule 14.

75. No person may operate, or cause to be operated,
an aircraft subject to these Regulations in commercial air
transport unless the assigned aviation personnel are in
conformance with the duty and flight time and minimum
rest periods specified in Schedule 15.

76. No person may operate, or cause to be operated,
an aircraft subject to these Regulations in commercial air
transport unless the flight was released in conformance
with the flight release requirements specified in Schedule
16.

77. No person may operate, or cause to be operated,
an aircraft subject to these Regulations in commercial air
transport unless they are in conformance with the mass and
balance and performance requirements specified in
Schedule 17.

PART XI
CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS

78. (1) No person may ship, caused to be shipped,
accept for shipment or allow to be carried on an aircraft
any article or substance that may be dangerous goods
except they have been prescribed by the Minister in
Schedule 18 of these Regulations.

(2) Each person shipping articles or substances that
may be dangerous goods shall declare such goods in the
shipping papers and cause such articles to be so marked.

Maintenance
requirements.

Passenger
Requirements.

Qualified
personnel.

Crew fatigue.

Flight release
requirements

Mass and
balance and
performance.

Shipping and
acceptance of
dangerous goods.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 95






LRO 1/2006 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(3) No person may operate or cause to operate an
aircraft carrying dangerous goods except as prescribed by
the Minister in Schedule 18.

79. (1) An aircraft shall not carry any munitions of
war unless —

(a) such munitions of war are carried with the
written permission of the Minister and in
accordance with any conditions relating thereto;
and

(b) the pilot in command of the aircraft is informed
in writing by the operator before the flight
commences of the type, weight or quantity and
location of any such munitions of war on board
or suspended beneath the aircraft and any
conditions of the permission of the Minister.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this regulation
it shall be unlawful for an aircraft to carry any weapon or
munitions of war in any compartment or apparatus to
which passengers have access.

(3) It shall be unlawful for a person to carry or have
in his possession or take or cause to be taken on board an
aircraft, to suspend or cause to be suspended beneath an
aircraft or to deliver or cause to be delivered for carriage
thereon any weapon or munitions of war unless —

(a) the weapon or munitions of war —
(i) is either part of the baggage of a passenger

on the aircraft or consigned as cargo to be
carried thereon;

(ii) is carried in a part of the aircraft, or in any
apparatus attached to the aircraft inacces-
sible to passengers; and

(iii) in the case of a firearm, is unloaded; and
(b) particulars of the weapon or munitions of war

have been furnished by that passenger or by the
consignor to the operator before the flight
commences; and

(c) without prejudice to paragraph (1) of this
regulation the operator consents to the carriage
of such weapon or munitions of war by the
aircraft.

Munitions of
war.

CH.3 – 96] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2006

(4) Nothing in this regulation shall apply to any
weapon or munitions of war taken or carried on board an
aircraft in The Bahamas registered in a country other than
The Bahamas, if the weapon or munitions of war, as the
case may be, may under the law of the country in which the
aircraft is registered be lawfully taken or carried on board
for the purpose of ensuring the safety of the aircraft or of
persons on board.

(5) For the purposes of this regulation a “munitions
of war” means any weapon, ammunition or article
containing an explosive or any noxious liquid, gas or other
thing which is designed or made for use in warfare or
against persons, including parts, whether components or
accessories, for such weapon, ammunition or article.

PART XII
GENERAL

80. (1) Every person who is the operator or pilot in
command of an aircraft which is registered in The
Bahamas or a commercial air transport aircraft not
registered in The Bahamas but operated by the holder of an
air operator’s certificate issued in The Bahamas who is
involved in, observes or knows of an airplane accident
shall make the report to the Minister as prescribed in
Schedule 19.

(2) A person shall not make any report under this
regulation if he knows or has reason to believe that the
report is false in any particular.

(3) Each person will comply with the necessary steps
of accident investigation of Schedule 19 as requested by the
Minister or an authorised person assigned to investigate the
accident.

81. (1) The Minister may prescribe fees for the issue,
validation, renewal, extension or variation of any certifi-
cate, licence or other document (including the issue of a
copy thereof), or the undergoing of any examination, test,
inspection or investigation or the grant of any permission or
approval, required by, or for the purpose of these
Regulations.

(2) Upon an application being made in connection
with which any fee is chargeable in accordance with the
said provisions the applicant may be required before the


Accident
reporting and
investigation.

Fees.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284– 97






LRO 1/2006 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

application is entertained to pay the whole or to deposit a
portion of the fee or fees so chargeable if, after such
payment or deposit has been made the application is
withdrawn by the applicant or otherwise ceases to have
effect of is refused by the Minister, the Minister may,
subject as hereinafter provided, refund the amount of such
payment or deposit. Where the amount paid or deposited is
wholly or to any extent attributable to a fee chargeable in
respect of an investigation which would have been carried
out in connection with the application if it had not been so
withdrawn or ceased to have effect or been refused but
which has not been carried out by reason only of such
withdrawal, cesser or refusal, the Minister may refund the
amount so attributable or, in a case where an investigation
has been partially completed, so much of that amount as in
the opinion of the Minister is reasonable having regard to
the stage to which the investigation has progressed at the
time of such withdrawal, cesser or refusal:

Provided that, if in any case the amount deposited by
the applicant is not sufficient to cover the fee, as ultimately
assessed, chargeable in respect of any investigation in so
far as the same has been carried out at the time when the
application is withdrawn by him or otherwise ceases to
have effect or is refused by the Minister the amount
representing the balance of such fee shall be payable by the
applicant.

82. The Minister shall be able to make reasonable
requirements regarding the validation of licences, certifi-
cates, approvals, designations, and authorizations issued by
another Contracting State. Such requirements will be
provided in Schedule 1.

83. Except where the context otherwise requires, the
provisions of these Regulations —

(a) in so far as they apply (whether by express
reference or otherwise) to aircraft registered in
The Bahamas, shall apply to such aircraft
wherever they may be;

(b) in so far as they apply as aforesaid to other
aircraft shall apply to such other aircraft when
they are within The Bahamas;

(c) in so far as they prohibit, require or regulate
(whether by express reference or otherwise) the


Validation of
documents.

Extra-territorial
effect of these
Regulations.

CH.3 – 98] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2006

doing of anything by persons in, or by any of the
crew of any aircraft registered in The Bahamas,
shall apply to such persons and crew, wherever
they may be; and

(d) in so far as they prohibit, require or regulate as
aforesaid the doing of anything in relation to any
aircraft registered in The Bahamas by other
persons shall, where such persons are citizens of
The Bahamas apply to them wherever they may
be.

84. The Minister may direct that such of the
provisions of these Regulations having effect thereunder as
may be specified in the direction shall have effect as if
reference in those provisions to aircraft registered in The
Bahamas included references to the aircraft specified in the
direction, being an aircraft not so registered but for the
time being under the management of a person who, or of
persons each of whom, is qualified to hold a legal or
beneficial interest by way of ownership in an aircraft
registered in The Bahamas.

85. The Minister may issue a waiver from any of the
requirements of the Schedules made under these Regula-
tions when the provision for that waiver is contained in the
applicable Schedule.

86. The Minister may issue a deviation from any of
the requirements of the Schedules made under these
Regulations to any grouping of persons, aircraft, or type of
operation subject to such conditions as he determines
where the requirement is found not to be consistent with
relevant aviation safety standards for that particular
grouping and it would be in the public interest to issue such
deviation.

87. The Minister may issue an exemption from any
of the requirements under these Regulations or any
Schedules made thereunder to any individual, aircraft, or
company subject to such conditions as he thinks fit where
the applicant can show that it is in the public interest, an
equivalent level of safety can be maintained, and such
exemption will not be inconsistent with relevant aviation
safety standards.

Application to
aircraft not
registered in
Bahamas.

Waivers.

Deviations.

Exemptions.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 99






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

88. (1) Where the Minister deems it necessary in the
public interest to prohibit flying by reason of —

(a) the intended gathering or movement of a large
number of persons;

(b) the intended holding of an aircraft race or
contest or of an exhibition in flying; or

(c) national defence or any other reason affecting
the public interest, the Minister may make
directions prohibiting, restricting or imposing
conditions on flight —

(i) by any aircraft, whether or not registered
in The Bahamas, in any airspace over The
Bahamas;

(ii) by aircraft registered in The Bahamas, in
any other airspace, being airspace in
respect of which the Government of The
Bahamas has in pursuance of international
arrangements undertaken to provide
navigation services for aircraft.

(2) Directions made under this regulation may apply
either generally or in relation to any class of aircraft.

89. The provisions of these Regulations shall not
apply to or in relation to —

(a) any balloon which at any stage of its flight is not
more than 2 meters in any linear dimension
including any basket or other equipment at-
tached to the balloon;

(b) any kite weighing not more than 2 kg;
(c) any other aircraft weighing not more than 7 kg

without its fuel; or
(d) any parascending parachute.
90. (1) Subject to the following paragraphs of this

regulation any person who on the date these Regulations
come into operation holds a licence, certificate or
authorization validly issued under the laws, rules or
regulations in force on that date for the registration,
operation or maintenance of an aircraft shall be deemed to
hold a licence in accordance with these Regulations for
twelve months from the date these Regulations come into
operation, unless his original licence, certificate or


Power to prohibit
or restrict flying.

Ultra-small
aircraft.

Transitional
provisions.

CH.284 – 100] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

authorizations expires prior to the end of that twelve month
period in which case his deemed licence under these
Regulations shall expire on the same date.

(2) Within two months from the date these Regul-
ations come into operation, every person claiming to be the
holder of a licence, certificate or authorizations under
paragraph (1) shall supply to the Flight Standards
Inspectorate full details of his licence, certificate or
authorizations and may notify its request for a new licence
under these Regulations failing which his deemed licence
shall expire forthwith.

(3) Where the Flight Standards Inspectorate, having
reviewed any licence, certificate or authorizations notified
to it under paragraph (2), is satisfied that such authoriza-
tions certificate or licence had been validly issued under
the laws, rules or regulations in force at the
commencement, of these Regulations, the Inspectorate
shall, within six months of the date of such notification
issue a licence to that person to register, operate or
maintain an aircraft or aerodrome for at least the unexpired
term of the original authorizations or licence but otherwise
subject to conditions duly determined by the Flight
Standards Inspectorate.

(4) If the Flight Standards Inspectorate is not
satisfied, for any reason, that a licence, certificate or
authorization notified to it under paragraph (2) was validly
issued or that person is still qualified to hold the document,
it shall so notify the person concerned and the document in
question shall expire on the date of notification.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 101






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

SCHEDULE 1

GENERAL POLICIES, PROCEDURES AND DEFINITIONS

SUBPART A:GENERAL
1.001 Applicability of These Schedules
1.005 Organization of Schedules (Except Schedule 2)
1.010 Rules of Construction
1.015 Definitions
1.020 Acronyms (reserved)

SUBPART B: GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE RULES
1.025 Display and Inspection of Licences and Certificates
1.030 Change of Name
1.035 Change of Address
1.040 Replacement of a Lost or Destroyed DCA-Issued Document
1.045 Falsification, Reproduction, or Alteration of Required Documents
1.050 Surrender, Suspension, or Revocation of Licence or Certificate
1.055 Reapplication after Revocation
1.060 Reapplication after Suspension
1.065 Voluntary Surrender or Exchange of Licence
1.070 Prohibition on Performance During Medical Deficiency
1.075 Drug and Alcohol Testing and Reporting

SUBPART C: VALIDATION OF CERTIFICATES AND AUTHORIZATIONS
1.080 Validation — General
1.085 Term of Validity
1.090 Holders of Validated Documents
1.095 Validation of Type Certificates and Supplemental Type Certificates
1.100 Validation of Certificates of Airworthiness
1.105 Validation of Medical Certificates
1.110 Validation of Airman Certificates and Ratings
1.115 Validation of Air Operator Certificates
1.120 Validation of Approved Organizations
1.125 Validation of Approvals, Authorizations and Designations

SUBPART D: EXEMPTIONS AND EQUIVALENT SAFETY CASE
1.130 Exemptions and Equivalent Safety Case



CH.284 – 102] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

SUBPART A
GENERAL

1.001 APPLICABILITY OF THESE SCHEDULES
(a) These Schedules provide specific technical safety requirements prescribed

by the Minister in support of this regulation to ensure that operations in the
Bahamas meet the international standards for aviation safety for registration
of aircraft, maintenance of aircraft, personnel licensing and operations of
aircraft in general aviation, aerial work and commercial air transport
activities.

(b) Each Schedule shall, as indicated in the particular Schedule, apply to all
persons operating or maintaining the following —
(1) Bahamian-registered aircraft;
(2) Aircraft registered in another Contracting State that are operated by a

person licenced by The Bahamas, and must be maintained in
accordance with the standards of the aircraft State of Registry,
wherever that maintenance is performed;

(3) Aircraft of other Contracting States operating in The Bahamas.
(c) Schedule requirements addressing general matters establish minimum

standards for all aircraft operated in The Bahamas. Specific requirements
applicable to the holder of a certificate shall apply if they appear to be in
conflict with a more general Schedule requirement.

1.005 ORGANIZATION OF SCHEDULES (EXCEPT SCHEDULE 2)
(a) These Schedules are subdivided into five hierarchical categories:

(1) Schedule refers to the primary subject area.
(2) Subpart refers to any subdivision of a Schedule.
(3) Section refers to any subdivision of a Subpart.
(4) Subsection refers to the title of a regulation and can be a subdivision

of a Subpart or Section,
(5) Paragraph refers to the text describing the regulations. All paragraphs

are outlined alphanumerically in the following hierarchical order: (a),
(1), (i), (A).

(b) Definitions used throughout these Regulations are organised as follows:
(1) Definitions applicable to two or more Schedules appear in this

Schedule;
(2) Definitions applicable only to one Schedule appear at the beginning of

that Schedule; and
(3) Definitions contained in the Civil Aviation Act of The Bahamas are

presented therein, and not in these Schedules
(c) Acronyms used within each Schedule are defined at the beginning of those

Schedules, and if a definition is supplied, a note will indicate the Schedule
where the definition is located.

(d) Notes appear in Subsections to provide exceptions, explanations, and examples
to individual requirements.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 103






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(e) Subsections may refer to Appendices, which provide detailed requirements
that support the purpose of the subsection, and where specifically
referenced by the subsection, gain the legal force and effect of the referring
subsection. Under the rules of construction, the term “Appendix” is applied
to these supplementary requirements.

1.010 RULES OF CONSTRUCTION
(a) Throughout these regulations the following word usage applies:

(1) Shall indicates a mandatory requirement.
(2) The words “no person may...” or “ a person may not...” mean that no

person is required, authorized, or permitted to do an act described in a
regulation.

(3) May indicates that discretion can be used when performing an act
described in a regulation.

(4) Will indicates an action incumbent upon the Authority.
(5) Includes means “includes but is not limited to.”
(6) Approved means the Authority has reviewed the method, procedure, or

policy in question and issued a formal written approval.
(7) Acceptable means the Authority has reviewed the method, procedure,

or policy and has neither objected to nor approved its proposed use or
implementation.

(8) Prescribed means the Authority has issued written policy or
methodology which imposes either a mandatory requirement, if the
written policy or methodology states “shall,” or a discretionary
requirement if the written policy or methodology states “may.”

1.015 DEFINITIONS
(a) For the purpose of these Schedules, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) “Acceptable to the Authority” Where used in these Schedules,
identifies documents, portions of documents, formal procedures,
facilities, equipment, or personnel that must be found satisfactory by a
technical review of the Authority prior to use in aviation.

(2) Accountable manager. The manager who exercises authority on
behalf of the Authority for ensuring that all prescribed actions are
performed to the standard required by the Authority. When authorized
by the Authority, the accountable manager may redelegate all or part
of his or her authority in writing to another person within in the
organization, who becomes the accountable manager for the matters
delegated.

(3) Aerodrome. A defined area on land or water (including any buildings,
installations and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in
part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.

(4) Aeronautical experience. Pilot time obtained in an aircraft, approved
flight simulator, or approved flight-training device for meeting the
training and flight time requirements of these Regulations.

(5) Aeronautical product. Any aircraft, aircraft engine, propeller, or sub-
assembly, appliance, material, part, or component to be installed thereon.

CH.284 – 104] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(6) Aeroplane. A power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving its lift
in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain
fixed under given conditions of flight.

(7) Air Traffic Control. A service that promotes the safe, orderly, and
expeditious flow of air traffic at aerodromes and during the approach,
departure, and en route environments.

(8) Air Traffic Control (ATC) facility. A building holding the persons
and equipment responsible for providing ATC services (e.g., airport
tower, approach control, center).

(9) Aircraft category. Classification of aircraft according to specified
basic characteristics (e.g., aeroplane, helicopter, glider, free balloon).

(10) Aircraft component. Any component part of an aircraft up to and
including a complete powerplant and/or any operational/emergency
equipment.

(11) Aircraft type. All aircraft of the same basic design.
(12) Airframe. The fuselage, booms, nacelles, cowlings, fairings, airfoil

surfaces (including rotors but excluding propellers and rotating airfoils
of a powerplant), and landing gear of an aircraft and their accessories
and controls.

(13) Airworthiness data. Any information necessary to ensure that an
aircraft or aircraft component can be maintained in a condition such
that airworthiness of the aircraft, or serviceability of operational and
emergency equipment, as appropriate, is assured.

(14) Airworthiness release. A certification signed by a licenced mechanic
authorized by the AOC holder indicating that work was performed in
accordance with the AOC holder’s maintenance manual, was
inspected by a licenced mechanic, and the aircraft was found
satisfactory for safe operation.

(15) Appliance. Any instrument, mechanism, equipment, part, apparatus,
appurtenance, or accessory, including communications equipment,
that is used or intended to be used in operating or controlling an
aircraft in flight, is installed in or attached to the aircraft, and is not
part of an airframe, powerplant, or propeller.

(16) Approval. A formal instrument issued by the Authority based on a
prior technical evaluation that authorizes the use of documents,
portions of documents, or formal procedures in aviation.

(17) “Approved by the Authority” As used in these Schedules, this
phrase identifies a document, person, facility, policy or procedure for
which there must be an formal instrument issued prior to their use in
aviation.

(18) Approved Maintenance Organization (AMO). An organization
approved to perform specific aircraft maintenance activities by the
Authority. These activities may include the inspection, overhaul,
maintenance, repair and/or modification and release to service of
aircraft or aeronautical products.

(19) Approved continuous maintenance program. A maintenance
program approved by the State of Registry.

(20) Approved standard. A manufacturing, design, maintenance, or
quality standard approved by the Authority.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 105






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(21) Approved training. Training carried out under special curricula and
supervision approved by the Authority.

(22) Authorization. A formal instrument issued by a civil aviation
authority based on a technical evaluation that officially conveys to the
holder certain privileges in aviation under the civil aviation law,
regulations and Schedules.

(23)”Authorized by the Authority” This phrase identifies a requirement
that involves a technical evaluation and the issuance of a formal
instrument.

(24) Authorized instructor. A person who —
(i) Holds a valid ground instructor certificate issued under Schedule

8 when conducting ground training;
(ii) Holds a current flight instructor certificate issued under

Schedule 8 when conducting ground training or flight training;
or

(iii) Is authorized by the Authority to provide ground training or
flight training under Schedules 8 and 9.

(25) Authority. The Flight Standards Inspectorate of the Department of
Civil Aviation.

(26) Balloon. A non-power-driven lighter-than-air aircraft.
(27) Category II (CAT II) operations. With respect to the operation of

aircraft, means a straight-in ILS approach to the runway of an airport
under a Category II ILS instrument approach procedure issued by the
Authority or other appropriate authority.

(28) Category III (CAT III) operations. With respect to the operation of
aircraft, means an ILS approach to, and landing on, the runway of an
airport using a Category III ILS instrument approach procedure issued
by the Authority or other appropriate authority.

(29) Certificate. A formal instrument issued by a civil aviation authority
that authorizes the holder to perform the aviation activities identified
on the document.

(30) Certify as airworthy. The required maintenance record entry
completed by a properly authorized person after the modification,
overhaul, repair, or the inspection of an aircraft, or aeronautical
product required by the Authority.

(31) Certifying staff. Those personnel who are authorized by the
Approved Maintenance Organization in accordance with a procedure
acceptable to the Authority to certify aircraft or aircraft components
for release to service.

(32) Commercial air transport. An aircraft operation involving the
transport of passengers, cargo, or mail for remuneration or hire.

(33) Contracting States. All States that are signatories to the Convention
on International Civil Aviation (Chicago Convention).

(34) Course. A program of instruction to obtain an airman licence, rating,
qualification, authorization, or currency.

CH.284 – 106] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(35) Courseware. Instructional material developed for each course or
curriculum, including lesson plans, flight event descriptions, computer
software programs, audio-visual programs, workbooks, and handouts.

(36) Crew Resource Management. A program designed to improve the
safety of flight operations by optimising the safe, efficient, and
effective use of human resources, hardware, and information through
improved crew communication and co-ordination.

(37) Cross-country time. That time a pilot spends in flight in an aircraft
which includes a landing at a point other than the point of departure
and, for the purpose of meeting the cross-country time requirements
for a private pilot licence (except with a rotorcraft rating), commercial
pilot licence, or an instrument rating, includes a landing at an
aerodrome which must be a straight-line distance of more than 50
nautical miles from the original point of departure.

(38) Designation. A formal instrument issued by the Authority, based on a
technical evaluation process, that authorizes the holder to act on behalf
of the Authority in the performance of the functions identified in the
document.

(39)”Designated by the Authority” This phrase identifies a requirement
that requires a technical evaluation process and a formal instrument
issued by the Authority before a person may be used for a specific
function in aviation.

(40) Dual instruction time. Flight time during which a person is receiving
flight instruction from a properly authorized flight instructor on board
the aircraft.

(41) Evaluator. A person employed by a certified Aviation Training
Organization who performs tests for licensing, added ratings,
authorizations, and proficiency checks that are authorized by the
certificate holder’s training specification, and who is authorized by the
Authority to administer such checks and tests.

(42) Examiner. Any person authorized by the Authority to conduct a pilot
proficiency test, a practical test for an airman licence or rating, or a
knowledge test under these Regulations.

(43) Flight crew member. A licenced crew member charged with duties
essential to the operation of an aircraft during flight time.

(44) Flight simulator. A device that —
(i) Is a full-size aircraft cockpit replica of a specific type of aircraft,

or make, model, and series of aircraft;
(ii) Includes the hardware and software necessary to represent the

aircraft in ground operations and flight operations;
(iii) Uses a force cueing system that provides cues at least equivalent

to those cues provided by a 3 degree freedom of motion system;
(iv) Uses a visual system that provides at least a 45 degree horizontal

field of view and a 30 degree vertical field of view
simultaneously for each pilot; and

(v) Has been evaluated, qualified, and approved by the Authority.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 107






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(45) Flight time. The total time from the moment an aircraft first moves under
its own power for the purpose of taking off until the moment it comes to
rest at the end of the flight.

Note: Flight time as here defined is synonymous with the term “block-to-
block” time or “chock-to-chock” time in general usage, which is measured
from the time an aircraft moves from the loading point until it stops at the
unloading point.
(46) Flight training device. A device that —

(i) Is a full-size replica of the instruments, equipment, panels, and controls of
an aircraft, or set of aircraft, open or in an enclosed cockpit, including the
hardware and software for the systems installed, that is necessary to
simulate the aircraft in ground and flight operations;

(ii) Need not have a force (motion) cueing or visual system; and
(iii) Has been evaluated, qualified, and approved by the Authority.

Note: A set of aircraft are those that share similar performance
characteristics, such as similar airspeed and altitude operating envelopes,
similar handling characteristics, and the same number and type of propulsion
systems.
(47) Flight training. Training, other than ground training, received from an

authorized instructor in flight in an aircraft.
(48) Glider. A non-power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving its lift in

flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces, which remain,
fixed under given conditions of flight.

(49) Helicopter. A heavier-than-air aircraft supported in flight chiefly by the
reactions of the air on one or more power-driven rotors on substantially
vertical axis.
(i) Class 1 helicopter. A helicopter with performance such that, in

case of critical engine failure, it is able to land on the rejected take-
off area or safely continue the flight to an appropriate landing area,
depending on when the failure occurs.

(ii) Class 2 helicopter. A helicopter with performance such that, in case of
critical engine failure, it is able to safely continue the flight, except
when the failure occurs prior to a defined point after take-off or after a
defined point before landing, in which case a forced landing may be
required.

(iii) Class 3 helicopter. A helicopter with performance such that, in case
of engine failure at any point in the flight profile, a forced landing must
be performed.

(50) Inspection. The examination of an aircraft or aeronautical product to
establish conformity with a standard approved by the Authority.

(51) Instrument approach. An approach procedure prescribed by the
Authority having jurisdiction over the aerodrome.

(52) Instrument time. Time in which cockpit instruments are used as the sole
means for navigation and control.

(53) Instrument training. Training which is received from an authorized
instructor under actual or simulated instrument meteorological conditions.

CH.284 – 108] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(54) Knowledge test. A test on the aeronautical knowledge areas required
for an airman licence or rating that can be administered in written
form or by a computer.

(55) Licence. A formal instrument issued by a civil aviation authority that
authorizes the holder to perform the functions identified on the
document, subject to the applicable privileges and limitations.

(56) Large aeroplane. An aeroplane having a maximum certified take-off
mass of 5,700 kg. (12,500 Lbs.), or more.

(57) Maintenance. Tasks required to ensure the continued airworthiness of
an aircraft or aeronautical product including any one or combination
of overhaul, repair, inspection, replacement, modification. and defect
rectification.

(58) Maintenance release. A document containing a certification that
inspection and maintenance work has been performed satisfactorily in
accordance with the methods prescribed by the Authority.

(59) Minimum equipment list (MEL). A list approved by the Authority
which provides for the operation of aircraft, subject to specified
conditions, with particular equipment inoperative, prepared by an
operator in conformity with, or more restrictive than, the Master
Minimum Equipment List established for the aircraft type by the
aircraft manufacturer, and approved by the State of Design.

(60) Night. The hours between the end of evening civil twilight and the
beginning of morning civil twilight or such other period between
sunset and sunrise. Civil twilight ends in the evening when the center
of the sun’s disc is 6 degrees below the horizon and begins in the
morning when the center of the sun’s disc is 6 degrees below the
horizon.

(61) Operational control. The exercise of authority over the initiation,
continuation, diversion or termination of a flight in the interest of the
safety of the aircraft and the regularity and efficiency of the flight.

(62) Pilot in command. The pilot responsible for the operation and safety
of the aircraft during flight time.

(63) Pilot time. That time a person —
(i) Serves as a required pilot;

(ii) Receives training from an authorized instructor in an aircraft,
approved flight simulator, or approved flight training device; or

(iii) Gives training as an authorized instructor in an aircraft,
approved flight simulator, or approved flight training device.

(64) Powered-lift. A heavier-than-air aircraft capable of vertical takeoff,
vertical landing, and low speed flight that depends principally on
engine-driven lift devices or engine thrust for lift during these flight
regimes and on nonrotating airfoil(s) for lift during horizontal flight.

(65) Powerplant. An engine that is used or intended to be used for
propelling aircraft. It includes turbosuperchargers, appurtenances, and
accessories necessary for its functioning, but does not include
propellers.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 109






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(66) Practical test. A competency test on the areas of operations for a
licence, certificate, rating, or authorization that is conducted by having
the applicant respond to questions and demonstrate manoeuvres in
flight, in an approved flight simulator, or in an approved flight training
device, or in a combination of these.

(67) Pre-flight inspection. The inspection carried out before flight to
insure that the aircraft is fit for the intended flight.

(68) “Prescribed by the Authority” This phrase denotes a requirement
where the Authority may, through Appendix, Advisory Circular or
Operations Order, outline the steps and standards necessary to meet
the requirement.

(69) Pressurized aircraft. For airman licensing purposes, means an
aircraft that has a service ceiling or maximum operating altitude,
whichever is lower, above 25,000 feet MSL.

(70) Propeller. A device for propelling an aircraft that has blades on a
powerplant driven shaft and that, when rotated, produces by its action
on the air, a thrust approximately perpendicular to its plane of rotation.
It includes control components normally supplied by its manufacturer,
but does not include main and auxiliary rotors or rotating airfoils of
powerplants.

(71) Rating. An authorization entered on or associated with a licence or
certificate and forming part thereof, stating special conditions,
privileges or limitations pertaining to such licence or certificate.

(72) Repair. The restoration of an aircraft/aeronautical product to a
serviceable condition in conformity with an approved standard.

(73) Second in command. A licenced pilot serving in a piloting capacity
other than as pilot-in-command, who is designated as second in
command and who meets second in command requirements of
Schedule 10 of these Regulations.

(74) Small aeroplane. An aeroplane having a maximum certified take-off
mass of less than 5,700 kg. (12,500 lbs.).

(75) Solo flight. Flight time during which a student pilot is the sole
occupant of the aircraft, or that flight time during which the student
acts as a PIC of a gas balloon or an airship requiring more than one
flight crew member.

(76) State of Registry. The Contracting State on whose registry an
aircraft is entered.

(77) Technical log. A document carried on an aircraft that contains
information to meet ICAO requirements; a technical log
contains two independent sections: a journey record section and
an aircraft maintenance record section.

(78) Training program. Program that consists of courses, courseware,
facilities, flight training equipment, and personnel necessary to
accomplish a specific training objective. It may include a core
curriculum and a specialty curriculum.

(79) Training time. The time spent receiving from an authorized instructor
flight training, ground training, or simulated flight training in an
approved flight simulator or approved flight-training device.

CH.284 – 110] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(80) Validation. The acceptance of a certificate, licence, approval,
designation, or authorization issued by another ICAO Contracting State
as the primary basis for the Authority’s issuance of a certificate, licence,
approval, designation, or authorization containing the same or more
restrictive privileges.

1.020 ACRONYMS (RESERVED)
SUBPART B

GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE RULES
1.025 DISPLAY AND INSPECTION OF LICENCES AND CERTIFICATES
(a) Pilot licence:

(1) To act as a pilot of a civil aircraft of Bahamian registry, a pilot shall have in
his or her physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft a valid pilot
licence or special purpose authorization issued under these regulations.

(2) To act as a pilot of a civil aircraft of foreign registry within The Bahamas, a
pilot shall be the holder of a valid pilot licence, and have the pilot licence in
his or her physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft.

(b) Flight instructor licence: A person who holds a flight instructor licence
shall have that licence, or other documentation acceptable to the Authority,
in that person’s physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft
when exercising the privileges of that licence.

(c) Other airman licence: A person required by any part of these Regulations to
have an airman’s licence shall have it in their physical possession or readily
accessible in the aircraft or at the work site when exercising the privileges
of that licence.

(d) Medical certificate: A person required by any Schedule of these
Regulations to have a current medical certificate shall have it in their
physical possession or readily accessible in the aircraft or at the work site
when exercising the privileges of that certificate.

(e) Pilot School certificate and Aviation Maintenance Technician School
certificate: Each holder of a Pilot School certificate or a provisional Pilot
School certificate or Aviation Maintenance Technician School certificate
shall display that certificate in a place in the school that is normally
accessible to the public and that is not obscured.

(f) Training Centre Certificate: Each holder of a Training Centre certificate
shall prominently display that certificate in a place accessible to the public
in the principal business office of the training center.

(g) Aircraft Airworthiness Certificate: Each owner or operator of an aircraft
shall display that certificate in the cabin of the aircraft or at the entrance to
the aircraft flight deck.

(h) Approved Maintenance Organization (AMO) Certificate: Each holder of an
AMO certificate shall prominently display that certificate in a place
accessible to the public in the principal business office of the AMO.

(i) Inspection of licence: Each person who holds an airman or crew member
licence, medical certificate, or authorization required by these Regulations
shall present it for inspection upon a request from:

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 111






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(1) The Authority; or
(2) Any national or local law enforcement officer.

1.030 CHANGE OF NAME
(a) A holder of a licence or certificate issued under these Regulations may apply

to change the name on a licence or certificate. The holder shall include with
any such request —
(1) The current licence or certificate; and
(2) A copy of the marriage licence, court order, or other document

verifying the name change.
(b) The Authority will return to the airman the documents specified in paragraph

(a) of this subsection.
1.035 CHANGE OF ADDRESS
(a) The holder of an airman licence or pilot school, training centre, or aviation

maintenance school certificate who has made a change in permanent mailing
address may not, after 30 days from that date, exercise the privileges of the
licence or certificate unless the holder has notified the Authority in writing of
the new permanent mailing address, or current residential address if the
permanent mailing address includes a post office box number.

1.040 REPLACEMENT OF A LOST OR DESTROYED DCA-ISSUED
DOCUMENT

(a) An applicant who has lost or destroyed one of the following documents
issued under these Regulations shall request a replacement in writing from
the office designated by the Authority:
(1) An airman licence.
(2) A medical certificate.
(3) A knowledge test report.

(b) The airman or applicant shall state in the request letter —
(1) The name of the airman or applicant;
(2) The permanent mailing address, or if the permanent mailing address

includes a post office box number, the person’s current residential address;
(3) The social security number or equivalent national identification number;
(4) The date and place of birth of the airman or applicant; and
(5) Any available information regarding the —

(i) Grade, number, and date of issuance of the licence, and the
ratings, if applicable;

(ii) Date of the medical examination, if applicable; and
(iii) Date the knowledge test was taken, if applicable.

(c) After receiving a facsimile from the Authority confirming that the lost or
destroyed document was issued, an airman may carry the facsimile in lieu
of the lost or destroyed document for up to 60 days pending the airman’s
receipt of a duplicate document.

CH.284 – 112] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

1.045 FALSIFICATION, REPRODUCTION, OR ALTERATION OF
REQUIRED DOCUMENTS

(a) No person may make or cause to be made concerning any licence, certificate,
rating, qualification, or authorization, application for or duplicate thereof,
issued under these regulations:
(1) Any fraudulent or intentionally false statement;
(2) Any fraudulent or intentionally false entry in any logbook, record, or

report that these regulations require, or used to show compliance with
any requirement of these regulations;

(3) Any reproduction for fraudulent purpose; or
(4) Any alteration.

(b) Any person who commits any act prohibited under paragraph (a) of this
section may have his or her airman licence, rating, certificate, qualification,
or authorization revoked or suspended.

1.050 SURRENDER, SUSPENSION, OR REVOCATION OF LICENCE
OR CERTIFICATE

(a) Any licence or certificate issued under these regulations ceases to be
effective if it is surrendered, suspended, or revoked.

(b) The holder of any licence or certificate issued under these regulations that
has been suspended or revoked shall return that licence or certificate to the
Authority when requested to do so by the Authority.

1.055 REAPPLICATION AFTER REVOCATION
(a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Authority, a person whose licence,

certificate, rating, or authorization has been revoked may not apply for any
licence, certificate, rating, or authorization for 1 year after the date of
revocation.

1.060 REAPPLICATION AFTER SUSPENSION
(a) Unless otherwise authorized by the Authority, a person whose licence has

been suspended may not apply for any licence, rating, or authorization during
the period of suspension.

1.065 VOLUNTARY SURRENDER OR EXCHANGE OF LICENCE
(a) The holder of a licence or certificate issued under these regulations may

voluntarily surrender it for:
(1) Cancellation;
(2) Issuance of a lower grade licence; or
(3) Another licence with specific ratings deleted.

(b) An applicant requesting voluntary surrender of a licence shall include the
following signed statement or its equivalent: “This request is made for my own
reasons, with full knowledge that my (insert name of licence or rating, as
appropriate) may not be reissued to me unless I again pass the tests prescribed
for its issuance.”

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 113






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

1.070 PROHIBITION ON PERFORMANCE DURING MEDICAL
DEFICIENCY

(a) A person who holds a current medical certificate issued under these regulations
shall not act in a capacity for which that medical certificate is required while that
person:
(1) Knows or has reason to know of any medical condition that would make

the person unable to meet the requirements for the required medical
certificate; or

(2) Is taking medication or receiving other treatment for a medical condition that
results in the person being unable to meet the requirements for the required
medical certificate.

1.075 DRUG AND ALCOHOL TESTING AND REPORTING
(a) An employee who performs any function requiring a licence, rating, qualification, or

authorization prescribed by these regulations directly or by contract for a certificate
holder under the provisions of these regulations may —
(1) Be denied any licence, certificate, rating, qualification, or authorization for

a period of up to 1 year after the date of such refusal; and
(2) Have his or her licence, certificate, rating, qualification, or authorization

issued under these regulations suspended or revoked.
(b) Any person subject to these regulations who is convicted for the violation of any

local or national statute relating to the growing, processing, manufacture, sale,
disposition, possession, transportation, or importation of narcotic drugs,
marijuana, or depressant or stimulant drugs or substances, may —
(1) Be denied any licence, certificate, rating, qualification, or authorization

issued under these regulations for a period of up to 1 year after the date of
final conviction; or

(2) Have his or her licence, certificate, rating, qualification, or authorization
issued under these regulations suspended or revoked.

(c) Any person subject to these regulations who refuses to submit to a test to indicate
the percentage by weight of alcohol in the blood, when requested by a law
enforcement officer, or refuses to furnish or to authorize the release of the test
results requested by the Authority may —
(1) Be denied any licence, certificate, rating, qualification, or authorization

issued under these regulations for a period of up to 1 year after the date of
that refusal; or

(2) Have his or her licence, certificate, rating, qualification, or authorization
issued under these regulations suspended or revoked.

SUBPART C
VALIDATION OF CERTIFICATES AND AUTHORIZATIONS

1.080 VALIDATION — GENERAL
(a) The Authority may, with prescribed restrictions and after a process of technical

evaluation and confirmation, use a certificate, licence, approval, designation, or
authorization issued by another ICAO Contracting State as the basis for the
issuance of a certificate, licence, approval, designation or authorization containing
the same or more restrictive privileges.

CH.284 – 114] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) The Authority may not use the process of validation to abdicate its
responsibility to ensure that the source documents used are valid and were
issued in accordance with applicable ICAO Standards.

(c) The Authority may conduct any additional test or inspection deemed
technically or administratively necessary to confirm the competency of the
holder and the validity of the certificate, licence, approval, designation or
authorization.

(d) The Authority will not use a document issued by another ICAO Contracting
State through the process of validation as the primary basis for issuance of
a Bahamian certificate.

1.085 TERM OF VALIDITY
(a) Each certificate, licence, approval, designation or authorization issued by

the Authority through a validation process is subject to the same procedures
for modification, suspension, revocation or termination applicable to other
documents issued by the Authority.

(b) Unless otherwise prescribed, each certificate, licence, approval, designation
or authorization issued by the Authority through a validation process will
become invalid when the document used as the basis of issuance becomes
invalid, non-current, or expires or is suspended or revoked by the ICAO
Contracting State that originally issued it.

(c) The Authority must notify the Authority of the other ICAO Contracting
State if, through the processes of certification, inspection, observation or
investigation, it determines that the holder of a certificate, licence,
approval, designation or authorization issued through the processes of
validation is —
(1) No longer qualified or competent to hold that document;
(2) Not in conformance with the applicable ICAO Standards or national

regulations applicable to that document; or
(3) Engaged in sub-standard practices with respect to the international

safety practices relevant to that document.
1.090 HOLDERS OF VALIDATED DOCUMENTS
(a) No act of validation by the Authority relieves the holder of the certificate,

licence, approval, designation or authorization from conformance with
these Schedules or the applicable laws of the ICAO Contracting State that
issued the original document.

(b) No act of validation by the Authority relieves the holder of the certificate,
licence, approval, designation or authorization from inspection and
verification by the Authority for continued competency and conformance
with the original basis for issuance.

(c) The holder of a certificate, licence, approval, designation, or authorization
issued through the process of validation shall submit to any additional test
or inspection deemed technically or administratively by the Authority to
ensure the continued validity and competency of the holder of the
certificate, licence, approval, designation or authorization.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 115






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

1.095 VALIDATION OF TYPE CERTIFICATES AND
SUPPLEMENTAL TYPE CERTIFICATES

(a) With the exception of experimental or restricted certificates of airworthiness,
all certificates of airworthiness issued by the Authority will conform to the
Type Certificate and Supplemental Type Certificates issued by the State of
Design or Manufacture.

1.100 VALIDATION OF CERTIFICATES OF
AIRWORTHINESS

(a) Certificates of Airworthiness issued by the Authority may use as the primary
basis for original issuance another ICAO Contracting State’s certificate, but
the continued validity of the Bahamian certificate of airworthiness will not be
linked to the other State’s certificate.

1.105 VALIDATION OF MEDICAL CERTIFICATES
(a) Medical certificates issued by the Authority with validation of another ICAO

Contracting State’s certificate as the primary basis for issuance will be linked
to the continued validity of the other State’s certificate.

1.110 VALIDATION OF AIRMAN CERTIFICATES AND
RATINGS

(a) Airman certificates, ratings and limitations issued by the Authority to citizens
of The Bahamas with validation of another ICAO Contracting State’s
certificate as the primary basis for issuance will not be linked to the
continued validity of the other State’s certificate.

(b) Airman certificates, ratings and limitations issued to persons not citizens of
the Bahamas with valuation of another ICAO Contracting State’s certificate
as the primary basis for issuance will be linked to the continued validity of
the other State’s certificate.

1.115 VALIDATION OF AIR OPERATOR CERTIFICATES.
(a) Validation will never be used by the Authority as the primary basis for

issuance of an Air Operator Certificate to a Bahamian entity engaged in
commercial air transport.

1.120 VALIDATION OF APPROVED ORGANIZATIONS
(a) The holder of an Approved Maintenance Organization Certificate issued by

another ICAO Contracting State may be authorized by the Authority to
perform maintenance and repair of aircraft registered in the Bahamas (or
operated by the holder of AOC issued by the Bahamas) using as the primary
basis the certificate, privileges and limitations issued by the other State.

(b) The holder of an Approved Training Organization Certificate issued by
another ICAO Contracting State may be authorized by the Authority to
provide training facilities, equipment, simulators, instructors and examiners
to airmen and operators of the Bahamas, using as the primary basis the
certificate, privileges, designation and limitations issued by the other State.

(c) Other organizations approved by an ICAO Contracting State may be
authorized by the Authority to provide services to airmen and operators of The
Bahamas, using as the primary basis the certificate, privileges and limitations
issued by the other State.

CH.284 – 116] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(d) The authorizations issued to these Approved Organizations by the Authority
through the process of validation are linked to the continued validity of the
certificates, privileges and limitations issued by the other State.

1.125 VALIDATION OF APPROVALS, AUTHORIZATIONS
AND DESIGNATIONS

(a) Documents, facilities, equipment, training devices, simulators separately
approved by an ICAO Contracting State through a technical certification
process, and subject to continued inspection or revalidation, may be
separately approved by the Authority for use of airmen and operators of The
Bahamas, using as the primary basis the approval, privileges and limitations
issued by the other State.

(b) Personnel holding an authorization from an ICAO Contracting State to
perform certain functions on behalf of the Authority of that State, based on
acceptable technical requirements, qualification processes and subject to
continued inspection, may be authorized by the Authority for use of airmen
and operators of The Bahamas, using as the primary basis the authorization,
privileges and limitation issued by the other State.

(c) Personnel holding a designation from an ICAO Contracting State to
perform certain functions on behalf of the Authority of that State, based on
acceptable technical requirements, qualification processes and subject to
continued inspection, may be designated by the Authority for use of airmen
and operators of The Bahamas, using as the primary basis the designation,
privileges and limitations issued by the other State.

(d) The approvals, authorizations and designations issued by the Authority through
the process of validation are linked to the continued validity of the approvals,
authorizations and designations issued by the other State.

SUBPART D
EXEMPTIONS AND EQUIVALENT SAFETY CASE

1.130 EXEMPTIONS AND EQUIVALENT SAFETY CASE
No person may introduce procedures contrary to those prescribed in these

regulations unless needed and an equivalent safety case has first been approved by
the Authority.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 117






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

SCHEDULE 2

PENALTIES
PART A

PROVISIONS REFERRED TO IN REGULATION 9.(5)

Regulation Subject Matter
5 Failure to comply with direction given under the regulations

7(2) Failure to surrender document
8(5) Failure to surrender permit

15(2) Failure to produce document or record
15(3) Failure to allow access
15(7) Intentional obstruction or impedance of authorised person

16(2)(a) Failure to grant access to an aerodrome
16(2)(b) Failure to grant access to aircraft or facilities for inspection
16(2)(c) Failure to allow inflight inspection

17(2) Obstruction or interference with the copying of documents
18 Failure to produce documents and records

20(1) Failure to produce reports of occurrences
21 Failure to carry proper documents
22 Failure to preserve documents
24 Aircraft flying unregistered
26 Aircraft flying with false or incorrect markings
27 Failure to conform to type certificate
30 Flight without appropriate maintenance

30(2) Failure to conform to maintenance program
31(1) Failure to keep aircraft maintenance records
31(2) Failure to enter defects in maintenance records
31(3) Failure to enter rectification of defects in maintenance

records
32 Flight without a release to service
39 Conducting operations without complying with the minimum

instruments and equipment requirements
42 Providing flying instruction without proper certificate
45 Flying when not properly qualified and current

46(1) Operations without a valid airman medical certificate
50 Careless or reckless actions

CH.284 – 118] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002



Regulation Subject Matter
59 Failure to comply with requirements for operations in

controlled flight
61(1) Failure to comply with the terms of the aerial application

certificate
62(1) Failure to meet requirements for towing, picking up and

raising of articles and persons
64(1) Failure to obtain authorization for persons dropping or

jumping from aircraft
66 Failure to comply with requirements for exhibition of flying,

aircraft races or contests
68 Operations in commercial air transport without completing

the certification requirements for such operations
69 Failure to continue to comply with the authorizations and

limitations prescribed by the Authority for commercial air
transport.

70 Operation of unauthorized aircraft in commercial air
transport

71 Failure to comply with the security requirements applicable to
commercial air transport

72 Failure to comply with the maintenance requirements
applicable to commercial air transport

73 Failure to comply with minimum passenger carrying
requirements for commercial air transport

74 Failure to comply with the minimum and recurring
qualifications for persons involved in commercial air
transport

75 Failure to comply with the maximum duty and flight time and
minimum rest period requirements applicable to personnel in
commercial air transport

76 Failure to comply with the flight release requirements of
commercial air transport

77 Failure to comply with mass and balance and performance
requirements for commercial air transport

80(1) Failure to make accident report
80(3) Failure to co-operate with an accident investigation



CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 119






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

PART B
PROVISIONS REFERRED TO IN REGULATION 9.(6)

Regulation Subject Matter
14 Improper possession or use of Aviation Safety Inspector

Credential
15(2) False statement
15(5) Failure to comply with prevent flying order
20(5) False report
23(1)(a) Use of a document by a person not entitled to that document
23(1)(b) Allowing improper person to use personal licences and

certificates
23(1)(c) False representation for the purpose of acquiring a certificate

or document
23(2) Intentional alteration, damage, or destroying of document
23(2) False entries in documents
23(4) Issuance of document when not entitled to make that issue
28 Flight without a certificate of airworthiness
29 Failure to comply with airworthiness directives
33(1) Conducting business as an Approved Maintenance

Organization without obtaining required certificate.
49(1) Conducting business as an Approved Training Organization

without obtaining required certificate.
52 Interference with a crew member
67(1) Operations in commercial air transport without an Air

Operator Certificate
78 Unauthorized shipment or carriage of dangerous goods
79 Unauthorized carriage of munitions of war or weapons
80(2) False report regarding accident


CH.284 – 120] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

SCHEDULE 3
AIRCRAFT REGISTRATION

SUBPART A: GENERAL
3.001 Applicability
3.005 Definitions
3.010 Acronyms
SUBPART B: REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS
3.015 General
3.020 Registration Eligibility
3.025 Application
SUBPART C: NATIONALITY AND REGISTRATION MARKS
3.030 General
3.035 Display of Marks: General
3.040 Size of Marks
3.045 Deviations for Size and Location of Marks
3.050 Location of Marks on Fixed-wing Aircraft
3.055 Location of Marks on Rotorcraft
3.060 Location of Marks on Lighter-than-Air Aircraft
3.065 Sale of Aircraft: Removal of Marks
3.070 Identification Plate Required

SUBPART A
GENERAL

3.001 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Schedule prescribes the requirements for registration and marking of

Civil Aircraft under the provisions of The Bahamas Air Navigation
Regulations.

3.005 DEFINITIONS
(a) For the purpose of this Schedule, the following definitions shall apply:

(1) Fireproof material. A material capable of withstanding heat as well
as or better than steel when the dimensions in both cases are
appropriate for the specific purpose.

(2) Glider. A non-power-driven heavier-than-air aircraft, deriving its lift
in flight chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces which remain
fixed under given conditions of flight.

(3) Heavier-than-air aircraft. Any aircraft deriving its lift in flight
chiefly from aerodynamic forces.

(4) Lighter-than-air aircraft. Any aircraft supported chiefly by its
buoyancy in the air.

(5) State of Registry. The State on whose register the aircraft is entered.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 121






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

3.010 ACRONYMS
(a) The following acronyms are used in this Schedule:

(1) ADIZ — Air Defence Identification Zone
(2) DEWIZ — Distant Early Warning Identification Zone

SUBPART B
REGISTRATION REQUIREMENTS

3.015 GENERAL
(a) No person may operate a civil aircraft that is eligible for registration under

the laws of The Bahamas unless it has been registered by its owner under
the provisions of the laws of The Bahamas and the Authority has issued a
Certificate of Aircraft Registration for that aircraft which shall be carried
aboard that aircraft for all operations.

3.020 REGISTRATION ELIGIBILITY
(a) An aircraft is eligible for registration if it is —

(1) Owned by a natural citizen, an individual citizen of a foreign State who
is lawfully admitted for permanent residence in The Bahamas, a
corporation lawfully organized and doing business under the laws of
The Bahamas, or a government entity of The Bahamas; and

(2) Not registered under the laws of any foreign country.
3.025 APPLICATION
(a) A person who wishes to register an aircraft in The Bahamas must submit an

application for aircraft registration to the Authority in a form and manner
acceptable to the Authority. Each application shall —
(1) Certify as to citizenship;
(2) Show evidence identifying ownership; and
(3) Be signed in ink.

(b) The fee provided for by law will be submitted for processing as prescribed
by the Authority.

(c) Upon an applicant meeting all requirements for registration, a Certificate of
Aircraft Registration will be issued by the Authority.

SUBPART C
NATIONALITY AND REGISTRATION MARKS

3.030 GENERAL
(a) No person may operate a civil aircraft registered in The Bahamas unless it

displays nationality and registration marks in accordance with the
requirements of this section. The letter or letters used to identify the
nationality of the aircraft shall conform to the requirements outlined in
ICAO Annex 7. This is to be followed by a series of numbers or letters
assigned by the Authority.

CH.284 – 122] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) Unless otherwise authorized by the Authority, no person may place on any
aircraft a design, mark, or symbol that modifies or confuses the nationality and
registration marks. The marks shall not be confused with the International Five
Letter Code of Signals or Distress Codes.

(c) Permanent marking of aircraft nationality and registration shall —
(1) Be painted on the aircraft or affixed by other means insuring a similar

degree of permanence;
(2) Have No Date ornamentation;
(3) Contrast in color with the background; and
(4) Be legible.

3.035 DISPLAY OF MARKS: GENERAL
(a) Each owner shall display on that aircraft marks consisting of the Roman capital

letter denoting nationality of The Bahamas followed by the registration number
of the aircraft in Arabic numerals. Each suffix letter used in the marks displayed
must also be a Roman capital letter.

(b) If, because of the aircraft configuration, it is not possible to mark the aircraft in
accordance with this Part, the owner may apply to the Authority for a different
procedure.

3.040 SIZE OF MARKS
(a) Each operator of an aircraft shall display marks on the aircraft meeting the size

requirements of this section.
(b) Height. The character marks shall be of equal height and on —

(1) Fixed-wing aircraft must be at least 30 centimetres high;
(2) Rotorcraft must be at least 30 centimetres high; and
(3) Lighter-than-air and powered-lift aircraft at least 50 centimetres high.

(c) Width. Characters must be two-thirds as wide as they are high, except the
number “1”, which must be one-sixth as wide as it is high, and the letters “M”
and “W” which may be as wide as they are high.

(d) Thickness. Characters shall be formed by solid lines one-sixth as thick as the
character is high.

(e) Spacing. The space between each character may not be less than one-fourth
of the character width.

(f) Uniformity. The marks required by this Part for fixed-wing aircraft must have
the same height, width, thickness, and spacing on both sides of the aircraft.

(g) Each operator of an aircraft penetrating an ADIZ or DEWIZ shall display
on that aircraft temporary or permanent nationality and registration marks
at least 30 centimeters high.

3.045 DEVIATIONS FOR SIZE AND LOCATION OF MARKS
(a) If either one of the surfaces authorized for displaying required marks is large

enough for display of marks meeting the size requirements of this section and
the other is not, the operator shall place full-size marks on the larger surface.

(b) If neither surface is large enough for full-size marks, the Authority may approve
marks as large as practicable for display on the larger of the two surfaces.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 123






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

3.050 LOCATION OF MARKS ON FIXED-WING AIRCRAFT
(a) The operator of a fixed-wing aircraft shall display the required marks on

either the vertical tail surfaces or the sides of the fuselage.
(b) The marks required by paragraph (a) of this section shall be displayed as

follows:
(1) If displayed on the vertical tail surfaces, horizontally on both surfaces,

horizontally on both surfaces of a single vertical tail or on the outer
surfaces of a multi-vertical tail.

(2) If displayed on the fuselage surfaces, horizontally on both sides of the
fuselage between the trailing edge of the wing and the leading edge of the
horizontal stabilizer.

(3) If engine pods or other appurtenances are located in the area described
in paragraph (b)(2) and are an integral part of the aircraft, the operator
may place the marks on those pods or appurtenances.

3.055 LOCATION OF MARKS ON ROTORCRAFT
(a) Each operator of a rotorcraft shall display marks horizontally on both

surfaces of the cabin, fuselage, boom, or tail, such that the rotorcraft can be
readily identified.

3.060 LOCATION OF MARKS ON LIGHTER-THAN-AIR AIRCRAFT
(a) Airships. The operator shall place marks on an airship to appear on —

(1) The hull, located lengthwise on each side of the hull and on its upper
surface on the line of symmetry; or

(2) The horizontal and vertical stabilizers surfaces —
(i) For the horizontal stabilizer, located on the right half of the

upper surface and on the left half of the lower surface, with the
tops of the letters and numbers toward the leading edge; and

(ii) For the vertical stabilizer, located on each side of the bottom half
stabilizer, with the letters and numbers placed horizontally.

(b) Spherical balloons (other than unmanned free balloons). The operator shall
apply marks to appear in two places diametrically opposite each other and
located near the maximum horizontal circumference of the balloon.

(c) Non-spherical balloons (other than unmanned free balloons). The operator
shall apply marks to appear on each side, located near the maximum cross-
section of the balloon immediately above either the rigging band or the
points of attachment of the basket suspension cables.

(d) Lighter-than-air aircraft (other than unmanned free balloons). The operator
shall apply side marks to be visible both from the sides and from the ground.

(e) Unmanned free balloons. The operator shall apply marks to appear on the
identification plate.

CH.284 – 124] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

3.065 SALE OF AIRCRAFT: REMOVAL OF MARKS
(a) When an aircraft that is registered in The Bahamas is sold, the holder of the

Certificate of Aircraft Registration shall remove, before its delivery to the
purchaser, all nationality and registration marks of The Bahamas, unless the
purchaser is a citizen or other legal entity.

3.070 IDENTIFICATION PLATE REQUIRED
(a) The operator shall affix to each aircraft registered under the laws of The

Bahamas an identification plate —
(1) Containing the aircraft type, model, serial number, marks of

nationality, and licence;
(2) Made of fireproof metal or other fireproof material of suitable

physical properties;
(3) Secured to the aircraft in a prominent position, near the main entrance,

or, in the case of a free balloon, affixed conspicuously to the exterior
of the payload.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 125






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

SCHEDULE 4

AIRCRAFT AND COMPONENT ORIGINAL CERTIFICATION

SUBPART A: GENERAL
4.001 Applicability
4.005 Definitions
4.010 Acronyms
SUBPART B: TYPE CERTIFICATES
4.015 Validation of Type Certificates
4.020 Type Certificate Issuance by The Bahamas
4.025 Validation of Supplemental Type Certificates
SUBPART C: AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION REGULATIONS
4.035 Applicable Aircraft Certification Regulations

SUBPART A
GENERAL

4.001 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Schedule prescribes the type-certificate and supplemental type certificate

standards that will be applied during the issuance and renewal of airworthiness
certificates.

(b) This Schedule describes the policies of The Bahamas and the designation of
applicable rules for original certification of aircraft and components.

4.005 DEFINITIONS
(a) For the purpose of this Schedule, the following definitions shall apply —

(1) State of Design. The Contracting State which approved the original type
certificate and any subsequent supplemental type certificates for an aircraft,
or which approved the design of an aeronautical product or appliance.

(2) State of Manufacture. The Contracting State, under whose authority an
aircraft was assembled, approved for compliance with the type certificate
and all extant supplemental type certificates, test flown and approved for
operation. The state of manufacture may or may not also be the state of
design.

(3) State of Registry. The Contracting State on whose register the aircraft is
entered.

4.010 ACRONYMS
(a) The following acronyms are used in this Schedule:

(1) AOC — Air Operator Certificate
(2) TSO — Technical Standard Order

CH.284 – 126] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

SUBPART B
TYPE CERTIFICATES

4.015 VALIDATION OF TYPE CERTIFICATES
(a) The Authority will validate the type certificate of the State of Design or State

of Manufacture when issuing an certificate of airworthiness for an aircraft on
The Bahamas’ register.

(b) The Authority may, after technical evaluation to ensure that ICAO Standards
are properly met, validate a type certificate issued by ICAO Contracting State
other than the State of Design or Manufacture.

4.020 TYPE CERTIFICATE ISSUANCE BY THE BAHAMAS
(a) The Authority will hold this Subpart reserved unfit such time as it has received

an application for Type Certificates, Production Certificates or other related
approvals.

(b) Any applicant for a production certificate for any aircraft or aeronautical
product thereof for manufacture in The Bahamas shall comply with the type
certificate as required by the State of Design for approval.

(c) At such time as the application for production is presented the Authority
will make available suitable schedules or provisions for the issuance of an
airworthiness certificate, or airworthiness document as appropriate for the
product concerned.

4.025 VALIDATION OF SUPPLEMENTAL TYPE
CERTIFICATES

(a) Any person who alters a product by introducing a major change in type
design, not great enough to require a new application for a type certificate,
shall apply for a Supplemental Type Certificate to the regulatory agency of
the State of Design that approved the type certificate for that product, or to
the State of Registry of the aircraft. The applicant shall apply in accordance
with the procedures prescribed by that State.

SUBPART C
AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION REGULATIONS

4.035 APPLICABLE AIRCRAFT CERTIFICATION
REGULATIONS

(a) The Authority will apply the detailed and comprehensive aircraft certification
regulations of the ICAO Contracting State which issued the type certificate to
the determination of continued airworthiness of the aircraft, provided —
(1) These regulations are in conformance with the Standards of ICAO Annex 8;
(2) These regulations are in English or certified translation to English;
(3) A copy of these regulations are provided with the application for the

airworthiness certificate; and
(4) There is a satisfactory method of updating the Authority’s copy of these

regulations throughout the period of time the aircraft is registered in the
Bahamas.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 127






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(b) The aircraft certification regulations which are available to and applied by
the Authority in the determination for issuance of a certificate of
airworthiness and continuing airworthiness are those of the —
(1) United States Federal Aviation Administration;
(2) European Joint Aviation Authorities; and
(3) Canadian Ministry of Transport.

CH.284 – 128] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

SCHEDULE 5
CONTINUING AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT

SUBPART A: GENERAL
5.001 Applicability
5.005 Definitions
5.010 Acronyms
SUBPART B: AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATES
5.015 Applicability
5.020 Eligibility
5.025 Classifications of Airworthiness Certificates
5.030 Amendment of Airworthiness Certificate
5.035 Transfer or Surrender of Airworthiness Certificate
5.040 Effective Dates of Airworthiness Certificate
5.045 Aircraft Identification
5.050 Issue of Standard Airworthiness Certificates
5.055 Airworthiness Directives
5.060 Issue of Noise Certificate
5.065 Issue of Special Airworthiness Certificates
SUBPART C: CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT AND

COMPONENTS
5.070 Applicability
5.075 Responsibility
5.080 General
5.085 Reporting of Failures, Malfunctions, and Defects
SUBPART D: AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS
5.090 Applicability
5.095 General
5.097 Repair Assessment for Pressurized Fuselages
5.100 Maintenance Required
5.105 Inspections
5.110 Progressive inspection
5.115 Changes to Aircraft Maintenance Programs
SUBPART E: PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
5.135 Applicability
5.140 Persons Authorised to Perform Maintenance, Preventive Maintenance, and

Modifications
5.145 Persons Authorised to Perform Maintenance
5.150 Authorised Personnel to Approve for Return to Service
5.155 Persons Authorised to Perform Inspections
5.160 Performance Rules: Maintenance
5.165 Performance Rules: Inspections
5.170 Performance Rules: Airworthiness Limitations


CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 129






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS



SUBPART F: MAINTENANCE RECORDS AND ENTRIES
5.200 Owner Maintenance Records
5.205 Owner Maintenance Records Retention
5.210 Transfer of Maintenance Records by Owner
5.215 Maintenance and Modification Record Entries
5.220 Entries Required Following Overhaul and Rebuilding
5.225 Entries for Approval for Return to Service
5.230 Content and Form for Entries Following Inspection
SUBPART G: MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL LIMITATIONS, PRIVILEGES

AND RECENCY
5.250 Rest and Duty Limitations for Persons Performing

Maintenance Functions
5.255 AMT Privileges and Limitations
5.260 AMT Recent Experience Requirements
5.265 Inspection Authorisation Privileges and Limitations
5.270 Aviation Repair Specialist Licences: Privileges and Limitations
APPENDICES
Appendix 1 to 5.005: Major Modifications (Definition)
Appendix 2 to 5.005: Major Repairs (Definition)
Appendix 3 to 5.005: Preventive Maintenance (Definition)
Appendix 1 to 5.105: Altimeter System Tests and Inspections

Table I to Appendix 1 to 5.105
Table II to Appendix 1 to 5.105: Test Tolerances
Table III to Appendix 1 to 5.105: Friction
Table IV to Appendix 1 to 5.5105: Pressure/Altitude Difference

Appendix 2 to 5.105: Transponder Tests and Inspections
Appendix 3 to 5.105: VOR Receiver Tests and Inspections
Appendix 1 to 5.165: Performance Rules: 100-Hour Inspections
Appendix 1 to 5.215: Recording of Major Repairs and Major Modifications

SUBPART A
GENERAL

5.001 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Schedule prescribes the requirements for —

(1) Certification of aircraft and aeronautical components;
(2) Issuance of Airworthiness certificates and other certifications for aero-

nautical products;
(3) Continued airworthiness of aircraft and aeronautical components;
(4) Rebuilding and modifications of aircraft and aeronautical components;
(5) Maintenance and preventive maintenance of aircraft and aeronautical

components;
(6) Aircraft inspection requirements; and
(7) Air operator aircraft maintenance and inspection requirements.

CH.284 – 130] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

5.005 DEFINITIONS
(a) For the purpose of the Schedule, the following definitions shall apply —

(1) Major modification. Described in Appendix 1 to 5.005
(2) Major repair. Described in Appendix 2 to 5.005.
(3) Modification. The alteration of an aircraft/aeronautical product in

conformity with an approved standard.
(4) Preventative maintenance. Described in Appendix 3 to 5.005.
(5) Overhaul. The restoration of an aircraft/aeronautical product using methods,

techniques, and practices acceptable to the Authority, including disassembly,
cleaning, and inspection as permitted, repair as necessary, and reassembly; and
tested in accordance with approved standards and technical data, or in
accordance with current standards and technical data acceptable to the
Authority, which have been developed and documented by the State of
Design, holder of the type certificate, supplemental type certificate, or a
material, part, process, or appliance approval under Parts Manufacturing
Authorisation (PMA) or Technical Standard Order (TSO).

(6) Rebuild. The restoration of an aircraft/aeronautical product by using
methods, techniques, and practices acceptable to the Authority, when it has
been disassembled, cleaned, inspected as permitted, repaired as necessary,
reassembled, and tested to the same tolerances and limits as a new item,
using either new parts or used parts that conform to new part tolerances and
limits. This work will be performed by only the manufacturer or an
organization approved by the manufacturer, and authorised by the State of
Registry.

(7) Required inspection items. Maintenance items and/or alterations that
must be inspected by a person other than the one performing the work,
and include at least those that could result in a failure, malfunction, or
defect endangering the safe operation of the aircraft, if not properly
performed or if improper parts or materials are used.

(8) State of Design. The Contracting State which approved the original type
certificate and any subsequent supplemental type certificates for an
aircraft, or which approved the design of an aeronautical product or
appliance.

(9) State of Manufacture. The Contracting State, under whose authority an
aircraft was assembled, approved for compliance with the type certificate
and all extant supplemental type certificates, test flown and approved for
operation. The state of manufacture may or may not also be the state of
design.

(10) State of Registry. The Contracting State on whose register the aircraft is
entered.

5.010 ACRONYMS
(a) The following acronyms are used in this Schedule:

(1) AOC — Air Operator Certificate
(2) AMO — Approved Maintenance Organization
(3) MEL — Minimum Equipment List

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 131






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(4) PIC — Pilot in command
(5) TSO — Technical Standard Order

SUBPART B
AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATES

5.015 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart prescribes procedures required for the issue of airworthiness

certificates.
5.020 ELIGIBILITY
(a) Any registered owner of a Bahamian registered aircraft, or agent of the owner,

may apply for an airworthiness certificate for that aircraft.
(b) Each applicant for an airworthiness certificate shall apply in a form and manner

acceptable to the Authority.
5.025 CLASSIFICATIONS OF AIRWORTHINESS

CERTIFICATES
(a) Standard Airworthiness Certificates will be issued for aircraft in the specific

category and model designated by the State of Design in the type certificate.
(b) The Authority may issue a Special Airworthiness Certificate in the form of a

restricted certificate or special flight permit.
5.030 AMENDMENT OF AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE
(a) The Authority may amend or modify an Airworthiness Certificate:

(1) Upon application from an operator.
(2) On its own initiative.

5.035 TRANSFER OR SURRENDER OF AIRWORTHINESS
CERTIFICATE

(a) An owner shall transfer an Airworthiness Certificate —
(1) To the lessee upon lease of an aircraft within or outside The Bahamas.
(2) To the buyer upon sale of the aircraft within The Bahamas.

(b) An owner shall surrender the Airworthiness Certificate for the aircraft to the
issuing Authority upon sale of that aircraft outside of The Bahamas.

5.040 EFFECTIVE DATES OF AIRWORTHINESS
CERTIFICATE

(a) Airworthiness Certificates are effective as follows unless sooner surrendered,
suspended or revoked, or a special termination date is otherwise established by
the Authority —
(1) A special flight permit is valid for the period of time specified in the permit.
(2) A Certificate of Airworthiness shall be renewed or shall remain valid,

subject to the laws of the State of Registry, provided that the State of
Registry shall require that the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft shall
be determined by a periodical inspection at appropriate intervals having
regard to lapse of time and type of service.

CH.284 – 132] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) When an aircraft imported for registration in The Bahamas has a Certificate
of Airworthiness issued by another Contracting State, The Bahamas may,
as an alternative to issuance of its own Certificate of Airworthiness,
establish validity by suitable authorisation to be carried with the former
Certificate of Airworthiness accepting it as the equivalent of a Certificate of
Airworthiness issued by The Bahamas. The validity of the authorisation
shall not extend beyond the period of validity of the Certificate of
Airworthiness or one year, whichever is less.

5.045 AIRCRAFT IDENTIFICATION
(a) Each applicant for an airworthiness certificate shall show that the aircraft is

properly registered and marked, including identification plates.
5.050 ISSUE OF STANDARD AIRWORTHINESS

CERTIFICATES
(a) The Authority will issue a Standard Airworthiness certificate if —

(1) The applicant presents evidence to the Authority that the aircraft
conforms to a type design approved under a type certificate or a
supplemental type certificate and to the applicable Airworthiness
Directives of the State of Manufacture;

(2) The aircraft has been inspected in accordance with the performance
rules of this schedule for inspections and found airworthy by persons
authorised by the Authority to make such determinations within the
last 30 calendar days; and

(3) The Authority finds after an inspection that the aircraft conforms to
type design and is in condition for safe operation.

(b) The Authority may validate an airworthiness certificate issued by another
Contracting State upon registration of the aircraft in The Bahamas for the
period specified in that certificate.

5.055 AIRWORTHINESS DIRECTIVES
(a) Upon registration of an aircraft in The Bahamas, the Authority will notify

the State of Design of the aircraft of the registration in The Bahamas, and
request that the Authority receives any and all airworthiness directives
addressing that aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or
component part.

(b) Whenever the State of Design considers that a condition in an aircraft,
airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part is unsafe
as shown by the issuance of an airworthiness directive by that State, the
Authority will make the requirements of such directives apply to The
Bahamas registered civil aircraft of the type identified in that airworthiness
directive.

(c) The Authority may identify manufacturer’s service bulletins and other
sources of data, or develop and prescribe inspections, procedures and
limitations, for mandatory compliance pertaining to affected aircraft in The
Bahamas.

(d) No person may operate any The Bahamas registered civil aircraft to which
the measures of this subsection apply, except in accordance with the
applicable directives.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 133






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

5.060 ISSUE OF NOISE CERTIFICATE
(a) The Authority will issue a noise certificate for each aircraft to be used in

international operations.
5.065 ISSUE OF SPECIAL AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATES
(a) The Authority may issue a Special Airworthiness Certificate to the aircraft that

does not qualify for a Standard Certificate.
(b) Aircraft holding Special Airworthiness Certificates shall be subject to operating

limitations within The Bahamas and may not make international flights. The
Authority shall issue specific operating limitations for each Special
Airworthiness Certificate.

(c) The Authority may issue Special Flight Permits to an aircraft that is capable
of safe flight, but unable to meet applicable airworthiness requirements, for
the purpose of —
(1) Flying to a base where repairs, modifications, maintenance, or inspections

are to be performed, or to a point of storage;
(2) Testing after repairs, modifications, or maintenance have been performed;
(3) Delivering or exporting the aircraft;
(4) Evacuating aircraft from areas of impending danger; and
(5) Operating at weight in excess of the aircraft’s maximum Certified

Takeoff Weight for flight beyond normal range over water or land
areas where adequate landing facilities or appropriate fuel is not
available. The excess weight is limited to additional fuel, fuel-carrying
facilities, and navigation equipment necessary for the flight.

(d) The Authority may issue a special flight permit with continuing
authorisation issued to an aircraft that may not meet applicable
airworthiness requirements but are capable of safe flight, for the purpose of
flying aircraft to a base where maintenance or alterations are to be
performed. The permit issued under this paragraph is an authorisation,
including conditions and limitations for flight, which is set forth in the
AOC Holder’s specific operating provisions. This permit under this
paragraph may be issued to an AOC Holder certificated under Schedule 12.

(e) In the case of Special Flight Permits, the Authority shall require a properly
executed maintenance endorsement in the aircraft permanent record by a
person or organization, authorised in accordance with this Schedule, stating
that the subject aircraft has been inspected and found to be safe for the
intended flight.

(f) The operator shall obtain all required overflight authorisations from
countries to be overflown on flights outside The Bahamas.

SUBPART C
CONTINUED AIRWORTHINESS OF AIRCRAFT AND COMPONENTS

5.070 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart prescribes rules governing the continued airworthiness of civil

aircraft registered in The Bahamas whether operating inside or outside the
borders of The Bahamas.

CH.284 – 134] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

5.075 RESPONSIBILITY
(a) The owner of an aircraft or, in the case of a leased aircraft, the lessee, shall be

responsible for maintaining the aircraft in an airworthy condition by ensuring
that —
(1) All maintenance, overhaul, modifications and repairs which affect air-

worthiness are performed as prescribed by the State of Registry;
(2) Maintenance personnel make appropriate entries in the aircraft main-

tenance records certifying that the aircraft is airworthy;
(3) The approval for return to service (maintenance release) is completed

to the effect that the maintenance work performed has been completed
satisfactorily and in accordance with the prescribed methods; and

(4) In the event there are open discrepancies, the maintenance release includes
a list of the uncorrected maintenance items and these items are made a part
of the aircraft permanent record.

5.080 GENERAL
(a) No person may perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, or

modifications on an aircraft other than as prescribed in this schedule.
(b) No person may operate an aircraft for which a manufacturer’s maintenance

manual or instructions for continued airworthiness has been issued that
contains an airworthiness limitation section unless the mandatory replacement
times, inspection intervals, and related procedures specified in that section or
alternative inspection intervals and related procedures set forth in the specific
operating provisions approved under Schedule 12, or in accordance with the
inspection program approved under this Schedule has been complied with.

(c) No person may operate an aeronautical product to which an Airworthiness
Directive applies, issued either by the State of Design, or State of Manufacture
and adopted for The Bahamas-registered aircraft by the Authority, or by the
State of Registry for aircraft operated within The Bahamas, except in
accordance with the requirements of that Airworthiness Directive.

(d) When the Authority determines that an airframe or aeronautical product has
exhibited an unsafe condition and that condition is likely to exist or to
develop in other products of the same type design, the Authority may issue
an Airworthiness Directive prescribing inspections and the conditions and
limitations, if any, under which those products may continue to be operated.

5.085 REPORTING OF FAILURES, MALFUNCTIONS, AND
DEFECTS

(a) Owners or operators of aircraft over 5,700 kg maximum take-off weight
shall report to the Authority any failures, malfunctions, or defects that
result in at least the following —
(1) Fires during flight and whether the related fire-warning system properly

operated;
(2) Fires during flight not protected by a related fire-warning system;
(3) False fire warning during flight;
(4) An engine exhaust system that causes damage during flight to the engine,

adjacent structure, equipment, or components;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 135






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(5) An aircraft component that causes accumulation or circulation of
smoke, vapour, or toxic or noxious fumes in the crew compartment or
passenger cabin during flight;

(6) Engine shutdown during flight because of flameout;
(7) Engine shutdown during flight when external damage to the engine or

aircraft structure occurs;
(8) Engine shutdown during flight due to foreign object ingestion or icing;
(9) Shutdown during flight of more than one engine;
(10) A propeller feathering system or ability of the system to control overspeed

during flight;
(11) A fuel or fuel-dumping system that affects fuel flow or causes hazardous

leakage during flight;
(12) An unintended landing gear extension or retraction, or opening or closing

of landing gear doors during flight;
(13) Brake system components that result in loss of brake actuating force

when the aircraft is in motion on the ground;
(14) Aircraft structure that requires major repair;
(15) Cracks, permanent deformation, or corrosion of aircraft structure, if more

than the maximum acceptable to the manufacturer or the Authority;
(16) Aircraft components or systems malfunctions that result in taking

emergency actions during flight (except action to shut down an engine);
(17) Each interruption to a flight, unscheduled change of aircraft en route, or

unscheduled stop or diversion from a route, caused by known or
suspected technical difficulties or malfunctions;

(18) Any abnormal vibration or buffeting caused by a structural or system
malfunction, defect, or failure;

(19) A failure or malfunction of more than one attitude, airspeed, or
altitude instrument during a given operation of the aircraft.

(20) The number of engines removed prematurely because of malfunction,
failure or defect, listed by make and model and the aircraft type in
which it was installed; or

(21) The number of propeller featherings in flight, listed by type of propeller
and engine and aircraft on which it was installed.

(b) Each report required by this Subsection shall —
(1) Be made within 3 days after determining that the failure, malfunction,

or defect required to be reported has occurred; and
(2) Include as much of the following information as is available and

applicable —
(i) Aircraft serial number;

(ii) When the failure, malfunction, or defect is associated with an
article approved under a TSO authorisation, the article serial
number and model designation, as appropriate;

CH.284 – 136] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(iii) When the failure, malfunction or defect is associated with an engine
or propeller, the engine or propeller serial number, as appropriate;

(iv) Product model;
(v) Identification of the part, component, or system involved, including

the part number; and
(vi) Nature of the failure, malfunction, or defect.

(c) The Authority, if the State of Registry of the aircraft, will submit all such reports
upon receipt to the State of Design.

(d) The Authority, if not the State of Registry of the aircraft, will submit all such
reports upon receipt to the State of Registry

SUBPART D
AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE REQUIREMENTS

5.090 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart prescribes the rules governing the maintenance and inspection of

Bahamian registered civil aircraft operating within or outside The Bahamas.
(b) Unless otherwise approved by the Authority, this Subpart prescribes the

minimum requirements that apply to aircraft operated by the holder of an AOC
issued by The Bahamas.

(c) Subsections 5.105 and 5.110 do not apply to aircraft subject to an approved
continuous maintenance program approved by the Authority for an AOC
holder in Schedule 12.

5.095 GENERAL
(a) The registered owner or operator of an aircraft is primarily responsible for

maintaining that aircraft in an airworthy condition, including compliance with
all airworthiness directives and mandatory service bulletins issued by the State
of Design or Manufacture.

(b) No person may perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alterations
on an aircraft other than as prescribed in this Schedule and other applicable
Schedules.

(c) No person may operate an aircraft for which a manufacturer’s maintenance
manual or instructions for continued airworthiness has been issued that
contains an airworthiness limitations section unless the mandatory
replacement times, inspection intervals and related procedures set forth in
specific operating provisions approved by the Authority under Schedule 12
or in accordance with an inspection program approved under this Schedule.

5.097 REPAIR ASSESSMENT FOR PRESSURIZED FUSELAGES
(a) No person may operate an aeroplane with a gross takeoff weight of 5700 kg

beyond the flight cycles prescribed by the Authority for such aircraft unless
repair assessment guidelines applicable to the fuselage pressure boundary
(fuselage skin, door skin and bulkhead webs) that have been approved by the
competent Authority of the State of Design or Manufacture having cognizance
over the type certificate for the affected aeroplane are incorporated within its
inspection program.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 137






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

5.100 MAINTENANCE REQUIRED
(a) Each owner or operator of an aircraft shall —

(1) Have that aircraft inspected as prescribed in this Schedule and discrepancies
repaired as prescribed in the Performance Rules of this Schedule;

(2) Repair, replace, remove, or inspect any inoperative instruments or items
of equipment at the next required inspection, except when permitted
under the provisions of an Minimum Equipment List (MEL);

(3) Ensure that a placard has been installed on the aircraft when listed
discrepancies include inoperative instruments or equipment; and

(4) Ensure that maintenance personnel make appropriate entries in the
aircraft maintenance records indicating the aircraft has been approved for
return to service.

5.105 INSPECTIONS
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (c), no person may operate an aircraft

unless, within the preceding 12 calendar months, the aircraft has had —
(1) An annual inspection in accordance with this Schedule and has been

approved for return to service by a person authorised under this Schedule; or
(2) An inspection for the issuance of an airworthiness certificate in

accordance with this Schedule.
Note: No inspection performed under paragraph (b) of this section
may be substituted for any inspection required by this paragraph
unless it is performed by a person authorised to perform annual
inspections and is entered as an “annual” inspection in the required
maintenance record.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c), no person may operate an aircraft
carrying any person (other than a crew member) for hire, and no person may
give flight instruction for hire in an aircraft which that person provides,
unless within the preceding 100 hours of time in service:
(1) The aircraft has received an annual or 100-hour inspection and been

approved for return to service in accordance with this Schedule; or
(2) Has received an inspection for the issuance of an airworthiness

certificate in accordance with this Schedule.
Note: The 100-hour limitation may be exceeded by not more than 10
hours while en route to reach a place where the inspection can be done.
The excess time used to reach a place where the inspection can be done
must be included in computing the next 100 hours of time in service.

(c) Paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section do not apply to —
(1) An aircraft that carries a special flight permit, a current experimental

certificate, or a provisional airworthiness certificate;
(2) An aircraft subject to the requirements of subsection 5.110 of this

section; or
(3) Turbine-powered rotorcraft when the operator elects to inspect that

rotorcraft in accordance with 5.110 of this section.
(d) Other Inspections. The altimeter, altimeter system, transponder and VOR

inspections required by Schedule 10 should accomplished as prescribed by
the Authority.

CH.284 – 138] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

For these tests and inspections, see Appendix 1 to 5.105 for the altimeter
system; Appendix 2 to 5.105 for the ATC transponder, Appendix 3 to 5.105
for the VOR receiver.

5.110 PROGRESSIVE INSPECTION
(a) Each registered owner or operator of an aircraft desiring to use a progressive

inspection program shall submit a written request to the Authority, and shall
provide —
(1) A licenced mechanic holding an inspection authorisation in accordance

with Schedule 8, an AMO appropriately rated in accordance with Schedule
6, or the manufacturer of the aircraft to supervise or conduct the progressive
inspection;

(2) A current inspection procedures manual available and readily
understandable to pilot and maintenance personnel containing, in detail —
(i) An explanation of the progressive inspection, including the

continuity of inspection responsibility, the making of reports, and the
keeping of records and technical reference material;

(ii) An inspection schedule, specifying the intervals in hours or days
when routine and detailed inspections will be performed and
including instructions for exceeding an inspection interval by not
more than 10 hours while en route and for changing an inspection
interval because of service experience;

(iii) Sample routine and detailed inspection forms and instructions for
their use; and

(iv) Sample reports and records and instructions for their use;
(3) Enough housing and equipment for necessary disassembly and proper

inspection of the aircraft; and
(4) Appropriate current technical information for the aircraft.

Note: The frequency and detail of the progressive inspection shall
provide for the complete inspection of the aircraft within each 12
calendar months and be consistent with the current manufacturer’s
recommendations, field service experience, and the kind of operation
in which the aircraft is engaged. The progressive inspection schedule
shall ensure that the aircraft, at all times, will be airworthy and will
conform to all applicable aircraft specifications, type certificate data
sheets, airworthiness directives, and other approved data acceptable
to the Authority. If the progressive inspection is discontinued, the
owner or operator shall immediately notify the Authority, in writing,
of the discontinuance. After the discontinuance, the first annual
inspection under Schedule 10 is due within 12 calendar months after
the last complete inspection of the aircraft under the progressive
inspection. The 100-hour inspection under this Subpart is due within
100 hours after that complete inspection. A complete inspection of the
aircraft, for the purpose of determining when the annual and 100-
hour inspections are due, requires a detailed inspection of the
aircraft and all its components in accordance with the progressive
inspection. A routine inspection of the aircraft and a detailed
inspection of several components is not considered to be a complete
inspection.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 139






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(b) The registered owner or operator of each large aeroplane, turbojet multi-
engine aeroplane, turbo propeller-powered multi-engine aeroplane, and
turbine-powered rotorcraft shall select, identify in the aircraft maintenance
records, and use one of the following programs for the inspection of the
aircraft —
(1) A current inspection program recommended by the manufacturer;
(2) A continuous maintenance program that is part of a continuous

maintenance program for that make and model of aircraft currently
approved by the Authority for use by an AOC holder; or

(3) Any other inspection program established by the registered owner or
operator of that aircraft and approved by the Authority.

(c) Each owner/operator shall include in the selected program the name and
address of the person responsible for the scheduling of the inspections
required by the program and provide a copy of the program to the person
performing inspection on the aircraft.

(d) No aircraft shall be approved for return to service unless the replacement
times for life-limited parts specified in the aircraft specification-type data
sheets are complied with and the aeroplane, including airframe, engines,
propellers, rotors, appliances, and survival and emergency equipment, is
inspected in accordance with an inspection program selected.

(e) Each person wishing to establish or change an approved inspection program
shall submit the program for approval by the Authority and shall include in
writing —
(1) Instructions and procedures for the conduct of inspection for the

particular make and model aircraft, including necessary tests and checks.
The instructions shall set forth in detail the parts and areas of the
aeronautical products, including survival and emergency equipment
required to be inspected; and

(2) A schedule for the inspections that shall be performed expressed in terms
of time in service, calendar time, number of system operations or any
combination of these.

(f) When an operator changes from one inspection program to another, the
operator shall apply the time in service, calendar times, or cycles of
operation accumulated under the previous program, in determining time the
inspection is due under the new program.

5.115 CHANGES TO AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS
(a) Whenever the Authority finds that revisions to an approved inspection

program are necessary for the continued adequacy of the program, the
owner or operator shall, after notification by the Authority, make any
changes in the program found to be necessary.

(b) The owner or operator may petition the Authority to reconsider the notice,
within 30 days after receiving that notice.

(c) Except in the case of an emergency requiring immediate action in the
interest of safety, the filing of the petition stays the notice pending a
decision by the Authority.

CH.284 – 140] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

SUBPART E
PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

5.135 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart prescribes performance standards governing the maintenance

and inspection of any aircraft having a Airworthiness Certificate issued by
the Bahamas or associated aeronautical products.

5.140 PERSONS AUTHORISED TO PERFORM MAINTENANCE,
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE, AND MODIFICATIONS

(a) The persons authorised to perform maintenance subject to this Subpart
include —
(1) A pilot licenced by the Authority;
(2) A person performing maintenance under the supervision of an aviation

maintenance technician;
(3) An aviation maintenance technician;
(4) An AOC holder approved to perform maintenance under an equivalent

system; and
(5) An AMO.

(b) This Subpart outlines the privileges and limitations of these entities with respect
to the extent and type of work they may perform regarding —
(1) Maintenance;
(2) Preventive Maintenance;
(3) Modification;
(4) Inspection; and
(5) Approvals for return to service.

5.145 PERSONS AUTHORISED TO PERFORM MAINTENANCE
(a) No person may perform any task defined as maintenance on an aircraft or

aeronautical products, except as provided in the following —
(1) A pilot licenced by the Authority may perform preventive maintenance

on any aircraft owned or operated by that pilot so long as the aircraft is
not listed for use by an AOC holder.

(2) A person working under the supervision of a aviation maintenance
technician, may perform the maintenance, preventive maintenance, and
modifications that the supervisory aviation maintenance technician is
authorised to perform —
(i) If the supervisor personally observes the work being done to the

extent necessary to ensure that it is being done properly, and
(ii) If the supervisor is readily available, in person, for consultation.

(3) A licenced aviation maintenance technician may perform or supervise
the maintenance or modification of an aircraft or aeronautical product
for which he or she is rated subject to the limitation of this Schedule.

(4) An AMO may perform aircraft maintenance within the limits specified by
the Authority.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 141






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(5) The AOC holder may perform aircraft maintenance as specified by the
Authority.

(6) A manufacturer holding an AMO may —
(i) Rebuild or alter any aeronautical product manufactured by that

manufacturer under a type or production certificate;
(ii) Rebuild or alter any aeronautical product manufactured by that

manufacturer under a TSO Authorisation, a Parts Manufacturer
Approval by the State of Design, or Product and Process
Specification issued by the State of Design; and

(iii) Perform any inspection required by this Schedule on aircraft it
manufacturers, while currently operating under a production
certificate or under a currently approved production inspection
system for such aircraft.

5.150 AUTHORISED PERSONNEL TO APPROVE FOR RETURN TO
SERVICE

(a) No person or entity, other than the Authority, may approve an aircraft,
airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part for return
to service after it has undergone maintenance, preventive maintenance,
rebuilding, or modification, except as provided in the following:
(1) A pilot licenced by the Authority may return his or her aircraft to service

after performing authorised preventive maintenance.
(2) A licenced aviation maintenance technician may approve aircraft and

aeronautical products for return to service after he or she has
performed, supervised, or inspected its maintenance subject to the
limitations of this Schedule.

(3) An AMO may approve aircraft and aeronautical products for return to
service as provided in the specifications approved by the Authority.

(4) An AOC holder may approve aircraft and aeronautical products for
return to service as specified by the Authority.

5.155 PERSONS AUTHORISED TO PERFORM INSPECTIONS
(a) No person, other than the Authority, may perform the inspections required in

this Schedule for aircraft and aeronautical products prior to or after it has
undergone maintenance, preventive maintenance, rebuilding, or modification,
except as provided in the following:
(1) An aviation maintenance technician may conduct the required inspections

of aircraft and aeronautical products for which he or she is rated and
current.

(2) An AMO may perform the required inspections of aircraft and
aeronautical products as provided in the specifications approved by the
Authority.

(3) An AOC holder may perform the required inspections of aircraft and
aeronautical products in accordance with specifications issued by the
Authority.

5.160 PERFORMANCE RULES: MAINTENANCE
(a) Each person performing maintenance, preventive maintenance, or modification

on an aeronautical product shall use the methods, techniques, and practices
prescribed in —

CH.284 – 142] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(1) The current manufacturer’s maintenance manual or instructions for
Continued Airworthiness prepared by its manufacturer; and

(2) Additional methods, techniques and practices required by the Authority; or
methods, techniques and practices designated by the Authority where the
manufacturer’s documents were not available.

(b) Each person shall use the tools, equipment, and test apparatus necessary to
assure completion of the work in accordance with accepted industry practices.
If the manufacturer involved recommends special equipment or test apparatus,
the person performing maintenance shall use that equipment or apparatus or its
equivalent acceptable to the Authority.

(c) Each person performing maintenance, preventive maintenance, or modification
on an aeronautical product shall do that work in such a manner, and use
materials of such a quality, that the condition of the aeronautical product
worked on will be at least equal to its original or properly altered condition
with regard to aerodynamic function, structural strength, resistance to vibration
and deterioration, and other qualities affecting airworthiness.

(d) The methods, techniques, and practices contained in an AOC holder’s
maintenance control manual and continuous maintenance program, as
approved by the Authority, will constitute an acceptable means of compliance
with the requirements of this subsection.

(e) Each person performing a major modification or repair defined in this Schedule
will use data approved by the Authority —
(1) The approved data used must be referenced on the form or log entry

used to approved the modification or repair for return to service.
(2) Acceptable “approved data” is data specifically approved by the following

for the modification or repair —
(i) The Authority;

(ii) The State of Manufacture;
(iii) A Designee authorized by the State of Manufacture for that type

modification or repair;
(iv) The State of Design; or
(v) A Designee authorized by the State of Design for that type

modification or repair.
5.165 PERFORMANCE RULES: INSPECTIONS
(a) General. Each person performing an inspection required by the Authority

shall —
(1) Perform the inspection so as to determine whether the aircraft, or portion(s)

thereof under inspection, meets all applicable airworthiness requirements;
and

(2) If there is an inspection program required or accepted for the specific
aircraft being inspected, perform the inspection in accordance with the
instructions and procedures set forth in the inspection program.

(b) Rotorcraft. Each person performing an inspection required on a rotorcraft shall
inspect the following systems in accordance with the maintenance manual or
Instructions for Continued Airworthiness of the manufacturer concerned —

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 143






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(1) The drive shafts or similar systems;
(2) The main rotor transmission gear box for obvious defects;
(3) The main rotor and centre section (or the equivalent area); and
(4) The auxiliary rotor on helicopters.

(c) Annual and 100-hour inspections.
(1) Each person performing an annual or 100-hour inspection shall use a

checklist while performing the inspection. The checklist may be of the
person’s own design, one provided by the manufacturer of the equipment
being inspected, or one obtained from another source. This checklist shall
include the scope and detail of the items prescribed by the Authority.
Appendix 1 to 5.165 lists the components to be included in an annual
or 100-hour inspection.

(2) Each person approving a reciprocating-engine-powered aircraft for return
to service after an annual or 100-hour inspection shall, before that approval,
run the aircraft engine or engines to determine satisfactory performance in
accordance with the current manufacturer’s recommendations of —

(i) Power output (static and idle rpm);
(ii) Magnetos;

(iii) Fuel and oil pressure; and
(iv) Cylinder and oil temperature.

(3) Each person approving a turbine-engine-powered aircraft for return to
service after an annual or 100-hour inspection shall, before that approval,
run the aircraft engine or engines to determine satisfactory performance in
accordance with the current manufacturer’s recommendations.

5.170 PERFORMANCE RULES: AIRWORTHINESS LIMITATIONS
(a) Each person performing an inspection or other maintenance specified in an

airworthiness limitations section of a current manufacturer’s maintenance
manual, or Instructions for Continued Airworthiness, shall perform the
inspection or other maintenance in accordance with that section, or in
accordance with specifications approved by the Authority.

SUBPART F
MAINTENANCE RECORDS AND ENTRIES

5.200 OWNER MAINTENANCE RECORDS
(a) The owner/operator of an aircraft shall keep a maintenance record of —

(1) The entire aircraft to include —
(i) Total time in service (hours, calendar time and cycles, as

appropriate) of the aircraft and all life limited parts;
(ii) Current inspection status of the aircraft, including the time since

required or approved inspections were last performed;
(iii) Current empty mass and the location of the centre of gravity when

empty;

CH.284 – 144] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(iv) Addition or removal of equipment;
(v) Type and extent of maintenance and alteration, including the time in

service and date;
(vi) When work was performed; and
(vii) A chronological list of compliance with Airworthiness Directives,

including methods of compliance.
(2) Life limited products —

(i) Total time in service;
(ii) Date of the last overhaul;
(iii) Time in service since the last overhaul; and
(iv) Date of the last inspection.

(3) Instruments and equipment, the serviceability and operating life of which
are determined by their time in service —
(i) Records of the time in service as are necessary to determine their

serviceability or to compute their operating life; and
(ii) Date of last inspection.

5.205 OWNER MAINTENANCE RECORDS RETENTION
(a) Except for records maintained by an AOC holder, each registered owner or

operator shall retain the following records until the work is repeated or
superseded by other work of equivalent scope and detail, or for one year after
the work is performed —
(1) Records of the maintenance, preventive maintenance, minor modifications,

and records of the 100-hour, annual, and other required or approved
inspections, as appropriate, for each aircraft (including the airframe) and
each engine, propeller, rotor, and appliance of an aircraft to include —
(i) A description (or reference to data acceptable to the Authority)

of the work performed;
(ii) The date of completion of the work performed; and
(iii) The signature and certificate number of the person approving the

aircraft for return to service.
(2) Records containing the following information —

(i) The total time-in-service of the airframe, each engine, each
propeller, and each rotor;

(ii) The current status of all life-limited aeronautical products;
(iii) The time since last overhaul of all items installed on the aircraft

which are required to be overhauled on a specified time basis;
(iv) The current inspection status of the aircraft, including the time since

the last inspection required by the inspection program under which
the aircraft and its appliances are maintained;

(v) The current status of applicable Airworthiness Directives including,
for each, the method of compliance, the Airworthiness Directive
number, and revision date. If the Airworthiness Directive involves
recurring action, the time and date when the next action is required.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 145






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(vi) Copies of the forms prescribed by this chapter for each major
modification to the airframe and currently installed engines, rotors,
propellers, and appliances.

(b) The records specified in paragraph (a) of this section shall be retained and
transferred with the aircraft at the time the aircraft is sold or leased.

(c) A list of defects shall be retained until the defects are repaired and the aircraft is
approved for return to service.

(d) The owner or operator shall make all maintenance records required by this
subsection available for inspection by the Authority.

5.210 TRANSFER OF MAINTENANCE RECORDS BY OWNER
(a) Any owner or operator who sells or leases a Bahamian registered aircraft shall

transfer to the purchaser/lessor, at the time of sale or lease, the records identified
in this Subpart for that aircraft, in plain language form or in coded form at the
election of the purchaser/lessor if the coded form provides for the preservation
and retrieval of information in a manner acceptable to the Authority.

5.215 MAINTENANCE AND MODIFICATION RECORD ENTRIES
(a) Each person who maintains, performs preventive maintenance, rebuilds, or

modifies an aircraft or aeronautical product shall, when the work is performed
satisfactorily, make an entry in the maintenance record of that equipment as
follows —
(1) A description (or reference to data acceptable to the Authority) of work

performed;
(2) Completion date of the work performed;
(3) Name, signature, certificate number, and kind of licence held by the person

approving the work.
Note: The signature constitutes the approval for return to service only
for the work performed.

(b) The person performing the work shall enter records of major repairs and major
modifications, and dispose of that form in the manner prescribed by the
Authority.
Appendix 1 to 5.215 provides the maintenance form requirements and a
sample major repair and modification form.

(c) A person working under supervision of an aviation maintenance technician
may not perform any inspection required in this Schedule or any inspection
performed after a major repair or modification.

5.220 ENTRIES REQUIRED FOLLOWING OVERHAUL AND REBUILDING
(a) No person may describe in any required maintenance entry or form, an

aeronautical product as being overhauled unless —
(1) It has been disassembled, cleaned, inspected as permitted, repaired as

necessary, and reassembled using methods, techniques, and practices
acceptable to the Authority; and

CH.284 – 146] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(2) It has been tested in accordance with approved standards and technical
data, or in accordance with current standards and technical data
acceptable to the Authority, which have been developed and documented
by the holder of the type certificate, supplemental type certificate, or a
material, part, process, or appliance manufacturing approval.

(b) No person may describe in any required maintenance entry or form an aircraft
or other aeronautical product as being rebuilt unless it has been disassembled,
cleaned, inspected as permitted, repaired as necessary, reassembled, and tested
to the same tolerances and limits as a new item, using either new parts or used
parts that conform to new part tolerances and limits.

5.225 ENTRIES FOR APPROVAL FOR RETURN TO SERVICE
(a) No person may approve for return to service or execute a maintenance release

for any aeronautical product that has undergone maintenance, preventive
maintenance, rebuilding, or modification unless —
(1) The appropriate maintenance record entry has been made;
(2) The repair or modification form authorised by or furnished by the

Authority has been executed in a manner prescribed by the Authority;
(3) If a repair or modification results in any change in the aircraft operating

limitations or flight data contained in the approved aircraft flight manual,
those operating limitations or flight data are appropriately revised and set
forth as prescribed.
Appendix 1 to 5.215 provides the repair or modification requirements and form.

5.230 CONTENT AND FORM FOR ENTRIES FOLLOWING INSPECTION
(a) Maintenance record entries. The person approving or disapproving the return to

service of an aeronautical product after any inspection performed in accordance with
this Schedule, shall make an entry in the maintenance record of that equipment
containing the following information —
(1) Type of inspection and a brief description of the extent of the inspection;
(2) Date of the inspection and aircraft total time in service;
(3) Signature, the licence number, and kind of licence held by the person

approving or disapproving for return to service the aeronautical product;
(4) If the aircraft is found to be airworthy and approved for return to service, the

following or a similarly worded statement — “I certify that this aircraft has
been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and was
determined to be in airworthy condition”;

(5) If the aircraft is not approved for return to service because of needed
maintenance, non-compliance with the applicable specifications,
airworthiness directives, or other approved data, the following or a
similarly worded statement — “I certify that this aircraft has been
inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and a list of
discrepancies and unairworthy items dated (date) has been provided for
the aircraft owner or operator”; and

(6) If an inspection is conducted under an inspection program provided for in
this Schedule, the person performing the inspection shall make an entry
identifying the inspection program accomplished, and containing a
statement that the inspection was performed in accordance with the
inspections and procedures for that particular program.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 147






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(b) Listing of discrepancies. The person performing any inspection required in this
Schedule who finds that the aircraft is not airworthy or does not meet the
applicable type certificate data sheet, airworthiness directives or other approved
data upon which its airworthiness depends, shall give the owner/operator a
signed and dated list of those discrepancies.

SUBPART G
MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL LIMITATIONS, PRIVILEGES AND

RECENCY
5.250 REST AND DUTY LIMITATIONS FOR PERSONS PERFORMING

MAINTENANCE FUNCTIONS
(a) No person may assign, nor shall any person perform maintenance functions

for aircraft, unless that person has had a minimum rest period of 8 hours prior
to the beginning of duty.

(b) No person may schedule a person performing maintenance functions for
aircraft for more than 12 consecutive hours of duty.

(c) In situations involving unscheduled aircraft unserviceability, persons
performing maintenance functions for aircraft may be continued on duty for —
(4) Up to 16 consecutive hours; or
(5) 20 hours in 24 consecutive hours.

(d) Following unscheduled duty periods, the person performing maintenance
functions for aircraft shall have a mandatory rest period of 10 hours.

(e) An AMO or AOC holder shall relieve the person performing maintenance
functions from all duties for 24 consecutive hours during any 7 consecutive day
period.

5.255 AMT PRIVILEGES AND LIMITATIONS
(a) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this subsection, a licenced AMT

may perform or supervise the maintenance, preventive maintenance, or
modification of, or after inspection, approve for return to service, any
aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, component, or part
thereof, for which he or she is rated, provided the licenced AMT has —
(1) Satisfactorily performed the work at an earlier date;
(2) Demonstrated the ability to perform the work to the satisfaction of the

Authority;
(3) Received training acceptable to the Authority on the tasks to be performed;

or
(4) Performed the work while working under the direct supervision of a licenced

AMT or a licenced aviation repair specialist (ARS) who is appropriately
rated and has —

(i) Had previous experience in the specific operation concerned; or
(ii) Received training acceptable to the Authority on the task to be

performed.

CH.284 – 148] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this subsection, a licenced AMT with an
airframe rating may after he/she has performed the 100-hour inspection required
by this Schedule on an airframe, or any related part or appliance, and approve
and return it to service.

(c) Except as specified in paragraph (d) of this subsection, a licenced AMT with
a powerplant rating may perform the 100-hour inspection required by this
Schedule on a powerplant or propeller or any related part or appliance, and
approve and return it to service.

(d) An AMT with an airframe and/or powerplant rating may not —
(1) Supervise the maintenance, preventive maintenance, or modification of,

or approve and return to service, any aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine,
propeller, appliance, component, or part thereof, for which he/she is rated
unless he/she has satisfactory performed the work concerned at an earlier
date.

(2) Perform or supervise (unless under the direct supervision and control of
an AOC holder that is authorised to perform maintenance, preventative
maintenance, or modifications under an equivalent system in accordance
with Schedule 12:
(i) A major repair or major modification of a propeller; or

(ii) Any repair or alteration of instruments;
(3) Approve for return to service —

(i) Any aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance,
component, or part thereof after completion of a major alteration or
major repair; or

(ii) Any instrument after completion of any repair or alteration;
(4) Exercise the privileges of the licence unless the licenced AMT understands

the current instructions for continued airworthiness and the maintenance
instructions for the specific operation concerned.

5.260 AMT RECENT EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS
(a) A licenced AMT may not exercise the privileges of his/her licence or rating

unless, within the preceding 24 months —
(1) The Authority has found that he/she is able to do that work; or
(2) For at least 6 months within the preceding 24 months —

(i) Served as an AMT under his/her licence and rating;
(ii) Technically supervised other AMTs;
(iii) Provided aviation maintenance instruction or served as the direct

supervisor of persons providing aviation maintenance instruction
for an AMT course or program acceptable to the Authority;

(iv) Supervised the maintenance, preventive maintenance, or alteration of
any aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance,
component, or part thereof; or

(v) Been engaged in any combination of paragraphs (a)(1)(i)
through (a)(1)(iv) of this subsection.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 149






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

5.265 INSPECTION AUTHORISATION PRIVILEGES AND
LIMITATIONS

(a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this subsection, the holder of an
Inspection Authorisation (IA) may:
(1) Inspect and approve for return to service any aircraft, airframe, aircraft

engine, propeller appliance, component, or part thereof after completion
of a major repair or major alteration performed in accordance with this
Schedule and done in accordance with technical data approved by the
Authority.

(2) Perform an annual inspection, or perform or supervise a progressive
inspection, according to this Schedule on any aircraft, except those
aircraft on a continuous maintenance program, and approve the aircraft
for return to service.

(b) The holder of an IA with a current and valid AMT licence may not inspect and
approve for return to service any aircraft over 5,700 kg maximum take-off
weight or any airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, component, or
part thereof which is subject to a maintenance program under this Schedule or
Schedule 12.

(c) The holder of an IA with a current and valid AMT licence may not inspect and
approve for return to service any aircraft maintained in accordance with a
continuous maintenance program approved under this Schedule or Schedule 12.

(d) When exercising the privileges of an IA, the holder shall keep it available
for inspection by the aircraft owner and the AMT submitting the aircraft,
repair, or alteration for approval (if any), and shall present it at the request
of the Authority or an authorised representative of the Director General, or
at the request of any Federal, State, or local law enforcement officer.

(e) If the holder of an Inspection Authorisation changes his or her fixed base of
operation, the holder may not exercise the privileges of the authorisation
until he or she has notified the Authority in writing of the change.

(f) No person may exercise any privilege of an Inspection Authorisation whenever
that person no longer —
(1) Has a fixed base of operation;
(2) Has the equipment, facilities, or inspection data required by Schedule 6; or
(3) Holds a current and valid AMT licence.

5.270 AVIATION REPAIR SPECIALIST LICENCES: PRIVILEGES AND
LIMITATIONS

(a) An aviation repair specialist may perform or supervise the maintenance,
preventive maintenance, or alteration of aircraft, airframes, aircraft engines,
propellers, appliances, components, and parts appropriate to the designated
speciality area for which the aviation repair specialist is licenced and rated,
but only in connection with employment by an AMO approved under
Schedule 6 or an AOC holder that is authorised to perform maintenance,
preventive maintenance, or modifications under an equivalent system in
accordance with Schedule 12.

CH.284 – 150] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) An aviation repair specialist may not perform or supervise duties unless the
aviation repair specialist understands the current instructions of the employing
certificate holder and the instructions for continued airworthiness, which relate
to the specific operations concerned.

APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1 TO 5.005

MAJOR MODIFICATIONS (DEFINITION)
(a) Airframe Major Modifications. Major modifications include modifications to

the listed aircraft parts, or the listed types of modifications (when not included in
the applicable aircraft specifications) —
(1) Wings.
(2) Tail surfaces.
(3) Fuselage.
(4) Engine mounts.
(5) Control system.
(6) Landing gear.
(7) Hull or floats.
(8) Elements of an airframe including spars, ribs, fittings, shock absorbers,

bracing, cowlings, fairings, and balance weights.
(9) Hydraulic and electrical actuating system of components.
(10) Rotor blades.
(11) Changes to the empty weight or empty balance which result in an increase

in the maximum Certified weight or centre of gravity limits of the aircraft.
(12) Changes to the basic design of the fuel, oil, cooling, heating, cabin

pressurisation, electrical, hydraulic, de-icing, or exhaust systems.
(13) Changes to the wing or to fixed or movable control surfaces which affect

flutter and vibration characteristics.
(b) Powerplant Major Modifications. Major powerplant modifications, even when

not listed in the applicable engine specifications, include —
(1) Conversion of an aircraft engine from one approved model to another,

involving any changes in compression ratio, propeller reduction gear,
impeller gear ratios or the substitution of major engine parts which
requires extensive rework and testing of the engine.

(2) Changes to the engine by replacing aircraft engine structural parts with
parts not supplied by the original manufacturer or parts not specifically
approved by the Authority.

(3) Installation of an accessory which is not approved for the engine.
(4) Removal of accessories that are listed as required equipment on the

aircraft or engine specification.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 151






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(5) Installation of structural parts other than the type of parts approved for
the installation.

(6) Conversions of any sort for the purpose of using fuel of a rating or grace
other than that listed in the engine specifications.

(c) Propeller Major Modifications. Major propeller modifications, when not
authorised in the applicable propeller specifications, include —
(1) Changes in blade design.
(2) Changes in hub design.
(3) Changes in the governor or control design.
(4) Installation of a propeller governor or feathering system.
(5) Installation of propeller de-icing system.
(6) Installation of parts not approved for the propeller.

(d) Appliance Major Modifications. Modifications of the basic design not made
in accordance with recommendations of the appliance manufacturer or in
accordance with applicable Airworthiness Directive are appliance major
modifications. In addition, changes in the basic design of radio communication
and navigation equipment approved under type certification or other
authorisation that have an effect on frequency stability, noise level, sensitivity,
selectivity, distortion, spurious radiation, AVC characteristics, or ability to
meet environmental test conditions and other changes that have an effect on the
performance of the equipment are also major modifications.

APPENDIX 2 TO 5.005
MAJOR REPAIRS (DEFINITION)

(a) Airframe Major Repairs. Repairs to the following parts of an airframe and
repairs of the following types, involving the strengthening, reinforcing, splicing,
and manufacturing of primary structural members of their replacement, when
replacement is by fabrication such as riveting or welding, are airframe major
repairs:
(1) Box beams.
(2) Monocoque or semimonocoque wings or control surfaces.
(3) Wing stringers or chord members.
(4) Spars.
(5) Spar flanges.
(6) Members of truss-type beams.
(7) Thin sheet webs of beams.
(8) Keel and chine members of boat hulls or floats.
(9) Corrugated sheet compression members which act as flange material of

wings or tail surfaces.
(10) Wing main ribs and compression members.
(11) Wing or tail surface brace struts.
(12) Engine mounts.

CH.284 – 152] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(13) Fuselage longerons.
(14) Members of the side truss, horizontal truss, or bulkheads.
(15) Main seat support braces and brackets.
(16) Landing gear brace struts.
(17) Axles.
(18) Wheels.
(19) Parts of the control system such as control columns, pedals, shafts,

brackets, or horns.
(20) Repairs involving the substitution of material.
(21) The repair of damaged areas in metal or plywood stressed covering

exceeding six inches in any direction.
(22) The repair of portions of skin sheets by making additional seams.
(23) The splicing of skin sheets.
(24) The repair of three or more adjacent wing or control surface ribs or the

leading edge of wings and control surfaces, between such adjacent ribs.
(25) Repair of fabric covering involving an area greater than that required to

repair two adjacent ribs.
(26) Replacement of fabric on fabric covered parts such as wings, fuselages,

stabilisers, and control surfaces.
(27) Repairing, including rebottoming, of removable or integral fuel tanks and

oil tanks.
(b) Powerplant Major Repairs. Repairs of the following parts of an engine and

repairs of the following types, are powerplant major repairs —
(1) Separation or disassembly of a crankcase or crankshaft of a reciprocating

engine equipped with an integral supercharger.
(2) Separation or disassembly of a crankcase or crankshaft of a reciprocating

engine equipped with other than spur-type propeller reduction gearing.
(3) Special repairs to structural engine parts by welding, plating, metalising, or

other methods.
(c) Propeller Major Repairs. Repairs of the following types to a propeller are

propeller major repairs —
(1) Any repairs to or straightening of steel blades.
(2) Repairing or machining of steel hubs.
(3) Shortening of blades.
(4) Retipping of wood propellers.
(5) Replacement of outer laminations on fixed pitch wood propellers.
(6) Repairing elongated bolt holes in the hub of fixed pitch wood propellers.
(7) Inlay work on wood blades.
(8) Repairs to composition blades.
(9) Replacement of tip fabric.
(10) Replacement of plastic covering.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 153






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(11) Repair of propeller governors.
(12) Overhaul of controllable pitch propellers.
(13) Repairs to deep dents, cuts, scars, nicks, etc., and straightening of

aluminium blades.
(14) The repair or replacement of internal elements of blades.

(d) Appliance Major Repairs. Repairs of the following types to appliances are
appliance major repairs —
(1) Calibration and repair of instruments.
(2) Calibration of avionics or computer equipment.
(3) Rewinding the field coil of an electrical accessory.
(4) Complete disassembly of complex hydraulic power valves.
(5) Overhaul of pressure type carburettors, and pressure type fuel, oil, and

hydraulic pumps.
APPENDIX 3 TO 5.005

PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE (DEFINITION)
(a) Preventive Maintenance. Preventive maintenance is limited to the following

work, provided it does not involve complex assembly operations:
(1) Removal, installation and repair of landing gear tires.
(2) Replacing elastic shock absorber cords on landing gear.
(3) Servicing landing gear shock struts by adding oil, air, or both.
(4) Servicing landing gear wheel bearings, such as cleaning and greasing.
(5) Replacing defective safety wiring or cotter keys.
(6) Lubrication not requiring disassembly other than removal of non-

structural items such as cover plates, cowlings, and fairings.
(7) Making simple fabric patches not requiring rib stitching or the

removal of structural parts or control surfaces.
(8) Replenishing hydraulic fluid in the hydraulic reservoir.
(9) Refinishing decorative coating of fuselage, wings, tail group surfaces

(excluding balanced control surfaces), fairings, cowling, landing gear,
cabin, or cockpit interior when removal or disassembly of any primary
structure or operating system is not required.

(10) Applying preservative or protective material to components where no
disassembly of any primary structure or operating system is involved and
where such coating is not prohibited or is not contrary to good practices.

(11) Repairing upholstery and decorative furnishings of the cabin or
cockpit when the repairing does not require disassembly of any
primary structure or operating system or interfere with an operating
system or affect primary structure of the aircraft.

(12) Making small simple repairs to fairings, non-structural cover plates,
cowlings, and small patches and reinforcements not changing the contour
so as to interfere with proper airflow.

CH.284 – 154] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(13) Replacing side windows where that work does not interfere with the
structure of any operating system such as controls, electrical equipment,
etc.

(14) Replacing safety belts.
(15) Replacing seats or seat parts with replacement parts approved for the

aircraft, not involving disassembly of any primary structure or operating
system.

(16) Troubleshooting and repairing broken circuits in landing light wiring
circuits.

(17) Replacing bulbs, reflectors, and lenses of position and landing lights.
(18) Replacing wheels and skis where no weight and balance computation is

involved.
(19) Replacing any cowling not requiring removal of the propeller or

disconnection of flight controls.
(20) Replacing or cleaning spark plugs and setting of spark plug gap clearance.
(21) Replacing any hose connection except hydraulic connections.
(22) Replacing prefabricated fuel lines.
(23) Cleaning fuel and oil strainers.
(24) Replacing and servicing batteries.
(25) Replacement or adjustment of non-structural fasteners incidental to

operations.
(26) The installation of anti-misfueling devices to reduce the diameter of fuel

tank filler openings provided the specific device has been made a part of
the aircraft type certificate data by the aircraft manufacturer, the
manufacturer has provided appropriately approved instructions acceptable
to the Authority for the installation of the specific device, and installation
does not involve the disassembly of the existing filler opening.

APPENDIX 1 TO 5.105
ALTIMETER SYSTEM TESTS AND INSPECTIONS

(a) The Altimeter system and altitude reporting equipment tests and inspections
must be conducted by —
(1) The manufacturer of the airplane, or helicopter, on which the tests and

inspections are to be performed;
(2) (2) A certificated repair station properly equipped to perform those

functions and holding —
(i) An instrument rating, Class I;

(ii) A limited instrument rating appropriate to the make and model
of appliance to be tested;

(iii) A limited rating appropriate to the test to be performed;
(iv) An airframe rating appropriate to the airplane, or helicopter, to

be tested; or

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 155






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(3) A certificated mechanic with an airframe rating (static pressure system tests
and inspections only).

(b) Altimeter and altitude reporting equipment approved under Technical Standard
Orders are considered to be tested and inspected as of the date of their
manufacture.

(c) Each person performing the altimeter system tests and inspections required by
schedule 10 shall comply with the following:
I. Static pressure system:
(1) Ensure freedom from entrapped moisture and restrictions.
(2) Determine that leakage is within the tolerances established in the aircraft

certification rule.
(3) Determine that the static port heater, if installed, is operative.
(4) Ensure that no alterations or deformations of the airframe surface have

been made that would affect the relationship between air pressure in the
static pressure system and true ambient static air pressure for any flight
condition.

II. Altimeter:
(5) Test by an appropriately rated repair facility in accordance with the

following subparagraphs. Unless otherwise specified, each test for
performance may be conducted with the instrument subjected to
vibration. When tests are conducted with the temperature substantially
different from ambient temperature of approximately 25 degrees C,
allowance shall be made for the variation from the specified condition.

(i) Scale error. With the barometric pressure scale at 29.92 inches of
mercury, the altimeter shall be subjected successively to pressures
corresponding to the altitude specified in Table I up to the
maximum normally expected operating altitude of the airplane in
which the altimeter is to be installed. The reduction in pressure
shall be made at a rate not in excess of 20,000 feet per minute to
within approximately 2,000 feet of the test point. The test point
shall be approached at a rate compatible with the test equipment.
The altimeter shall be kept at the pressure corresponding to each
test point for at least 1 minute, but not more than 10 minutes,
before a reading is taken. The error at all test points must not
exceed the tolerances specified in Table I.

(ii) Hysteresis. The hysteresis test shall begin not more than 15
minutes after the altimeter’s initial exposure to the pressure
corresponding to the upper limit of the scale error test prescribed in
subparagraph (i); and while the altimeter is at this pressure, the
hysteresis test shall commence. Pressure shall be increased at a rate
simulating a descent in altitude at the rate of 5,000 to 20,000 feet
per minute until within 3,000 feet of the first test point (50 percent
of maximum altitude). The test point shall then be approached at a
rate of approximately 3,000 feet per minute. The altimeter shall be
kept at this pressure for at least 5 minutes, but not more than 15
minutes, before the test reading is taken. After the reading has been
taken, the pressure shall be increased further, in the same manner as
before, until the pressure corresponding to the second test


CH.284 – 156] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

point (40 percent of maximum altitude) is reached. The altimeter
shall be kept at this pressure for at least 1 minute, but not more than
10 minutes, before the test reading is taken. After the reading has
been taken, the pressure shall be increased further, in the same
manner as before, until atmospheric pressure is reached. The reading
of the altimeter at either of the two test points shall not differ by
more than the tolerance specified in Table II from the reading of the
altimeter for the corresponding altitude recorded during the scale
error test prescribed in paragraph (b)(i).

(iii) After effect. Not more than 5 minutes after the completion of the
hysteresis test prescribed in paragraph (b)(ii), the reading of the
altimeter (corrected for any change in atmospheric pressure) shall
not differ from the original atmospheric pressure reading by more
than the tolerance specified in Table II.

(iv) Friction. The altimeter shall be subjected to a steady rate of decrease
of pressure approximating 750 feet per minute. At each altitude listed
in Table III, the change in reading of the pointers after vibration shall
not exceed the corresponding tolerance listed in Table III.

(v) Case leak. The leakage of the altimeter case, when the pressure
within it corresponds to an altitude of 18,000 feet, shall not change
the altimeter reading by more than the tolerance shown in Table II
during an interval of 1 minute.

(vi) Barometric scale error. At constant atmospheric pressure, the
barometric pressure scale shall be set at each of the pressures (falling
within its range of adjustment) that are listed in Table IV, and shall
cause the pointer to indicate the equivalent altitude difference shown in
Table IV with a tolerance of 25 feet.

(6) Altimeters which are the air data computer type with associated computing
systems, or which incorporate air data correction internally, may be tested
in a manner and to specifications developed by the manufacturer which are
acceptable to the Administrator.

III. Integration Test
Automatic Pressure Altitude Reporting Equipment and ATC Transponder
System Integration Test. The test must be conducted by an appropriately rated
person under the conditions specified in paragraph (a). Measure the automatic
pressure altitude at the output of the installed ATC transponder when
interrogated on Mode C at a sufficient number of test points to ensure that the
altitude reporting equipment, altimeters, and ATC transponders perform their
intended functions as installed in the aircraft. The difference between the
automatic reporting output and the altitude displayed at the altimeter shall not
exceed 125 feet.
IV. Records
Comply with the provisions of Schedule 5 as to content, form, and disposition
of the records. The person performing the altimeter tests shall record on the
altimeter the date and maximum altitude to which the altimeter has been tested
and the persons approving the airplane for return to service shall enter that data
in the airplane log or other permanent record.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 157






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

TABLE I TO APPENDIX 1 TO 5.105

Altitude Equivalent pressure Tolerance ±(feet)
–1,000 31.018 20
0 29.921 20
500 29.385 20
1,000 28.856 20
1,500 28.335 25
2,000 27.821 30
3,000 26.817 30
4,000 25.842 35
6,000 23.978 40
8,000 22.225 60
10,000 20.577 80
12,000 19.029 90
14,000 17.577 100
16,000 16.216 110
18,000 14.942 120
20,000 13.750 130
22,000 12.636 140
25,000 11.104 155
30,000 8.885 180
35,000 7.041 205
40,000 5.538 230
45,000 4.355 255
50,000 3.425 280

TABLE II TO APPENDIX 1 TO 5.105: TEST TOLERANCES

Test Tolerance (feet)
Case Leak Test ±100
Hysteresis Test
First Test Point (50 percent of maximum altitude) 75
Second Test Point (40 percent of maximum altitude) 75
After Effect Test 30



CH.284 – 158] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

TABLE III TO APPENDIX 1 TO 5.105: FRICTION

Altitude (feet) Tolerance (feet)
1,000 ±70
2,000 70
3,000 70
5,000 70
10,000 80
15,000 90
20,000 100
25,000 120
30,000 140
35,000 160
40,000 180
50,000 250

TABLE IV TO APPENDIX 1 TO 5.5105: PRESSURE/ALTITUDE DIFFERENCE

Pressure (inches of Hg) Altitude difference (feet)
28.10 -1,727
28.50 -1,340
29.00 -863
29.50 -392
29.92 0
30.50 +531
30.90 +893
30.99 +974

APPENDIX 2 TO 5.105
TRANSPONDER TESTS AND INSPECTIONS

(a) Following any installation or maintenance on an ATC transponder where
data correspondence error could be introduced, the integrated system has
been tested, inspected, and found to comply with paragraph (c), of
Appendix 1 to 5.105.

(b) The tests and inspections specified in this section must be conducted by —
(1) An Approved Maintenance Organization properly equipped to

perform those functions and holding —
(i) A radio rating, Class III;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 159






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(ii) A limited radio rating appropriate to the make and model
transponder to be tested;

(iii) A limited rating appropriate to the test to be performed; or
(2) A holder of a continuous airworthiness maintenance program as provided in

Schedule 12; or
(3) The manufacturer of the aircraft on which the transponder to be tested is

installed, if the transponder was installed by that manufacturer.
The ATC transponder tests may be conducted using a bench check or
portable test equipment and must meet the requirements prescribed in
paragraphs (a) through (j) of this appendix. If portable test equipment with
appropriate coupling to the aircraft antenna system is used, operate the test
equipment for ATCRBS transponders at a nominal rate of 235 interrogations
per second to avoid possible ATCRBS interference. Operate the test
equipment at a nominal rate of 50 Mode S interrogations per second for
Mode S. An additional 3 dB loss is allowed to compensate for antenna
coupling errors during receiver sensitivity measurements conducted in
accordance with paragraph (c)(1) when using portable test equipment.

(c) Radio Reply Frequency:
(1) For all classes of ATCRBS transponders, interrogate the transponder and

verify that the reply frequency is 1090 ±3 Megahertz (MHz).
(2) For classes 1B, 2B, and 3B Mode S transponders, interrogate the

transponder and verify that the reply frequency is 1090 ±3 MHz.
(3) For classes 1B, 2B, and 3B Mode S transponders that incorporate the

optional 1090 ±1 MHz reply frequency, interrogate the transponder and
verify that the reply frequency is correct.

(4) For classes 1A, 2A, 3A, and 4 Mode S transponders, interrogate the
transponder and verify that the reply frequency is 1090 ±1 MHz.

(d) Suppression: When Classes 1B and 2B ATCRBS Transponders, or Classes 1B, 2B,
and 3B Mode S transponders are interrogated Mode 3/A at an interrogation rate
between 230 and 1,000 interrogations per second; or when Classes 1A and 2A
ATCRBS Transponders, or Classes 1B, 2A, 3A, and 4 Mode S transponders are
interrogated at a rate between 230 and 1,200 Mode 3/A interrogations per second:
(1) Verify that the transponder does not respond to more than 1 percent of

ATCRBS interrogations when the amplitude of P2 pulse is equal to the P1
pulse.

(2) Verify that the transponder replies to at least 90 percent of ATCRBS
interrogations when the amplitude of the P2 pulse is 9 dB less than the P1
pulse. If the test is conducted with a radiated test signal, the interrogation
rate shall be 235 ±5 interrogations per second unless a higher rate has
been approved for the test equipment used at that location.

(e) Receiver Sensitivity:
(1) Verify that for any class of ATCRBS Transponder, the receiver minimum

riggering level (MTL) of the system is -73 ±4 dbm, or that for any class of
Mode S transponder the receiver MTL for Mode S format (P6 type)
interrogations is -74 ±3 dbm by use of a test set either:

CH.284 – 160] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(i) Connected to the antenna end of the transmission line;
(ii) Connected to the antenna terminal of the transponder with a

correction for transmission line loss; or
(iii) Utilized radiated signal.

(2) Verify that the difference in Mode 3/A and Mode C receiver sensitivity does
not exceed 1 dB for either any class of ATCRBS transponder or any class of
Mode S transponder.

(f) Radio Frequency (RF) Peak Output Power.
(1) Verify that the transponder RF output power is within specifications for the

class of transponder. Use the same conditions as described in (c)(1)(i), (ii),
and (iii) above:
(i) For Class 1A and 2A ATCRBS transponders, verify that the minimum

RF peak output power is at least 21.0 dBw (125 watts).
(ii) For Class 1 B and 2B ATCRBS Transponders, verify that the

minimum RF peak output power is at least 18.5 dBw (70 watts).
(iii) For Class 1A, 2A, 3A, and 4 and those Class 1B, 2B, and 3B Mode S

transponders that include the optional high RF peak output power,
verify that the minimum RF peak output power is at least 21.0 dBw
(125 watts).

(iv) For Classes 1B, 2B, and 3B Mode S transponders, verify that the
minimum RF peak output power is at least 18.5 dBw (70 watts).

(v) For any class of ATCRBS or any class of Mode S transponders, verify
that the maximum RF peak output power does not exceed 27.0 dBw
(500 watts).

Note: The tests in (e) through (j) apply only to Mode S transponders.
(g) Mode S Diversity Transmission Channel Isolation: For any class of Mode S

transponder that incorporates diversity operation, verify that the RF peak
output power transmitted from the selected antenna exceeds the power
transmitted from the nonselected antenna by at least 20 dB.

(h) Mode S Address: Interrogate the Mode S transponder and verify that it replies
only to its assigned address. Use the correct address and at least two incorrect
addresses. The interrogations should be made at a nominal rate of 50
interrogations per second.

(i) Mode S Formats: Interrogate the Mode S transponder with uplink formats
(UF) for which it is equipped and verify that the replies are made in the
correct format. Use the surveillance formats UF = 4 and 5. Verify that the
altitude reported in the replies to UF = 4 are the same as that reported in a
valid ATCRBS Mode C reply. Verify that the identity reported in the replies
to UF = 5 are the same as that reported in a valid ATCRBS Mode 3/A reply.
If the transponder is so equipped, use the communication formats UF = 20,
21, and 24.

(j) Mode S All-Call Interrogations: Interrogate the Mode S transponder with the
Mode S only all-call format UF =11, and the ATCRBS/Mode S all-call formats
(1.6 microsecond P4 pulse) and verify that the correct address and capability are
reported in the replies (downlink format DF =11):

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 161






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(i) ATCRBS Only All-Call Interrogation: Interrogate the Mode S
transponder with the ATCRBS only all-call interrogation (0.8
microsecond P4 pulse) and verify that no reply is generated.

(ii) Squitter: Verify that the Mode S transponder generates a correct
squitter approximately once per second.

(iii) Records: Comply with the provisions of Schedule 5 as to
content, form, and disposition of the records.

APPENDIX 3 TO 5.105
VOR RECEIVER TESTS AND INSPECTIONS

(a) Each VOR system of radio navigation used in IFR operations must be:
(1) Maintained, checked, and inspected under an approved procedure; or
(2) Has been operationally checked within the preceding 30 days, and was

found to be within the limits of the permissible indicated bearing error
set forth in paragraph (b) or (c) of this section.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c) of this section, each person conducting
a VOR check under paragraph (a)(2) of this section shall —
(1) Use, at the airport of intended departure, an approved test signal or a

test signal radiated by a certificated and appropriately rated radio
approved maintenance organization or, outside the Bahamas a test
signal operated or approved by an appropriate authority to check the
VOR equipment (the maximum permissible indicated bearing error is
±4°); or

(2) Use, at the airport of intended departure, a point on the airport surface
designated as a VOR system checkpoint by the Authority, or, outside
the Bahamas, by an appropriate authority (the maximum permissible
bearing error is ±4°);

(3) If neither a test signal nor a designated checkpoint on the surface is
available, use an airborne checkpoint designated by the Authority or,
outside the Bahamas, by an appropriate authority (the maximum
permissible bearing error is ±6°); or

(4) If no check signal or point is available, while in flight —
(i) Select a VOR radial that lies along the centerline of an

established VOR airway;
(ii) Select a prominent ground point along the selected radial

preferably more than 20 nautical miles from the VOR ground
facility and manoeuvre the aircraft directly over the point at a
reasonably low attitude; and

(iii) Note the VOR bearing indicated by the receiver when over the
ground point (the maximum permissible variation between the
published radial and the indicated bearing is 6°).

(c) If dual system VOR (units independent of each other except for the antenna) is
installed in the aircraft, the person checking the equipment may check one
system against the other in place of the check procedures specified in paragraph


CH.284 – 162] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) of this section. Both systems shall be tuned to the same VOR ground facility
and note the indicated bearings to that station. The maximum permissible
variation between the two indicated bearings is 4°.

(d) Each person making the VOR operational check, as specified in paragraph (b)
or (c) of this section, shall enter the date, place, bearing error, and sign the
aircraft log or other record. In addition, if a test signal radiated by an approved
maintenance organization, as specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this section, is
used, an entry must be made in the aircraft log or other record by the
organization’s representative certifying to the bearing transmitted by the
approved maintenance organization for the check and the date of transmission.

APPENDIX 1 TO 5.165
PERFORMANCE RULES: 100-HOUR INSPECTIONS

(a) Each person performing an annual or 100-hour inspection shall, before that
inspection, thoroughly clean the aircraft and aircraft engine and remove or
open all necessary inspection plates, access doors, fairings, and cowlings.

(b) Each person performing an annual or 100-hour inspection shall inspect, where
applicable, the following components —
(1) Fuselage and hull group —

(i) Fabric and skin — for deterioration, distortion, other evidence of
failure, and defective or insecure attachment of fittings.

(ii) Systems and components — for improper installation, apparent
defects, and unsatisfactory operation.

(iii) The cabin and cockpit group.
(iv) Generally — for uncleanness and loose equipment that might foul

the controls.
(v) Seats and safety belts — for poor condition and apparent defects.
(vi) Windows and windshields — for deterioration and breakage.

(vii) Instruments — for poor condition, mounting, marking, and
(where practicable) for improper operation.

(viii) Flight and engine controls — for improper installation and
improper operation.

(ix) Batteries — for improper installation and improper charge.
(x) All systems — for improper installation, poor general condition,

apparent and obvious defects, and insecurity of attachment.
(2) Engine and nacelle group —

(i) Engine section — for visual evidence of excessive oil, fuel, or
hydraulic leaks, and sources of such leaks.

(ii) Studs and nuts — for improper torquing and obvious defects.
(iii) Internal engine — for cylinder compression and for metal particles

or foreign matter on screens and sump drain plugs. If there is weak
cylinder compression, for improper internal condition and improper
internal tolerances.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 163






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(iv) Engine mount — for cracks, looseness of mounting, and looseness
of engine to mount.

(v) Flexible vibration dampeners — for poor condition and deterioration.
(vi) Engine controls — for defects, improper travel, and improper

safetying.
(vii) Lines, hoses, and clamps — for leaks, improper condition, and

looseness.
(viii) Exhaust stacks — for cracks, defects, and improper attachment.

(ix) Accessories — for apparent defects in security of mounting.
(x) All systems — for improper installation, poor general condition,

defects, and insecure attachment.
(xi) Cowling — for cracks and defects.

(3) Landing gear group —
(i) All units — for poor condition and insecurity of attachment.

(ii) Shock absorbing devices — for improper oleo fluid level.
(iii) Linkage, trusses, and members — for undue or excessive wear, fatigue,

and distortion.
(iv) Retracting and locking mechanism — for improper operation.
(v) Hydraulic lines — for leakage.

(vi) Electrical system — for chafing and improper operation of switches.
(vii) Wheels — for cracks, defects, and condition of bearings.
(viii) Tires — for wear and cuts.

(ix) Brakes — for improper adjustment.
(x) Floats and skis — for insecure attachment and obvious or apparent

defects.
(4) Wing and centre section assembly for —

(i) Poor general condition.
(ii) Fabric or skin deterioration.

(iii) Distortion.
(iv) Evidence of failure. and
(v) Insecurity of attachment.

(5) Complete empennage assembly for —
(i) Poor general condition;

(ii) Fabric or skin deterioration;
(iii) Distortion;
(iv) Evidence of failure;
(v) Insecure attachment;

(vi) Improper component installation; and
(vii) Improper component operation.

CH.284 – 164] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(6) Propeller group —
(i) Propeller assembly — for cracks, nicks, binds, and oil leakage.

(ii) Bolts — for improper torquing and lack of safety.
(iii) Anti-icing devices — for improper operations and obvious defects.

and
(iv) Control mechanisms — for improper operation, insecure mounting,

and restricted travel.
(7) Avionics/instrument group —

(i) Avionics/instruments equipment — for improper installation and
insecure mounting.

(ii) Wiring and conduits — for improper routing, insecure mounting, and
obvious defects.

(iii) Bonding and shielding — for improper installation and poor condition.
(iv) Antenna including trailing antenna — for poor condition, insecure

mounting, and improper operation.
(8) Electronic/electrical group —

(i) Wiring and conduits — for improper routing, insecure mounting, and
obvious defects.

(ii) Bonding and shielding — for improper installation and poor condition.
(9) Each installed miscellaneous item that is not otherwise covered by this

listing and/or has instructions for continued airworthiness — for improper
installation and improper operation.

APPENDIX 1 TO 5.215
RECORDING OF MAJOR REPAIRS AND MAJOR

MODIFICATIONS
(a) Each person performing a major repair or major modification shall —

(1) Execute the DCA MR-MR&M Form prescribed by the Authority at least
in duplicate that references the approved data used;
Note: See sample form on page 31.

(2) Give a signed copy of that form to the aircraft owner/operator; and
(3) Forward a copy of that form to the Authority, in accordance with

Authority instructions, within 48 hours after the aeronautical product is
approved for return to service.

(b) In place of the requirements of paragraph (a), major repairs made in accordance
with a manual or specifications acceptable to the Authority, an AMO may —
(1) Use the customer’s work order upon which the repair is recorded;
(2) Give the aircraft owner a signed copy of the work order and retain a

duplicate copy for at least one year from the date of approval for
return to service of the aeronautical product;

(3) Give the aircraft owner a maintenance release signed by an authorised
representative of the AMO and incorporating the following information —
(i) Identity of the aeronautical product;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 165






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(ii) If an aircraft, the make, model, serial number, nationality and
registration marks, and location of the repaired area;

(iii) If an aeronautical product, give the manufacturer’s name, name
of the part, model, and serial numbers (if any); and

(4) Include the following or a similarly worded statement —
The aeronautical product identified above was repaired, overhauled
and inspected in accordance with currently effective, applicable
instructions of the State of Design and regulatory requirements of the
Authority, and is approved for return to service.

Pertinent details of the repair are on file at this maintenance organization.

Order No.................................................... Date ..................................................

Signed...................................................................................................................
(Signature of authorised representative)

..............................................................................................................................
(Facility Name) (AMO Certificate Number)

...............................................................................................................................
(Address)

...............................................................................................................................


CH.284 – 166] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

c) The following sample form may be used to record major alterations and repairs.
The Bahamas
For CAA Use Only

MAJOR REPAIR AND MODIFICATION
(Airframe, Powerplant, Propeller, or Appliance)

Office Identification
INSTRUCTIONS: Print or all entries. See Schedule 5 for instructions and disposition of this form.

Make Model

1. Aircraft
Serial Number Nationality and Registration Mark

2. Owner

Name (As shown on registration certificate) Address (As shown on registration Certificate

3. For Authority Use Only


5. Unit Identification 5. Type
Unit Make Model Serial Number Repair Modification

Airframe ---------------(As described in item 1 above)---------------
Powerplant
Propeller

Type
Appliance

Manufacture
6. Conformity Statement

A. Organization Name and Address B. Kind of Licence/Organization C. Certificate/Licence Number
Licenced (AMT) A P or A/P
Approved Maintenance Organization
Manufacturer

(For an AMO include the
appropriate ratings issued for the
major repair or modification)

D. I certify that the repair and/or modification made to the units) identified in item 4 above and described on the reverse or
attachments hereto have been made in accordance with the requirements of Schedule 5 of the BASRs and that the information
furnished herein is true and correct to the best of my knowledge.

Date Signature of Authorised Individual


7. Approval for Return To Service
Pursuant to the authority given persons specified below, the unit(s) identified in item 4 was
inspected in the manner prescribed by the Director of the Civil Aviation Authority and is
APPROVED REJECTED

CAA Inspector Inspection Autorisation
By

Maintenance Organization Other
Other (Specify)

Date of Approval or Rejection Certificate or Designation
Number

Signature of Authorised
Individual



CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 167






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS



NOTICE
Weight and balance or operating limitation changes shall be entered in the appropriate aircraft
record. A modification must be compatible with all previous modifications to assure continued
conformity with the applicable airworthiness requirements.

8. Description of Work Accomplished
(If more space is required, attach additional sheets. Identify each page with aircraft nationality and registration mark and
date work completed.)



CH.284 – 168] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

SCHEDULE 6
APPROVED MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS

SUBPART A: GENERAL
6.001 Applicability
6.005 Definitions
6.010 Acronyms
SUBPART B: AMO CERTIFICATE
6.016 Issue of Certification
6.020 Certificate and Operations Specifications
6.025 Advertising
6.030 Deviation Authority
SUBPART C: CERTIFICATION
6.035 Application for an AMO Certificate
6.040 Issuance of an AMO Certificate
6.045 Duration and Renewal of Certificate
6.050 Continued Validity of Approval
6.055 Changes to the AMO and Certificate Amendments
6.060 Ratings of the AMO
6.065 AMO Limited Ratings
SUBPART D: HOUSING, FACILITIES, EQUIPMENT & MATERIALS
6.070 General
6.075 Housing and Facility Requirements
6.080 Equipment, Tools, and Material
SUBPART E: ADMINISTRATION
6.085 Personnel and Training Requirements
6.090 Record of Certifying Staff
SUBPART F: AMO OPERATING RULES
6.095 Maintenance Organization Procedures Manual
6.100 Maintenance Procedures and Independent Quality Assurance System
6.105 Capability List
6.110 Privileges of the Approved Maintenance Organization
6.115 Limitations on the AMO
6.120 Return to Service
6.125 Maintenance Records
6.130 Airworthiness Data
6.135 Reporting of Unairworthy Conditions
6.140 Inspections By Authority
6.145 Performance Standards

APPENDICES
Appendix 1 to 6.060: Expanded Requirements of AMO Ratings
Appendix 1 to 6.075: Housing and Facility Requirements
Appendix 1 to 6.080: Equipment, Tools, and Material
Appendix 1 to 6.085: Personnel Requirements

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 169






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

Appendix 1 to 6.090: Records of Certifying Staff
Appendix 1 to 6.095: Contents of a Maintenance Organization Procedures Manual
Appendix 1 to 6.120: Certification of Return to Service
Appendix 1 to 6.130: Airworthiness Data

SUBPART A
GENERAL

6.001 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Schedule prescribes the requirements for issuing approvals to

organizations for the maintenance preventive maintenance, and
modifications of aircraft and aeronautical products and prescribes the
general operating rules for an Approved Maintenance Organization (AMO).
The approval, when granted, shall apply to the whole organization and shall
be headed by the accountable manager.

6.005 DEFINITIONS
(a) For the purpose of this Schedule, the following definitions shall apply —

(1) Accountable manager (Maintenance). The manager who has corporate
authority for ensuring that all maintenance, preventive maintenance, and
modification required by the aircraft owner/operator can be financed and
carried out to the standard required by the Authority. The accountable
manager may delegate to another person in the organization, in writing, to
become the accountable manager, when authorised by the Authority.

(2) Approval for return to service. A certification by an approved
maintenance organization representative that the maintenance, preventive
maintenance, or modification performed on an aircraft, airframe, aircraft
engine, propeller, appliance, or component part thereof was accomplished
using the methods, techniques, and practices, prescribed in the current
manufacturer’s maintenance manual or instructions for continued
airworthiness prepared by its manufacturer, or by using other methods,
techniques, and practices acceptable to the Authority.

(3) Approved data. Technical information approved by the Authority.
(4) Article. Any item, including but not limited to, an aircraft, airframe,

aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, accessory, assembly, subassembly,
system, subsystem, component, unit, product, or part.

(5) Calibration. A set of operations, performed in accordance with a definite
documented procedure, that compares the measurement performed by a
measurement device or working standard for the purpose of detecting and
reporting or eliminating by adjustment errors in the measurement device,
working standard, or aeronautical product tested.

(6) AMO. Means approved by the Authority.
(7) Composite. Structural materials made of substances, including, but not

limited to, wood, metal, ceramic, plastic, fiber-reinforced materials,
graphite, boron, or epoxy, with built-in strengthening agents that may
by in the form of filaments, foils, powders, or flakes, of a different
material.

CH.284 – 170] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(8) Computer system. Any electronic or automated system capable of
receiving, storing, and processing external data, and transmitting and
presenting such data in a usable form for the accomplishment of a specific
function.

(9) Facility. A physical plant, including land, buildings, and equipment,
which provide the means for the performance of maintenance,
preventive maintenance, or modifications of any article.

(10) Housing. Buildings, hangers, and other structures to accommodate the
necessary equipment and materials of a maintenance organization that —
(i) Provide working space for the performance of maintenance,

preventive maintenance, or modifications for which the maintenance
organization is certificated and rated; and

(ii) Provide structures for the proper protection of aircraft, airframes,
aircraft engines, propellers, appliances, components, parts, and
subassemblies thereof during disassembly, cleaning, inspection,
repair, modification, assembly, and testing; and

(iii) Provide for the proper storage, segregation, and protection of
materials, parts, and supplies.

(11) Return to service. A maintenance organization document signed by an
authorised maintenance organization representative that states that the
article worked on is approved for return to service for the maintenance,
preventive maintenance, or modification performed.

(12) Measurement Device. A calibrated calibrator, standard, equipment and
test equipment that is intended to be used to test, measure, or calibrate other
measurement devices. It is not to be used to test, measure, or calibrate an
aeronautical product.

(13) Primary Standard. A standard defined and maintained by a State
Authority and used to calibrate secondary standards.

(14) Reference Standard. A standard that is used to maintain working
standards.

(15) Secondary Standards. A standard maintained by comparison with a
primary standard.

(16) Signature. An individual’s unique identification used as a means of
authenticating a maintenance record entry or maintenance record. A
signature may be hand-written, electronic, or any other form
acceptable to the Authority.

(17) Specialised maintenance. Any maintenance not normally performed by
an AMO (e.g., tire retreating, plating, etc.)

(18) Operations Specifications. Also identified as “Operations Specifications”,
the Operations Specifications describe the ratings (Class and/or Limited) in
detail and will contain or reference material and process specifications used
in performing repair work, along with any limitations applied to the
maintenance organization. The accountable manager and the Authority sign
this document.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 171






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(19) Standard. An object, artifact, tool, test equipment, system, or experiment
that stores, embodies, or otherwise provides a physical quantity, which serves
as the basis for measurement of the quantity. It also includes a document
describing the operations and process that must be performed in order for a
particular end to be achieved.

(20) Tools, Equipment and Test Equipment. Used by an AMO for the
performance of maintenance or calibration on an aircraft or aeronautical
product. See also working standard.

(21) Traceability. A characteristic of a calibration, analogous to a pedigree. A
traceable calibration is achieved when each Measurement Device and
Working Standard, in a hierarchy stretching back to the National Standard,
was itself properly calibrated, and the results properly documented. The
documentation provides the information needed to show that all
calibrations in the chain of calibrations were properly performed.

(22) Transfer Standard. Any standard that is used to compare a measurement
process, system, or device at one location or level with another measurement
process, system or device at another location or level.

(23) Working Standard. A calibrated standard that is used in the performance of
maintenance and/or calibrations in any work area for the purpose of forming
the basis for product acceptance or for making a finding of airworthiness
(approval for return to service) to an aircraft or aeronautical product. A working
standard may be maintained by comparison with primary standards, secondary
standards, reference standards or transfer standards, as appropriate. A working
standard is not to be used to test, measure, or calibrate other working standards
or measurement devices.

6.010 ACRONYMS
(a) The following acronyms are used in this Schedule:

(1) AMO — Approved Maintenance Organization
(2) PMA — Parts Manufacturing Authorization
(3) TSO — Technical Standard Order

SUBPART B
AMO CERTIFICATE

6.016 ISSUE OF CERTIFICATION
(a) The issue of a maintenance organization certificate shall be dependent on the

organization completing initial certification and demonstrating conformance to
the requirements of this Schedule to the Authority.

6.020 CERTIFICATE AND OPERATIONS SPECIFICATIONS
(a) The AMO certificate will consist of two documents —

(1) A one page certificate signed by the Authority; and
(2) A multi-page Operations Specifications signed by the Accountable

Manager and the Authority containing the terms, conditions, and
authorizations.

(b) No person may operate as an AMO without, or in violation of, a maintenance
organization certificate issued under this Schedule.

CH.284 – 172] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(c) An AMO may perform maintenance, preventive maintenance, or modifications on
an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, component, or part
thereof only for which it is rating and within the limitations placed in its specific
operating limitations.

(d) The AMO certificate will contain —
(1) The certificate number specifically assigned to the AMO;
(2) The name and location (main place of business) of the AMO;
(3) The date of issue and period of validity;
(4) The ratings issued to the AMO; and
(5) Authority signature.

(e) The AMO Operations Specifications will contain —
(1) The certificate number specifically assigned to the AMO;
(2) The class or limited ratings issued in detail, including special approvals and

limitations issued;
(3) The date issued or revised;
(4) Accountable manager and Authority signatures.

(f) The certificate issued to each AMO must be available in the premises for
inspection by the public and the Authority.

6.025 ADVERTISING
(a) No maintenance organization may advertise as a AMO until a maintenance

organization certificate has been issued to that facility.
(b) No AMO may make any statement, either in writing or orally, about itself that is

false or is designed to mislead any person.
(c) Whenever the advertising of a maintenance organization indicates that it is

certificated, the advertisement must clearly state the maintenance organization’s
certificate number.

6.030 DEVIATION AUTHORITY
(a) The Authority may, upon consideration of the circumstances of a particular

maintenance organization, issue a deviation providing relief from specified
sections of this Schedule, provided that the Authority finds that the
circumstances presented warrant the deviation and that a level of safety will be
maintained equal to that provided by the rule from which the deviation is
sought. This deviation authority will be issued as a Letter of Deviation
Authority.

(b) A Letter of Deviation Authority may be terminated or amended at any time by the
Authority.

(c) A request for deviation authority must be made in a form and manner acceptable to
the Authority and submitted to the Authority at least 60days before the date the
deviation from specified sections in this part is necessary for the intended
maintenance, preventive maintenance, or modification. A request for deviation
authority must contain complete statement of the circumstances and justifications
for the deviation requested, and show that a level of safety will be maintained equal
to that provided by the rule from which the deviation is sought.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 173






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(d) Each AMO that receives a Letter of Deviation Authority must have a means of
notifying the appropriate management, certifying staff, and personnel of the
deviation, including the extent of the deviation and when the deviation is
terminated or amended.

SUBPART C
CERTIFICATION

6.035 APPLICATION FOR AN AMO CERTIFICATE
(a) The Authority will require an applicant for an AMO certificate to submit the

following —
(1) An application in a form and manner prescribed by the Authority;
(2) Its maintenance procedures manual in duplicate;
(3) A list of the maintenance functions to be performed for it, under contract, by

another AMO;
(4) A list of all AMO certificates and ratings pertinent to those certificates

issued by any contracting State other than The Bahamas; and
(5) Any additional information the Authority requires the applicant to submit.

(b) An application for the amendment of an existing AMO certificate shall be
made on a form and in a manner prescribed by the Authority. If applicable, the
AMO shall submit the required amendment to the maintenance procedure
manual to the Authority for approval.

6.040 ISSUANCE OF AN AMO CERTIFICATE
(a) An applicant may be issued an AMO certificate if, after investigation, the

Authority finds that the applicant —
(1) Meets the applicable regulations and standards for the holder of an AMO;

and
(2) Is properly and adequately equipped for the performance of maintenance of

aircraft or aeronautical product for which it seeks approval.
6.045 DURATION AND RENEWAL OF CERTIFICATE
(a) A certificate or rating issued to a maintenance organization located in The

Bahamas is effective from the date of issue until the maintenance organization
surrenders it or the Authority suspends or revokes it.

(b) A certificate or rating issued to a maintenance organization located outside The
Bahamas is effective from the date of issue until —
(1) The last day of the 24th month after the date on which it was issued;
(2) The maintenance organization surrenders the certificate; or
(3) The Authority suspends or revokes the certificate.

(c) The holder of a certificate that expires or is surrendered, suspended, or revoked by
the Authority must return the certificate and Operations Specifications to the
Authority.

(d) An AMO located outside The Bahamas that applies for a renewal of its
maintenance organization certificate for aircraft registered in The Bahamas
must:

CH.284 – 174] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(1) Submit its request for renewal no later than 90 days before the
maintenance organization’s current certificate expires. If a request for
renewal is not made within this period, the maintenance organization
must follow the application procedure prescribed by the Authority.

(2) Send its request for renewal to the Authority that has jurisdiction over the
maintenance organization.

6.050 CONTINUED VALIDITY OF APPROVAL
(a) Unless the approval has previously been surrendered, superseded, suspended,

revoked or expired by virtue of exceeding any expiration date that may be
specified in the approval certificate, the continued validity of approval is
dependent upon —
(1) The AMO remaining in compliance with this Schedule;
(2) The Authority being granted access to the organization’s facilities to

determine continued compliance with this regulation; and
(3) The payment of any charges prescribed by the Authority.

(b) The holder of an AMO certificate that expires or is surrendered, suspended, or
revoked, shall return it to the Authority.

6.055 CHANGES TO THE AMO AND CERTIFICATE AMENDMENTS
(a) To enable the Authority to determine continued compliance with this Schedule, the

AMO shall provide written notification to the Authority either prior to, or within a
time period determined by the Authority to be as soon as practicable after, any of
the following changes —
(1) The name of the organization;
(2) The location of the organization;
(3) The housing, facilities, equipment, tools, material, procedures, work scope and

certifying staff that could affect the AMO rating or ratings;
(4) The ratings held by the AMO, whether granted by the Authority or held

through an AMO certification issued by another contracting State;
(5) Additional locations of the organization;
(6) The accountable manager; or
(7) The list of management personnel identified as described in the maintenance

procedure manual.
(b) The Authority will amend the AMO certificate if the AMO notifies the

Authority of a change in —
(1) Location or housing and facilities;
(2) Additional locations of the organization;
(3) Rating, including deletions;
(4) Name of the organization with same ownership; or
(5) Ownership.

(c) The Authority may amend the AMO certificate if the AMO notifies the
Authority of a change in —
(1) The accountable manager; or

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 175






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) The list of management personnel identified as described in the
maintenance procedure manual.

(d) When the Authority issues an amendment to an AMO certificate because of new
ownership of the AMO, the Authority will assign a new certificate number to the
amended AMO certificate.

(e) The Authority may —
(1) Prescribe, in writing, the conditions under which the AMO may continue to

operate during any period of implementation of the changes noted in
subparagraph (a); and

(2) Hold the AMO certificate in abeyance if the Authority determines that
approval of the AMO certificate should be delayed; the Authority will
notify the AMO certificate holder, in writing, of the reasons for any such
delay.

(f) If changes are made by the AMO to the items listed in subparagraph (a) without
notification to the Authority, the AMO certificate may be suspended.

6.060 RATINGS OF THE AMO
(a) The following ratings are issued under this Subpart:

(1) Airframe ratings. An aircraft rating on a maintenance organization certificate
permits that maintenance organization to perform maintenance, preventive
maintenance, or modifications on an aircraft, including work on the
powerplant(s) of that aircraft up to, but not including, overhaul as that term
defined in Schedule 5 under the following classes:

(i) Class 1: Aircraft (other than rotorcraft and aircraft composed primarily
of composite material) of 5,700 kg maximum certificated takeoff
weight or less.

(ii) Class 2: Aircraft (other than rotorcraft and aircraft composed
primarily of composite material) over 5,700 kg maximum
certificated takeoff weight and up to, and including, 34,200 kg
maximum certificated takeoff weight.

(iii) Class 3: Aircraft, (other than rotorcraft and aircraft composed
primarily composite material) over 34,200 kg maximum
certificated takeoff weight.

(iv) Class 4: Rotorcraft (other than rotorcraft composed primarily of
composite material) of 2,736 kg maximum certificated takeoff
weight or less.

(v) Class 5: Rotorcraft (other than rotorcraft composed primarily of
composite material) over 2,736 kg maximum certificated takeoff
weight.

(vi) Class 6: Aircraft composed primarily of composite material, of
5,700 kg maximum certificated takeoff weight or less.

(vii) Class 7: Aircraft composed primarily of composite material, over
5,700 kg maximum certificated takeoff weight

(2) Powerplant ratings. A powerplant rating on a maintenance organization
certificate permits that maintenance organization to perform maintenance,
preventive maintenance, or modifications of powerplants under the
following classes:

CH.284 – 176] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(i) Class 1: Reciprocating engines.
(ii) Class 2: Turbopropeller and turboshaft engines.
(iii) Class 3: Turbojet and turbofan engines.

(3) Propeller ratings. A propeller rating on a maintenance organization certificate
permits that maintenance organization to perform maintenance, preventive
maintenance, or modifications of propellers under the following classes:
(i) Class 1: Fixed-pitch and ground-adjustable propellers.

(ii) Class 2: Variable-pitch propellers.
(4) Avionics ratings. An avionics rating on a maintenance organization certificate

permits that maintenance organization to perform maintenance, preventive
maintenance, or modifications of avionics equipment under the following
ratings:
(i) Class 1: Communication equipment: Any radio transmitting

equipment or receiving equipment, or both, used in aircraft to send or
receive communications, regardless of carrier frequency or type of
modulation used; including auxiliary and related aircraft interphone
systems, amplifier systems, electrical or electronic intercrew
signalling devices, and similar equipment; but not including
equipment used for navigation of the aircraft or as an aid to
navigation, equipment for measuring altitude or terrain clearance,
other measuring equipment operated on radio or radar principles, or
mechanical, electrical, gyroscopic, or electronic instruments that are
a part of communications avionics equipment.

(ii) Class 2: Navigational equipment: Any avionics system used in aircraft for
en route or approach navigation, except equipment operated on radar or
pulsed radio frequency principles, but not including equipment for
measuring altitude or terrain clearance or other distance equipment
operated on pulsed radio frequency principles.

(iii) Class 3: Pulsed equipment: Any aircraft electronic system operated on
pulsed radio frequency principles.

(5) Computer systems ratings. A computer systems rating on a maintenance
organization certificate permits that maintenance organization to perform
maintenance, preventive maintenance, or modifications of digital computer
systems and components thereof, that have the function of receiving external
data, processing such data, and transmitting and presenting the processed data
under the following classes:
(i) Class 1: Aircraft computer systems.

(ii) Class 2: Powerplant computer systems.
(iii) Class 3: Avionics computer systems.

(6) Instrument ratings. An instrument rating on a maintenance organization
certificate permits that maintenance organization to perform maintenance,
preventive maintenance, or modifications of instruments under the following
classes:

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 177






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(i) Class 1: Mechanical: Any diaphragm, bourdon tube, aneroid, optical, or
mechanically driven centrifugal instrument that is used on aircraft or to
operate aircraft, including tachometers, airspeed indicators, pressure
gauges, drift sights, magnetic compasses, altimeters, or similar
mechanical instruments.

(ii) Class 2: Electrical: Any self-synchronous and electrical indicating
instruments and systems, including remote indicating instruments,
cylinder head temperature gauges, or similar electrical instruments.

(iii) Class 3: Gyroscopic: Any instrument or system using gyroscopic
principles and motivated by air pressure or electrical energy, including
automatic pilot control units, turn and bank indicators, directional gyros,
and their parts, and flux gate and gyrosyn compasses.

(iv) Class 4: Electronic: Any instruments whose operation depends on
electron tubes, transistors, or similar devices including capacitance
type quantity gauges, system amplifiers, and engine analysers.

(7) Accessory ratings. An accessory rating on a maintenance organization
certificate permits that maintenance organization to perform maintenance,
preventive maintenance, or modifications of accessory equipment under the
following classes:

(i) Class 1: Mechanical. The accessories that depend on friction, hydraulics,
mechanical linkage, or pneumatic pressure for operation.

(ii) Class 2: Electrical. The accessories that depend on electrical energy.
(iii) Class 3: Electronic. The accessories that depend on the use of an

electron tube transistors, lasers, fiber optics, solid-state, integrated
circuits, vacuum tubes, or similar electronic controls.

(iv) Class 4: Auxiliary power units (APUs) that may be installed on
aircraft as self-contained units to supplement the aircraft’s engines as
a source of hydraulic, pneumatic, or electrical power.

6.065 AMO LIMITED RATINGS
(a) Whenever the Authority finds it appropriate, it may issue a limited rating to an

AMO that maintains or alters only a particular type of airframe, powerplant,
propeller, radio, instrument, or accessory, or parts thereof, or performs only
specialised maintenance requiring equipment and skills not ordinarily found in an
AMO. Such a rating may be limited to a specific model aircraft, engine, or
constituent part, or to any number of parts made by a particular manufacturer.

(b) Limited ratings are issued for —
(1) Aircraft;
(2) Airframe;
(3) Powerplants;
(4) Propellers;
(5) Avionics equipment;
(6) Computer systems;
(7) Instruments;
(8) Accessories; and

CH.284 – 178] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(9) Any other purpose for which the Authority finds the applicant’s request
appropriate.

(c) Specialised service ratings. A specialised service rating may be issued to a
maintenance organization to perform specific maintenance or processes. The
Operations Specifications of the maintenance organization must identify the
specification used in performing that specialised service. The specification may be —
(1) A civil or military specification that is currently used by industry and

approved by the Authority; or
(2) A specification developed by the maintenance organization and approved by

the Authority.
SUBPART D

HOUSING, FACILITIES, EQUIPMENT & MATERIALS
6.070 GENERAL
(a) An AMO must provide personnel, facilities, equipment, and materials in

quantity and quality that meet the standards required for the issuance of the
certificate and ratings that the maintenance organization holds.

6.075 HOUSING AND FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
(a) Housing and facilities shall be provided appropriate for all planned work

ensuring, in particular, protection from weather.
(b) All work environments shall be appropriate for the task carried out and shall

not impair the effectiveness of personnel.
(c) Office accommodation shall be appropriate for the management of planned

work including, in particular, the management of quality, planning, and
technical records.

(d) Specialised workshops and bays shall be segregated, as appropriate, to insure
that environmental and work area contamination is unlikely to occur.

(e) Storage facilities shall be provided for parts, equipment, tools and material.
(f) Storage conditions shall be provided security for serviceable parts, segregation

of serviceable from unserviceable parts, and prevent deterioration of and
damage to stored items.
See Appendix 1 to 6.075 for detailed requirements pertaining to housing and
facilities.

6.080 EQUIPMENT, TOOLS, AND MATERIAL
(a) The AMO shall have available the necessary equipment, tools, and material to

perform the approved scope of work and these items shall be under full control
of the AMO. The availability of equipment and tools means permanent
availability except in the case of any tool or equipment that is so rarely needed
that its permanent availability is not necessary.

(b) The Authority may exempt an AMO from possessing specific tools and
equipment for maintenance or repair of an aircraft or aeronautical product
specified in the AMO’s approval, if these items can be acquired temporarily, by
prior arrangement, and be under full control of the AMO when needed to
perform required maintenance or repairs.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 179






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

Note: The Authority may elect not to amend the approval to delete the aircraft
or aeronautical product on the basis that it is a temporary situation and there
is a formal agreement from the AMO to re-acquire tools, equipment, etc.
before performing any maintenance or repair.

(c) The AMO shall control all applicable tools, equipment, and test equipment
used for product acceptance and/or for making a finding of airworthiness.

(d) The AMO shall ensure that all applicable tools, equipment, and test equipment
used for product acceptance and/or for making a finding of airworthiness are
calibrated to ensure correct calibration to a standard acceptable to the Authority
and traceable to the State National Standards.

(e) The AMO shall keep all records of calibrations and the standards used for
calibration.
See Appendix 1 to 6.080 for detailed requirements pertaining to tools,
equipment, and test equipment.

SUBPART E
ADMINISTRATION

6.085 PERSONNEL AND TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
(a) A management person or group of persons acceptable to the Authority, whose

responsibilities include ensuring that the AMO is in compliance with these
regulations, shall be nominated.

(b) The person or persons nominated as manager shall represent the maintenance
management structure of the AMO, and be responsible for all functions
specified in this Schedule.

(c) Nominated managers shall be directly responsible to an accountable manager
who shall be acceptable to the Authority.

(d) The AMO shall employ sufficient personnel to plan, perform, supervise and
inspect and release the work in accordance with the approval.

(e) The competence of personnel involved in maintenance shall be established in
accordance with a procedure and to a standard acceptable to the Authority.

(f) The person signing return to service or an approval for return to service shall
be qualified in accordance with Schedules 5 and 8 as appropriate to the work
performed and is acceptable to the Authority.

(g) The maintenance personnel and the certifying staff shall meet the qualification
requirements and receive initial and continuation training to their assigned
tasks and responsibilities in accordance with a program acceptable to the
Authority. The training program established by the AMO shall include training
in knowledge and skills related to human performance, including co-ordination
with other maintenance personnel and flight crew.
See Appendix 1 to 6.085 for detailed personnel requirements.

6.090 RECORD OF CERTIFYING STAFF
(a) The AMO shall maintain a roster of all certifying staff, which includes details of

the scope of their authorization.

CH.284 – 180] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) Certifying staff shall be notified in writing of the scope of their authorization.
See Appendix 1 to 6.090 for detailed requirements pertaining to records of
certifying staff.

SUBPART F
AMO OPERATING RULES

6.095 MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION PROCEDURES MANUAL
Note: The purpose of the Maintenance Organization Procedures Manual is to
set forth the procedures, the means, and methods of the AMO. Compliance with
its contents will assure compliance with the requirements of this Schedule, which
is a prerequisite to obtaining and retaining an AMO certificate.
(a) The maintenance organization shall provide for the use and guidance of

maintenance personnel concerned a procedures manual containing the
contents specified by the Authority.
See Appendix 1 to 6.095 for the required contents of a Maintenance
Organizations Procedures Manual.

(b) The maintenance organization shall ensure that the procedures manual is
amended as necessary to keep the information contained therein up-to-date.

(c) The AMO Maintenance Procedure Manual and any subsequent
amendments thereto shall be approved by the Authority prior to use.

(d) This manual and all amendments shall be furnished promptly to all
organizations or persons accomplishing any activity for which the manual
applies.

(e) The AMO Maintenance Procedures Manual shall specify the scope of work
required of the AMO in order to satisfy the relevant requirements needed
for an approval of an aircraft or aeronautical product for return to service.

(f) The procedures manual and any other manual it identifies must:
(1) Include instructions and information necessary to allow the personnel

concerned to perform their duties and responsibilities with a high
degree of safety;

(2) Be in a form that is easy to revise and contains a system which allows
personnel to determine current revision status;

(3) Have the date of the last revision printed on each page containing the
revision;

(4) Not be contrary to any applicable Bahamian regulation or the AMO’s
Operations Specifications; and

(5) Include a reference to appropriate civil aviation regulations.
See Appendix 6.095 for the required contents of the maintenance organization
procedures manual.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 181






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

6.100 MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES AND INDEPENDENT QUALITY
ASSURANCE SYSTEM

(a) The AMO shall establish procedures acceptable to the Authority to insure good
maintenance practices and compliance with all relevant requirements in these
regulations such that aircraft and aeronautical products may be properly released
to service.

(b) The AMO shall establish an independent quality assurance system, acceptable to
the Authority, to monitor compliance with and adequacy of the procedures and by
providing a system of inspection to ensure that all maintenance is properly
performed.
Note: The quality assurance system may be an independent system under the
control of the quality manager that evaluates the maintenance procedures and
the correctness of the Equivalent Safety Case process.

(c) The quality assurance system shall include a procedure to initially qualify and
periodically perform audits on persons performing work on behalf of the AMO.

(d) Compliance monitoring shall include a feedback system to the designated
management person or group of persons directly responsible for the quality
system and ultimately to the accountable manager to ensure, as necessary,
corrective action.

(e) The maintenance procedures shall cover all aspects of maintenance activity and
describe standards to which the AMO intends to work. The aircraft/aircraft
component design AMO standards and aircraft operator standards must be taken
into account.

(f) The maintenance procedures should address the provisions and limitations of
this Schedule.

(g) The AMO’s quality system shall be sufficient to review all maintenance
procedures as described in the Procedures Manual in accordance with an
approved program once a year for each aircraft type maintained.

(h) The AMO’s quality system shall indicate when audits are due, when completed,
and establish a system of audit reports, which can be seen by visiting Authority
staff on request. The audit system shall clearly establish a means by which audit
reports containing observations about non-compliance or poor standards are
communicated to the accountable manager.
See Appendix 1 to 6.100 for detailed requirements pertaining to the quality
system, including a sample of inspection items.

6.105 CAPABILITY LIST
(a) Each AMO must prepare and retain a current capability list approved by the

Authority. The maintenance organization may not perform maintenance,
preventive maintenance, or modifications on an article until the article has been
listed on the capability list in accordance with this Schedule.

(b) The capability list must identify each article by make and model, part number,
or other nomenclature designated by the article’s manufacturer.

(c) An article may be listed on the capability list only if the article is within the
scope of the ratings and classes of the maintenance organization’s certificate, and
only after the maintenance organization has performed a self-evaluation in
accordance with this Schedule. The maintenance organization must perform the
self-evaluation described in this paragraph to determine that the


CH.284 – 182] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

maintenance organization has all of the facilities, equipment, material,
technical data, processes, housing, and trained personnel in place to
perform the work on the article as required by this Schedule. If the
maintenance organization makes that determination, it may list the article
on the capability list.

(d) The document of the evaluation described in paragraph (c) of this section
must be signed by the accountable manager and must be retained on file by
the maintenance organization.

(e) Upon listing an additional article on its capability list, the maintenance
organization must send a copy of the list to the Authority having
jurisdiction over the maintenance organization.

(f) The capability list(s) must be available in the premises for inspection by the
public and the Authority.

(g) The self-evaluations must be available in the premises for inspection by the
Authority.

(h) The AMO shall retain the capability list(s) and self-evaluation(s) for two
years from the date accepted by the accountable manager.

6.110 PRIVILEGES OF THE APPROVED MAINTENANCE
ORGANIZATION

(a) The AMO shall carry out the following tasks as permitted by and in
accordance with the AMO maintenance procedures manual —
(1) Maintain any aircraft or aeronautical product for which it is rated at

the location identified in the approval certificate;
(2) Maintain any aircraft for which it is rated at any location subject to the

need for such maintenance arising from unserviceability of the
aircraft;

(3) Describe the activities in support of a specific AOC holder where that
AOC has requested the services of the AMO at locations other than
the location identified on the AMO certificate and the AMO has been
rated to maintain the aircraft of that specific AOC holder at the
requested location in the AMO operating provisions approved by the
Authority; and

(4) Issue an approval for return to service or a return to service in respect
of subparagraphs (a)(1), (2), and (3) of this subsection upon
completion of maintenance in accordance with limitations applicable
to the AMO.

(b) An AMO may not contract out the maintenance, preventative maintenance,
modification or alteration of a complete type-certificated product, and it
may not provide only approval for return to service of a product following
contract maintenance.

(c) The AMO may maintain or alter any article for which it is rated at a place
other than the AMO, if —
(1) The function would be performed in the same manner as when

performed at the AMO and in accordance with this Subpart;
(2) All necessary personnel, equipment, material, and technical and/or

approved standards are available at the place where the work is to be
done; and

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 183






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(3) The maintenance procedure manual of the station sets forth approved
procedures governing work to be performed at a place other than the AMO.

6.115 LIMITATIONS ON THE AMO
(a) The AMO shall maintain an aircraft or aeronautical product for which it is

approved only when all necessary housing, facilities, equipment, tools,
material, approved technical data and certifying staff are available.

6.120 RETURN TO SERVICE
(a) A return to service shall be issued by appropriately authorised certifying

staff when satisfied that all required maintenance of the aircraft or
aeronautical product has been properly carried out by the AMO in
accordance with the maintenance procedure manual.

Note: An aeronautical product which has been maintained off the aircraft
requires the issue of a return to service for such maintenance and another
return to service in regard to being installed properly on the aircraft, when
such action occurs.

(b) A return to service shall contain —
(1) Basic details of the maintenance carried out;
(2) The date such maintenance was completed;
(3) The identity, including the authorization reference, of the AMO; and
(4) The identity of the person or persons signing the release.

See Appendix 7 to 6.120 for detailed requirements concerning a return to
service, along with a sample form.

6.125 MAINTENANCE RECORDS
(a) The AMO shall record, in a form acceptable to the Authority, all details for

maintenance work performed.
(b) The AMO shall provide a copy of each return to service to the aircraft

operator, together with a copy of any specific airworthiness data used for
repairs/modifications performed.

(c) The AMO shall retain a copy of all detailed maintenance records and any
associated airworthiness data for two years from the date the aircraft or
aeronautical product to which the work relates was released from the AMO.

Note: Where an AOC holder contracts an AMO to keep the aircraft operator’s
certificates of return to service and any associated airworthiness data, the
retention period will be that required by Schedule 5.

(d) Each person who maintains, performs preventive maintenance, rebuilds, or
modifies an aircraft/aeronautical product shall make an entry in the
maintenance record of that equipment:
(1) A description and reference to data acceptable to the Authority of

work performed.
(2) The date of completion of the work performed.
(3) The name of the person performing the work if other than the person

specified in this subsection.
(4) If the work performed on the aircraft/aeronautical product has been

performed satisfactorily, the signature, certificate number, and kind of
certificate held by the person approving the work.

CH.284 – 184] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(5) The authorised signature, the AMO certificate number, and kind of
certificate held by the person approving or disapproving for return to
service the aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance,
component part, or portions thereof.

(6) The signature constitutes the approval for return to service only for the
work performed.

(7) In addition to the entry required by this paragraph, major repairs and
major modifications shall be entered on a form in the manner
prescribed by the Authority.

(e) No person shall describe in any required maintenance entry or form an
aircraft or aeronautical component as being overhauled unless:
(1) Using methods, techniques, and practices acceptable to the Authority,

it has been disassembled, cleaned, inspected as permitted, repaired as
necessary, and reassembled; and

(2) It has been tested in accordance with approved standards and technical
data, or in accordance with current standards and technical data
acceptable to the Authority, which have been developed and documented
by the holder of the type certificate, supplemental type certificate, or a
material, part, process, or appliance approval under a TSO.

Note: For definitions of overhaul see Schedule 5.
(f) No person may describe in any required maintenance entry or form, an

aircraft or other aeronautical product as being rebuilt unless it has been —
(1) Disassembled, cleaned, inspected as permitted;
(2) Repaired as necessary; and
(3) Reassembled and tested to the same tolerances and limits as a

new item, using either new parts or used parts that either
conforms to new part tolerances and limits, or to approve
oversized or undersized dimensions.

Note: For definitions of rebuild see Schedule 5.
(g) No person may approve for return to service any aircraft or aeronautical

product that has undergone maintenance, preventive maintenance,
rebuilding, or modification unless:
(1) The appropriate maintenance record entry has been made;
(2) The repair or modification form authorised by or furnished by

the Authority has been executed in a manner prescribed by the
Authority.

(h) If a repair or modification results in any change in the aircraft operating
limitations or flight data contained in the approved aircraft flight manual,
those operating limitations or flight data shall be appropriately revised and
set forth as prescribed by the Authority.

(i) Maintenance record entries for inspections. The person approving or
disapproving for return to service an aircraft/aeronautical product, after any
inspection performed in accordance with this regulation, shall make an
entry in the maintenance record of that equipment containing the following
information:
(1) The type of inspection and a brief description of the extent of the

inspection;
(2) The date of the inspection and aircraft total time in service; and

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 185






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(3) The authorised signature, the AMO certificate number, and kind of
certificate held by the person approving or disapproving for return to
service the aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine propeller appliance,
component part, or portions thereof;

(4) If the aircraft is found to be airworthy and approved for return to service, the
following or a similarly worded statement — “I certify that this aircraft has
been inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and was determined
to be in airworthy condition”;

(5) If the aircraft is not approved for return to service because of needed
maintenance, non-compliance with the applicable specifications,
airworthiness directives, or other approved data, the following or a
similarly worded statement — “I certify that this aircraft has been
inspected in accordance with (insert type) inspection and a list of
discrepancies and unairworthy items dated (date) has been provided for
the aircraft owner or operator”; and

(6) If an inspection is conducted under an inspection program provided for
in this regulation, the entry shall identify the inspection program
accomplished, and contains a statement that the inspection was
performed in accordance with the inspections and procedures for that
particular program.

(j) Listing of discrepancies. If the person performing any inspection required by
this regulation finds that the aircraft is not airworthy or does not meet the
applicable type certificate data sheet, airworthiness directives, or other
approved data upon which its airworthiness depends, that person shall give the
owner or lessee a signed and dated list of those discrepancies.

6.130 AIRWORTHINESS DATA
(a) The AMO shall be in receipt of all airworthiness data appropriate to support

the work performed from the Authority, the aircraft/aeronautical product
design organization, and any other approved design organization in the State of
Manufacture or State of Design, as appropriate.

Note: The Authority may classify data from another authority or organization
as mandatory and may require the AMO to hold such data.

(b) Where the AMO modifies airworthiness data specified in paragraph (a) to a
format or presentation more useful for its maintenance activities, the AMO
shall submit to the Authority an amendment to the maintenance procedure
manual for any such proposed modifications for acceptance.

(c) All airworthiness data used by the AMO shall be kept current and made available to
all personnel who require access to that data to perform their duties.

See Appendix 1 to 6.130 for detailed requirements concerning airworthiness
data.

6.135 REPORTING OF UNAIRWORTHY CONDITIONS
(a) The AMO shall report to the Authority and the aircraft design organization of

the State of Design any identified condition that could present a serious hazard
to the aircraft.

(b) Reports shall be made on a form and in a manner prescribed by the Authority and
contain all pertinent information about the condition known to the AMO.

(c) Where the AMO is contracted by an AOC holder to carry out maintenance, that
AMO shall report to the AOC holder any condition affecting the aircraft or
aeronautical product.

CH.284 – 186] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(d) Reports shall be made as soon as practicable, but in any case within three
days of the AMO identifying the condition to which the report relates.

6.140 INSPECTIONS BY AUTHORITY
Each AMO must allow the Authority to inspect that maintenance organization
and any of its contract maintenance facilities at any time to determine
compliance with this Schedule. Arrangements for maintenance, preventive
maintenance, or modifications by a contractor must include provisions for
inspections of the contractor by the Authority.
6.145 PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
(a) Each AMO that performs any maintenance, preventive maintenance,

modifications for an air operator certificated under Schedule 12 having an
approved maintenance program and approved continuous maintenance
program shall perform that work in accordance with the air operator’s
manuals.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (a), each AMO shall perform its
maintenance and modification operations in accordance with the applicable
standards in Schedule 5. It shall maintain, in current condition, all
manufacturer’s service manuals, instructions, and service bulletins that
relate to the articles that it maintains or modifies.

(c) In addition, each AMO with an avionics rating shall comply with those
sections in Schedule 5 that apply to electronic systems, and shall use
materials that conform to approved specifications for equipment
appropriate to its rating. It shall use test apparatus, shop equipment,
performance standards, test methods, modifications, and calibrations that
conform to the manufacturer’s specifications or instructions, approved
specification, and if not otherwise specified, to accepted good practices of
the aircraft avionics industry.

APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1 TO 6.060

EXPANDED REQUIREMENTS OF AMO RATINGS
Except for job functions that are contracted out, each AMO must provide
equipment and material so that the job functions listed in this Appendix, as
appropriate to the class or limited rating held or applied for, can be performed as
required. The job functions are as follows:
(a) For an aircraft rating:

(1) Classes 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5:
(i) Metal skin and structural components:

(A) Repair and replace steel tubes and fittings using the proper welding
techniques, when appropriate.

(B) Apply anticorrosion treatment to the interior and exterior of parts.
(C) Perform simple machine operations.
(D) Fabricate steel fittings.
(E) Repair and replace metal skin.
(F) Repair and replace alloy members and components.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 187






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(G) Assemble and align components using jigs or fixtures.
(H) Make up forming blocks or dies.
(I) Repair or replace ribs.

(ii) Wood Structure:
(A) Splice wood spars.
(B) Repair ribs and spars.
(C) Align interior of wings.
(D) Repair or replace plywood skin.
(E) Apply treatment against wood decay.

(iii) Fabric covering:
(A) Repair fabric surfaces.

(iv) Aircraft control systems:
(A) Repair and replace control cables.
(B) Rig complete control system.
(C) Replace and repair all control system components.
(D) Remove and install control system units and components.

(v) Aircraft systems:
(A) Replace and repair landing gear hinge-point components and

attachments.
(B) Maintain elastic shock absorber units.
(C) Conduct landing gear retraction cycle tests.
(D) Maintain electrical position indicating and wiring systems.
(E) Repair and fabricate fuel, pneumatic, hydraulic, and oil lines.
(F) Diagnose electrical and electronic malfunctions.
(G) Repair and replace electrical wiring and electronic data

transmission lines.
(H) Install electrical and electronic equipment.
(I) Perform bench check of electrical and electronic

components. (This check is not to be confused with the more
complex functional test after repair or overhaul.)

(vi) Assembly operations:
(A) Assemble aircraft components or parts, such as landing gear,

wings, and controls.
(B) Rig and align aircraft components, including the complete

aircraft and control system.
(C) Install powerplants.
(D) Install instruments and accessories.
(E) Assemble and install cowlings, fairings, and panels.
(F) Maintain and install windshields and windows.

CH.284 – 188] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(G) Jack or hoist complete aircraft.
(H) Balance flight control surfaces.

(vii) Non-destructive inspection and testing using dye penetrants and
magnetic, ultrasonic, radiographic, fluorescent, or holographic
inspection techniques.

(viii) Inspection of metal structures:
(A) Inspect metal structures, using appropriate inspection

equipment to perform the inspections required on an aircraft.
(2) Classes 6 and 7:

(i) In addition to having the capability to perform the
appropriate functions set forth for class 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5
aircraft ratings, a maintenance organization holding a class
6 or 7 aircraft rating for composite aircraft must have the
following equipment:
(A) Autoclave capable of providing positive pressure and

temperature consistent with materials used.
(B) Air circulating oven with vacuum capability.
(C) Storage equipment, such as freezer, refrigerator, and

temperature-control cabinets or other definitive
storage areas.

(D) Honeycomb core cutters.
(E) Non-destructive inspection equipment such as x-ray,

ultrasonic, or other types of acoustic test equipment
as recommended by the manufacturer.

(F) Cutting tools, such as diamond or carbide saws or
router bits, suitable for cutting and trimming
composite structures.

(G) Scales adequate to ensure proper proportioning by
weight of epoxy adhesive and resins.

(H) Mechanical pressure equipment such as vacuum
bagging or sand bags, as appropriate.

(I) Thermocouple probes necessary to monitor core
temperatures.

(J) Hardness testing equipment using heat guns that are
thermostatically controlled for curing repairs.

(ii) Appropriate inspection equipment to perform inspection of
composite structures as recommended by the manufacturer
and as required for inspection of an aircraft under this section.

(3) List of maintenance functions that may be contracted out:
(i) For all classes of airframe ratings:

(A) Metal plating or anodizing.
(B) Complex machine operation involving the use of

planners, shapers, milling machines, etc.
(C) Abrasive air blasting and chemical cleaning operations.
(D) Heat treatment.
(E) Magnetic inspection.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 189






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(F) Repair or rebuilt metal tanks
(G) Fabricate alloy members and components such as tubes,

channels, cowlings, fittings, attach angles, etc.
(H) Fabricate wood spars.
(I) Overhaul and repair hydraulic-pneumatic shock absorber

units.
(J) Overhaul and repair brake system components.
(K) Overhaul and repair hydraulic system components
(L) Conduct aircraft weight and balance operation (this function

will be conducted in a draft-free area).
(M) Fluorescent inspection of alloy components.
(N) Recovering and refinishing of components and entire

aircraft.
(b) Powerplant rating:

(1) Class 1:
(i) Maintain and alter powerplants, including

replacement of parts:
(A) Perform chemical and mechanical cleaning.
(B) Perform disassembly operations.
(C) Replace bushings, bearings, pins, and inserts.
(D) Perform heating operations that may involve the use of

recommended techniques that require controlled heating
facilities.

(E) Perform chilling or shrinking operations.
(F) Remove and replace studs.
(G) Inscribe or affix identification information.
(H) Paint powerplants and components.
(I) Apply anticorrosion treatment for parts.

(ii) Inspect all parts, using appropriate inspection aids:
(A) Determine precise clearances and tolerances of all parts.
(B) Inspect alignment of connecting rods, crankshafts, and

impeller shafts.
(iii) Accomplish routine machine work:

(A) Ream inserts, bushings, bearings, and other
similar components.

(B) Reface valves.
(iv) Accomplish assembly operations:

(A) Perform valve and ignition-timing operations.
(B) Fabricate and test ignition harnesses.
(C) Fabricate and test rigid and flexible fluid lines.
(D) Prepare engines for long or short term storage.
(E) Hoist engines by mechanical means.

CH.284 – 190] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(2) Classes 2 and 3:
(i) In addition to having the capability to perform the appropriate functions as

required for class 1 powerplant rating, a maintenance organization holding a
class 2 or a class 3 powerplant rating must have the following equipment:
(A) Testing equipment.
(B) Surface treatment antigallant equipment.

(ii) Functional and equipment requirements recommended by the manufacturer;
and

(iii) Appropriate inspection equipment.
(3) List of maintenance functions that may be contracted out:

(i) Class 1 and 2 Powerplant (Reciprocating).
(ii) Replacement of valve guides and seats.
(iii) Plating operations (copper, silver, cadmium, etc.).
(iv) Replacement and repair of powerplant alloy sheet metal and steel

components such as air baffles, etc.)
(v) Magnetic, fluorescent and other acceptable inspection aids.
(vi) Balancing of parts, including crankshafts, impeller shafts, etc.
(vii) Precision grinding, honing and lapping operations (including crankshaft,

cylinder barrels, etc.)
(viii) Precision drilling, tapping, boring, milling, and cutting operations.
(ix) Functional check powerplant accessories (this check is not to be confused

with the more complex performance test of overhaul).
(x) Install engines in aircraft.
(xi) Align and adjust engine controls.

(c) Propeller Rating:
(1) Class 1:

(i) Remove and install propellers.
(ii) Maintain and alter propellers, including installation and replacement of parts:

(A) Replace bladed tipping.
(B) Refinish wood propellers.
(C) Make wood inlays.
(D) Refinish plastic blades.
(E) Straighten bent blades within repairable tolerances.
(F) Modify blade diameter and profile.
(G) Polish and buff.
(H) Perform painting operations.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 191






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(iii) Inspect components using appropriate inspection aids:
(A) Inspect propellers for conformity with manufacturer’s

drawings and specifications.
(B) Inspect hubs and blades for failures and defects using all

visual aids, including the etching of parts.
(C) Inspect hubs for wear of splines or keyways or any other

defect.
(iv) Balance propellers:

(A) Test for proper track on aircraft.
(B) Test for horizontal and vertical unbalance using precision

equipment.
(2) Class 2:

(i) Remove and install aircraft propellers, which may include
installation and replacement of parts:
(A) Perform all functions listed under Class 1 propellers when

applicable to the make and model propeller in this class.
(B) Properly lubricate moving parts.
(C) Assemble complete propeller and subassemblies using

special tools when required.
(ii) Inspect components using appropriate inspection aids for those

functions listed for class 1 propellers under paragraph (c)(1)(ii)
of this Implementing Standard when applicable to the make and
model of the propeller being worked on.

(iii) Repair or replace components or parts:
(A) Replace blades, hubs, or any of their components.
(B) Repair or replace anti-icing devices.
(C) Remove nicks or scratches from metal blades.
(D) Repair or replace electrical propeller components.

(iv) Balance propellers, including those functions listed for class 1
propellers under paragraph (c)(1)(iv) of this Implementing
Standard when applicable to the make and model of the
propeller being worked on.

(v) Test propeller pitch-changing mechanism:
(A) Test hydraulically operated propellers and components.
(B) Test electrically operated propellers and components.

(3) List of maintenance functions that may be contracted out:
(i) Class 1 Propeller:

(A) Inspect hubs and blades for failures and defects, using
magnetic or fluorescent inspection devices.

(ii) Class 2 Propeller:
(A) Test of constant speed devices.

CH.284 – 192] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(d) Avionics rating:
(1) Class 1, 2, and 3:

(A) Perform physical inspection of avionics systems and
components by visual and mechanical inspection.

(B) Perform electrical inspection of avionics systems and
components by means of appropriate electrical and/or
electronic test equipment.

(C) Check aircraft wiring, antennas, connectors, relays, and other
associated avionics components to detect installation faults.

(D) Check engine ignition systems and aircraft accessories to
determine sources of electrical interference.

(E) Check aircraft power supplies for adequacy and proper
functioning.

(F) Remove, repair, and replace aircraft antennas.
(G) Measure transmission line attenuation.
(H) Measure avionics component values such as inductance,

capacitance, and resistance.
(I) Determine waveforms and phase in avionics equipment when

applicable.
(J) Determine proper aircraft avionics antenna, lead-in, and

transmission-line characteristics and determine proper
locations for type of avionics equipment to which the antenna
is connected.

(K) Determine the operational condition of avionics equipment
installed in aircraft by using appropriate portable test
apparatus.

(L) Test all types of transistors: solid-state, integrated circuits; or
similar devices in equipment appropriate to the class rating.

(M) Test avionics indicators.
(2) Class 1:

(i) In addition to having the capability to perform the job functions
listed in paragraph (d)(1):

(A) Test and repair headsets, speakers, and microphones.
(B) Measure radio transmitter power output.
(C) Measure modulation values, noise, and distortion in

communication equipment.
(3) Class 2:

(i) In addition to having the capability to perform the job functions
listed in paragraph (d)(1):

(A) Test and repair headsets.
(B) Test speakers.
(C) Measure loop antenna sensitivity by appropriate methods.
(D) Calibrate to approved performance standards any radio

navigational equipment, en route and approach aids, or
similar equipment, as appropriate to this rating.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 193






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(4) Class 3:
(i) In addition to having the capability to perform the job functions

listed in paragraph (d)(1):
(A) Measure transmitter power output.

(5) List of maintenance functions that may be contracted out:
(i) Class 2 Avionics:

(A) Repair of speakers.
(ii) Class 3 Avionics:

(A) Metal plating of transmission lines, wave guides, and
similar equipment in accordance with appropriate
specifications.

(iii) For all Class of Avionics ratings:
(A) Test avionics indicators.
(B) Overhaul, test, and check dynamotors, inverters, and other

radio electrical apparatus.
(C) Paint and refinish equipment containers.
(D) Accomplish appropriate methods of marking calibrations,

or other information on avionics control panels and other
components, as required.

(E) Make and reproduce drawings, wiring diagrams, and other
similar material required to record alteration and/or
modifications to avionics (photographs may be used in lieu
of drawings when they will serve as an equivalent or better
means of recording).

(F) Fabricate tuning shaft assemblies, brackets, cable
assemblies, and other similar components used in avionics
or aircraft avionics installations.

(G) Install complete avionics systems in aircraft and prepare
weight and balance reports (that phase of avionics
installation requiring modifications to the aircraft structure
must be performed, supervised, and inspected by
appropriately qualified and authorised person).

(e) Computer systems rating:
(1) Class 1, 2, and 3:

(A) Maintain computer systems in accordance with
manufacturer’s specifications, test requirements, and
recommendations.

(B) Remove, maintain, and replace computer systems in aircraft.
(C) Inspect, test, and calibrate computer system equipment,

including software.
(f) Instrument rating:

(1) Class 1:
(i) Diagnose instrument malfunctions on the following instruments:

(A) Rate-of-climb indicators.
(B) Altimeters.

CH.284 – 194] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(C) Airspeed indicators.
(D) Vacuum indicators.
(E) Oil pressure gauges.
(F) Hydraulic pressure gauges.
(G) De-icing pressure gauges.
(H) Pitot-static tube.
(I) Direct indicating compasses.
(J) Accelerometer.
(K) Direct indicating tachometers.
(L) Direct reading fuel quantity gauges.

(ii) Inspect, test, and calibrate the instruments listed under paragraph
(f)(1)(i) of this IS on and off the aircraft, as appropriate.

(2) Class 2:
(i) Diagnose instrument malfunctions of the following instruments:

(A) Tachometers.
(B) Synchroscope.
(C) Electric temperature indicators.
(D) Electric resistance-type indicators.
(E) Moving magnet-type indicators.
(F) Warning units (oil and fuel).
(G) Selsyn systems and indicators.
(H) Self-synchronous systems and indicators.
(I) Remote indicating compasses.
(J) Quantity indicators.
(K) Avionics indicators.
(L) Ammeters.
(M) Voltmeters.
(N) Frequency meters.

(ii) Inspect, test, and calibrate instruments listed under paragraph
(f)(2)(i) of this IS on and off the aircraft, as appropriate.

(3) Class 3:
(i) Diagnose instrument malfunctions of the following instruments:

(A) Turn and bank indicators.
(B) Directional gyros.
(C) Horizon gyros.
(D) Auto pilot control units and components.

(ii) Inspect, test, and calibrate instruments listed under paragraph
(f)(3)(i) of this IS on and off the aircraft, as appropriate.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 195






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(4) Class 4:
(i) Diagnose instrument malfunctions of the following instruments.

(A) Capacitance-type quantity gauge.
(B) Laser gyros.
(C) Other electronic instruments.

(ii) Inspect, test, and calibrate instruments listed under paragraph
(f)(4)(i) of this IS on and off the aircraft, as appropriate.

(g) Accessory rating:
(1) Class 1, 2, 3, and 4:

(i) Perform the following functions in accordance with the
manufacturers specifications and recommendations:
(A) Diagnose accessory malfunctions.
(B) Maintain and alter accessories, including installing and

replacing parts.
(C) Inspect, test, and calibrate accessories on and off the

aircraft as appropriate.

APPENDIX 1 TO 6.075
HOUSING AND FACILITY REQUIREMENTS

(a) For ongoing maintenance of aircraft, aircraft hangars shall be available and
large enough to accommodate aircraft during maintenance activities.

(b) Where the hangar is not owned by the AMO, it is recommended to:
(1) Establish proof of tenancy;
(2) Demonstrate sufficiency of hangar space to carry out planned base

maintenance by preparing a projected aircraft hangar visit plan relative
to the maintenance program;

(3) Update the aircraft hangar visit plan on a regular basis;
(4) Ensure, for aircraft component maintenance, aircraft component

workshops are large enough to accommodate the components on
planned maintenance;

(5) Ensure aircraft hangar and aircraft component workshop structures
prevent the ingress of rain, hail, ice, snow, wind and dust, etc.;

(6) Ensure workshop floors are sealed to minimise dust generation; and
(7) Demonstrate access to hangar accommodation for usage during

inclement weather for minor scheduled work and/or lengthy defect
rectification.

(c) Aircraft maintenance staff shall be provided with an area where they may
study maintenance instructions and complete maintenance records in a
proper manner.

Note: It is acceptable to combine any or all of the above requirements into one
office subject to the staff having sufficient room to carry out assigned tasks.

(d) Hangars used to house aircraft together with office accommodation shall be
such as to insure a clean, effective and conformable working environment.

CH.284 – 196] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(1) Temperatures should be maintained at a comfortable level.
(2) Dust and any other airborne contamination should be kept to a

minimum and not permitted to reach a level in the work task area
where visible aircraft/component surface contamination is evident.

(3) Lighting should be such as to ensure each inspection and maintenance
task can be carried out.

(4) Noise levels should not be permitted to rise to the point of distracting
personnel from carrying out inspection tasks. Where it is impractical
to control the noise source, such personnel should be provided with
the necessary personal equipment to stop excessive noise causing
distraction during inspection tasks.

(e) Where a particular maintenance task requires the application of specific
environmental conditions different to the foregoing, then such conditions
shall be observed. (Specific conditions are identified in the approved
maintenance instructions.)

(f) Where the working environment for line maintenance deteriorates to an
unacceptable level with respect to temperature, moisture, hail, ice, snow,
wind, light, dust/other airborne contamination; the particular maintenance
or inspection tasks shall be suspended until satisfactory conditions are re-
established.

(g) For both base and line maintenance where dust or other airborne
contamination results in visible surface contamination, all susceptible
systems shall be sealed until acceptable conditions are re-established.

(h) Storage facilities for serviceable aircraft components shall be clean, well
ventilated and maintained at an even dry temperature to minimise the
effects of condensation.

(i) Manufacturer and standards recommendations shall be followed for specific
aircraft components.

(j) Storage racks shall provide sufficient support for large aircraft components
such that the component is not distorted.

(k) All aircraft components, wherever practicable, shall remain packaged in
protective material to minimise damage and corrosion during storage.

APPENDIX 1 TO 6.080
EQUIPMENT, TOOLS, AND MATERIAL

(a) All applicable tools, equipment, and test equipment used for product
acceptance and/or for making a finding of airworthiness shall be traceable
to the Standards approved by the Authority.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (a), in the case of foreign manufactured
tools, equipment, and test equipment, the standard provided by the county
of manufacture may be used if approved by the Authority.

(c) Where the manufacturer specifies a particular tool, equipment, or test
equipment then that tool, equipment, or test equipment shall be used unless
the manufacturer has identified the use of an equivalent.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 197






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(d) Except as provided in paragraph (c), tools, equipment, or test equipment
other than that recommended by the manufacturer will be acceptable based
on at least the following:
(1) The AMO shall have a procedure in the Maintenance Procedure

Manual if it intends to use equivalent tools, equipment, or test
equipment other than that recommended by the manufacturer.

(2) The AMO shall have a program to include:
(i) A description of the procedures used to establish the

competence of personnel that make the determination of
equivalency to tools, equipment, or test equipment.

(ii) Conducting and documenting the comparison made between
the specification of the tool, equipment or test equipment
recommended by the manufacturer and the equivalent tool,
equipment, or test equipment proposed.

(iii) Ensuring that the limitations, parameters, and reliability of the
proposed tool, equipment, or test equipment are equivalent to
the manufacturer’s recommended tools, equipment, or test
equipment.

(iv) Ensuring that the equivalent tool, equipment, or test equipment
is capable of performing the appropriate maintenance function,
all normal tests, or calibrations, and checking all parameters of
the aircraft or aeronautical product undergoing maintenance or
calibration.

(3) The AMO shall have full control of the equivalent tool,
equipment, or test equipment (i.e. ownership, lease, etc.).

(e) An AMO approved for base maintenance shall have sufficient aircraft
access equipment and inspection platforms/docking such that the aircraft
may be properly inspected.

(f) The AMO shall have a procedure to inspect/service and, where appropriate,
calibrate tools, equipment, and test equipment on a regular basis and
indicate to users that an item is within any inspection or service or
calibration time limit.

(g) The AMO shall have a procedure if it uses a standard (primary, secondary
or transfer standards) for performing calibration, that standard cannot be
used to perform maintenance.

(h) A clear system of labelling all tooling, equipment, and test equipment shall
be used to give information on when the next inspection or service or
calibration is due, and if the item is unserviceable for any other reason
where it may not be obvious.

(i) A clear system of labelling all tooling, equipment, and test equipment shall
be used to give information on when such tooling, equipment, and test
equipment is not used for product acceptance and/or for making a finding
of airworthiness.

(j) A register shall be maintained for all calibrated tools, equipment and test
equipment together with a record of calibrations and standards used.

(k) Inspection, service, or calibration on a regular basis shall be in accordance
with the equipment manufacturers’ instructions except where the AMO can
show by results that a different time period is appropriate in a particular
case and is acceptable to the Authority.

CH.284 – 198] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

APPENDIX 1 TO 6.085
PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS

(a) The AMO functions shall be subdivided under individual managers or
combined in any number of ways, dependent upon the size of the AMO.

(b) The AMO shall have, dependent upon the extent of approval, the following:
(1) A base maintenance manager;
(2) A line maintenance manager;
(3) A workshop manager and a quality manager, all of whom should

report to the accountable manager.
Note: In small AMOs, one or more of the above positions may be combined
subject to approval by the Authority.

(c) The Accountable Manager shall be responsible for ensuring that all
necessary resources are available to accomplish maintenance required to
support the AMO’s approval.

(d) The Base Maintenance Manager shall be responsible for:
(1) Ensuring that all maintenance required to be carried out in the

hangar, plus any defect rectification carried out during base
maintenance, is carried out to specified design and quality
standards; and

(2) Any corrective action resulting from quality compliance
monitoring.

(e) The Line Maintenance Manager shall be responsible for:
(1) Ensuring that all maintenance required to be carried out on the

line, including line defect rectification, is performed to the
required standards; and

(2) Any corrective action resulting from quality compliance
monitoring.

(f) The Workshop Manager shall be responsible for:
(1) Ensuring that all work on aircraft components is performed to

required standards; and
(2) Any corrective action resulting from quality compliance

monitoring.
(g) The Quality Manager shall be responsible for:

(1) Monitoring the AMO’s compliance with this Schedule; and
(2) Requesting remedial action as necessary by the base

maintenance manager/line maintenance manager/workshop
manager or the accountable manager, as appropriate.

(h) The AMO may adopt any title for managerial positions, but shall identify to
the Authority the titles and persons chosen to carry out these functions.

(i) Where an AMO chooses to appoint managers for all or any combination of
the identified functions because of the size of the undertaking, these
managers shall report ultimately through either the Base Maintenance
Manager or Line Maintenance Manager or Workshop Manager or Quality
Manager, as appropriate, to the accountable manager.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 199






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(j) The managers specified in this subsection shall be identified and their
credentials submitted to the Authority. To be accepted, such managers shall
have relevant knowledge and satisfactory experience related to
aircraft/aircraft component maintenance as appropriate in accordance with
these regulations.

Note: Certifying staff may report to any of the managers specified
depending upon which type of control the AMO uses (for example-licenced
engineers, independent inspection/dual function supervisors, etc.) so long
as the quality compliance monitoring staff remain independent.

(k) The AMO shall have a production man-hours plan showing that it has
sufficient man-hours for the intended work.

(l) If an AMO is approved for base maintenance, the plan shall relate to the
aircraft hangar visit plan.

(m) Man-hour plans shall regularly be updated.
Note: Work performed on any aircraft registered outside The Bahamas

should be taken into account where it impacts upon the production man-
hours plan.

(n) Quality monitoring compliance function man-hours shall be sufficient to
meet the requirement of 6.6.1.2(b).

(o) Planners, mechanics, supervisors and certifying staff shall be assessed for
competence by “on the job” evaluation or by examination relevant to their
particular role within the AMO before unsupervised work is permitted.

(p) To assist in the assessment of competence, job descriptions are
recommended for each position. The assessment shall establish that:
(1) Planners are able to interpret maintenance requirements into

maintenance tasks, and have an appreciation that they have no
authority to deviate from the aircraft maintenance program.

(2) Mechanics are able to carry out maintenance tasks to any standard
specified in the maintenance instructions and will notify supervisors of
mistakes requiring rectification to re-establish required maintenance
standards.

(3) Supervisors are able to ensure that all required maintenance tasks are
carried out and where not done or where it is evident that a particular
maintenance task cannot be carried out to the maintenance
instructions, then such problems will be reported to and agreed by the
quality organization.

(4) Certifying staff are able to determine when the aircraft or aircraft
component is and is not ready to return to service.

(q) In the case of planners, supervisors, and certifying staff, knowledge of
AMO procedures relevant to their particular role shall be demonstrated.

(r) Training of certifying staff shall be performed by the AMO or by an
institute selected by the AMO. In either case, the AMO shall establish the
curriculum and standards for training, as well as pre-qualification standards
for the personnel intended for training. Pre-qualification standards are
intended to insure that the trainee has a reasonable chance of successfully
completing any course.

(s) Examinations shall be set at the end of each training course.

CH.284 – 200] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(t) Initial training shall cover:
(1) Basic engineering theory relevant to the airframe structure and

systems fitted to the class of aircraft the AMO intends to maintain;
(2) Specific information on the actual aircraft type on which the person is

intended to become a certifying person including the impact of repairs
and system/structural defects; and

(3) Company procedures relevant to the certifying staff’s tasks.
(u) Continuation training should cover changes in AMO procedures and

changes in the standard of aircraft and/or aeronautical products maintained.
(v) The training program shall include details of the number of personnel who

will receive initial training to qualify as certifying staff over specified time
periods.

(w) The training program established for maintenance personnel and certifying
staff by the AMO shall include training in knowledge and skills related to
human performance including co-ordination with other maintenance
personnel and flight crew.

APPENDIX 1 TO 6.090
RECORDS OF CERTIFYING STAFF

(a) The following minimum information shall be kept on record in respect of
each certifying person:
(1) Name;
(2) Date of birth;
(3) Basic training;
(4) Type training;
(5) Continuation training;
(6) Experience;
(7) Qualifications relevant to the approval;
(8) Scope of the authorization;
(9) Date of first issue of the authorization;
(10) Expiration date of the authorization (if appropriate);
(11) Identification number of the authorization.

(b) Records of certifying staff shall be controlled, but not necessarily run by
the AMO’s quality department.

(c) The number of persons authorised to access the system shall be limited to
minimise the possibility of records being altered in an unauthorised manner
and to limit confidential records from become accessible to unauthorised
persons.

(d) A certifying person shall be given reasonable access on request to his or her
records.

(e) The Authority is authorised to and may investigate the records system for
initial and continued approval, or when the Authority has cause to doubt the
competence of a particular certifying person.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 201






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(f) The AMO shall keep the record of a certifying person for at least two years
after that person has ceased employment with the AMO or upon withdrawal
of his or her authorization. Upon request, the certifying staff shall be
furnished with a copy of their record on leaving the AMO.

(g) The authorization document shall be in a style that makes its scope clear to
certifying staff and any authorised person that may be required to examine
the document. Where codes are used to define scope, an interpretation
document shall be readily available.

(h) Certifying staff are not required to carry the authorization document at all
times but shall produce it within a reasonable time of a request from an
authorised person.

Note: Authorised persons, apart from the AMO’s quality department or
maintenance supervisors/managers, include the Authority.

APPENDIX 1 TO 6.095
CONTENTS OF A MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATION

PROCEDURES MANUAL
(i) The AMO shall provide a Maintenance Procedures Manual for use by the

organization, containing the following information —
(1) A general description of the scope of work authorized under the

organization’s operations specifications;
(2) A description of the organization’s procedures, acceptable to the

Authority, to ensure good maintenance practices and compliance with
all relevant requirements;

(3) A description of the independent quality assurance system to monitor
compliance with and adequacy of the procedures (or a system of
inspection to ensure that maintenance is properly performed, to
include procedures for self-evaluations, including methods and
frequency of such evaluations, and procedures for reporting results to
the accountable manager for review and action;

(4) A general description of the organization’s facilities;
(5) The names and duties of the management person or persons whose

responsibilities included ensuring that the maintenance organization is
in compliance with the requirements for an approved maintenance
organization, to include an organization chart showing associated
chains of responsibility of the management personnel. (The current list
of the titles and names of the management personnel accepted by the
Authority may be separate from the Procedures Manual but must be
kept current and available for review by the Authority when
requested);

(6) A description of the procedures used to establish the competence of
maintenance personnel;

(7) A description of the method used for the completion and retention of
maintenance records to show that all requirements for the signing of a
return to service have been met;

CH.284 – 202] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(8) A procedure to establish and maintain a current roster of certifying
personnel;

Note: Any list required for the contents of the manual which changes
regularly may be separate from the procedures manual but must be kept
current and available for review by the Authority when requested.
(9) A description of the procedure for preparing the return to service and

the circumstances under which the release is to be signed;
(10) The personnel authorized to sign the release and the scope of their

authorization;
(11) A description of the additional procedures for complying with an

operator’s maintenance procedures and requirements;
(12) A description of the procedures for complying with the service

information reporting requirements of Schedule 5;
(13) A description of the procedure for receiving, amending and distributing

within the maintenance organization all necessary airworthiness data
from the type certificate holder or type design organization;

(14) A statement signed by the accountable manager confirming that the
maintenance organization Procedures Manual and any associated
manuals define the AMO’s compliance with this regulation and will
be complied with at all times;

(15) A list which describes the duties and responsibility of the management
personnel and which matters on which they may deal directly with the
Authority on behalf of the AMO;

(16) A description of the procedures used to establish the competence of
maintenance personnel;

(17) A general description of manpower resources;
(18) A description of the method used for the completion and retention of

the maintenance records;
(19) A description of the procedure for preparing the return to service and

the circumstances under which the release is to be signed;
(20) A general description of the facilities located at each address specified

in the AMO’s approval certificate;
(21) The notification procedure for AMO to use when requesting the approval

of changes to the organization of the AMO from the Authority;
(22) The amendment procedure for the AMO procedures manual, including

the submission to the Authority;
(23) A list of operators, if appropriate, to which the AMO provides an

aircraft maintenance service;
(24) A list of organizations performing maintenance on behalf of the

AMO; and
(25) The AMO shall specify in the Procedures Manual who should amend

the manual, particularly in the case where the manual consists of
several parts.

(26) The maintenance procedures covering all aspects of how aircraft
components may be accepted from outside sources and how aircraft
will be maintained to the required standard;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 203






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

APPENDIX 1 TO 6.120
CERTIFICATION OF RETURN TO SERVICE

(a) A return to service is required for the following:
(1) Before flight at the completion of any package of maintenance

scheduled by the approved aircraft maintenance program on the
aircraft, whether such maintenance took place as base or line
maintenance.

Note: Only in exceptional cases may scheduled maintenance be deferred
and then only in accordance with procedures specified in the AMO’s
procedures manual. In all cases, the AMO must provide the owner/operator
with a list of any uncorrected defects that may exist.
(2) Before flight at the completion of any defect rectification, while the

aircraft operates between scheduled maintenance.
(3) At the completion of any maintenance on an aircraft component when

off the aircraft.
(b) The return to service shall contain the following statement: “Certifies that

the work specified except as otherwise specified was carried out in
accordance with current regulations and in respect to that work the
aircraft/aircraft component is considered ready for return to service”.

(c) The return to service shall reference the data specified in the
manufacturer’s or air carrier operator’s instructions or the aircraft
maintenance program which itself may cross-reference to a manufacturer’s
instruction in a maintenance manual, service bulletin, etc.

(d) Where instructions include a requirement to insure that a dimension or test
figure is within a specific tolerance as opposed to a general tolerance, the
dimension or test figure shall be recorded unless the instruction permits the
use of GO/NO gauges. It is not normally sufficient to state that the
dimension or the test figure is within tolerance.

(e) The date such maintenance was carried out shall include when the
maintenance took place relative to any life or overhaul limitation in terms
of date/flying hours/cycles/landings, etc., as appropriate.

(f) When extensive maintenance has been carried out, it is acceptable for the
return to service to summarise the maintenance as long as there is a cross-
reference to the work-pack containing full details of maintenance carried
out. Dimensional information shall be retained in the work-pack record.

(g) The person issuing the return to service shall use a full signature and
preferably a certification stamp except in the case where a computer return
to service system is used. In this latter case, the Authority will need to be
satisfied that only the particular person can electronically issue the return to
service.

Note: One such method of compliance is the use of a magnetic or optical
personal card in conjunction with a personal identity number (PIN) which
is keyed into the computer and known only to the individual.

Note: An example of a model return to service is shown below. Not
intended to be used as an import or export tag.

CH.284 – 204] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002



1. The
Bahamas

2. CAA FORM 308
Airworthiness Approval Tag
Civil Aviation Administration

3. Systems Tracking Ref.,
No.

4. Organization Name and Address: 5. Work Order, Contract
or Invoice Number

6. Item 7. Descrip-
tion

8. Part
Num-
ber

9. Eligibility 10.
Quantity

11. Serial/
Batch
Number

12. Status/
Work




13. Remarks


It is important to understand that the existence of this Document alone does not automatically
constitute authority to install the part/component/assembly.

Where the user/installer work in accordance with the national regulations of an Airworthiness
Authority different than the Airworthiness Authority of the country specified in block 1 it is
essential that the user/installer ensures that his/her Airworthiness Authority accepts
parts/components/assemblies from the Airworthiness Authority of the country specified in block
1.

Statement in block 14 and 19 do not constitute installation certification. In all cases aircraft
maintenance records must contain an installation certification issued in accordance with the
national regulations by the user/installer before the aircraft may be flown.
Limited life parts must be accomplished by maintenance history including total time/total
cycles/time since new
14. Return to Service in Accordance with BANR Schedule 5
Certifies that the work specified in block 13 (or attached) above was carried out in accordance
with CAA airworthiness regulations and In respect to the work performed the part(s) is (are)
approved for return to service.
16. Authorised
Signature:

16. Certificate Number: 17. Name (Typed or
Printed):

18. Date

CAA AAT (12/00)

LINE-BY-LINE INSTRUCTIONS FOR COMPLETION OF MODEL MO
CAA FORM AAT:
(a) Block 1. The Bahamas (Pre-printed)
(b) Block 2. CAA 308, Airworthiness Approval Tag, and Civil Aviation

Administration. (Pre-printed)
(c) Block 3. System Tracking Reference Number.

(1) Fill in the unique number established by the CAA-approved
numbering system.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 205






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) If the form is computer-generated, it may be produced as programmed
by the computer.

Shippers must establish a numbering system for traceability in order to fill
out block 3 of the form. This system must also provide a means of cross-
referencing the number(s) and product(s) being shipped.

(d) Block 4. Organization.
(1) Fill in the full name and address of the CAA-approved organization or

individual shipping the product(s)/part(s) as applicable:
(i) Company name and address.
(ii) Production Approval Holder (PAH) approval or certificate

numbers, when applicable (e.g., production certificate number,
approved maintenance organization certificate numbers, air
operator certificate number).

(2) When a supplier has direct ship authorization from a PAH, the
following information should be entered:

(i) PAH name and address.
(ii) PAH approval or certificate number.
(iii) c/o Supplier name and address.
NOTE: If an individual product/part is produced as a spare by a supplier,

the supplier must have either direct ship authority or hold a production
approval (PMA/TSO authorization) for all products/parts shipped. If the
supplier holds its own production approval, and the products/parts were
manufactured and are being shipped under that approval, the information
required in paragraph (1) above should be listed.

(e) Block 5. Work Order, Contract, or Invoice Number
(1) Fill in the contract, work order, or invoice number related to the

shipment list, or return to service, and state the number of pages
attached to the form, including dates, if applicable. If the shipment list
contains the information required in Blocks 6 through 12, the
respective blocks may be left blank if an original, or true copy, of the
list is attached to the form. In this case, the following statement should
be entered in Block 13: “This is the certification statement for the
products/parts listed on the attached document dated _______,
containing pages ______ through ________.”

(2) In addition, the shipment list must cross-reference the number located
in Block 3. The shipment list may contain more than one item; but it is
the responsibility of the shipper to determine if the CAA of the
importing jurisdiction will accept bulk shipments under a single
Model CAA Form [AAT]. If the CAA does not permit bulk shipments
under a single form, Blocks 6 through 12 of each form must be filled
in for each product shipped.

(f) Block 6. Item. When Model CAA Form AAT is issued a single item
number or multiple item numbers may be used for the same part number.
Multiple items should be numbered in sequence. If a separate listing is
used, enter “List Attached”.

CH.284 – 206] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

NOTE: The blank form can be computer-generated. However, the format
cannot be changed, nor can any words be added or deleted. Pre-printing of
some information is permissible, i.e.; the information in blocks 1, 2, 3, 4,
14, and 19. The size of blocks may be varied slightly, but the form must
remain readily recognisable. The form may also be reduced in overall size
to facilitate placement of the wording on the back of the form onto the face
of the document.

(g) Block 7. Description. Enter the name or description of the product/part as
shown on the design data. For products/parts that do not have design data
available, the name as referenced in a part catalog, overhaul manual, etc.,
can be used.

(h) Block 8. Part Number. Enter each part number of the product.
(i) Block 9. Eligibility. State the aircraft, aircraft engine, or propeller make and

model on which the PMA part is eligible for installation. If a part is eligible
for installation on more than one model enter the words “to be verified by
installer or TBV by installer”. Where parts are TSO articles, state “TSO
Article N/A” since eligibility for installation for TSO articles is determined
at the time of installation.
NOTE: For TSO articles CAA Model Form [AAT] does not constitute
authority to install a product on a particular aircraft, aircraft engine, or
propeller. The user or installer is responsible for confirming that the
product is eligible for installation by reference to overhaul manuals,
service bulletins, etc., as applicable. While the information in Block 9 is
optional, it should be filled out whenever possible. When using CAA Model
Form [AAT] for CONFORMITY of certification program products, enter
N/A.

(j) Block 10. Quantity. State the quantity of each product/part shipped.
NOTE: If a PAH or their inventory facilities require a Form 8130-3 for
individual products/parts of a later date, the procedures in paragraph 8c of
this order should be used.

(k) Block 11. Serial/Batch Number. State the serial number or equivalent
(identified on the part) on the form for each product/part shipped. If a serial
number or equivalent is not required on the part, enter “N/A”.

(l) Block 12. Status/work. Enter “Newly Overhauled” for those products that
have not been operated or placed in service since overhaul. Enter
“PROTOTYPE” for products/parts submitted to support type certification
programs. Other permissible/appropriate terms to describe the status of the
product/part are: “INSPECTED”, “REPAIRED”, “REBUILT”, or
“ALTERED”.

(m) Block 13. Remarks. Enter any information or references to support
documentation necessary for the user or installer to make a final
determination of airworthiness of the products/parts listed in Block 7. Each
statement must specify which item identified in Block 6 is related.
Examples of information to be supplied are as follows:
(1) Any restrictions (e.g., prototype only).
(2) Alternative approved part number.
(3) Compliance or non-compliance with airworthiness directives or

service bulletins.
(4) Information on life-limited parts.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 207






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(5) Manufacturing, cure, or shelf-life data.
(6) Drawing and revision level.
(7) When used for conformity the word “CONFORMITY” must be

entered in capital letters. In addition, an explanation of the
products/parts use, e.g., pending approved data, TC pending, for test
only, etc., should be provided. Information concerning a conformity
inspection such as design data, revision level, date, project number,
should also be provided.

(8) When used for spare parts identify whether the parts are PMA, TSO
authorised. In addition, if the CAA Model Form [AAT] is for spare
parts or sub components of an CAA approved modification or
replacement part, the PMA or TSO authorization should be listed in
Block 13.

(9) When used for return to service this block should contain the data
required by Schedule. If other documents such as work orders or
travellers, CAA Model Form in accordance with Model regulation IS
6.4.1.8, Return to Service Form, are used by the certificate holders to
comply with Schedule 5, they should be specifically referenced in this
block and be cross-referenced.

(n) Block 14. Return to Service. The information is already pre-printed in the
block.

(o) Block 16. Signature. Signature of the individual authorised by the air
agency, air carrier, or the manufacturer in accordance with 6.6.1.5 (a)(2),
(3), and (4). The approval signature shall be manually applied at the time
and place of issuance.

(p) Block 16. Certificate number. Enter the air agency or air carrier operating
certificate number. For manufacturers returning to service after rebuilding
products/parts the production approval number should be entered.

(q) Block 17. Name. The typed or printed name of the individual identified in
Block 20.

(r) Block 18. Date. The date the Model CAA Form [AAT] is signed and the
product are returned to service. This does not need to be the same as the
shipping date, which may occur at a later date.

APPENDIX 1 TO 6.130
AIRWORTHINESS DATA

(a) The AMO shall be in receipt of all airworthiness data appropriate to support
the work performed from the Authority, the aircraft/aeronautical product
design organization, and any other approved design organization in the
State of Manufacture or State of Design, as appropriate. Some examples of
maintenance-related documents are:
(1) Civil Aviation Regulations;
(2) Associated advisory material;
(3) Airworthiness directives;
(4) Manufacturers’ maintenance manuals;
(5) Repair manuals;
(6) Supplementary structural inspection documents;
(7) Service bulletins;

CH.284 – 208] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(8) Service letters;
(9) Service instructions;
(10) Modification leaflets;
(11) Aircraft maintenance program;
(12) NDT Manual, etc.
Note: Paragraph (a) primarily refers to maintenance data that has been
transcribed from the Authority and all Type Certificate (TC) holders into
the AMO’s format, such as customised maintenance cards or computer
base data.
Note: To obtain acceptance from the Authority, it is important that
accuracy of transcription is assured.

(b) A procedure shall be established to monitor the amendment status of all
data and maintain a check that all amendments are being received by being
a subscriber to any document amendment scheme.

(c) Airworthiness data shall be made available in the work area in close
proximity to the aircraft or aeronautical product being maintained and for
supervisors, mechanics, and certifying staff to study.

(d) Where computer systems are used to maintain airworthiness data, the
number of computer terminals shall be sufficient in relation to the size of
the work program to enable easy access, unless the computer system can
produce paper copies. Where microfilm or microfiche readers/printers are
used, a similar requirement is applicable.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 209






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

SCHEDULE 7
REQUIRED INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT

SUBPART A: GENERAL
7.001 Applicability
7.005 Definitions (Reserved)
7.010 Acronyms
7.015 General Instrument and Equipment Requirements
SUBPART B: AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT
7.020 Power Supply, Distribution, and Indication System
7.025 Engine Instruments — All Flights
7.030 Flight Instruments — All Flights
7.035 Flight Instruments — IFR and Controlled Flight
7.040 Instruments for Operations Requiring Two Pilots
7.045 Standby Altitude Indicator — Commercial Air Transport
7.050 System Requirements for IFR
7.055 AutoPilot
7.060 IFR Helicopter Stabilization System for Commercial Air Transport
7.065 Equipment for Night Flights
7.067 Equipment for Special Altimetry Accuracy (RVSM)
7.070 Windshield Wipers
7.075 Flight in Icing Conditions
7.080 Weather Radar — Commercial Air Transport
7.085 Special Seaplane Equipment
SUBPART C: COMMUNICATIONS AND NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT
7.095 Radio Communication Equipment — General
7.100 Radio Communication Equipment — Commercial Air Transport
7.105 Boom Microphone — Commercial Air Transport
7.110 Altitude Reporting Transponder
7.115 Navigation Equipment — General
7.120 Special Navigation Accuracy (RNP and MNPS)
7.125 Navigation Equipment — IFR Approach
SUBPART D: WARNING EQUIPMENT AND INDICATORS
7.130 Warning Systems — General
7.135 Landing Gear Aural Warning Device
7.140 Altitude Alerting System
7.145 Ground Proximity Warning System
7.150 Airborne Collision Avoidance System (ACAS)
7.155 Forward Looking Wind Shear Warning System — TurboJet Aircraft
7.160 Radiation Indicator — Commercial Air Transport
SUBPART E: RECORDERS
7.165 Flight Data and Voice Recorders — General
7.170 Flight Deck Voice Recorders
7.175 Flight Data Recorders



CH.284 – 210] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002



SUBPART F: CREW PROTECTION EQUIPMENT
7.178 Security of the Flight Deck
7.180 Flight Crew Safety Harness
7.181 Quick Donning Type Oxygen Mask
7.182 Cabin Crew Seats and Safety Harness
7.183 Protective Breathing Equipment (PBE)
SUBPART G: PASSENGER RELATED EQUIPMENT
7.185 Passenger Seats and Seat Belts
7.190 Passenger Information
7.195 Public Address System
7.200 Interphone Systems
7.205 Megaphones — Commercial Air Transport
7.210 Emergency Exits
7.215 Passenger Compartment And Exits
7.220 Materials for Cabin Interiors
7.225 Materials for Cargo and Baggage Compartments
7.230 Emergency Lighting System
SUBPART H: EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT
7.235 Emergency Equipment: All Aircraft
7.240 First Aid Kit
7.245 Medical Kit — Commercial Air Transport
7.250 Portable Fire Extinguishers
7.255 Lavatory Fire Extinguisher
7.260 Lavatory Smoke Detector
7.265 Crash Axe — Commercial Air Transport
7.270 Oxygen Storage and Dispensing Apparatus
7.273 Individual Flotation Devices
7.275 Life Rafts
7.280 Survival Kit
7.285 Devices for Emergency Signaling
7.290 Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT)
7.295 Helicopter Emergency Flotation Means
7.300 Marking of Break-In Points
7.305 First-Aid Oxygen Dispensing Units

APPENDICES
Appendix 1 to 7.175: Parameters for Flight Deck Recorders
Appendix 1 to 7.210: Emergency Exit Equipment
Appendix 1 to 7.270: Supplemental Oxygen — Non-Pressurized Aircraft
Appendix 2 to 7.270: Supplemental Oxygen — Pressurized Aircraft

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 211






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

SUBPART A
GENERAL

7.001 APPLICABILITY
(a) This section outlines the instruments and equipment requirements that pertain

to all domestic and international flight operations of Bahamian-registered
aircraft and all aircraft operated in commercial air transport by the holder of an
Air Operator Certificate issued by The Bahamas.

7.005 DEFINITIONS (RESERVED)
7.010 ACRONYMS
(a) The following acronyms are used in this Schedule:

(1) AOC — Air Operator Certificate
(2) DME — Distance Measuring Equipment
(3) ELT — Emergency Locator Transmitter
(4) ILS — Instrument Landing System
(5) IFR — Instrument Flight Rules
(6) IMC — Instrument Meteorological Conditions
(7) MEL — Minimum Equipment List
(8) MNPS — Minimal Navigation Performance Specifications
(9) PBE — Protective Breathing Equipment
(10) RVSM — Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum
(11) SSR — Secondary Surveillance Radar
(12) VFR — Visual Flight Rules
(13) VMC — Visual Conditions
(14) VOR — VHF Omnidirectional Range

7.015 GENERAL INSTRUMENT AND EQUIPMENT REQUIREMENTS
(a) All aircraft shall be equipped with instruments which will enable the flight crew

to —
(1) Control the flight path of the aircraft;
(2) Carry out any required manoeuvres; and
(3) Observe the operating limitations of the aircraft in the expected

operating conditions.
(b) In addition to the minimum equipment for the issuance of a certificate of

airworthiness, the land instruments and equipment prescribed in this
Schedule shall be installed or carried, as appropriate, in aircraft according
to the aircraft used and to the circumstances under which the flight is to be
conducted.

(c) All required instruments and equipment shall be approved and installed in
accordance with applicable airworthiness requirements.

(d) Prior to operation in The Bahamas of any aircraft not registered in The
Bahamas that uses an airworthiness inspection program approved or accepted
by the State of Registry, the owner/operator shall ensure that instruments and


CH.284 – 212] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

equipment required by The Bahamas but not installed in the aircraft are
properly installed and inspected in accordance with the requirements of the
State of Registry.

(e) No flight shall be allowed to commence unless the required equipment —
(1) Meets the minimum performance standard and the operational and

airworthiness requirements of all relevant standards, including Annex 10,
Volume I of the International Civil Aviation Organization;

(2) Is installed such that the failure of any single unit required for either
communication or navigation purposes, or both, will not result in the
inability to communicate and/or navigate safely on the route being flown;
and

(3) Is in operable condition for the kind of operation being conducted, except
as provided in the MEL.

(f) If equipment is to be used by one flight crew member at his station during
flight, it shall be installed so as to be readily operable from his or her station.

(g) When a single item of equipment is required to be operated by more than one
flight crew member, it shall be installed so that the equipment is readily
operable from any station at which the equipment is required to be operated.

(h) The aircraft shall be equipment with spare fuses and bulbs of appropriate
ratings for the replacement of those accessible in flight. There shall be three
spares for each specific rating and type of fuses and bulbs.

SUBPART B
AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT

7.020 POWER SUPPLY, DISTRIBUTION, AND INDICATION SYSTEM
(a) No person may operate an aeroplane unless it is equipped with —

(1) A power supply and distribution system that meets the airworthiness
requirements for certification of an aeroplane in the applicable category,
as specified by the Authority; or

(2) For large and turbine powered aircraft, a power supply and distribution
system that is able to produce and distribute the load for the required
instruments and equipment, with use of an external power supply if any
one power source or component of the power distribution system fails.
Note: The use of common elements in the power system may be approved if
the Authority finds that they are designed to be reasonably protected against
malfunctioning.

(3) A means for indicating the adequacy of the power being supplied to
required flight instruments.

(b) For large and turbine powered aircraft, engine-driven sources of energy, when
used, shall be on separate engines.

7.025 ENGINE INSTRUMENTS — ALL FLIGHTS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft in flight unless it is equipped with —

(1) A tachometer for each engine;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 213






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) An oil pressure gauge for each engine using pressure system;
(3) A temperature gauge for each liquid-cooled system;
(4) An oil temperature gauge for each air-cooled system;
(5) A manifold pressure gauge for each altitude engine; and
(6) A means for indicating the fuel quantity in each tank to be used.

(b) For commercial air transport, no person may operate a reciprocating engine
aircraft with a maximum gross weight of more than 5700 kg max takeoff mass
unless it also is equipped with —

(1) A device for each reversible propeller, in indicate to the pilot when the
propeller is in reverse pitch:
(i) The device may be actuated at any point in the reversing cycle between

the normal low pitch stop position and full reverse pitch, but it may not
give an indication at or above the normal low pitch stop position.

(ii) The source of indication shall be actuated by the propeller blade
angle or be directly responsive to it.

(2) A carburettor air temperature indicator for each engine;
(3) A cylinder head temperature indicator for each air-cooled engine;
(4) A fuel pressure indicator for each engine;
(5) A fuel flow meter and oil quantity indicator for each oil-tank when a

transfer or separate oil reserve supply is used;
(6) An oil-in temperature indicator for each engine;
(7) An independent fuel pressure warning device for each engine or a master

warning device for all engines with a means for isolating the individual
warning circuits from the master warning device.

(c) The Authority may allow or require different instrumentation for turbine
engine powered aircraft to provide an equivalent level of safety.

7.030 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS — ALL FLIGHTS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft in flight unless it is equipped with —

(1) A magnetic compass;
(2) An accurate clock indicating the time in hours, minutes and seconds;
(3) A sensitive pressure altimeter calibrated in feet with sub-scale settings,

calibrated in hectopascals or millibars, adjustable for any barometric
pressure likely to be set in flight; and

(4) An airspeed indicator calibrated in knots.
(b) No person may operate an aeroplane with speed limitations expressed in terms

of Mach number unless there is a properly installed Mach number indicator.
(c) Those flight instruments that are used by any one pilot shall be so arranged as

to permit that pilot to see the indications readily from their station, with the
minimum practical deviation from the position and line of vision normally
assumed when looking forward along the flight path.

CH.284 – 214] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(d) When a means is provided for transferring an instrument from its primary
operating system to an alternative system, the means shall include a
positive positioning control and shall be marked to indicate clearly which
system is being used.

7.035 FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS — IFR AND CONTROLLED FLIGHT
(a) No person may operate an aircraft in IFR or controlled flight unless it is

equipped with —
(1) A gyroscopic rate-of-turn indicator;
(2) A slip-skid indicator;
(3) An altitude indicator (artificial horizon);
(4) A heading indicator (directional gyroscope);
(5) Exception: The requirements of (2), (3) and (4) may be met by combinations

of instruments or integrated flight director systems provided that the
safeguards against total failure in three separate instruments are retained;

(6) A vertical speed indicator;
(7) For commercial air transport. A minimum of two sensitive pressure

altimeters with counter drum-pointer or equivalent presentation;
(8) Exception: Commercial air transport single pilot operations in propeller

driven aircraft of less than 5700 kg max takeoff mass only require one
sensitive pressure altimeter.

7.040 INSTRUMENTS FOR OPERATIONS REQUIRING TWO PILOTS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft in operations requiring two pilots unless

each pilot’s station has the following flight instruments:
(1) An airspeed indicator;
(2) A sensitive press altimeter;
(3) A vertical speed indicator;
(4) A turn and slip indicator (or turn co-ordinator);
(5) An altitude indicator; and
(6) A stabilized direction indicator.

(b) The second-in-command’s flight instruments shall meet the same requirements
for markings, indications and illumination as those required for the pilot-in-
command.

7.045 STANDBY ALTITUDE INDICATOR — COMMERCIAL AIR
TRANSPORT

(a) No person may operate the following aircraft in commercial air transport
unless they are equipped with a standby altitude indicator:
(1) An aircraft having a maximum certificated takeoff mass of more than 5700

kg; or
(2) An aircraft having a maximum approved passenger configuration of more

than 9 passengers.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 215






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(b) This standby altitude indicator shall —
(1) Operate independently of any other altitude indicating system;
(2) Be powered continuously during normal operation;
(3) After a total failure of the normal electrical generating system, be

powered for a minimum of 30 minutes from a source independent of the
normal electrical system; and

(4) Have an indication clearly evident to the flight crew when the emergency
power source is being used.

(c) If this standby altitude indicator is usable through flight attitudes of 360 degrees
of pitch and roll, it may be used as basis for not having a rate-of-turn gyroscopic
instrument.

(d) Where the standby altitude indicator has its own dedicated power supply there
shall be an associated indication, either on the instrument or on the instrument
pane when this supply is in use.

7.050 SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS FOR IFR
(a) No person may operate an aircraft in IFR without —

(1) An airspeed indicating system with a heated pilot tube or equivalent
means of preventing malfunctions due to either condensation or icing;

(2) For commercial air transport: Two independent static pressure systems:
(i) Exception: Propeller driven aircraft of less than 5700 kg max

takeoff mass may have one static pressure system which
includes an alternate static source;

(3) A means of indicating whether the power supply to the gyroscopic
instruments is adequate;

(4) A means of indicating in the flight crew compartment the outside air
temperature; and

(5) An adequate source of electrical energy for all installed electrical and radio
equipment, that for commercial air transport shall include —
(i) For multi-engine aircraft, at least two generators or alternators each of

which is on a separate engine, of which any combination of one-half of
the total number are rated sufficiently to supply the electrical loads of
all required instruments and equipment necessary for safe emergency
operation of the aircraft except that for multi-engine helicopters, the
two required generators may be mounted on the main rotor drive train;
and

(ii) Two independent sources of energy (with means of selecting either) of
which at least one is an engine-driven pump or generator, each of which
is able to drive all required gyroscopic instruments powered by, or to be
powered by, that particular source and installed so that failure of one
instrument or source, does not interfere with the energy supply to the
remaining instruments or the other energy source unless, for single-
engine aircraft in all cargo operations only, the rate of turn indicator has a
source of energy separate from the bank and pitch and direction
indicators.

CH.284 – 216] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

For the purpose of this paragraph, for multi-engine aircraft, each engine- driven
source of energy must be on a different engine.
For the purpose of this paragraph, a continuous inflight electrical load includes one
that draws current continuously during flight, such as radio equipment, electrically
driven instruments, and lights, but does not include occasional intermittent loads.

7.055 AUTOPILOT
(a) No person may operate an aircraft above FL 290 unless that aircraft is equipped

with an autopilot capable of automatically maintaining a selected flight level.
(b) No person may operate an aircraft in airspace for which minimum navigation

performance specifications are prescribed unless that aircraft is equipped with an
autopilot capable of receiving and automatically tracking the selected
navigational equipment inputs.

(c) For commercial air transport: No person may operate an aeroplane with a single
pilot under IFR unless that aeroplane is equipped with an autopilot with at least
altitude hold and heading mode.

7.060 IFR HELICOPTER STABILIZATION SYSTEM FOR COMMERCIAL
AIR TRANSPORT

(a) No person may operate a helicopter in IFR commercial air transport operations
without a stabilization system, unless that helicopter was certificated by the
State of Manufacture as having adequate stability without such a system.

7.065 EQUIPMENT FOR NIGHT FLIGHTS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft at night unless it is also equipped with

properly installed —
(1) Aircraft navigation lights;
(2) An anti-collision beacon;
(3) A landing light [for helicopter operations, one landing light shall be

trainable in the vertical plane];
(4) Illumination for all instruments and equipment that are essential for the

safe operation of the aircraft by the flight crew; and
(5) For commercial air transport operations —

(iii) Lights in all passenger compartments;
(iv) A flashlight at each crew member station; and
(v) Two landing lights.

Note: Aeroplanes which are equipped with a single landing light having two
separately energized filaments will be in compliance with the two landing light
requirement.

7.067 EQUIPMENT FOR SPECIAL ALTIMETRY ACCURACY (RVSM)
(a) No person may operate an aircraft in RVSM airspace unless the aircraft is

equipped with:
(1) Two independent altitude reporting systems;
(2) An altitude alerting systems;
(3) An automatic altitude holding system; and

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 217






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(4) A transponder with altitude reporting capability which can be connected to
altitude holding system.

7.070 WINDSHIELD WIPERS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff mass of

more than 5700 kg unless it is equipped at each pilot station with a windshield
wiper or equivalent means to clear a portion of the windshield during
precipitation.

7.075 FLIGHT IN ICING CONDITIONS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft in icing conditions unless it is equipped with

suitable anti-icing or de-icing devices adequate for flight in the conditions that
are reported to exist or are expected to be encountered.

(b) The anti-icing or de-icing equipment shall provide for prevention or removal of
ice on windshield, wings, empennage, propellers and other parts of the airplane
where ice formation will adversely affect the safety of the aircraft.

(c) No person may operate an airplane in expected or actual icing conditions at
night unless it is equipped with a means to illuminate or detect the formation of
ice. This illumination must be of a type that will not cause glare or reflections
that would handicap crew members in the performance of their duties.

7.080 WEATHER RADAR — COMMERCIAL AIR
TRANSPORT

(a) No person may operate an airplane having a maximum approved passenger
seating of more than nine seats in commercial air transport unless it has an
approved weather radar or thunderstorm detection device installed.

(b) No person may operate an airplane having a maximum certificated takeoff mass
of more than 5700 kg in commercial air transport unless it has an approved
weather radar installed.

(c) No person may begin a commercial air transport passenger flight under IFR or
night VFR, when current weather reports indicate that thunderstorms or other
potentially hazardous conditions than could be detected by the installed weather
radar or thunderstorm detection device may reasonably be expected along the
route, unless that equipment is operating satisfactorily.

(d) If the weather radar or thunderstorm detection device becomes inoperative on a
commercial air transport passenger aircraft en route, the aircraft must be
operated under the instructions and procedures specified in the AOC holder’s
Operations Manual.

(e) An alternate electrical power supply is not required for the weather radar or
thunderstorm detection device.

7.085 SPECIAL SEAPLANE EQUIPMENT
(a) No person may operate a seaplane unless it is equipped with —

(1) An anchor;
(2) A sea anchor (drogue), to assist in manoeuvring; and
(3) An air horn for making the sound signals prescribed in the International

Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea.
Note: “Seaplanes” includes amphibians operated as seaplanes.

CH.284 – 218] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

SUBPART C
COMMUNICATIONS AND NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT

7.095 RADIO COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT — GENERAL
(a) No person may operate an aircraft that is not equipped with radio

communications equipment —
(1) In controlled flight;
(2) Under instrument flight rules; or
(3) At night.

(b) The installed radio communications equipment shall be capable of conducting
two-way radio communication —
(1) With the appropriate air traffic control service;
(2) On the assigned frequencies; and
(3) On the aeronautical emergency frequency 121.5 Megahertz.

(c) Aircraft operated under instrument flight rules will have two independent
methods of receiving communications from air traffic service.

(d) When more than one radio communications unit is required for the flight
operation, each unit shall be independent of the other or others to the extent that a
failure in any one will not result in failure of any other.

(e) No person may operate an aircraft in IFR operations requiring two pilots unless
it is equipped with an audio selector panel accessible to both pilots.

(f) Each person operating an aircraft that does not have the required radio
communication equipment shall obtain prior permission before operating in
airspace requiring such equipment.

7.100 RADIO COMMUNICATION EQUIPMENT — COMMERCIAL AIR
TRANSPORT

(a) No person may operate an aircraft in commercial air transport unless equipped
with two independent radio communications equipment installations which, for
the route and airspace flown, are capable of conducting two-way radio
communication at any time during flight with —
(1) At least one aeronautical station; and
(2) Any other aeronautical stations and frequencies which may prescribed by

the appropriate authority.
(b) No person may operate an aircraft in commercial air transport unless equipped

with radio communications equipment capable of receiving meteorological
information at any time during the flight.

7.105 BOOM MICROPHONE — COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT
(a) No person may operate an aircraft in commercial air transport unless there is a

boom or throat microphone available at each required flight crew member duty
station.

(b) No person may operate an aircraft with a single pilot under IFR or at night in
commercial air transport unless that aircraft is equipped with a headset with
boom microphone or equivalent and a transmit button on the control wheel.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 219






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

7.110 ALTITUDE REPORTING TRANSPONDER
(a) No person may operate an aircraft in airspace which requires a pressure altitude

reporting transponder unless that equipment is operative.
(b) No person may operate an aircraft at altitudes above FL 290 unless it is

equipped with a system which is automatically reporting pressure altitudes.
(c) For commercial air transport: No person may operate an aircraft in commercial

air transport unless is equipped with a pressure-altitude reporting transponder
which operates in accordance with the requirements of the appropriate air traffic
service requirements.

7.115 NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT — GENERAL
(a) No person may operate an aircraft unless it is equipped with navigation

equipment which will enable it to proceed in accordance with —
(1) The flight plan;
(2) Prescribed RNP (required navigational performance) types; and
(3) The requirements of air traffic services.

(b) Navigation under visual flight rules (VFR) may be accomplished without
navigation equipment by visual reference to landmarks, if not precluded by the
appropriate authority for the route and airspace.

(c) No person may operate an aircraft unless that aircraft is equipped with sufficient
navigation equipment to ensure that, in the event of failure of one item of
equipment at any stage of the flight, the remaining equipment will enable the
aircraft to continue navigating in accordance with the requirements of this
Article.

(d) Each radio navigation system shall have an independent antenna installation,
except that, where rigidly supported non-wire antenna installations of equivalent
reliability are used, only one antenna is required.

7.120 SPECIAL NAVIGATION ACCURACY (RNP AND MNPS)
(a) For flights in defined portions of airspace where minimum navigation

performance specifications or required navigation performance (RNP) are
prescribed, the navigational equipment shall continuously provide indications to
the flight crew of the adherence to or departure from track to the required degree
of accuracy at any point along that track.

(b) No person may operate an aircraft where MNPS are prescribed, unless it is
equipped with:
(1) For unrestricted operations, two independent long range navigation

systems; or
(2) For notified special routes, one long range navigation system.

(c) The navigation equipment required for operations in MNPS airspace shall be
visible and usable by either pilot seated at their duty stations.

7.125 NAVIGATION EQUIPMENT — IFR APPROACH
(a) No person may operate an aircraft in situations which would require a

landing approach to an airport in instrument meteorological conditions unless
that aircraft is equipped with the appropriate radio equipment required to
accomplish the published instrument approach for the planned destination
and alternate airports.

CH.284 – 220] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) The navigation equipment installed on the aircraft will be capable of receiving
signals providing guidance to a point from which a visual landing can be
effected.

SUBPART D
WARNING EQUIPMENT AND INDICATORS

7.130 WARNING SYSTEMS — GENERAL
(a) No person may operate a turbojet aircraft unless it is equipped with an installed

aural mach overspeed warning.
(b) Pressurized aeroplanes intended to be operate at flight altitudes at which the

atmospheric pressure is less than 376 hPa (25,000 ft) shall be equipped with a
device to provide positive warning to the flight crew of any dangerous loss of
pressurization.

(c) No person may operate an aircraft of more than 5700 kg certificated takeoff
mass in commercial air transport without a means of indicating pitot heater
failure.

7.135 LANDING GEAR AURAL WARNING DEVICE
(a) No person may operate an aircraft with retractable landing gear unless it is

equipped with an aural warning device that functions continuously anytime the
landing gear is not fully extended and locked and the wing-flap setting exceeds
the position —
(1) Specified in the AFM for maximum certificated approach climb configura-

tion; or
(2) Where landing gear extension is normally performed.

(b) This warning system —
(1) May not have a manual shutoff;
(2) Must be in addition to the any throttle-actuated device; and
(3) May utilize any part of the throttle-actuated device.

7.140 ALTITUDE ALERTING SYSTEM
(a) No person may operate the following aircraft unless it is equipped with an

altitude alerting system:
(1) A turbojet powered airplane; or
(2) A turbine powered airplane —

(i) Having a maximum approved passenger seating of more than nine
seats; or

(ii) With a certificated takeoff mass of more than 5700 kg.
(b) The altitude alerting system will be capable of alerting the flight crew —

(1) Upon approaching a pre-selected altitude in either ascent or descent; and
(2) By at least an aural signal, when deviating above or below a pre-selected

altitude.
(c) The threshold for the alert shall not exceed plus or minus 90 m (300 ft).

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 221






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

7.145 GROUND PROXIMITY WARNING SYSTEM
(a) No person may operate turbine powered aircraft unless they are equipped with a

ground proximity warning system, if the aircraft has a maximum —
(1) Approved passenger seating of more than nine seats; or
(2) Certificated takeoff mass of more than 5700 kg.
Note: In anticipation of changing international safety standards, the Authority
recommends that all piston engine powered aeroplanes fitting this weight or
passenger carrying description should also install a GPWS>

(b) The ground proximity warning system must automatically provide by means of
aural signals, which may be supplemented by visual signals, timely and
distinctive warning to the flight crew of:
(1) excessive descent rate;
(2) excessive terrain closure rate;
(3) excessive altitude loss after takeoff or go-around;
(4) unsafe terrain clearance while not in landing configuration:

(i) gear not locked down;
(ii) flaps not in landing position; and

(5) excessive descent below the instrument glide path.

7.150 AIRBORNE COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM (ACAS)
Note: In anticipation of changing international safety standards, the Authority
recommends that all commercial air transport passenger aircraft be equipped with
an ACAS.

(a) After 1 January 2003, no person may operate a turbine engine aeroplane with a
maximum certificated takeoff mass in excess of 5700 kg or authorized to carry
more than 30 passengers, unless it is equipped with an ACAS.

(b) After 1 January 2005, no person may operate a turbine engine aeroplane
authorized to carry more than 19 passengers, unless it is equipped with an
ACAS.

7.155 FORWARD LOOKING WIND SHEAR WARNING
SYSTEM — TURBOJET AIRCRAFT

Note: In anticipation of changing international safety standards, the Authority
recommends that commercial air transport turbojet aircraft with a passenger
seating capacity of more than nine passengers be equipped with a forward looking
wind shear warning system.

(a) This system should be capable of providing the pilot with an aural and visual
warning of wind shear ahead of the aircraft and the information required to
permit the pilot to safely commence and continue a missed approach or go-
around or to execute an escape manoeuvre if necessary.

(b) This system should also provide an indication to the pilot when the limits
specified for the certification of automatic landing equipment are being
approached, when such equipment is in use.

CH.284 – 222] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

7.160 RADIATION INDICATOR — COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT
(a) No person may operate an aeroplane above 15,000 m (49,000 ft) unless that

aircraft is equipped with equipment to measure and indicate continuously —
(1) The dose rate of total cosmic radiation being received (i.e. the total of

ionizing and neutron radiation of galactic and solar origin; and
(2) The cumulative dose on each flight.

(b) The display unit of the radiation equipment shall be readily visible to a flight
crew member.

SUBPART E
RECORDERS

7.165 FLIGHT DATA AND VOICE RECORDERS — GENERAL
(a) The flight recorders shall be constructed, located and installed so as to provide

maximum practical protection for the recorders in order that the recorded
information may be preserved, recovered and transcribed. To facilitate location
and identification in case of an accident, the cockpit voice recorder shall —
(1) Be constructed, located and installed so as to provide maximum practical

protection for the recordings in order that the recorded information may be
preserved, recovered and transcribed;

(2) Be either bright orange or bright yellow;
(3) Have reflective tape affixed to the external surface to facilitate its location

under water; and
(4) Have an approved underwater locating device on or adjacent to the

recorder, which is secured in such a manner that it is not likely to be
separated during a crash impact.

(b) Flight recorders shall —
(1) Be calibrated as required by the Authority; and
(2) Meet the prescribed crashworthiness and fire protection specifications.

(c) Flight recorders shall record in a digital mode.
(d) An aircraft required to have both CVR and FDR may alternatively be equipped

with —
(1) A single combination (CVR/FDR) recorder, for aircraft with a maximum

certificated takeoff mass of 5700 kg or less; or
(2) Two combination (CVR/FDR) recorders, for aircraft with a maximum

certificated takeoff mass of more than 5700 kg.
7.170 FLIGHT DECK VOICE RECORDERS
(a) No person may operate the following aircraft unless it is equipped with a voice

recorder system to record the aural environment of the flight deck during flight
time:
(1) All aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff mass of more than 27,000

kg.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 223






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) A turbine powered airplane operated in commercial air transport —
(i) Having a maximum approved passenger seating of more than nine

seats; or
(ii) With a certificated takeoff mass of more than 5,700 kg.

(3) A helicopter operated in commercial air transport with a certificated
takeoff mass of over —

(i) 7,000 kg; or
(ii) For international commercial air transport: 2,700 kg.

Note: In anticipation of changing international requirements, the Authority
recommends that all AOC holders of turbine aircraft with maximum certificated
takeoff mass of 5700 kg or less install a voice recorder.

(b) The flight deck voice recorder shall be capable of retaining the information
recorded during at least the last 30 minutes.
Note: In anticipation of changing international requirements, the Authority
recommends that all voice recorders be capable of retaining the information
recorded during at least the last 2 hours.

(c) If an aircraft is equipped to utilize digital communications with ATS, those
communications shall be recorded on either the flight deck voice or flight
data recorder. [If recorded on the flight data recorder, the digital
communications shall be readily correlatable to the cockpit voice recorder
recording.]

7.175 FLIGHT DATA RECORDERS
(a) No person may operate the following aircraft unless it is equipped with the

appropriate flight data recorder system to record the flight parameters for
accident and incident analysis:
(1) All aeroplanes with a maximum certificated takeoff mass of over 27,000 kg

shall have at least a Type II flight data recorder.
(2) Turbine engine aeroplanes operated in commercial air transport with a

certificated takeoff mass of more than 5,700 kg shall have a Type I or Type
II flight data recorder.

Note: In anticipation of changing international safety standards, the Authority
recommends that turbine engine aeroplanes operated in commercial air transport
with a certificated takeoff mass of 5700 kg or less should install a Type I or Type II
flight data recorder.
(3) All helicopters operated in commercial air transport with a certificated

takeoff mass of over 7,000 kg shall have at least a Type IV flight data
recorder.

(b) The Authority will prescribe the minimum parameters which shall be
recorded by a flight data recorder.
See Appendix 1 to 7.175 for the parameters that must be monitored by a Type I
and Type II FDR.

(c) Flight data recorders shall be capable of retaining the information recorded
during at least the last —
(1) Type I and II — 25 hours of operation.

CH.284 – 224] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(2) Type IIA — 30 minutes of operation.
(3) Type IV and V — 10 hours of operations.

(d) The use of engraving metal foil flight data recorders shall be discontinued by 1
January 1995.

SUBPART F
CREW PROTECTION EQUIPMENT

7.178 SECURITY OF THE FLIGHT DECK
(a) No person may operate an aircraft having a maximum seating capacity of more

than 19 passengers unless there is installed a lockable door to restrict entry to the
flight deck.

(b) This door shall be lockable from within the flight deck only.
7.180 FLIGHT CREW SAFETY HARNESS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft unless there is an operational safety harness

installed for each required flight crew member.
(b) The safety harness shall incorporate a device that will automatically restrain the

occupant’s torso in the event of a rapid deceleration.
(c) The Authority recommends that this safety harness should incorporate a device

to prevent a suddenly incapacitated pilot from interfering with the flight
controls.

7.181 QUICK DONNING TYPE OXYGEN MASK
(a) No person may operate a pressurized aircraft at altitudes above 25,000 feet

unless there is available at each flight crew duty station a quick donning type of
oxygen mask which will readily supply oxygen upon demand.

7.182 CABIN CREW SEATS AND SAFETY HARNESS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft for which a cabin attendant(s) is required

unless each seat provided is —
(1) Forward or rearward facing (within 15 degrees of the longitudinal axis of

the aircraft; and
(2) Fitted with a safety harness.

(b) Each seat shall be located at floor level in the passenger compartment and
adjacent to the emergency exits as prescribed by the Authority to facilitate
emergency evacuation.

7.183 PROTECTIVE BREATHING EQUIPMENT (PBE)
(a) No person may operate the following aircraft in commercial air transport, unless

it is equipped with a PBE to protect the eyes, nose and mouth of all required
crew members and provide oxygen or breathing gas for a period not less than 15
minutes:
(1) An aircraft with a maximum certified takeoff mass of more than 5,700 kg; or
(2) An aircraft with a maximum seating capacity of more than 19 seats.

(b) This equipment shall be conveniently located and easily accessible from each
required duty station.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 225






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(c) The PBE for each cabin attendant shall be portable.
(d) The PBE, while in use, shall not prevent required communication.
(e) For cargo aircraft, a PBE shall not be located in the cargo compartment, but

immediately prior to entry into that compartment, and near a required fire
extinguisher.

SUBPART G
PASSENGER RELATED EQUIPMENT

7.185 PASSENGER SEATS AND SEAT BELTS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft carrying passengers unless it is equipped

with —
(1) An approved seat or berth for each occupant on board who has reached

their second birthday; and
(2) A seat belt for each seat and a restraining belt for each berth.

7.190 PASSENGER INFORMATION
(a) No person shall operate an aircraft having an approved passenger seating

configuration of more than 9 passengers unless it is equipped with at least one
passenger information sign notifying when —
(1) Safety belts should be fastened; and
(2) Smoking is prohibited.

(b) These signs shall be so constructed that a crew member can turn them on and off
from a duty station.

(c) There shall be sufficient signs located in the passenger cabin so that, when
illuminated, they will be legible to each passenger under all probable conditions
of cabin illumination.

7.195 PUBLIC ADDRESS SYSTEM
(a) No person may operate an aircraft with a maximum approved seating

configuration of more than 19 passengers unless it is equipped with a public
address system.

(b) This public address system shall —
(1) Be audible and intelligible at all passenger seats, toilets and cabin crew duty

and work stations;
(2) Be capable of operation within 10 seconds by any required crew member;
(3) Be accessible by at least one seated crew member at each separate or pair of

floor level emergency exits;
7.200 INTERPHONE SYSTEMS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft on which a flight crew of more than one is

required unless it is equipped with a flight deck interphone system, including
headsets and microphones, which provides audible and intelligible communica-
tions between the required crew members.

CH.284 – 226] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) No person may operate an aircraft having a maximum approved passenger
seating configuration of more than 19 passengers unless it is equipped with a
crew member interphone system which provides for signaling and two-way
communications between all required crew members.

(c) This crew member interphone system required by 7.200(b) shall —
(1) Be capable of operation independently of the public address system;
(2) Be capable of operation within 10 seconds by any required crew member,

including those at remote work stations;
(3) Be accessible by at least one seated crew member at each separate or pair of

floor level emergency exits;
(4) Have a signaling capability which provides for differentiation between

normal and emergency calls; and
(5) Provide, on the ground, a means of two-way communication between

ground personnel and at least two flight crew members.
7.205 MEGAPHONES — COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT
(a) No person may operate an aircraft carrying more than 59 passengers in

commercial air transport unless it is equipped with the required number of
battery-powered megaphones readily accessible to the crew members assigned to
direct emergency evacuation.

(b) The required number and location of megaphones are —
(1) For an aircraft with a seating capacity of 60 to 99 passengers — one

megaphone at the most rearward location readily accessible to a cabin
attendant duty station.

(2) For an aircraft with more than 99 passengers — an additional megaphone
installed at the forward end of the passenger compartment.

7.210 EMERGENCY EXITS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft carrying passengers unless it has adequate

emergency exit provisions for emergency evacuations and ditching.
(b) Each passenger-carrying emergency exit (other than over-the-wing) that is more

than 6 feet from the ground with the airplane on the ground and the landing gear
extended, shall have an approved means to assist the occupants in descending to
the ground.

(c) Each passenger emergency exit, its means of access and its means of opening
shall be conspicuously marked both inside and outside.

(d) The location of each passenger emergency exit shall be indicated by a sign visible
to occupants approaching along the main passenger aisle.

(e) Each passenger carrying airplane shall be equipped with a slip-resistant escape
route that meets the requirements under which that airplane was type-
certificated.

(f) Each passenger carrying airplane that is required to have cabin attendant(s)
shall have flashlight stowage provisions accessible from their duty stations.
See Appendix 1 to 8.1.7.6 for specific requirements regarding these standards.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 227






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

7.215 PASSENGER COMPARTMENT AND EXITS
(a) No person may conduct any passenger-carrying operation unless it has —

(1) A key for each door that separates a passenger compartment from another
compartment that has emergency exit provisions;

Note: The key shall be readily available for each crew member.
(2) A means for the crew, in an emergency, to unlock each door that leads to

a compartment that is normally accessible to passengers and that can be
locked by passengers; and

(3) A placard on each door used to access a required passenger emergency
exit, indicating that such door shall be open during takeoff and landing.

7.220 MATERIALS FOR CABIN INTERIORS
(a) Upon the first major overhaul of an aeroplane cabin or refurbishing of the cabin

interior, all materials in each compartment used by the crew or passengers that do
not meet the current airworthiness requirements pertaining to materials used in
the interior of the cabin for type certification in the transport category as cited by
the Authority, shall be replaced with materials that meet the requirements
specified by the Authority.

(b) Seat cushions, except those on flight crew member seats, in any compartment
occupied by crew or passengers shall meet requirements pertaining to fire
protection as specified by the Authority.

7.225 MATERIALS FOR CARGO AND BAGGAGE
COMPARTMENTS

(a) Each Class C or D cargo compartment greater than 200 cubic feet in volume in
a transport category aeroplane type certified after January 1, 1958 shall have
ceiling and sidewall liner panels which are constructed of —
(1) Glass fibre reinforced resin;
(2) Materials which meet the test requirements for flame resistance of cargo

compartment liners as prescribed for type certification; or
(3) In the case of installations approved prior to March 20, 1989, aluminium.
Note: The term “liner” includes any design feature, such as a joint or fastener,
which would affect the capability of the liner to safely contain fire.

7.230 EMERGENCY LIGHTING SYSTEM
(a) No person may operate an aircraft with a maximum approved passenger

configuration of more than nineteen passengers unless it is equipped with an
emergency lighting system that is independent of the main lighting system.

(b) The emergency light system must:
(1) Illuminate each passenger exit marking and locating sign;
(2) Provide enough general lighting in the passenger cabin; and
(3) Include floor proximity emergency escape path marking.

CH.284 – 228] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

SUBPART H
EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT

7.235 EMERGENCY EQUIPMENT: ALL AIRCRAFT
(a) Each item of emergency and flotation equipment shall be —

(1) Readily accessible to the crew and, with regard to equipment located in
the passenger compartment, to passengers without appreciable time for
preparatory procedures;

(2) Clearly identified and clearly marked to indicate its method of operation;
(3) Marked as to date of last inspection; and
(4) Marked as to contents when carried in a compartment or container.

7.240 FIRST AID KIT
(a) No person may operate an aircraft unless it is equipped with at least the

minimum number of accessible first aid kits and contents specified as follows:

Number of passenger seats
installed

Number of first-aid
kits required

0 to 99 1
100 to 199 2
200 to 299 3

300 and more 4


(b) The installed first aid kit shall contain the minimum contents specified by
the Authority.

7.245 MEDICAL KIT — COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT
(a) No person may operate an aircraft authorized to carry more than 250 passengers

unless it has a properly installed medical kit for the use of the medical doctors or
other qualified persons in treating in-flight medical emergencies.

(b) The installed medical kit shall contain the minimum contents specified by the
Authority.

7.250 PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft unless it has the minimum number of portable

fire extinguishers of a type which, when discharged, will not cause dangerous
contamination of the air within the aeroplane. The type and quantity of
extinguishing agent shall be suitable for the kinds of fires likely to occur in the
compartment where the extinguisher is intended to be used.
Note: For passenger compartments, the extinguisher shall be designed to minimise
the hazard of toxic gas concentrations.

(b) The minimum number of portable fire extinguishers shall not be less than —
(1) One properly installed in the pilot’s compartment; and

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 229






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) At least one portable fire extinguisher shall be provided and
conveniently located for use in each Class E cargo compartment
which is accessible to crew members during flight, and at least one
shall be located in each upper and lower lobe galley;

(3) One properly installed in each passenger compartment that is separate
from the pilot’s compartment and that is not readily accessible to the
flight crew;

Note: Any portable fire extinguisher so fitted in accordance with the
certificate of airworthiness of a helicopter may count as one of the required
extinguishers.
(4) At least one portable fire extinguisher shall be conveniently located in the

passenger compartment of aeroplanes having a passenger seating capacity of
30 or less. For each aeroplane having a passenger seating capacity of more
than 30, there shall be at least the following number of portable fire
extinguishers conveniently located and uniformly distributed throughout the
compartment.

Minimum Number of Hand Fire Extinguishers Passenger
Seating Capacity

30 through 60 2
61 through 200 3

201 through 300 4
301 through 400 5
401 through 500 6
501 through 600 7

601 or more 8

7.255 LAVATORY FIRE EXTINGUISHER
(a) No person may operate an passenger carrying aircraft of more than 5700 kg

maximum certificated takeoff mass unless each lavatory is equipped with a built-
in fire extinguisher for the wastepaper disposal.

(b) This built-in fire extinguisher must be designed to discharge automatically into
each disposal receptacle upon occurrence of a fire in the receptacle.

7.260 LAVATORY SMOKE DETECTOR
(a) No person may operate a passenger carrying aircraft of more than 5700 kg

maximum certificated takeoff mass unless each lavatory in the airplane is
equipped with a smoke detector system that provides —
(1) a warning light in the flight deck; or
(2) a warning light or audio warning in the passenger cabin, taking into account

the position of the cabin attendants during various phases of flight.
7.265 CRASH AXE — COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT
(a) No person may operate an aircraft with a maximum certificated takeoff mass of

more than 5700 kg unless it is equipped with a crash axe appropriate for effective
use in that aircraft.

CH.284 – 230] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

7.270 OXYGEN STORAGE AND DISPENSING APPARATUS
(a) All aircraft intended to be operated at altitudes requiring the use of

supplemental oxygen shall be equipped with adequate oxygen storage and
dispensing apparatus.

(b) The oxygen apparatus, the minimum rate of oxygen flow, and the supply of
oxygen shall meet applicable airworthiness standards for type certification in the
transport category as specified by the Authority.

(c) No AOC holder may operate an aeroplane at altitudes above 10,000 feet unless it
is equipped with oxygen masks, located so as to be within the immediate reach
of flight crew members while at their assigned duty station.

(d) No person may operate a pressurized aeroplane at altitudes above 25,000 feet
unless:
(1) Flight crew member oxygen masks are of a quick donning type;
(2) Sufficient spare outlets and masks and/or sufficient portable oxygen units

with masks are distributed evenly throughout the cabin to ensure immediate
availability of oxygen to each required cabin crew member regardless of his
location at the time of cabin pressurisation failure

(3) An oxygen-dispensing unit connected to oxygen supply terminals is installed
so as to be immediately available to each occupant, wherever seated. The
total number of dispensing units and outlets shall exceed the number of seats
by at least 10%. The extra units are to be evenly distributed throughout the
cabin.

(e) The amount of supplemental oxygen for sustenance required for a particular
operation shall be determined on the basis of flight altitudes and flight duration,
consistent with the operating procedures established for each operation in the
Operations Manual and with the routes to be flown, and with the emergency
procedures specified in the Operations Manual.
See Appendix 1 and Appendix 2 to 7.270 to determine the amount of supplemental
oxygen needed for non-pressurized and pressurized aircraft.

7.273 INDIVIDUAL FLOTATION DEVICES
(a) No person shall operate an aircraft on flights over water unless it is equipped

with one life jacket or equivalent individual flotation device for each person on
board.

(b) All life jackets or equivalent individual flotation devices shall be stowed in a
position easily accessible from the seat or berth of the person for whose use it is
provided.

(c) For all flights in which a survival raft is required, each individual flotation
devices shall be fitted with an approved survivor locator light.

7.275 LIFE RAFTS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft in extended over water operations unless it is

equipped with life rafts in sufficient number to accommodate all of the persons
on board in the event of ditching when the flight is more than —
(1) 120 minutes at cruising speed or 400 nautical miles, whichever is lesser, for

airplanes capable of continuing the flight to an airport with the critical
power unit(s) becoming inoperative at any point along the route or planned
diversions;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 231






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) 30 minutes at cruising speed or 100 nautical miles, whichever is lesser, for all
other airplanes.

(b) For commercial air transport passenger carrying operations in aircraft of more
than 5700 kg, the buoyancy and seating capacity of the rafts must accommodate
all occupants of the aircraft in the event of a loss of one raft of the largest rated
capacity.

(c) The required life rafts and associated equipment must be easily accessible in the
event of ditching without appreciable time for preparatory procedures. This
equipment must be installed in conspicuously marked, approved locations.

(d) Life rafts which are not deployable by remote control and which have a mass of
more than 40 kg shall be equipped with some means of mechanically assisted
deployment.

7.280 SURVIVAL KIT
(a) No person may operate an aircraft over designated land areas where search and

rescue would be especially difficult without carrying life saving equipment
including means of sustaining life.

(b) No person may operate over water at distances which require the carriage of life
rafts unless each raft is equipped with life saving equipment including means of
sustaining life.

(c) The survival kit shall contain the minimum contents specified by the Authority.
7.285 DEVICES FOR EMERGENCY SIGNALING
(a) No person may operate an aircraft over designated land areas where search

and rescue would be especially difficult without carrying devices to make the
necessary ground-to-air emergency signals to facilitate rescue.

(b) No person may operate over water at distance which require the carriage of
life rafts unless each raft contains the equipment for make the necessary
pyrotechnical distress signals.

(c) The devices for emergency signaling shall be acceptable to the Authority.
7.290 EMERGENCY LOCATOR TRANSMITTER (ELT)
(a) All aircraft on all flights shall be equipped with an automatically activated ELT.
(b) No person may operate an aircraft over designated land areas where search and

rescue would be especially difficult unless it is equipped with at least one survival
type ELT.

(c) No person may operate an aircraft over water at distances which require the
carriage of life rafts unless it is equipped with an survival type ELT for the life
raft. In situations requiring two or more life rafts, only two survival type ELTs
are required to be carried on the aircraft.

(d) Batteries used in ELT’s shall be replaced (or recharged if the battery is
rechargeable) when —
(1) The transmitter has been in use for more than one cumulative hour; or
(2) 50 percent of their useful life (or for rechargeable batteries, 50 percent of

their useful life of charge) has expired;
(3) The expiration date for a replacement or recharged ELT battery shall be

legibly marked on the outside of the transmitter.

CH.284 – 232] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

Note: The battery useful life (or useful life of charge) requirements do not apply to
batteries (such as water-activated batteries) that are essentially unaffected during
probable storage intervals.

7.295 HELICOPTER EMERGENCY FLOTATION MEANS
(a) No person may operate a helicopter intentionally over water unless it has a

properly installed permanent or rapidly deployable means of floatation to ensure
a safe ditching of the helicopter when the flight is —
(1) more than 10 minutes from shore, in the case of helicopters capable of

sustained flight with one engine inoperative; or
(2) beyond autorotational or gliding distance to shore, in the case of single-

engine helicopters.
7.300 MARKING OF BREAK-IN POINTS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft for which areas of the fuselage suitable

for break-in by rescue in an emergency are marked unless those markings
correspond to the following figure and meet the following requirements —
(1) The color of the markings shall be red or yellow, and if necessary, they shall

be outlined in white to contrast with the background; and
(2) If the corner markings are more than 2 m apart, intermediate lines 9 cm x

3 cm shall be inserted so that there is no more than 2 m between adjacent
markings.

Note: This regulation does not require any aircraft to have break-in areas.


7.305 FIRST-AID OXYGEN DISPENSING UNITS
(a) No AOC holder may conduct a passenger carrying operation in a pressurized

aeroplane at altitudes above 25,000 feet, when a cabin crew member is required
to be carried, unless it is equipped with —
(1) Undiluted first-aid oxygen for passengers who, for physiological reasons,

may require oxygen following a cabin depressurisation; and
(2) A sufficient number of dispensing units, but in no case less than two, with a

means for cabin crew to use the supply.
(b) The amount of first-aid oxygen required in paragraph (a) for a particular

operation and route shall be determined on the basis of —
(1) Flight duration after cabin depressurisation at cabin altitudes of more than

8,000 feet;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 233






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) An average flow rate of at least 3 litres Standard Temperature Pressure
Dry/minute/person; and

(3) At least 2% of the passengers carried, but in no case for less than one
person.

APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1 TO 7.175

PARAMETERS FOR FLIGHT DECK RECORDERS
This table lists the parameters that should be recorded in a type II or type I FDR
Serial # Parameter

1 Time (UTC when available, otherwise elapsed time)
2 Pressure altitude
3 Indicated airspeed
4 Heading
5 Normal acceleration
6 Pitch attitude
7 Roll attitude
8 Radio transmission keying
9 Power on each engine
10 Trailing edge flap or flight deck control selection position
11 Leading edge flap position
12 Thrust reverser position
13 Ground spoiler or speed brake selection position
14 Outside air temperature
15 Autopilot/auto throttle/AFCS mode
Note: The preceeding 15 parameters satisfy the requirements for Type

II FDR
16 Longitudinal acceleration
17 Lateral acceleration
18 Pilot input and/or control surface position-primary controls (pitch,

roll, yaw)
19 Pitch trim position
20 Radio altitude
21 Glide path deviation
22 Localizer deviation
23 Marker beacon passage
24 Master warning
25 Nav 1 and 2 frequency

CH.284 – 234] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002



26 DME 1 and 2 distance
27 Landing gear squat switch status
28 GPWS (ground proximity warning system)
29 Angle of attack
30 Hydraulics, each system (low pressure)
31 Navigation data (latitude, longitude, ground speed and drift angle
32 Landing gear or gear selector position
Note: The preceding 32 parameters satisfy the requirements for a Type

I FDR


APPENDIX 1 TO 7.210
EMERGENCY EXIT EQUIPMENT

(a) The assisting means for a floor level emergency exit shall meet the
requirements under which the aeroplane was type certified.

(b) The location of each passenger emergency exit shall be —
(1) Recognisable from a distance equal to the width of the cabin.
(2) Indicated by a sign visible to occupants approaching along the main

passenger aisle.
(c) There shall be an emergency exit locating sign —

(1) Above the aisle near each over-the-wing passenger emergency exit, or at
another ceiling location if it is more practical because of low headroom;

(2) Next to each floor level passenger emergency exit, except that one sign may
serve two such exits if they both can be seen readily from that sign; and

(3) On each bulkhead or divider that prevents fore and aft vision along the
passenger cabin, to indicate emergency exits beyond and obscured by it,
except that if this is not possible, the sign may be placed at another
appropriate location.

(d) Each passenger emergency exit marking and each locating sign shall be
manufactured to meet the interior emergency exit marking requirements under
which the aeroplane was type certified, unless the Authority cites different
requirements for compliance with this paragraph.
Note: No sign may continue to be used if its luminescence (brightness) decreases to
below 250 microlamberts.

(e) Sources of general cabin illumination may be common to both the emergency
and the main lighting systems if the power supply to the emergency light system
is independent of the power supply to the main lighting system.

(f) The emergency lighting system shall provide enough general lighting in the
passenger cabin so that the average illumination, when measured at 40-inch
intervals at seat armrest height, on the centreline of the main passenger aisle, is
at least 0.05 foot-candles.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 235






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(g) Each emergency light shall —
(1) Be operable manually both from the light crew station and from a point in

the passenger compartment that is readily accessible to a normal flight
attendant seat;

(2) Have a means to prevent inadvertent operation of the manual controls; and
(3) When armed or turned on at either station, remain lighted or become lighted

upon interruption of the aeroplane’s normal electric power;
(4) Provide the required level of illumination for at least 10 minutes at the

critical ambient conditions after emergency landing;
(5) Have a cockpit control device that has an “on”, “off”, and “armed”

position.
(h) The location of each passenger emergency exit operating handle and instructions

for opening the exit shall be shown in accordance with the requirements under
which the aeroplane was type certified, unless the Authority cites different
requirements for compliance with this paragraph.

(i) No operating handle or operating handle cover may continue to be used if its
luminescence (brightness) decreases to below 100 microlamberts.

(j) Access to emergency exits shall be provided as follows for each passenger
carrying aeroplane:
(1) Each passageway between individual passenger areas, or leading to a Type I

or Type II emergency exit, shall be unobstructed and at least 20 inches wide.
(2) There shall be enough space next to each Type I or Type II emergency exit

to allow a crew member to assist in the evacuation of passengers without
reducing the unobstructed width of the passageway below that required in
paragraph (1) of this section.

(3) Then shall be access from the main aisle to each Type III and Type IV exit.
The access from the aisle to these exits shall not be obstructed by seats,
berths, or other protrusions in a manner that would reduce the effectiveness
of the exit. In addition, the access shall meet the emergency exit access
requirements under which the aeroplane was type certificated, unless the
Authority cites different requirements for compliance with this paragraph.

(4) If it is necessary to pass through a passageway between passenger
compartments to reach any required emergency exit from any seat in the
passenger cabin, the passageway shall not be obstructed. However, curtains
may be used if they allow free entry through the passageway.

(5) No door may be installed in any partition between passenger compartments.
(6) If it is necessary to pass through a doorway separating the passenger cabin

from other areas to reach any required emergency exit from any passenger
seat, the door shall have a means to latch it in open position, and the door
shall be latched open during each takeoff and landing. The latching means
shall be able to withstand the loads imposed upon it when the door is
subjected to the ultimate inertia forces, relative to the surrounding structure,
prescribed in the airworthiness standards for type certification in the
transport category as cited by the Authority.

CH.284 – 236] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(k) Each passenger emergency exit and the means of opening that exit from the
outside shall be marked on the outside of the aeroplane with a 2-inch coloured
band outlining the exit on the side of the fuselage.

(l) Each passenger emergency exit marking, including the band, shall be readily
distinguishable from the surrounding fuselage area by contrast in colour and
shall comply with the following:
(1) If the reflectance of the darker colour is 15 percent or less, the reflectance of

the lighter colour shall be at least 45 percent.
(2) If the reflectance of the darker colour is greater than 15 percent, at least a 30

percent difference between its reflectance and the reflectance of the lighter
colour shall be provided.
Note: “Reflectance” is the ratio of the luminous flux reflected by a body to the
luminous flux it receives.

(3) Exits that are not in the side of the fuselage shall have external means of
opening and applicable instructions marked conspicuously in red or, if red is
inconspicuous against the background colour, in bright chrome yellow and,
when the opening means for such an exit is located on only one side of the
fuselage, a conspicuous marking to that effect shall be provided on the other
side.

(m) Each passenger-carrying aeroplane shall be equipped with exterior lighting that
meets the requirements under which that aeroplane was type certificated, unless
the Authority cites different requirement for compliance with this paragraph.

(n) Each passenger-carrying aeroplane shall be equipped with a slip-resistant
escape route that meets the requirements under which that aeroplane was type
certificated, unless the Authority cites different requirements for compliance
with this paragraph.

(o) Each floor level door or exit in the side of the fuselage (other than those leading
into a cargo or baggage compartment that is not accessible from the passenger
cabin) that is 44 or more inches high and 20 or more inches wide, but not wider
than 46 inches, each passenger ventral exit and each tail cone exit, shall meet the
requirements of this section for floor level emergency exits.
Note: The Authority may grant a deviation from this paragraph if he finds that
circumstances make full compliance impractical and that an acceptable level of
safety has been achieved.

(p) Approved emergency exits in the passenger compartments that are in excess of the
minimum number of required emergency exits shall meet all of the applicable
provisions of this subsection section and shall be readily accessible.

(q) On each large passenger-carrying turbojet powered aeroplane each ventral exit
and tail cone exit shall be —
(1) Designed and constructed so that it cannot be opened during flight; and
(2) Marked with a placard readable from a distance of 30 inches and installed

at a conspicuous location near the means of opening the exit, stating that the
exit has been designed and constructed so that it cannot be opened during
flight.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 237






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

APPENDIX 1 TO 7.270
SUPPLEMENTAL OXYGEN — NON-PRESSURIZED

AIRCRAFT
(r) The supplemental oxygen supply requirements for non-pressurized aircraft are

as follows:
(1) Flight crew members. Each member of the flight crew on flight deck duty

shall be supplied with supplemental oxygen in accordance with Table 1. If all
occupants of flight deck seats are supplied from the flight crew source of
oxygen supply then they shall be considered as flight crew members on flight
deck duty for the purpose of oxygen supply.

(2) Cabin crew members, additional crew members and passengers. Cabin crew
members and passengers shall be supplied with oxygen in accordance with
Table 1. Cabin crew members carried in addition to the minimum number of
cabin crew members required, and additional crew members, shall be
considered as passengers for the purpose of oxygen supply.

Table 1 — Supplemental Oxygen for Non-Pressurized Aeroplanes
(a) (b)
SUPPLY FOR: DURATION AND PRESSURE

ALTITUDE
1. All occupants of flight deck seats
on flight deck duty

Entire flight time at pressure altitudes
above 10,000 feet

2. All required cabin crew members Entire flight time at pressure altitudes
above 13,000 ft and for any period
exceeding 30 minutes at pressure
altitudes above 10,000 ft but not
exceeding 13,000 ft

3. 100% of passengers Entire flight time at pressure altitudes
above 13,000 ft

7. 10% of passengers Entire flight time after 30 minutes at
pressure altitudes greater than 10,000
ft but not exceeding 13,000 ft


APPENDIX 2 TO 7.270

SUPPLEMENTAL OXYGEN — PRESSURIZED AIRCRAFT
(a) The supplemental oxygen supply requirements for pressurized aircraft are as

follows:
(1) The amount of supplemental oxygen required shall be determined on the

basis of cabin pressure altitude, flight duration and the assumption that a
cabin pressurisation failure will occur at the altitude or point of flight that is
most critical from the standpoint of oxygen need, and that, after the failure,
the aeroplane will descend in accordance with emergency procedures
specified in the Aeroplane Flight Manual to a safe altitude for the route to
be flown that will allow continued safe flight and landing.

CH.284 – 238] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(2) Following a cabin pressurisation failure, the cabin pressure altitude shall be
considered the same as the aeroplane altitude, unless it is demonstrated to
the Authority that no probable failure of the cabin or pressurisation system
will result in a cabin pressure altitude equal to the aeroplane altitude.
Under these circumstances, this lower cabin pressure altitude may be used as
a basis for determination of oxygen supply.

(3) Flight crew members.
(i) Each member of the flight crew on flight deck duty shall be supplied

with supplemental oxygen in accordance with Table 2. If all occupants
of flight deck seats are supplied from the flight crew source of oxygen
supply then they shall be considered as flight crew members on flight
deck duty for the purpose of oxygen supply. Flight deck seat occupants,
not supplied by the flight crew source, are to be considered as
passengers for the purpose of oxygen supply.

(4) Cabin crew members, additional crew members, and passengers.
(i) Cabin crew members and passengers shall be supplied with

supplemental oxygen in accordance with Table 2. Cabin crew members
carried in addition to the minimum number of cabin crew members
required, and additional crew members, shall be considered as
passengers for the purpose of oxygen supply.

(ii) The oxygen supply requirements, as specified in Table 2, for aeroplanes
not certificated to fly at altitudes above 25,000 ft, may be reduced to the
entire flight time between 10,000 ft and 14,000 ft cabin pressure altitudes
for all required cabin crew members and for at least 10% of the passengers
if, at all points along the route to be flown, the aeroplane is able to descend
safely within 4 minutes to a cabin pressure altitude of 14,000 ft.

Table 2 — Requirements for Supplemental Oxygen — Pressurized Aeroplane During
and Following Emergency Descent (Note 1)
SUPPLY FOR: DURATION AND CABIN PRESSURE

ALTITUDE
1. All occupants of flight deck seats on
flight deck duty flight

Entire flight time when the cabin pressure
altitude exceeds 13,000 and entire time
when the cabin pressure altitude exceeds
10,000 ft but does not exceed 13,000 ft
after the first 30 minutes at those
altitudes, but in no case less than:

(i) 30 minutes for aeroplanes certificated
to fly at altitudes not exceeding 25,000 ft
(Note 2).

(ii) 2 hours for aeroplanes certificated to
fly at altitudes more than 25,000 ft (Note
3).

2. All required cabin crew members Entire flight time when cabin pressure
altitude exceeds 13,000 ft but not less
than 30 minutes (Note 2), and entire flight
time when cabin pressure altitude is
greater than 10,000 ft but does not exceed
13,000 ft after the first 30 minutes at
these altitudes.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 239






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS



SUPPLY FOR: DURATION AND CABIN PRESSURE
ALTITUDE

3. 100% of passengers 10 minutes or the entire flight time when the
cabin pressure altitude exceeds 15,000 ft
whichever is the greater (Note 4).

7. 30% of passengers Entire flight time when the cabin pressure
altitude exceeds 14,000 ft but does not exceed
15,000 ft.

5. 10% of passengers Entire flight time when the cabin pressure
altitude exceeds 10,000 ft but does not exceed
14,000 ft after the first 30 minutes at these
altitudes.


Note 1: The supply provided shall take account of the cabin pressure altitude and
descent profile for the routes concerned.
Note 2: The required minimum supply is that quantity of oxygen necessary for a
constant rate of descent from the aeroplane’s maximum certificated operating altitude
to 10,000 ft in 10 minutes and followed by 20 minutes of 10,000 ft.
Note 3: The required minimum supply is that quantity of oxygen necessary for a
constant rate of descent from the aeroplane’s maximum certificated operating altitude
to 10,000 ft in 10 minutes and followed by 110 minutes at 10,000 ft. The oxygen
required to meet the Crew Protective Breathing Equipment provisions of this Part may
be included in determining the supply required.
Note 4: The required minimum supply is that quantity of oxygen necessary for a
constant rate of descent from the aeroplane’s maximum certificated operating attitude
to 15,000 ft.

CH.284 – 240] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

SCHEDULE 8

PERSONNEL LICENSING
SUBPART A: GENERAL LICENSING REQUIREMENTS

Section I: General
8.001 Applicability
8.005 Definitions
8.010 Acronyms
Section II: Licences, Ratings, and Authorisations
8.015 Applicability
8.020 Licences Issued
8.025 Ratings Issued
8.030 Authorisations Issued
8.035 Duration of Licences, Ratings, and Authorisations
8.040 Temporary Licence or Rating
8.045 General Requirements: Personnel Licences, Ratings, and

Authorisations
Section III: Validation of Foreign and Military Licences and Ratings
8.050 Private Pilot Licence and Ratings Issued on the Basis of a

Foreign Pilot Licence
8.055 Military Pilots or Former Military Pilots: Special Rules
Section IV: General Testing and Training Requirements
8.060 Tests: General Procedure
8.065 Knowledge Test: Prerequisites and Passing Grades
8.070 Practical Tests: Prerequisites
8.075 Practical Tests: General Procedures
8.080 Practical Tests: Required Aircraft and Equipment
8.085 Retesting after Failure
8.090 Records of Training Time
8.095 Flight Training Received from Flight Instructors not

Licenced by the Authority
8.100 Limitations on the Use of Flight Simulators and Flight

Training Devices
8.105 Graduates of a Training Programme Approved under Other

Parts: Special Rules
SUBPART B: CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREW MEMBERS
Section I: Aircraft Ratings and Pilot Authorisations
8.110 General Requirement
8.115 Instrument Rating Requirements
8.120 Category Rating
8.125 Class Rating
8.130 Type Rating
8.135 Category II and III Pilot Authorisation Requirements
8.140 Special Purpose Pilot Authorisation: a Person who is not a

Citizen of The Bahamas

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 241






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS



Section II: Student Pilots
8.145 Applicability
8.150 Eligibility Requirements for Student Pilots
8.155 Application
8.160 Solo Requirements for Student Pilots
8.165 General Limitations
8.170 Solo Cross-Country Flight Requirements
Section III: Private Pilots
8.175 Applicability
8.180 Eligibility Requirements: General
8.185 Aeronautical Knowledge
8.190 Flight Proficiency
8.195 Aeronautical Experience
8.200 Cross-Country Flights: Pilots Based on Small Islands
8.205 Private Pilot Privileges and Limitations: Required Crew Member
8.210 Private Pilot with Balloon Rating: Limitations
Section IV: Commercial Pilots
8.215 Applicability
8.220 Eligibility requirements: General
8.225 Commercial Pilot: Aeronautical Knowledge Requirements
8.230 Commercial Pilot: Flight Proficiency Requirements
8.235 Commercial Pilot: Aeronautical Experience
8.240 Commercial Pilot Privileges and Limitations
Section V: Airline Transport Pilots
8.245 Applicability
8.250 Eligibility Requirements: General
8.255 Aeronautical Knowledge
8.260 Flight Proficiency
8.265 Aeronautical Experience: Aeroplane Category Rating
8.270 Aeronautical Experience: Rotorcraft Category and Helicopter Class

Rating
8.275 Aeronautical Experience: Powered-Lift Flight Time
8.280 Additional Aircraft Category, Class, and Type Ratings
8.285 Airline Transport Pilot Privileges
Section VI: Flight Instructors
8.290 Applicability
8.295 Eligibility Requirements
8.300 Aeronautical Knowledge
8.305 Flight Instructor: Areas of Operation for Flight Proficiency
8.310 Flight Instructor Records
8.315 Additional Flight Instructor Ratings
8.320 Flight Instructor Privileges
8.325 Flight Instructor Limitations and Qualifications
8.330 Renewal of Flight Instructor Licences
8.335 Expired Flight Instructor Licences and Ratings

CH.284 – 242] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002



Section VII: Flight Engineers
8.340 Applicability
8.345 Licences and Ratings Required
8.350 Special Purpose Flight Engineer Licence: a Person not a

Citizen of The Bahamas
8.355 Eligibility Requirements — General
8.360 Additional Aircraft Ratings
8.365 Knowledge Requirements
8.370 Aeronautical Experience Requirements
8.375 Skill Requirements
8.380 Flight Engineer Licence Issued on Basis of a Foreign Flight

Engineer Licence
SUBPART C: LICENSING: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREW-

MEMBERS
8.385 Applicability
Section l: Ground Instructors
8.390 Applicability
8.395 Eligibility Requirements
8.400 Ground Instructor Privileges
8.405 Currency Requirements
Section ll: Flight Operations Officers
8.410 Applicability
8.415 Eligibility Requirements: General
8.420 Knowledge Requirements
8.425 Experience or Training Requirements
8.430 Skill Requirements
Section III: Aviation Maintenance Technicians
8.435 Applicability
8.440 Eligibility Requirements: General
8.445 Ratings
8.450 Aircraft Rating: Knowledge Requirements
8.455 Experience Requirements
8.460 Skill Requirements
8.465 ATO Students
8.470 AMT Privileges and Limitations
8.475 Recent Experience Requirements
Section IV: Inspection Authorisations
8.480 Applicability
8.485 Eligibility Requirements: General
8.490 Inspection Authorisation: Duration
8.495 Renewal of Authorisation
8.500 Privileges and Limitations
Section V: Aviation Repair Specialists
8.505 Applicability
8.510 Aviation Repair Specialist Licences: Eligibility
8.515 Ratings

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 243






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS



8.520 Aviation Repair Specialist Licences: Privileges And Limitations
8.525 Aviation Repair Specialist Licence: Experimental Aircraft

Builder — Eligibility, Privileges and Limitations
8.530 Aviation Repair Specialist Licences: Experimental Aircraft

Builder — Ratings
Section VI: Parachute Riggers
8.535 Applicability
8.540 Eligibility Requirements: General
8.545 Licence Required
8.550 Senior Parachute Rigger Licence: Experience, Knowledge,

and Skill Requirements
8.555 Master Parachute Rigger Licence: Experience, Knowledge,

and Skill Requirements
8.560 Type Ratings
8.565 Additional Type Ratings: Requirements
8.570 Privileges
8.575 Facilities and Equipment
8.580 Performance Standards
8.585 Records
8.590 Seal
Section VI: Air Traffic Controllers
8.595 Applicability
8.600 Required Licences, and Rating or Qualification
8.605 Eligibility Requirements: General
8.610 Knowledge Requirements
8.615 Skill Requirements: Operating Positions
8.620 Practical Experience Requirements: Facility Rating
8.625 Skill Requirements: Facility Ratings
8.630 Privileges and Limitations
8.635 Maximum Hours
8.640 Currency Requirements
SUBPART D: MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION
Section I: General
8.645 Applicability
8.650 Medical Records
8.655 Aviation Medical Examiner: Definition and Authority
8.660 Delegation of Authority
Section II: Medical Certification Procedures
8.665 Applicability
8.670 Issuance of Medical Certificate
8.675 Medical Certificate Requirements
8.680 Duration of a Medical Certificate
8.685 Special Issuance of Medical Certificate
8.690 Renewal of Medical Certificate
8.695 Denial of Medical Certificate

CH.284 – 244] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002



Section III: Physical and Mental Standards — All Medical Certificates
8.700 Applicability
8.705 General Medical Requirements
8.710 Mental Standards
8.715 Visual Requirements
8.720 Auditory Requirements
8.725 Cardiovascular
8.730 Neurological Requirements
8.735 Other Disqualifying Physical Conditions
Section IV: Class 1 Medical Certificate
8.740 Applicability
8.745 Eligibility
8.750 Additional Visual Requirements
8.755 Additional Auditory Requirements
8.760 Additional Cardiovascular Requirements
Section V: Class 2 Medical Certificate
8.765 Applicability
8.770 Eligibility
8.775 Additional Visual Requirements
8.780 Additional Auditory Requirements


APPENDICES
Appendix 1 to 8.045: General Pilot Training Requirements
Appendix 1 to 8.055: Military Pilots or Former Military Pilots: Special Rules
Appendix 1 to 8.070: Prerequisites for Practical Tests
Appendix 1 to 8.080: Practical Tests: Required Aircraft, Simulation, and Equipment
Appendix 1 to 8.090: Records of Training Time
Appendix 1 to 8.100: Use of an Approved Flight Simulator or an Approved Flight

Training Device
Appendix 1 to 8.115: Instrument Rating Requirements
Appendix 1 to 8.135: Additional Requirements for Category II and Category III Pilot

Authorisations
Appendix 1 to 8.140: Special Purpose Pilot Authorisation: Operation of Civil Aircraft

Registered by the Authority Leased by a Person who is not a Citizen of The
Bahamas

Appendix 1 to 8.160: Manoeuvres and Procedures for Pre-Solo Flight Training
Appendix 1 to 8.170: Manoeuvres and Procedures for Cross-Country Flight Training
Appendix 1 to 8.185: Private Pilot Aeronautical Knowledge Areas
Appendix 1 to 8.195: Private Pilot Aeronautical Experience Requirements
Appendix 1 to 8.225: Commercial Pilot Aeronautical Knowledge Areas
Appendix 1 to 8.230: Commercial Pilot Flight Training Proficiency Requirements
Appendix 1 to 8.235: Commercial Pilot Aeronautical Experience Requirements
Appendix 1 to 8.255: Airline Transport Pilot: Aeronautical Knowledge Areas
Appendix 1 to 8.260: Airline Transport Pilot: Flight Proficiency
Appendix 1 to 8.305: Flight Instructor Areas of Operation for Flight Proficiency
Appendix 1 to 8.325: Flight Instructor Limitations and Qualifications

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 245






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

Appendix 1 to 8.380: Special Purpose Flight Engineer Licence and Flight Engineer
Licence Issued on Basis of a Foreign Flight Engineer Licence

Appendix 1 to 8.400: Ground Instructor Privileges
Appendix 1 to 8.675: Requirement for Licences, Ratings, and Authorisations

SUBPART A
GENERAL LICENSING REQUIREMENTS

Section I: General
8.001 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Schedule prescribes —

(1) The requirements for issuing airman licences, and ratings; and authorisa-
tions to those licences, as applicable;

(2) The conditions under which those licences, ratings, and authorisations are
necessary; and

(3) The privileges and limitations of holders of those licences, ratings, and
authorisations.

8.005 DEFINITIONS
(a) For the purpose of This Schedule, the following definitions shall apply —

(1) Accredited medical conclusion. The conclusion reached by one or more
medical experts acceptable to the Licensing Authority for the purposes of
the case concerned, in consultation with other experts as necessary.

(2) Advanced flight training device. A flight training device that has a
cockpit that accurately replicates a specific make, model, and type aircraft
cockpit, and handling characteristics that accurately model the aircraft
handling characteristics.

(3) Aviation Maintenance Technician. A person approved by the Authority
to perform defined maintenance upon aeronautical products; the term
“aviation maintenance technician” as used herein can include persons
similarly qualified by other Contracting States and referred to as “licenced
mechanic,” “certificated (certified) mechanic,” “aviation maintenance
engineer,” or by other terms, all of which mean an aviation maintenance
licence holder.

(4) Complex aeroplane. An aeroplane having retractable landing gear (except
in seaplanes), flaps, and a controllable propeller.

(5) Core curriculum. A set of courses approved by the Authority, for use by
an ATO and its satellite ATOs. The core curriculum consists of training
that is required for licensing or aircraft ratings. It does not include training
for tasks and circumstances unique to a particular user.

(6) Flight training equipment. Flight simulators, flight training devices, and
aircraft.

(7) High-performance aeroplane. An aeroplane with an engine of more than
200 horsepower.

(8) Operating position. An air traffic control function performed within or
directly associated with a control facility.

CH.284 – 246] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(9) Psychosis. A mental disorder in which the individual has manifested
delusions, hallucinations, grossly bizarre or disorganised behaviour, or
other commonly accepted symptoms of this condition; or the individual
may reasonably be expected to manifest delusions, hallucinations, grossly
bizarre or disorganised behaviour, or other commonly accepted symptoms
of this condition.

(10) Substance abuse. Refers to —
(i) The use of a substance in a situation in which that use was physically

hazardous, if there has been at any other time an instance of the use of a
substance also in a situation in which that use was physically hazardous;

(ii) A verified positive drug test result acquired under an anti-drug program
or internal program of The Bahamas government; or

(iii) Misuse of a substance that the Authority, based on case history and
qualified medical judgement relating to the substance involved, finds
makes the applicant unable to safely perform the duties or exercise
the privileges of the airman certificate applied for or held; or may
reasonably be expected, for the maximum duration of the airman
medical certificate applied for or held, to make the applicant unable
to perform those duties or exercise those privileges.

(11) Substance dependence. A condition in which a person is dependent on a
substance, other than tobacco or ordinary xanthine-containing (e.g.,
caffeine) beverages, as evidenced by increased tolerance; manifestation of
withdrawal symptoms; impaired control of use; or continued use despite
damage to physical health or impairment of social, personal, or
occupational functioning.

(12) Substance. Alcohol, sedatives, hypnotics, anxiolytics, hallucinogens,
opioids, cannabis, inhalants, central nervous system stimulants such as
cocaine, amphetamines, and similarly acting sympathomimetics, phency-
clidine or similarly acting arylcyclohexylamines, and other psychoactive
drugs and chemicals.

8.010 ACRONYMS
(a) The following acronyms are used in This Schedule:

(1) AME — Aviation Medical Examiner
(2) AMO — Approved Maintenance Organisation
(3) AMT — Aviation Maintenance Technician
(4) AOC — Air Operator Certificate
(5) ARS — Aviation Repair Specialist
(6) ATO — Aviation Training Organisation
(7) cm — centimetre(s)
(8) dB — decibels (relative to as 1 microPascal)
(9) IA — Inspection Authorisation
(10) IFR — Instrument Flight Rules
(11) ICAO — International Civil Aviation Organisation (Civil Aviation Law)
(12) PIC — Pilot In Command

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 247






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(13) SIC — Second In Command
(14) VFR — Visual Flight Rules

Section II: Licences, Ratings, and Authorisations
8.015 APPLICABILITY
(a) This section describes the licences, ratings and pilot authorisations issued by

the Authority and prescribes the requirements for testing and validating such
licences, ratings, and authorisations.

8.020 LICENCES ISSUED
(a) The Authority may issue the following licences under this Schedule —

(1) Pilot licences —
(i) Student pilot;

(ii) Private pilot;
(iii) Commercial pilot; and
(iv) Airline transport pilot.

(2) Flight instructor licence.
(3) Ground instructor licence.
(4) Flight engineer licence.
(5) Air traffic controller licence.
(6) Senior parachute rigger licence.
(7) Master parachute rigger licence.
(8) AMT licence.
(9) ARS licences.
(10) Flight operations officer licence.
(11) Flight attendant (Reserved).

8.025 RATINGS ISSUED
(a) The Authority may issue the following ratings for pilots —

(1) Category ratings in the following aircraft:
(i) Aeroplane.

(ii) Rotorcraft.
(iii) Glider.
(iv) Lighter-than-air.
(v) Power lift.

Note: ICAO Annex 1, Section 2.1, uses the terms “aeroplane, helicopter, glider,
and free balloon” as basic categories. The terms used above more accurately
represents the diversity of aircraft in normal use today, and will be used in this
Part.
(2) Class ratings in the following aeroplanes:

(i) Single-engine, land.
(ii) Single-engine, sea.

CH.284 – 248] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(iii) Multi-engine, land.
(iv) Multi-engine, sea.

(3) Class ratings in the following rotorcraft:
(i) Helicopter.
(ii) Gyroplane.

(4) Class ratings in the following lighter-than-air aircraft:
(i) Airship.
(ii) Free balloon.

(5) Type ratings in the following aircraft:
(i) Large aircraft, other than lighter-than-air.
(ii) Small turbojet powered aeroplanes.
(iii) Small helicopters for operations requiring an airline transport

certificate.
(iv) Aircraft certified for at least two pilots.
(v) Any aircraft considered necessary by the Authority.

(6) Instrument ratings in the following aircraft:
(i) Instrument — Aeroplane.
(ii) Instrument — Helicopter.

(b) The Authority may place the category, class, or type rating on a pilot licence
when issuing that licence, provided the rating reflects the appropriate category,
class, or type aircraft used to demonstrate skill and knowledge for its issuance.

(c) The Authority may issue the following ratings for flight engineers:
(1) Reciprocating engine powered;
(2) Turbopropeller powered; and
(3) Turbojet powered.

(d) The Authority may issue a facility rating for air traffic controllers.
(e) The Authority may issue the following ratings for AMTs:

(1) Airframe.
(2) Powerplant.
(3) Aircraft type ratings for aircraft with a takeoff gross weight of more than

5700 kg.
(4) Powerplant type ratings for powerplants on aircraft with a takeoff gross

weight of more than 5700 kg.
(5) Other specialized ratings as may be determined by the Authority.

(f) The Authority may issue the following ratings for ARSs:
(1) Propellers.
(2) Avionics.
(3) Instrument.
(4) Computer.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 249






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(5) Accessories.
(6) Experimental Aircraft Builder.

(g) The Authority may issue the following type ratings for parachute riggers:
(1) Seat.
(2) Back.
(3) Chest.
(4) Lap.

8.030 AUTHORISATIONS ISSUED
(a) The Authority may issue the following authorisations under this Schedule —

(1) Category II pilot authorisation.
(2) Category III pilot authorisation.
(3) Special purpose pilot authorisation.
(4) Special purpose flight engineer authorisation.
(5) AMT Inspection Authorisation.

8.035 DURATION OF LICENCES, RATINGS, AND
AUTHORISATIONS

(a) Except as shown in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d), the Authority issues all licences
without a specific expiration date.

(b) Student pilot licence. A student pilot licence expires 24 calendar months from the
month in which it is issued.

(c) Flight instructor licence. A flight instructor licence expires 24 calendar months
from the month in which it is issued and is effective only while the holder has a
valid pilot licence.

(d) Category II and III Pilot Authorisation. A Category II or III pilot authorisation
expires at the end of the sixth calendar month after the month in which it was
issued or renewed.

(e) Aviation Maintenance Technician Licence/Aviation Repair Specialist licence.
Except for an aviation repair specialist licence, all licences and ratings issued
under this Subpart are effective until surrendered, suspended, or revoked. An
aviation repair specialist licence issued on the basis of employment is effective
until the holder of that licence is relieved from the duties for which the holder
was employed and licenced.
Note: An aviation repair specialist licence with a rating of experimental
aircraft builder issued on the basis of being the primary builder of the
aircraft is effective until the holder of that licence is no longer the primary
builder of the experimental aircraft specifically identified on the licence.

(f) Inspection Authorisation. Each Inspection Authorisation expires on the last day
of the 12th month after the date of issuance.

8.040 TEMPORARY LICENCE OR RATING
(a) The Authority may issue a temporary airman licence or rating for up to 120

days, at which time the Authority will issue a permanent licence to a person
whom the Authority finds qualified under this Schedule.

CH.284 – 250] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) A temporary airman licence or rating expires —
(1) On the expiration date shown on the licence;
(2) Upon receipt of the permanent licence; or
(3) Upon receipt of a notice that the licence or rating sought is denied or

revoked.
8.045 GENERAL REQUIREMENTS: PERSONNEL LICENCES, RATINGS,

AND AUTHORISATIONS
(a) The Authority may issue to an applicant who cannot comply with certain

eligibility requirements or areas of operations required for the issue of a licence
because of physical limitations, or for other reasons, a licence, rating, or
authorisation with an appropriate limitation provided the —
(1) Applicant is able to meet all other certification requirements for the licence,

rating, or authorisation sought;
(2) Physical limitation, if any, has been recorded with the Authority on the

applicant’s medical records; and
(3) Authority determines that the applicant’s inability to perform the particular

area of operation will not adversely affect safety.
(b) The Authority may remove a limitation placed on a person’s licence provided

that person demonstrates to an examiner or inspector satisfactory proficiency in
the area of operation to which the limitation applies, or otherwise shows
compliance with conditions to remove the limitation, as applicable.

(c) No person may act as a required pilot of a civil aircraft of foreign registry within
The Bahamas, unless that person’s pilot licence was issued under This Schedule,
or was issued or validated by the country in which the aircraft is registered.

(d) No person may act as a pilot, flight instructor, required flight crew member, or
air traffic controller unless that person holds an appropriate and current medical
certificate issued under this Part, or other documentation acceptable to the
Authority.

(e) Flight instructor licence.
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (e)(2) of this subsection, no person other

than the holder of a flight instructor licence with appropriate rating may —
(i) Give training required to qualify a person for solo flight and solo cross-

country flight;
(ii) Endorse an applicant for a pilot, flight instructor, or ground instructor

licence or rating issued under this part;
(iii) Endorse a pilot logbook to show training given; or
(iv) Endorse a student pilot licence and logbook for solo operating

privileges.
(2) The following instructors do not have to hold a flight instructor

licence —
(i) The holder of a commercial pilot licence with a lighter-than-air rating,

provided the training is given in a lighter-than-air aircraft;
(ii) The holder of an airline transport pilot licence with appropriate ratings,

provided the training is conducted in accordance with an approved air
carrier training program;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 251






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(iii) A person who is qualified in accordance with Schedule 9, provided the
training is conducted in accordance with an approved training program;

(iv) A flight instructor, not licenced by the Authority; or
(v) The holder of a ground instructor licence in accordance with the

privileges of the licence.
(f) No person may act as the PIC of an aircraft unless that person holds the

appropriate category, class, and type rating (if a class rating and type rating is
required) for the aircraft to be flown, except where the pilot is the sole occupant
of the aircraft, or —
(1) Is receiving training for the purpose of obtaining an additional pilot licence

or rating that is appropriate to that aircraft while under the supervision of
an authorised instructor; or

(2) Has received training required by this Part that is appropriate to the aircraft
category, class, and type rating (if a class or type rating is required) for the
aircraft to be flown, and has received the required endorsements from an
authorised instructor.

(g) A pilot may not act as PIC of an aircraft that is carrying another person, or is
operated for compensation or hire, unless that pilot holds a category, class, and
type rating (if a class and type rating is required) that applies to the aircraft.
Note: This subsection does not require a category and class rating for an aircraft
not type certified as an aeroplane, rotorcraft, glider, powered-lift, or lighter-than-
air aircraft.

(h) Except as provided in paragraph (i) of this subsection, no person may act as PIC
of a complex aeroplane, high-performance aeroplane, or a pressurised aircraft
capable of flight above 25,000 feet MSL, or an aircraft that the Authority has
determined requires aircraft type-specific training unless the person has —
(1) Received and logged ground and flight training from an authorised

instructor in the applicable aeroplane type, or in an approved flight
simulator or approved flight training device that is representative of
that, and has been found proficient in the operation and systems of that
aeroplane; and

(2) Received a one-time endorsement in the pilot’s logbook from an authorised
instructor who certifies the person is proficient to operate that aircraft.

(i) The training and endorsement required by paragraph (h) of this subsection is
not required if the person has logged flight time as PIC of that type of aircraft,
or in an approved flight simulator or approved flight training device that is
representative of such an aircraft, prior to [the effective date of the rule].

(j) Additional training required for operating tailwheel aeroplanes. Except as
provided in paragraph (j)(3) of this subsection, no person may act as PIC of a
tailwheel aeroplane unless that person has:
(1) Received and logged flight training from an authorised instructor in a

tailwheel aeroplane on the manoeuvres and procedures listed in paragraph
(j)(2) of this subsection.

(2) Received an endorsement in the person’s logbook from an authorised
instructor who found the person proficient in the operation of a tailwheel
aeroplane, to include at least normal and crosswind takeoffs and landings,


CH.284 – 252] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

wheel landings (unless the manufacturer has recommended against
such landings), and go-around procedures.

(3) The training and endorsement required by this subsection is not required if
the person logged PIC time in a tailwheel aeroplane before [the effective date
of this rule].

See Appendix 2 to 8.045 for details on additional requirements and exemptions to
the training requirements of this subsection.

Section III: Validation of Foreign and Military Licences and Ratings
8.050 PRIVATE PILOT LICENCE AND RATINGS ISSUED ON THE BASIS OF

A FOREIGN PILOT LICENCE
(a) General. A person who holds a current pilot licence issued by another

Contracting State may apply for and be issued a private pilot licence with
the appropriate ratings, unless otherwise permitted in paragraph (f) of this
subsection, without any further showing of proficiency if the applicant —
(1) Is not under an order of revocation or suspension by the country that issued

the pilot licence;
(2) Holds a licence that does not contain an endorsement stating that the

applicant has not met all of the standards of ICAO for that licence;
(3) Does not currently hold a pilot licence issued by the Authority;
(4) Holds a current medical certificate issued under This Schedule or a current

medical certificate issued by the country that issued the applicant’s pilot
licence; and

(5) Is able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language.
(b) Aircraft ratings issued. The Authority may place upon a pilot’s licence which it

issues the aircraft ratings listed on that pilot’s foreign pilot licence.
(c) Instrument ratings issued. The Authority may issue an instrument rating on a

pilot licence to a person who holds an instrument rating on a licence issued by
another Contracting State provided —
(1) Within 24 months preceding the month in which the person applies for the

instrument rating, the applicant passes the appropriate knowledge test; and
(2) The applicant is able to read, speak, write, and understand the English

language.
(d) Operating privileges and limitations. A person who receives a pilot licence under

the provisions of this subsection —
(1) May act as a pilot of a civil aircraft of Bahamian registry in accordance with

the private pilot privileges authorised by This Schedule;
(2) Shall be limited to the privileges placed on the licence by the Authority;
(3) Shall be subject to the limitations and restrictions on the person’s licence

issued by the Authority and foreign pilot licence when exercising the
privileges of that pilot licence in an aircraft of Bahamian registry; and

(4) Shall not exercise the privileges of the pilot licence issued by the Authority
when the person’s foreign pilot licence has been revoked or suspended.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 253






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(e) Provision for issue of a licence on the basis of a foreign licence.
(1) An applicant may use only one foreign pilot licence as a basis for obtaining

a pilot licence issued by the Authority.
(2) An applicant for a licence under this subsection shall provide a foreign pilot

licence and medical certification in the English language or accompanied
by an English language transcription that has been signed by an official or
representative of the foreign aviation authority that issued the foreign pilot
licence.

(3) The Authority will place upon a pilot licence issued under this subsection
the pilot’s foreign licence number and country of issuance.

(f) The Authority may issue licences other than a private licence, or other ratings,
or both, based on an arrangement with another authority.

8.055 MILITARY PILOTS OR FORMER MILITARY PILOTS: SPECIAL
RULES

(a) Except for a rated military pilot or former rated military pilot who has been
removed from flying status for lack of proficiency, or because of disciplinary
action involving aircraft operations, a rated military pilot or former rated
military pilot who meets the requirements prescribed by the Authority may
apply, on the basis of his or her military training, for —
(1) A commercial pilot licence;
(2) An aircraft rating in the category and class of aircraft for which that military

pilot is qualified;
(3) An instrument rating with the appropriate aircraft rating for which that

military pilot is qualified; and
(4) A type rating, if appropriate.
See Appendix 1 to 8.055 for requirements concerning military pilots and former
military pilots.

Section IV: General Testing and Training Requirements
8.060 TESTS: GENERAL PROCEDURE
(a) Tests prescribed by or under This Schedule are given at times and places, and by

persons designated by the Authority.
8.065 KNOWLEDGE TEST: PREREQUISITES AND PASSING GRADES
(a) An applicant for a knowledge test shall have —

(1) Received an endorsement from an authorised instructor certifying that the
applicant accomplished a ground-training or a home-study course required
by This Schedule for the licence or rating sought and is prepared for the
knowledge test; and

(2) Proper identification at the time of application that contains the
applicant’s —

(i) Photograph;
(ii) Signature;

(iii) Date of birth, which shows the applicant meets or will meet the
age requirements of This Schedule for the licence sought before
the expiration date of the airman knowledge test report; and

CH.284 – 254] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(iv) Actual residential address, if different from the applicant’s mailing
address.

(b) The Authority will specify the minimum passing grade for the knowledge test.
8.070 PRACTICAL TEST: PREREQUISITES
(a) To be eligible for a practical test, an applicant shall meet all applicable

requirements for the licence or rating sought.
See Appendix 1 to 8.070 for the eligibility requirements of a practical test.

(b) If an applicant does not complete all increments of a practical test for a licence
or rating on one date, the applicant shall complete all remaining increments of
the test not more than 60 calendar days after that date.

(c) If an applicant does not satisfactorily complete all increments of the practical
test for a licence or a rating within 60 calendar days after beginning the test, the
applicant shall retake the entire practical test, including those increments
satisfactorily completed.

8.075 PRACTICAL TESTS: GENERAL PROCEDURES
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, the Authority will

determine an applicant’s ability to hold a licence or rating issued under this
Subpart based upon the applicant’s ability to safely perform the following
during a practical test —
(1) Perform the tasks specified in the areas of operation for the licence or rating

sought within the prescribed standards;
(2) Demonstrate mastery of the aircraft with the successful outcome of each

task —
(i) Never seriously in doubt for the private pilot and commercial pilot

tests; and
(ii) Never in doubt for the airline transport pilot licence and aircraft type

rating tests;
(3) Demonstrate sound judgement; and
(4) Demonstrate single-pilot competence if the aircraft is type certified for

single-pilot operations.
(b) If an applicant does not demonstrate proficiency without the aid of a SIC pilot,

the Authority will place the limitation, “SIC Required” on the applicant’s
airman licence. The applicant may remove the limitation by passing the
appropriate practical test and by demonstrating single-pilot competency in that
aircraft.

(c) If an applicant fails any area of operation, that applicant fails the practical test.
(d) An applicant is not eligible for a licence or rating sought until all the areas of

operation are passed.
(e) The examiner or the applicant may discontinue a practical test at any time —

(1) When the applicant fails one or more of the areas of operation; or
(2) Due to inclement weather conditions, aircraft airworthiness, or any other

safety-of-flight concern.
(f) If a practical test is discontinued, the Authority may give the applicant credit

for those areas of operation already passed, but only if the applicant —

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 255






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(1) Passes the remainder of the practical test within the 60-day period after the
date the practical test was begun;

(2) Presents to the examiner for the retest the original notice of disapproval
form or the letter of discontinuance form, as appropriate;

(3) Satisfactorily accomplishes any additional training needed and obtains the
appropriate instructor endorsements, if additional training is required.

8.080 PRACTICAL TESTS: REQUIRED AIRCRAFT AND EQUIPMENT
(a) Except when permitted to accomplish the entire flight increment of the practical

test in an approved flight simulator or an approved flight training device, an
applicant for a licence or rating issued under this Schedule shall furnish an
aircraft with the necessary equipment and controls.
See Appendix 1 to 8.080 for required equipment and controls for practical tests.

8.085 RETESTING AFTER FAILURE
(a) An applicant for a knowledge or practical test who fails that test may reapply for

the test only after the applicant has received —
(1) The necessary training from an authorised instructor who has determined

that the applicant is proficient to pass the test; and
(2) An endorsement from an authorised instructor who gave the applicant the

additional training.
(b) An applicant for a flight instructor licence with an aeroplane category rating or,

for a flight instructor licence with a glider category rating, who has failed the
practical test due to deficiencies in instructional proficiency on stall awareness,
spin entry, spins, or spin recovery shall —
(1) Comply with the requirements of paragraph (a) of this subsection before

being retested;
(2) Bring an aircraft to the retest that is of the appropriate aircraft category for

the rating sought and is certified for spins; and
(3) Demonstrate satisfactory instructional proficiency on stall awareness, spin

entry, spins, and spin recovery to an examiner during the retest.
8.090 RECORDS OF TRAINING TIME
(a) Each person shall document and record the following time in a manner

acceptable to the Authority:
(1) Training and aeronautical experience used to meet the requirements for a

licence, rating, qualification, authorisation, or flight review of This
Schedule.

(2) The aeronautical experience required to show recent flight experience
requirements of these Schedules.

See Appendix 1 to 8.090 for flight time to be recorded.
8.095 FLIGHT TRAINING RECEIVED FROM FLIGHT

INSTRUCTORS NOT LICENCED BY THE AUTHORITY
(a) A person may credit flight training toward the requirements of a pilot licence or

rating if that person received the training from —
(1) A flight instructor of an Armed Force in a program for training military

pilots of either —

CH.284 – 256] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(i) The Bahamas; or
(ii) Another Contracting State; or

(2) A flight instructor authorised to give such training by the licensing authority
of a Contracting State, provided that the flight training is given outside The
Bahamas.

(b) A flight instructor described in paragraph (a) of this subsection is authorised to
give only the endorsements to show training given.

8.100 LIMITATIONS ON THE USE OF FLIGHT
SIMULATORS AND FLIGHT TRAINING DEVICES

(a) Except as specified in paragraphs (b) or (c) of this subsection, no airman may
receive credit for use of any flight simulator or flight training device for
satisfying any training, testing, or checking requirement of this part unless that
flight simulator or flight training device is approved by the Authority for —
(1) The training, testing, and checking for which it is used;
(2) Each particular manoeuvre, procedure, or crew member function per-

formed; and
(3) The representation of the specific category and class of aircraft, type of

aircraft, particular variation within the type of aircraft, or set of aircraft for
certain flight training devices.

(b) The Authority will consider as a flight training device any device used for flight
training, testing, or checking that the Authority has accepted or approved prior
[date of adoption of this rule], which any user can show to function as originally
designed, provided it is used for the same purposes for which it was originally
accepted or approved and only to the extent of such acceptance or approval.

(c) The Authority may approve a device other than a flight training simulator or
flight training device for specific purposes.
See Appendix 1 to 8.100 for requirements on the use of approved simulators and
flight training devices.

8.105 GRADUATES OF A TRAINING PROGRAMME APPROVED UNDER
OTHER PARTS: SPECIAL RULES

(a) The Authority will consider that a person who presents a graduation certificate
from a certificate holder under Schedule 9 and within 60 days after the date of
graduation, is considered to have met the applicable aeronautical experience and
aeronautical knowledge and areas of operation training requirements of this
Schedule appropriate to the rating sought.

SUBPART B
CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREW MEMBERS

Section I: Aircraft Ratings and Pilot Authorisations
8.110 GENERAL REQUIREMENT
(a) To be eligible for an aircraft rating or authorisation to a pilot licence, an

applicant shall meet the appropriate requirements of this Section for the aircraft
rating or authorisation sought.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 257






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

8.115 INSTRUMENT RATING REQUIREMENTS
(a) An applicant for an instrument rating shall —

(1) Hold a pilot licence with an aircraft category and class rating for the
instrument rating sought;

(2) Receive a logbook or training record endorsement from an authorised
instructor certifying that the person is prepared to take the required
practical test;

(3) Pass the required knowledge test on the aeronautical knowledge areas,
unless the applicant already holds an instrument rating in another category;
and

(4) Pass the required practical test on the areas of operation in —
(i) The aircraft category, class, and type, if applicable, appropriate to the

rating sought; or
(ii) A flight simulator or a flight training device appropriate to the rating

sought and approved for the specific manoeuvre or procedure
performed.

(b) Aeronautical knowledge. An applicant for an instrument rating shall have
received and logged ground training from an authorised instructor on the areas
of aeronautical knowledge that apply to the instrument rating.

(c) Flight proficiency. An applicant for an instrument rating shall receive and log
training from an authorised instructor in an aircraft, or in an approved flight
simulator or approved flight training device, in accordance with paragraph (e) of
this subsection.

(d) Aeronautical experience. An applicant for an instrument rating shall have logged
the required aeronautical experience shown in the implementing standard for
this subsection.

(e) Use of approved flight simulators or approved flight training devices. If the
instrument training was provided by an authorised instructor in an approved
flight simulator or an approved flight training device, an applicant may
perform —
(1) A maximum of 30 hours in that flight simulator or flight training device if

the training was accomplished in accordance with a training program
approved under Schedule 9; or

(2) A maximum of 20 hours in that flight simulator or flight training device if
the training was not accomplished in accordance with a training program
approved under Schedule 9.

See Appendix 1 to 8.115 for additional requirements pertaining to the knowledge
test, practical test, aeronautical experience, and aeronautical knowledge areas that
apply to the instrument rating.

8.120 CATEGORY RATING
(a) A pilot seeking a category rating —

(1) Shall have received the required training and possess the aeronautical
experience prescribed by this part for the aircraft category and, if applicable,
class and type rating sought;

CH.284 – 258] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(2) Shall have an endorsement in his or her logbook or training record from
an authorised instructor that the applicant has been found competent in
the following areas, as appropriate to the pilot licence for the aircraft
category and, if applicable, class and type rating sought —
(i) Aeronautical knowledge areas;

(ii) Areas of operation;
(3) Shall pass the practical test applicable to the pilot licence for the aircraft

category and, if applicable, class and type rating sought; and
(4) Need not take an additional knowledge test, provided the applicant holds

an aeroplane, rotorcraft, powered-lift, or airship rating at that pilot licence
level.

8.125 CLASS RATING
(a) A pilot seeking an additional class rating —

(1) Shall have an endorsement in his or her logbook or training record from an
authorised instructor that the applicant has been found competent in the
following areas, as appropriate to the pilot licence and for the aircraft class
rating sought:
(i) Aeronautical knowledge areas;

(ii) Areas of operation;
(2) Shall pass the practical test applicable to the pilot licence for the aircraft

class rating sought;
(3) Need not meet the training time requirements prescribed by this Part for the

aircraft class rating sought; and
(4) Need not take an additional knowledge test, provided the applicant holds an

aeroplane, rotorcraft, powered-lift, or airship rating at that pilot licence
level.

8.130 TYPE RATING
(a) To act as a PIC of any of the following aircraft, a pilot shall hold a type rating

for that aircraft:
(1) Large aircraft (except lighter-than-air).
(2) Turbojet or turbofan powered aeroplanes.
(3) Other aircraft specified by the Authority through aircraft type certificate

procedures.
(b) Except as specified in paragraph (b)(6), a pilot seeking an aircraft type rating to

be added on a pilot licence, or the addition of an aircraft type rating that is
accomplished concurrently with an additional aircraft category or class rating —
(1) Shall hold or concurrently obtain an instrument rating that is appropriate to

the aircraft category, class, or type rating sought;
(2) Shall have an endorsement in his or her logbook or training record from an

authorised instructor that the applicant has been found competent in the
following areas, as appropriate to the pilot licence for the aircraft category,
class and type rating sought —

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 259






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(i) Aeronautical knowledge areas;
(ii) Areas of operation;

(3) Shall pass the practical test applicable to the pilot licence for the aircraft
category, class, and type rating sought;

(4) Except as provided for in paragraphs (e) and (f), shall perform the practical
test under instrument flight rules;

(5) Need not take an additional knowledge test, provided the applicant holds an
aeroplane, rotorcraft, powered-lift, or airship rating on their pilot licence;
and

(6) In the case of a pilot employee of an AOC holder, shall have —
(i) Met the appropriate requirements of paragraphs (b)(1), (4) and (5)

for the aircraft type rating sought; and
(ii) Received an endorsement in his or her flight training record from

the certificate holder certifying that the applicant has completed the
certificate holder’s approved ground and flight training program
appropriate to the aircraft type rating sought.

(c) An applicant for a type rating who provides an aircraft not capable of the
instrument manoeuvres and procedures required by the appropriate require-
ments for the practical test may —
(1) Obtain a type rating limited to “VFR only”; and
(2) Remove the “VFR only” limitation for each aircraft type in which the

applicant demonstrates compliance with the appropriate instrument
requirements of these schedules.

(d) The Authority may issue to an applicant for a type rating a licence with the
limitation “VFR only” for each aircraft type not equipped for the applicant to
show instrument proficiency.

(e) An applicant for a type rating in a multi-engine, single-pilot station aeroplane
may meet the requirements of paragraph (b) in a multiseat version of that
multiengine aeroplane.

(f) An applicant for a type rating in a single-engine, single-pilot station aeroplane
may meet the requirements of paragraph (b) in a multiseat version of that single-
engine aeroplane.

(g) Unless the Authority requires certain or all tasks to be performed, the examiner
who conducts the practical test may waive any of the tasks for which the
Authority approves waiver authority.

8.135 CATEGORY II AND III PILOT AUTHORISATION
REQUIREMENTS

(a) General. An applicant for a Category II or Category III pilot authorisation
shall —
(1) Hold a pilot licence with an instrument rating or an airline transport pilot

licence;
(2) Hold a category and class rating, and type rating, if applicable, for the

aircraft for which the authorisation is sought; and
(3) Complete the practical test requirements.

CH.284 – 260] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) Experience requirements. An applicant for a Category II or Category III pilot
authorisation shall have at least —
(1) 50 hours of night flight time as PIC;
(2) 75 hours of instrument time under actual or simulated instrument

conditions that may include not more than:
(i) A combination of 25 hours of simulated instrument flight time in an

approved flight simulator or an approved flight training device; or
(ii) 40 hours of simulated instrument flight time if accomplished in an

approved course conducted by an appropriately rated ATO;
(3) 250 hours of cross-country flight time as PIC.

(c) Upon passing a practical test for a Category II or III pilot authorisation, a pilot
may renew that authorisation for each type of aircraft for which the pilot holds
authorisation.

(d) The Authority may not renew a Category II or Category III pilot authorisation for
a specific type aircraft for which an authorisation is held beyond 12 calendar
months from the month the applicant satisfactorily passed a practical test in that
type aircraft.

(e) If the holder of a Category II or Category III pilot authorisation passes the
practical test for a renewal in the month before the authorisation expires,
the Authority will consider that the holder passed it during the month the
authorisation expired.
See Appendix 1 to 8.135 for additional requirements concerning Category II and
III pilot authorisations.

8.140 SPECIAL PURPOSE PILOT AUTHORISATION: A
PERSON WHO IS NOT A CITIZEN OF THE BAHAMAS

(a) General. The Authority may issue to the holder of a foreign pilot licence issued
by another Contracting State a special purpose pilot authorisation, after the
applicant meets the requirements for —
(1) Performing pilot duties on a civil aircraft of The Bahamas registry that is

leased to a person who is not a citizen of The Bahamas; and
(2) Use of that aircraft in commercial air transportation.
See Appendix 1 to 8.140 for eligibility requirements, privileges, and limitations
associated with special purpose pilot authorisations.

Section II: Student Pilots
8.145 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart prescribes the requirements for the issuance of student pilot

licences, the conditions under which those licences are necessary, and the general
operating rules and limitations for the holders of those licences.

8.150 ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENT
PILOTS

(a) To be eligible for a student pilot licence, an applicant shall —
(1) Be at least 16 years of age for other than the operation of a glider or balloon;
(2) Be at least 14 years of age for the operation of a glider or balloon; and
(3) Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 261






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

8.155 APPLICATION
(a) An applicant for a student pilot licence shall apply to —

(1) A designated aviation medical examiner if applying for a medical certificate;
(2) An examiner; or
(3) An office designated by the Authority.

8.160 SOLO REQUIREMENTS FOR STUDENT PILOTS
(a) General. A student pilot may not operate an aircraft in solo flight unless that

student has met the requirements of this subsection.
(b) Aeronautical knowledge.

(1) A student pilot shall satisfactorily pass an aeronautical knowledge test on
the following subjects —

(i) Applicable sections of this Schedule and Schedule 10;
(ii) Airspace rules and procedures for the airport where the student will

perform solo flight; and
(iii) Flight characteristics and operational limitations for the make and

model of aircraft to be flown.
(2) The student’s authorised instructor shall —

(i) Administer the test; and
(ii) At the conclusion of the test, review all incorrect answers with the

student before authorising that student to conduct a solo flight.
(c) Pre-solo flight training. Prior to conducting a solo flight, a student pilot shall

have —
(1) Received and logged flight training for the manoeuvres and procedures of

this subsection that are appropriate to the make and model of aircraft to be
flown; and

(2) Demonstrated satisfactory proficiency and safety, as judged by an
authorised instructor, on the manoeuvres and procedures required by this
subsection in the make and model of aircraft or similar make and model of
aircraft to be flown.

(d) Manoeuvres and procedures for pre-solo flight training. A student pilot shall
receive and log flight training for required manoeuvres and procedures.
See Appendix 1 to 8.160 for required manoeuvres and procedures for a student
pilot.

8.165 GENERAL LIMITATIONS
(a) A student pilot may not act as PIC of an aircraft —

(1) That is carrying a passenger;
(2) That is carrying property for compensation or hire;
(3) That is operated for compensation or hire;
(4) In furtherance of a business;
(5) On an international flight;

CH.284 – 262] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(6) With a flight or surface visibility of less than 3 statute miles during daylight
hours or 5 statute miles at night;

(7) When the flight cannot be made with visual reference to the surface; or
(8) In a manner contrary to any limitations placed in the pilot’s logbook by an

authorised instructor.
(b) A student pilot may not act as a required pilot flight crew member on any aircraft

for which more than one pilot is required by the aircraft type certificate or by
these Schedules under which the flight is conducted, except when receiving
flight training from an authorised instructor on board an airship, and no person
other than a required flight crew member is carried on the aircraft.

(c) A student pilot may not operate an aircraft in solo flight unless that student pilot
has received within the 90 days preceding the date of the flight an endorsement
from an authorised instructor for the specific make and model aircraft to be
flown made —
(1) On his or her student pilot licence; and
(2) In the student’s logbook.

(d) A student pilot may not operate an aircraft in solo flight at night unless that
student pilot has received —
(1) Flight training at night that includes takeoffs, approaches, landings, and go-

arounds at night at the airport where the student will conduct solo flight;
(2) Navigation training at night in the vicinity of the airport where the student

pilot will conduct solo flight; and
(3) An endorsement for night solo flight.

8.170 SOLO CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHT REQUIREMENTS
(a) General.

(1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, a student pilot shall
meet the requirements of this subsection before —
(i) Conducting a solo cross-country flight, or any flight greater than 25

nautical miles from the airport from where the flight originated; and
(ii) Making a solo flight and landing at any location other than the airport

of origination.
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, a student pilot who

seeks solo cross-country flight privileges shall —
(i) Have received flight training from an authorised instructor on the

manoeuvres and procedures of this subsection that are appropriate to
the make and model of aircraft for which solo cross-country privileges
are sought;

(ii) Have demonstrated cross-country proficiency on the appropriate
manoeuvres and procedures of this subsection to an authorised
instructor;

(iii) Have satisfactorily accomplished the required pre-solo flight man-
oeuvres and procedures in the make and model of aircraft or similar
make and model of aircraft for which solo cross-country privileges are
sought; and

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 263






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(iv) Comply with any limitations included in the instructor’s endorsement
that are required by paragraph (c) of this subsection.

(3) A student pilot who seeks solo cross-country flight privileges shall have
received ground and flight training from an authorised instructor on the
cross-country manoeuvres and procedures listed in this subsection that are
appropriate to the aircraft to be flown.

(b) Authorisation to perform certain solo flights and cross-country flights. A student
pilot shall obtain an endorsement from an authorised instructor to make solo
flights, subject to the following conditions —
(1) A student pilot may make solo flights to another airport that is within 25

nautical miles from the airport where the student pilot normally receives
training, provided —

(i) The authorised instructor who makes the endorsement gave the student
pilot flight training at the other airport, and that training included flight in
both directions over the route, entering and exiting the traffic pattern, and
takeoffs and landings at the other airport;

(ii) The student pilot has a current solo flight endorsement;
(iii) The instructor has determined that the student pilot is proficient to

make the flight; and
(iv) The purpose of the flight is to practise takeoffs and landings at that

other airport.
(2) A student pilot may make repeated specific solo cross-country flights to

another airport that is within 50 nautical miles of the airport from which the
flight originated, provided —

(i) The authorised instructor who gave the endorsement gave the student
flight training in both directions over the route, including entering and
exiting the traffic patterns, takeoffs, and landings at the airport to be
used;

(ii) The student has current solo flight endorsements; and
(iii) The student has a current solo cross-country flight endorsement in

accordance with paragraph (c) of this subsection, except that separate
endorsements are not required for each flight made under this
paragraph.

(c) Endorsements for solo cross-country flights. Except as specified in paragraph
(b)(2), a student pilot shall have the endorsements prescribed in this paragraph
for each make and model aircraft the student will fly on each cross-country
flight —
(1) Student pilot licence endorsement.

(i) A student pilot shall have a solo cross-country endorsement placed on
the student pilot licence by the authorised instructor who conducted the
training.

(2) Logbook endorsement.
(i) A student pilot shall have a solo cross-country endorsement placed in

the student pilot’s logbook by the authorised instructor who conducted
the training.

CH.284 – 264] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(ii) A licenced pilot who is receiving training for an additional aircraft
category and class rating shall have an endorsement placed in the pilot’s
logbook by the authorised instructor who conducted the training.

(d) Manoeuvres and procedures for cross-country flight training. A student pilot who
is receiving training for cross-country flight shall receive and log flight training
in the required manoeuvres and procedures.
See Appendix 1 to 8.170 for list of required manoeuvres and procedures.

Section III: Private Pilots
8.175 APPLICABILITY
(a) This subsection prescribes the requirements for the issuance of private pilot

licences and ratings, and the conditions under which those licences and ratings
are necessary.

8.180 ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS: GENERAL
(a) To be eligible for a private pilot licence, a person shall —

(1) Be at least 17 years of age for a rating in other than a glider or balloon.
(2) Be at least 16 years of age for a rating in a glider or balloon.
(3) Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language.
(4) Receive a logbook endorsement for the knowledge test from an authorised

instructor who —
(i) Conducted the training or reviewed the person’s home study on the

prescribed aeronautical knowledge areas that apply to the aircraft
rating sought; and

(ii) Certified that the person is prepared for the required knowledge test.
(5) Pass the required knowledge test on the prescribed aeronautical knowledge

areas.
(6) Receive flight training and a logbook endorsement from an authorised

instructor who —
(i) Conducted the training in the areas of operation that apply to the

aircraft rating sought; and
(ii) Certified that the person is prepared for the required practical test.

(7) Meet the aeronautical experience requirements of this Subpart that apply to
the aircraft rating sought before applying for the practical test.

(8) Pass a practical test on the areas of operation that apply to the aircraft
rating sought.

(9) Comply with the appropriate sections of this Subpart that apply to the
aircraft category and class rating sought.

8.185 AERONAUTICAL KNOWLEDGE
(a) An applicant for a private pilot licence shall receive and log ground training

from an authorised instructor on the aeronautical knowledge areas prescribed by
the Authority.
See Appendix 1 to 8.185 for a list of aeronautical knowledge areas required for a
private pilot licence.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 265






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

8.190 FLIGHT PROFICIENCY
(a) An applicant for a private pilot licence shall receive and log ground and flight

training from an authorised instructor on the following areas of operation —
(1) For all categories and class ratings, as applicable —

(i) Preflight preparation;
(ii) Preflight procedures;

(iii) Airport and seaplane base operations;
(iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(v) Performance manoeuvres;
(vi) Ground reference manoeuvres;

(vii) Navigation;
(viii) Slow flight and stalls;

(ix) Basic instrument manoeuvres;
(x) Emergency operations;

(xi) Night operations; and
(xii) Postflight procedures.

(2) For the category and class ratings shown below, the applicable areas of
operation shown in paragraph (a) and —

(i) Aeroplane category rating with a multi-engine class rating —
(A) Multi-engine operations.

(ii) Rotorcraft category rating with a helicopter class rating —
(A) Airport and heliport operations; and
(B) Hovering manoeuvres.

(iii) Rotorcraft category rating with a gyroplane class rating —
(A) Flight at slow airspeeds.

(iv) Powered-lift category rating —
(A) Airport and heliport operations; and
(B) Hovering manoeuvres.

(v) Glider category rating —
(A) Airport and gliderport operations;
(B) Launches and landings;
(C) Performance speeds; and
(D) Soaring techniques.

(vi) Lighter-than-air category rating with a balloon class rating —
(A) Launches and landings.

CH.284 – 266] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

8.195 AERONAUTICAL EXPERIENCE
(a) An applicant for a private pilot licence with an aeroplane, rotorcraft, or powered-

lift category rating shall receive and log one of the following minimum
flight training times —
(1) At least 40 hours of flight time that includes at least 20 hours of flight

training from an authorised instructor; and
(2) 10 hours of solo flight training in the areas of operation prescribed by the

Authority;
See Appendix 1 to 8.195 for minimum aeronautical training requirement.

(b) Except when fewer hours are approved by the Authority, an applicant who has
satisfactorily completed a private pilot course conducted by an ATO need have
only a total of 35 hours of aeronautical experience;

(c) An applicant for a private pilot licence may credit one of the following in an
approved flight simulator or an approved flight training device representing the
category, class, and type, if applicable, of aircraft appropriate to the rating
sought —
(1) A maximum of 2.5 hours of training, if received from an authorised

instructor other than an ATO; or
(2) A maximum of 5 hours of training if the training is accomplished in a course

conducted by an ATO.
8.200 CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHTS: PILOTS BASED ON

SMALL ISLANDS
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, an applicant located on

an island from which the required cross-country flight training cannot be
accomplished without flying over water for more than 10 nautical miles from
the nearest shoreline need not comply with the requirements of that section.

(b) If other airports that permit civil operations are available to which a flight may
be made without flying over water for more than 10 nautical miles from the
nearest shoreline, the applicant shall show completion of two round-trip solo
flights between those two airports that are farthest apart, including a landing at
each airport on both flights.

(c) The Authority shall issue to an applicant who complies with paragraph (a)
or paragraph (b) of this subsection, and meets all requirements for the
issuance of a private pilot licence, except the cross-country training
requirements of this Subpart, a pilot licence with an endorsement
containing the following limitation, “Passenger carrying prohibited on
flights more than 10 nautical miles from (the appropriate island)”. The
Authority may subsequently amend the limitation to include another island
if the applicant complies with the requirements of paragraph (a) or
paragraph (b) of this subsection for another island.

(d) Upon meeting the cross-country training requirements, an applicant may have
the limitation in paragraph (c) of this subsection removed.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 267






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

8.205 PRIVATE PILOT PRIVILEGES AND LIMITATIONS:
REQUIRED CREW MEMBER

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this subsection, a private
pilot may not act as a required crew member of an aircraft —
(1) Carrying passengers or property for compensation or hire; or
(2) Operated for compensation or hire.

(b) A private pilot may, for compensation or hire, act as a required crew member of
an aircraft in connection with any business or employment if —
(1) The flight is only incidental to that business or employment; and
(2) The aircraft does not carry passengers or property for compensation or hire.

(c) A private pilot may act as a required crew member of an aircraft used in a
passenger-carrying airlift sponsored by a charitable organisation described
in paragraph (c)(7) of this subsection, and for which the passengers make a
donation to the organisation, when the following requirements are met —
(1) The sponsor of the airlift notifies the office of the Authority with

jurisdiction over the area concerned at least 7 days before the event and
furnishes —

(i) A signed letter from the sponsor that shows the name of the sponsor,
the purpose of the charitable event, the date and time of the event, and
the location of the event; and

(ii) A photocopy of each required crew member’s pilot licence, medical
certificate, and logbook entries that show the pilot is current and has
logged at least 200 hours of flight time;

(2) The flight is conducted from a public airport that is adequate for the aircraft
to be used, or from another airport that has been approved by the Authority
for the operation;

(3) No aerobatic or formation flights are conducted;
(4) Each aircraft used for the charitable event holds a standard airworthiness

certificate;
(5) Each aircraft used for the charitable event is airworthy and complies with

the applicable requirements of Schedule 10;
(6) Each flight for the charitable event is made during day VFR conditions; and
(7) The charitable organisation is an organisation identified as such by the

appropriate authority of the government.
(d) A private pilot may be reimbursed for aircraft operating expenses that are

directly related to search and location operations, provided the expenses involve
only fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees, and the operation is sanctioned
and under the direction and control of —
(1) A local, State, or Federal agency; or
(2) An organisation that conducts search and location operations.

(e) A private pilot who is an aircraft salesman and who has at least 200 hours of
logged flight time may demonstrate an aircraft in flight to a prospective buyer.

CH.284 – 268] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(f) A private pilot may not pay less than the pro rata share of the operating expenses
of a flight with passengers, provided the expenses involve only fuel, oil, airport
expenditures, or rental fees.

(g) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this subsection, no private
pilot may, for compensation or hire, act as SIC of an aircraft that is type
certified for more than one pilot.

8.210 PRIVATE PILOT WITH BALLOON RATING: LIMITATIONS
(a) If an applicant for a private pilot licence with a balloon rating takes a practical

test in a balloon with an airborne heater —
(1) The Authority shall place upon the pilot licence a limitation restricting the

exercise of the privileges of that licence to a balloon with an airborne heater;
and

(2) The pilot may remove the limitation by obtaining the required aeronautical
experience in a gas balloon and receiving a logbook endorsement from an
authorised instructor who attests to the person’s accomplishment of the
required aeronautical experience and ability to satisfactorily operate a gas
balloon.

(b) If an applicant for a private pilot licence with a balloon rating takes a practical
test in a gas balloon —
(1) The Authority shall place upon the pilot licence a limitation restricting the

exercise of the privilege of that licence to a gas balloon; and
(2) The pilot may remove the limitation by obtaining the required aeronautical

experience in a balloon with an airborne heater and receiving a logbook
endorsement from an authorised instructor who attests to the pilot’s
accomplishment of the required aeronautical experience and ability to
satisfactorily operate a balloon with an airborne heater.

Section IV: Commercial Pilots
8.215 APPLICABILITY
(a) This subsection prescribes the requirements for the issuance of commercial pilot

licences and ratings, and the conditions under which those licences and ratings
are necessary.

8.220 ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS: GENERAL
(a) To be eligible for a commercial pilot licence, a person shall —

(1) Be at least 18 years of age;
(2) Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language.
(3) Receive a logbook endorsement from an authorised instructor who —

(i) Conducted the required ground training or reviewed the person’s home
study on the aeronautical knowledge areas prescribed by the Authority
that apply to the aircraft category and class rating sought; and

(ii) Certified that the person is prepared for the required knowledge test
that applies to the aircraft category and class rating sought.

(4) Pass the required knowledge test on the aeronautical knowledge areas
prescribed by the Authority;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 269






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(5) Receive the required training and a logbook endorsement from an
authorised instructor who —
(i) Conducted the training on the areas of operation prescribed by the

Authority that apply to the aircraft category and class rating sought;
and

(ii) Certified that the person is prepared for the required practical test.
(6) Meet the aeronautical experience requirements of this Subpart that apply

to the aircraft category and class rating sought before applying for the
practical test;

(7) Pass the required practical test on the prescribed areas of operation that
apply to the aircraft category and class rating sought;

(8) Hold a private pilot licence issued under this Subpart or meet the
requirements pertaining to military licences; and

(9) Comply with all sections of this Subpart that apply to the aircraft category
and class rating sought.

8.225 COMMERCIAL PILOT: AERONAUTICAL KNOWLEDGE
REQUIREMENTS

(a) An applicant for a commercial pilot licence shall receive and log ground training
from an authorised instructor, or complete a home-study course on the required
aeronautical knowledge areas prescribed by the Authority.
See Appendix 1 to 8.225 for specific aeronautical knowledge area requirements.

8.230 COMMERCIAL PILOT: FLIGHT PROFICIENCY REQUIREMENTS
(a) An applicant for a commercial pilot licence shall receive and log ground and

flight training from an authorised instructor on the areas of operation of this
subsection that apply to the aircraft category and class rating sought.
See Appendix 1 to 8.230 for detailed requirements concerning training for aircraft
category and class ratings sought.

8.235 COMMERCIAL PILOT: AERONAUTICAL EXPERIENCE
(a) An applicant for a commercial pilot licence shall obtain the required 250 flight

hours of aeronautical experience prescribed by the Authority —
(1) Except when fewer hours are approved by the Authority, an applicant who

has satisfactorily completed a commercial pilot course conducted by an ATO
need have only the following total aeronautical experience to meet the
aeronautical experience requirements of this subsection:

(i) 190 hours for an aeroplane or powered-lift rating;
(ii) 150 hours for a helicopter rating.

(b) An applicant for a commercial pilot licence may credit one of the maximum
times for training in an approved flight simulator or approved flight training
device representing the applicable category, class, and type of aircraft
appropriate to the rating sought —

(i) 50 hours for an aeroplane or powered-lift rating;
(ii) 25 hours for a helicopter rating;

(iii) 100 hours for an aeroplane or powered-lift rating in a course conducted
by an ATO; or

CH.284 – 270] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(iv) 50 hours for a helicopter rating in a course conducted by an ATO.
See Appendix 1 to 8.235 for specific required aeronautical experience.

8.240 COMMERCIAL PILOT PRIVILEGES AND LIMITATIONS
(a) Privileges.

(1) General. A commercial pilot licence may act as PIC of an aircraft for
compensation or hire, including the carriage of persons or property for
compensation or hire, provided the pilot is qualified in accordance with the
applicable parts of these schedule.

(2) A commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air category ratings may —
(i) For an airship —

(A) Give flight and ground training in an airship for the issuance of a
licence or rating;

(B) Endorse a pilot licence for an airship; and
(C) Act as PIC of an airship under IFR.

(ii) For a balloon —
(A) Give flight and ground training in a balloon for the issuance of a

licence or rating; and
(B) Endorse a pilot licence for a balloon.

(b) Limitations.
(1) The Authority shall issue to an applicant for a commercial pilot licence with

an aeroplane category or powered-lift category rating who does not hold an
instrument rating in the same category and class a commercial pilot licence
that contains the limitation: “The carriage of passengers for hire in
(aeroplanes) (powered-lifts) on cross-country flights in excess of 50 nautical
miles or at night is prohibited”.

(2) A pilot may remove the limitation specified in paragraph (b)(1) by
satisfactorily accomplishing the requirements prescribed by the Authority
for an instrument rating in the same category and class of aircraft that has
the limitation.

(3) If an applicant for a commercial pilot licence with a balloon rating takes a
practical test in a balloon with an airborne heater —

(i) The Authority shall place upon the pilot licence a limitation restricting
the exercise of the privileges of that licence to a balloon with an airborne
heater.

(ii) The pilot may remove the limitation specified in paragraph (b)(3)(i)
by obtaining the required aeronautical experience in a gas balloon
and receiving a logbook endorsement from an authorised instructor
who attests to the pilot’s accomplishment of the required aeronautical
experience and ability to satisfactorily operate a gas balloon.

(4) If an applicant for a commercial pilot licence with a balloon rating takes a
practical test in a gas balloon —

(i) The Authority shall place upon the pilot licence a limitation restricting
the exercise of the privileges of that licence to a gas balloon; and

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 271






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(ii) The pilot may remove the limitation specified in paragraph (b)(4)(i) by
obtaining the required aeronautical experience in a balloon with an
airborne heater and receiving a logbook endorsement from an
authorised instructor who attests to the person’s accomplishment of the
required aeronautical experience and ability to satisfactorily operate a
balloon with an airborne heater.

Section V: Airline Transport Pilots
8.245 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart prescribes the requirements for the issuance of airline transport

pilot licences and ratings, and the conditions under which those licences and
ratings are necessary.

8.250 ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS: GENERAL
(a) To be eligible for an airline transport pilot licence, a person shall —

(1) Be at least 21 years of age;
(2) Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language;
(3) Meet at least one of the following requirements —

(i) Hold a valid and current commercial pilot licence and an instrument
rating;

(ii) Meet the military experience requirements to qualify for a commercial
pilot licence, and an instrument rating if the person is a rated military
pilot or former rated military pilot of an Armed Force of The Bahamas;
or

(iii) Hold either a foreign airline transport pilot or foreign commercial pilot
licence and an instrument rating issued by another Contracting State;

(4) Meet the aeronautical applicable experience requirements of this Subpart
before applying for the practical test;

(5) Pass a knowledge test on the applicable aeronautical knowledge areas
prescribed by the Authority that apply to the aircraft category and class
rating sought;

(6) Pass the practical test on the applicable areas of operation prescribed by
the Authority that apply to the aircraft category and class rating sought.

8.255 AERONAUTICAL KNOWLEDGE
(a) General. The Authority will administer a knowledge test for an airline transport

pilot licence based on the aeronautical knowledge areas appropriate to the
aircraft category and class rating sought.

(b) An applicant for an air transport licence shall receive and log ground training
from an authorised instructor, or complete a home-study course on the required
aeronautical knowledge areas prescribed by the Authority.

8.260 FLIGHT PROFICIENCY
(a) An applicant for an airline transport pilot licence shall receive and log ground

and flight training from an authorised instructor on the areas of operation of
this subsection that apply to the aircraft category and class rating sought.
See Appendix 1 to 8.260 for detailed requirements concerning training for aircraft
category and class ratings sought.

CH.284 – 272] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

8.265 AERONAUTICAL EXPERIENCE: AEROPLANE
CATEGORY RATING

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d) of this subsection, an
applicant for an airline transport pilot licence with an aeroplane category and
class rating shall have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a pilot that includes at
least —
(1) 500 hours of cross-country flight time;
(2) 100 hours of night flight time;
(3) 75 hours of instrument flight time, in actual or simulated instrument

conditions —
(4) Not more than one of the following in an approved flight simulator or

approved flight training device representing an aeroplane —
(i) 25 hours of simulated instrument time;

(ii) 50 hours of simulated instrument time if the training was accomplished
in a course conducted by an ATO;

(5) 100 hours of aeronautical experience requirements in an approved course
conducted by an ATO; and

(6) 250 hours of flight time in an aeroplane as a PIC, or as SIC performing the
duties and functions of a PIC while under the supervision of a PIC or any
combination thereof, which includes at least —

(i) 100 hours of cross-country flight time; and
(ii) 25 hours of night flight time.

(b) A pilot who has performed at least 20 night takeoffs and landings to a full stop
may substitute each additional night takeoff and landing to a full stop for 1
hour of night flight time to satisfy the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of this
subsection, not to exceed 25 hours of night flight time.

(c) A commercial pilot applicant may credit the following SIC flight time or flight-
engineer flight time toward the 1,500 hours of total time as a pilot required by
paragraph (a) of this subsection —
(1) SIC time acquired in an aeroplane —

(i) Required to have more than one pilot by the aeroplane’s flight manual
or type certificate; or

(ii) Engaged in operations under Schedule 12 for which a SIC is required.
(2) Flight-engineer time acquired —

(i) In an aeroplane required to have a flight engineer by the
aeroplane’s flight manual or type certificate;

(ii) While engaged in operations under Schedule 12 for which a
flight engineer is required;

(iii) While the pilot is participating in a pilot training program
approved under Schedule 12; and

(iv) That does not exceed 1 hour for each 3 hours of flight engineer
flight time for a total credited time of no more than 500 hours.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 273






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

8.270 AERONAUTICAL EXPERIENCE: ROTORCRAFT
CATEGORY AND HELICOPTER CLASS RATING

(a) An applicant for an airline transport pilot licence with a rotorcraft category and
helicopter class rating, shall have at least 1,200 hours of total time as a pilot that
includes at least —
(1) 500 hours of cross-country flight time;
(2) 100 hours of night flight time, of which 15 hours are in helicopters;
(3) 200 hours of flight time in helicopters, which includes at least 75 hours as

a PIC, or as SIC performing the duties and functions of a PIC under the
supervision of a PIC, or any combination thereof; and

(4) 75 hours of instrument flight time in actual or simulated instrument
meteorological conditions, of which at least 50 hours are obtained in
flight with at least 25 hours in helicopters as a PIC, or as SIC performing
the duties and functions of a PIC under the supervision of a PIC, or any
combination thereof.

(5) Not more than one of the following in an approved flight simulator or
approved flight training device representing a rotorcraft —

(i) 25 hours of simulated instrument time;
(ii) 50 hours of simulated instrument time if the training was accomplished

in a course conducted by an ATO.
8.275 AERONAUTICAL EXPERIENCE: POWERED-LIFT

FLIGHT TIME
(a) An applicant for an airline transport pilot licence with a powered-lift category

rating shall have at least 1,500 hours of total time as a pilot that includes at
least —
(1) 500 hours of cross-country flight time;
(2) 100 hours of night flight time;
(3) 250 hours in a powered-lift as a PIC, or as a SIC performing the duties and

functions of a PIC under the supervision of a PIC, or any combination
thereof, which includes at least —

(i) 100 hours of cross-country flight time; and
(ii) 25 hours of night flight time.

(4) 75 hours of instrument flight time in actual or simulated instrument
conditions;

(5) Not more than one of the following in an approved flight simulator or
approved flight training device representing a powered-lift —

(i) 25 hours of simulated instrument time;
(ii) 50 hours of simulated instrument time if the training was accomplished

in a course conducted by an ATO.
(b) 100 hours of aeronautical experience in an approved course conducted by an

ATO.

CH.284 – 274] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

8.280 ADDITIONAL AIRCRAFT CATEGORY, CLASS, AND
TYPE RATINGS

(a) An applicant for an airline transport licence with a category rating who holds an
airline transport pilot licence with another aircraft category rating shall —
(1) Meet the applicable eligibility requirements;
(2) Pass a knowledge test on the applicable aeronautical knowledge areas;
(3) Meet the applicable aeronautical experience requirements; and
(4) Pass the practical test on the areas of operation.

(b) Aircraft type rating. An applicant for an aircraft type rating to an airline
transport pilot licence is not required to pass a knowledge test if that pilot’s
airline transport pilot licence lists the aircraft category and class rating that is
appropriate to the type rating sought.

8.285 AIRLINE TRANSPORT PILOT PRIVILEGES
(a) The Authority extends to the holder of an airline transport pilot licence the

same privileges as those extended to a holder of a commercial pilot licence
with an instrument rating and the privilege to act as PIC and SIC in aircraft in
commercial air transportation.

(b) An airline transport pilot may instruct —
(1) Other pilots in air transportation service in aircraft of the category, class,

and type, as applicable, for which the airline transport pilot is rated, and in
simulation of those aircraft, and endorse the logbook or other training
record of the person to whom training has been given;

(2) Only as provided in this subsection, unless the airline transport pilot also
holds a flight instructor licence, in which case the holder may exercise the
instructor privileges of This Schedule for which he or she is rated.

(c) Excluding briefings and debriefings, an airline transport pilot may not instruct
in aircraft, approved flight simulators, and approved flight training devices
under this subsection —
(1) For more than 8 hours in any 24-consecutive-hour period; or
(2) For more than 36 hours in any 7-consecutive-day period.

(d) An airline transport pilot may not instruct in Category II or Category III
operations unless he or she has been trained and successfully tested under
Category II or Category III operations, as applicable.

Section VI: Flight Instructors
8.290 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart prescribes the requirements for the issuance of flight instructor

licences and ratings, the conditions under which those licences and ratings are
necessary, and the limitations on those licences and ratings.

8.295 ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS
(a) To be eligible for a flight instructor licence or rating a person shall —

(1) Be at least 18 years of age.
(2) Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 275






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(3) Hold either a commercial pilot licence or airline transport pilot licence
with —
(i) An aircraft category and class rating that is appropriate to the flight

instructor rating sought; and
(ii) An instrument rating, if the person holds a commercial pilot licence and

is applying for a flight instructor licence with —
(A) An aeroplane category and single-engine class rating;
(B) An aeroplane category and multi-engine class rating;
(C) A powered-lift rating; or
(D) An instrument rating.

(4) Receive a logbook endorsement from an authorised instructor on the
fundamentals of instructing prescribed by the Authority appropriate to the
required knowledge test.

(5) Pass a knowledge test on the areas prescribed by the Authority,
(6) Receive a logbook endorsement from an authorised instructor on the areas

of operation prescribed by the Authority appropriate to the flight instructor
rating sought.

(7) Pass the required practical test that is appropriate to the flight instructor
rating sought in an —
(i) Aircraft that is representative of the category and class of aircraft

for the aircraft rating sought; or
(ii) Approved flight simulator or approved flight training device that is

representative of the category and class of aircraft for the rating
sought, and used in accordance with an approved course at an ATO.

(8) Accomplish the following for a flight instructor licence with an aeroplane or
a glider rating:
(i) Receive a logbook endorsement from an authorised instructor

indicating that the applicant is competent and possesses instructional
proficiency in stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery
procedures after receiving flight training in those training areas in an
aeroplane or glider, as appropriate, that is certified for spins.

(ii) Demonstrate instructional proficiency in stall awareness, spin entry,
spins, and spin recovery procedures.

(9) An examiner may accept the endorsement specified in paragraph (9)(i) of
this subsection as satisfactory evidence of instructional proficiency in stall
awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery procedures for the practical
test, provided that the practical test is not a retest as a result of the applicant
failing the previous test for deficiencies in those knowledge or skill areas.

(10) If a retest is the result of deficiencies in the ability of an applicant to
demonstrate the requisite knowledge or skill, the applicant shall demonstrate
the knowledge and skill to an examiner in an aeroplane or glider, as
appropriate, that is certified for spins.

(11) Log at least 15 hours as PIC in the category and class of aircraft that is
appropriate to the flight instructor rating sought; and

CH.284 – 276] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(12) Comply with the appropriate sections that apply to the flight instructor
rating sought.

8.300 AERONAUTICAL KNOWLEDGE
(a) An applicant for a flight instructor licence shall receive and log ground training

from an authorised instructor on —
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, the fundamentals of

instructing, including —
(i) The learning process;

(ii) Elements of effective teaching;
(iii) Student evaluation and testing;
(iv) Course development;
(v) Lesson planning; and

(vi) Classroom training techniques;
(2) The aeronautical knowledge areas for a private and commercial pilot licence

applicable to the aircraft category for which flight instructor privileges are
sought; and

(3) The aeronautical knowledge areas for the instrument rating applicable to
the category for which instrument flight instructor privileges are sought.

(b) The following applicants do not need to comply with paragraph (a) of this
subsection —
(1) The holder of a ground instructor licence issued under this part;
(2) The holder of a current teacher’s certificate issued by a national or local

authority that authorises the person to teach at an educational level of the
7th grade or higher; or

(3) A person employed as a teacher at an accredited college or university.
8.305 FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR: AREAS OF OPERATION FOR FLIGHT

PROFICIENCY
(a) An applicant for a flight instructor licence shall receive and log flight and

ground training, and an endorsement from an authorised instructor, that the
person is proficient to pass a practical test for the flight instructor rating sought.

(b) An applicant may accomplish the flight training required by this subsection —
(1) In an aircraft that is representative of the category and class of aircraft for

the rating sought; or
(2) In a flight simulator or flight training device representative of the category

and class of aircraft for the rating sought, and used in accordance with an
approved course at an ATO.

See Appendix 1 to 8.305 for a list of areas of operation that apply to the practical
test for a flight instructor rating.

8.310 FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR RECORDS
(a) A flight instructor shall —

(1) Sign the logbook of each person to whom that instructor has given flight
training or ground training;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 277






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) Maintain a record in a logbook or a separate document that contains the
following —
(i) The name of each person whose logbook or student pilot licence that

instructor has endorsed for solo flight privileges, and the date of the
endorsement; and

(ii) The name of each person that instructor has endorsed for a knowledge
test or practical test, and a record of the kind of test, the date, and the
results; and

(3) Retain the records required by this subsection for at least 3 years.
8.315 ADDITIONAL FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR RATINGS
(a) An applicant for an additional flight instructor rating on a flight instructor

licence shall meet the eligibility requirements prescribed by the Authority that
apply to the flight instructor rating sought.

(b) An applicant for an additional rating on a flight instructor licence is not required
to pass the knowledge test on the areas prescribed by the Authority.

8.320 FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR PRIVILEGES
(a) A flight instructor is authorised within the limitations of that person’s flight

instructor licence and ratings, and pilot licence and ratings, to give training and
endorsements that are required for, and relate to —
(1) A student pilot licence;
(2) A pilot licence;
(3) A flight instructor licence;
(4) A ground instructor licence;
(5) An aircraft rating;
(6) An instrument rating;
(7) A flight review, operating privilege, or recency of experience requirement;
(8) A practical test; and
(9) A knowledge test.

8.325 FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR LIMITATIONS AND QUALIFICATIONS
(a) The holder of a flight instructor certificate shall observe the limitations and

qualifications applicable to flight instructors.
See Appendix 1 to 8.325 for detailed list of flight instructor limitations and
qualifications.

8.330 RENEWAL OF FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR LICENCES
(a) A flight instructor licence that has not expired may be renewed for an additional

24 calendar months if the holder —
(1) Passes a practical test for —

(i) Renewal of the flight instructor licence; or
(ii) An additional flight instructor rating; or

CH.284 – 278] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(2) Presents to the Authority —
(i) A record of training students that shows during the preceding 24

calendar months the flight instructor has endorsed at least five students
for a practical test for a licence or rating, and at least 80 percent of those
students passed that test on the first attempt;

(ii) A record that shows that within the preceding 24 calendar months,
service as a company check pilot, chief flight instructor, company check
airman, or flight instructor in a Schedule 12 operation, or in a position
involving the regular evaluation of pilots; or

(iii) A graduation certificate showing that the pilot has successfully
completed an approved flight instructor refresher course consisting of
ground training or flight training, or both, within the 90 days preceding
the expiration month of his or her flight instructor licence.

(b) If a flight instructor accomplishes the renewal requirements within the 90 days
preceding the expiration month of his or her flight instructor licence —
(1) The Authority shall consider that the flight instructor accomplished the

renewal requirement in the month due; and
(2) The Authority shall renew the current flight instructor licence for an

additional 24 calendar months from its expiration date.
(c) A flight instructor may accomplish the practical test required by paragraph

(a)(1) of this subsection in an approved course conducted by an ATO.
8.335 EXPIRED FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR LICENCES AND

RATINGS
(a) The holder of an expired flight instructor licence may exchange that licence for a

new licence by passing the prescribed practical test.
Section VII: Flight Engineers
8.340 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Section prescribes the requirements for issuing flight engineer licences.
8.345 LICENCES AND RATINGS REQUIRED
(a) No person may act as a flight engineer of a civil aircraft of The Bahamas registry

unless he or she has a flight engineer licence with appropriate ratings.
(b) When a flight engineer is operating in a foreign country, a flight engineer may

use a current flight engineer licence issued by the country in which the aircraft is
operated.

8.350 SPECIAL PURPOSE FLIGHT ENGINEER LICENCE: A PERSON NOT A
CITIZEN OF THE BAHAMAS

(a) General.
(1) The Authority may issue to the holder of a current flight engineer licence,

or authorisation issued by another Contracting State, who meets the
requirements of this subsection, a special purpose flight engineer licence
authorising the holder to perform flight engineer duties on a civil aeroplane
of The Bahamas registry, leased to a person not a citizen of The Bahamas,
carrying persons or property for compensation or hire.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 279






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) The Authority will issue special purpose flight engineer licences under this
subsection only for aeroplane types that can have a maximum passenger
seating configuration, excluding any flight crew member seat, of more than
30 seats or a maximum payload capacity of more than 7,500 pounds.

(b) Eligibility. To be eligible for the issuance, or renewal, of a licence under this
subsection, an applicant shall present the following to the Authority:
(1) A current foreign flight engineer licence, or authorisation which —

(i) Was issued by the aeronautical authority of another Contracting State
or a facsimile acceptable to the Authority; and

(ii) Authorises the applicant to perform the flight engineer duties to be
authorised by a licence issued under this subsection on the same
aeroplane type as the leased aeroplane.

(2) A current certification by the lessee of the aeroplane —
(i) Stating that the applicant is employed by the lessee;

(ii) Specifying the aeroplane type on which the applicant will perform flight
engineer duties; and

(iii) Stating that the applicant has received ground and flight instruction
which qualifies the applicant to perform the duties to be assigned on the
aeroplane.

(3) Documentation showing that the applicant currently meets the medical
standards for the foreign flight engineer licence required by paragraph (b)(1)
of this subsection.

(c) Privileges. The holder of a special purpose flight engineer licence issued under
this subsection may exercise the same privileges as those shown on the licence
or authorisation specified in paragraph (b)(1) of this subsection, subject to the
limitations specified in this subsection.

(d) Limitations. A licence issued under this subsection is subject to the limitations
prescribed by the Authority.

(e) Termination. Each special purpose flight engineer licence issued under this
subsection terminates —
(1) When the lease agreement for the aeroplane provided with the application

for the licence terminates;
(2) When the foreign flight engineer licence, authorisation, or the medical

documentation required for the licence is suspended, revoked, or no longer
valid; or

(3) After 24 months after the month in which the special purpose flight engineer
licence was issued.

(f) Renewal. The licence holder may have the licence renewed by complying with
the requirements of paragraph (b) of this subsection at the time of application for
renewal.

CH.284 – 280] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

8.355 ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS — GENERAL
(a) To be eligible for a flight engineer licence, a person shall —

(1) Be at least 18 years of age;
(2) Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language; and
(3) Comply with the requirements of this subsection that apply to the rating

sought.
8.360 ADDITIONAL AIRCRAFT RATINGS
(a) To add another aircraft class rating to a flight engineer licence, an applicant

shall —
(1) Pass the knowledge test and practical test that is appropriate to the class of

aeroplane for which an additional rating is sought; or
(2) Satisfactorily complete an approved flight engineer training program that is

appropriate to the additional class rating sought.
8.365 KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS
(a) An applicant for a flight engineer licence shall pass a knowledge test on the

following:
(1) The schedule that applies to a flight engineer.
(2) The theory of flight and aerodynamics.
(3) Basic meteorology with respect to engine operations.
(4) Centre of gravity computations.

(b) An applicant for the original or additional issue of a flight engineer class rating
shall pass a knowledge test for that aeroplane class on the following:
(1) Aeroplane equipment.
(2) Aeroplane systems.
(3) Aeroplane loading.
(4) Aeroplane procedures and engine operations with respect to limitations.
(5) Normal operating procedures.
(6) Emergency procedures.

(c) Before taking the knowledge tests prescribed in paragraphs (a) and (b) of this
subsection, an applicant for a flight engineer licence shall present satisfactory
evidence of having completed one of the experience requirements.

(d) An applicant may take the knowledge tests before acquiring the flight training
prescribed by the Authority.

(e) Except as provided in paragraph (f) of this subsection, an applicant for a flight
engineer licence or rating shall have passed the knowledge tests required by
paragraphs (a) and (b) of this subsection since the beginning of the 24th calendar
month before the month in which the practical test is taken.

(f) An applicant who within the period ending 24 calendar months after passing the
knowledge test, is employed as a flight crew member or mechanic by a The
Bahamas air carrier or certificate holder need not comply with the time limit set
in paragraph (e) of this subsection if the applicant —

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 281






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(1) Is employed by such a certificate holder at the time of the practical test; and
(2) If employed as a flight crew member, has completed initial training, and, if

appropriate, transition, upgrade, recurrent training; or
(3) If employed as an AMT, meets the recency of experience requirements.

(g) An AOC holder may, when authorised by the Authority, provide as part of an
approved training program a knowledge test that it may administer to satisfy the
test required for an additional rating under paragraph (b) of this subsection.

8.370 AERONAUTICAL EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS
(a) Except as otherwise specified herein, an applicant for a flight engineer licence

shall obtain and log the flight time used to satisfy the aeronautical experience
requirements of paragraph (b) of this subsection on an aeroplane on which a
flight engineer is required by these schedule.

(b) An applicant for a flight engineer licence with a class rating shall present, for
the class rating sought, satisfactory evidence of one of the following, including
the practical experience with the aircraft described in paragraph (a) of this
subsection —
(1) At least 3 years of practical experience in aircraft and aircraft engine

maintenance and at least 5 hours of flight training in the duties of a flight
engineer.

(2) Graduation from at least a 2-year specialised aeronautical training course
in maintaining aircraft and aircraft engines and at least 5 hours of flight
training in the duties of a flight engineer.

(3) A degree in aeronautical, electrical, or mechanical engineering from a
recognised college, university, or engineering school; at least 6 calendar
months of practical experience in maintaining aircraft and at least 5 hours of
flight training in the duties of a flight engineer.

(4) At least a commercial pilot licence with an instrument rating and at least 5
hours of flight training in the duties of a flight engineer.

(5) At least 200 hours of flight time in a transport category aeroplane as PIC or
SIC performing the functions of a PIC under the supervision of a PIC.

(6) At least 100 hours of flight time as a flight engineer.
(7) Within the 90-day period before application, successful completion of an

approved flight engineer ground and flight course of instruction.
8.375 SKILL REQUIREMENTS
(a) An applicant for a flight engineer licence with a class rating shall pass a practical

test on the duties of a flight engineer —
(1) In the class of aeroplane for which a rating is sought; and
(2) Only on an aeroplane or an approved flight simulator replicating such an

aeroplane.
(b) An applicant shall —

(1) Show satisfactorily performance in preflight inspection, servicing, starting,
pre-takeoff, and post-landing procedures;

CH.284 – 282] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(2) In flight, show satisfactorily performance of the normal duties and
procedures relating to the aeroplane, aeroplane engines, propellers (if
appropriate), systems, and appliances; and

(3) In flight, in an aeroplane simulator, or in an approved training device,
show satisfactorily performance on emergency duties and procedures and
recognise and take appropriate action for malfunctions of the aeroplane,
engines, propellers (if appropriate), systems and appliances.

8.380 FLIGHT ENGINEER LICENCE ISSUED ON BASIS OF A FOREIGN
FLIGHT ENGINEER LICENCE

(a) The Authority may issue a flight engineer licence on the basis of a foreign flight
engineer licence.

(b) A flight engineer licence issued under this subsection expires at the end of the
24th month after the month in which the licence was issued or renewed.

(c) Ratings issued. The Authority may add to a licence issued under this subsection
those aircraft class ratings listed on the applicant’s foreign flight engineer
licence, in addition to any issued after testing under the provisions of this
Subpart.

(d) Privileges and limitations.
(1) The holder of a flight engineer licence issued under this subsection may act

as a flight engineer of a civil aircraft of The Bahamas registry, within and
outside The Bahamas, subject to the limitations of this Subpart and any
additional limitations placed on the licence by the Authority.

(2) The holder of a licence issued under this subsection may not act in any
capacity as a required flight crew member of a civil aircraft of The Bahamas
registry that is carrying persons or property for compensation or hire.

(e) Renewal of licence and ratings.
(1) The holder of a licence issued under this subsection may apply for, and the

Authority may renew, that licence and the ratings placed thereon if, at the
time of application for renewal, the foreign flight engineer licence on which
that licence is based is in effect.

(2) In order to renew a licence, the holder shall apply before expiration of the
current licence.

See Appendix 1 to 8.400 for the flight engineer licensing requirements.
SUBPART C

LICENSING: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREW MEMBERS
8.385 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart prescribes the requirements for issuing the following licences,

ratings, and inspection authorisations for —
(1) Ground instructors;
(2) Flight operations officers;
(3) Aviation maintenance technicians;
(4) Aviation repair specialist; and
(5) Parachute riggers;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 283






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(6) Air traffic controllers; (Reserved)
(7) ATC facility rating (Reserved).

Section I: Ground Instructors
8.390 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Section prescribes the requirements for the issuance of ground instructor

licences and ratings, the conditions under which those licences and ratings are
necessary, and the limitations of those licences and ratings.

8.395 ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS
(a) To be eligible for a ground instructor licence or rating a person shall —

(1) Be at least 18 years of age.
(2) Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language.
(3) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this subsection, pass a knowledge

test on the fundamentals of instructing to include —
(i) The learning process;

(ii) Elements of effective teaching;
(iii) Student evaluation and testing;
(iv) Course development;
(v) Lesson planning; and

(vi) Classroom training techniques.
(4) Pass a knowledge test on the aeronautical knowledge areas prescribed by the

Authority —
(i) For a basic ground instructor rating;

(ii) For an advanced ground instructor rating; and
(iii) For an instrument ground instructor rating.

(b) The knowledge test specified in paragraph (a)(3) of this subsection is not
required if the applicant —
(1) Holds a ground instructor licence or flight instructor licence issued under

this part;
(2) Holds a current teacher’s certificate issued by a State, county, city, or

municipality that authorises the person to teach at an educational level of
the 7th grade or higher; or

(3) Is employed as a teacher at an accredited college or university.
8.400 GROUND INSTRUCTOR PRIVILEGES
(a) The holder of a ground instructor licence may exercise the privileges appropriate

to the rating held.
See Appendix 1 to 8.400 for list of ground instructor privileges.

8.405 CURRENCY REQUIREMENTS
(a) The holder of a ground instructor licence may not perform the duties of a

ground instructor unless, within the preceding 12 months —

CH.284 – 284] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(1) The person has served for at least 3 months as a ground instructor; or
(2) The Authority has determined that the person meets the standards

prescribed in this Schedule for the licence and rating.
Section II: Flight Operations Officers
8.410 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart prescribes the requirements for issuance of a flight operations

officer licence.
8.415 ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS: GENERAL
(a) An applicant for an aircraft flight operations officer licence shall —

(1) Be at least 21 years of age;
(2) Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language; and
(3) Comply with prescribed requirements of this Section.

8.420 KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS
(a) An applicant for an aircraft flight operations officer licence shall pass a

knowledge test.
(b) The Authority will accept evidence of satisfactory completion of a knowledge

test for 24 months after the date the test for eligibility to take the practical test.
8.425 EXPERIENCE OR TRAINING REQUIREMENTS
(a) An applicant for an aircraft flight operations officer licence shall present

documentary evidence satisfactory to the Authority that the applicant has the
experience or training as follows:
(1) A total of at least 2 out of the last 3 years before the date of application, in

any one or in any combination of the following areas —
(i) In military operations as a —

(A) Pilot;
(B) Flight navigator; or
(C) Meteorologist.

(ii) In commercial air transport operations as —
(A) An assistant in dispatching air carrier aircraft, under the direct

supervision of a flight operations officer licenced under this
subsection;

(B) A pilot;
(C) A flight engineer; or
(D) A meteorologist.

(iii) In other aircraft operations as —
(A) An Air Traffic Controller;
(B) A Flight Service Specialist; or

(iv) Another duty that the Authority’s flight operations officer
licensing representative finds to provide equivalent experience.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 285






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) Within 90 days before the date of application, the applicant shall have
successfully completed a course of instruction approved by the
Authority.

8.430 SKILL REQUIREMENTS
(a) An applicant for an aircraft flight operations officer licence shall pass a practical

test given by the Authority.
Section III: Aviation Maintenance Technicians
8.435 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart prescribes the requirements for issuance of an AMT licence and

associated ratings.
8.440 ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS: GENERAL
(a) An applicant for an AMT licence and any associated rating shall —

(1) Be at least 18 years of age;
(2) Demonstrate the ability to read, write, speak, and understand the [English]

language by reading and explaining appropriate maintenance publications
and by writing defect and repair statements;

(3) Comply with the knowledge, experience, and competency requirements
prescribed for the rating sought; and

(4) Pass all of the prescribed tests for the rating sought, within a period of 24
months.

(b) A licenced AMT who applies for an additional rating must meet the prescribed
requirements and, within a period of 24 months, pass the prescribed tests for the
additional rating sought.

8.445 RATINGS
(a) The following ratings are issued under this subpart:

(1) Airframe.
(2) Powerplant.
(3) Aircraft type ratings for aircraft with a takeoff gross weight of more than

5700 kg.
(4) Powerplant type ratings for powerplants on aircraft with a takeoff gross

weight of more than 5700 kg.
(5) Other specialized ratings as may be determined by the Authority.

8.450 AIRCRAFT RATING: KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS
(a) Each applicant for an AMT licence or rating shall, after meeting the applicable

experience requirements, pass the applicable knowledge tests covering the
construction and maintenance of aircraft appropriate to the rating sought and
the applicable provisions in Schedule 5. The basic principles covering the
installation and maintenance of propellers are included in the powerplant test.

(b) The applicant shall pass each section of the test before applying for the
prescribed oral and practical tests.

8.455 EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS
(a) Each applicant for an AMT licence or rating shall present —

(1) An appropriate graduation certificate or a certificate of completion from an
ATO; or

CH.284 – 286] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(2) Documentary evidence, acceptable to the Authority, of:
(i) At least 18 months of practical experience with the procedures,

practices, materials, tools, machine tools, and equipment generally
used in constructing, maintaining, or altering airframes, or powerplants
appropriate to the rating sought; or

(ii) At least 30 months of practical experience concurrently performing the
duties appropriate to both the airframe and powerplant ratings.

8.460 SKILL REQUIREMENTS
(a) Each applicant for an AMT licence or rating must pass an oral and a practical

test on the rating he seeks. The tests cover the applicant’s basic skill in
performing practical projects on the subjects covered by the written test for that
rating. An applicant for a powerplant rating must show his ability to make
satisfactory minor repairs to, and minor alterations of, propeller.

8.465 ATO STUDENTS
(a) Whenever an ATO school, certified under these schedules, demonstrates to the

Authority that a student is prepared to take the prescribed knowledge tests, that
student may take those tests before meeting the applicable experience
requirements and before passing the knowledge tests.

8.470 AMT PRIVILEGES AND LIMITATIONS
(a) The privileges and limitations of the licenced AMT are contained in

Schedule 5.
8.475 RECENT EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS
(a) The recent experience requirements for a licenced AMT are contained in

Schedule 5.
Section IV: Inspection Authorisations
8.480 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Section prescribes the requirements for issuance of inspection authorisa-

tions, and the conditions under which these authorisations are necessary.
8.485 ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS: GENERAL
(a) An applicant for an Inspection Authorisation shall comply with all eligibility

requirements.
(b) To be eligible for an Inspection Authorisation, an applicant shall —

(1) Hold a currently effective and valid AMT licence with both an airframe
rating and a powerplant rating, each of which is currently effective and has
been in effect for a total of at least 3 years;

(2) Have been actively engaged, for at least the 2-year period before the date of
application, in the maintenance of certificated aircraft and maintained in
accordance with these schedules;

(3) Have a fixed base of operations at which the applicant may be located in
person or by telephone during a normal working week but which need not
be the place where the applicant will exercise inspection authority;

(4) Have available the equipment, facilities, and inspection data necessary to
properly inspect airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, or any related
component, part, or appliance;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 287






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(5) Pass a knowledge test that demonstrates the applicant’s ability to inspect
according to safety standards for approving aircraft for return to service
after major and minor repairs, major and minor modifications, annual
inspections, and progressive inspections, which are performed under
Schedule 5; and

(c) An applicant who fails the knowledge test prescribed in paragraph (a)(5) of this
section may not apply for retesting until at least 90 days after the date he/she
failed the test.

8.490 INSPECTION AUTHORISATION: DURATION
(a) Each inspection authorisation expires on June 31 of each year. However, the

holder may exercise the privileges of that authorisation only while he/she
holds a currently effective AMT licence with both a currently effective
airframe rating and a currently effective powerplant rating.

(b) An inspection authorisation ceases to be effective whenever any of the following
occurs:
(1) The authorisation is surrendered, suspended, or revoked.
(2) The holder no longer has a fixed base of operation.
(3) The holder no longer has the equipment, facilities, and prescribed inspection

data for issuance of his/her authorisation.
(c) The holder of an inspection authorisation that is suspended or revoked shall,

upon the Authority’s request, return it to the Authority.
8.495 RENEWAL OF AUTHORISATION
(a) To be eligible for renewal of an Inspection Authorisation for a 1-year period,

an applicant shall, within 90 days prior to the expiration of the authorisation,
present evidence to an office designated by the Authority that the applicant still
meets the requirements and show that, during the current period of
authorisation, the applicant has —
(1) Performed at least one annual inspection during each 3-month period the

applicant held the authorisation;
(2) Performed inspections of at least two major repairs or major modifications

for each 3-month period the applicant held the authorisation;
(3) Performed or supervised and approved at least one progressive inspection in

accordance with standards prescribed by the Authority for each 12-month
period the applicant held the authorisation;

(4) Performed any combination of paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(3);
(5) Successfully completed an Inspection Authorisation refresher course or

series of courses acceptable to the Authority, of not less than 16 hours of
instruction during the 12-month period preceding the application for
renewal; or

(6) Passed a knowledge test administered by the Authority to determine that
the applicant’s knowledge of applicable schedules and standards is current.

(b) The holder of an inspection authorisation that has been in effect for less than 3
months before the expiration date need not comply with paragraph (a)(1)
through (5) of this section.

CH.284 – 288] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

8.500 PRIVILEGES AND LIMITATIONS
(a) The privileges and limitations for the holder of an Inspection Authorisation (IA)

are contained in Schedule 5.
Section V: Aviation Repair Specialists
8.505 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Section prescribes the requirements for issuance of Aviation Repair

Specialists (ARS) licences and ratings, and the conditions under which those
licences and ratings are necessary.

8.510 AVIATION REPAIR SPECIALIST LICENCES:
ELIGIBILITY

(a) An applicant for an aviation repair specialist licence and shall —
(1) Be at least 18 years of age;
(2) Demonstrate the ability to read, write, speak, and understand the English

language by reading and explaining appropriate maintenance publications
and by writing defect and repair statements;

(3) By specially qualified to perform maintenance on aircraft or components
thereof, appropriate to the job for which he/she was employed;

(4) Be employed for a specific job requiring those special qualifications
by a repair station certificated under Schedule 6 or a air operator
certificated under Schedule 12 that is required by its operating
certificate or approved specific operating provisions to provide
maintenance, preventive maintenance, or modifications to aircraft
approved with a continuous maintenance program according to its
maintenance control manual;

(5) Be recommended for certification by his employer, to the satisfaction of
the Authority, as able to satisfactorily maintain aircraft or components,
appropriate to the job for which he is employed;

(6) Have either:
(i) At least 18 months of practical experience in the procedures, practices,

inspection methods, materials, tools, machine tools, and equipment
generally used in the maintenance duties of the specific job for which
the person is to be employed and certificated; or

(ii) Completed formal training that is acceptable to the Authority and is
specifically designed to qualify the applicant for the job on which
the applicant is to be employed;

(7) This section does not apply to the issuance of an aviation repair specialist
licence (experimental aircraft builder).

8.515 RATINGS
(a) The following ratings are issued under this Section:

(1) Propeller.
(2) Avionics.
(3) Computer.
(4) Instrument.
(5) Accessory.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 289






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(6) Other specialized ratings as may be determined by the Authority.
Note: At no instance shall an aviation repair specialist licence be issued with an
airframe and/or powerplant rating to circumvent the process of obtaining an AMT
licence.

(b) Ratings for an applicant employed by an approved maintenance organisation
shall coincide with the rating(s) issued at the approved maintenance organisation
limited to the specific job for which the person is employed to perform,
supervise, or approve for return to service.
Note: At no instance shall an aviation repair specialist licence be issued a rating in
which the AMO has not been issued.

(c) Ratings for an applicant employed by an air operator shall coincide with the
approved specific operating provisions and the approved maintenance control
manual that identifies the air operator’s authorisations limited to the specific job
for which the person is employed to perform, supervise, or approve for return to
service.
Note: When employed by an air operator with the authorisation to perform and
approve for return to service maintenance under an equivalent system in Schedule
12, an aviation repair specialist licence should correspond to the speciality shop or
group in which they perform, supervise, or approve for return to service an
aeronautical product or aircraft. For example, Hydraulic component overhaul,
landing gear overhaul, special inspections, non-destructive testing, turbine disc
overhaul, etc.

8.520
AVIATION REPAIR SPECIALIST LICENCES: PRIVILEGES AND
LIMITATIONS

(a) The privileges and limitations for a licenced ARS are contained in Schedule 5.
8.525 AVIATION REPAIR SPECIALIST LICENCE: EXPERIMENTAL

AIRCRAFT BUILDER — ELIGIBILITY, PRIVILEGES AND
LIMITATIONS

(a) To be eligible for a aviation repair specialist licence (experimental aircraft
builder), an individual shall:
(1) Be at least 18 years of age;
(2) Be the primary builder of the aircraft to which the privileges of the licence

are applicable;
(3) Show to the satisfaction of the Authority that the individual has the

requisite skill to determine whether the aircraft is in a condition for safe
operations; and

(4) Be a citizen of The Bahamas or an individual citizen of a foreign country
who has lawfully been admitted for permanent residence in The Bahamas.

(b) The holder of an aviation repair specialist licence (experimental aircraft builder)
may perform condition inspections on the aircraft constructed by the holder in
accordance with the operating limitations of that aircraft.

CH.284 – 290] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

8.530 AVIATION REPAIR SPECIALIST LICENCES:
EXPERIMENTAL AIRCRAFT BUILDER — RATINGS

(a) The following rating will be issued under this paragraph:
(1) Experimental Aircraft Builder.

(b) The following information shall be required to follow the rating:
(1) Aircraft Make.
(2) Aircraft Model.
(3) Aircraft Serial Number.
(4) Certification Date of Aircraft.

Section VI: Parachute Riggers
8.535 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Section prescribes the requirements for issuance of a parachute rigger

licences and ratings, and the conditions under which those licences and ratings
are necessary.

8.540 ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS: GENERAL
(a) To be eligible for a parachute rigger licence, a person shall —

(1) Be at least 18 years of age; and
(2) Be able to read, speak, write, and understand the English language;
(3) Comply with the sections of this subpart that apply to the licence and type

rating he or she seeks.
8.545 LICENCE REQUIRED
(a) No person may pack, maintain, or alter any personnel-carrying parachute

intended for emergency use in connection with civil aircraft of The Bahamas
unless he or she holds an appropriate current licence and type rating issued
under this Subpart and complies with the prescribed requirements.

(b) Except as allowed by paragraph (c) of this subsection, no person may pack,
maintain, or alter any main parachute of a dual parachute pack to be used for
intentional jumping from a civil aircraft of The Bahamas unless he or she has an
appropriate valid licence issued under this Section.

(c) A person who does not hold a licence may pack the main parachute of a dual
parachute pack that is to be used by him or her for intentional jumping.

(d) Each person who holds a parachute rigger licence shall present it for inspection
upon the request of the Authority or an authorised representative of the
Director General Office, or any Federal, State or local law enforcement officer.

(e) The following parachute rigger licences are issued under this Section:
(1) Senior parachute rigger.
(2) Master parachute rigger.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 291






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

8.550 SENIOR PARACHUTE RIGGER LICENCE: EXPERIENCE,
KNOWLEDGE, AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS

(a) An applicant for a senior parachute rigger licence shall —
(1) Present evidence satisfactory to the Authority that he or she has packed at

least 20 parachutes of each type for which he or she seeks a rating, in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions and under the supervision
of a licenced parachute rigger holding a rating for that type or a person
holding an appropriate military rating;

(2) Pass a knowledge test, with respect to a parachute applicable to at least one
type parachute appropriate to the type rating sought, on —

(i) Construction, packing, and maintenance;
(ii) The manufacturer’s instructions;

(iii) The schedules of this Subpart; and
(3) Pass an oral and practical test showing the ability to pack and maintain at

least one type of parachute appropriate to the type rating sought.
8.555 MASTER PARACHUTE RIGGER LICENCE: EXPERIENCE,

KNOWLEDGE, AND SKILL REQUIREMENTS
(a) An applicant for a master parachute rigger licence shall meet the following

requirements:
(1) Present evidence satisfactory to the Authority of at least 3 years of

experience as a parachute rigger and having satisfactorily packed at least
100 parachutes of each of two types appropriate to type ratings held, in
accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions —

(i) While a licenced and appropriately rated senior parachute rigger; or
(ii) While under the supervision of a licenced and appropriately rated

parachute rigger or a person holding appropriate military ratings.
(iii) An applicant may combine experience specified in paragraphs (a) (1)

and (2) of this paragraph to meet the requirements of this subsection.
(2) If the applicant is not the holder of a senior parachute rigger licence, pass

a knowledge test, with respect to parachutes appropriate to the type rating
sought, on —

(i) Their construction, packing, and maintenance;
(ii) The manufacturer’s instructions; and

(iii) The schedules of this Subpart.
(3) Pass an oral and practical test showing the ability to pack and maintain two

types of parachutes appropriate to the type ratings sought.
8.560 TYPE RATINGS
(a) The following type ratings are issued under this subpart:

(1) Seat.
(2) Back.
(3) Chest.
(4) Lap.

CH.284 – 292] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) The holder of a parachute rigger licence who qualifies for a senior parachute
rigger licence is entitled to have placed on the senior parachute rigger licence the
ratings that were on the parachute rigger licence.

8.565 ADDITIONAL TYPE RATINGS: REQUIREMENTS
(a) A licenced parachute rigger who applies for an additional type rating shall —

(1) Present evidence satisfactory to the Authority of having packed at least 20
parachutes of the type rating sought, in accordance with the manufacturer’s
instructions and under the supervision of a licenced parachute rigger
holding a rating for that type or a person holding an appropriate military
rating; and

(2) Pass a practical test, to the satisfaction of the Authority, showing the ability
to pack and maintain the type of parachute for which the applicant seeks a
rating.

8.570 PRIVILEGES
(a) A licenced senior parachute rigger may —

(1) Pack or maintain (except for major repair) any type of parachute for which
he or she is rated; and

(2) Supervise other persons in packing any type of parachute for which he or
she is rated.

(b) A licenced master parachute rigger may —
(1) Pack, maintain, or alter any type of parachute for which he or she is rated;

and
(2) Supervise other persons in packing, maintaining, or altering any type of

parachute for which he or she is rated.
(c) A licenced parachute rigger need not comply with requirements related to

facilities, equipment, performance standards, records, recent experience, and
seal in packing, maintaining, or altering (if authorised) the main parachute of a
dual parachute pack to be used for intentional jumping.

8.575 FACILITIES AND EQUIPMENT
(a) No licenced parachute rigger shall exercise the privileges of his licence unless he

or she has at least the following facilities and equipment available —
(1) A smooth top table at least three feet wide by 40 feet long;
(2) Suitable housing that is adequately heated, lighted, and ventilated for drying

and airing parachutes;
(3) Enough packing tools and other equipment to pack and maintain the types

of parachutes serviced; and
(4) Adequate housing facilities to perform applicable duties and to protect tools

and equipment.
8.580 PERFORMANCE STANDARDS
(a) No licenced parachute rigger may —

(1) Pack, maintain, or alter any parachute unless he or she is rated for that type;
(2) Pack a parachute that is not safe for emergency use;
(3) Pack a parachute that has not been thoroughly dried and aired;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 293






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(4) Alter a parachute in a manner that is not specifically authorised by the
Authority or the manufacturer;

(5) Pack, maintain, or alter a parachute in any manner that deviates from
procedures approved by the Authority or the manufacturer of the
parachute; or

(6) Exercise the privileges of the licence and type rating unless he or she
understands the current manufacturer’s instructions for the operation
involved and has —
(i) Performed duties under the licence for at least 90 days within the

preceding 12 months; or
(ii) Shown to the Authority the ability to perform those duties.

8.585 RECORDS
(a) Each licenced parachute rigger shall keep a record of the packing, maintenance,

and alteration of parachutes performed or supervision of those activities.
(b) Each licenced parachute rigger who packs a parachute shall enter on the

parachute packing record attached to the parachute, the date and place of the
packing, a notation of any defects found during any inspection, and shall sign
that record with his or her name and licence number.

(c) Each parachute rigger shall sign the record required by paragraph (b) of this
subsection with the name and the number of his or her licence.

(d) The record required by paragraph (a) of this subsection shall contain, with
respect to each parachute worked on, a statement of —
(1) Its type and make;
(2) Its serial number;
(3) The name and address of its owner or user;
(4) The kind and extent of the work performed;
(5) The date when and place where the work was performed; and
(6) The results of any drop tests made with it.

(e) Each person who makes a record under paragraph (a) of this subsection shall
keep it for at least 2 years after the date it is made.

8.590 SEAL
(a) Each licenced parachute rigger shall have a seal with an identifying mark

prescribed by the Authority, and a seal press.
(b) After packing a parachute, the parachute rigger shall seal the pack with his or

her seal in accordance with the manufacturer’s recommendation for that type of
parachute.

Section VI: Air Traffic Controllers
8.595 APPLICABILITY

(Reserved)
8.600 REQUIRED LICENCES, AND RATING OR QUALIFICATION

(Reserved)

CH.284 – 294] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

8.605 ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS: GENERAL
(Reserved)

8.610 KNOWLEDGE REQUIREMENTS
(Reserved)

8.615 SKILL REQUIREMENTS: OPERATING POSITIONS
(Reserved)

8.620 PRACTICAL EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS: FACILITY RATING
(Reserved)

8.625 SKILL REQUIREMENTS: FACILITY RATINGS
(Reserved)

8.630 PRIVILEGES AND LIMITATIONS
(Reserved)

8.635 MAXIMUM HOURS
(Reserved)

8.640 CURRENCY REQUIREMENTS
(Reserved)

SUBPART D
MEDICAL STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION

Section I: General
8.645 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart prescribes the medical standards and certification procedures for

issuing and reissuing Class 1, Class 2, and Class 3 medical certificates.
8.650 MEDICAL RECORDS
(a) Each applicant for a medical certificate shall provide the medical examiner with

a personally certified statement of medical facts concerning personal, familiar,
and hereditary history that is as complete and accurate as the applicant’s
knowledge permits.

(b) Whenever the Authority finds that additional medical information or history is
needed, the Authority will request that the applicant —
(1) Furnish that information; or
(2) Authorise any clinic, hospital, physician, or other person to release to the

Authority all available information or records concerning that history.
(c) If an applicant or holder of a medical certificate fails to provide the requested

medical information or history, or fails to authorise the release so requested, the
Authority may —
(1) Suspend, modify, or revoke all medical certificates the airman holds; or
(2) In the case of an applicant, deny the application for an airman medical

certificate.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 295






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(d) If an airman medical certificate is suspended or modified under paragraph (c)
of this subsection, that suspension or modification remains in effect until —
(1) The holder or applicant provides the requested information, history, or

authorisation to the Authority; and
(2) The Authority determines whether the holder or applicant meets the

medical standards.
8.655 AVIATION MEDICAL EXAMINER: DEFINITION AND

AUTHORITY
(a) The Authority will designate and authorise each AME within The Bahamas

to —
(1) Accept applications for physical examinations necessary for issuing

medical certificates under This Schedule.
(2) Conduct physical examinations for medical certificates, under the general

supervision of Authority.
(3) Issue or deny medical certificates in accordance with this Schedule, subject

to reconsideration by the an authorised representative of the Authority.
(4) Issue student pilot certificates under this Schedule.

(b) Each AME shall be qualified and licenced in the practice of medicine and shall
have received training in aviation medicine and be knowledgeable of the
conditions in which the holders of licences and ratings carry out their duties.

(c) Each AME shall report to the Authority any individual case where, in the
examiner’s judgement, an applicant’s failure to meet any requirement could
jeopardise flight safety.

8.660 DELEGATION OF AUTHORITY
(a) The Authority will delegate to each AME the authority to issue or deny

medical certificates to the extent necessary to —
(1) Examine applicants for and holders of medical certificates to determine

whether they meet applicable medical standards; and
(2) Issue, renew, and deny medical certificates, and issue, renew, deny, and

withdraw Authorisations for Special Issuance of a Medical Certificate to an
applicant based on meeting or failing to meet applicable medical standards.

(b) The Authority may delegate to authorised representatives of the Authority, the
authority to examine applicants for and holders of medical certificates for
compliance with applicable medical standards and to issue, renew, and deny
medical certificates.

(c) The Authority may designate flight surgeons of the Armed Forces on specified
military posts, stations, and facilities, as AMEs. Such AMEs may —
(1) Conduct physical examinations for the Authority to applicants who are on

active duty or who are otherwise eligible for medical certification as civil
airmen; and

(2) Issue or deny an appropriate medical certificate in accordance with the
schedules of This Schedule and the policies of the Authority.

(d) The Authority retains the right to reconsider any action of an AME.

CH.284 – 296] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(e) A holder of a medical certificate issued by an AME may consider it to be
affirmed as issued unless the Authority reverses that issuance within 60 days
after the date of issuance.

Section II: Medical Certification Procedures
8.665 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Section prescribes the medical certification procedures required for the

issuance of all medical certificates.
8.670 ISSUANCE OF MEDICAL CERTIFICATE
(a) The Authority will issue the applicable medical certificate to any person who

meets the medical standards prescribed in this Subpart, based on medical
examination and evaluation of the applicant’s history and condition.

(b) Each person to be issued a medical certificate shall undergo a medical
examination based on the physical and mental standards contained in this
Subpart.

(c) Any person who does not meet the medical standards of this Subpart may
apply for the discretionary issuance of a certificate.

8.675 MEDICAL CERTIFICATE REQUIREMENTS
(a) To conduct the following operations, a person shall —

(1) Hold a Class 1 medical certificate when exercising the privileges of an airline
transport pilot licence;

(2) Hold at least a Class 2 medical certificate when exercising the privileges of a
commercial pilot licence; or

(3) Hold at least a Class 3 medical certificate —
(i) When exercising the privileges of a student pilot licence;

(ii) When exercising the privileges of a private pilot licence;
(iii) When exercising the privileges of a flight instructor licence, except as a

glider flight instructor, if acting as the PIC or serving as a required
crew member; or

(iv) Except for a glider category rating or a balloon class rating, prior to
taking a practical test in an aircraft.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3) of this subsection, a flight engineer —
(1) Shall hold a Class 2 or Class 1 medical certificate issued within the preceding

12 months;
(2) When operating in a foreign country, may use evidence of current medical

qualification for that country’s licence; and
(3) In the case of a flight engineer licence, may use evidence of current medical

qualification accepted for the issue of that licence in lieu of a medical
certificate.

(c) To act as an air traffic controller, except for a air traffic supervisory person
employed by the Authority, a person shall hold at least a Class 2 medical
certificate.
See Appendix 1 to 8.675 for persons exempt from holding a medical certificate.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 297






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

8.680 DURATION OF A MEDICAL CERTIFICATE
(a) A Class 1 medical certificate expires at the end of the last day of —

(1) The sixth month after the month of the date of examination shown on the
licence for operations requiring an airline transport pilot licence;

(2) The 12th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the
licence for operations requiring a commercial pilot licence or an air traffic
controller licence; or

(3) As specified in paragraph (c) of this subsection for other licences.
(b) A Class 2 medical certificate expires at the end of the last day of —

(1) The 12th month after the month of the date of examination shown on the
certificate for operations requiring a commercial pilot licence or an air
traffic controller licence; or

(2) The period specified in paragraph (c) of this subsection for other licences.
(c) A Class 3 medical certificate for operations requiring a private pilot licence, a

flight instructor licence (when acting as PIC or a required crew member in
operations other than glider or balloon), or a student pilot licence expires at the
end of —
(1) The 36th month after the month of the date of the examination shown on

the certificate if the person has not reached his or her 40th birthday on or
before the date of the examination; or

(2) The 24th month after the month of the date of the examination shown on
the certificate if the person has reached his or her 40th birthday on or
before the date of the examination.

8.685 SPECIAL ISSUANCE OF MEDICAL CERTIFICATE
(a) The Authority may issue a Special Issuance of a Medical Certificate

(Authorisation) to an applicant who does not meet the applicable standards for
the medical certificate sought if the applicant shows to the satisfaction of the
Authority that —
(1) The duties authorised by the medical certificate can be performed without

jeopardising flight safety; and
(2) Relevant ability, skill, and experience of the applicant and operational

conditions have been given due consideration.
(b) The Authority will issue a medical limitation on a licence when the Authority

or an AME determines the safe performance of the licence holder’s duties is
dependent on compliance with such a limitation.

8.690 RENEWAL OF MEDICAL CERTIFICATE
(a) The requirements for the renewal of a Medical Assessment are the same as those

for the initial assessment except where otherwise specifically stated.
8.695 DENIAL OF MEDICAL CERTIFICATE
(a) Any applicant who is denied a medical certificate by an AME may, within 30

days after the date of the denial, apply in writing and in duplicate to the
Authority for reconsideration of that denial. If the applicant does not ask for
reconsideration during the 30-day period after the date of the denial, the
Authority will consider that he or she has withdrawn the application for a
medical certificate.

CH.284 – 298] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) The denial of a medical certificate —
(1) By an aviation medical examiner is not a denial by the Authority; and
(2) By the Authority is considered to be a denial by the Authority.

Section III: Physical and Mental Standards — All Medical Certificates
8.700 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Section prescribes the physical medical standards required for all medical

certificates.
8.705 GENERAL MEDICAL REQUIREMENTS
(a) No person may hold nor be issued a medical certificate who —

(1) Has any organic, functional or structural disease, defect or limitation
(active, latent, acute or chronic);

(2) Has any wound, injury or sequelae from operation; or
(3) Uses any medication or other treatment that, based on the case history and

appropriate, qualified medical judgement relating to the condition(s)
involved, the Authority finds —
(i) Makes the applicant unable to safely perform the duties or exercise

the privileges of the licence(s) or rating(s) applied for or held; or
(ii) May reasonably be expected, for the maximum duration of the airman

medical certificate applied for or held, to make the applicant unable to
perform those duties or exercise those privileges.

8.710 MENTAL STANDARDS
(a) No person may hold nor be issued a medical certificate who has an established

medical history or clinical diagnosis of —
(1) A personality disorder that is severe enough to have repeatedly manifested

itself by overt acts;
(2) A psychosis;
Note: A history of acute toxic psychosis need not be regarded as disqualifying,
provided that the applicant has suffered no permanent impairment.
(3) A bipolar (manic-depressive) disorder;
(4) Substance dependence, except where there is established clinical evidence,

satisfactory to the Authority, of recovery, including sustained total
abstinence from the substance(s) for not less than the preceding 2 years; or

(5) Other personality disorders, neurosis, or other mental condition that
would likely jeopardise flight safety.

8.715 VISUAL REQUIREMENTS
(a) Each person holding or being issued a medical certificate shall have normally

functioning eyes and adnexae, and shall have no active pathological condition,
acute or chronic, which is likely to jeopardise flight safety.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 299






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(b) Each person issued a medical certificate shall meet the following minimum
visual standards —
(1) Distant visual acuity of not less than 6/12 (20/40, 0.5) in each eye separately,

with or without corrective lenses and provided that that person —
(i) Uses not more than one pair of correcting lenses to demonstrate

compliance with visual acuity requirements;
(ii) May not use single-vision near correction lenses (full lenses of

one power only, appropriate to reading);
(iii) May use “lookover”, bifocal or trifocal lenses in order to read the

instruments and a chart or manual held in the hand, and to make use of
distant vision through the windscreen without removing the lenses;

Note: When required to obtain or renew correcting lenses, an airman should
advise the AME of reading distances for the visual flight deck tasks relevant to
the types of aircraft in which the applicant is likely to function.
(2) Uncorrected distance visual acuity of not less than 6/60 (20/200, 0.1)

in either eye or the refractive error falls within the range of 5 dioptres
(equivalent spherical error);

(3) Near visual acuity to read an N5 chart (N5 refers to “Times Roman” type-
face) at a distance selected by the applicant of between 30 and 50 cm,
with or without corrective lenses;

(4) Colour perception necessary for the safe performance of airman duties;
(5) Normal fields of vision; and
(6) Bifoveal fixation and vergence-phoria relationship sufficient to prevent a

break in fusion under conditions that may reasonably be expected to occur
in performing airman duties.

8.720 AUDITORY REQUIREMENTS
(a) No person may hold nor be issued a medical certificate having any hearing

defect which is likely to jeopardise flight safety.
(b) Each person holding or being issued a medical certificate shall —

(1) Be tested on a pure-tone audiometer not less than once every five years up to
the age of 40 years, and thereafter not less than once every three years; or

(2) Demonstrate acceptable hearing by at least one of the following tests —
(i) Hear an average conversational voice in a quiet room, using both

ears, at a distance of 2 meters from the examiner, with the back
turned to the examiner;

(ii) Understand speech as determined by audiometric speech
discrimination testing to a score of at least 70 percent obtained in one
ear or in a sound field environment; or

(iii) Provide acceptable results of pure tone audiometric testing of unaided
hearing acuity according to the following table of minimum acceptable
thresholds:

CH.284 – 300] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002



Frequency (Hz) 500
Hz

1000
Hz

2000
Hz

3000
Hz

Better ear (dB) 35 30 30 40

Poorer ear (dB) 35 50 50 60


8.725 CARDIOVASCULAR
(a) No person may hold nor be issued a medical certificate having any abnormality

of the heart, congenital or acquired, which is likely to jeopardise flight safety.
(b) No person may hold nor be issued a medical certificate having an established

medical history or clinical diagnosis of any of the following cardiovascular
conditions:
(1) Myocardial infarction.
(2) Angina pectoris.
(3) Coronary heart disease that has required treatment or, if untreated, that has

been symptomatic or clinically significant.
(4) Cardiac valve replacement.
(5) Permanent cardiac pacemaker implantation.
(6) Heart replacement.

(c) No person may hold or be issued a medical certificate if that person has:
(1) Systolic and diastolic blood pressures outside normal limits; or
(2) A significant functional or structural abnormality of the circulatory tree.

8.730 NEUROLOGICAL REQUIREMENTS
(a) No person may hold nor be issued a medical certificate having any neurological

disorder, disturbance of consciousness, or neurological condition which is likely
to jeopardise flight safety.

(b) No person may hold nor be issued a medical certificate having an established
medical history or clinical diagnosis of any of the following neurological
conditions:
(1) Epilepsy.
(2) A disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory medical explanation of

the cause.
(3) A transient loss of control of nervous system function(s) without

satisfactory medical explanation of the cause.
8.735 OTHER DISQUALIFYING PHYSICAL CONDITIONS
(a) No person may hold nor be issued a medical certificate having an established

medical history or clinical diagnosis of any of the following medical conditions:
(1) A disease or condition of the middle or internal ear, nose, oral cavity,

pharynx, or larynx that —
(i) Interferes with, or is aggravated by, flying or may reasonably be

expected to do so; or

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 301






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(ii) Interferes with, or may reasonably be expected to interfere with,
clear and effective speech communication.

(2) A disease or condition manifested by, or that may reasonably be expected to
be manifested by, vertigo or a disturbance of equilibrium.

(3) Permanent disturbances of the vestibular apparatus.
(4) Acute disability of the lungs or any active disease of the structures of the

lungs, mediastinum or pleura.
(5) Disabling disease with important impairment of function of the gastro-

intestinal tract or its adnexae.
(6) Sequelae of disease or surgical intervention on any part of the digestive

tract or its adnexae, likely to cause incapacity in flight, in particular
obstructions due to stricture or compression.

(7) Hernias that might cause incapacitating symptoms.
(8) Metabolic, nutritional or endocrine disorders likely to interfere with safe

conduct of flight.
(9) Diabetes mellitus that requires insulin or any other hypoglycamic drug for

control.
(10) Significant localised or generalised enlargement of the lymphatic glands

and of diseases of the blood.
(11) Any signs of organic disease of the kidney.
(12) Urine containing abnormal element considered to be of pathological

significance.
(13) Abnormality of the urinary passages or the genital organs.
(14) Any sequelae of disease or surgical procedures on the kidneys and the

urinary tract likely to cause incapacity, in particular any obstructions due
to stricture or compression.

(15) Compensated nephrectomy without hypertension or uraemia.
(16) Severe menstrual disturbances that have proved unresponsive to treatment.
(17) Any active disease of the bones, joints, muscles or tendons.
(18) Head injury, the effects of which are likely to interfere with or jeopardise

flight safety.
(b) In addition to the requirements in paragraph (a), no person may hold nor be

issued a Class 2 medical certificate who has an established medical history or
clinical diagnosis of any of the following medical conditions, except in cases
where accredited medical conclusion indicates that the condition is not likely to
affect the safe exercise of the applicant’s licence and rating privileges:
(1) Active pulmonary tuberculosis.
(2) Quiescent or healed lesions which are known to be tuberculous, or are

presumably tuberculous in origin.
(3) Serious malformation or serious, acute or chronic affection of the buccal

cavity or upper respiratory tract.
(4) Acute or chronic impairment nasal air entry.

CH.284 – 302] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(5) Pregnancy —
(i) During third trimester;

(ii) Presenting any complications; or
(iii) Following confinement or termination of pregnancy, until re-examina-

tion and assessment as fit.
(c) Each person seeking first issuance of a Class 2 medical certificate who has

a personal history of syphilis shall furnish evidence, satisfactory to the
medical examiner, that the person has undergone adequate treatment.

Section IV: Class 1 Medical Certificate
8.740 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Section prescribes the physical medical standards required for the issuance

of a Class 1 medical certificate.
8.745 ELIGIBILITY
(a) Each applicant shall meet the requirements of this subsection, in addition to the

general requirements of Section III to be eligible for and to remain eligible for a
Class 1 medical certificate.

8.750 ADDITIONAL VISUAL REQUIREMENTS
(a) Each person holding or being issued a Class 1 medical certificate shall —

(1) Possess a distant visual acuity of not less than 6/9 (20/30, 0.3) in each eye
separately with or without the use of correcting lenses;

(2) Uncorrected distance visual acuity of not less than 6/60 (20/200, 0.1)
in either eye or the refractive error falls within the range of 3 dioptres
(equivalent spherical error); and

(3) Have the ability to read the N14 chart (N14 refers to “Times Roman” type
face) or its equivalent at a distance of 39.3 inches (100 cm).

8.755 ADDITIONAL AUDITORY REQUIREMENTS
(a) Each person holding or being issued a Class 1 medical certificate shall —

(1) Demonstrate a hearing performance in each ear separately equivalent to
that of a normal person, against a background noise that will simulate the
masking properties of flight deck noise upon speech and audio tones;

(2) Have no permanent obstruction of the Eustachian tubes; and
(3) Have no unhealed (unclosed) perforation of the tympanic membranes.

8.760 ADDITIONAL CARDIOVASCULAR REQUIREMENTS
(a) Each person holding or being issued a Class 1 Medical Certificate shall

demonstrate an absence of myocardial infarction and other clinically significant
abnormality on an electrocardiographic examination —
(1) At the first application;
(2) On a two-year basis after reaching the 30th birthday; and
(3) On an annual basis after reaching the 40th birthday.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 303






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

Section V: Class 2 Medical Certificate
8.765 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Section prescribes the physical medical standards required for the issuance

of a Class 2 medical certificate.
8.770 ELIGIBILITY
(a) Each applicant shall meet the requirements of this subsection, in addition to the

general requirements of Section III, to be eligible for and to remain eligible for a
Class 2 medical certificate.

8.775 ADDITIONAL VISUAL REQUIREMENTS
(a) Each person holding or being issued a Class 2 Medical Certificate shall possess a

distant visual acuity of not less than 6/12 (20/40, 0.5) in each eye separately with
or without the use of correcting lenses.

8.780 ADDITIONAL AUDITORY REQUIREMENTS
(a) Each person holding or being issued a Class 2 medical certificate shall —

(1) For a commercial pilot, demonstrate a hearing performance in each ear
separately equivalent to that of a normal person, against a background
noise that will simulate the masking properties of flight deck noise upon
speech and audio tones;

(2) For an air traffic controller, demonstrate a hearing performance in each
ear separately equivalent to that of a normal person, against a background
noise that will simulate that experienced in a typical air traffic control
environment; and

(3) Have no unhealed (unclosed) perforation of the tympanic membranes.
APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.045
GENERAL PILOT TRAINING REQUIREMENTS

(a) An applicant shall receive training in the following subjects:
(1) High-altitude aerodynamics and meteorology.
(2) Respiration.
(3) Effects, symptoms, and causes of hypoxia and any other high-altitude

sickness.
(4) Duration of consciousness without supplemental oxygen.
(5) Effects of prolonged usage of supplemental oxygen.
(6) Causes and effects of gas expansion and gas bubble formation.
(7) Preventive measures for eliminating gas expansion, gas bubble formation,

and high-altitude sickness.
(8) Physical phenomena and incidents of decompression.
(9) Any other physiological aspects of high-altitude flight.

CH.284 – 304] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

The prescribed training and endorsement is not required if the pilot or pilot
applicant can document satisfactory accomplishment of any of the
following in a pressurised aircraft, or in an approved flight simulator or
approved flight training device that is representative of a pressurised
aircraft —
(10) Serving as PIC before February 28, 2001;
(11) Completing a practical test for a pilot licence or rating before February 28,

2001;
(12) Completing an official PIC check conducted by the military services of

The Bahamas; or
(13) Completing a PIC proficiency check under Schedule 14 conducted by

the Authority or by an approved check airman.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.055
MILITARY PILOTS OR FORMER MILITARY PILOTS: SPECIAL RULES
(a) The prescribed qualifying requirements for a military pilot are —

Military pilots on active flying status within the past 12 months. A rated
military pilot or former rated military pilot who has been on active flying
status within the 12 months before applying shall —
(1) Pass a knowledge test on the appropriate parts of these schedules that

apply to pilot privileges and limitations, air traffic and general
operating rules, and accident reporting rules;

(2) Present documentation showing compliance with the requirements of
paragraph (c) of this subsection for at least one aircraft category rating; and

(3) Present documentation showing that the applicant is or was, at any time
during the 12 calendar months before the month of application —
(i) A rated military pilot on active flying status in an armed force of The

Bahamas; or
(ii) A rated military pilot of an armed force of a contracting foreign state to

the Convention on International Civil Aviation, assigned to pilot duties
(other than flight training) with an armed force of The Bahamas and
holds, at the time of application, a current civil pilot licence issued by
that Contracting State authorising at least the privileges of the pilot
licence sought.

Aircraft category, class, and type ratings. The Authority may issue to a rated
military pilot or former rated military pilot an aircraft category, class, or type
rating to a commercial pilot licence if the pilot presents documentary evidence
that shows satisfactory accomplishment of —
(4) A military pilot check and instrument proficiency check of The Bahamas

in that aircraft category, class, or type, if applicable, as PIC during the 12
calendar months before the month of application; and

(5) At least 10 hours of PIC time in that aircraft category, class, or type, if
applicable, during the 12 calendar months before the month of application.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 305






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

Instrument rating. A rated military pilot or former rated military pilot may
apply for an aeroplane, helicopter, or powered-lift-instrument rating to be
added to his or her commercial pilot licence if the pilot has, within the 12
calendar months preceding the month of application —
(6) Passed an instrument proficiency check by an Armed Force of The

Bahamas in the aircraft category for the instrument rating sought; and
(7) Received authorisation from an Armed Force of The Bahamas to

conduct IFR flights on Federal airways in that aircraft category and
class for the instrument rating sought.

Aircraft type rating. The Authority will issue an aircraft type rating only for
aircraft types that the Authority has certified for civil operations.
Aircraft type rating placed on an airline transport pilot licence. The Authority
may issue to a rated military pilot or former rated military pilot who holds an
airline transport pilot licence an aircraft type rating provided that pilot —
(8) Holds a category and class rating for that type of aircraft at the airline

transport pilot licence level; and
(9) Passed an official military pilot of The Bahamas check and instrument

proficiency check in that type of aircraft as PIC during the 12 calendar
months before the month of application.

Evidentiary documents. The Authority may accept the following documents
as satisfactory evidence of military pilot status:
(10) An official identification card issued to the pilot by an armed force to

demonstrate membership in the armed forces.
(11) An original or a copy of a certificate of discharge or release from an

armed force of The Bahamas.
(12) At least one of the following —

(i) An order of an Armed Force of The Bahamas to flight status as
a military pilot;

(ii) An Armed Force form or logbook showing military pilot status; or
(iii) An order showing that the applicant graduated from a military pilot

school of The Bahamas and received a rating as a military pilot.
(13) A certified Armed Force logbook or an appropriate official Armed

Force form or summary to demonstrate flight time in military aircraft
as a member of an Armed Force of The Bahamas.

(14) An official Armed Force of The Bahamas record of a military
designation as PIC.

(15) An official record of satisfactory accomplishment of an instrument
proficiency check during the 12 calendar months preceding the month
of the application.

CH.284 – 306] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.070
PREREQUISITES FOR PRACTICAL TESTS

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), to be eligible for a practical test for a
licence or rating issued under this Schedule, an applicant shall —
(1) Pass the required knowledge test within the 24-calendar-month period

preceding the month the applicant completes the practical test, if a
knowledge test is required;

(2) Present the knowledge test report at the time of application for the
practical test, if a knowledge test is required;

(3) Have satisfactorily accomplished the required training and obtained
the aeronautical experience prescribed by this Schedule for the licence
or rating sought;

(4) Meet the prescribed age requirement of this Subpart for the issuance
of the licence or rating sought; and

(5) Have an endorsement in his or her logbook or training record that has
been signed by an authorised instructor who certifies that the applicant —
(i) Has received and logged training time within 60 days preceding

the date of application in preparation for the practical test;
(ii) Is prepared for the required practical test; and
(iii) Has demonstrated satisfactory knowledge of the subject areas in

which the applicant was deficient on the airman knowledge test.
An applicant for an airline transport pilot licence or an additional rating to
an airline transport licence may take the practical test for that licence or
rating with an expired knowledge test report, provided that the applicant —
(6) Is employed as a flight crew member by a certificate holder under

Schedule 12 at the time of the practical test and has satisfactorily
accomplished that operator’s approved —

(i) PIC aircraft qualification training program that is appropriate to
the licence and rating sought; and

(ii) Qualification training requirements appropriate to the licence
and rating sought; or

(7) Is employed as a flight crew member in scheduled military air
transport operations of The Bahamas at the time of the practical test,
and has accomplished the PIC aircraft qualification training program
that is appropriate to the licence and rating sought.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.080
PRACTICAL TESTS: REQUIRED AIRCRAFT, SIMULATION, AND

EQUIPMENT
(a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2), or when permitted to

accomplish the entire flight increment of the practical test in an approved
flight simulator or an approved flight training device, an applicant for a
licence or rating issued under This Schedule shall furnish —

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 307






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(1) An aircraft of The Bahamas registry for each required test that —
(i) Is of the category, class, and type, if applicable, applicable to

the licence or rating sought; and
(ii) Has a current standard, limited, or primary airworthiness

certificate.
(2) At the discretion of the examiner who administers the practical test,

the applicant may furnish —
(i) An aircraft that has a current airworthiness certificate other than

standard, limited, or primary but that otherwise meets the
requirement of paragraph (a)(1);

(ii) An aircraft of the same category, class, and type, if applicable, of
foreign registry that is properly certified by the country of registry; or

(iii) A military aircraft of the same category, class, and type, if applicable,
for which the applicant is applying for a licence or rating.

Required equipment (other than controls). Each applicant for a practical
test shall use an aircraft that has —
(3) The equipment for each area of operation required for the practical

test;
(4) No prescribed operating limitations that prohibit its use in any of the

areas of operation required for the practical test;
(5) Except as provided in paragraph (e), at least two pilot stations with

adequate visibility for each person to operate the aircraft safely; and
(6) Cockpit and outside visibility adequate to evaluate the performance of the

applicant when an additional jump seat is provided for the examiner.
Required controls. Each applicant for a practical test shall use an aircraft
(other than a lighter-than-air aircraft) that has engine power controls and
flight controls that are easily reached and operable in a conventional
manner by both pilots, unless the examiner determines that the practical test
can be conducted safely in the aircraft without the controls being easily
reached.
Simulated instrument flight equipment. An applicant for a practical test that
involves manoeuvring an aircraft solely by reference to instruments shall
furnish —
(7) Equipment on board the aircraft that permits the applicant to pass the

areas of operation that apply to the rating sought; and
(8) A device that prevents the applicant from having visual reference outside

the aircraft, but does not prevent the examiner from having visual reference
outside the aircraft, and is otherwise acceptable to the Authority.

Aircraft with single controls. An applicant may complete a practical test in
an aircraft having a single set of controls, provided the —
(9) Examiner agrees to conduct the test;
(10) Test does not involve a demonstration of instrument skills; and
(11) Proficiency of the applicant can be observed by an examiner who is in

a position to observe the applicant.

CH.284 – 308] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.090
RECORDS OF TRAINING TIME

(a) Each person shall enter the following information for each flight or lesson
logged —
(1) General:

(i) Date.
(ii) Total flight time.
(iii) Location where the aircraft departed and arrived, or for lessons

in an approved flight simulator or an approved flight training
device, the location where the lesson occurred.

(iv) Type and identification of aircraft, approved flight simulator, or
approved flight training device, as appropriate.

(v) The name of a safety pilot, if required by Schedule 10.
(2) Type of pilot experience or training —

(i) Solo.
(ii) PIC.
(iii) SIC.
(iv) Flight and ground training received from an authorised

instructor.
(v) Training received in an approved flight simulator or approved

flight training device from an authorised instructor.
(3) Conditions of flight —

(i) Day or night.
(ii) Actual instrument.
(iii) Simulated instrument conditions in flight, an approved flight

simulator, or an approved flight training device.
Logging of pilot time. The pilot time described in this subsection may be
used to —
(4) Apply for a licence or rating issued under This Schedule; or
(5) Satisfy the recent flight experience requirements of Schedule 10, 11 or 14.
Logging of solo flight time. Except for a student pilot acting as PIC of an airship
requiring more than one flight crew member, a pilot may log as solo flight time
only that flight time when the pilot is the sole occupant of the aircraft.
Logging of PIC flight time.
(6) A private or commercial pilot may log PIC time only for that flight

time during which that person is —
(i) The sole manipulator of the controls of an aircraft for which the

pilot is rated;
(ii) Acting as PIC of an aircraft on which more than one pilot is

required under the type certification of the aircraft or the
schedules under which the flight is conducted; or

(iii) A sole occupant.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 309






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(7) An airline transport pilot may log as PIC time all of the flight time while
acting as PIC of an operation requiring an airline transport pilot licence.

(8) An authorised instructor may log as PIC time all flight time while
acting as an authorised instructor.

(9) A student pilot may log PIC time when the student pilot —
(i) Is the sole occupant of the aircraft or is performing functions of

the PIC of an airship requiring more than one flight crew
member;

(ii) Has a current solo flight endorsement; or
(iii) Is undergoing training for a pilot licence or rating.

Logging SIC flight time. A person may log SIC flight time only for that
flight time during which that person —
(10) Is qualified in accordance with the SIC requirements of Schedule 10,

and occupies a crew member station in an aircraft that requires more
than one pilot by the aircraft’s type certificate; or

(11) Holds the appropriate category, class, and instrument rating (if an
instrument rating is required for the flight) for the aircraft being flown,
and more than one pilot is required under the type certification of the
aircraft or the schedule under which the flight is being conducted.

Logging instrument flight time.
(12) A person may log instrument flight time only for that flight time when

the person operates the aircraft solely by reference to instruments
under actual or simulated instrument flight conditions.

(13) An authorised instructor may log instrument flight time when conducting
instrument flight instruction in actual instrument flight conditions.

(14) For the purposes of logging instrument flight time to meet the recent
instrument experience requirements of 9.4.1.10, the following
information shall be recorded in a person’s logbook —

(i) The location and type of each instrument approach
accomplished; and

(ii) The name of the safety pilot, if required.
(15) An approved flight simulator or approved flight training device may

be used by a person to log instrument flight time, provided an
authorised instructor is present during the simulated flight.

Logging training time.
(16) A person may log training time when that person receives training

from an authorised instructor in an aircraft, approved flight simulator,
or approved flight training device.

(17) The training time shall be logged in a logbook and shall —
(i) Be endorsed in a legible manner by the authorised instructor; and
(ii) Include a description of the training given, the length of the

training lesson, and the instructor’s signature, licence number,
and licence expiration date.

CH.284 – 310] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.100
USE OF AN APPROVED FLIGHT SIMULATOR OR AN APPROVED FLIGHT

TRAINING DEVICE
(a) In an aeroplane. If an approved flight simulator or approved flight training

device is used for accomplishing any of the training and the required
practical test for a pilot licence with an aeroplane category, class, and type
rating, if applicable, the applicant, approved flight simulator, and approved
flight training device are subject to the following requirements:
(1) Some or all of the limitations of paragraph (a)(2) through (a)(11) of

this subsection may apply.
(2) The flight simulator or flight training device permitted by paragraph

(a)(1) of this subsection shall be conducted in accordance with an
approved course at an ATO.

(3) To complete all training and testing (except preflight inspection) for
an additional aeroplane rating without limitations when using a flight
simulator —
(i) The flight simulator must be approved as Level C or Level D; and

(ii) The applicant must meet at least one of the following:
(A) Hold a type rating for a turbojet or turbofan aeroplane of the same

class of aeroplane for which the type rating is sought, or have been
appointed by a military service as a PIC of an aeroplane of the
same class of aeroplane for which the type rating is sought, if a
type rating in a turbojet or turbofan aeroplane is sought.

(B) Hold a type rating for a turbopropeller aeroplane of the same
class of aeroplane for which the type rating is sought, or have
been designated by a military service as a PIC of an aeroplane
of the same class of aeroplane for which the type rating is
sought, if a type rating in a turbopropeller aeroplane is sought.

(C) Have at least 2,000 hours of flight time, of which 500 hours
is in turbine-powered aeroplanes of the same class of
aeroplane for which the type rating is sought.

(D) Have at least 500 hours of flight time in the same type
aeroplane as the aeroplane for which the rating is sought.

(E) Have at least 1,000 hours of flight time in at least two
different aeroplanes requiring a type rating.

(4) Subject to the limitation of paragraph (a)(5) of this subsection, an
applicant who does not meet the requirements of paragraph (a)(3) of this
subsection may complete all training and testing (except for preflight
inspection) for a pilot licence or rating when using a flight simulator if —
(i) The flight simulator is approved as a Level C or Level D; and

(ii) The applicant meets at least one of the following:
(A) Holds a type rating in a propeller-driven aeroplane if a type

rating in a turbojet or turbofan aeroplane is sought, or holds
a type rating in a turbojet or turbofan aeroplane if a type
rating in a propeller-driven aeroplane is sought; or

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 311






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(B) Since the beginning of the 12th calendar month before the month
in which the applicant completes the practical test for an
additional aeroplane rating, has logged —
(i) At least 100 hours of flight time in aeroplanes of the same

class for which the type rating is sought and which requires
a type rating; and

(ii) At least 25 hours of flight time in aeroplanes of the same
type for which the rating is sought.

(5) An applicant meeting only the requirements of paragraph (a)(4) of this
subsection will be issued a rating with a limitation.

(6) The limitation on a licence issued under the provisions of paragraph
(a)(5) of this subsection shall state, “This licence is subject to PIC
limitations for the additional rating”.

(7) An applicant who has been issued a pilot licence with the limitation
specified in paragraph (a)(6) of this subsection —

(i) May not act as PIC of that aeroplane for which the rating was
obtained under the provisions of this subsection until the
limitation is removed from the pilot certificate; and

(ii) May have the limitation removed by accomplishing 15 hours of
line flying under supervision of a qualified and current PIC, in
the seat normally occupied by the PIC, in the same type of
aeroplane to which the limitation applies.

(8) An applicant who does not meet the requirements of paragraph (a)(3)
or paragraph (a)(4) of this subsection may be issued a rating after
successful completion of one of the following requirements —

(i) Compliance with paragraph (a)(2) of this subsection and the
following tasks, which shall be successfully completed on a
static aeroplane or in flight, as appropriate —
(A) Preflight inspection;
(B) Normal takeoff;
(C) Normal ILS approach;
(D) Missed approach; and
(E) Normal landing.

(ii) Compliance with paragraphs (a)(9) through (a)(11) of this subsection.
(9) An applicant not meeting the requirements of paragraph (a)(3), (a)(4),

or (a)(8)(i) of this subsection will be issued a licence or rating with a
limitation.

(10) The limitation on a licence issued under the provisions of paragraph
(a)(9) of this subsection shall state, “This licence is subject to PIC
limitations for the additional rating”.

(11) An applicant who has been issued a pilot licence with the limitation
specified in paragraph (a)(10) of this subsection —

(i) May not act as PIC of that aeroplane for which the rating was
obtained under the provisions of this subsection until the
limitation is removed from the pilot certificate; and

CH.284 – 312] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(ii) May have the limitation removed by accomplishing 25 hours of
supervised operating experience as PIC under the supervision of a
qualified and current PIC, in the seat normally occupied by the PIC,
in that aeroplane of the same type to which the limitation applies.

In a helicopter. If an approved flight simulator or approved flight training
device is used for accomplishing any of the training and the required
practical test for a pilot licence with a rotorcraft-helicopter class and type
rating, if applicable, the applicant, approved flight simulator, and approved
flight training device are subject to the following requirements:
(12) Some or all of the limitations of paragraph (b)(2) through (b)(11) of

this subsection may apply.
(13) The use of an approved flight simulator or an approved flight training

device permitted by this subsection shall be conducted in accordance
with an approved course at an ATO.

(14) The applicant must meet at least one of the following if a type rating is
sought in a turbine-powered helicopter —
(i) Hold a type rating in a turbine-powered helicopter or have been

appointed by a military service as a PIC of a turbine-powered
helicopter.

(ii) Have at least 2,000 hours of flight time that includes at least 500
hours in turbine-powered helicopters.

(iii) Have at least 500 hours of flight time in turbine-powered helicopters.
(iv) Have at least 1,000 hours of flight time in at least two different

turbine-powered helicopters.
(15) Subject to the limitation of paragraph (b)(5) of this subsection, an

applicant who does not meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(3) of this
subsection may complete all training and testing (except for preflight
inspection) for a pilot licence or rating when using a flight simulator if —
(i) The flight simulator is approved as Level C or Level D; and

(ii) The applicant meets at least one of the following —
(A) Holds a type rating in a turbine-powered helicopter if a type
rating in a turbine-powered helicopter is sought; or
(B) Since the beginning of the 12th calendar month before the
month in which the applicant completes the practical test for an
additional helicopter rating, has logged at least 25 hours of flight
time in helicopters of the same type for which the rating is sought.

(16) An applicant meeting only the requirements of paragraph (b)(4) of this
subsection will be issued a rating with a limitation.

(17) The limitation on a licence issued under the provisions of paragraph
(b)(5) of this subsection shall state, “This licence is subject to PIC
limitations for the additional rating”.

(18) An applicant who is issued a pilot licence with the limitation specified
in paragraph (b)(6) of this subsection —

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 313






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(i) May not act as PIC of that helicopter for which the rating was
obtained under the provisions of this subsection until the
limitation is removed from the pilot certificate; and

(ii) May have the limitation removed by accomplishing 15 hours of
supervised operating experience as PIC under the supervision of a
qualified and current PIC, in the seat normally occupied by the
PIC, in the same type of helicopter to which the limitation
applies.

(19) An applicant who does not meet the requirements of paragraph (b)(3)
or paragraph (b)(4) of this subsection may be issued a rating after
successful completion of one of the following requirements —

(i) Compliance with paragraphs (b)(1) and (b)(2) of this subsection
and the following tasks, which must be successfully completed
on a static helicopter or in flight, as appropriate —

(A) Preflight inspection;
(B) Normal takeoff;
(C) Normal ILS approach;
(D) Missed approach; and
(E) Normal landing.

(ii) Compliance with paragraphs (b)(1), (b)(2), and (b)(9) through
(b)(11) of this subsection.

(20) An applicant not meeting the requirements of paragraph (b)(3), (b)(4),
or (b)(8)(i) of this subsection will be issued a rating with a limitation.

(21) The limitation on a licence issued under the provisions of paragraph
(b)(9) of this subsection shall state, “This licence is subject to PIC
limitations for the additional rating”.

(22) An applicant who has been issued a pilot licence with the limitation
specified in paragraph (b)(10) of this subsection —

(i) May not act as PIC of that helicopter for which the rating was
obtained under the provisions of this subsection until the
limitation is removed from the pilot certificate; and

(ii) May have the limitation removed by accomplishing 25 hours of
supervised operating experience as PIC under the supervision of
a qualified and current PIC, in the seat normally occupied by the
PIC, in that helicopter of the same type as to which the
limitation applies.

In a powered-lift. If an approved flight simulator or approved flight training
device is used for accomplishing any of the training and the required
practical test for a pilot licence with a powered-lift category and type
rating, if applicable, the applicant, approved flight simulator, and approved
flight training device are subject to the following requirements:
(23) Comply with the applicable requirements of paragraph (a) of this IS,

except as shown below.
(24) The applicant must meet at least one of the following if a type rating is

sought in a turbine powered-lift —
(i) Hold a type rating in a turbine powered-lift or have been appointed

by a military service as a PIC of a turbine powered-lift.

CH.284 – 314] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(ii) Have at least 2,000 hours of flight time that includes at least 500
hours in turbine powered-lifts.

(iii) Have at least 500 hours of flight time in turbine powered-lifts.
(iv) Have at least 1,000 hours of flight time in at least two different

turbine powered-lifts.
(25) Subject to the limitation described in paragraph (a)(11) of this subsection,

an applicant who does not meet the requirements of paragraph (a)(2) of
this subsection may complete all training and testing (except for preflight
inspection) for a rating when using a flight simulator if —
(i) The flight simulator is approved as Level C or Level D; and

(ii) The applicant meets at least one of the following —
(A) Holds a type rating in a turbine powered-lift if a type rating in a

turbine powered-lift is sought; or
(B) Since the beginning of the 12th calendar month before the

month in which the applicant completes the practical test for an
additional powered-lift rating, has logged at least 25 hours of
flight time in powered-lifts of the same type for which the
rating is sought.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.115
INSTRUMENT RATING REQUIREMENTS

(a) Aeronautical knowledge. An applicant for an instrument rating shall have
received and logged ground training from an authorised instructor on the
areas of following aeronautical knowledge areas that apply to the
instrument rating sought:
(1) The provisions of these schedules that apply to flight operations under

IFR.
(2) Appropriate information in advisory material published by the

Authority that applies to flight operations under IFR.
(3) Air traffic control system and procedures for instrument flight

operations.
(4) IFR navigation and approaches by use of navigation systems.
(5) Use of IFR en route and instrument approach procedure charts.
(6) Procurement and use of aviation weather reports and forecasts and the

elements of forecasting weather trends based on that information.
(7) Personal observation of weather conditions.
(8) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft under instrument flight rules

and conditions.
(9) Recognition of critical weather situations and windshear avoidance.
(10) Aeronautical decision making and judgement.
(11) Crew resource management, including crew communication and co-

ordination.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 315






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

Flight proficiency. An applicant for an instrument rating shall receive and
log training from an authorised instructor in an aircraft, or in an approved
flight simulator or approved flight training device that includes the
following areas of operation —
(12) Preflight preparation;
(13) Preflight procedures;
(14) Air traffic control clearances and procedures;
(15) Flight by reference to instruments;
(16) Navigation systems;
(17) Instrument approach procedures;
(18) Emergency operations; and
(19) Postflight procedures.
Aeronautical experience. An applicant for an instrument rating shall have
logged the following —
(20) At least 50 hours of cross-country flight time as PIC, of which at least

10 hours shall be in aeroplanes for an instrument: aeroplane rating; and
(21) A total of 40 hours of actual or simulated instrument time on the areas

of operation of this subsection, to include —
(i) At least 15 hours of instrument flight training from an

authorised instructor in the aircraft category for which the
instrument rating is sought;

(ii) At least 3 hours of instrument training that is appropriate to the
instrument rating sought from an authorised instructor in preparation
for the practical test within the 60 days preceding the date of the test;

(iii) For an instrument — aeroplane rating, instrument training on
cross-country flight procedures specific to aeroplanes that
includes at least one cross-country flight in an aeroplane that is
performed under IFR, and consists of —
(A) A distance of at least 250 nautical miles along airways or

ATC-directed routing;
(B) An instrument approach at each airport; and
(C) Three different kinds of approaches with the use of

navigation systems;
(iv) For an instrument — helicopter rating, instrument training

specific to helicopters on cross-country flight procedures that
includes at least one cross-country flight in a helicopter that is
performed under IFR, and consists of —
(A) A distance of at least 100 nautical miles along airways or

ATC-directed routing;
(B) An instrument approach at each airport; and
(C) Three different kinds of approaches with the use of

navigation systems; and

CH.284 – 316] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(v) For an instrument — powered-lift rating, instrument training
specific to a powered-lift on cross-country flight procedures that
includes at least one cross-country flight in a powered-lift that is
performed under IFR and consists of —
(A) A distance of at least 250 nautical miles along airways or

ATC-directed routing;
(B) An instrument approach at each airport; and
(C) Three different kinds of approaches with the use of

navigation systems.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.135
ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR CATEGORY II AND CATEGORY III

PILOT AUTHORISATIONS
(a) The Authority will issue a Category II or Category III pilot authorisation by

letter, as a part of an applicant’s instrument rating or airline transport pilot
certificate.
Upon original issue the authorisation will contain the following limitations —
(1) For Category II operations, 1,600 feet RVR and a 150-foot decision

height; and
(2) For Category III operations, as specified in the authorisation

document.
To remove the limitations on a Category II or Category III pilot authorisa-
tion —
(3) A Category II limitation holder may remove the limitation by showing

that, since the beginning of the sixth preceding month, the holder has
made three Category II ILS approaches with a 150-foot decision
height to a landing under actual or simulated instrument conditions; or

(4) A Category III limitation holder may remove the limitation by
showing experience as specified in the authorisation.

An authorisation holder or an applicant for an authorisation may use a flight
simulator or flight training device if it is approved by the Authority for such
use, to meet the prescribed experience requirements or for the practical test
required by this Schedule for a Category II or a Category III pilot
authorisation, as applicable.
Category II: practical test requirements.
(5) An applicant for the following authorisations shall pass a practical test:

(i) Issuance or renewal of a Category II pilot authorisation.
(ii) The addition of another type aircraft to a Category II pilot

authorisation.
(6) To be eligible for the practical test for an authorisation under this

subsection, an applicant shall —
(i) Meet the prescribed requirements; and

(ii) If the applicant has not passed a practical test for this authorisation
during the 12 calendar months preceding the month of the test —

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 317






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(A) Meet the prescribed requirements; and
(B) Have performed at least six ILS approaches during the 6

calendar months preceding the month of the test, of which at
least three of the approaches shall have been conducted
without the use of an approach coupler.

(7) An applicant shall accomplish the prescribed approaches —
(i) Under actual or simulated instrument flight conditions;
(ii) To the minimum decision height for the ILS approach in the

type aircraft in which the practical test is to be conducted,
except that the approaches need not be conducted to the decision
height authorised for Category II operations;

(iii) To the decision height authorised for Category II operations
only if conducted in an approved flight simulator or an approved
flight training device; and

(iv) In an aircraft of the same category and class, and type, as
applicable, as the aircraft in which the practical test is to be
conducted or in an approved flight simulator that —

(A) Represents an aircraft of the same category and class, and
type, as applicable, as the aircraft in which the authorisation
is sought; and

(B) Is used in accordance with an approved course conducted by
an ATO.

(8) The flight time acquired in meeting the prescribed
requirements may be used.

Category II: practical test procedures. The practical test consists of an oral
increment and a flight increment.
(9) Oral increment. In the oral increment of the practical test an applicant

shall demonstrate knowledge of the following —
(i) Required landing distance;

(ii) Recognition of the decision height;
(iii) Missed approach procedures and techniques using computed or

fixed attitude guidance displays;
(iv) Use and limitations of RVR;
(v) Use of visual clues, their availability or limitations, and altitude

at which they are normally discernible at reduced RVR
readings;

(vi) Procedures and techniques related to transition from non-visual
to visual flight during a final approach under reduced RVR;

(vii) Effects of vertical and horizontal windshear;
(viii) Characteristics and limitations of the ILS and runway lighting

system;
(ix) Characteristics and limitations of the flight director system, auto

approach coupler (including split axis type if equipped), auto throttle
system (if equipped), and other required Category II equipment;

CH.284 – 318] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(x) Assigned duties of the SIC during Category II approaches, unless the
aircraft for which authorisation is sought does not require an SIC; and

(xi) Instrument and equipment failure warning systems.
(10) Flight increment. The following requirements apply to the flight

increment of the practical test —
(i) The flight increment shall be conducted in an aircraft of the same

category, class, and type, as applicable, as the aircraft in which the
authorisation is sought or in an approved flight simulator that —
(A) Represents an aircraft of the same category and class, and

type, as applicable, as the aircraft in which the
authorisation is sought; and

(B) Is used in accordance with an approved course conducted
by an ATO.

(ii) The flight increment shall consist of at least two ILS approaches to 100
feet AGL including at least one landing and one missed approach.

(iii) All approaches performed during the flight increment shall be made
with the use of an approved flight control guidance system, except if
an approved auto approach coupler is installed, at least one approach
shall be hand flown using flight director commands.

(iv) If a multi-engine aeroplane with the performance capability to execute
a missed approach with one engine inoperative is used for the practical
test, the flight increment shall include the performance of one missed
approach with an engine, which shall be the most critical engine, if
applicable, set at idle or zero thrust before reaching the middle marker.

(v) If an approved multi-engine flight simulator or approved multi-
engine flight training device is used for the practical test, the
applicant shall execute a missed approach with the most critical
engine, if applicable, failed.

(vi) For an authorisation for an aircraft that requires a type rating, the
applicant shall pass a practical test in co-ordination with a SIC who
holds a type rating in the aircraft in which the authorisation is sought.

(vii) An inspector or evaluator may conduct oral questioning at any
time during a practical test.

Category III: practical test requirements.
(11) The Authority will require that an applicant pass a practical test for —

(i) Issuance or renewal of a Category III pilot authorisation.
(ii) The addition of another type of aircraft to a Category III pilot

authorisation.
(12) To be eligible for the practical test an applicant shall —

(i) Meet the prescribed requirements; and
(ii) If the applicant has not passed a practical test for this authorisation

during the 12 calendar months preceding the month of the test:
(A) Meet the prescribed requirements; and

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 319






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(B) Have performed at least six ILS approaches during the 6
calendar months preceding the month of the test, of which at
least three of the approaches shall have been conducted without
the use of an approach coupler.

(13) An applicant shall conduct the prescribed approaches —
(i) Under actual or simulated instrument flight conditions;
(ii) To the alert height or decision height for the ILS approach in the

type aircraft in which the practical test is to be conducted;
(iii) Not necessarily to the decision height authorised for Category

III operations;
(iv) To the alert height or decision height, as applicable, authorised

for Category III operations only if conducted in an approved
flight simulator or approved flight training device; and

(v) In an aircraft of the same category and class, and type, as
applicable, as the aircraft in which the practical test is to be
conducted or in an approved flight simulator that —
(A) Represents an aircraft of the same category and class, and

type, as applicable, as the aircraft for which the
authorisation is sought; and

(B) Is used in accordance with an approved course conducted
by an ATO.

(14) Knowledge requirements: An applicant shall demonstrate knowledge
of the following:

(i) Required landing distance.
(ii) Determination and recognition of the alert height or decision

height, as applicable, including use of a radar altimeter.
(iii) Recognition of and proper reaction to significant failures

encountered prior to and after reaching the alert height or
decision height, as applicable.

(iv) Missed approach procedures and techniques using computed or
fixed attitude guidance displays and expected height loss as they
relate to manual go-around or automatic go-around, and
initiation altitude, as applicable.

(v) Use and limitations of RVR, including determination of
controlling RVR and required transmissometers.

(vi) Use, availability, or limitations of visual cues and the altitude at which
they are normally discernible at reduced RVR readings including —
(A) Unexpected deterioration of conditions to less than

minimum RVR during approach, flare, and rollout;
(B) Demonstration of expected visual references with weather

at minimum conditions;
(C) The expected sequence of visual cues during an approach

in which visibility is at or above landing minima; and

CH.284 – 320] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(D) Procedures and techniques for making a transition from
instrument reference flight to visual flight during a final
approach under reduced RVR.

(vii) Effects of vertical and horizontal windshear.
(viii) Characteristics and limitations of the ILS and runway lighting system.
(ix) Characteristics and limitations of the flight director system auto

approach coupler (including split axis type if equipped), auto
throttle system (if equipped), and other Category III equipment.

(x) Assigned duties of the SIC during Category III operations, unless
the aircraft for which authorisation is sought does not require a SIC.

(xi) Recognition of the limits of acceptable aircraft position and flight
path tracking during approach, flare, and, if applicable, rollout.

(xii) Recognition of, and reaction to, airborne or ground system faults
or abnormalities, particularly after passing alert height or
decision height, as applicable.

(15) Flight skill requirements —
(i) An applicant may conduct the practical test in an aircraft of the same

category and class, and type, as applicable, as the aircraft for which
the authorisation is sought, or in an approved flight simulator that —
(A) Represents an aircraft of the same category and class, and

type, as applicable, as the aircraft in which the
authorisation is sought; and

(B) Is used in accordance with an approved course conducted
by an ATO.

(ii) The practical test shall consist of at least two ILS approaches to
100 feet AGL, including one landing and one missed approach
initiated from a very low altitude that may result in a touchdown
during the go-around manoeuvre;

(iii) The applicant shall perform all approaches during the practical
test with the approved automatic landing system or an equivalent
landing system approved by the Authority;

(iv) If a multi-engine aircraft with the performance capability to execute
a missed approach with one engine inoperative is used for the
practical test, the practical test shall include the performance of one
missed approach with the most critical engine, if applicable, set at
idle or zero thrust before reaching the middle or outer marker;

(v) If an approved multi-engine flight simulator or approved multi-
engine flight training device is used, the applicant shall execute
a missed approach with an engine, which shall be the most
critical engine, if applicable, failed;

(vi) For an authorisation for an aircraft that requires a type rating, the
applicant shall pass a practical test in co-ordination with a SIC
who holds a type rating in the aircraft in which the authorisation
is sought; and

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 321






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(vii) Subject to the limitations of this paragraph, for Category IIIb
operations predicated on the use of a fail-passive rollout control
system, the applicant shall execute at least one manual rollout
using visual reference or a combination of visual and instrument
references. The applicant shall initiate this manoeuvre by a fail-
passive disconnect of the rollout control system —
(A) After main gear touchdown;
(B) Prior to nose gear touchdown;
(C) In conditions representative of the most adverse lateral touchdown

displacement allowing a safe landing on the runway; and
(D) In weather conditions anticipated in Category IIIb

operations
(16) An inspector or evaluator may conduct oral questioning at any time

during the practical test.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.140
SPECIAL PURPOSE PILOT AUTHORISATION: OPERATION OF CIVIL

AIRCRAFT REGISTERED BY THE AUTHORITY LEASED BY A PERSON
WHO IS NOT A CITIZEN OF THE BAHAMAS

(a) Eligibility. To be eligible for the issuance or renewal of a special purpose
pilot authorisation, a person shall —
(1) Hold a current and valid foreign pilot licence that has been issued by

the aeronautical authority of another Contracting State from which the
person holds citizenship or resident status;

(2) Hold a current and valid foreign pilot licence that contains the
appropriate aircraft category, class, instrument rating, and type rating,
if appropriate, for the aircraft to be flown;

(3) Meet the medical standards for the issuance of the foreign pilot licence
from the aeronautical authority of the Contracting State where the
person holds citizenship or resident status;

(4) Surrender any special purpose pilot authorisation held to the office that
issued it, or to the office processing the application for the authorisation,
prior to being issued another special purpose pilot authorisation;

(5) Present a logbook or flight record showing compliance with the
currency requirements of this Schedule and Schedule 10;

(6) Show when the applicant will reach the age of 60 years by providing an
official copy of a birth certificate or other official documentation; and

(7) Present a copy of the foreign pilot licence and a letter from the lessee
of the aircraft that —

(i) Documents that the person is employed by the lessee;
(ii) Specifies the aircraft type in which the person will be

performing pilot duties; and

CH.284 – 322] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(iii) States that the person is currently qualified to exercise the
privileges listed on that person’s pilot licence for the aircraft to be
flown, and that the person has satisfactorily accomplished the
applicable ground and flight training in the aircraft type in which
the person will be performing pilot duties.

Privileges. A person issued a special purpose pilot authorisation under
these schedules may exercise only the privileges prescribed on the special
purpose pilot authorisation.
General limitations. A person exercising the privileges of a special purpose
pilot authorisation —
(8) May hold only one special purpose pilot authorisation;
(9) May conduct any flight between foreign countries in foreign air

commerce within the time period allotted on the authorisation; and
(10) Shall comply with the limitations specified in this subsection and any

additional limitations specified on the special purpose pilot authorisation.
Expiration date. Each special purpose pilot authorisation issued under these
Schedules expires —
(11) 60 calendar months from the month it was issued, unless sooner

suspended or revoked;
(12) When the lease agreement for the aircraft expires or the lessee

terminates the employment of the person who holds the special
purpose pilot authorisation;

(13) Whenever the person’s foreign pilot licence has been suspended,
revoked, or is no longer valid; or

(14) When the person no longer meets the medical standards for the
issuance of the foreign pilot licence.

Renewal. A holder of a special purpose pilot authorisation may apply for a
60-calendar-month extension of that authorisation, provided the person —
(15) Continues to meet the requirements of this subsection; and
(16) Surrenders the expired special purpose pilot authorisation upon receipt

of the new authorisation.
APPENDIX 1 TO 8.160

MANOEUVRES AND PROCEDURES FOR PRE-SOLO FLIGHT TRAINING
(a) A student pilot who is receiving training for solo flight shall receive and log

flight training for the following manoeuvres and procedures, as applicable,
for each category and class rating:
(1) Proper flight preparation procedures, including preflight planning and

preparation, powerplant operation, and aircraft systems.
(2) Taxiing or surface operations, including runups.
(3) Takeoffs and landings, including normal and crosswind.
(4) Straight and level flight, and turns in both directions.
(5) Climbs and climbing turns.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 323






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(6) Airport traffic patterns, including entry and departure procedures.
(7) Collision avoidance, windshear avoidance, and wake turbulence

avoidance.
(8) Descents, with and without turns, using high and low drag

configurations.
(9) Flight at various airspeeds from cruise to slow flight.
(10) Stall entries from various flight attitudes and power combinations with

recovery initiated at the first indication of a stall, and recovery from a
full stall.

(11) Emergency procedures and equipment malfunctions.
(12) Ground reference manoeuvres.
(13) Approaches to a landing area with simulated engine malfunctions.
(14) Slips to a landing.
(15) Go-grounds.
A student pilot shall who is receiving training for solo flight shall receive
and log flight training for the following additional manoeuvres and
procedures, as applicable, as indicated for each category and class rating —
(16) In a helicopter —

(i) Approaches to the landing area;
(ii) Hovering and hovering turns;

(iii) Simulated emerge icy procedures, including autorotational
descents with a power recovery and power recovery to a hover;

(iv) Rapid decelerations; and
(v) Simulated one-engine-inoperative approaches and landings for

multi-engine helicopters.
(17) In a gyroplane —

(i) Approaches to the landing area;
(ii) High rates of descent with power on and with simulated power

off, and recovery from those flight configurations; and
(iii) Simulated emergency procedures, including simulated power-

off landings and simulated power failure during departures.
(18) In a powered-lift —

(i) Approaches to the landing area;
(ii) Hovering and hovering turns; and

(iii) For multi-engine powered-lifts, simulated one-engine-
inoperative approaches and landings.

(19) In a glider —
(i) The applicable manoeuvres and procedures shown in paragraph

(a) of this subsection;
(ii) Launches, including normal and crosswind;

(iii) Inspection of towline rigging and review of signals and release
procedures;

CH.284 – 324] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(iv) Aerotow, ground tow, or self-launch procedures;
(v) Procedures for disassembly and assembly of the glider;

(vi) Slips to a landing;
(vii) Procedures and techniques for thermalling; and
(viii) Emergency operations, including towline break procedures.

(20) In an airship —
(i) Rigging, ballasting, and controlling pressure in the ballonets,

and superheating; and
(ii) Landings with positive and with negative static trim.

(21) In a balloon —
(i) Layout and assembly procedures;

(ii) Ascents and descents;
(iii) Landing and recovery procedures;
(iv) Operation of hot air or gas source, ballast, valves, vents, and rip

panels, as appropriate;
(v) Use of deflation valves or rip panels for simulating an emergency;

(vi) The effects of wind on climb and approach angles; and
(vii) Obstruction detection and avoidance techniques.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.170
MANOEUVRES AND PROCEDURES FOR CROSS-COUNTRY FLIGHT

TRAINING
(a) A student pilot who is receiving training for cross-country flight shall

receive and log flight training in the following manoeuvres and procedures:
(1) In an aeroplane or rotorcraft —

(i) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR navigation using pilotage
and dead reckoning with the aid of a magnetic compass;

(ii) Use of aircraft performance charts pertaining to cross-country
flight;

(iii) Procurement and analysis of aeronautical weather reports and
forecasts, including recognition of critical weather situations and
estimating visibility while in flight;

(iv) Recognition, avoidance, and operational restrictions of
hazardous terrain features in the geographical area where the
student pilot will conduct cross-country flight;

(v) Use of radios for VFR navigation and two-way communications;
(vi) Climbs at best angle and best rate; and
(vii) Control and manoeuvring solely by reference to flight

instruments, including straight and level flight, turns, descents,
climbs, use of radio aids, and ATC directives.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 325






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) In a powered-lift —
(i) Those specified in paragraph (a)(1), as applicable; and

(ii) Takeoff, approach, and landing procedures that include high-
altitude, steep, and shallow takeoffs, approaches, and landings.

(3) In a glider —
(i) Those specified in paragraph (a)(1), as applicable; and

(ii) Landings accomplished without the use of the altimeter from at
least 2,000 feet above the surface; and

(iii) Recognition of weather and upper air conditions favourable for
cross-country soaring, ascending flight, descending flight, and
altitude control.

(4) In an airship —
(i) Those specified in paragraph (a)(1), as applicable; and

(ii) Control of air pressure with regard to ascending and descending
flight and altitude control;

(iii) Control of the airship solely by reference to flight instruments; and
(iv) Recognition of weather and upper air conditions conducive for

the direction of cross-country flight.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.185
PRIVATE PILOT AERONAUTICAL KNOWLEDGE AREAS

(a) General. An applicant for a private pilot licence shall receive and log
ground training from an authorised instructor on the aeronautical
knowledge areas of paragraph (b) of this subsection that apply to the
aircraft category and class rating sought.
Aeronautical knowledge areas:
(1) Applicable schedules of this Subpart that relate to private pilot

privileges, limitations, and flight operations.
(2) Accident reporting requirements of the Authority.
(3) Use of the applicable portions of advisory material published by the

Authority.
(4) Use of aeronautical charts for VFR navigation using pilotage, dead

reckoning, and navigation systems.
(5) Radio communication procedures.
(6) Recognition of critical weather situations from the ground and in

flight, windshear avoidance, and the procurement and use of
aeronautical weather reports and forecasts.

(7) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft, including collision avoidance,
and recognition and avoidance of wake turbulence.

(8) Effects of density altitude on takeoff and climb performance.
(9) Weight and balance computations.
(10) Principles of aerodynamics, powerplants, and aircraft systems.

CH.284 – 326] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(11) Stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery techniques for
aeroplane and glider category ratings.

(12) Aeronautical decision making and judgement.
(13) Preflight action that includes —

(i) Obtaining information on runway lengths at airports of intended
use, data on takeoff and landing distances, weather reports and
forecasts, and fuel requirements; and

(ii) Planning for alternatives if the planned flight cannot be
completed or delays are encountered.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.195
PRIVATE PILOT AERONAUTICAL EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS

(a) An applicant for a private pilot licence shall receive and log at least 40
hours of flight time that includes at least 20 hours of flight training from an
authorised instructor and 10 hours of solo flight training, which shall
include at least the following experience, unless shown otherwise below.
Note: See paragraphs below for specific requirements for categories and classes.
In the category and class of aircraft for each category and class rating
sought, as applicable —
(1) 3 hours of cross-country flight training;
(2) 3 hours of night flight training that includes —

(i) One cross-country flight of over 100 nautical miles total
distance; and

(ii) 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (with each landing
involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport.

(3) 3 hours of instrument flight training;
(4) 3 hours of flight training in preparation for the practical test performed

within 60 days preceding the date of the test; and
(5) 10 hours of solo flight time, consisting of at least —

(i) 5 hours of solo cross-country flight;
(ii) One solo cross-country flight of at least 150 nautical miles total

distance, with full-stop landings at a minimum of three points,
and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line
distance of at least 50 nautical miles between the takeoff and
landing locations; and

(iii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each
landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with
an operating control tower.

For a helicopter rating and a gyroplane rating —
(6) 3 hours of night flight training in a helicopter that includes one cross-

country flight of over 50 nautical miles total distance; and
(7) 10 hours of solo flight time in a helicopter, consisting of at least —

(i) 3 hours cross-country flight time;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 327






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(ii) One solo cross-country flight of at least 75 nautical miles total
distance, with landings at a minimum of three points, and one
segment of the flight being a straight-line distance of at least 25
nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and

For a glider category rating —
(8) If the applicant has not logged at least 40 hours of flight time as a pilot

in a heavier-than-air aircraft, at least 10 hours of flight training in a
glider, and 20 training flights performed on the prescribed areas of
operation that apply to gliders that include —

(i) 2 hours of solo flight in gliders in the areas of operation that
apply to gliders, with not less than 10 launches and landings
being performed; and

(9) If the applicant has logged at least 40 hours of flight time in heavier-
than-air aircraft, at least 3 hours of flight training in a glider, and 10
training flights performed on the areas of operation that apply to
gliders that include —

(i) 10 solo flights in gliders on the areas of operation that apply to
gliders; and

(ii) Three training flights in preparation for the practical test within
the 60-day waiting period preceding the test.

For an airship rating —
(10) 25 hours of flight training in airships on the areas of operation which

consists of at least —
(11) 3 hours of night flight training in an airship that includes:

(i) A cross-country flight of over 25 nautical miles total distance;
and

(ii) Five takeoffs and five landings to a full stop (with each landing
involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport.

(12) 5 hours of solo flight in an airship and with an authorised instructor.
For a balloon rating: 10 hours of flight training that includes at least six
training flights in the areas of operation that includes —
(13) Gas balloon. If the training is being performed in a gas balloon, at

least two flights of 2 hours each that consists of —
(i) At least one training flight within 60 days prior to application

for the rating on the areas of operation for a gas balloon;
(ii) At least one flight performing the functions of PIC in a gas

balloon; and
(iii) At least one flight involving a controlled ascent to 3,000 feet

above the launch site.
(14) Balloon with an airborne heater. If the training is being performed in

a balloon with an airborne heater, at least —
(i) Two flights of 1 hour each within 60 days prior to application

for the rating on the areas of operation appropriate to a balloon
with an airborne heater;

(ii) One solo flight in a balloon with an airborne heater; and

CH.284 – 328] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(iii) At least one flight involving a controlled ascent to 2,000 feet
above the launch site.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.225
COMMERCIAL PILOT AERONAUTICAL KNOWLEDGE AREAS

(a) An applicant for a commercial pilot licence shall receive and log ground training
from an authorised instructor on the aeronautical knowledge areas of paragraph
(b) of this subsection that apply to the aircraft category and class rating sought.
Aeronautical knowledge areas:
(1) Applicable schedules of this Subpart that relate to commercial pilot

privileges, limitations, and flight operations.
(2) Accident reporting requirements of the Authority.
(3) Basic aerodynamics and the principles of flight.
(4) Meteorology to include recognition of critical weather situations,

windshear recognition and avoidance, and the use of aeronautical
weather reports and forecasts.

(5) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft.
(6) Weight and balance computations.
(7) Use of performance charts.
(8) Significance and effects of exceeding aircraft performance limitations.
(9) Use of aeronautical charts and a magnetic compass for pilotage and

dead reckoning.
(10) Use of air navigation facilities.
(11) Aeronautical decision making and judgement.
(12) Principles and functions of aircraft systems.
(13) Manoeuvres, procedures, and emergency operations appropriate to the

aircraft.
(14) Night and high-altitude operations.
(15) Procedures for operating within the The Bahamas airspace system.
(16) Procedures for flight and ground training for lighter-than-air ratings.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.230
COMMERCIAL PILOT FLIGHT TRAINING PROFICIENCY

REQUIREMENTS
(a) General. An applicant for a commercial pilot licence shall receive and log

ground and flight training from an authorised instructor on the areas of
operation of this subsection that apply to the aircraft category and class
rating sought, as shown below.
(1) For all categories and class ratings, as applicable —

(i) Preflight preparation;
(ii) Preflight procedures;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 329






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(iii) Airport and seaplane base operations;
(iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(v) Performance manoeuvres;

(vi) Ground reference manoeuvres;
(vii) Navigation;

(viii) Slow flight and stalls;
(ix) Emergency operations;
(x) High-altitude operations; and

(xi) Postflight procedures.
(2) For the category and class ratings shown below, the applicable areas

of operation shown in paragraph (a)(1); and
(3) For the aeroplane category rating with a multi-engine class rating —

(i) Multi-engine operations.
(4) For a rotorcraft category rating with a helicopter class rating —

(i) Airport and heliport operations;
(ii) Hovering manoeuvres; and

(iii) Special operations.
(5) For a rotorcraft category rating with a gyroplane class rating —

(i) Flight at slow airspeeds.
(6) For a powered-lift category rating —

(i) Hovering manoeuvres; and
(ii) Special operations.

(7) For a glider category rating —
(i) Launches and landings; and

(ii) Soaring techniques.
(8) For a lighter-than-air category rating with an airship class rating —

(i) Fundamentals of instructing;
(ii) Technical subjects; and

(iii) Preflight lesson on a manoeuvre to be performed in flight.
(9) For a lighter-than-air category rating with a balloon class rating —

(i) Fundamentals of instructing;
(ii) Technical subjects;

(iii) Preflight lesson on a manoeuvre to be performed in flight; and
(iv) Launches and landings.

CH.284 – 330] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.235
COMMERCIAL PILOT AERONAUTICAL EXPERIENCE REQUIREMENTS
(a) Unless specified otherwise, an applicant for a commercial pilot licence

shall log at least the following hours of flight time as a pilot in each
category and class applied for, including at least the following —
Unless specified otherwise for a specific category or class, 250 hours of
flight time as a pilot, including —
(1) 100 hours in powered aircraft, of which 50 hours shall be in the

category of rating sought.
(2) 100 hours of PIC flight time, including at least —

(i) 50 hours in the category sought; and
(ii) 50 hours in cross-country flight in the category sought, of which

10 hours must be in the category sought.
(3) 20 hours of training on the prescribed areas of operation including at

least —
(i) 10 hours of instrument training of which at least 5 hours shall be

in the category and class sought;
(ii) 10 hours of training in an aeroplane that has a retractable landing

gear, flaps, and a controllable pitch propeller, or is turbine-
powered if applicable;

(iii) One cross-country flight of at least 2 hours in the category and
class sought in day VFR conditions, consisting of a total
straight-line distance of more than 100 nautical miles from the
original point of departure;

(iv) One cross-country flight of at least 2 hours in the category and
class sought in night VFR conditions, consisting of a total
straight-line distance of more than 100 nautical miles from the
original point of departure; and

(v) 3 hours in the category and class sought in preparation for the
practical test within the 60-day period proceeding the date of the test.

(4) 10 hours of solo flight in the category and class sought on the
prescribed areas of operation, including at least —
(i) One cross-country flight of not less than 300 nautical miles total

distance, with landings at a minimum of three points, one of
which is a straight-line distance of at least 250 nautical miles
from the original departure point; and

(ii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10 takeoffs and 10
landings (with each landing involving a flight in the traffic
pattern) at an airport with an operating control tower.

For a helicopter rating. 150 hours of flight time as a pilot, including —
(5) 100 hours of PIC flight time, which includes at least —

(i) 35 hours in helicopters; and
(ii) 10 hours in cross-country flight in helicopters.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 331






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(6) 10 hours of solo flight in a helicopter on the prescribed areas of
operation, including at least —

(i) One cross-country flight with landings at a minimum of three
points, with one segment consisting of a straight-line distance of
at least 50 nautical miles from the original point of departure; and

(ii) One cross-country flight of at least 2 hours in a helicopter in night
VFR conditions, consisting of a total straight-line distance of more
than 50 nautical miles from the original point of departure;

For a gyroplane rating. 150 hours of flight time as a pilot, including at least —
(7) 100 hours in powered aircraft, of which 25 hours shall be in gyroplanes.
(8) 100 hours of PIC flight time, including at least —

(i) 10 hours in gyroplanes; and
(ii) 3 hours in cross-country flight in gyroplanes.

(9) 20 hours of training on the prescribed areas of operation including at least —
(i) 5 hours of instrument training in an aircraft;

(ii) One cross-country flight of at least 2 hours in a gyroplane in day
VFR conditions, consisting of a total straight-line distance of
more than 50 nautical miles from the original point of departure.

(10) 10 hours of solo flight in a gyroplane on the prescribed areas of
operation including at least —

(i) One cross-country flight with landings at a minimum of three
points, with one segment consisting of a straight-line distance of
at least 50 nautical miles from the original point of departure; and

(ii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10 takeoffs and 10 landings
(with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern).

For a glider rating, at least —
(11) 25 hours as a pilot in gliders and 100 flights in gliders as PIC,

including at least —
(i) 3 hours of flight training or 10 training flights in gliders on the

prescribed areas of operation; and
(ii) 2 hours of solo flight that includes not less than 10 solo flights

in gliders on the prescribed areas of operation; or
(12) 200 hours of flight time as a pilot in heavier-than-air aircraft, and 20

flights in gliders as PIC, including at least —
(i) 3 hours of flight training or 10 training flights on the prescribed

areas of operation; and
(ii) Five solo flights in a glider on the prescribed areas of operation.

For an airship rating. 200 hours of flight time as a pilot, including at least —
(13) 50 hours in airships.
(14) 30 hours of PIC time in airships, including at least —

(i) 10 hours of cross-country flight time in airships; and
(ii) 10 hours of night flight time in airships.

CH.284 – 332] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(15) 40 hours of instrument time, which consists of at least 20 hours in
flight, of which 10 hours shall be in flight in airships.

(16) 20 hours of flight training in airships on the prescribed areas of
operation, including at least —
(i) One cross-country flight of at least 1 hour in duration in an airship in

day VFR conditions, consisting of a total straight-line distance of
more than 25 nautical miles from the original point of departure; and

(ii) One cross-country flight of at least 1 hour in duration in an airship in
night VFR conditions, consisting of a total straight-line distance of
more than 25 nautical miles from the original point of departure.

(17) 10 hours of flight training performing the functions of PIC with an
authorised instructor on the prescribed areas of operation, including at
least —
(i) One cross-country flight with landings at a minimum of three

points, with one segment consisting of a straight-line distance of
at least 25 nautical miles from the original point of departure; and

(ii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10 takeoffs and 10 landings
(with each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern).

For a balloon rating. 35 hours of flight time as a pilot, including at least —
(18) 20 hours in balloons;
(19) 10 flights in balloons;
(20) Two flights in balloons as the PIC; and
(21) 10 hours of flight training that includes at least 10 training flights in

balloons on the prescribed areas of operation, including at least —
(i) For a gas balloon —

(A) Two training flights of 2 hours each in a gas balloon on the
areas of operation appropriate to a gas balloon within 60
days prior to application for the rating;

(B) Two flights performing the functions of PIC in a gas
balloon on the appropriate areas of operation; and

(C) One flight involving a controlled ascent to 5,000 feet above
the launch site.

(ii) For a balloon with an airborne heater —
(A) Two training flights of 1 hour each in a balloon with an airborne

heater on the areas of operation appropriate to a balloon with an
airborne heater within 60 days prior to application for the rating;

(B) Two solo flights in a balloon with an airborne heater on the
appropriate areas of operation; and

(C) One flight involving a controlled ascent to 3,000 feet above
the launch site.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 333






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.255
AIRLINE TRANSPORT PILOT: AERONAUTICAL KNOWLEDGE AREAS

(a) An applicant for an airline transport pilot licence shall receive and log
ground and flight training on the following areas of aeronautical
knowledge:
(1) Applicable schedules that relate to airline transport pilot privileges,

limitations, and flight operations.
(2) Meteorology, including knowledge of and effects of fronts, frontal

characteristics, cloud formations, icing, and upper-air data.
(3) General system of weather and NOTAM collection, dissemination,

interpretation, and use.
(4) Interpretation and use of weather charts, maps, forecasts, sequence

reports, abbreviations, and symbols.
(5) The Bahamas Weather Service functions as they pertain to operations

in the The Bahamas Airspace System.
(6) Windshear and microburst awareness, identification, and avoidance.
(7) Principles of air navigation under instrument meteorological

conditions in the The Bahamas Airspace System.
(8) Air traffic control procedures and pilot responsibilities as they relate

to en route operations, terminal area and radar operations, and
instrument departure and approach procedures.

(9) Aircraft loading, weight and balance, use of charts, graphs, tables,
formulas, and computations, and their effect on aircraft performance.

(10) Aerodynamics relating to an aircraft’s flight characteristics and
performance in normal and abnormal flight regimes.

(11) Human factors.
(12) Aeronautical decision making and judgement.
(13) Crew resource management to include crew communication and co-

ordination.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.260
AIRLINE TRANSPORT PILOT: FLIGHT PROFICIENCY

(a) An applicant for an airline transport pilot licence shall receive and log
ground and flight training from an authorised instructor on the areas of
operation of this subsection that apply to the aircraft category and class
rating sought, as shown below.
(1) For an aeroplane category — single-engine class

rating:
(i) Preflight preparation;

(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Takeoff and departure phase;
(iv) In-flight manoeuvres;
(v) Instrument procedures;

CH.284 – 334] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(vi) Landings and approaches to landings;
(vii) Normal and abnormal procedures;

(viii) Emergency procedures; and
(ix) Postflight procedures.

(2) For an aeroplane category — multi-engine class rating:
(i) Preflight preparation;

(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Takeoff and departure phase;
(iv) In-flight manoeuvres;
(v) Instrument procedures;

(vi) Landings and approaches to landings;
(vii) Normal and abnormal procedures;

(viii) Emergency procedures; and
(ix) Postflight procedures.

(3) For a powered-lift category rating:
(i) Preflight preparation;

(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Takeoff and departure phase;
(iv) In-flight manoeuvres;
(v) Instrument procedures;

(vi) Landings and approaches to landings;
(vii) Normal and abnormal procedures;

(viii) Emergency procedures; and
(ix) Postflight procedures.

(4) For a rotorcraft category — helicopter class rating:
(i) Preflight preparation;

(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Takeoff and departure phase;
(iv) In-flight manoeuvres;
(v) Instrument procedures;

(vi) Landings and approaches to landings;
(vii) Normal and abnormal procedures;

(viii) Emergency procedures; and
(ix) Postflight procedures.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 335






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.305
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR AREAS OF OPERATION FOR FLIGHT

PROFICIENCY
(a) General. An applicant for a flight instructor licence shall receive and log

flight and ground training from an authorised instructor, and obtain an
endorsement that the applicant is proficient to pass a practical test on the
following areas of operation that apply to the flight instructor rating sought.
For each category rating and class rating, as applicable —
(1) Fundamentals of instructing;
(2) Technical subject areas;
(3) Preflight preparation;
(4) Preflight lesson on a manoeuvre to be performed in

flight;
(5) Preflight procedures;
(6) Airport and seaplane base operations;
(7) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(8) Fundamentals of flight;
(9) Performance manoeuvres;
(10) Ground reference manoeuvres;
(11) Slow flight, stalls, and spins;
(12) Basic instrument manoeuvres;
(13) Emergency operations; and
(14) Postflight procedures; and for
Aeroplane category rating with a multi-engine class rating —
(15) Multi-engine operations.
Rotorcraft category rating with a helicopter class rating —
(16) Airport and heliport operations;
(17) Hovering manoeuvres; and
(18) Special operations.
Rotorcraft category rating with a gyroplane class rating —
(19) Flight at slow airspeeds.
Powered-lift category rating —
(20) Hovering manoeuvres; and
(21) Special operations.
Glider category rating —
(22) Airport and gliderport operations;
(23) Launches, landings, and go-arounds;
(24) Performance speeds;
(25) Soaring techniques; and
(26) Slow flight, stalls, and spins.

CH.284 – 336] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

Instrument rating with the appropriate aircraft category and class rating —
(27) Air traffic control clearances and procedures;
(28) Flight by reference to instruments;
(29) Navigation aids; and
(30) Instrument approach procedures.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.325
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR LIMITATIONS AND QUALIFICATIONS

(a) Each holder of a flight instructor licence shall observe the following
limitations and qualifications:
Hours of training. In any 24-consecutive-hour period, a flight instructor
may not conduct more than 8 hours of flight training.
Required ratings. A flight instructor may not conduct flight training in any
aircraft for which the flight instructor does not hold —
(1) A pilot licence and flight instructor licence with the applicable

category and class rating; and
(2) If appropriate, a type rating.
For instrument flight training or for training for a type rating not limited to
VFR, an appropriate instrument rating on his or her flight instructor licence
and pilot licence.
Limitations on endorsements. A flight instructor may not endorse a —
(3) Student pilot’s licence or logbook for solo flight privileges, unless that

flight instructor has —
(i) Given that student the flight training required for solo flight

privileges required by this subpart;
(ii) Determined that the student is prepared to conduct the flight

safely under known circumstances, subject to any limitations
listed in the student’s logbook that the instructor considers
necessary for the safety of the flight;

(iii) Given that student pilot training in the make and model of
aircraft or a similar make and model of aircraft in which the solo
flight is to be flown; and

(iv) Endorsed the student pilot’s logbook for the specific make and
model aircraft to be flown.

(4) Student pilot’s licence and logbook for a solo cross-country flight,
unless that flight instructor has determined that —
(i) The student’s flight preparation, planning, equipment, and

proposed procedures are adequate for the proposed flight under
the existing conditions and within any limitations listed in the
logbook that the instructor considers necessary for the safety of
the flight; and

(ii) The student has the appropriate solo cross-country endorsement
for the make and model of aircraft to be flown.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 337






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(5) Student pilot’s licence and logbook for solo flight in a Class B
airspace area or at an airport within Class B airspace unless that flight
instructor has —

(i) Given that student ground and flight training in that Class B
airspace or at that airport; and

(ii) Determined that the student is proficient to operate the aircraft safely.
(6) Logbook of a pilot for a flight review, unless that instructor has

conducted a review of that pilot in accordance with the requirements; or
(7) Logbook of a pilot for an instrument proficiency check, unless that

instructor has tested that pilot in accordance with the requirements.
Training in a multi-engine aeroplane, a helicopter, or a powered-lift. A flight
instructor may not give training required for the issuance of a licence or rating
in a multi-engine aeroplane, a helicopter, or a powered-lift unless that flight
instructor has at least 5 flight hours of PIC time in the specific make and model
of multi-engine aeroplane, helicopter, or powered-lift, as appropriate.
Qualifications of the flight instructor for training first-time flight instructor
applicants.
(8) No flight instructor may provide instruction to another pilot who has

never held a flight instructor licence unless that flight instructor —
(i) Holds a current ground or flight instructor licence with the

appropriate rating, has held that licence for at least 24 months,
and has given at least 40 hours of ground training; or

(ii) Holds a current ground or flight instructor licence with the
appropriate rating, and has given at least 100 hours of ground
training in a course which has been approved by the Authority.

(iii) Meets the prescribed eligibility requirements;
(iv) For training in preparation for an aeroplane, rotorcraft, or

powered-lift rating, has given at least 200 hours of flight
training as a flight instructor; and

(v) For training in preparation for a glider rating, has given at least
80 hours of flight training as a flight instructor.

Prohibition against self endorsements. A flight instructor may not make any
self-endorsement for a licence, rating, flight review, authorisation, operating
privilege, practical test, or knowledge test that is required by This Schedule.
Category II and Category III instructions: A flight instructor may not give
training in Category II or Category III operations unless the flight instructor has
been trained and tested in Category II or Category III operations as applicable.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.380
SPECIAL PURPOSE FLIGHT ENGINEER LICENCE AND FLIGHT
ENGINEER LICENCE ISSUED ON BASIS OF A FOREIGN FLIGHT

ENGINEER LICENCE
(a) Applicants shall present documentation showing that the applicant

currently meets the medical standards for the foreign flight engineer or
flight navigator licence required by this subsection.

CH.284 – 338] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

A The Bahamas medical certificate is not evidence that the applicant meets
the standards of the state of licence issue unless the State which issued the
applicant’s foreign flight engineer accepts a The Bahamas medical
certificate as evidence of medical fitness for a flight engineer licence.
Limitations. The Authority may impose the following limitations on this licence:
(1) It is valid only —

(i) For flights between foreign countries and for flights in foreign
air commerce;

(ii) While the licence holder is employed by the person to whom the
aeroplane described in the certification is leased; and

(iii) While the licence holder is performing flight engineer or flight
navigator duties on the The Bahamas-registered civil aeroplane.

(2) The Authority will ensure that each licence issued under this
subsection contains the following:
(i) The name of the person to whom the The Bahamas-registered

civil aeroplane is leased.
(ii) The type of aeroplane.
(iii) The limitation: “Issued under, and subject to 8.380 of the Civil

Aviation Schedules”. The limitation: “Subject to the privileges
and limitations shown on the holder’s foreign flight engineer
certificate, licence, or authorisation”.

(3) Any additional limitations placed on the licence which the Authority
considers necessary.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.400
GROUND INSTRUCTOR PRIVILEGES

(a) A person who holds a basic ground instructor rating is authorised to provide —
(1) Ground training in the aeronautical knowledge areas required for the

issuance of a private pilot licence or associated ratings;
(2) Ground training required for a private pilot flight review; and
(3) A recommendation for a knowledge test required for the issuance of a

private pilot licence.
A person who holds an advanced ground instructor rating is authorised to
provide —
(4) Ground training in the aeronautical knowledge areas required for the

issuance of any licence or rating;
(5) Ground training required for any flight review; and
(6) A recommendation for a knowledge test required for the issuance of

any licence.
A person who holds an instrument ground instructor rating is authorised to
provide —
(7) Ground training in the aeronautical knowledge areas required for the

issuance of an instrument rating;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 339






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(8) Ground training required for an instrument proficiency check; and
(9) A recommendation for a knowledge test required for the issuance of

an instrument rating.
A person who holds a ground instructor licence is authorised, within the
limitations of the ratings on the ground instructor licence, to endorse the
logbook or other training record of a person to whom the holder has
provided the training or recommendation specified in paragraphs (a)
through (c) of this subsection.

APPENDIX 1 TO 8.675
REQUIREMENT FOR LICENCES, RATINGS, AND AUTHORISATIONS

(a) A person is not required to hold a current and appropriate
medical certificate if that person —
(1) Is exercising the privileges of a student pilot licence while seeking a

pilot licence with a glider category rating or balloon class rating;
(2) Is piloting or providing training in a balloon;
(3) Is piloting or providing training in a glider;
(4) Is exercising the privileges of a flight instructor licence, provided the

flight instructor is not acting as PIC or as a required crew member;
(5) Is exercising the privileges of a ground instructor licence;
(6) Is operating an aircraft within a foreign country using a pilot licence

issued by that country and possesses evidence of current medical
qualification for that licence;

(7) Is operating an aircraft with a pilot licence, issued by the Authority on
the basis of a foreign pilot licence, and holds a current medical
certificate issued by the country that issued the pilot licence; or

(8) Is taking a test or check for a licence, rating, or authorisation
conducted under an approved course by an ATO.

CH.284 – 340] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

SCHEDULE 9
APPROVED TRAINING ORGANIZATIONS

SUBPART A: GENERAL
9.001 Applicability
9.005 Definitions
9.010 Acronyms
SUBPART B: CERTIFICATION AND INSPECTIONS
9.015 Certificate Required
9.020 Application for Issuance or Amendment
9.025 Contents of an ATO Certificate
9.035 Duration Of Certificate
9.040 Deviations or Waivers
9.045 Advertising Limitations
9.050 Facilities, Equipment, and Material
9.055 Flight Training Facilities, Equipment, and Courseware
9.060 Satellite ATOs
9.065 Changes Requiring Notice to the Authority
9.070 Inspection
SUBPART C: ADMINISTRATION
9.075 Record keeping
9.080 Graduation Certificates and Transcripts
9.085 Transcripts
SUBPART D: FLIGHT CREW TRAINING
Section I: General
9.090 Pilot Training Courses
9.093 Special Curricula — Other Crew Members
9.095 Requirements for a Level 1 ATO Certificate
9.100 Provisional Level 1 ATO Certificate
9.105 Renewal of Certificates and Ratings
Section II: Flight Training Equipment Requirements
9.110 Applicability
9.115 Airport Requirements
9.120 Aircraft Requirements
9.125 Flight Simulators And Flight Training Devices
Section III: Curriculum and Syllabus Requirements
9.130 Applicability
9.135 Approval of Training Program
9.140 Training Program Curriculum Requirements
Section IV: Personnel Requirements
9.145 Applicability
9.155 Level 2 ATO Instructor Eligibility Requirements
9.160 Level 2 ATO Instructor and Evaluator Privileges and Limitations
9.165 Level 2 ATO Instructor Training and Testing Requirements
9.170 Level 2 ATO Evaluator Requirements

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 341






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS



9.175 Level 1 ATO Personnel
9.180 Level 1 ATO Chief Instructor Qualifications
9.185 Level 1 ATO Assistant Chief Instructor Qualifications
9.190 Level 1 ATO Check Instructor Qualifications
9.195 Level 1 ATO Instructor Flight Training
9.200 Level 1 ATO Instructor Ground Training
9.205 Level 1 ATO Chief Instructor Responsibilities
Section V: Operating Rules
9.210 Applicability
9.215 Privileges
9.220 Limitations: ATO
9.225 Limitations: Enrolled Students in Actual Flight Curricula
9.230 Level 1 ATO Enrolment documents
SUBPART E: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREW
Section I: Airmen Except AMTs
9.235 Applicability
9.240 Other Training Courses
9.245 Application, Duration, and Renewal
Section II: AMT Training Courses
9.250 Applicability
9.255 AMT Training Courses
9.260 General Curriculum Requirements
9.265 AMT Training Program Providers
9.270 Instructor Requirements
9.275 Attendance and Credit for Prior Instruction or Experience

APPENDICES
Appendix 1 to 9.020: Application for ATO Certificate
Appendix 1 to 9.025: Training Course Contents
Appendix 1 to 9.050: Facilities for AMT Courses
Appendix 1 to 9.090: Private Pilot Licensing Course
Appendix 2 to 9.090: Commercial Pilot Licensing Course
Appendix 3 to 9.090: Instrument Rating Course
Appendix 4 to 9.090: Airline Transport Pilot Licensing Course
Appendix 5 to 9.090: Flight Instructor Licensing Course
Appendix 6 to 9.090: Flight Instructor Instrument Licensing Course
Appendix 7 to 9.090: Ground Instructor Licensing Course
Appendix 8 to 9.090: Additional Aircraft Category or Class Rating Course
Appendix 9 to 9.090: Aircraft Type Rating Course
Appendix 10 to 9.090: Special Preparation Courses
Appendix 11 to 9.090: Pilot Ground School Course
Appendix 12 to 9.090: Flight Engineer Course
Appendix 1 to 9.115: Airport Requirements
Appendix 1 to 9.165: Level 2 ATO Instructor Training and Testing Requirements
Appendix 1 to 9.180: Level 1 ATO Chief Flight Instructor Qualifications
Appendix 1 to 9.185: Level 1 ATO Assistant Chief Instructor Qualifications
Appendix 1 to 9.190: Level 1 ATO Check Instructor Qualifications
Appendix 1 to 9.215: Transfer Privileges
Appendix 1 to 9.260: AMT Airframe and/or Powerplant Rating

CH.284 – 342] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

SUBPART A
GENERAL

9.001 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Schedule prescribes the requirements for certifying and administering

Aviation Training Organizations (ATO).
9.005 DEFINITIONS
(a) For the purpose of this Schedule, the following definitions shall apply —

(1) Accountable manager (training). The manager who has corporate
authority for ensuring that all training can be financed and carried out
to the standard required by the Authority. The accountable manager
may delegate, in writing, to another person in the organization to
become the accountable manager when authorised by the Authority.

(2) Advanced flight training device. A flight training device that has a
cockpit that accurately replicates a specific make, model, and type
aircraft cockpit, and handling characteristics that accurately model the
aircraft handling characteristics.

(3) AMT Course — A training course for AMT maintenance ratings
(airframe/powerplant).

(4) Flight Training Equipment. Flight simulators, flight training
devices, and aircraft.

(5) Line-Operational Simulation. Simulation conducted using operational-
oriented flight scenarios that accurately replicate interaction among
flightcrew members and between flightcrew members and dispatch
facilities, other crew members, air traffic control, and ground operations.

(6) Line Operational Flight Training (LOFT). Training in a simulator
with a complete crew using representative flight segments which
contain normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures that may be
expected in line operations.

(7) Level 1 Aviation Training Organization (ATO). A flight training
facility which conducts all or substantially all of each flight training
course using aircraft.

(8) Level 2 Aviation Training Organization (ATO). A flight training facility
which conducts all or substantially all of each flight training course using
simulation media which are qualified and approved by the Authority.

(9) Satellite. An ATO at a location other than primary location of the ATO.
(10) Speciality curriculum. A set of courses that is designed to satisfy a

requirement of the Civil Aviation Regulations and that is approved by
the Authority for use by a particular Level 2 ATO or satellite Level 2
ATO. The speciality curriculum includes training requirements unique
to one or more Level 2 ATO clients.

(11) Training specifications. A document issued to a certified Aviation
Training Organization by the Authority that prescribes that
organization’s training, checking, and testing authorisations and
limitations, and specifies training program requirements.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 343






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

9.010 ACRONYMS
(a) The following acronyms are used in This Schedule:

(1) ATO — Aviation Training Organization
(2) AFM — Aircraft Flight Manual
(3) AMT — Aviation Maintenance Technician
(4) IFR — Instrument Flight Rules
(5) NOTAM — Notice to Airmen

SUBPART B
CERTIFICATION AND INSPECTIONS

9.015 CERTIFICATE REQUIRED
(a) No person may operate an ATO without, or in violation of, an ATO

certificate and training specifications issued under this Schedule.
(b) Except for an AOC training its own flight crews, after December 31, 2001,

no person may conduct training, testing, or checking in advanced flight
training devices or flight simulators without, or in violation of, the
certificate and training specifications required by this Schedule.

(c) The Authority will issue an applicant an ATO certificate and training
specifications if the applicant shows that it meets the requirements of this
Schedule.

9.020 APPLICATION FOR ISSUANCE OR AMENDMENT
(a) An applicant for an ATO certificate and training specifications shall apply

at least 120 calendar days before the beginning of any proposed training.
(b) Each applicant for an ATO certificate and training specification shall

provide the application to the Authority in the correct form.
See Appendix 1 to 9.020 for certificate information needed by the Authority.

(c) An applicant for a certificate shall ensure that the facilities and equipment
described in its application are —
(1) Available for inspection and evaluation prior to approval; and
(2) In place and operational at the location of the proposed Level 2 ATO

prior to issuance of a certificate under this Schedule.
(d) The Authority will issue to an applicant who meets the requirements and is

approved by the Authority —
(1) An ATO certificate containing all business names included on the

application under which the certificate holder may conduct operations
and the address of each business office used by the certificate holder;
and

(2) Training specifications, issued by the Authority to the certificate
holder, containing —

(i) Authorisation for the ATO to function as a Level 1 ATO and/or
Level 2 ATO;

(ii) The type of training authorised, including approved courses;

CH.284 – 344] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(iii) The category, class, and type of aircraft that may be used for
training, testing, and checking;

(iv) For each flight simulator or flight training device, the make,
model, and series of aeroplane or the set of aeroplanes being
simulated and the qualification level assigned, or the make,
model, and series of rotorcraft, or set of rotorcraft being
simulated and the qualification level assigned;

(v) For each flight simulator and flight training device subject to
qualification evaluation by the Authority, the identification
number assigned by the Authority;

(vi) The name and address of each satellite ATO, and the approved
courses offered at each satellite ATO;

(vii) Authorised deviations or waivers from this Schedule; and
(viii) Any other items the Authority may require or allow.

(e) The Authority may deny, suspend, revoke, or terminate a certificate under
this Schedule if the Authority finds that the applicant or the certificate
holder —
(1) Held an ATO certificate that was revoked, suspended, or terminated

within the previous 5 years; or
(2) Employs or proposes to employ a person who —

(i) Was previously employed in a management or supervisory
position by the holder of an ATO certificate that was revoked,
suspended, or terminated within the previous 5 years;

(ii) Exercised control over any certificate holder whose certificate
has been revoked, suspended, or terminated within the last 5
years; and

(iii) Contributed materially to the revocation, suspension, or
termination of that certificate and who will be employed in a
management or supervisory position, or who will be in control
of or have a substantial ownership interest in the ATO.

(3) Has provided incomplete, inaccurate, fraudulent, or false information
for an ATO certificate.

(f) At any time, the Authority may amend an ATO certificate —
(1) On the Authority’s own initiative, under applicable Bahamian

legislation; or
(2) Upon timely application by the certificate holder.

(g) The certificate holder shall file an application to amend an ATO certificate at
least 60 calendar days prior to the applicant’s proposed effective amendment
date unless a different filing period is approved by the Authority.

(h) The Authority may issue an ATO certificate to an applicant —
(1) For an ATO inside or outside of The Bahamas; and
(2) Whose business office or primary location, or both are located inside

or outside The Bahamas.
(i) Each ATO shall adhere to its approved curriculum.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 345






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(j) A certificate holder may not change its approved curriculum unless the
change is approved by the Authority in advance.

(k) An applicant for an ATO certificate shall show that —
(1) For each proposed curriculum, the Level 2 ATO has, and shall

maintain, a sufficient number of instructors who meet the prescribed
qualifications to perform the duties to which they are assigned;

(2) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall meet
the prescribed personnel requirements;

(3) Each applicant for, and holder of, an ATO certificate with AMT
courses shall meet the prescribed personnel requirements.

(l) Each Level 2 ATO shall have designated, and shall maintain, a sufficient
number of approved evaluators to provide required checks and tests to
graduation candidates within 7 calendar days of training completion for any
curriculum leading to airman licences or ratings, or both —
(1) Each Level 2 ATO has, and shall maintain, a sufficient number of

management personnel who are qualified and competent to perform
required duties; and

(2) A management representative, and all personnel who are designated
by the Level 2 ATO to conduct direct student training, are able to
understand, read, write, and fluently speak English.

(m) The persons listed in this subsection may serve in more than one position
for an ATO, provided that person is qualified for each position.

9.025 CONTENTS OF AN ATO CERTIFICATE
(a) The ATO certificate will consist of two documents —

(1) A certificate for public display signed by the Authority; and
(2) Training specifications containing the terms, conditions, and

authorisations applicable to the ATO certificate.
(b) The ATO certificate will contain —

(1) The name and location (main place of business) of the ATO;
(2) The date of issue and period of validity for each page issued;
(3) The authorised locations of operations; and
(4) Training specifications for the following categories, as applicable:

(i) Pilot training.
(ii) Other crewman training.
(iii) Other airman training.
(iv) AMT training.
(v) Other training.

(5) Other authorisations, approvals and limitations issued by the Authority
in accordance with the standards which are applicable to the training
conducted by the ATO.

CH.284 – 346] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

9.035 DURATION OF CERTIFICATE
(a) Except as shown in paragraph (c), the Authority will issue an ATO

certificate which expires, unless surrendered, suspended, or revoked —
(1) On the last day of the 24th calendar month from the month the

certificate was issued;
(2) Except as provided in paragraph (b), on the date that any change in

ownership of the school occurs;
(3) On the date of any significant change in the school’s facilities occurs; or
(4) Upon notice by the Authority that the school has failed for more than

60 days to maintain the required facilities, aircraft, or personnel.
(b) A change in the ownership of an ATO does not terminate that school’s

certificate if, within 30 days —
(1) The certificate holder makes application for an appropriate

amendment to the certificate; and
(2) No significant change in the facilities, operating personnel, or

approved training courses is involved.
(c) The Authority will issue Level 2 ATO certificates with no expiration date,

unless the certificate is surrendered, suspended, or revoked.
(d) If the Authority suspends, revokes, or terminates a certificate issued under

this Schedule, the holder of that certificate shall return the certificate to the
Authority within five working days after being notified that the certificate
is suspended, revoked, or terminated.

9.040 DEVIATIONS OR WAIVERS
(a) The Authority may issue deviations or waivers from any of the

requirements of this Schedule.
(b) An ATO requesting a deviation or waiver under this section shall provide

the Authority with information acceptable to the Authority that shows —
(1) Justification for the deviation or waiver; and
(2) That the deviation or waiver will not adversely affect the quality of

instruction or evaluation.
9.045 ADVERTISING LIMITATIONS
(a) The ATO may not:

(1) Make any statement relating to its ATO certification and training
specifications that is false or designed to mislead any person
contemplating enrolment in that ATO.

(2) Advertise that the ATO is certified unless it clearly differentiates
between courses that have been approved under this Schedule and
those that have not been approved under this Schedule.

(b) An ATO whose certificate has been surrendered, suspended, revoked, or
terminated shall promptly —
(1) Remove all indications, including signs, wherever located, that the

ATO was certified by the Authority; and

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 347






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) Notify all advertising agents, and advertising media employed by the
certificate holder to cease all advertising indicating that the ATO is
certified by the Authority.

9.050 FACILITIES, EQUIPMENT, AND MATERIAL
(a) Each certificate holder shall provide facilities, equipment, and material

equal to the standards currently required for the issue of the certificate and
rating that it holds.

(b) A certificate holder may not make a substantial change in facilities,
equipment, or material that have been approved for a particular curriculum,
unless that change is approved by the Authority in advance.

(c) A certificate holder with approved AMT courses may not make any change
in the ATO’s location unless the change is approved by the Authority in
advance. If the certificate holder desires to change the location of the ATO,
the certificate holder shall notify the Authority, in writing, at least 30 days
before the date the relocation. The Authority may prescribe the conditions
under which the ATO may operate while it is changing its location or
housing facilities. If the certificate holder changes the location of the ATO
without notification, the certificate shall be revoked.

(d) An applicant for, or holder of, a certificate issued under this Schedule shall
establish and maintain a principal business office that is physically located
at the address shown on its certificate.

(e) The principal business office may not be shared with, or used by, another
person who holds an ATO certificate.

(f) An applicant for, or holder of, a certificate issued under this Schedule shall
ensure that —
(1) Each room, training booth, or other space used for instructional

purposes is heated, lighted, and ventilated to conform to local
building, sanitation, and health codes; and

(2) The facilities used for instruction are not routinely subject to
significant distractions caused by flight operations and maintenance
operations at the airport.

(g) Each certificate holder shall maintain the records required by this Schedule
in facilities adequate for that purpose.

(h) An applicant for, or holder of, an ATO certificate with approved AMT
courses shall have and maintain the following instructional equipment as is
appropriate to the rating sought:
(1) Various kinds of airframe structures, airframe systems and

components, powerplants, and powerplant systems and components
(including propellers), of a quantity and type suitable to complete the
practical projects required by its approved curricula.

(2) At least one aircraft of a type acceptable to the Authority.
(3) The equipment required by paragraph (h) need not be in an airworthy

condition, and if damaged prior to use by the ATO, shall have been
repaired enough for complete assembly.

CH.284 – 348] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(i) An applicant for, or holder of, an ATO certificate with an AMT rating shall
have airframes, powerplants, propellers, appliances, and components
thereof, to be used for instruction and from which students will gain
practical working experience, and shall insure that the airframes,
powerplants, propellers, appliances, and components thereof be sufficiently
diversified as to show the different methods of construction, assembly,
inspection, and operation when installed in an aircraft for use.

(j) Each applicant for, or holder of, an ATO certificate with an AMT rating
shall ensure that it maintains a sufficient number of units of the material
described in paragraph (h)(3) so that no more than eight students will work
on any one unit at one time.

(k) Each applicant for, or holder of, an ATO certificate with an AMT rating using
an aircraft for instructional purposes that does not have retractable landing gear
and wing flaps, shall provide training aids, or operational mock-ups of the
retractable landing gear and wing flaps which are acceptable to the Authority.

(l) An applicant for an ATO certificate with an AMT rating, or and applicant
seeking an additional AMT rating, shall have at least the facilities,
equipment, and materials appropriate to the rating sought.

(m) An applicant for, or holder of, an ATO certificate with an AMT rating shall
maintain, on the premises and under the full control of the ATO, an adequate
supply of material, special tools, and shop equipment used in constructing and
maintaining aircraft as is appropriate to the approved curriculum of the ATO,
in order to assure that each student will be properly instructed.

(n) An applicant for, or holder of, an ATO certificate with an AMT rating shall
insure that the special tools and shop equipment required by paragraph (h)
be in satisfactory working condition for instructional and practice purposes.
See Appendix 1 to 9.050 for specific requirements for facilities for AMT courses.

9.055 FLIGHT TRAINING FACILITIES, EQUIPMENT, AND COURSEWARE
(a) An applicant for, or holder of, a Level 2 ATO shall have available

exclusively, for adequate periods of time and at a location approved by the
Authority, adequate flight training equipment and courseware, including at
least one flight simulator or advanced flight training device.

(b) An applicant for, or holder of, an ATO certificate that plans to conduct pilot
flight training shall show that it has continuous use of a briefing area
located at each airport at which training flights originate that is —
(1) Adequate to shelter students waiting to engage in their training flights;
(2) Arranged and equipped for the conduct of pilot briefings; and
(3) For an ATO with an instrument rating course or commercial pilot

course, equipped with adequate communication to sources of weather
and flight planning information.

9.060 SATELLITE ATOs
(a) The holder of an ATO certificate may conduct training in accordance with a

training program approved by the Authority at a satellite ATO if —
(1) The facilities, equipment, personnel, and course content of the satellite

ATO meet the applicable requirements;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 349






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) The instructors and evaluators at the satellite ATO are under the direct
supervision of management personnel of the principal ATO;

(3) The certificate holder notifies the Authority in writing that a particular
satellite ATO is to begin operations at least 60 days prior to proposed
commencement of operations at that satellite ATO; and

(4) The certificate holder’s training specifications reflect the name and address
of the satellite ATO and the approved courses offered at the satellite ATO.

(b) The Authority will issue training specifications which prescribe the
operations required and authorised at each satellite ATO.

9.065 CHANGES REQUIRING NOTICE TO THE AUTHORITY
(a) Each ATO shall notify the Authority within 30 days of any of the following

changes:
(1) The accountable manager.
(2) The instructional and evaluation staff.
(3) The housing, training facilities and equipment, procedures, curricula,

and work scope that could affect the approval.
(b) The Authority may prescribe the conditions under which the ATO may

operate during such changes unless the Authority determines that the
approval should be suspended.

9.070 INSPECTION
(a) The Authority may, at any time, inspect an ATO holder on the ATO

holder’s premises to determine the ATO’s compliance with this Schedule.
(b) Inspections will normally be repeated on a twelve month basis, which may

be extended to a twenty-four month basis if, in the opinion of the Authority,
the holder continues to meet the requirements under which it was originally
certificated.

(c) After an inspection is made, the certificate holder will be notified, in
writing, of any deficiencies found during the inspection.

SUBPART C
ADMINISTRATION

9.075 RECORD KEEPING
(a) Each ATO shall maintain a record for each trainee that contains —

(1) The name of the trainee;
(2) A copy of the trainee’s licence, if any, and medical certificate, if

required;
(3) The name of the course and the make and model of flight training

equipment used, if applicable;
(4) The trainee’s prerequisite experience and course time completed;
(5) The date the student graduated, terminated training, or transferred to

another school;
(6) The trainee’s performance on each lesson and the name of the

instructor providing instruction;

CH.284 – 350] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(7) A current progress record for each trainee showing the practical
projects or laboratory work completed or to be completed for each
subject;

(8) The date and result of each knowledge test and end-of-course practical
test and the name of the evaluator conducting the test(s); and

(9) The number of hours of additional training that was accomplished
after any unsatisfactory practical test.

(b) The Authority will not consider a student’s logbook as sufficient for the
records required by paragraph (a).

(c) Each ATO shall maintain a record for each instructor or evaluator
designated to instruct a course approved in accordance with this Schedule
that indicates that the instructor or evaluator has complied with the
applicable requirements of this Schedule.

(d) Each ATO shall —
(1) Maintain the records required by paragraph (a) for at least 2 year

following the completion of training, testing or checking;
(2) Maintain the qualification records required by paragraph (c) while the

instructor or evaluator is in the employ of the certificate holder and for
2 year thereafter; and

(3) Maintain the recurrent demonstration of proficiency records required
by paragraph (c) for at least 2 years.

(e) Each ATO shall provide the records required by this section to the
Authority upon request, within a reasonable time, and shall store and
maintain the records required by —
(1) Paragraph (b) at the ATO, or satellite ATO where the training, testing,

or checking, if appropriate, occurred, or at another location acceptable
to the authority; and

(2) Paragraph (c) at the ATO or satellite ATO where the instructor or
evaluator is primarily employed, or at another location acceptable to
the authority.

(f) Each ATO shall provide to a trainee, upon request and at a reasonable time,
a copy of his or her training records.

(g) Each ATO shall keep a current record of each student enrolled, showing, if
applicable —
(1) The instruction credited, if any; and
(2) The authenticated transcript of grades from a school previously

attended.
9.080 GRADUATION CERTIFICATES AND TRANSCRIPTS

(a) Each ATO shall issue upon completion of training a graduation certificate
to each student who completes its approved course of training.

(b) Each ATO shall include in each graduation certificate —
(1) The name of the school and the certificate number of the ATO;
(2) The name of the graduate to whom it was issued;
(3) The approved curriculum title;
(4) The date of graduation;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 351






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(5) A statement that the student has satisfactorily completed each required
stage of the approved course of training including the tests for those stages;

(6) An authentication by an official of the school; and
(7) A statement showing the cross-country flight training that the student

received in the course of training, if applicable.
(c) An ATO may not issue a graduation certificate to a student, or recommend

a student for a licence or rating, unless the student has —
(1) Completed the training specified in the approved course of training;

and
(2) Passed the required final tests.

9.085 TRANSCRIPTS
(a) Upon request, each ATO shall provide a transcript of a student’s grades to

each student who is graduated from that ATO or who leaves it before being
graduated.

(b) Each ATO shall include in the transcript required by paragraph (a) —
(1) The curriculum in which the student was enrolled;
(2) Whether the student satisfactory completed that curriculum;
(3) The final grades the student received; and
(4) An authentication by an official of the school.

SUBPART D
FLIGHT CREW TRAINING

Section I: General
9.090 PILOT TRAINING COURSES
(a) The Authority will issue certificates and training specifications for two

levels of ATO which conduct pilot flight training courses, as shown:
(i) A Level 1 ATO is one which conducts the preponderance of each

flight training course using an actual aircraft.
(ii) A Level 2 ATO is one which conducts all or substantially all of each

flight training course using simulation media which are qualified and
approved by the Authority.

(b) The Authority may approve the following courses of instruction to an
applicant for, or holder of a Level 1 ATO certificate, provided the applicant
meets the prescribed requirements:
(1) Licensing and rating courses.

(i) Private pilot course. (Appendix 1 to 9.090)
(ii) Commercial pilot course. (Appendix 2 to 9.090)

(iii) Instrument rating course. (Appendix 3 to 9.090)
(iv) Airline transport pilot course. (Appendix 4 to 9.090)
(v) Flight instructor course. (Appendix 5 to 9.090)

CH.284 – 352] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(vi) Flight instructor instrument course. (Appendix 6 to 9.090)
(vii) Ground instructor course. (Appendix 7 to 9.090)

(viii) Additional aircraft category or class rating course. (Appendix 8
to 9.090)

(ix) Aircraft type rating course. (Appendix 9 to 9.090)
(2) Special preparation courses. (Appendix 10 to 9.090)

(i) Pilot refresher course.
(ii) Flight instructor refresher course.
(iii) Ground instructor refresher course.
(iv) Agricultural aircraft operations course.
(v) Rotorcraft external-load operations course.
(vi) Special operations course.

(vii) Test pilot course.
(3) Pilot ground school course. (Appendix 11 to 9.090)
(4) Flight Engineer course. (Appendix 12 to 9.090)

(c) The Authority may approve the following courses of instruction to an
applicant for, or holder of a Level 2 ATO certificate, provided the applicant
meets the prescribed requirements:
(1) Any course for licensing or for any rating for which the applicant can

show an effective curriculum and for which the Authority has
qualified the simulation media.

9.093 SPECIAL CURRICULA — OTHER CREW MEMBERS
(a) An applicant for, or holder of, an ATO certificate may apply for approval to

conduct a special course of airman training for which a curriculum is not
prescribed by the Authority, if the applicant shows that the training course
contains features that could achieve a level of pilot proficiency equivalent
to that achieved by a training course prescribed in the requirements of
Schedule 8, as applicable.

9.095 REQUIREMENTS FOR A LEVEL 1 ATO CERTIFICATE
(a) The Authority will issue to an applicant a Level 1 ATO certificate with

associated ratings if the applicant —
(1) Held a provisional Level 1 ATO certificate issued under this Schedule

for at least 24 calendar months preceding the month of application;
(2) Meets the applicable requirements of this Subpart for the ratings

sought; and
(3) Within 24 calendar months preceding the month of application, has

trained, recommended, and had at least 80 percent of all applicants
pass on the first attempt —
(i) A knowledge or a practical test for a pilot licence, flight

instructor licence, ground instructor licence, or an additional
rating; and

(ii) Any combination of tests specified in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2).

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 353






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

9.100 PROVISIONAL LEVEL 1 ATO CERTIFICATE
(a) The Authority may issue to an applicant that meets the applicable

requirements of this Subpart, but does not meet the prescribed recent training
activity requirements, a provisional Level 1 ATO certificate with ratings.

9.105 RENEWAL OF CERTIFICATES AND RATINGS
(a) Level 1 ATO.

(1) A Level 1 ATO may apply for renewal of its certificate and ratings within
30 days preceding the month the Level 1 ATO’s certificate expires,
provided the ATO meets the requirements prescribed in paragraph (a)(2).

(2) The Authority will renew for an additional 24 calendar months a Level 1
ATO certificate and ratings if the Authority determines the ATO’s
personnel, aircraft, facility and airport, approved training courses, training
records, and recent training ability and quality meet the requirements.

(3) A Level 1 ATO that does not meet the renewal requirements in
paragraph (a)(2), may apply for a provisional Level 1 ATO certificate
if the school meets the prescribed requirements.

(b) Provisional Level 1 ATO.
(1) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(3), the Authority will not renew a

provisional Level 1 ATO certificate or the ratings on that certificate.
(2) A provisional Level 1 ATO may apply for a Level 1 ATO certificate

and associated ratings provided that ATO meets the requirements of
this Subpart.

(3) A former provisional Level 1 ATO may apply for another provisional
Level 1 ATO certificate, provided 180 days have elapsed since its last
provisional Level 1 ATO certificate expired.

Section II: Flight Training Equipment Requirements
9.110 APPLICABILITY
(a) This section prescribes —

(1) The personnel and aircraft requirements for an ATO certificate; and
(2) The facilities that an ATO shall have available on a continuous basis.

9.115 AIRPORT REQUIREMENTS
(a) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall show that

it has continuous use of each airport at which training flights originate, and
that the airport has an adequate runway and the necessary equipment.
See Appendix 1 to 9.115 for specific runway and equipment requirements.

9.120 AIRCRAFT REQUIREMENTS
(a) An applicant for, or holder of, an ATO certificate shall ensure, for each

aircraft used for flight instruction and solo flights —
(1) Except for flight instruction and solo flights in a curriculum for

agricultural aircraft operations, external load operations, and similar


CH.284 – 354] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

aerial work operations, that the aircraft has a Bahamian standard
airworthiness certificate or a foreign equivalent of a Bahamian
standard airworthiness certificate, acceptable to the Authority;

(2) That each aircraft is maintained and inspected in accordance with the
requirements of Schedule 5; and

(3) That each aircraft is equipped as provided in the training
specifications for the approved course for which it is used.

(b) Except as provided in paragraph (c), an applicant for, or holder of, an ATO
certificate shall ensure that each aircraft used for flight instruction is at least a
two-place aircraft with engine power controls and flight controls that are easily
reached and that operate in a conventional manner from both pilot stations.

(c) A certificate holder may use aeroplanes with controls such as nose-wheel
steering, switches, fuel selectors, and engine airflow controls that are not
easily reached and operated in a conventional manner by both pilots for
flight instruction if the certificate holder determines that the flight
instruction can be conducted in a safe manner considering the location of
controls and their non-conventional operation, or both.

(d) Each certificate holder shall ensure that each aircraft used in a course
involving IFR operations is equipped and maintained for IFR operations.

(e) The Authority may approve aircraft with a restricted airworthiness
certificate for use in the agricultural aircraft operations, external-load
operations, test pilot, and special operations courses, if its use for training is
not prohibited by the aircraft’s operating limitations.

9.125 FLIGHT SIMULATORS AND FLIGHT TRAINING DEVICES
(a) An applicant for, or holder of, an ATO certificate shall show that each flight

simulator and flight training device used for training, testing, and checking
will be or is specifically qualified and approved by the Authority for —
(1) Each manoeuvre and procedure for the make, model, and series of

aircraft, set of aircraft, or aircraft type simulated, as applicable; and
(2) Each curriculum or training course in which the flight simulator or

flight training device is used, if that curriculum or course is used to
satisfy any requirement of these regulations.

(b) An applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall show that
each of its flight simulators and flight training devices —
(1) Represent the aircraft for which the course is approved;
(2) Is used only for training given by an authorised instructor; and
(3) Is not used for more than 25 percent of the total flight training hour

requirements.
(c) Each certificate holder shall ensure, prior to use, that the approval required

by this section includes —
(1) The set of aircraft or type aircraft;
(2) If applicable, the particular variation within type for which the

training, testing, or checking is being conducted; and
(3) The particular manoeuvre, procedure, or crew member function to be

performed.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 355






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(d) Each certificate holder shall ensure that each flight simulator or flight
training device used by an ATO is —
(1) Maintained to ensure the reliability of the performances, functions,

and all other characteristics that were required for qualification;
(2) Modified to conform with any modification to the aircraft being

simulated if the modification results in changes to performance,
function, or other characteristics required for qualification;

(3) Given a functional preflight check each day before being used; and
(4) Provided with a discrepancy log in which the instructor or evaluator,

at the end of each training session, enters each discrepancy.
(e) Unless otherwise authorised by the Authority, each certificate holder shall

ensure that each component on a flight simulator or flight training device
used by an ATO is operative if the component is essential to, or involved
in, the training, testing, or checking of airmen.

(f) The Authority will not restrict ATO instructors or students to specific —
(1) Route segments during line-oriented flight training scenarios; or
(2) Visual data bases replicating a specific customer’s bases of operation.

(g) An applicant for, or holder of, an ATO certificate may request evaluation,
qualification, and continuing evaluation for qualification of flight
simulators and flight training devices without —
(1) Holding an air carrier certificate; or
(2) Having a specific relationship to an air carrier certificate holder.

Section III: Curriculum and Syllabus Requirements
9.130 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Section prescribes the curriculum and syllabus requirements for the

issuance of an ATO certificate and training specifications for training,
testing, and checking conducted to meet the requirements of Schedule 8.

9.135 APPROVAL OF TRAINING PROGRAM
(a) Each applicant for, or holder of, an ATO certificate shall apply to the

Authority for training program approval.
(b) Each applicant for training program approval shall indicate in the

application —
(1) Which courses are part of the core curriculum and which courses are

part of the speciality curriculum;
(2) Which requirements of Schedule 8 would be satisfied by the

curriculum or curricula; and
(3) Which requirements of Schedule 8 would not be satisfied by the

curriculum or curricula.
(c) After a certificate holder begins operations under an approved training

program, the Authority may require the certificate holder to make revisions
to that training program if the Authority finds that the certificate holder is
not meeting the provisions of its approved training program.

CH.284 – 356] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(d) If the Authority requires an ATO certificate holder to make revisions to an
approved training program and the certificate holder does not make those
required revisions within 30 calendar days, the Authority may suspend,
revoke, or terminate the Level 2 ATO certificate.

9.140 TRAINING PROGRAM CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS
(a) Each applicant shall ensure that each training program curriculum

submitted to the Authority for approval meets the applicable requirements
and contains —
(1) A syllabus for each proposed curriculum;
(2) Minimum aircraft and flight training equipment requirements for each

proposed curriculum;
(3) Minimum instructor and evaluator qualifications for each proposed

curriculum;
(4) A curriculum for initial training and continuing training of each

instructor or evaluator employed to instruct in a proposed curriculum;
and

(5) For each curriculum that provides for the issuance of a licence or
rating in fewer than the minimum hours prescribed by Schedule 8 —
(i) A means of demonstrating the ability to accomplish such

training in the reduced number of hours; and
(ii) A means of tracking student performance.

Section IV: Personnel Requirements
9.145 APPLICABILITY
(a) This section prescribes the personnel and flight training equipment

requirements for a certificate holder that is training to meet the
requirements of Schedule 8.

9.155 LEVEL 2 ATO INSTRUCTOR ELIGIBILITY REQUIREMENTS
(a) A certificate holder may not employ a person as an instructor in a flight

training course that is subject to approval by the Authority unless that
person —
(1) Is at least 18 years of age;
(2) Is able to read, write, speak, and understand the English language;
(3) If instructing in an aircraft in flight, holds a flight instructor licence;
(4) If instructing in simulated flight, satisfies the requirements of

paragraph (c); and
(5) Meets at least one of the following requirements —

(i) Meets the aeronautical experience requirements for a
commercial pilot licence, excluding the required hours of
instruction in preparation for the commercial pilot practical test;

(ii) If instructing in a flight simulator or flight training device that
represents an aeroplane requiring a type rating or if instructing
in a curriculum leading to the issuance of an airline transport
pilot licence, meets the aeronautical experience requirements for
an airline transport pilot; or

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 357






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(iii) Is employed as a flight simulator instructor or a flight training
device instructor for an ATO providing instruction and testing to
meet the requirements of Schedule 8 on [insert date 30 days
following adoption of this rule].

(b) An ATO shall designate each instructor in writing for each approved
course, prior to that person functioning as an instructor in that course.

(c) Prior to initial designation, each flight and simulator flight instructor shall
complete the prescribed requirements.
See Appendix 1 to 9.155 for specific training eligibility requirements.

9.160 LEVEL 2 ATO INSTRUCTOR AND EVALUATOR PRIVILEGES AND
LIMITATIONS

(a) An ATO may allow an instructor to provide —
(1) Instruction for each curriculum for which that instructor is qualified;
(2) Testing and checking for which that instructor is qualified; and
(3) Instruction, testing, and checking intended to satisfy the requirements

of this Schedule.
(b) An ATO whose instructor or evaluator is designated in accordance with the

requirements to conduct training, testing, or checking in flight training
equipment, may allow its instructor or evaluator to give endorsements
required by Schedule 8 if that instructor or evaluator is authorised by the
Authority to instruct or evaluate in a curriculum that requires such
endorsements.

(c) An ATO may not allow an instructor to —
(1) Excluding briefings and debriefings, conduct more than 8 hours of

instruction in any 24-consecutive-hour period, or more than 6 days or
40 hours in any 7-day period;

(2) Provide flight training equipment instruction unless that instructor
meets the applicable requirements; or

(3) Provide flight instruction in an aircraft unless that instructor —
(i) Meets the prescribed requirements;

(ii) Holds a flight instructor licence;
(iii) Holds pilot licences and ratings applicable to the category, class,

and type aircraft in which instructing;
(iv) If instructing or evaluating in an aircraft in flight while

occupying a required crew member seat, holds at least a valid
second class medical certificate; and

(v) Meets the recency of experience requirements of Schedule 12.
9.165 LEVEL 2 ATO INSTRUCTOR TRAINING AND TESTING

REQUIREMENTS
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (c), prior to designation and every 12

calendar months beginning the first day of the month following an
instructor’s initial designation, a certificate holder shall ensure that each of
its instructors meets the following requirements.

CH.284 – 358] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(1) Each flight instructor or simulator flight instructor shall satisfactorily
demonstrate to an authorized evaluator knowledge of, and proficiency
in, instructing in a representative segment of each curriculum for
which that instructor is designated.

(2) Each instructor shall satisfactorily complete an approved course of
ground instruction in at least —
(i) The fundamental principles of the learning process;

(ii) Elements of effective teaching, instruction methods, and
techniques;

(iii) Instructor duties, privileges, responsibilities, and limitations;
(iv) Training policies and procedures;
(v) Cockpit resource management and crew co-ordination; and

(vi) Evaluation.
(3) Each instructor who instructs in a flight simulator or flight training

device shall satisfactorily complete an approved course of training in
the operation of the flight simulator, and an approved course of
ground instruction, applicable to the training courses the instructor is
designated to instruct, which shall include —
(i) Proper operation of flight simulator and flight training device

controls and systems;
(ii) Proper operation of environmental and fault panels;
(iii) Limitations of simulation; and
(iv) Minimum equipment requirements for each curriculum.

(4) Each flight instructor who provides training in an aircraft shall
satisfactorily complete an approved course of ground instruction and
flight training in an aircraft, flight simulator, or flight training device,
which shall include —
(i) Performance and analysis of flight training procedures and

manoeuvres applicable to the training courses that the instructor
is designated to instruct;

(ii) Technical subjects covering aircraft subsystems and operating
rules applicable to the training courses that the instructor is
designated to instruct;

(iii) Emergency operations;
(iv) Emergency situations likely to develop during training; and
(v) Appropriate safety measures.

(5) Each instructor who instructs in flight training equipment shall pass a
knowledge test and annual proficiency check —
(i) In the flight training equipment in which the instructor will be

instructing; and
(ii) On the subject matter and manoeuvres of a representative

segment of each curriculum for which the instructor will be
instructing.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 359






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(b) In addition to the requirements of paragraphs (a)(1) through (a)(5), each
certificate holder shall ensure that each instructor who instructs in a flight
simulator that the Authority has approved for all training and all testing for
the airline transport pilot licensing test, aircraft type rating test, or both, has
met at least one of the prescribed requirements.

(c) The Authority will consider completion of a curriculum required by
paragraph (a) or (b) taken in the calendar month before or after the month
in which it is due as taken in the month in which it was due for the purpose
of computing when the next training is due.

(d) The Authority may give credit for the requirements of paragraph (a) or (b)
to an instructor who has satisfactorily completed an instructor training
course for a Schedule 12 certificate holder if the Authority finds such a
course equivalent to the requirements of paragraph (a) or (b).
See Appendix 1 to 9.165 specific testing and training requirements for a
Level 2 ATO instructor.

9.170 LEVEL 2 ATO EVALUATOR REQUIREMENTS
(a) Except as provided by paragraph (d), each ATO shall ensure that each

person authorised as an evaluator —
(1) Is approved by the Authority;
(2) Is in compliance with the prescribed requirements;
(3) Prior to designation, satisfactorily completes a curriculum within 12

calendar months that includes the following —
(i) Evaluator duties, functions, and responsibilities;

(ii) Methods, procedures, and techniques for conducting required
tests and checks;

(iii) Evaluation of pilot performance; and
(iv) Management of unsatisfactory tests and subsequent corrective

action; and
(4) If evaluating in-flight training equipment, satisfactorily pass a

knowledge test and annual proficiency check in a flight simulator or
aircraft in which the evaluator will be evaluating.

(b) For the purpose of computing when evaluator training is due, the Authority
will consider that an evaluator who satisfactorily completes a curriculum
required by paragraph (a)(3) in the calendar month before or the calendar
month after the month in which it was due, to have taken it in the month it
was due.

(c) The Authority may give credit for the requirements of paragraph (a)(3) to
an evaluator who has satisfactorily completed an evaluator training course
for an AOC holder if the Authority finds such a course equivalent to the
requirements of paragraph (a)(3).

9.175 LEVEL 1 ATO PERSONNEL
(a) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall have

adequate personnel, including licenced flight instructors, licenced ground
instructors, and holders of a commercial pilot licence with a lighter-than-air
rating, if applicable, and a chief instructor who are qualified and competent
to perform the duties assigned in each approved training course.

CH.284 – 360] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(b) Each instructor for ground or flight training shall hold a flight instructor
licence, ground instructor licence, or commercial pilot licence with a
lighter-than-air rating, as appropriate, with ratings for the approved training
course and any aircraft used in that course.

9.180 LEVEL 1 ATO CHIEF INSTRUCTOR QUALIFICATIONS
(a) To be designated as a chief instructor for a Level 1 ATO course, a person

shall meet one or more of the requirements prescribed by the Authority.
See Appendix 1 to 9.180 for chief instructor qualification requirements.

9.185 LEVEL 1 ATO ASSISTANT CHIEF INSTRUCTOR QUALIFICATIONS
(a) To be designated as an assistant chief instructor for a Level 1 ATO course,

a person shall meet the requirements prescribed by the Authority.
See Appendix 9.185 for assistant chief instructor qualification
requirements.

9.190 LEVEL 1 ATO CHECK INSTRUCTOR QUALIFICATIONS
(a) To be designated as a check instructor for a Level 1 ATO conducting

student stage checks, end-of-course tests, and instructor proficiency checks
under this Schedule, a person shall meet the applicable requirements
prescribed by the Authority.
See Appendix 1 to 9.190 for check instructor qualification requirements.

9.195 LEVEL 1 ATO INSTRUCTOR FLIGHT TRAINING
(a) No person other than a licenced flight instructor or commercial pilot with a

lighter-than-air rating who has the ratings and the minimum qualifications
specified in the approved training course outline may give a student flight
training under an approved course of training.

(b) No ATO may authorise a student pilot to start a solo flight until the flight
has been approved by an authorised instructor who is present at the
origination.

(c) Each chief instructor and assistant chief instructor assigned to a training
course shall complete, at least once every 12 calendar months, an approved
syllabus of training consisting of ground or flight training, or both, or an
approved flight instructor refresher course.

(d) Each licenced flight instructor or commercial pilot with a lighter-than-air
rating who is assigned to a flight training course shall satisfactorily
complete the following tasks, which shall be administered by the school’s
chief instructor, assistant chief instructor, or check instructor —
(1) Prior to receiving authorisation to train students in a flight training

course, accomplish —
(i) A review of and a briefing on the objectives and standards of

that training course; and
(ii) An initial proficiency check in each make and model of aircraft

used in that training course in which that person provides
training.

(2) Every 12 calendar months after the month in which the person last
complied with paragraph (d)(1)(ii), accomplish a proficiency check in
one of the aircraft in which the person trains students.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 361






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

9.200 LEVEL 1 ATO INSTRUCTOR GROUND TRAINING
(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b), each instructor who is assigned to a

ground training course, shall hold a flight or ground instructor licence, or a
commercial pilot licence with a lighter-than-air rating with the appropriate
rating for that course of training.

(b) A person who does not meet the requirements of paragraph (a) may be
assigned ground training duties in a ground training course, if —
(1) The chief instructor who is assigned to that ground training course

finds the person qualified to give that training; and
(2) The instructor serves under the supervision of the chief instructor or

the assistant chief instructor who is present at the facility when the
training is given.

An instructor may not be used in a ground training course until that
instructor has been briefed in regard to the objectives and standards of that
course by the chief instructor, assistant chief instructor, or check instructor.

9.205 LEVEL 1 ATO CHIEF INSTRUCTOR RESPONSIBILITIES
(a) During training, each Level 1 ATO shall ensure that the chief instructor or

an assistant chief instructor is available —
(1) At the Level 1 ATO; or
(2) By telephone, radio, or other electronic means.

Section V: Operating Rules
9.210 APPLICABILITY
(a) This section prescribes the operating rules applicable to a certified ATO

and operating a course or training program curriculum approved in
accordance with this Schedule.

9.215 PRIVILEGES
(a) A Level 2 ATO certificate holder may allow flight simulator instructors and

evaluators to meet recency of experience requirements through the use of a
flight simulator or flight training device if that flight simulator or flight
training device is used in an approved course.

(b) The holder of an ATO certificate may advertise and conduct approved pilot
training courses in accordance with the certificate and any ratings that it
holds.

(c) A Level 1 ATO may credit towards the curriculum requirements of a course
previous training and pilot experience and knowledge, provided the student
meets the prescribed requirements.
See Appendix 1 to 9.215 for specific transfer credit requirements.

9.220 LIMITATIONS: ATO
(a) Each ATO shall —

(1) Ensure that a flight simulator or flight training device freeze, slow motion,
or repositioning feature is not used during testing or checking; and

CH.284 – 362] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(2) Ensure that a repositioning feature is used during line operational
simulation for evaluation and line-oriented flight training only to
advance along a flight route to the point where the descent and
approach phase of the flight begins.

(b) When practical testing, flight checking, or line operational simulation is
being conducted, the Level 2 ATO shall ensure that one of the following
occupies each supporting crew member position —
(1) A crew member qualified as SIC in the aircraft category and class,

provided that no flight instructor who is giving instruction may
occupy a crew member position; and

(2) A student, provided that no student may be used in a crew member
position with any other student not in the same specific course.

(c) Maintenance of Personnel, Facilities, and Equipment: The holder of an ATO
certificate may not provide training to a student who is enrolled in an approved
course of training unless each airport, all flight training equipment, and each
authorised instructor and evaluator continuously meets the requirements and
the standards specified in the certificate holder’s training specifications.

(d) A certified ATO may not require any student to attend classes of instruction
more than 8 hours in any day or more than 6 days or 40 hours in any
consecutive 7-day period.

9.225 LIMITATIONS: ENROLLED STUDENTS IN ACTUAL FLIGHT
CURRICULA

(a) Each student pilot shall carry the following items on each aircraft used for
flight training and solo flights —
(1) A pre-takeoff and pre-landing checklist; and
(2) The operator’s handbook or AFM for the aircraft if one is furnished by

the manufacturer or copies of the handbook to each student using the
aircraft.

9.230 LEVEL 1 ATO ENROLMENT DOCUMENTS
(a) The holder of a Level 1 ATO certificate shall furnish each student, upon

enrolment, with a copy of the following —
(1) A certificate of enrolment containing —

(i) The name of the course in which the student is enrolled; and
(ii) The date of that enrolment.

(2) A copy of the student’s training syllabus.
(3) For pilot students, a copy of the safety procedures and practices that

describe —
(i) The use of facilities and the operation of its aircraft;

(ii) The weather minimums required by the school for dual and solo
flights;

(iii) The procedures for starting and taxiing aircraft on the ramp;
(iv) Fire precautions and procedures;
(v) Redispatch procedures after unprogrammed landings, on and off

airports;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 363






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(vi) Aircraft discrepancies and write-offs;
(vii) Securing of aircraft when not in use;

(viii) Fuel reserves necessary for local and cross-country flights;
(ix) Avoidance of other aircraft in flight and on the ground;
(x) Minimum altitude limitations and simulated emergency landing

instructions; and
(xi) A description of and instructions regarding the use of assigned

practice areas.
(4) The holder of a Level 1 ATO certificate shall maintain a monthly

listing of persons enrolled in each training course offered by the
school.

(b) Each Level 1 ATO applicant shall ensure that each training course for
which it seeks approval meets the minimum curriculum requirements.
See Appendix 1 to 9.230 for Level 1 training course contents.

SUBPART E
AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREW

Section I: Airmen Except AMTs

9.235 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart provides an alternative means to accomplish flight training

required by Schedules 2 or 9.
(b) Certification under this Subpart is not required for training that is —

(1) Approved under the provisions of Schedules 11; and
(2) Conducted under Schedule 8, unless that Schedule requires

certification under this Schedule.
9.240 OTHER TRAINING COURSES
(a) The Authority may approve the following courses of instruction to an

applicant for, or holder of an ATO certificate, provided the applicant meets
the applicable requirements for:
(1) Operational Control Person.
(2) Flight engineer.
(3) Flight attendants.
(4) Material handlers.
(5) Ground servicing personnel.
(6) Load controllers.
(7) Security personnel.
(8) Others approved by the Authority.

(b) The Authority will approve a course for which the application is made if
the ATO, or ATO applicant, shows that the course contains a curriculum
that will achieve a level of competency equal to, or greater than, that
required by the applicable Schedules of these regulations.
See Appendix 5 to 9.090 for Flight Engineer Training Course Requirements.

CH.284 – 364] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

9.245 APPLICATION, DURATION, AND RENEWAL
(a) Application. An ATO proposing to train Operational Control Persons shall

submit an application containing —
(1) Instruction in the areas of knowledge and topics;
(2) A minimum of 200 total course hours; and
(3) An outline of the major topics and subtopics to be covered and the

number of hours proposed for each.
(b) Duration and renewal.

(1) The authority to operate an aircraft Operational Control Person
licensing course expires 24 months after the last day of the month of
issuance of the authority.

(2) The holder of an approval for an aircraft Operational Control Person
licensing course shall apply to the Authority for renewal within 30
days prior to the expiration date.

(c) Instruction.
(1) The holder of a course approval shall ensure that it maintains an

adequate number of instructors who maintain a 24 calendar-month
average of at least 80 percent of the graduates of that school passing
the practical test on the first attempt.

See Appendix 1 to 9.250 for course approval requirements.
Section II: AMT Training Courses

9.250 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart prescribes the requirements for —

(1) Issuing ATO certificates and ratings;
(2) Conducting licensing courses and associated ratings for AMTs; and
(3) Instructing the general operating rules for the holders of AMT licences

and ratings.
9.255 AMT TRAINING COURSES
(a) The Authority may approve the following courses of instruction to an

applicant for, or holder of an ATO certificate, provided the applicant meets
the requirements for:
(1) AMT —

(i) Airframe rating;
(ii) Powerplant rating; and
(iii) Airframe and Powerplant rating

9.260 GENERAL CURRICULUM REQUIREMENTS
(a) Each ATO shall have an approved curriculum that is designed to qualify its

students to perform the duties of an AMT for a particular rating or ratings.
(b) The curriculum shall offer at least the following number of hours of

instruction shown, and the instruction unit hour shall be not less than 50
minutes in length.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 365






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(1) Airframe — 1,150 hours (400 general plus 750 airframe).
(2) Powerplant — 1,150 hours (400 general and 750 powerplant).
(3) Combined airframe and powerplant — 1,900 hours (400 general plus

750 airframe and 750 powerplant).
(c) The curriculum shall cover the prescribed subjects and items.
(d) Each ATO shall teach each subject to at least the indicated level of

proficiency prescribed by the Authority.
(e) The certificate holder shall maintain a curriculum that shows —

(1) The required practical projects to be completed;
(2) For each subject, the proportions of theory and other instruction to be

given; and
(3) A list of the minimum required tests to be given.

(f) Each ATO may issue AMT licences of competency to persons successfully
completing speciality courses provided that all requirements are met and
the licences of competency specifies the aircraft make and model to which
the licence applies.

See Appendix 1 to 9.260 for applicable AMT course curriculum subjects and items.
9.265 AMT TRAINING PROGRAM PROVIDERS
(a) The holder of a training organization applicant may apply to the Authority

for approval for an AMT training program.
(b) An AOC holder, an AMO, or an ATO may apply to the Authority for approval

for an AMT training program that meets the requirements of this Subpart.
9.270 INSTRUCTOR REQUIREMENTS
(a) Each ATO shall provide the number of instructors holding appropriate licences

and ratings, issued under Schedule 8, that the Authority determines is necessary
to provide adequate instruction and supervision of the students, including at least
one such instructor for each 25 students in each class held in a shop where
students are performing actual tasks appropriate to the curriculum.

(b) An ATO may provide specialised instructors, who are not licenced in
accordance with Schedule 8, to teach mathematics, physics, basic
electricity, basic hydraulics, drawing, and similar subjects.

(c) Each ATO shall maintain a list of the names and qualifications of such
specialised instructors, and upon request, provide a copy of the list, with a
summary of the qualifications of each specialised instructor to the Authority.

9.275 ATTENDANCE AND CREDIT FOR PRIOR INSTRUCTION OR
EXPERIENCE

(a) An ATO may credit a student with instruction or previous experience as follows:
(1) Instruction satisfactorily completed at —

(i) An accredited university, college, or junior college;
(ii) An accredited vocational, technical, trade or high school;

(iii) A military technical school; or
(iv) An ATO.

CH.284 – 366] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(2) Previous aviation maintenance experience comparable to required
curriculum subjects —
(i) By determining the amount of credit to be allowed by

documents verifying previous experience; and
(ii) By giving the student a test equal to the one given to students

who complete the comparable required curriculum subject at the
ATO.

(3) Credit to be allowed for previous instruction —
(i) By an entrance test equal to one given to the students who

complete a comparable required curriculum subject at the
crediting ATO;

(ii) By an evaluation of an authenticated transcript from the
student’s former school; or

(iii) In the case of an applicant from a military school, only on the
basis of an entrance test.

(4) A certificate holder may credit a student seeking an additional rating
with previous satisfactory completion of the general portion of an
AMT’s curriculum.

(b) Each ATO shall show hours of absence allowed and how it will make
missed material available to the student.

APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1 TO 9.020

APPLICATION FOR ATO CERTIFICATE
(a) Each applicant for an ATO certificate and training specification shall

provide to the Authority the following information:
(1) A statement showing that the minimum qualification requirements for

each management position are met or exceeded.
(2) A statement acknowledging that the applicant may notify the

Authority within 10 working days of any change made in the
assignment of persons in the required management positions.

(3) The proposed training specifications requested by the applicant.
(4) The proposed evaluation authorisation.
(5) A description of the flight training equipment that the applicant

proposes to use.
(6) A description of the applicant’s training facilities, equipment, and

qualifications of personnel to be used, and proposed evaluation plans.
(7) A training program curriculum, including syllabi, outlines,

courseware, procedures, and documentation to support the required
items upon request by the Authority.

(8) A description of a recordkeeping system that will identify and
document the details of training, qualification, and licensing of
students, instructors, and evaluators.

(9) A description of quality control measures proposed.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 367






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(10) A method of demonstrating the applicant’s qualification and ability to
provide training for a licence or rating in fewer than the minimum
hours prescribed in Schedule 8 if the applicant proposes to do so.

APPENDIX 1 TO 9.025
TRAINING COURSE CONTENTS

(a) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall ensure
that each training course contains —
(1) A description of each flight simulator or flight training device used for

training;
(2) A listing of the airports at which training flights originate and a

description of the facilities, including pilot briefing areas that are
available for use by the school’s students and personnel at each of
those airports;

(3) A description of the type of aircraft including any special equipment
used for each phase of training;

(4) The minimum qualifications and ratings for each instructor assigned to
ground or flight training; and

(5) A training syllabus that includes —
(i) The prerequisites for enrolling in the ground and flight portion

of the course that include the pilot licence and rating (if required
by this Schedule), training, pilot experience, and pilot
knowledge;

(ii) A detailed description of each lesson, including the lesson’s
objectives, standards, and planned time for completion;

(iii) Course learning objectives;
(iv) Stage learning objectives and standards; and
(v) A description of the checks and tests to be used to measure

learning after each stage of training.
(b) A Level 1 ATO may —

(1) Include training in a flight simulator or flight training device, provided
it is representative of the aircraft for which the course is approved,
meets the requirements of this paragraph, and the training is given by
an authorised instructor; and

(2) Permit a student to credit training in a flight simulator that meets the
requirements for a maximum of 25 percent of the total flight training
hour requirements of the approved course.

APPENDIX 1 TO 9.050
FACILITIES FOR AMT COURSES

(a) An applicant for, and holder of, an ATO certificate shall have facilities the
Authority determines are appropriate for the maximum number of students
expected to be taught at any time, as follows:
(1) An enclosed classroom.

CH.284 – 368] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(2) Suitable facilities arranged to assure proper separation from the
working space, for parts, tools, materials, and similar articles.

(3) Suitable area for application of finishing materials, including paint
spraying.

(4) Suitable areas equipped with washtank and degreasing equipment with
air pressure or other adequate cleaning equipment.

(5) Suitable facilities for running engines.
(6) Suitable area with adequate equipment, including benches, tables, and

test equipment, to disassemble, service, and inspect —
(i) Ignition systems, electrical equipment, and appliances;

(ii) Carburettors and fuel systems; and
(iii) Hydraulic and vacuum systems for aircraft, aircraft engines, and

their appliances.
(7) Suitable space with adequate equipment, including tables, benches,

stands, and jacks, for disassembling, inspecting, and rigging aircraft.
(8) Suitable space with adequate equipment for disassembling, inspecting,

assembling, troubleshooting, and timing engines.
APPENDIX 1 TO 9.090

PRIVATE PILOT LICENSING COURSE
(a) Applicability. Appendix A prescribes the minimum curriculum for a private

pilot licensing course with the following ratings —
(1) Aeroplane single-engine;
(2) Aeroplane multi-engine;
(3) Rotorcraft helicopter;
(4) Rotorcraft gyroplane;
(5) Powered-lift;
(6) Glider;
(7) Lighter-than-air airship; and
(8) Lighter-than-air balloon.

(b) Eligibility for enrolment. A person shall hold a student pilot licence prior to
enrolling in the flight portion of the private pilot licensing course.

(c) Aeronautical knowledge training.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each approved course includes at least the following hours
of ground training on the following aeronautical knowledge areas,
appropriate to the aircraft category and class rating —
(i) 35 hours for an aeroplane, rotorcraft, or powered-lift category

rating;
(ii) 15 hours for a glider category rating;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 369






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(iii) 10 hours for a lighter-than-air category with a balloon class rating; and
(iv) 35 hours for a lighter-than-air category with an airship class rating.

(2) Ground training shall include the following aeronautical knowledge
areas —

(i) Applicable Bahamian regulations for private pilot privileges,
limitations, and flight operations;

(ii) Accident reporting requirements of The Bahamas;
(iii) Applicable subjects of the Authority provided aeronautical

information publications;
(iv) Aeronautical charts for VFR navigation using pilotage, dead

reckoning, and navigation systems;
(v) Radio communication procedures;

(vi) Recognition of critical weather situations from the ground and
in flight, windshear avoidance, and the procurement and use of
aeronautical weather reports and forecasts;

(vii) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft, including collision
avoidance, and recognition and avoidance of wake turbulence;

(viii) Effects of density altitude on takeoff and climb performance;
(ix) Weight and balance computations;
(x) Principles of aerodynamics, powerplants, and aircraft systems;

(xi) If the training course is for an aeroplane category or glider
category rating, stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin
recovery techniques;

(xii) Aeronautical decision making and judgement; and
(xiii) Pre-flight action that includes —

(A) Obtaining information on runway lengths, data on takeoff
and landing distances, weather reports and forecasts, and
fuel requirements; and

(B) Planning for alternatives if a planned flight cannot be
completed or delays are encountered.

(d) Flight training.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, an ATO certificate with this rating

shall include at least the following hours of flight training on the areas
of operation listed in paragraph (d), appropriate to the aircraft category
and class rating —
(i) 35 hours for an aeroplane, rotorcraft, powered-lift, or airship

rating;
(ii) 6 hours for a glider rating; and

(iii) 8 hours for a balloon rating.
(2) Each applicant for, and holder of, an ATO certificate with this rating

shall include at least the following hours of flight training in each
course —

(i) For each category and class, unless otherwise noted, 20 hours
from a licenced flight instructor on the applicable areas of
operation that includes at least —

CH.284 – 370] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(A) 3 hours of cross-country flight training in the category and
class involved;

(B) 3 hours of night flight training in the category and class
involved that includes —

1. One cross-country flight of more than 100-nautical-miles
total distance; and

2. 10 takeoffs and 10 landings to a full stop (with each landing
involving a flight in the traffic pattern).

(ii) (A) 3 hours of instrument training in the category and class
involved; and

(B) 3 hours in the category and class involved in preparation for
the practical test within 60 days proceeding the date of the test.

(3) Specific training for other categories and classes as shown:
(i) For a rotorcraft helicopter and gyroplane course:

(A) 3 hours of night flight training in a helicopter that includes one
cross-country flight of more than 50-nautical-miles total distance.

(ii) For a glider course: 4 hours from a licenced flight instructor on
the areas of operation in paragraph (d)(6) that includes at least —
(A) Five training flights in a glider on launch/tow procedures

approved for the course and in the applicable areas of
operation listed in paragraph (d)(6); and

(B) Three training flights in a glider in preparation for the
practical test within 60 days proceeding the date of the test.

(iii) For a lighter-than-air airship course: 20 hours from a
commercial pilot with an airship rating on the areas of operation
in paragraph (e)(7) that includes at least —
(A) The training shown in paragraph (c)(1)(iv), taken in a

lighter-than-air airship;
(B) 3 hours of night flight training in an airship that includes —

1. One cross-country flight over 25 nautical-miles total
distance; and

2. Five takeoffs and five landings to a full stop (with
each landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern).

(iv) For a lighter-than-air balloon course: 8 hours, including at least
five flights, from a commercial pilot with a balloon rating on the
areas of operation in paragraph (e)(8), that includes —
(A) If the training is being performed in a gas balloon —

1. Two flights of 1 hour each;
2. One flight involving a controlled ascent to 3,000 feet

above the launch site; and
3. Two flights in preparation for the practical test within

60 days proceeding the date of the test.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 371






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(B) If the training is being performed in a balloon with an airborne
heater —
1. Two flights of 30 minutes each;
2. One flight involving a controlled ascent to 2,000 feet

above the launch site; and
3. Two flights in preparation for the practical test within 60

days proceeding the date of the test.
(4) Each approved course shall include flight training in the following areas

of operation that are applicable to the aircraft category and class rating —
(i) Preflight preparation;

(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Airport and seaplane base operations;
(iv) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(v) Performance manoeuvres;

(vi) Ground reference manoeuvres;
(vii) Navigation;

(viii) Slow flight and stalls;
(ix) Basic instrument manoeuvres;
(x) Emergency operations;

(xi) Night operations; and
(xii) Postflight procedures.

(5) In addition, for the specific category and class of aircraft shown, each
approved course shall include the applicable flight training in the
following areas of operation:

(i) For a multi-engine aeroplane course —
(A) Multi-engine operations.

(ii) For a rotorcraft helicopter course —
(A) Hovering manoeuvres.

(iii) For a rotorcraft gyroplane course —
(A) Flight at slow airspeeds.

(iv) For a powered-lift course —
(A) Hovering manoeuvres.

(v) For a glider course —
(A) Launches/tows, as appropriate, and landings;
(B) Performance speeds; and
(C) Soaring techniques.

(vi) For a lighter-than-air balloon course —
(A) Launches and landings.

CH.284 – 372] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(e) Solo flight training. Each approved course shall include at least the
following solo flight training —
(1) For an aeroplane single-engine course: 5 hours of solo flight training

in a single-engine aeroplane on the applicable areas of operation in
paragraph (d) that includes at least —
(i) One solo cross-country flight of at least 100 nautical miles with

landings at a minimum of three points, and one segment of the
flight consisting of a straight-line distance of at least 50 nautical
miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and

(ii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each
landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with
an operating control tower.

(2) For an aeroplane multi-engine course: 5 hours of flight training in a
multi-engine aeroplane performing the functions of a pilot in
command while under the supervision of a licenced flight instructor.
The training shall consist of the applicable areas of operation in
paragraph (d) and include at least —
(i) One cross-country flight of at least 100 nautical miles with

landings at a minimum of three points, and one segment of the
flight consisting of a straight-line distance of at least 50 nautical
miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and

(ii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each
landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with
an operating control tower.

(3) For a rotorcraft helicopter course: 5 hours of solo flight training in a
helicopter on the areas of operation in paragraph (d) that includes at
least —
(i) One solo cross-country flight of more than 50 nautical miles

with landings at a minimum of three points, and one segment of
the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of at least 25
nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and

(ii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each
landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with
an operating control tower.

(4) For a rotorcraft gyroplane course: 5 hours of solo flight training in
gyroplanes on the applicable areas of operation in paragraph (d) that
includes at least —
(i) One solo cross-country flight of more than 50 nautical miles

with landings at a minimum of three points, and one segment of
the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of at least 25
nautical miles between the takeoff and landing locations; and

(ii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each
landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with
an operating control tower.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 373






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(5) For a powered-lift course: 5 hours of solo flight training in a powered-
lift on the applicable areas of operation in paragraph (d) that includes
at least —

(i) One solo cross-country flight of at least 100 nautical miles with
landings at a minimum of three points, and one segment of the
flight consisting of a straight-line distance of at least 50 nautical
miles between the takeoff and landing locations;

(ii) Three takeoffs and three landings to a full stop (with each
landing involving a flight in the traffic pattern) at an airport with
an operating control tower; and

(iii) Transition from hover to forward flight using wing lift.
(6) For a glider course: Two solo flights in a glider on the applicable areas

of operation in paragraph (d) and the launch and tow procedures
appropriate for the approved course.

(7) For a lighter-than-air airship course: 5 hours of flight training in the
applicable areas of operation shown in paragraph (d) in an airship
performing the functions of pilot in command while under the
supervision of a commercial pilot with an airship rating.

(8) For a lighter-than-air balloon course: Training on the applicable areas
of operation in paragraph (d), as applicable, and —

(i) Two solo flights in a balloon with an airborne heater; or
(ii) At least two flights in a gas balloon performing the functions of

pilot in command while under the supervision of a commercial
pilot with a balloon rating.

(f) Stage checks and end-of-course tests.
(1) Each student, to graduate from a private pilot course shall

satisfactorily accomplish the stage checks and end-of-course tests,
consisting of the applicable areas of operation listed in paragraph (d)
for the aircraft category and class rating.

(2) Each student shall demonstrate satisfactory proficiency prior to being
endorsed to operate an aircraft in solo flight.

APPENDIX 2 TO 9.090
COMMERCIAL PILOT LICENSING COURSE

(a) Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for a
commercial pilot licensing course required under this Schedule, for the
following ratings:
(1) Aeroplane single-engine.
(2) Aeroplane multi-engine.
(3) Rotorcraft helicopter.
(4) Rotorcraft gyroplane.
(5) Powered-lift.
(6) Glider.

CH.284 – 374] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(7) Lighter-than-air airship.
(8) Lighter-than-air balloon.

(b) Eligibility for enrolment. A person shall hold the following prior to
enrolling in the flight portion of the commercial pilot licensing course —
(1) At least a private pilot licence; and
(2) If the course is for a rating in an aeroplane or a powered-lift category —

(i) Hold an instrument rating in the aircraft that is appropriate to the
aircraft category rating for which the course applies; or

(ii) Be enrolled concurrently in an instrument rating course that is
appropriate to the aircraft category rating for which the course
applies, and pass the required instrument rating practical test
prior to completing the commercial pilot licensing course.

(c) Aeronautical knowledge training.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each course includes at least the following ground training
on the applicable aeronautical knowledge areas listed in paragraph (b):
(i) 65 hours for an aeroplane category rating, powered-lift category

rating, or a lighter-than-air category with an airship class rating.
(ii) 30 hours for a rotorcraft category rating.
(iii) 20 hours for a glider category rating.
(iv) 20 hours for a lighter-than-air category with a balloon class

rating.
(2) Ground training shall include the following aeronautical knowledge

areas:
(i) Bahamian regulations that apply to commercial pilot privileges,

limitations, and flight operations.
(ii) Accident reporting requirements of The Bahamas.
(iii) Basic aerodynamics and the principles of flight.
(iv) Meteorology, to include recognition of critical weather

situations, windshear recognition and avoidance, and the use of
aeronautical weather reports and forecasts.

(v) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft.
(vi) Weight and balance computations.

(vii) Use of performance charts.
(viii) Significance and effects of exceeding aircraft performance

limitations.
(ix) Use of aeronautical charts and a magnetic compass for pilotage

and dead reckoning.
(x) Use of air navigation facilities.

(xi) Aeronautical decision making and judgement.
(xii) Principles and functions of aircraft systems.

(xiii) Manoeuvres, procedures, and emergency operations appropriate
to the aircraft.

(xiv) Night and high-altitude operations.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 375






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(xv) Descriptions of and procedures for operating within the
Bahamian Airspace System.

(xvi) Procedures for flight and ground training for lighter-than-air
ratings.

(d) Flight training.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each course includes at least the following flight training
on the applicable areas of operation listed in paragraph (c):

(i) 155 hours for an aeroplane, powered-lift, or an airship rating.
(ii) 115 hours for a rotorcraft rating.

(iii) 6 hours for a glider rating.
(iv) 10 hours and 8 training flights for a balloon rating.

(2) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall ensure
that each course includes at least the following flight training —

(i) For an aeroplane single-engine course: 55 hours of flight
training from a licenced flight instructor on the areas of
operation listed in paragraph (c)(1) that includes at least —
(A) 5 hours of instrument training in a single-engine aeroplane;
(B) 10 hours of training in a single-engine aeroplane that has

retractable landing gear, flaps, and a controllable pitch
propeller, or is turbine-powered;

(C) One cross-country flight in a single-engine aeroplane of at
least a 2-hour duration, a total straight-line distance of
more than 100 nautical miles from the original point of
departure, and occurring in day VFR conditions;

(D) One cross-country flight in a single-engine aeroplane of at
least a 2-hour duration, a total straight-line distance of
more than 100 nautical miles from the original point of
departure, and occurring in night VFR conditions; and

(E) 3 hours in a single-engine aeroplane in preparation for the
practical test within 60 days proceeding the date of the test.

(ii) For an aeroplane multi-engine course: The flight training shown
in paragraph (d)(1), accomplished in a multi-engine aeroplane.

(iii) For a rotorcraft helicopter and gyroplane course —
(A) The flight training shown in paragraph (d)(1),

accomplished in a helicopter; except 30 hours of flight
training from a licenced flight instructor on the areas of
operation listed in paragraph (e)(3) that includes at least —
1. 5 hours of instrument training;
2. One cross-country flight in a helicopter of at least a 2-

hour duration, a total straight-line distance of more
than 50 nautical miles from the original point of
departure, and occurring in day VFR conditions; and

CH.284 – 376] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

3. One cross-country flight in a helicopter of at least a 2-hour
duration, a total straight-line distance of more than 50
nautical miles from the original point of departure, and
occurring in night VFR conditions.

(iv) For a powered-lift course: The applicable flight training shown in
paragraph (d)(1), flown in a powered-lift aircraft.

(v) For a glider course: 4 hours of flight training from a licenced
flight instructor on the areas of operation in paragraph (e)(6),
that includes at least —
(A) Five training flights in a glider on launch/tow procedures

approved for the course and on the appropriate areas of
operation listed in paragraph (e)(6); and

(B) Three training flights in a glider in preparation for the practical
test within the 60 days proceeding the date of the test.

(vi) For a lighter-than-air airship course: 55 hours of training in
airships from a commercial pilot with an airship rating on the
areas of operation in paragraph (c)(7) that includes at least —
(A) 3 hours of instrument training in an airship;
(B) One cross-country flight in an airship of at least a 1-hour

duration, a total straight-line distance of more than 25
nautical miles from the original point of departure, and
occurring in day VFR conditions; and

(C) One cross-country flight in an airship of at least a 1-hour
duration, a total straight-line distance of more than 25
nautical miles from the original point of departure, and
occurring in night VFR conditions; and

(D) 3 hours in an airship, in preparation for the practical test
within 60 days proceeding the date of the test.

(vii) For a lighter-than-air balloon course: Flight training from a
commercial pilot with a balloon rating on the areas of operation
in paragraph (e)(8) that includes at least —
(A) For a gas balloon —

1. Two flights of 1 hour each;
2. One flight involving a controlled ascent to at least

5,000 feet above the launch site; and
3. Two flights in preparation for the practical test within

60 days proceeding the date of the test.
(B) For a balloon with an airborne heater —

1. Two flights of 30 minutes each;
2. One flight involving a controlled ascent to at least

3,000 feet above the launch site; and
3. Two flights in preparation for the practical test within

60 days proceeding the date of the test.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 377






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(3) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall
ensure that each course includes the flight training on the following
areas of operation, as applicable —

(i) For an aeroplane single-engine course —
(A) Preflight preparation;
(B) Preflight procedures;
(C) Airport and seaplane base operations;
(D) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;
(E) Performance manoeuvres;
(F) Navigation;
(G) Slow flight and stalls;
(H) Emergency operations;
(I) High-altitude operations; and
(J) Postflight procedures.

(4) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall
ensure that each course for the following category and class ratings
includes flight training on the applicable areas of operation:
(i) For an aeroplane multi-engine course —

(A) Multi-engine operations.
(ii) For a rotorcraft helicopter course —

(A) Hovering manoeuvres;
(B) Transition to wing-borne flight;
(C) Transition to hover; and
(D) Special operations.

(iii) For a rotorcraft gyroplane course —
(A) Flight at slow airspeeds.

(iv) For a powered-lift course —
(A) Hovering manoeuvres; and
(B) Special operations.

(v) For a glider course —
(A) Launches/tows, as appropriate, and landings; and
(B) Soaring techniques.

(vi) For a lighter-than-air airship course —
(A) Fundamentals of instructing;
(B) Technical subjects; and
(C) Preflight lessons on a manoeuvre to be performed in flight.

(vii) For a lighter-than-air balloon course —
(A) Fundamentals of instructing;
(B) Technical subjects;
(C) Preflight lesson on a manoeuvre to be performed in flight; and

CH.284 – 378] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(D) Launches and landings.
(e) Solo training. Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate,

shall ensure that each approved course includes at least the following solo
flight training —
(1) For an aeroplane single-engine course: 10 hours of solo flight training

in a single-engine aeroplane on the areas of operation in paragraph
(d)(3)(i) that include at least —
(i) One cross-country flight, if the training is being performed on a

small island, with landings at a minimum of three points, and
one of the segments consisting of a straight-line distance of at
least 150 nautical miles;

(ii) One cross-country flight, if the training is being performed on
other than a small island, with landings at a minimum of three
points, and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line
distance of at least 250 nautical miles; and

(iii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10 takeoffs and 10
landings with each landing involving a flight with a traffic
pattern at an airport with an operating control tower.

(2) For an aeroplane multi-engine course: 10 hours of flight training in a
multi-engine aeroplane performing the functions of pilot in command
while under the supervision of a licenced flight instructor, consisting
of the areas of operation in paragraph (d)(4)(i) that include at least —
(i) One cross-country flight, if the training is being performed on a

small island, with landings at a minimum of three points, and
one of the segments consisting of a straight-line distance of at
least 150 nautical miles;

(ii) One cross-country flight, if the training is being performed on a
small island, with landings at a minimum of three points and one
segment of the flight consisting of straight-line distance of at
least 250 nautical miles; and

(iii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10 takeoffs and 10
landings with each landing involving a flight with a traffic
pattern at an airport with an operating control tower.

(3) For a rotorcraft helicopter course: 10 hours of solo flight training in a
helicopter on the areas of operation in paragraph (d)(4)(ii) that include
at least —
(i) One cross-country flight with landings at a minimum of three

points and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line
distance of at least 50 nautical miles from the original point of
departure; and

(ii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10 takeoffs and 10
landings with each landing involving a flight with a traffic
pattern at an airport with an operating control tower.

(4) For a rotorcraft-gyroplane course: 10 hours of solo flight training in a
gyroplane on the areas of operation in paragraph (d)(4)(iii) that
include at least —

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 379






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(i) One cross-country flight with landings at a minimum of three points,
and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of
at least 50 nautical miles from the original point of departure; and

(ii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10 takeoffs and 10
landings with each landing involving a flight with a traffic
pattern at an airport with an operating control tower.

(5) For a powered-lift course: 10 hours of solo flight training in a powered-lift
on the areas of operation in paragraph (d)(4)(iv) that include at least —
(i) One cross-country flight, if the training is being performed on a

small island, with landings at a minimum of three points, and
one segment of the flight consisting a straight-line distance of at
least 150 nautical miles;

(ii) One cross-country flight, if the training is being performed on a
small island, with landings at a minimum of three points, and
one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of
at least 250 nautical miles; and

(iii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10 takeoffs and 10
landings with each landing involving a flight with a traffic
pattern at an airport with an operating control tower.

(6) For a glider course: 5 solo flights in a glider the areas of operation in
paragraph (d)(4)(v).

(7) For a lighter-than-air airship course: 10 hours of flight training in an
airship, while performing the functions of pilot in command under the
supervision of a commercial pilot with an airship rating consisting of
the areas of operation in paragraph (d)(4)(vi) that include at least —

(i) One cross-country flight with landings at a minimum of three points,
and one segment of the flight consisting of a straight-line distance of
at least 25 nautical miles from the original point of departure; and

(ii) 5 hours in night VFR conditions with 10 takeoffs and 10 landings
with each landing involving a flight with a traffic pattern.

(8) For a lighter-than-air balloon course:
(i) Training on the applicable areas of operation in paragraph

(d)(4)(vii), while performing the duties of pilot in command
under the supervision of a commercial pilot with a balloon
rating.

(ii) Two solo flights is for a hot air balloon rating.
(iii) At least two flights in a gas balloon for a gas balloon rating.

(f) Stage checks and end-of-course tests.
(1) Each student, to graduate from a commercial pilot course, shall

satisfactorily accomplish the stage checks and end-of-course tests
consisting of the applicable areas of operation listed in paragraph (d)(4).

CH.284 – 380] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

APPENDIX 3 TO 9.090
INSTRUMENT RATING COURSE

(a) Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for an
instrument rating course and additional instrument rating course, required
under this Schedule, for the following ratings:
(1) Instrument: aeroplane.
(2) Instrument: helicopter.
(3) Instrument: powered-lift.

(b) Eligibility for enrolment. A person shall hold at least a private pilot licence
with an aircraft category and class rating appropriate to the instrument
rating for which the course applies prior to enrolling in the flight portion of
the instrument rating course.

(c) Aeronautical knowledge training.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each approved course includes at least the following hours
of ground training on the aeronautical knowledge areas appropriate to
the instrument rating sought —
(i) 30 hours for an initial instrument rating.

(ii) 20 hours for an additional instrument rating.
(2) Ground training shall include the following aeronautical knowledge

areas —
(i) Applicable Bahamian regulations for IFR flight operations;

(ii) Appropriate information in aeronautical information
publications provided by the Authority;

(iii) Air traffic control system and procedures for instrument flight
operations;

(iv) IFR navigation and instrument approaches to an airport by use
of navigation systems;

(v) Use of IFR en route and instrument approach procedure charts;
(vi) Procurement and use of aviation weather reports and forecasts,

and the elements of forecasting weather trends on the basis of
that information and personal observation of weather conditions;

(vii) Safe and efficient operation of aircraft under IFR conditions;
(viii) Recognition of critical weather situations and windshear

avoidance;
(ix) Aeronautical decision making and judgement; and
(x) Crew resource management, to include crew communication and

co-ordination.
(d) Flight training.

(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall
ensure that each course includes at least the following hours of flight
training on the applicable areas of operation listed in paragraph (c) —
(i) 35 hours for an initial instrument rating;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 381






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(ii) 15 hours for an additional instrument rating.
(2) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each course includes the following flight training —
(i) For an instrument aeroplane course: Instrument training from a

licenced flight instructor with an instrument rating on the
applicable areas of operation in paragraph (c) including at least
one cross-country flight that —
(A) Is in the category and class of aeroplane that the course is

approved for, and is performed under IFR;
(B) Is a distance of at least 250 nautical miles with one

segment of the flight consisting of at least a straight-line
distance of 100 nautical miles between airports;

(C) Involves an instrument approach at each airport; and
(D) Involves three approaches with the using different kinds of

navigation systems.
(ii) For an instrument helicopter course: Instrument training from a

licenced flight instructor with an instrument rating on the
applicable areas of operation in paragraph (c) including at least
one cross-country flight that —
(A) Is performed in a helicopter under IFR;
(B) Is a distance of at least 100 nautical miles with one

segment of the flight consisting of at least a straight-line
distance of 50 nautical miles between airports;

(C) Involves an instrument approach at each airport; and
(D) Involves three approaches with the using different kinds of

navigation systems.
(iii) For an instrument powered-lift course: Instrument training from

a licenced flight instructor with an instrument rating on the areas
of operation in paragraph (c) including at least one cross-
country flight that —
(A) Is in a powered-lift and is performed under IFR;
(B) Involves transition from wing-borne to rotor-borne flight

under IFR;
(C) Is a distance of at least 250 nautical miles with one

segment of the flight consisting of at least a straight-line
distance of 100 nautical miles between airports;

(D) Involves an instrument approach at each airport; and
(E) Involves three different kinds of approaches with the use

of navigation systems.
(3) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each course includes the flight training on the applicable
areas of operation listed in this paragraph appropriate to the
instrument aircraft category and class rating —

(i) Preflight preparation;

CH.284 – 382] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(ii) Preflight procedures;
(iii) Air traffic control clearances and procedures;
(iv) Flight by reference to instruments;
(v) Navigation systems;
(vi) Instrument approach procedures;

(vii) Emergency operations; and
(viii) Postflight procedures:

(e) Stage checks and end-of-course tests.
(1) Each student, to graduate from an instrument rating course shall

satisfactorily accomplish the stage checks and end-of-course tests,
consisting of the areas of operation listed in paragraph (c) that are
appropriate to the aircraft category and class rating.

APPENDIX 4 TO 9.090
AIRLINE TRANSPORT PILOT LICENSING COURSE

(a) Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for a
airline transport pilot licensing course under this Schedule, for the
following ratings —
(1) Aeroplane single-engine.
(2) Aeroplane multi-engine.
(3) Rotorcraft helicopter.
(4) Powered-lift.

(b) Eligibility for enrolment. Prior to enrolling in the flight portion of the
airline transport pilot licensing course, a person shall —
(1) Meet the aeronautical experience requirements prescribed in Schedule

8 for an airline transport pilot licence that is appropriate to the aircraft
category and class rating for which the course applies;

(2) Hold at least a commercial pilot licence and an instrument rating;
(3) Meet the military experience requirements to qualify for a commercial

pilot licence and an instrument rating, if the person is a rated military pilot
or former rated military pilot of an Armed Force of The Bahamas; or

(4) Hold a foreign airline transport pilot licence or foreign commercial
pilot licence and an instrument rating, issued by a contracting State to
the Convention on International Civil Aviation.

(c) Aeronautical knowledge areas.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each course includes at least 40 hours of ground training
on the applicable aeronautical knowledge areas listed in paragraph (b).

(2) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall
ensure that ground training includes the following aeronautical
knowledge areas —
(i) Applicable Bahamian regulations that relate to airline transport

pilot privileges, limitations, and flight operations;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 383






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(ii) Meteorology, including knowledge of and effects of fronts, frontal
characteristics, cloud formations, icing, and upper-air data;

(iii) General system of weather and NOTAM collection,
dissemination, interpretation, and use;

(iv) Interpretation and use of weather charts, maps, forecasts,
sequence reports, abbreviations, symbols;

(v) Bahamian Weather Service functions as they pertain to
operations in the The Bahamas Airspace System;

(vi) Windshear and microburst awareness, identification, and
avoidance;

(vii) Principles of air navigation under instrument meteorological
conditions in the Bahamian Airspace System;

(viii) Air traffic control procedures and pilot responsibilities as they
relate to en route operations, terminal area and radar operations,
and instrument departure and approach procedures;

(ix) Aircraft loading; weight and balance; use of charts, graphs,
tables, formulas, and computations; and the effects on aircraft
performance;

(x) Aerodynamics relating to an aircraft’s flight characteristics and
performance in normal and abnormal flight regimes;

(xi) Human factors;
(xii) Aeronautical decision making and judgement; and

(xiii) Crew resource management to include crew communication and
co-ordination.

(d) Flight training.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each course includes at least 25 hours of flight training on
the applicable areas of operation listed in paragraph 3(b), including at
least 15 hours of be instrument flight training; and

(2) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall
ensure that each course includes flight training on the following areas
of operation, as applicable —

(i) Preflight preparation;
(ii) Preflight procedures;

(iii) Takeoff and departure phase;
(iv) In-flight manoeuvres;
(v) Instrument procedures;

(vi) Landings and approaches to landings;
(vii) Normal and abnormal procedures;

(viii) Emergency procedures; and
(ix) Postflight procedures.

(e) Stage checks and end-of-course tests.
(1) Each student, to graduate from an airline transport pilot course shall

satisfactorily accomplish the stage checks and end-of-course tests,


CH.284 – 384] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

consisting of the areas of operation listed in paragraph 3(b) that are
appropriate to the aircraft category and class rating for which the
course applies.

APPENDIX 5 TO 9.090
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR LICENSING COURSE

(a) Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for a
flight instructor licensing course and an additional flight instructor rating
course required under this Schedule, for the following ratings —
(1) Aeroplane single-engine.
(2) Aeroplane multi-engine.
(3) Rotorcraft helicopter.
(4) Rotorcraft gyroplane.
(5) Powered-lift.
(6) Glider category.

(b) Eligibility for enrolment. A person shall hold the following prior to
enrolling in the flight portion of the flight instructor or additional flight
instructor rating course —
(1) A commercial pilot licence or an airline transport pilot licence with an

aircraft category and class rating appropriate to the flight instructor
rating for which the course applies; and

(2) An instrument rating or privilege in an aircraft that is appropriate to the
aircraft category and class rating for which the course applies, if the course
is for a flight instructor aeroplane or powered-lift instrument rating.

(c) Aeronautical knowledge training.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each course includes at least the following ground training
in the aeronautical knowledge areas listed in paragraph (d) —
(i) 40 hours of training if the course is for an initial issuance of a

flight instructor certificate; or
(ii) 20 hours of training if the course is for an additional flight

instructor rating.
(2) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that ground training includes the following aeronautical
knowledge areas —
(i) The fundamentals of instructing, including —

(A) The learning process;
(B) Elements of effective teaching;
(C) Student evaluation and testing;
(D) Course development;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 385






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(E) Lesson planning; and
(F) Classroom training techniques.

(ii) The aeronautical knowledge areas required for —
(A) A private and commercial pilot licence that is appropriate to

the category and class rating sought; and
(B) An instrument rating that is appropriate to the aircraft

category and class rating for which the course applies, if the
course is for an aeroplane or powered-lift aircraft rating.

(3) A Level 1 ATO may credit a student who satisfactorily completes 2
years of study on the principles of education at a college or university
with no more than 20 hours of the training required in paragraph (c)(1).

(d) Flight training.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each course includes at least the following flight training
on the applicable areas of operation of paragraphs (d)(2) and (d)(3) —

(i) 25 hours for an aeroplane, rotorcraft, or powered-lift rating; and
(ii) 10 hours and 10 flights for a glider category rating.

(2) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall
ensure that each course includes flight training on the following areas
of operation, as applicable for each category and class —

(i) Fundamentals of instructing;
(ii) Technical subject areas;

(iii) Preflight preparation;
(iv) Preflight lesson on a manoeuvre to be performed in flight;
(v) Preflight procedures;

(vi) Airport and seaplane base operations;
(vii) Takeoffs, landings, and go-arounds;

(viii) Fundamentals of flight;
(ix) Performance manoeuvres;
(x) Ground reference manoeuvres;

(xi) Slow flight, stalls, and spins;
(xii) Basic instrument manoeuvres;

(xiii) Emergency operations; and
(xiv) Postflight procedures.

(3) For the category and class of aircraft shown below, each applicant for,
and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall ensure that each course
includes flight training in the following areas of operation, as
applicable:

(i) For an aeroplane: multi-engine course —
(A) Multi-engine operations.

CH.284 – 386] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(ii) For a rotorcraft: helicopter course —
(A) Hovering manoeuvres; and
(B) Special operations.

(iii) For a rotorcraft: gyroplane course —
(A) Flight at slow airspeeds.

(iv) For a powered-lift course —
(A) Hovering manoeuvres;
(B) Transition to wing-borne flight;
(C) Transition to hover; and
(D) Special operations.

(v) For a glider course —
(A) Launches, landings, and go-arounds;
(B) Performance speeds; and
(C) Soaring techniques.

(e) Stage checks and end-of-course tests.
(1) Each student, to graduate from a flight instructor course shall

satisfactorily accomplish the stage checks and end-of-course tests,
consisting of the applicable areas of operation listed in paragraph 4 of
this Appendix.

(2) A student enrolled in a flight instructor-aeroplane rating or flight
instructor-glider rating course shall have —
(i) Received a logbook endorsement from a licenced flight

instructor certifying the student received ground and flight
training on stall awareness, spin entry, spins, and spin recovery
procedures in an aircraft that is certified for spins and that is
appropriate to the rating sought; and

(ii) Demonstrated instructional proficiency in stall awareness, spin
entry, spins, and spin recovery procedures.

APPENDIX 6 TO 9.090
FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR INSTRUMENT LICENSING COURSE

(a) Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for a
flight instructor instrument licensing course required under this Schedule,
for the following ratings —
(1) Flight Instructor Instrument: Aeroplane.
(2) Flight Instructor Instrument: Helicopter.
(3) Flight Instructor Instrument: Powered-lift aircraft.

(b) Eligibility for enrolment. A pilot shall hold, prior to enrolling in the flight
portion of the course —
(1) A commercial pilot licence or airline transport pilot licence with a

category and class rating appropriate to the rating sought; and

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 387






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) For commercial pilot licence holders, an instrument rating that is
appropriate to the rating sought.

(c) Aeronautical knowledge training.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall ensure

that each course includes at least 15 hours of ground training on the
applicable aeronautical knowledge areas listed in paragraph (c)(2).

(2) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall
ensure that each course includes ground training on the following
aeronautical knowledge areas —

(i) The fundamentals of instructing including —
(A) Learning process;
(B) Elements of effective teaching;
(C) Student evaluation and testing;
(D) Course development;
(E) Lesson planning; and
(F) Classroom training techniques.

(ii) The aeronautical knowledge areas required for the instrument
rating that is appropriate to the category and class of aircraft.

(d) Flight training.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each course includes at least 15 hours of flight training in
the applicable areas of operation of paragraph (b).

(2) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall
ensure that each course for the flight instructor-instrument rating
includes flight training on the following areas of operation in
paragraph (d)(2) —

(i) Fundamentals of instructing;
(ii) Technical subject areas;

(iii) Preflight preparation;
(iv) Preflight lesson on a manoeuvre to be performed in flight;
(v) Air traffic control clearances and procedures;

(vi) Flight by reference to instruments;
(vii) Navigation systems;

(viii) Instrument approach procedures;
(ix) Emergency operations; and
(x) Postflight procedures.

(e) Stage checks and end-of-course tests.
(1) Each student, to graduate from a flight instructor instrument course shall

satisfactorily accomplish the stage checks and end-of-course tests,
consisting of the applicable areas of operation listed in paragraph (d).

CH.284 – 388] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

APPENDIX 7 TO 9.090
GROUND INSTRUCTOR LICENSING COURSE

(a) Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for a
ground instructor licensing course and an additional ground instructor
rating course, issued under Schedule 8 for the following ratings —
(1) Ground Instructor: Basic.
(2) Ground Instructor: Advanced.
(3) Ground Instructor: Instrument.

(b) Aeronautical knowledge training.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall ensure

that each course includes at least the following ground training on the
applicable knowledge areas listed in paragraphs (b), (c), (d), and (e) —
(i) 20 hours of training for an initial issuance of a ground instructor

certificate; or
(ii) 10 hours of training for an additional ground instructor rating.

(2) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall
ensure that ground training includes the following aeronautical
knowledge areas —
(i) Learning process;

(ii) Elements of effective teaching;
(iii) Student evaluation and testing;
(iv) Course development;
(v) Lesson planning; and
(vi) Classroom training techniques.

(3) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall
ensure that ground training for a basic ground instructor licence
includes the aeronautical knowledge areas applicable to a private pilot.

(4) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall
ensure that ground training for an advanced ground instructor rating
includes the aeronautical knowledge areas applicable to a private,
commercial, and airline transport pilot.

(5) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall ensure
that ground training for an instrument ground instructor rating includes
the aeronautical knowledge areas applicable to an instrument rating.

(6) A Level 1 ATO may credit a student who satisfactorily completed 2
years of study on the principles of education at a college or university
with 10 hours of the training required in paragraph (a)(1).

(c) Stage checks and end-of-course tests.
(1) Each student, to graduate from a ground instructor course shall

satisfactorily accomplish the stage checks and end-of-course tests,
consisting of the applicable knowledge areas of this appendix.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 389






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

APPENDIX 8 TO 9.090
ADDITIONAL AIRCRAFT CATEGORY OR CLASS RATING COURSE

(a) Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for an
additional aircraft category rating course or an additional aircraft class
rating course required under this Schedule, for the following ratings:
(1) Aeroplane single-engine.
(2) Aeroplane multi-engine.
(3) Rotorcraft helicopter.
(4) Rotorcraft gyroplane.
(5) Powered-lift.
(6) Glider.
(7) Lighter-than-air airship.
(8) Lighter-than-air balloon.

(b) Eligibility for enrolment. A person shall hold the level of pilot licence for
the additional aircraft category and class rating for which the course applies
prior to enrolling in the flight portion of an additional aircraft category or
additional aircraft class rating course.

(c) Aeronautical knowledge training. Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level
1 ATO certificate shall ensure that each course for an additional category
rating and additional class rating includes the total number of hours of
training in all the aeronautical knowledge areas appropriate to the aircraft
rating and pilot licence level sought.

(d) Flight training. Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate
shall ensure that each course for an additional aircraft category rating or
additional aircraft class includes the total number of hours of flight training
on all of the areas of operation of this paragraph appropriate to the aircraft
rating and pilot licence level for which the course applies.

(e) Stage checks and end-of-course tests.
(1) Each student, to graduate from an additional aircraft category rating

course or an additional aircraft class rating course shall satisfactorily
accomplish the stage checks and end-of-course tests, consisting of the
applicable areas of operation in this appendix.

(2) Each student shall demonstrate satisfactory proficiency prior to being
endorsed to operate an aircraft in solo flight.

APPENDIX 9 TO 9.090
AIRCRAFT TYPE RATING COURSE

(a) Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum Level 1 ATO
curriculum for an aircraft type rating course for:
(1) A type rating in an aeroplane category: single-engine class.
(2) A type rating in an aeroplane category: multi-engine class.
(3) A type rating in a rotorcraft category: helicopter class.

CH.284 – 390] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(4) A type rating in a powered-lift category.
(5) Other aircraft type ratings specified by the Authority through the

aircraft type certificate procedures.
(b) Eligibility for enrolment.

(1) Prior to enrolling in the flight portion of an aircraft type rating course,
a person shall hold at least a private pilot licence and —
(i) An instrument rating in the category and class of aircraft that is

appropriate to the aircraft type rating for which the course
applies, provided the aircraft’s type certificate does not have a
VFR limitation; or

(ii) Be concurrently enrolled in an instrument rating course in an
aircraft of the type rating sought, and pass the required instrument
rating practical test concurrently with the type rating practical test.

(c) Aeronautical knowledge training.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each course includes at least 10 hours of ground training
on the applicable aeronautical knowledge areas listed in paragraph (b).

(2) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall ensure
that ground training includes the following aeronautical areas —
(i) Subjects requiring a practical knowledge of the aircraft type and

its powerplant, systems, components, operational, and
performance factors;

(ii) The aircraft’s normal, abnormal, and emergency procedures, and
the operations and limitations relating thereto;

(iii) Appropriate provisions of the approved aircraft’s flight manual;
(iv) Location of and purpose of inspecting each item on the aircraft’s

checklist that relate to the exterior and interior preflight; and
(v) Use of the aircraft’s prestart checklist, appropriate control

system checks, starting procedures, radio and electronic
equipment checks, and the selection of proper navigation and
communication radio facilities and frequencies.

(d) Flight training.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each course includes at least —
(i) Flight training on the applicable areas of operation of paragraph

(b) in the aircraft type for which the course applies; and
(ii) At least 5 hours shall be instrument training in the aircraft for

which the course applies.
(2) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall

ensure that each type rating course includes the flight training on the
following areas of operation —

(i) Preflight preparation;
(ii) Preflight procedures;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 391






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(iii) Takeoff and departure phase;
(iv) In-flight manoeuvres;
(v) Instrument procedures;

(vi) Landings and approaches to landings;
(vii) Normal and abnormal procedures;

(viii) Emergency procedures; and
(ix) Postflight procedures.

(e) Stage checks and end-of-course tests. Each student, to graduate from an
aircraft type rating course shall satisfactorily accomplish the stage checks
and end-of-course tests, consisting of the applicable areas of operation for
the airline transport pilot licence.

APPENDIX 10 TO 9.090
SPECIAL PREPARATION COURSES

(a) Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for certain
special preparation courses.

(b) Eligibility for enrolment. Prior to enrolling in the flight portion of a special
preparation course, a person shall hold a pilot licence, flight instructor
certificate, or ground instructor licence that is appropriate for the exercise
of the operating privileges or authorisations sought.

(c) General requirements.
(1) To be approved, an applicant for a special preparation course shall

present to the Authority a proposal that:
(i) Meets the appropriate requirements of this Appendix.

(ii) Prepares the graduate with the necessary skills, competency, and
proficiency to exercise safely the privileges of the certificate,
rating, or authorisation for which the course is established.

(iii) Includes ground and flight training on the operating privileges
or authorisation sought.

(d) Stage check and end-of-course tests.
(1) Each person, to graduate from a special preparation course shall

satisfactorily accomplish the stage checks and end-of-course tests,
consisting of the areas of operation that are appropriate to the
operating privileges or authorisation sought, and for which the course
applies.

(e) Agricultural aircraft operations course.
(1) A special preparation course for pilots in agricultural aircraft

operations shall include at least the following —
(i) 25 hours of training on —

(A) Agricultural aircraft operations;
(B) Safe piloting operating practices and procedures for

handling, dispensing, and disposing agricultural and
industrial chemicals, including operating in and around
congested areas; and

CH.284 – 392] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(C) Applicable provisions of Schedule 11.
(ii) 15 hours of flight training on agricultural aircraft operations.

(f) Rotorcraft external-load operations course.
(1) A special preparation course for pilots of external-load operations

shall include at least the following:
(i) 10 hours of training on —

(A) Rotorcraft external-load operations;
(B) Safe piloting operating practices and procedures for

external-load operations, including operating in and around
congested areas; and

(C) Applicable provisions of Schedule 11.
(ii) 15 hours of flight training on external-load operations.

(g) Test pilot course.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a special preparation course for test

pilot duties shall include at least the following:
(i) Aeronautical knowledge training on —

(A) Performing aircraft maintenance, quality assurance, and
certification test flight operations; and

(B) Applicable parts of these regulations that pertain to aircraft
maintenance, quality assurance, and certification tests.

(ii) 15 hours of flight training.
(h) Special operations course.

(1) A special preparation course for pilots in special operations that are
mission-specific for certain aircraft shall include at least the following:
(i) Aeronautical knowledge training on —

(A) Performing that special flight operation;
(B) Safe piloting operating practices and procedures for

performing that special flight operation;
(C) Applicable parts of these regulations that pertain to that

special flight operation; and
(D) Pilot in command duties and responsibilities for performing

that special flight operation.
(ii) Flight training on that special flight operation.

(i) Pilot refresher course.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a special preparation pilot refresher

course for a pilot licence, aircraft category and class rating, or an
instrument rating shall include at least the following:
(i) 4 hours of aeronautical knowledge training on —

(A) The aeronautical knowledge areas that are applicable to the
level of pilot licence, category rating, class rating, or
instrument rating sought;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 393






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(B) Safe piloting operating practices and procedures; and
(C) Applicable provisions of Schedules 2 and 9.

(ii) 6 hours of flight training on the areas of operation that are
applicable to the level of pilot licence, aircraft category and class
rating, or instrument rating, as appropriate, for performing pilot-
in-command duties and responsibilities.

(j) Flight instructor refresher course.
(1) Each applicant for, and holder of, a special preparation flight

instructor refresher course shall include at least a combined total of 16
hours of aeronautical knowledge training, flight training, or any
combination of ground and flight training on the following:

(i) Aeronautical knowledge training on —
(A) The aeronautical knowledge areas that apply to student,

private, and commercial pilot licences and instrument
ratings;

(B) The aeronautical knowledge areas that apply to flight
instructor certificates;

(C) Safe piloting operating practices and procedures, including
airport operations and operating in the The Bahamas
Airspace System; and

(D) Applicable provisions of Schedules 2 and 9.
(ii) Flight training, to review —

(A) The areas of operations applicable to student, private, and
commercial pilot licences and instrument ratings; and

(B) The skills, competency, and proficiency for performing
flight instructor duties and responsibilities.

(k) Ground instructor refresher course.
(1) A special preparation ground instructor refresher course shall include

at least 16 hours of aeronautical knowledge training on —
(i) The aeronautical knowledge areas that apply to student, private,

and commercial pilots and instrument rated pilots and ground
instructors;

(ii) Safe piloting operating practices and procedures, including
airport operations and operating in the The Bahamas Airspace
System; and

(iii) Applicable provisions of Schedules 2 and 9.

APPENDIX 11 TO 9.090
PILOT GROUND SCHOOL COURSE

(a) Applicability. This appendix prescribes the minimum curriculum for a pilot
ground school course.

(b) General requirements. Each applicant for, and holder of, an approved
training course for a pilot ground school shall include training on the
aeronautical knowledge areas that are —
(1) Needed to safely exercise the privileges of the certificate, rating, or

authority for which the course is established; and

CH.284 – 394] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(2) Conducted to develop competency, proficiency, resourcefulness, self-
confidence, and self-reliance in each student.

(c) Aeronautical knowledge training requirements. Each applicant for, and
holder of, an approved pilot ground school course shall include —
(1) The aeronautical knowledge training that is appropriate to the aircraft

rating and pilot licence level for which the course applies; and
(2) An adequate number of total aeronautical knowledge training hours

appropriate to the aircraft rating and pilot licence level for which the
course applies.

(d) Stage checks and end-of-course tests. Each person, to graduate from a pilot
ground school course shall satisfactorily accomplish the stage checks and
end-of-course tests, consisting of the areas of operation that are appropriate
to the operating privileges or authorisation that graduation from the course
will permit.

APPENDIX 12 TO 9.090
FLIGHT ENGINEER COURSE

(a) Each flight engineer training course holder shall comply with the following —
(1) Training course outline:

(i) Format. An applicant shall prepare separate course outlines for
each type of aeroplane.

(ii) Ground course outline.
(iii) The Authority will accept any arrangement of subjects if all the

subject material listed here is included and at least the minimum
programmed hours are assigned to each subject.

(iv) If any flight engineer training course holder desires to include
additional subjects in the ground course curriculum, the hours
allotted these additional subjects may not be included in the
minimum programmed classroom hours.

(v) All subjects, except Theory of Flight and Aerodynamics and
Regulations, shall apply to the same type of aeroplane in which
the flight engineer training course holder presents training.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 395






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS



Subject Area Classroom
Hours

Civil Aviation
Regulations

10

Theory of Flight and
Aerodynamics

10

Specifications 90
Construction features

Aeroplane
Familiarisation, to
include, as applicable: Flight controls
Hydraulic systems
Pneumatic systems
Electrical systems
Anti-icing and de-icing systems
Pressurisation and air-conditioning systems
Vacuum systems
Pilot static systems
Instrument systems
Fuel and oil systems
Emergency equipment

Specifications 45
Construction features

Engine
Familiarisation, to
include, as applicable: Lubrication
Ignition
Fuel systems
Accessories
Propellers
Instrumentation
Emergency equipment

Servicing methods and procedures 50
Operation of all the aeroplane systems

Normal Operations
(Ground and Flight),
to include, as
appropriate

Operation of all the engine systems

Loading and center of gravity computations
Cruise control (normal, long range, maximum

endurance)


Power and fuel computation
Meteorology as applicable to engine operation
Emergency
Operations, to include

Landing gear, brakes, flaps, speed brakes, and
leading edge devices

80

Pressurisation and air-conditioning
Portable fire extinguishers
Fuselage fire and smoke control
Loss of electrical power
Engine fire control
Engine shut-down and restart
Oxygen
Total (exclusive of
final tests)

235



CH.284 – 396] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(2) Flight Course Outline.
(i) The flight training curriculum shall include at least 10 hours of flight

instruction in an aeroplane. A student may not credit the flight time
required for the practical test as part of the required flight instruction.

(ii) The flight engineer training course holder shall present all of the flight
training in the same type aircraft.

(iii) As appropriate to the aircraft type, the flight engineer training course
holder shall teach the following subjects in the flight training course:

Subject Area
To include as appropriate- Normal Duties,

Procedures and Operations Aeroplane preflight.
Engine starting, power checks, pre-takeoff, post-landing and shut-

down procedures.
Power control.
Temperature control.
Engine operation analysis.
Operation of all systems.
Fuel management.
Logbook entries.
Pressurisation and air conditioning.

Analysis of abnormal engine operation. Recognition and
Correction of In-Flight
Malfunctions

Analysis of abnormal operation of all systems.

Corrective action.
Emergency Operations in
Flight

Engine fire control.

Fuselage fire control.
Smoke control.
Loss of power or pressure in each system.
Engine overspeed.
Fuel dumping.
Landing gear, spoilers, speed brakes, and flap extension and

retraction.
Engine shut-down and restart.
Use of oxygen.

(iv) The Authority may allow the school to teach the flight training time in a
flight simulator.

(v) To obtain credit for flight training time in an flight simulator, the
student shall occupy the flight engineer station and operate the controls.

(b) Revisions. Each flight engineer training course holder shall request revisions of the
course outlines, facilities or equipment by following the procedures for original
approval of the course.

(c) Ground school credits.
(1) A flight engineer training course holder may grant credit to a student in the

ground school course for comparable previous training or experience that the
student can show by written evidence —

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 397






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) A flight engineer training course holder shall meet the quality of
instruction described in this Appendix.

(3) Before granting credit for previous training or experience, the flight
engineer training course holder shall ensure that the student passes a
test given by the flight engineer training course holder on the subject
for which the credit is to be given.

(4) The flight engineer training course holder shall incorporate results of
the test, the basis for credit allowance, and the hours credited as part
of the student’s records.

(d) Records and reports.
(1) The flight engineer training course holder shall maintain, for at least

two years after a student graduates, fails, or drops from a course, a
record of the student’s training, including a chronological log of the
subject course, attendance examinations, and grades.

(2) Except as provided in paragraph (3), the flight engineer training course
holder shall submit to the Authority, not later than January 31 of each
year, a report for the previous calendar year’s training, to include —

(i) Name, enrolment and graduation date of each student;
(ii) Ground school hours and grades of each student;

(iii) Flight and flight simulator hours, and grades of each student;
and

(iv) Names of students failed or dropped, together with their school
grades and reasons for dropping.

(3) Upon request, the Authority may waive the reporting requirements of
subparagraph (2) of this paragraph for an approved flight engineer
course that is part of an approved training course under Schedule 12.

(e) Quality of instruction.
(1) The Authority shall revoke approval of a flight engineer training

course holder’s ground course whenever less than 80 percent of the
students pass the Authority knowledge test on the first attempt.

(2) The Authority shall revoke approval of a flight engineer training
course holder’s flight course whenever less than 80 percent of the
student’s pass the Authority practical test on the first attempt.

(3) Notwithstanding paragraphs (1) and (2), the Authority may allow
continued approval of a ground or flight course when the Authority
finds —

(i) That the failure rate was based on less than a representative
number of students; or

(ii) That the flight engineer training course holder has taken
satisfactory means to improve the effectiveness of the training.

(f) Time limitation. Each student shall apply for the written test and the flight
test within 90 days after completing the ground school course.

(g) Statement of course completion.
(1) Each flight engineer training course holder shall give to each student who

successfully completes an approved flight engineer ground school training
course, and passes the Authority knowledge test, a statement of successful


CH.284 – 398] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

completion of the course that indicates the date of training, the type of
aeroplane on which the ground course training was based, and the
number of hours received in the ground school course.

(2) Each flight engineer training course holder shall give each student
who successfully completes an approved flight engineer flight course,
and passed the Authority practical test, a statement of successful
completion of the flight course that indicates the dates of the training,
the type of aeroplane used in the flight course, and the number of
hours received in the flight course.

(3) A flight engineer training course holder who is approved to conduct
both the ground course and the flight course may include both courses
in a single statement of course completion if the provisions of
paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection are included.

(4) The requirements of this paragraph do not apply to an AOC holder
with an approved training course under Part 9, providing the student
receives a flight engineer licence upon completion of that course.

(h) Duration. Except for a course operated as part of an approved training course
under of Schedule 12, the approval to operate a flight engineer ground course
or flight course terminates 24 months after the last day of the month of issue.

APPENDIX 1 TO 9.115
AIRPORT REQUIREMENTS

(a) Each applicant for, and holder of, a Level 1 ATO certificate shall show that
the airport at which training flights originate has the following:
(1) At least one runway or takeoff area that allows training aircraft to

make a normal takeoff and landing at the aircraft’s maximum certified
takeoff gross weight under the following conditions —
(i) Wind not more than 5 knots;

(ii) Temperatures equal to the mean high temperature for the hottest
month of the year in the operating area;

(iii) If applicable, with the powerplant operation, and landing gear
and flap operation recommended by the manufacturer; and

(iv) In the case of a takeoff —
(A) With smooth transition from liftoff to the best rate of climb

speed without exceptional piloting skills or techniques; and
(B) Clearing all obstacles in the takeoff flight path by at least

50 feet.
(2) A wind direction indicator that is visible from the end of each runway

at ground level.
(3) A traffic direction indicator when —

(i) The airport does not have an operating control tower; and
(ii) Traffic and wind advisories are not available.

(4) Except as provided in paragraph (a)(5), permanent runway lights if
that airport is to be used for night training flights.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 399






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(5) Adequate non-permanent lighting or shoreline lighting for an airport
or seaplane base for night training flights in seaplanes, if approved by
the Authority.

APPENDIX 1 TO 9.165
LEVEL 2 ATO INSTRUCTOR TRAINING AND TESTING REQUIREMENTS
(a) Prior to initial designation, each flight and simulator flight instructor shall

complete the following requirements —
(1) Complete at least 8 hours of ground training on the following subject

matter:
(i) Instruction methods and techniques.

(ii) Training policies and procedures.
(iii) The fundamental principles of the learning process.
(iv) Instructor duties, privileges, responsibilities, and limitations.
(v) Proper operation of simulation controls and systems.

(vi) Proper operation of environmental control and warning or
caution panels.

(vii) Limitations of simulation.
(viii) Minimum equipment requirements for each curriculum.

(ix) Revisions to the training courses.
(x) Cockpit resource management and crew co-ordination.

(2) Satisfactorily complete a knowledge test —
(i) On the subjects specified in paragraph (a)(1); and

(ii) That is accepted by the Authority as being of equivalent
difficulty, complexity, and scope as the tests provided by the
Authority for the flight instructor aeroplane and instrument
flight instructor knowledge tests.

(b) Each certificate holder shall ensure that each instructor who instructs in a
flight simulator that the Authority has approved for all training and all
testing for the airline transport pilot licensing test, aircraft type rating test,
or both, has met at least one of the following requirements:
(1) Each instructor shall have performed 2 hours in flight, including three

takeoffs and three landings as the sole manipulator of the controls of
an aircraft of the same category and class, and, if a type rating is
required, of the same type replicated by the approved flight simulator
in which that instructor is designated to instruct;

(2) Each instructor shall have participated in an approved line-observation
program, and that —
(i) Was accomplished in the same aeroplane type as the aeroplane

represented by the flight simulator in which that instructor is
designated to instruct; and

CH.284 – 400] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(ii) Included line-oriented flight training of at least 1 hour of flight
during which the instructor was the sole manipulator of the
controls in a flight simulator that replicated the same type aircraft
for which that instructor is designated to instruct.

APPENDIX 1 TO 9.180
LEVEL 1 ATO CHIEF FLIGHT INSTRUCTOR QUALIFICATIONS

(a) Each ATO shall designate a supervisory instructor for a flight training course
who shall meet one or more of the following requirements, as applicable:
(1) Hold a commercial pilot licence or an airline transport pilot licence,

and, except for a chief instructor for a training course solely for a
lighter-than-air rating, a current flight instructor licence with
appropriate aircraft category, class, and instrument ratings for the
category and class of aircraft used in the course.

(2) Meet the prescribed pilot-in-command recent flight experience
requirements.

(3) Pass a knowledge test on —
(i) Teaching methods;

(ii) Applicable provisions of Authority provided aeronautical
information publications;

(iii) Applicable provisions of Parts 2, 3, and 8; and
(iv) The objectives and approved course completion standards of the

course for which the person seeks to obtain designation.
(4) Pass a proficiency test on instructional skills and ability to train

students on the flight procedures and manoeuvres appropriate to the
course.

(b) Except for a training course for gliders, balloons, or airships, the chief
instructor shall meet the applicable requirements in paragraphs (c), (d), and
(e).

(c) For a training course for a private pilot licence or rating, a chief instructor
shall have —
(1) At least 1,000 hours as pilot in command; and
(2) Primary flight training experience as a licenced flight instructor or an

instructor in a military pilot flight training program, or a combination
thereof, consisting of at least 2 years and a total of 500 flight hours.

(d) For a training course for an instrument rating or a rating with instrument
privileges, a chief instructor shall have —
(1) At least 100 hours of flight time under actual or simulated instrument

conditions;
(2) At least 1,000 hours as pilot in command; and
(3) Instrument flight instructor experience as a licenced flight instructor-

instrument or an instructor in a military pilot flight training program,
or a combination thereof, consisting of at least —
(i) 2 years and a total of 250 flight hours; or

(ii) 400 flight hours of instrument flight instruction.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 401






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(e) For a training course for other than a private pilot licence or rating, or an
instrument rating or a rating with instrument privileges, a chief instructor
shall have —
(1) At least 2,000 hours as pilot in command; and
(2) Flight training experience as a licenced flight instructor or an

instructor in a military pilot flight training program, or a combination
thereof, consisting of at least 3 years and a total of 1,000 flight hours.

(f) A chief instructor for a training course for gliders or balloons is required to
have only 40 percent of the hours required in paragraphs (c) and (e).

(g) A chief instructor for a training course for airships is required to have only
40 percent of the hours required in paragraphs (c), (d), and (e).

(h) To be eligible as chief instructor for a ground school course, a person shall have
one year of experience as a ground school instructor at a certified Level 1 ATO.

APPENDIX 1 TO 9.185
LEVEL 1 ATO ASSISTANT CHIEF INSTRUCTOR QUALIFICATIONS

(a) To be eligible for designation as an assistant chief instructor, a person shall
meet the following requirements —
(1) Hold a commercial pilot or an airline transport pilot licence and,

except for the assistant chief instructor for a training course for a
lighter-than-air rating, a current flight instructor licence with
appropriate aircraft category, class, and instrument ratings for the
category and class of aircraft used in the course.

(2) Meet the pilot in command recent flight experience requirements.
(3) Pass a knowledge test on —

(i) Teaching methods;
(ii) Applicable provisions of the Bahamian-provided aeronautical

information publications;
(iii) Applicable provisions of Schedules 7, 8 and 9; and
(iv) The objectives and approved course completion standards of the

course for which the person seeks to obtain designation.
(4) Pass a proficiency test on the flight procedures and manoeuvres

appropriate to that course.
(5) Meet the applicable requirements in paragraphs (b), (c), and (d),

except that an assistant chief instructor for a training course for
gliders, balloons, or airships is required to have only 40 percent of the
hours required in paragraphs (b) and (c).

(b) For a training course for a private pilot licence or rating, an assistant chief
instructor shall have —
(1) At least 500 hours as pilot-in-command; and
(2) Flight training experience as a licenced flight instructor or an

instructor in a military pilot flight training program, or a combination
thereof, consisting of at least 1 year and a total of 250 flight hours.

CH.284 – 402] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(c) For a training course for an instrument rating or a rating with instrument
privileges, an assistant chief flight instructor shall have —
(1) At least 50 hours of flight time under actual or simulated instrument

conditions;
(2) At least 500 hours as pilot in command; and
(3) Instrument flight instructor experience as a licenced flight instructor-

instrument or an instructor in a military pilot flight training program,
or a combination thereof, consisting of at least 1 year and a total of
125 flight hours.

(d) For a training course other than for a private pilot licence or rating, or an
instrument rating or a rating with instrument privileges, an assistant chief
instructor shall have —
(1) At least 1,000 hours as pilot in command; and
(2) Flight training experience as a licenced flight instructor or an

instructor in a military pilot flight training program, or a combination
thereof, consisting of at least 1½ years and a total of 500 flight hours.

(e) To be eligible for designation as an assistant chief instructor for a ground
school course, a person shall have 6 months of experience as a ground
school instructor at a certified Level 1 ATO.

APPENDIX 1 TO 9.190
LEVEL 1 ATO CHECK INSTRUCTOR QUALIFICATIONS

(a) To be designated as a check instructor for conducting student stage checks,
end-of-course tests, and instructor proficiency checks under this Schedule,
a person shall meet the following requirements, as applicable —
(1) Pass a test, given by the chief instructor, on —

(i) Teaching methods;
(ii) Applicable provisions of the Bahamian-provided aeronautical

information publications;
(iii) Applicable provisions of Schedules 2, 8, and this Schedule; and
(iv) The objectives and course completion standards of the approved

training course for the designation sought.
(2) For flight checks and tests —

(i) Meet the requirements in paragraph (a)(1);
(ii) Hold a commercial pilot licence or an airline transport pilot

licence and, except for a check instructor for a training course
for a lighter-than-air rating, a current flight instructor licence,
with appropriate aircraft category, class, and instrument ratings
for the category and class of aircraft used in the course;

(iii) Meet the pilot-in-command recent flight experience requirements,
as applicable; and

(iv) Pass a proficiency test, given by the chief instructor or assistant
chief instructor, on the flight procedures and manoeuvres of the
approved training course.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 403






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(3) For checks and tests that relate to ground training —
(i) Meet the requirements in paragraph (a)(1);

(ii) Except for a training course for a lighter-than-air rating, hold a
current flight instructor licence or ground instructor licence with
ratings appropriate to the category and class of aircraft used in
the course; and

(iii) For a training course for a lighter-than-air rating, hold a
commercial pilot licence with a lighter-than-air category rating
and the appropriate class rating.

(b) Before functioning as a check instructor, a person who meets the eligibility
requirements in paragraph (a) shall —
(1) Be designated in writing by the chief instructor to conduct student stage

checks, end-of-course tests, and instructor proficiency checks; and
(2) Be approved by the Authority.

(c) A check instructor may not conduct a stage check or an end-of-course test
of any student for whom the check instructor has —
(1) Served as the principal instructor; or
(2) Recommended for a stage check or end-of-course test.

APPENDIX 1 TO 9.215
TRANSFER PRIVILEGES

(a) A Level 1 ATO receiving a student from another Level 1 ATO may credit
that pilot’s previous experience towards the curriculum requirements of a
course subject to the following conditions:
(1) If the credit is based upon the prescribed requirements of this

Schedule, the gaining ATO may credit that student not more than 50
percent of the curriculum requirements;

(2) If the credit is not based upon this Schedule, the gaining ATO may credit
that student not more than 25 percent of the curriculum requirements;

Note: The receiving ATO shall determine the amount of course credit to be
credited under paragraph (1) or paragraph (2), based on a proficiency test
or knowledge test, or both, of the student.

(b) The receiving ATO may grant credit for training specified in paragraph
(a)(1) or paragraph (2) only if the previous provider of the training has
certified the kind and amount of training provided, and the result of each
stage check and end-of-course test, if applicable, given to the student.

(c) An AMT training course holder may evaluate and grant credit for an
entrant’s previous training provided —
(1) The AMT training course holder determines that the training is

verifiable and comparable to portions of the training program.
(2) The individual requesting credit passes an examination given by the AMT

training course holder, which is equivalent to those examinations given
by the AMT training course holder for the same subject in the training
program.

CH.284 – 404] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

APPENDIX 1 TO 9.260
AMT AIRFRAME AND/OR POWERPLANT RATING

Curriculum Requirements
This appendix defines terms used in Section A, B, and C of this part, and
describes the levels of proficiency at which items under each subject in each
curriculum must be taught, as outlined in Sections A, B, and C.
(a) Definitions. As used in Sections A, B, and C:

(1) “Inspect” means to examine by sight and touch.
(2) “Check” means to verify proper operation.
(3) “Troubleshoot” means to analyse and identify malfunctions.
(4) “Service” means to perform functions that assure continued operation.
(5) “Repair” means to correct a defective condition. Repair of an airframe

or powerplant system includes component replacement and
adjustment, but not component repair.

(6) “Overhaul” means to disassemble, inspect, repair as necessary, and
check.

(b) Teaching levels.
(1) Level 1 requires:

(i) Knowledge of general principles, but no practical application.
(ii) No development of manipulative skill.
(iii) Instruction by lecture, demonstration, and discussion.

(2) Level 2 requires:
(i) Knowledge of general principles, and limited practical

application.
(ii) Development of sufficient manipulative skill to perform basic

operations.
(iii) Instruction by lecture, demonstration, discussion, and limited

practical application.
(3) Level 3 requires:

(i) Knowledge of general principles, and performance of a high
degree of practical application.

(ii) Development of sufficient manipulative skills to simulate return
to service.

(iii) Instruction by lecture, demonstration, discussion, and a high
degree of practical application.

(c) Teaching materials and equipment.
(1) The curriculum may be presented utilising currently accepted

educational materials and equipment, including, but not limited to:
calculators, computers, and audio-visual equipment.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 405






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

Section A — General Curriculum Subjects
This section list the subjects required for at least 400 hours of general

curriculum subjects. The number in parentheses before each item listed under each
subject heading indicates the level of proficiency at which that item shall be taught.

Teaching
Level

A. BASIC ELECTRICITY

(2) 1. Calculate and measure capacitance and inductance.
(2) 2. Calculate and measure electrical power.
(3) 3. Measure voltage, current, resistance, and continuity.
(3) 4. Determine the relationship of voltage, current, and resistance in electrical

circuits.
(3) 5. Read and interpret aircraft electrical circuit diagrams, including solid

state devices and logic functions.
(3) 6. Inspect and service batteries.

B. AIRCRAFT DRAWINGS

(2) 7. Use aircraft drawings, symbols, and system schematics.
(3) 9. Draw sketches of repairs and alterations.
(3) 9. Use blueprint information.
(3) 10. Use graphs and charts.

C. WEIGHT AND BALANCE

(2) 11. Weigh aircraft.
(3) 12. Perform complete weight and balance check and record data.

D. FLUID LINES AND FITTINGS

(3) 13. Fabricate and install rigid and flexible fluid lines and fittings.

E. MATERIALS AND PROCESSES

(1) 14. Identify and select appropriate non-destructive testing methods.
(2) 15. Perform dye penetrate, eddy current, ultrasonic, and magnetic particle

inspections.
(1) 16. Perform basic heat treating processes.
(3) 17. Identify and select aircraft hardware and materials.
(3) 19. Inspect and check welds.
(3) 19. Perform precision measurements.

CH.284 – 406] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

F. GROUND OPERATION AND SERVICING

(2) 20. Start, ground operate, move, service, and secure aircraft and identify
typical ground operation hazards.

(2) 21. Identify and select fuels.

G. CLEANING AND CORROSION CONTROL

(3) 22. Identify and select cleaning materials.
(3) 23. Inspect, identify, remove, and treat aircraft corrosion and perform

aircraft cleaning.

H. MATHEMATICS

(3) 24. Extract roots and raise numbers to a given power.
(3) 25. Determine areas and volumes of various geometric shapes.
(3) 26. Solve ratio, proportion, and percentage problems.
(3) 27. Perform algebraic operations involving addition, subtraction, multi-

plication, and division of positive and negative numbers.

I. MAINTENANCE FORMS AND RECORDS

(3) 29. Write descriptions of work performed including aircraft discrepancies and
corrective actions using typical aircraft maintenance records.

(3) 29. Complete required maintenance forms, records, and inspection reports.

J. BASIC PHYSICS

(2) 30. Use and understand the principles of simple machines; sound, fluid, and
heat dynamics; basic aerodynamics; aircraft structures; and theory of
flight.

K. MAINTENANCE PUBLICATIONS

(3) 31. Demonstrate ability to read, comprehend, and apply information
contained in FAA and manufacturers’ aircraft maintenance specifica-
tions, data sheets, manuals, publications, and related Federal Aviation
Regulations, Airworthiness Directives, and Advisory Material.

(3) 32. Read technical data.

L. MECHANIC PRIVILEGES AND LIMITATIONS

(3) 33. Exercise mechanic privileges within the limitations prescribed by
Schedule 5 of this chapter.

Section B — Airframe Curriculum Subjects
This section list the subjects required in at least 750 hours of each airframe

curriculum, in addition to at least 400 hours in general curriculum subjects. The
number in parentheses before each item listed under each subject heading
indicates the level of proficiency at which that item must be taught.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 407






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

I. AIRFRAME STRUCTURES
A. WOOD STRUCTURES

(1) 1. Service and repair wood structures.
(1) 2. Identify wood defects.
(1) 3. Inspect wood structures.

B. AIRCRAFT COVERING

(1) 4. Select and apply fabric and fiberglass covering materials.
(1) 5. Inspect, test, and repair fabric and fiberglass.

C. AIRCRAFT FINISHES

(1) 6. Apply trim, letters, and touchup paint.
(2) 7. Identify and select aircraft finishing materials.
(2) 9. Apply finishing materials.
(2) 9. Inspect finishes and identify defects.

D. SHEET METAL AND NON-METALLIC STRUCTURES

(2) 10. Select, install, and remove special fasteners for metallic, bonded, and
composite structures.

(2) 11. Inspect bonded structures.
(2) 12. Inspect, test and repair fiberglass, plastics, honeycomb, composite, and

laminated primary and secondary structures.
(2) 13. Inspect, check, service, and repair windows, doors, and interior furnish-

ings.
(3) 14. Inspect and repair sheet metal structures.
(3) 15. Install conventional rivets.
(3) 16. Form, layout, and bend sheet metal.

E. WELDING

(1) 17. Weld magnesium and titanium.
(1) 19. Solder stainless steel.
(1) 19. Fabricate tubular structures.
(2) 20. Solder, braze, gas weld, and arc weld steel.
(1) 21. Weld aluminum and stainless steel.

F. ASSEMBLY AND RIGGING

(1) 22. Rig rotary wing aircraft.
(2) 23. Rig fixed wing aircraft.
(2) 24. Check alignment of structures.

CH.284 – 408] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002



(3) 25. Assemble aircraft components, including flight control surfaces.
(3) 26. Balance, rig, and inspect movable primary and secondary flight control

surfaces.
(3) 27. Jack aircraft.

G. AIRFRAME INSPECTION

(3) 29. Perform airframe conformity and airworthiness inspections.

II. AIRFRAME SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS
A. AIRCRAFT LANDING GEAR SYSTEMS

(3) 29. Inspect, check, service, and repair landing gear, retraction systems, shock
struts, brakes, wheels, tires, and steering systems.

B. HYDRAULIC AND PNEUMATIC POWER SYSTEMS

(2) 30. Repair hydraulic and pneumatic power systems components.
(3) 31. Identify and select hydraulic fluids.
(3) 32. Inspect, check, service, troubleshoot, and repair hydraulic and pneumatic

power systems.

C. CABIN ATMOSPHERE CONTROL SYSTEMS

(1) 33. Inspect, check, troubleshoot, service, and repair heating, cooling, air
conditioning, pressurization systems, and air cycle machines.

(1) 34. Inspect, check, troubleshoot, service, and repair heating, cooling, air
conditioning, and pressurization systems.

(2) 35. Inspect, check, troubleshoot, service and repair oxygen systems.

D. AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS

(1) 36. Inspect, check, service, troubleshoot, and repair electronic flight
instrument systems and both mechanical and electrical heading, speed,
altitude, temperature, pressure, and position indicating systems to include
the use of built-in test equipment.

(2) 37. Install instruments and perform a static pressure system leak test.

E. COMMUNICATION AND NAVIGATION SYSTEMS

(1) 39. Inspect, check, and troubleshoot autopilot, servos, and approach
coupling systems.

(1) 39. Inspect, check, and service aircraft electronic communication and
navigation systems, including VHF passenger address interphones and
static discharge devices, aircraft VOR, ILS, LORAN, Radar beacon
transponders, flight management computers, and GPWS.

(2) 40. Inspect and repair antenna and electronic equipment installations.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 409






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

F. AIRCRAFT FUEL SYSTEMS

(1) 41. Check and service fuel dump systems.
(1) 42. Perform fuel management transfer, and defueling.
(1) 43. Inspect, check, and repair pressure-fueling systems.
(2) 44. Repair aircraft fuel system components.
(2) 45. Inspect and repair fluid quantity indicating systems.
(2) 46. Troubleshoot service, and repair fluid pressure and temperature warning

systems.
(3) 47. Inspect, check, service, troubleshoot, and repair aircraft fuel systems.

G. AIRCRAFT ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

(2) 49. Repair and inspect aircraft electrical system components; crimp and splice
wiring to manufacturers’ specifications, and repair pins and sockets of
aircraft connectors.

(3) 49. Install, check, and service airframe electrical wiring, controls, switches,
indicators, and protective devices.

(3) 50.a. Inspect, check, troubleshoot, service, and repair alternating and direct
current electrical systems.

(1) 50.b. Inspect, check, and troubleshoot constant speed and integrated speed
drive generators.

H. POSITION AND WARNING SYSTEMS

(2) 51. Inspect, check, and service speed and configuration warning systems,
electrical brake controls, and anti-skid systems.

(3) 52. Inspect, check, troubleshoot and service landing gear position indicating
and warning systems.

I. ICE AND RAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS

(2) 53. Inspect, check, troubleshoot, service, and repair airframe ice and
rain control systems.

J. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

(1) 54. Inspect, check, and service smoke and carbon monoxide detection
systems.

(3) 55. Inspect, check, service, troubleshoot, and repair aircraft fire detection and
extinguishing systems.

Section C — Powerplant Curriculum Subjects
This section list the subjects required in at least 750 hours of each powerplant

curriculum, in addition to at least 400 hours in general curriculum subjects.
The number in parentheses before each item listed under each subject

heading indicates the level of proficiency at which that item must be taught.

CH.284 – 410] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

I. POWERPLANT THEORY AND MAINTENANCE
A. RECIPROCATING ENGINES

(1) 1. Inspect and repair a radial engine.
(2) 2. Overhaul reciprocating engine.
(3) 3. Inspect, check, service, and repair reciprocating engines and engine

installations.
(3) 4. Install, troubleshoot, and remove reciprocating engines.

B. TURBINE ENGINES

(2) 5. Overhaul turbine engine.
(3) 6. Inspect, check, service, and repair turbine engines and turbine engine

installations.
(3) 7. Install, troubleshoot, and remove turbine engines.

C. ENGINE INSPECTION
(3) 9. Perform powerplant conformity and airworthiness inspections.

II. POWERPLANT SYSTEMS AND COMPONENTS
A. ENGINE INSTRUMENT SYSTEMS

(2) 9. Troubleshoot, service, and repair electrical and mechanical fluid rate-of-
flow indicating systems.

(3) 10. Inspect, check, service, troubleshoot, and repair electrical and mechanical
engine temperature, pressure, and rpm indicating systems.

B. ENGINE FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS

(3) 11. Inspect, check, service, troubleshoot, and repair engine fire detection and
extinguishing systems.

C. ENGINE ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS

(2) 12. Repair engine electrical system components.
(3) 13. Install, check, and service engine electrical wiring, controls, switches,

indicators, and protective devices.

D. LUBRICATION SYSTEMS

(2) 14. Identify and select lubricants.
(2) 15. Repair engine lubrication system components.
(3) 16. Inspect, check, service, troubleshoot, and repair engine lubrication

systems.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 411






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

E. IGNITION AND STARTING SYSTEMS
(2) 17. Overhaul magneto and ignition harness.
(2) 19. Inspect, service, troubleshoot, and repair reciprocating and turbine engine

ignition systems and components.
(3) 19.a. Inspect, service, troubleshoot, and repair turbine engine electrical

starting systems.
(1) 19.b. Inspect, service, and troubleshoot turbine engine pneumatic starting

systems.
F. FUEL METERING SYSTEMS

(1) 20. Troubleshoot and adjust turbine engine fuel metering systems and
electronic engine fuel controls.

(2) 21. Overhaul carburetor.
(2) 22. Repair engine fuel metering system components.
(3) 23. Inspect, check, service, troubleshoot, and repair reciprocating and turbine

engine fuel metering systems.
G. ENGINE FUEL SYSTEMS

(2) 24. Repair engine fuel system components.
(3) 25. Inspect, check, service, troubleshoot, and repair engine fuel systems.

H. INDUCTION AND ENGINE AIRFLOW SYSTEMS
(2) 26. Inspect, check, troubleshoot, service, and repair engine ice and rain

control systems.
(1) 27. Inspect, check, service, troubleshoot and repair heat exchangers, super-

chargers, and turbine engine airflow and temperature control systems.
(3) 29. Inspect, check, service, and repair carburetor air intake and induction

manifolds.
I. ENGINE COOLING SYSTEMS

(2) 29. Repair engine cooling system components.
(3) 30. Inspect, check, troubleshoot, service, and repair engine cooling systems.

J. ENGINE EXHAUST AND REVERSER SYSTEMS
(2) 31. Repair engine exhaust system components.
(3) 32.a. Inspect, check, troubleshoot, service, and repair engine exhaust systems.
(1) 32.b. Troubleshoot and repair engine thrust reverser systems and related

components.

CH.284 – 412] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

K. PROPELLERS

(1) 33. Inspect, check, service, and repair propeller synchronizing and ice control
systems.

(2) 34. Identify and select propeller lubricants.
(1) 35. Balance propellers.
(2) 36. Repair propeller control system components.
(3) 37. Inspect, check, service, and repair fixed pitch, constant speed, and

feathering propellers, and propeller governing systems.
(3) 39. Install, troubleshoot, and remove propellers.
(3) 39. Repair aluminum alloy propeller blades.

L. UNDUCTED FANS

(1) 40. Inspect and troubleshoot unducted fan systems and components.

M. AUXILIARY POWER UNITS

(1) 41. Inspect, check, service, and troubleshoot turbine driven auxiliary power
units.



CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 413






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

SCHEDULE 10
OPERATIONS OF AIRCRAFT

SUBPART A: GENERAL
10.001 Applicability
10.005 Definitions
10.010 Acronyms
SUBPART B: AIRCRAFT REQUIREMENTS
10.015 Registration Markings
10.020 Civil Aircraft Airworthiness
10.025 Special Airworthiness Certificate Operational Restrictions
10.030 Aircraft Instruments and Equipment
10.035 Inoperative Instruments and Equipment
10.040 Civil Aircraft Flight Manual, Marking and Placard Requirements
10.045 Required Aircraft and Equipment Inspections
10.050 Documents to be Carried on Aircraft: All Operations in The Bahamas
10.051 Additional Documents Applicable to International Flights
10.055 Additional Document Requirements: Commercial Air Transport
SUBPART C: FLIGHT CREW REQUIREMENTS
10.060 Composition of the Flight Crew
10.065 Flight Crew Qualifications
10.070 Authorisation in Lieu of a Type Rating
10.075 Licences Required
10.077 Radio Operator Licence
10.080 Medical Certificate Required
10.085 Airman: Limitations on Use of Services for Commercial Air Transport
10.090 Rating Required for IFR Operations
10.095 Special Authorisation Required for Category II/III Operations
10.100 Pilot Logbooks
10.105 PIC Currency: Takeoff and Landings
10.110 Pilot Currency: IFR Operations
10.115 Pilot Currency: General Aviation Operations
10.120 Additional Commercial Air Transport Qualifications
10.125 Pilot Privileges and Limitations
10.130 Airline Transport Pilot Privileges — General
10.135 Commercial Pilot Privileges and Limitations — General
10.140 Private Pilot Privileges and Limitations: Required Crew Member
10.145 Student Pilot — General Limitations
SUBPART D: CREW MEMBER DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
10.150 Authority and Responsibility of the PIC
10.155 Designation of PIC for Commercial Air Transport
10.160 Compliance with Local Regulations
10.165 Negligent or Reckless Operations of the Aircraft
10.170 Fitness of Flight Crew Members
10.175 Use of Narcotics, Drugs or Intoxicating Liquor
10.180 Crew Member Use of Seat Belts and Shoulder Harnesses



CH.284 – 414] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002



10.185 Flight Crew Members at Duty Stations
10.190 Required Crew Member Equipment
10.195 Compliance with Checklists
10.200 Search and Rescue Information
10.205 Production of Aircraft and Flight Documentation
10.210 Locking of Flight Deck Compartment Door: Commercial Air

Transport
10.215 Admission to the Flight Deck: Commercial Air Transport
10.220 Admission of Inspector to the Flight Deck
10.225 Duties During Critical Phases of Flight: Commercial Air Transport
10.227 Flight Deck Communications
10.230 Manipulation of the Controls: Commercial Air Transport
10.235 Simulated Abnormal Situations in Flight: Commercial Air Transport
10.238 Responsibility for Required Documents
10.240 Completion of the Aircraft Technical Logbook: Commercial Air

Transport
10.245 Reporting Mechanical Irregularities
10.250 Reporting of Facility and Navigation Air Inadequacies
10.255 Reporting of Hazardous Conditions
10.260 Reporting of Incidents
10.265 Accident Notification
10.270 Operation of Flight Deck Voice and Flight Data Recorders
10.275 Crew Member Oxygen: Minimum Supply and Use
10.280 Portable Electronic Devices
10.282 Carriage of Dangerous Goods
SUBPART E: ALL PASSENGER CARRYING OPERATIONS
10.285 Applicability
10.287 Unacceptable Conduct
10.290 Refuelling with Passengers on Board
10.295 Passenger Seats, Safety Belts, and Shoulder Harnesses
10.300 Passenger Briefing
10.305 Inflight Emergency Instruction
10.310 Passenger Oxygen: Minimum Supply and Use
10.315 Alcohol or Drugs
SUBPART F: FLIGHT PLANS
10.325 Submission of a Flight Plan
10.330 Air Traffic Control Flight Plan: Commercial Air Transport
10.335 Contents of a Flight Plan
10.340 Planned Reclearance
10.345 Changes to a Flight Plan
10.350 Closing a Flight Plan
SUBPART G: FLIGHT PLANNING AND PREPARATION
10.355 Aircraft Airworthiness and Safety Precautions
10.360 Adequacy of Operating Facilities
10.365 Weather Reports and Forecasts
10.370 Weather Limitations for VFR Flights
10.375 IFR Destination Aerodromes



CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 415






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS



10.380 IFR Destination Alternate Requirement
10.385 IFR Alternate Aerodrome Selection Criteria
10.390 Off-Shore Alternates for Helicopter Operations
10.395 Takeoff Alternate Aerodromes: Commercial Air Transport Operations
10.400 Maximum Distance from an Adequate Aerodrome Without an

ETOPS Approval
10.405 Extended Range Operations with Two-Engined Aeroplanes
10.410 En Route Alternate Aerodromes: ETOPS Operations
10.415 Fuel, Oil, and Oxygen Planning and Contingency Factors
10.420 Minimum Fuel Supply for VFR Flights
10.425 Minimum Fuel Supply for IFR Flights
10.430 Aircraft Loading, Mass and Balance
10.435 Aircraft Performance and Operating Limitations
10.440 Flight Release Required: Commercial Air Transport
10.445 Operational Flight Plan: Commercial Air Transport
10.450 Flight Planning Document Distribution and Retention: Commercial

Air Transport
SUBPART H: FLIGHT RULES FOR ALL OPERATIONS
10.477 Compliance with Local Regulations
10.480 Operation of Aircraft on the Ground
10.482 Takeoff and Landing — Licenced Aerodrome
10.484 Pre-Takeoff Inspections
10.485 Takeoff Conditions
10.487 Noise Abatement
10.490 Flight into Known or Expected Icing
10.493 Aircraft Operating Limitations
10.495 Altimeter Settings
10.500 Minimum Safe Altitudes: General
10.505 Minimum Safe VFR Altitudes: Commercial Air Transport Operations
10.510 Instrument Approach Operating Minima
10.515 Diversion Decision
10.520 Operating Near Other Aircraft
10.525 Right-of-Way Rules: Except Water Operations
10.530 Right-of-Way Rules: Water Operations
10.535 Use of Aircraft Lights
10.540 Simulated Instrument Flight
10.545 Inflight Simulation: Commercial Air Transport
10.550 Dropping, Spraying, Towing
10.555 Aerobatic Flight
10.560 Flight Test Areas
10.565 Prohibited Areas and Restricted Areas
10.570 Operations in MNPS or RVSM Airspace
10.575 Operations on or in the Vicinity of an Uncontrolled Aerodrome
10.580 Aerodrome Traffic Pattern Altitudes: Turbojet, Turbofan, or Large

Aircraft
10.585 Compliance with Visual and Electronic Glide Slopes
10.590 Restriction or Suspension of Operations: Commercial Air Transport
10.595 Continuation of Flight Commercial Air Transport
10.600 Interception



CH.284 – 416] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002



SUBPART I: OPERATIONS IN CONTROLLED FLIGHT
10.605 ATC Clearances
10.610 Adherence to ATC Clearances
10.615 Communications
10.620 Route to be Flown
10.625 Inadvertent Changes
10.630 ATC Clearance: Intended Changes
10.635 Position Reports
10.640 Operations on or in the Vicinity of a Controlled Aerodrome
10.645 Unlawful Interference
10.650 Time Cheeks
10.655 Universal Signals
SUBPART J: VFR FLIGHT RULES
10.660 Visual Meteorological Conditions
10.665 VFR Weather Minimums for Takeoff and Landing
10.670 Special VFR Operations
10.675 VFR Cruising Altitudes
10.680 ATC Clearances for VFR Flights
10.685 VFR Flights Requiring ATC Authorisation
10.690 Weather Deterioration Below VMC
10.695 Changing from VFR to IFR
10.700 Two-way Radio Communication Failure in VFR
SUBPART K: IFR FLIGHT RULES
10.703 Applicability
10.705 IFR in Controlled Airspace
10.710 IFR Flights Outside Controlled Airspace
10.715 IFR Takeoff Minimums for Commercial Air Transport
10.720 Minimum Altitudes for IFR Operations
10.725 Minimum Altitudes for Use of an Autopilot
10.730 IFR Cruising Altitude or Flight Level in Controlled Airspace
10.735 IFR Cruising Altitude or Flight Level in Uncontrolled Airspace
10.740 IFR Radio Communications
10.745 Operation under IFR in Controlled Airspace: Malfunction Reports
10.750 Continuation of IFR Flight Toward a Destination
10.755 Instrument Approaches to Civil Aerodromes
10.757 Approval Required: Category II or III Approaches
10.760 Instrument Approach Procedures and IFR Landing Minimums
10.765 Commencing an Instrument Approach: Commercial Air Transport
10.770 Operation Below DH or MDA
10.775 Landing During Instrument Meteorological Conditions
10.780 Execution of a Missed Approach Procedure
10.785 Change from IFR Flight to VFR Flight
10.790 Two-Way Radio Communications Failure in IFR



CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 417






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS



APPENDICES
Appendix 1 to 10.035: Inoperative Instruments and Equipment
Appendix 1 to 10.175: Use of Narcotics, Drugs or Intoxicating Liquor
Appendix 1 to 10.185: Flight Crew Members at Duty Stations
Appendix 1 to 10.400: Determination of Flight Planning Speed — ETOPS
Appendix 1 to 10.410: ETOPS Alternate Planning
Appendix 1 to 10.495: Altimeter Settings
Appendix 1 to 10.600: Universal Interception Signals
Appendix 1 to 10.655: Universal Aviation Signals

SUBPART A
GENERAL

10.001 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Schedule prescribes the requirements for:

(1) Operations conducted by airman certified in The Bahamas while
operating aircraft registered in The Bahamas.

(2) Operations of foreign registered aircraft by Bahamian AOC holders.
(3) Operations of aircraft within The Bahamas by airman or AOC holders

of a foreign State.
(b) For operations outside of The Bahamas, all Bahamian pilots and operators shall

comply with these requirements unless compliance would result in a violation
of the laws of the foreign State in which the operation is conducted.
Note: Where the a particular requirement is applicable only to a particular
segment of aviation operations, it will be identified by a reference to those
particular operations, such as “commercial air transport” or “small non-
turbojet or turbofan aeroplanes”.
Note: Those specific subsections not applicable to foreign operators will
include the phrase “This requirement is not applicable to foreign operators”.

10.005 DEFINITIONS
(a) For the purpose of this Schedule, the following definitions shall apply —

(1) Advisory airspace. An airspace of defined dimensions, or designated
route, within which air traffic advisory service is available.

(2) Aerial work. An aircraft operation in which an aircraft is used for
specialised services such as agriculture, construction, photography,
surveying, observation and patrol, search and rescue, aerial
advertisement, etc.

(3) Aerobatic flight. Manoeuvres intentionally performed by an aircraft
involving an abrupt change in its attitude, an abnormal attitude, or an
abnormal variation in speed.

(4) Air navigation facility. Any facility used in, available for use in, or designed
for use in aid of air navigation, including aerodromes, landing areas, lights,
any apparatus or equipment for disseminating weather information, for


CH.284 – 418] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

signalling, for radio directional finding, or for radio or other electrical
communication, and any other structure or mechanism having a similar
purpose for guiding or controlling flight in the air or the landing and
take-off of aircraft.

(5) Calendar day. The period of elapsed time, using Co-ordinated
Universal Time or local time, that begins at midnight and ends 24
hours later in the next midnight.

(6) Controlled flight. Any flight which is subject to an air traffic control
clearance.

(7) Critical engine. The engine whose failure would most adversely affect
the performance or handling qualities of an aircraft.

(8) Critical phases of flight. Those portions of operations involving
taxiing, takeoff and landing, and all flight operations below 10,000
feet, except cruise flight.

(9) Extended overwater operation. With respect to aircraft other than
helicopters, an operation over water at a horizontal distance of more than
50 nm from the nearest shoreline; and to helicopters, an operation over
water at a horizontal distance of more than 50 nm from the nearest
shoreline and more than 50 nm from an offshore heliport structure.

(10) Flight plan. Specified information provided to air traffic services
units, relative to an intended flight or portion of a flight of an aircraft.
The term “flight plan” is used to mean variously, full information on
all items comprised in the flight plan description, covering the whole
route of a flight, or limited information required when the purpose is to
obtain a clearance for a minor portion of a flight such as to cross an
airway, to take off from, or to land at a controlled aerodrome.

(11) General aviation operation. An aircraft operation other than a
commercial air transport operation or an aerial work operation.

(12) Helideck. A heliport located on a floating or fixed offshore structure.
(13) Heliport. An aerodrome or defined area on a structure intended to be

used wholly or in part for the arrival, departure, and surface movement
of helicopters.

(14) Journey log. A form signed by the PIC of each flight that records the
aircraft’s registration, crew member names and duty assignments, the
type of flight, and the date, place, and time of arrival and departure.

(15) Master minimum equipment list (MMEL). A list established for a
particular aircraft type by the manufacturer with the approval of the State
of Manufacture containing items, one or more of which is permitted to be
unserviceable at the commencement of a flight. The MMEL may be
associated with special operating conditions, limitations or procedures.
The MMEL provides the basis for development, review, and approval by
the Authority of an individual operator’s MEL.

(16) Operational flight plan. The operator’s plan for the safe conduct of
the flight based on considerations of aircraft performance, other
operating limitations, and relevant expected conditions on the route to
be followed and at the aerodromes or heliports concerned.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 419






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

10.010 ACRONYMS
(a) The following acronyms are used in this Schedule:

(1) AFM — Aircraft Flight Manual
(2) AGL — Above Ground Level
(3) AOC — Air Operator Certificate
(4) AOM — Aircraft Operating Manual
(5) ATC — Air Traffic Control
(6) CAT — Category
(7) CDL — Configuration Deviation List
(8) DH — Decision Height
(9) ETA — Estimated Time of Arrival
(10) ETOPS — Extended Twin-engine Operations
(11) FL — Flight Level
(12) IMC — Instrument Meteorological Conditions
(13) LOC — Localizer
(14) LVTO — Low Visibility Take Off
(15) MDA — Minimum Decent Altitude
(16) MEA — Minimum En Route Altitude
(17) MEL — Minimum Equipment List
(18) MMEL — Master Minimum Equipment List
(19) MOCA — Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude
(20) MSL — Mean Sea Level
(21) NOTAM — Notice to Airmen
(22) RFM — Rotorcraft Flight Manual
(23) RVR — Runway Visibility Range
(24) RVSM — Reduced Vertical Separation Minimum
(25) PBE — Protective Breathing Equipment
(26) PIC — Pilot-In-Command
(27) SIC — Second-In-Command
(28) SCA — Senior Cabin Attendant
(29) SM — Statute Miles
(30) VMC — Visual Meteorological Conditions
(31) VSM — Vertical Separation Minimum

CH.284 – 420] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

SUBPART B
AIRCRAFT REQUIREMENTS

10.015 REGISTRATION MARKINGS
(a) No person may operate a Bahamian-registered aircraft unless it displays the

proper markings prescribed in Schedule 3.
(b) No person may operate a aircraft in The Bahamas unless it displays

registration markings in accordance with ICAO Annex 7.
10.020 CIVIL AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS
(a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it is in an airworthy condition.
(b) Each PIC shall determine whether an aircraft is in a condition for safe flight.
(c) The PIC shall discontinue a flight as soon as practicable when an

unairworthy mechanical, electrical or structural condition occurs.
10.022 SPECIAL AIRWORTHINESS CERTIFICATE OPERATIONAL

RESTRICTIONS
(a) No person may operate an aircraft with a special airworthiness certificate

except as provided in the limitations issued with that certificate.
10.030 AIRCRAFT INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT
(a) No person may operate an aircraft unless it is equipped with the

instruments and equipment requirements of Schedule 7 appropriate to the
type of flight operation conducted and the route being flown.

10.035 INOPERATIVE INSTRUMENTS AND EQUIPMENT
(a) No person may takeoff an aircraft with inoperative instruments or

equipment installed, except as authorised by the Authority.
(b) No person may takeoff in a multi-engine aircraft with inoperative instruments

and equipment installed unless the following conditions are met:
(1) An approved Minimum Equipment List exists for that aircraft.
(2) The Authority has issued the specific operating provisions authorising

operations in accordance with an approved Minimum Equipment List.
The flight crew shall have direct access at all times prior to flight to all of
the information contained in the approved Minimum Equipment List
through printed or other means approved by the Authority in the AOC
Holders specific operating provisions. An approved Minimum Equipment
List, as authorised by the specific operating provisions, constitutes an
approved change to the type design without requiring recertification.

(3) The approved Minimum Equipment List must:
(i) Be prepared in accordance with the limitations specified in

paragraph (c) of this section.
(ii) Provide for the operation of the aircraft with certain instruments

and equipment in an inoperative condition.
(4) Records identifying the inoperative instruments and equipment and

the information required by paragraph (b)(3)(ii) of this section must be
available to the pilot.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 421






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(5) The aircraft is operated under all applicable conditions and limitations
contained in the Minimum Equipment List and the specific operating
provisions authorising use of the Minimum Equipment List.

(c) The following instruments and equipment may not be included in the
Minimum Equipment List:
(1) Instruments and equipment that are either specifically or otherwise

required by the airworthiness requirements under which the aircraft is
type certificated and which are essential for safe operations under all
operating conditions.

(2) Instruments and equipment required by an airworthiness directive to
be in operable condition unless the airworthiness directive provides
otherwise.

(3) Instruments and equipment required for specific operations under
Schedule 10, Schedule 11 and/or 12.

(d) Notwithstanding paragraphs (c)(1)and (c)(3) of this section, an aircraft with
inoperative instruments or equipment may be operated under a special
flight permit issued under Schedule 5.
See Appendix 1 to 10.035 for specific limitation on inoperative instruments
and equipment.

10.040 CIVIL AIRCRAFT FLIGHT MANUAL, MARKING AND PLACARD
REQUIREMENTS

(a) No person may operate a Bahamian-registered civil aircraft unless there is
available in the aircraft —
(1) A current, approved AFM or RFM; or
(2) An AOM approved by the Authority for the AOC holder;
(3) If no AFM or RFM exists, approved manual material, markings and

placards, or any combination thereof which provide the PIC with the
necessary limitations for safe operation.

(b) This information may be displayed in the aircraft in the form of placards,
listings, instrument markings or combination thereof, containing those
operating limitations prescribed by the certifying authority for the aircraft’s
State of Registry for visual presentation.

(c) Each person operating a civil aircraft shall cause the AFM or RFM to be
updated by implementing changes made mandatory by the State of
Registry.

10.045 REQUIRED AIRCRAFT AND EQUIPMENT INSPECTIONS
(a) Unless otherwise authorised by the Authority, no person may operate a

Bahamian civil aircraft unless it has had the following inspections and
evidence of those inspections are carried on the aircraft —
(1) An annual inspection within the past 12 calendar months;
(2) For remuneration or hire operations, a 100-hour inspection;
(3) For IFR operations, an altimeter and pitot-static system inspection in

the past 24 calendar months;
(4) For transponder equipped aircraft, a transponder check within the past

12 calendar months;

CH.284 – 422] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(5) For ELT-equipped aircraft, an ELT check within the past 12 calendar
months, and

(6) For IFR aircraft, a VOR receiver check within the past 30 days in
accordance with the method prescribed by the Authority.

Note: IFR aircraft maintained under a continuous maintenance program
will have a different requirement other than 30-day requirement.

(b) The requirements for these inspections are contained in Schedule 5.
(c) Aircraft maintained under an alternate maintenance and inspection program

approved by the Authority, as specified in Schedule 5, may not have current
annual or 100-hour inspections in their maintenance records.
Note: An “alternate maintenance and inspection program” may include a
manufacturer’s recommended program, instructions for continued airworthiness,
or a program designed by the operator and approved by the Authority.

10.050 DOCUMENTS TO BE CARRIED ON AIRCRAFT: ALL OPERATIONS
IN THE BAHAMAS

(a) No person may operate a civil aircraft unless it has within it the current and
approved documents appropriate to the operations to be conducted:
(1) Properly displayed registration certificate issued to the owner.
(2) Properly airworthiness certificate.
(3) AFM or RFM.
(4) Normal, abnormal and emergency checklists.
(5) Pilot operating handbook (or aircraft operating manual).
(6) Performance and Mass and Balance tables or graphs.

10.051 ADDITIONAL DOCUMENTS APPLICABLE TO INTERNATIONAL
FLIGHTS

(a) No person may operate a civil aircraft for flights across international
borders unless it has within it the additional documents necessary for such
flights, including —
(1) For international flights, a general declaration for customs.
(2) List of passenger names and points of embarkation and destination, if

applicable.
(3) Aircraft radio licence.
(4) Noise Certificate, if required.
(5) Any other documentation that may be required by the Authority or

States concerned with a proposed flight.
Note The noise certificate shall state the standards in ICAO Annex 16.
Volume 1 The statement may be contained in any document, carried on
board approved by the Authority.

10.055 ADDITIONAL DOCUMENT REQUIREMENTS: COMMERCIAL AIR
TRANSPORT

(a) The following current and approved documents must be carried on board
the aircraft during commercial air transport operations:
(1) Aircraft Journey Log.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 423






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) Aircraft Technical Log.
(3) Aircraft Load Manifest.
(4) Operational Flight Plan.
(5) NOTAMs briefing documentation.
(6) Meteorological information.
(7) Filed ATC flight plan.
(8) Part(s) of the Operations Manual relevant to operation(s) conducted.
(9) Aircraft Operating Manual acceptable to the State of the Operator
(10) MEL approved by the State of the Operator
(11) Air Operator Certificate, if required.
(12) Bomb search checklist
(13) Least Risk Location instruction in the event a bomb is found
(14) Forms for complying with the reporting requirements of the Authority

and the AOC holder.
SUBPART C

FLIGHT CREW REQUIREMENTS
10.060 COMPOSITION OF THE FLIGHT CREW
(a) The number and composition of the flight crew may not be less than that

specified in the flight manual or other documents associated with the
airworthiness certificate.

(b) A SIC is required for IFR commercial air transport operations, unless the
Authority has issued a deviation.

(c) The flight crews shall include flight crew members in addition to the
minimum numbers specified in the flight manual or other documents
associated with the certificate of airworthiness when necessitated by
considerations related to the type of aeroplane use, the type of operations
involved and the duration of flight between points where flight crews are
exchanged.

10.065 FLIGHT CREW QUALIFICATIONS
(a) The PIC shall ensure that the licences of each flight crew member have

been issued or rendered valid by the State of Registry, contain the proper
ratings, and that all that the flight crew members have maintained recency
of experience.

(b) No person may operate a civil aircraft in commercial air transport or aerial
work unless that person is qualified for the specific operation and in the
specific type of aircraft used.

10.070 AUTHORISATION IN LIEU OF A TYPE RATING
(a) The Authority may authorise a pilot to operate an aircraft requiring a type

rating without a type rating for up to 60 days, provided —
(1) The Authority has determined that an equivalent level of safety can be

achieved through the operating limitations on the authorisation;
(2) The applicant shows that compliance with this subsection is

impracticable for the flight or series of flights;

CH.284 – 424] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(3) The operations —
(i) Involve only a ferry flight, training flight, test flight, or practical

test for a pilot licence or rating;
(ii) Are within The Bahamas, unless, by previous agreement with

the Authority, the aircraft is flown to an adjacent contracting
State for maintenance;

(iii) Are not for compensation or hire unless the compensation or
hire involves payment for the use of the aircraft for training or
taking a practical test; and

(iv) Involve only the carriage of flight crew members considered
essential for the flight.

(4) If the purpose of the authorisation provided by this paragraph cannot
be accomplished within the time limit of the authorisation, the
Authority may authorise an additional period of up to 60 days.

10.075 LICENCES REQUIRED
(a) No person may act as PIC or in any other capacity as a required flight crew

member of a civil aircraft of:
(1) Bahamian registry, unless he or she carries in their personal

possession the appropriate and current licence for that flight crew
position for that type of aircraft and a valid medical certificate.

(2) Foreign registry, unless he or she carries in their personal possession a
valid and current licence for that type of aircraft issued to them by the
State in which the aircraft is registered.

10.077 RADIO OPERATOR LICENCE
(a) For international operations, the flight crew shall include at least one

member who holds a valid licence, issued or rendered valid by the State of
Registry, authorizing operation of the type of radio transmitting equipment
to be used.

10.080 MEDICAL CERTIFICATE REQUIRED
(a) No person may serve as an airman not may any person use an airman unless

that person has in their personal possession a valid airman medical
certificate.

(b) The medical certificate is valid for —
(1) 6 calendar months — for operations requiring airline transport pilot

privileges;
Note: It is permissible for the pilot of an air operator of another ICAO
Contracting State when flying in the Bahamas to have a certificate valid for
12 months provided that they have not passed the age of 40.
(2) 12 calendar months — for operations requiring commercial pilot or

flight engineer privileges;
(3) 24 calendar months — for operations requiring private privileges.

10.085 AIRMAN: LIMITATIONS ON USE OF SERVICES FOR
COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT

(a) No person may serve as an airman, nor may any person use an airman in
commercial air transport unless that person is qualified for the operations
for which they are to be used in accordance with Schedule 14.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 425






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

10.090 RATING REQUIRED FOR IFR OPERATIONS
(a) No person may act as PIC of a civil aircraft under IFR or in weather

conditions less than the minimums prescribed for VFR flight unless —
(1) In the case of an aeroplane, the pilot holds an instrument rating or an

ATP licence with an appropriate aeroplane category, class, and type
(if required) rating for the aeroplane being flown;

(2) In the case of helicopter, the pilot holds a helicopter instrument rating
or an ATP licence for helicopters not limited to VFR operations.

10.095 SPECIAL AUTHORISATION REQUIRED FOR CATEGORY II/III
OPERATIONS

(a) Except as shown in paragraph (b), no person may act as a pilot crew
member of a civil aircraft in a Category II/III operation unless —
(1) In the case of a PIC, he or she holds a current Category II or III pilot

authorisation for that type aircraft.
(2) In the case of an SIC, he or she is authorised by the State of Registry

to act as SIC in that aircraft in Category II/III operations.
(b) An authorisation is not required for individual pilots of an AOC holder that

has operations specifications approving Category II or III operations.
10.100 PILOT LOGBOOKS
(a) Each pilot shall show the aeronautical training and experience used to meet

the requirements for a licence or rating, or recency of experience, by a
reliable record.

(b) Each PIC shall carry his or her logbook on all general aviation international
flights.

(c) A student pilot shall carry his or her logbook, including the proper flight
instructor endorsements, on all solo cross-country flights.
Note: The acceptable methods of logging experience are outlined in Schedule 8.

10.105 PIC CURRENCY: TAKEOFF AND LANDINGS
(a) No person may act as PIC of an aircraft carrying passengers, nor of an

aircraft certified for more than one required pilot flight crew member
unless, within the preceding 90 days that pilot has:
(1) Made 3 takeoffs and landings as the sole manipulator of the flight

controls in an aircraft of the same category and class and if a type
rating is required, of the same type.

(2) For a tailwheel aeroplane, made the 3 takeoffs and landings in a
tailwheel aeroplane with each landing to a full stop.

(3) For night operations, made the 3 takeoffs and landings required by
paragraph (a)(1) at night.

(b) A pilot who has not met the recency of experience for takeoffs and landings
shall satisfactorily complete a requalification curriculum acceptable to the
Authority.

(c) Requirements of paragraphs (a) and (b) may be satisfied in a flight
simulator approved by the Authority.

CH.284 – 426] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

10.110 PILOT CURRENCY: IFR OPERATIONS
(a) No person may act as PIC under IFR, nor in IMC, unless he or she has,

within the preceding 6 calendar months —
(1) Logged at least 6 hours of instrument flight time including at least 3

hours in flight in the category of aircraft; and
(2) Completed at least 6 instrument approaches.

(b) A pilot who has completed an instrument competency check with an
authorised representative of the Authority retains currency for IFR
operations for 6 calendar months following that check.

10.115 PILOT CURRENCY: GENERAL AVIATION OPERATIONS
(a) No person may act as PIC of an aircraft type certified for more than one

pilot unless, since the beginning of the preceding 12 calendar months, he or
she has passed a proficiency check in an aircraft requiring more than one
pilot with an authorised representative of the Authority.

(b) No person may act as PIC of an aircraft type certified for more than one
pilot unless, since the beginning of the preceding 24 calendar months, he or
she has passed a proficiency check in the type aircraft to be operated.

(c) No person may act as PIC of an aircraft type certified for a single pilot
unless, since the beginning of the 24 calendar months, he or she has passed
a proficiency check with an authorised representative of the Authority.

(d) The proficiency check shall be the manoeuvres listed for the type rating
practical test.

(e) No person may act as SIC of an aircraft type certified for more than one pilot
unless, since the beginning of the 12 calendar months, he or she has —
(1) Become familiar with the aircraft systems, performance, normal and

emergency procedures; and
(2) Logged 3 takeoff and landings as the sole manipulator of the controls.
Note: Section 10.115 does not apply to pilots engaged in commercial air
transport operations. Those requirements are outlined in Schedule 14.

10.120 ADDITIONAL COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT QUALIFICATIONS
(a) All aviation personnel involved in commercial air transport shall also conform

to —
(1) The initial and continuing qualification requirements of Schedule 14;

and
(2) The requirements of Schedule 15 for maximum duty and flight time

and minimum rest periods.
10.125 PILOT PRIVILEGES AND LIMITATIONS
(a) A pilot may conduct operations only within the general privileges and

limitations of each licence as specified in Schedule 8 and the general
guidance of the following paragraphs.

10.130 AIRLINE TRANSPORT PILOT PRIVILEGES — GENERAL
(a) The Authority extends to the holder of an airline transport pilot licence the

same privileges as those extended to a holder of a commercial pilot licence
with an instrument rating and the privilege to act as PIC and SIC in aircraft
in commercial air transportation.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 427






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

Note: Additional privileges and limitations are contained in Schedule 8.
10.135 COMMERCIAL PILOT PRIVILEGES AND LIMITATIONS —

GENERAL
(a) A commercial pilot certificate may act as PIC of an aircraft for

compensation or hire, including the carriage of persons or property for
compensation or hire, provided the pilot is qualified in accordance with the
Schedules applicable to the operation intended.
Note: Additional privileges and limitations are contained in Schedule 8.
Note: The qualifications for most general aviation operations are contained
in Schedule 10. Special qualification requirements are contained in
Schedule 11 (aerial work) and Schedule 14 (commercial air transport).

10.140 PRIVATE PILOT PRIVILEGES AND LIMITATIONS: REQUIRED
CREW MEMBER

(a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this subsection, a
private pilot may not act as a required crew member of an aircraft —
(1) Carrying passengers or property for compensation or hire; or
(2) Operated for compensation or hire.

(b) A private pilot may, for compensation or hire, act as a required crew member of
an aircraft in connection with any business or employment if —
(1) The flight is only incidental to that business or employment; and
(2) The aircraft does not carry passengers or property for compensation or

hire.
(c) A private pilot who is an aircraft salesman and who has at least 200 hours

of logged flight time may demonstrate an aircraft in flight to a prospective
buyer.

(d) A private pilot may not pay less than the pro rata share of the operating
expenses of a flight with passengers, provided the expenses involve only
fuel, oil, airport expenditures, or rental fees.

(e) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) through (f) of this subsection, no
private pilot may, for compensation or hire, act as SIC of an aircraft that is
type certified for more than one pilot.
Additional privileges and limitations are contained in Schedule 8.

10.145 STUDENT PILOT — GENERAL LIMITATIONS
(a) A student pilot may not act as PIC of an aircraft —

(1) That is carrying a passenger;
(2) That is carrying property for compensation or hire;
(3) That is operated for compensation or hire;
(4) In furtherance of a business;
(5) On an international flight;
(6) With a flight or surface visibility of less than 3 statute miles during

daylight hours or 5 statute miles at night;
(7) When the flight cannot be made with visual reference to the surface; or

CH.284 – 428] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

(8) In a manner contrary to any limitations placed in the pilot’s logbook
by an authorised instructor.

(b) A student pilot may not act as a required pilot flight crew member on any
aircraft for which more than one pilot is required by the aircraft type
certificate or by these Schedule under which the flight is conducted, except
when receiving flight training from an authorised instructor on board an
airship, and no person other than a required flight crew member is carried
on the aircraft.

(c) A student pilot may not operate an aircraft in solo flight unless that student pilot
has received within the 90 days preceding the date of the flight an endorsement
from an authorised instructor for the specific make and model aircraft to be
flown made —
(1) On his or her student pilot licence; and
(2) In the student’s logbook.

(d) A student pilot may not operate an aircraft in solo flight at night unless that
student pilot has received and logged —
(1) Flight training at night that includes takeoffs, approaches, landings,

and go-arounds at night at the airport where the student will conduct
solo flight;

(2) Navigation training at night in the vicinity of the airport where the
student pilot will conduct solo flight; and

(3) An endorsement for night solo flight.
SUBPART D

CREW MEMBER DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
10.150 AUTHORITY AND RESPONSIBILITY OF THE PIC
(a) The PIC shall be responsible for the operations and safety of the aircraft

and for the safety of all persons on board, when the doors are closed and
during flight.

(b) The PIC of an aircraft shall have final authority as to the operation of the
aircraft while he or she is in command.

(c) The PIC of an aircraft shall, whether manipulating the controls or not, be
responsible for the operation of the aircraft in accordance with the rules of
the air, except that the PIC may depart from these rules in emergency
circumstances that render such departure absolutely necessary in the
interests of safety.

10.155 DESIGNATION OF PIC FOR COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT
(a) The AOC holder shall, for each commercial air transport operation,

designate in writing one pilot as the PIC.
10.160 COMPLIANCE WITH LOCAL REGULATIONS
(a) All persons shall comply with the relevant laws, regulations and procedures

of the States in which the aircraft is operated.
(b) If an emergency situation which endangers the safety of the aircraft or persons

necessitates the taking of action which involves a violation of local regulations
or procedures, the PIC shall —
(1) Notify the appropriate local authority without delay;

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 429






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) Submit a report of the circumstances, if required by the State in which
the incident occurs; and

(3) Submit a copy of this report to the Authority.
(c) Each PIC shall submit reports specified in paragraph (b) to the Authority

within 10 days in the form prescribed.
10.165 NEGLIGENT OR RECKLESS OPERATIONS OF THE AIRCRAFT
(a) No person may operate an aircraft in a negligent or reckless manner so as to

endanger life or property of others.
10.170 FITNESS OF FLIGHT CREW MEMBERS
(a) No person may act as PIC or in any other capacity as a required flight crew

member when they are aware of any decrease in their medical fitness which
might render them unable to safely exercise the privileges of his or her
licence.

(b) The PIC shall be responsible for ensuring that a flight is not —
(1) Commenced if any flight crew member is incapacitated from

performing duties by any cause such as injury, sickness, fatigue, the
effects of alcohol or drugs; or

(2) Continued beyond the nearest suitable aerodrome if a flight crew members’
capacity to perform functions is significantly reduced by impairment of
faculties from causes such as fatigue, sickness or lack of oxygen.

10.175 USE OF NARCOTICS, DRUGS OR INTOXICATING LIQUOR
(a) No person may act or attempt to act as a crew member of a civil aircraft —

(1) Within 8 hours after the consumption of any alcoholic beverage;
(2) While under the influence of alcohol; or
(3) While using any drug that affects the person’s faculties in any way

contrary to safety.
(b) A crew member shall, up to 8 hours before or immediately after acting or

attempting to act as a crew member, on the request of a law enforcement
officer or the Authority, submit to a test to indicate the presence of alcohol
or narcotic drugs in the blood.
See Appendix 1 to 10.175 for specific requirements pertaining to testing for
alcohol or narcotics.

10.180 CREW MEMBER USE OF SEAT BELTS AND SHOULDER
HARNESSES

(a) Each crew member shall have his or her seat belts fastened during takeoff
and landing and all other times when seated at his or her station.

(b) Each crew member occupying a station equipped with a shoulder harness
shall fasten that harness during takeoff and landing.

(c) Each occupant of a seat equipped with a combined safety belt and shoulder
harness shall have the combined safety belt and shoulder harness properly
secured about that occupant during takeoff and landing and be able to
properly perform assigned duties.

(d) At each unoccupied seat, the safety belt and shoulder harness, if installed, shall
be secured so as not to interfere with crew members in the performance of their
duties or with the rapid egress of occupants in an emergency.

CH.284 – 430] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

10.185 FLIGHT CREW MEMBERS AT DUTY STATIONS
(a) Each required flight crew member shall remain at the assigned duty station

during take-off and landing and critical phases of flight.
(b) Each flight crew member shall remain at his or her station during all other

phases of flight unless —
(1) Absence is necessary for the performance of his or her duties in

connection with the operation;
(2) Absence is necessary for physiological needs, provided one qualified

pilot remains at the controls at all times; or
(3) The crew member is taking a rest period and a qualified relief crew

member replaces him or her at the duty station.
See Appendix 1 to 10.185 for specific requirement pertaining to qualified
relief crew members.

10.190 REQUIRED CREW MEMBER EQUIPMENT
(a) Each crew member involved in night operations shall have a flashlight at

his or her station.
(b) Each pilot crew member shall have at his or her station an aircraft checklist

containing at least the pre-takeoff, after takeoff, before landing and
emergency procedures.

(c) Each pilot crew member shall have at his or her station current and suitable
charts to cover the route of the proposed flight and any route along which it
is reasonable to expect that the flight may be diverted.

(d) Each flight crew member assessed as fit to exercise the privileges of a
licence subject to the use of suitable correcting lenses, shall have a spare set
of the correcting lenses readily available when performing as a required
crew member in commercial air transport.

10.195 COMPLIANCE WITH CHECKLISTS
(a) The PIC shall ensure that the flight crew complies with the approved

checklist procedures in detail when operating the aircraft.
(b) All members of the flight crew shall use the checklists prior to, during and after

all phases of operations and in an emergency to ensure compliance with the —
(1) operating procedures contained in the aircraft operating manual; and
(2) the flight manual; or
(3) other documents associated with the certificate of airworthiness; and
(4) otherwise in the operations manual.

10.200 SEARCH AND RESCUE INFORMATION
(a) For all international flights, the PIC shall have on board the aircraft

essential information concerning the search and rescue services in the areas
over which they intend to operate the aircraft.

10.205 PRODUCTION OF AIRCRAFT AND FLIGHT DOCUMENTATION
(a) The PIC shall, within a reasonable time of being requested to do so by a

person authorised by the Authority, produce to that person the
documentation required to be carried on the aircraft.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 431






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

10.210 LOCKING OF FLIGHT DECK COMPARTMENT DOOR:
COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT

(a) The PIC shall ensure that the flight deck compartment door (if installed) is
locked at all times during passenger-carrying commercial air transport
operations, except as necessary to accomplish approved operations or to
provide for emergency evacuation.

10.215 ADMISSION TO THE FLIGHT DECK: COMMERCIAL AIR
TRANSPORT

(a) No person may admit any person to the flight deck of an aircraft engaged in
commercial air transport operations unless the person being admitted is —
(1) An operating crew member;
(2) A representative of the authority responsible for certification,

licensing or inspection, if this is required for the performance of his or
her official duties; or

(3) Permitted by and carried out in accordance with instructions contained
in the Operations Manual.

(b) The PIC shall ensure that —
(1) In the interest of safety, admission on the flight deck does not cause

distraction and/or interference with the flight’s operations; and
(2) All persons carried on the flight deck are made familiar with the

relevant safety procedures.
10.220 ADMISSION OF INSPECTOR TO THE FLIGHT DECK
(a) Whenever, in performing the duties of conducting an inspection, an

inspector from the Authority presents an Aviation Safety Inspector’s
Credential issued by the Bahamas CAD to the PIC, the PIC shall give the
inspector free and uninterrupted access to the flight deck of the aircraft.

10.225 DUTIES DURING CRITICAL PHASES OF FLIGHT: COMMERCIAL
AIR TRANSPORT

(a) No flight crew member may perform any duties during a critical phase of
flight except those required for the safe operation of the aircraft.

(b) No PIC may permit a flight crew member to engage in any activity during a
critical phase of flight which could distract or interfere with the
performance of their assigned duties.

10.227 FLIGHT DECK COMMUNICATIONS
(a) Each required flight crew member shall use a boom or throat microphone to

communicate with each other and air traffic service below the transition
area or 10,000 feet, whichever is lower.

10.230 MANIPULATION OF THE CONTROLS: COMMERCIAL AIR
TRANSPORT

(a) No PIC may allow an unqualified person to manipulate the controls of an
aircraft during commercial air transport operations.

(b) No person may manipulate the controls of an aircraft during commercial air
transport operations unless he or she is qualified to perform the applicable
crew member functions and is authorised by the AOC holder.

CH.284 – 432] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

10.235 SIMULATED ABNORMAL SITUATIONS IN FLIGHT: COMMERCIAL
AIR TRANSPORT

(a) No person may cause or engage in simulated abnormal or emergency
situations or the simulation of IMC by artificial means during commercial
air transport operations.

10.238 RESPONSIBILITY FOR REQUIRED DOCUMENTS
(a) For all international flights, the PIC shall ensure the completion,

safekeeping and delivery of the General Declaration.
(b) For commercial air transport operations, the PIC shall ensure the

completion and safekeeping of the journey log.
10.240 COMPLETION OF THE AIRCRAFT TECHNICAL LOGBOOK:

COMMERCIAL AIR TRANSPORT
(a) The PIC shall ensure that all portions of the technical logbook are

completed at the appropriate points before, during and after flight
operations.

10.245 REPORTING MECHANICAL IRREGULARITIES
(a) At the termination of the flight, the PIC shall ensure that all known or suspected

defects discovered in flight are —
(1) For general aviation operations, reported in writing to the operator of

the aircraft.
(2) For commercial air transport operations, entered in the technical log of

the aircraft.
(b) The operator of the aircraft shall ensure that these defects are properly

rectified prior to the next flight of the aircraft.
10.250 REPORTING OF FACILITY AND NAVIGATION AIR INADEQUACIES
(a) Each crew member shall report, without delay, any inadequacy or

irregularity of a facility or navigational aid observed in the course of
operations to the person responsible for that facility or navigational aid.

10.255 REPORTING OF HAZARDOUS CONDITIONS
(a) The PIC shall report to the appropriate ATC facility, without delay and

with enough detail to be pertinent to the safety of other aircraft, any
hazardous flight conditions encountered en route, including those
associated with meteorological conditions.

10.260 REPORTING OF INCIDENTS
(a) Air traffic report. The PIC shall submit, without delay, an air traffic incident

report whenever an aircraft in flight has been endangered by —
(1) A near collision with another aircraft or object;
(2) Faulty air traffic procedures or lack of compliance with applicable

procedures by ATC or by the flight crew; or
(3) A failure of ATC facilities.

(b) Birds. In the event a bird constitutes an in-flight hazard or an actual bird strike
the PIC shall, without delay —
(1) Inform the appropriate ground station whenever a potential bird

hazard is observed; and

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 433






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(2) Submit a written bird strike report after landing.
(c) Dangerous Goods. The PIC shall inform the appropriate ATC facility, if

the situation permits, when an in-flight emergency occurs involving
dangerous goods on board.

(d) Unlawful Interference. The PIC shall submit a report to the local authorities
and to the Authority, without delay, following an act of unlawful
interference with the crew members on board an aircraft.

10.265 ACCIDENT NOTIFICATION
(a) The PIC shall notify the nearest appropriate authority, by the quickest

available means, of any accident involving his or her aircraft that results in
serious injury or death of any person, or substantial damage to the aircraft
or property.

(b) The PIC shall submit a report to the Authority of any accident which
occurred while he or she was responsible for the flight.

10.270 OPERATION OF FLIGHT DECK VOICE AND FLIGHT DATA
RECORDERS

(a) The PIC shall ensure that whenever an aircraft has flight recorders installed,
those recorders are operated continuously from the instant —
(1) For a flight data recorder, the aircraft begins its takeoff roll until it has

completed the landing roll, and
(2) For a flight deck voice recorder, the initiation of the pre-start checklist

until the end of the securing aircraft checklist.
(b) The PIC may not permit a flight data recorder or flight deck voice recorder

to be disabled, switched off or erased during flight, unless necessary to
preserve the data for an accident or incident investigation.

(c) In event of an accident or incident, the PIC shall act to preserve the
recorded data for subsequent investigation.

10.275 CREW MEMBER OXYGEN: MINIMUM SUPPLY AND USE
(a) The PIC shall ensure that breathing oxygen and masks are available to crew

members in sufficient quantities for all flights at such altitudes where a lack
of oxygen might result in impairment of the faculties of crew members.

(b) In no case shall the minimum supply of oxygen on board the aircraft be less
than that prescribed by the Authority.
Note: The requirements for oxygen supply and use are prescribed in Schedule 7.

(c) The PIC shall ensure that all flight crew members, when engaged in performing
duties essential to the safe operation of an aircraft in flight, use breathing oxygen
continuously at cabin altitudes exceeding 10,000 ft for a period in excess of 30
minutes and whenever the cabin altitude exceeds 13,000 ft.

(d) One pilot at the controls of a pressurised aircraft in flight shall wear and use an
oxygen mask —
(1)For general aviation operations, at flight levels above 350, if there is no

other pilot at their duty station; and
(2) For commercial air transport operations, at flight levels above 250, if

there is no other pilot at their duty station.

CH.284 – 434] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

10.280 PORTABLE ELECTRONIC DEVICES
(a) No PIC or SCA may permit any person to use, nor may any person use a

portable electronic device on board an aircraft that may adversely affect the
performance of aircraft systems and equipment unless —
(1) For IFR operations other than commercial air transport, the PIC

allows such a device prior to its use; or
(2) For commercial air transport operations, the AOC holder makes a

determination of acceptable devices and publishes that information in
the Operations Manual for the crew members use; and

(3) The PIC informs passengers of the permitted use.
10.282 CARRIAGE OF DANGEROUS GOODS
(a) No person shall load or cause to load any goods on an aircraft which that

person knows or ought to know or suspect to be dangerous goods, unless
this act is in conformance with the requirements of Schedule 18 regarding
carriage of dangerous goods by air.

SUBPART E
ALL PASSENGER CARRYING OPERATIONS

10.285 APPLICABILITY
(a) This Subpart applies to all passenger-carrying operations in civil aircraft.
(b) Operators of large aircraft and AOC holders are also required to comply

with the additional requirements contained in Schedule 13.
10.287 UNACCEPTABLE CONDUCT
(a) No person on board may interfere with a crew member in the performance

of his or her duties.
(b) Each passenger shall fasten his or her seat belt and keep it fastened while

the seat belt sign is lighted.
(c) No person on board an aircraft shall recklessly or negligently act or omit to

act in such a manner as to endanger the aircraft or persons and property
therein.

(d) No person may secrete himself or herself nor secrete cargo on board an
aircraft.

(e) No person may smoke while the no-smoking sign is lighted.
(f) No person may smoke in any aircraft lavatory.
(g) No person may tamper with, disable or destroy any smoke detector

installed in any aircraft lavatory.
10.290 REFUELLING WITH PASSENGERS ON BOARD
(a) No PIC may allow an aircraft to be refuelled when passengers are embarking, on

board or disembarking unless —
(1) The aircraft is manned by qualified personnel ready to initiate and

direct an evacuation; and
(2) Two-way communication is maintained between the qualified personnel in

the aircraft and the ground crew supervising the refuelling.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 435






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

(b) Helicopters. Unless specifically authorised by the Authority, no person will allow
a helicopter to be refuelled when —
(1) Passengers are embarking, on board, or disembarking; or
(2) The rotors are turning.

10.295 PASSENGER SEATS, SAFETY BELTS, AND SHOULDER HARNESSES
(a) The PIC shall ensure that each person on onboard occupies an approved

seat or berth with their own individual safety belt and shoulder harness (if
installed) properly secured about them during movement on the surface,
takeoff and landing.

(b) Each passenger shall have his or her seatbelt securely fastened at any other
time the PIC determines it is necessary for safety, especially during
turbulence or emergency.

(c) A safety belt provided for the occupant of a seat may not be used during
takeoff and landing by more than one person who has reached his or her
second birthday.
Note: When cabin attendants are required in a commercial air transport
operation, the PIC may delegate this responsibility, but shall ascertain that
the proper briefing has been conducted prior to takeoff.

10.300 PASSENGER BRIEFING
(a) The PIC shall ensure that crew members and passengers are made familiar, by

means of an oral briefing or by other means, with the location and use of the
following items, if appropriate —
(1) Seat belts;
(2) Emergency exits;
(3) Life jackets;
(4) Oxygen dispensing equipment; and
(5) Other emergency equipment provided for individual use, including

passenger emergency briefing cards.
(b) The PIC shall ensure that all persons on board are aware of the locations

and general manner of use of the principal emergency equipment carried
for collective use.
Note: For commercial air transport operations. the briefing shall contain
all subjects approved by the Authority for the specific operations conducted
as included in the pertinent Operations Manual.
Note: When cabin attendants are required in a commercial air transport
operation, the PIC may delegate this responsibility, but shall ascertain that
the proper briefing has been conducted prior to takeoff.

10.305 INFLIGHT EMERGENCY INSTRUCTION
(a) In an emergency during flight, the PIC shall ensure that all persons on

board are instructed in such emergency action as may be appropriate to the
circumstances.
Note: When cabin attendants are required in a commercial air transport
operation, the PIC may delegate this responsibility, but shall ascertain that
the proper briefing has been conducted.

CH.284 – 436] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

10.310 PASSENGER OXYGEN: MINIMUM SUPPLY AND USE
(a) The PIC shall ensure that breathing oxygen and masks are available to

passengers in sufficient quantities for all flights at such altitudes where a
lack of oxygen might harmfully effect passengers.

(b) The PIC shall ensure that the minimum supply of oxygen prescribed by the
Authority is on board the aircraft.
Note: The requirements for oxygen storage and dispensing apparatus are
prescribed in Schedule 7.

(c) The PIC shall require all passengers to use oxygen continuously at cabin
pressure altitudes above 15,000 feet.

10.315 ALCOHOL OR DRUGS
(a) No person may permit the boarding or serving of any person who appears

to be intoxicated or who demonstrates, by manner or physical indications,
that that person is under the influence of drugs (except a medical patient
under proper care).

SUBPART F
FLIGHT PLANS

10.325 SUBMISSION OF A FLIGHT PLAN
(a) Prior to operating one of the following, a pilot shall file a VFR or IFR flight

plan, as applicable, for —
(1) Any flight (or portion thereof) to be provided with air traffic control

service;
(2) Any IFR flight within advisory airspace;
(3) Any flight within or into designated areas, or along designated routes,

when so required by the appropriate ATC authority to facilitate the
provision of flight information, alerting and search and rescue
services;

(4) Any flight within or into designated areas, or along designated routes,
when so required by the appropriate ATC authority to facilitate co-
ordination with appropriate military units or with ATC facilities in
adjacent states in order to avoid the possible need for interception for
the purpose of identification; and

(5) Any flight across international borders.
(b) The PIC shall submit a flight plan before departure or during flight, to the

appropriate ATC facility, unless arrangements have been made for
submission of repetitive flight plans.

(c) Unless otherwise prescribed by the appropriate ATC authority, a pilot should
submit a flight plan to the appropriate ATC facility —
(1) At least sixty minutes before departure; or
(2) If submitted during flight, at a time which will ensure its receipt by the

appropriate ATC facility at least ten minutes before the aircraft is
estimated to reach —
(i) The intended point of entry into a control area or advisory area; or

(ii) The point of crossing an airway or advisory route.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 437






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

10.330 AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL FLIGHT PLAN: COMMERCIAL AIR
TRANSPORT

(a) No person may takeoff an aircraft in commercial air transport if an ATC
flight plan has not been filed, except as authorised by the Authority.

10.335 CONTENTS OF A FLIGHT PLAN
(a) Each person filing an IFR or VFR flight plan shall include in it the following

information —
(1) Aircraft identification;
(2) Flight rules and type of flight;
(3) Number and type(s) of aircraft and wake turbulence category;
(4) Equipment;
(5) Departure aerodrome and alternate (if required);
(6) Estimated off-block time;
(7) Cruising speed(s);
(8) Cruising level(s);
(9) Route to be followed;
(10) Destination aerodrome and alternate (if required);
(11) Fuel endurance;
(12) Total number of persons on board;
(13) Emergency and survival equipment; and
(14) Other information.
Note: Whatever the purpose for which it is submitted, a flight plan shall
contain information, as applicable, on relevant items up to and including
“alternate aerodrome(s)”regarding the whole route or the portion thereof
for which the flight plan is submitted.

10.340 PLANNED RECLEARANCE
(a) If during flight planning a person determines that there is a possibility,

depending on fuel endurance, that a flight may be able to change
destinations and still comply with minimum fuel supply planning
requirements, that person shall notify the appropriate ATC facility of this
possibility when the flight plan is submitted.
Note: The intent of this provision is to facilitate a new clearance to a
revised destination, normally beyond the filed destination aerodrome.

(b) An AOC holder shall submit all pre-planned reclearance rationale to the
Authority for approval in accordance with Schedule 12.

10.345 CHANGES TO A FLIGHT PLAN
(a) When a change occurs to a flight plan submitted for an IFR flight or a VFR

flight operated as a controlled flight, the pilot shall report that change as
soon as practicable to the appropriate ATC facility.

(b) For VFR flights other than those operated as controlled flight, the PIC shall
report significant changes to a flight plan as soon as practicable to the
appropriate ATC facility.
Note: Information submitted prior to departure regarding fuel endurance or total


CH.284 – 438] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

number of persons carried on board, if incorrect at time of departure,
constitutes a significant change and shall be reported.

10.350 CLOSING A FLIGHT PLAN
(a) The PIC shall make a report of arrival either in person or by radio to the

appropriate ATC facility at the earliest possible moment after landing at the
destination aerodrome, unless ATC automatically closes a flight plan.

(b) When a flight plan has been submitted for a portion of a flight, but not the
arrival at destination, the pilot shall close that flight plan en route with the
appropriate ATC facility.

(c) When no ATC facility exists at the arrival aerodrome, the pilot shall contact
the nearest ATC facility to close the flight plan as soon as practicable after
landing and by the quickest means available.

(d) Pilots shall include the following elements of information in their arrival
reports —
(1) Aircraft identification;
(2) Departure aerodrome;
(3) Destination aerodrome (only in the case of a diversionary landing);
(4) Arrival aerodrome; and
(5) Time of arrival.

SUBPART G
FLIGHT PLANNING AND PREPARATION

10.355 AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS AND SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
(a) The PIC may not commence a flight in a civil aircraft in flight until satisfied

that —
(1) The aircraft is airworthy, duly registered and that appropriate

certificates are aboard the aircraft;
(2) The instruments and equipment installed in the aircraft are

appropriate, taking into account the expected flight conditions; and
(3) Any necessary maintenance has been performed and a maintenance

release, if applicable, has been issued in respect to the aircraft.
(b) For commercial air transport operations, before commencing the flight,

the PIC shall certify by signing the aircraft technical log that he or she is
satisfied that the requirements of paragraph (a) have been met for a
particular flight.

10.360 ADEQUACY OF OPERATING FACILITIES
(a) No person may commence a flight unless it has been determined by every

reasonable means available that the ground and/or water areas and facilities
available and directly required for such flight and for the safe operation of
the aircraft, are adequate, including communication facilities and
navigation aids.
Note: “Reasonable means” denotes use, at the point of departure, of information
available to the PIC either through official information published by the
aeronautical information services or readily obtainable in other sources.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 439






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

10.365 WEATHER REPORTS AND FORECASTS
(a) Before commencing a flight, the PIC shall be familiar with all available

meteorological information appropriate to the intended flight.
(b) The PIC shall include, during preparation for a flight away from the vicinity of

the place of departure, and for every flight under the instrument flight rules —
(1) A study of available current weather reports and forecasts; and
(2) The planning of an alternative course of action to provide for the

eventuality that the flight cannot be completed as planned, because of
weather conditions.

10.370 WEATHER LIMITATIONS FOR VFR FLIGHTS
(a) No person may commence a flight to be conducted in accordance with VFR

unless available current meteorological reports, or a combination of current
reports and forecasts, indicate that the meteorological conditions along the
route, or that part of the route to be flown under VFR, will, at the
appropriate time, allow VFR operations.

10.375 IFR DESTINATION AERODROMES
(a) For IFR flight planning purposes, no person may commence an IFR flight

unless the available information indicates that the weather conditions at the
aerodrome of intended landing and, if required, at least one suitable alternate at
the estimated time of arrival, will be at or above the —
(1) Minimum ceiling and visibility values for the standard instrument

approach procedure to be used; or
(2) Minimum operating altitude, if no instrument approach procedure is to

be used, that would allow a VMC decent to the aerodrome.
Note: A partial exception is granted for commercial air transport IFR flight
planning, to the effect that the weather at the destination does not have to
be at or above the approach minima to release and commence a flight, as
long as the designated alternate aerodrome meets the IFR weather
selection criteria.

10.380 IFR DESTINATION ALTERNATE REQUIREMENT
(a) No person may commence an IFR flight in an aircraft without at least one

destination alternate aerodrome listed in the flight plan unless —
(1) There is a standard instrument approach procedure prescribed for the

aerodrome of intended landing by the jurisdictional authorities; and
(2) Available current meteorological information indicates that the following

meteorological conditions will exist from two hours before to two hours
after the estimated time of arrival —

(i) A cloud base of at least 300 m (1,000 ft) above the minimum
associated with the instrument approach procedure; and

(ii) Visibility of at least 5.5 km or of 4 km more than the minimum
associated with the procedure.

(b) The ceiling and visibility requirements of paragraph (a) may be reduced upon
approval of the Authority for —
(1) Helicopters; or
(2) Commercial air transport where no suitable destination alternate exists.

CH.284 – 440] CIVIL AVIATION






STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS LRO 1/2002

10.385 IFR ALTERNATE AERODROME SELECTION CRITERIA
(a) If alternate minimums are published, no PIC may designate an alternate

aerodrome in an IFR flight plan unless the current available forecast
indicates that the meteorological conditions at that alternate at the ETA will
be at or above those published alternate minimums.

(b) If alternate minimums are not published, and if there is no prohibition against
using the aerodrome as an IFR planning alternate, each PIC shall ensure that
the meteorological conditions at that alternate at the ETA will be at or above —
(1) For a precision approach procedure, a ceiling of at least 600 feet and

visibility of not less than 2 statue miles; or
(2) For a non-precision approach procedure, a ceiling of at least 800 feet

and visibility of not less than 2 statute miles.
10.390 OFF-SHORE ALTERNATES FOR HELICOPTER OPERATIONS
(a) No person may designate an offshore alternate landing site when it is

possible to carry enough fuel to have an on-shore alternate landing site.
Note: The selection of offshore alternates should be exceptional cases, the
details of which have been approved by the Authority, and should not
include payload enhancement in IMC.

(b) Each person selecting an off-shore alternate landing site shall consider the
following:
(1) Until the point of no return, using an on-shore alternate. The offshore

alternate may be used only after a point of no return.
(2) Attaining one engine inoperative performance capability prior to

arrival at the alternate.
(3) Guaranteeing helideck availability.
(4) The weather information at the helideck shall be available from a

source approved by the Authority.
(5) For IFR operations, an instrument approach procedure shall be

prescribed and available.
Note: The landing technique specified in the slight manual following
control system failure may preclude the selection of certain helidecks as
alternate aerodromes. The mechanical reliability of critical control systems
shall be taken into account when determining the suitability and necessity
for an offshore alternate.

10.395 TAKEOFF ALTERNATE AERODROMES: COMMERCIAL AIR
TRANSPORT OPERATIONS

(a) No person may commence a flight without a suitable takeoff alternate
specified in the flight release if it would not be possible to return to the
aerodrome of departure.

(b) Each operator shall ensure that each takeoff alternate specified shall be located
within —
(1) For two-engine aircraft, one hour flight time at single-engine cruise

speed unless the aircraft and crews are authorised for ETOPS; or
(2) For three or four-engine aircraft, two hours flight time at single-engine

cruise speed.

CIVIL AVIATION [CH.284 – 441






LRO 1/2002 STATUTE LAW OF THE BAHAMAS

Note: All calculations are based on the one-engine-inoperative cruising speed
according to the AFM in still air conditions based on the actual takeoff mass.

10.400 MAXIMUM DISTANCE FROM AN ADEQUATE AERODROME
WITHOUT AN ETOPS APPROVAL

(a) Unless specifically approved by the Authority (ETOPS Approval), an AOC
holder shall not operate a two-engined aeroplane over a route which contains a
point further from an adequate aerodrome than, in the case of —
(1) Large, turbine engine powered aeroplanes the distance flown in 60

minutes at the one-engine-inoperative cruise speed determined in
accordance with paragraph (b) with either:

(i) A maximum approved passenger seating configuration of 20 or
more; or

(ii) A maximum take-off mass of 45360 kg or more,
(2) Reciprocating engine powered aeroplanes:

(i) The distance flown in 60 minutes at the one-engine-inoperative
cruise speed determined in accordance with paragraph (b); or

(ii) 300 nautical miles, whichever is less.
See Appendix 1 to 10.400.

10.405 EXTENDED RANGE OPERATIONS WITH TWO-ENGINED
AEROPLANES

(a) No person may conduct operations beyond the threshold distance determined in