Evidence Act, 2031 (1994)
Evidence Act, 2031
Date of Authentication and publication 2031.7.5 (1974 Oct. 21)
Amendment Acts Evidence (First Amendment) Act, 2034 (1977) 2034 .5.27
Act no. 24 of year 2031
An Act made to amend and consolidate the Law of Evidence
Preamble: Whereas, it is expedient to amend and consolidate the Nepalese law of
Now, therefore, be it enacted by His Majesty the king Birendra Bir Bikram
Shahdev on the aid and advise and consent of the Rastriya Panchayat.
1. Short Title, Extent and Commencement: (1) This Act may be called the
"Evidence Act, 2031".
(2) This Act shall apply to all proceedings of a case before the Court.
(3) This Act shall come into force on the first day of Baisakh, 2032.
2. Definitions: In this Act, unless the subject or context otherwise requires;
(a) "Court" also includes any other Authority who hears a case.
(b) "Already Expressed" or "Expressed" means already expressed or
expressed in an oral or written form or through a sign.
(c) "Public Document" means-
(1) A document maintaining official records of the acts performed
by the Government of Nepal.
(2) A book, paper or any other document laying as a record in the
office of the Government of Nepal or Constitutional Body or
Authority or Court or public organization incorporated under
FACTS IN WHICH EVIDENCE MAY BE EXAMINED
AND FACTS NOT REQUIRED TO EXAMINE THE EVIDENCE
3. Facts in which evidence may be examined: The court may examine evidence on
the fact in issue which is to be decided by it and the relevant fact thereof.
Explanation:- "Relevant fact" means a fact which helps to prove or
disprove the fact in issue of the case to be decided.
4. Facts not required to examine the evidence: It shall not be necessary to examine
evidence on the following facts-
(a) If the fact expressed by a party to the case is admitted by the other
party in the written form,
Provided that, the court, if thinks appropriate may examine
evidence on such fact.
(b) Facts to be taken as judicial notice by the court p rsuant to Section 5
(2) It shall not be necessary to the court to examine any evidence to
presume any fact pursuant to Section 6 and 7.
Provided that, the court may examine evidence, as required, before making
presumption on the facts as mentioned in Section 7.
(5) Facts to be taken into judicial notice by the court: (1) The court shall take
judicial notice of the following facts-∇
∇ (a), (b) and (c) of sub-section (1) section 5 deal with the king or other relative matters.
(d) Geographical position of Nepal
(e) Constitution of Nepal and Nepal law
(f) Notice published in Nepal Gazette
(2) The court may take judicial notice of the undisputed facts of general
Provided that, if, pursuant to this Sub- section, a party to the case requests
to take judicial notice of any fact, the court may issue an order to that party to
submit required evidence regarding that fact and the court may deny to take the
judicial notice of that fact unless evidence is produced to the satisfaction of the
(3)The court may take the help of any book or document to take judicial
notice pursuant to this Section.
(6) The court shall presume the facts: Unless otherwise proved-
(a) The property, in the name of any co-partner of a joint family, shall be
presumed by the court that such property is a jointproperty.
(b) The property, in the possession or use of two or m re persons, shall
be presumed by the court that all of them have equal right on that
(c) The Court shall presume that the matters recorded in the accounts
(sayha), Papers (shresta) or documents (kagajat) to be recorded in
pursuance of law by any court or government office ar correctly
(d) The baby, born during the continuance of marriage of the husband
and wife or within two hundred and seventy two days of the
dissolution of the marriage or the death of the husband, shall be
presumed by the court that the baby is the child of the same husband.
(e) Any document, so indicated that it is published, prepared or attested
(certified) by any court or government office or official or by a
person so authorized by the Nepal law shall be presum d by the court
that it has been published or prepared or attested (c rtified) by such
court, office, official or person.
(f) Any law or judicial decision printed in a book r journal and where it
has been indicated that it is published by the governm nt of a foreign
country or by the official so authorized by such government, the
court shall presume that such law or decision has been published
7. The court may presume: Unless otherwise provides:-
(a) If a person is holding a stolen property with him / her, the court may
presume that the property is either stolen by him/her or purchased
knowingly that it is a stolen property.
Provided that, if such person shows any reasonable ground to
remain that property in his / her possession or it seems reasonable to
remain such property in his/her possession by virtue of his/her
profession or trade and it is laying with him/her without knowing
that it is a stolen property, the court may not presume on that way.
(b) If the court issues an order to a person to submit a document which
he / she holds and he/she does not submit accordingly, the court may
presume that the document may have evidential value gainst such
(c) If any incident, conduct of the persons or general trend of the acts-
transactions reasonably leads towards certain presumption, the court
may presume other facts accordingly.
FACTS TO BE TAKEN OR NOT TO BE TAKEN AS EVIDENCE
8. Facts to be taken as evidence: The facts to be taken as evidence under this
Chapter and other facts stated by the witness before the court may be taken as
evidence in the course of examining evidence pursuant to Section 3.
9. Facts expressed by the party: (1) Any fact expressed by the party to a case may
be taken as evidence against him/her.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in Sub- section (1),
(a) The fact expressed by the accused of a criminal case, in a place other
than the court regarding the charge made against him/her, may be
taken as evidence, when the court finds it as following-
(1) At the time of expression, the accused was cons i us and in a
position to understand what he/she did or expressed.
(2) The fact was not expressed putting pressure on him/her or
with torture to him/her or with a threat to torture to him/her or
any other person or putting him/her in a condition to expr ss
the fact against his / her will.
(3) The public official, while conducting a process had not given
any threat or promise in relation to any charge, by which there
was a possibility of expressing any untrue fact and he /she had
reasonably believed that such official had a power and
authority to implement the threat or the promise.
(b) Any fact, mentioned in from Clause (a) to (d) of Section 12 and any
other fact which may be taken as evidence under any of the Sections
of this Chapter, may be taken as an evidence even in his/her favour
although it was expressed by him/herself, if he/she so desires.
(c) A fact accepted by a person for the purpose f reaching to a
compromise, by giving up any claim as a whole or in part or agreeing
to pay any amount or to provide any service to any other person, may
not be taken as an evidence against that person.
(3) For the purpose of this Section, the following facts expressed by the
following persons shall be considered to have been xpressed by the party
(a) The fact expressed by the attorney (waris) of the party or by the
representative of the party to a case, in the capacity of an attorney or
a representative, pursuant to prevailing law,
(b) Any fact expressed by a person so authorized to ac upon on behalf
of the party till such authority remains valid and up to the scope of
(c) Any fact expressed by a person on such matter he/she deserves
ownership or economic interest till such ownership or interest is
valid and before the party to the case gets any right in the subject
matter of the case,
(d) Any fact expressed by a person regarding the subject matter of the
case on which there was a joint ownership or economic interest
between such person and party to the case.
10. Immediately expressed fact: (1) If any of the following persons express any fact
immediately or immediate before or after, regarding any act, incident or
condition/situation such fact may be taken as evidence:
(a) The person who had done that act or who had directly seen or known
the act, incident or condition/situation,
(b) The victim of the act, incident or condition/situation.
(2) If any person expresses any fact clearly knowing his/her physical or
mental condition till the continuation to such condition the fact so expressed may
be taken as evidence.
11. Facts expressed by a person when in the normal condition who is now dead:
The fact expressed by a person, who is dead but who expressed it in the dying
stage when he/she was in a normal condition regarding to the cause of his or her
death, may be taken as evidence.
12. Special Facts Expressed by the Persons in Special Situation, Condition, or
Position: The following facts expressed by the person who is dead, whose
whereabouts could not be located or who is incompetent to be a witness or who has
privilege not to be a witness pursuant to this Act or for whom the party to the case
has proved that he/she cannot appear before the Court due to the conspiracy of the
opposing party or who is in such a position that the Court cannot issue a summon
or a person as to whom the Court finds it inappropriate to call him/her due to the
process being expensive or time consuming,
(a) Any fact expressed against the right, interest or benefit of the person
(b) The fact expressed in a written form which could lead towards legal
action or criminal charge (acquisition) against him/ er.
(c) Any fact expressed in a written form, before filing of the case,
regarding any public interest or custom specially known to him/her.
(d) Any fact expressed in a written form, before filing the case,
regarding any relationship specially known to him/her.
13. Facts mentioned in the public document: (1) Facts mentioned in any public
document, by the public officer in the course discharging of a public duty required
for his/her position and by any other person in performance of a duty prescribed by
the law, may be taken as evidence.
(2) Facts mentioned in the documents, relating to any Maps, Charts or Data
(facts and figures) generally offered for public sale, which are published by the
government of Nepal or by a person or public institution authorized by the
Government of Nepal, may be taken as evidence.
14. Facts mentioned in the Books of Account, Private Entries (Bahi) Books or
other Records (Shresta) in a regular basis: Any fact regularly posted or
mentioned in the books of Account, Private Entries (Bahi) Books or other Records
(Shresta) in the course of any act, process or profession or any letter written,
receipt, series of letters (Chalani) or any other particulars may be taken as
15. Facts written in the Book or Article: (1) Statement of facts on the law and
decision contained in the Books published by the Government of Foreign State or
by a person or an organization authorized by such government regarding the law or
the decision of the court of that State, may be takn as evidence.
(2) Facts mentioned in the published Book or Article written by a person
renowned as a Scholar in that field (Subject) may be taken as evidence.
16. Special types of Data, Index etc.: Facts mentioned in the data (facts and figure),
detail out index, particulars or articles, regularly published for the consumption of
the specific professions may be taken as evidence.
17. Facts stated by the witness in other cases: The facts stated by the witness in a
case before the court may be taken as evidence in any other case in the following
(a) In case, the witness has been dead or has become incompetent to be a
witness pursuant to this Act, or
(b) In case, the witness has privilege not to provide evidence on that
matter (fact) pursuant to this Act, or
(c) In case, the party to a case proves that the witness can not be
produced before the court due to any conspiracy of the opposite
(d) In case a Notice can not be issued against him/her, or
(e) In case, it becomes inappropriate in the opinion of the court to
produce him/her due to it being time consuming or expensive.
18. Document prepared in the course of inquiry or examination: The fact
expressed by a person in the document prepared in the course of inquiry or
examination of any act, incident or situation/ condition pursuant to the prevailing
law, may be taken as evidence, in case he/she appears b fore the court and records
his/her statement as an witness. Provided that,
(a) In case, there is no issue between the parties to the case on the facts
mentioned by the expert in the Post-mortem Report or the fact so
mentioned is not inconsistent with the evidence if any, such fact may
be taken, as evidence even if the expert does not appear before the
(b) An opinion expressed by a person, in the deed of and deed of spot
investigation sarjameen done bye the Investigating Officer in the
course of investigation, may taken as evidence for the purpose of
remand even such person does not appeal before the court as witness.
19. Note (Nissa) or Certificate: A Note or Certificate, issued by a person having the
duty of issuing such Note or Certificate, may be taken as evidence
20. Report: Any observation (Tippani) or Report, written or prepared in the course of
discharging of duty, by a person who has a legal duty to prepare the observation
(Tippani) or Report and submit it to a specific place or an office regarding any act,
incident or situation/condition pursuant to the prevailing Nepal Law, may be taken
Provided that, the observation (Tippani) or Report should have been duly
registered in the specific place or office.
Amended by the first Amendment.
21. Other documents with evidential value: In addition to the document mentioned
from Section 9 to Section 20, any other document may be taken as evidence to
prove that such document exists.
22. Material (Dashi) Evidence: Any material or object related to the case and
identified by the witness before the court may be taken as evidence.
23. Personal Opinion: (1) If the court has to reach to a conclusion of any opinion,
regarding law of a foreign country, science, art, signature or finger impression,
opinion of the expert may be taken as evidence.
Explanation: For the purpose of this Section, the term "expert" means a
person who has acquired special knowledge through special study or training or
experience in any field (subject).
(2) If the court has to reach to a conclusion of the signature of a person, the
opinion of a person who was in a position to see the signature of such person
frequently and to identify it, may be taken as evidnce.
(3) If the court has to reach to a conclusion of the fact regarding any
religious, ethnic or public interest or custom, theopinion of a person who is in a
position to have special knowledge regarding the int rest or custom may be taken
(4) If the court has to reach to a conclusion of any fact, regarding whether
there is any bond or relation of a person with another person or not, the opinion of
a person who has special information regarding the bond or relation, may be taken
(5) If the court has to reach to a conclusion about the meaning of the
specific word or words (phrase) which is in use in some specific places, opinion of
the person who is in a position to have special knowledge of the same, may be
taken as evidence.
(6) In case, opinion of a person is taken as evidence pursuant to this Section,
the facts which support or refute the opinion or the grounds of the opinion may
also be taken as evidence.
(7) Any opinion expressed by a person may be taken as evidence only if
he/she appears before the court in person as a witness.
Provided that, to take any opinion or the ground of such opinion expressed
in a book or article, of the expert, as an evidence it shall not be necessary to be
produced by the writer of the book or article befor the court in person.
24. Facts not be taken as evidence: (1) Whether the character of the parties to the
case is good or bad, shall not be taken as evidence.
Provided that, if the court has to decide on the character of a party to the
case, fact relating to the character may be taken as evidence.
(2) In case, where a person is not permitted to express any fact pursuant to
Section 41, 43 and 45 and even if that person expresses that fact, such fact may not
be taken as evidence.
(3) If the court issues order to produce a document to a party to the case and
that party does not submit the same accordingly that evidence shall not be
permitted to produce in that case without the permission of the other party or the
(4) In addition to the facts specifically mentioned in this Section, any other
facts which can not be taken as evidence pursuant to this Act or other prevailing
Nepal laws, may not be taken as evidence.
BURDEN OF PROOF 25. Burden of proof of proving an offence: The burden of proof of proving that the
accused has committed the offence in a criminal case shall lie on the plaintiff.
26. Burden of proof of proving the claim: The burden of proof of proving the claim
in a civil case shall lie on the plaintiff.
27. Burden of proof on the Defendant: (1) If the defendant makes a counter claim
(Jikir) regarding remission from the penalty or acquittal from the charge (penalty)
pursuant to prevailing Nepal law, the burden of proof f proving such fact shall lie
on the defendant him/herself.
(2) If some thing has to be paid or returned back to the plaintiff pursuant to
the prevailing Nepal law, the burden of proving thefact that it has been already
paid or returned back shall lie on the defendant.
28. Burden of proof as to particular fact: The burden of proof as to any particular
fact lies on that person who wishes to the court to believe in its existence, unless it
is provided by any law that the proof of that fact shall lie on any particular person.
29. Burden of proof to refute the presumption of the court: If a party to a case
wishes to refute the presumption made by the court as to any fact pursuant to this
Act, the burden of proving such fact shall lie on such party.
30. Burden of proving fact specially within knowledge: When any fact is specially
within the knowledge of any party, the burden of proving that fact shall lie on that
31. Burden of proving one fact to prove the another fact: If it is necessary to prove
any other fact earlier to take a fact as an evidence, to prove such other fact shall lie
on that party who wants to produce the first fact as an evidence.
32. Burden of proving that a person is Alive: Provided that, when the question is
whether a person is alive or dead, it is proved that such person has not been heard
of for a period of twelve years by those who would naturally have heard of him/her
if he/she had been alive, the burden of proving that he/she is alive is shifted to the
person who affirms it.
33. Burden of proof as to ownership or possession of the property: When the
question is whether any person is owner of any property of which he/she is shown
to be in custody, possession or use, the burden of proving that he/she is not the
owner lies on that party who affirms that he/she is not the owner.
34. Estoppel: (1) When a person has, by writing, oral or conduct, a ted or caused to
act another person to believe a thing to be true and to act upon such belief, such
person shall not be allowed, in any case, between him/herself and such person to
deny the truth of that thing.
Provided that, this Section shall not be applicabe in the point of law.
(2) Anything mentioned in Sub-section (1) shall also be applicable to such
person who receives/gets any kind of right from the persons mentioned in that
Sub-section in relation to the subject matter of the case.
35. Documentary Evidence: (1) A document or fact mentioned in the document has
to be proved by producing such document.
(2) Notwithstanding contained in Sub-section (1), any document or any fact
mentioned in the document may be proved with the help of the picture, photocopy
or duplicate copy which has been duly received pursuant to the law or oral
evidence in the following circumstances:
(a) When it has been proved that the document is inthe custody of that
person against whom that document has to be produced, or
(b) When the document is in the custody of such person against whom
the court cannot issue Summon/Notice or such person did not
produce the document even after the service of the Summon/Notice,
(c) When it has been proved that the document has been lost or
(d) When it is not easily possible to lift the document and produce it
before the court, or
(e) When that document does not lie with the intending party to produce
such document by virtue of the nature of the document itself.
Provided that, in the case of the document mentioned in this
Clause, it shall be necessary to produce the certified copy in case it is
possible to get such copy pursuant to the law.
(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in any Sub-section of this Section,
the decision made or order issued by His Majesty the King or the Government of
Nepal may be proved upon producing a document certified by the concerned
officer pursuant to the prevailing Nepal Law.
36. Conclusion of Signature or the Thumb impression: (1) When there arises a
question, whether a document was written or signed or not by a person, the court
may cause such person to write or sign in a separate piece of paper and shall
compare that signature or thumb impression with anyother signature or finger
impression and may reach to the conclusion accordingly.
(2) When it is not possible to reach to a conclusion c mparing the signature
or finger impression pursuant to Sub-section (1), the Court may conclude it with
the help of other evidence.
(3) Nothing contained in this Section shall bar to the Court to take the
opinion of a signature or finger impression expert as he evidence.
37. Oral Evidence: (1) Except in the condition where it is compulsory to produce the
document to prove any fact pursuant to this Act, in other conditions a fact may be
proved by the oral evidence.
(2) The oral evidence has to be direct in nature, to mean if the evidence has
to be produced on the fact which could have been se, heard or felt with the help
of any sense that evidence has to be produced by the person who has directly seen,
heard or felt, as an oral evidence.
Explanation: The oral evidence given by a person as a witness b fore the
court who hears or knows the fact in the mean time wh n it was expressed and
which is admissible as an evidence pursuant to Section 10, 11 or 12, shall also be
considered as direct evidence.
EXAMINATION OF WITNESS
38. Person Competent to be a witness: All persons including the accomplice may
be competent to be a witness unless the court considers that they are prevented
from understanding the questions put to them, or form giving rational answers to
those questions, by tender years, extreme old age, physical or mental diseases or
any other cause of the same kind.
39. Dumb Witness: A witness who is unable to speak may give his/her evidence in
any other manner in which he/she can make it intellgib e, as by writing or by
40. Parents etc. of the party shall not be compelled to be a witness:
Notwithstanding anything contained in other Sections of this Act or any other
prevailing law, the parents, son, daughter, husband or wife of the party to the case
shall not be compelled to be a witness against suchparty.
41. Communication during marriage shall not be compelled to disclose: No person
who is or has been married shall be compelled to disclose any communication
made between them during their marriage and they shall be permitted to disclose
any such communication, unless the person who made it consents, except in a case
between the husband and wife or in a case in which one married person is
prosecuted by the government as a plaintiff for anycrime committed against the
Inserted by First Amendment.
42. A judge shall not be compelled to disclose any act done in that capacity: No
judge shall, except otherwise order has been made by the Superior Court, be
compelled to answer any question which came to his/her knowledge or regarding
any act he/she performed in the court as such judge.
Provided that, he/she may be examined as a witness as to the matters which
occurred in his/her presence whilst he/she was so acting or any other fact.
43. Not to disclose the fact mentioned in the unpublished government document
laying in the Government Office: Except otherwise provided by the Head of the
Department no one shall disclose or submit any unpublished confidential document
which is related to the government activities and laying in the Government Office.
44. Public Official shall not be compelled to disclose any information received in
that capacity: No Public Official shall be compelled to disclose any information
which he/she received in the official confidence when he/she considers that such
disclosure would suffer the public interest. 44A. Police personnel shall not be compelled to disclose the source of information
of the occurrence of a crime: No police personnel shall be compelled to disclose
any information of the source which he/she received by any means regarding the
occurrence of a crime.
45. A law Practitioner not to disclose any information given by his/her client: (1)
No law practitioner, shall at any time be permitted, unless with the written consent
of his/her client's authority to disclose any communication made to him/her in the
course of or for the purpose of his/her employments as a law practitioner, by or on
behalf of his/her client or to state the contents or conditions of any document with
which he/she has become acquainted in the course and for the purpose of his/her
professional employment or to disclose any advice giv n by him/her to his/her
Inserted by First Amendment.
(a) Any communication which has been provided to the law practitioner
in furtherance of any legal purpose may be disclosed by him/her.
(b) Any fact observed by the law practitioner in the course of his/her
employment as such, showing that any crime has beencommitted
since the commencement of his/her employment.
(2) The restriction put on to the law practitioner pursuant to Sub-section (1)
shall also be maintained even after his/her employment is ceased by the client and
such restriction shall also be applicable to the clerk, servant and interpreter of the
(3) In case any party to a case causes to his/her law practitioner to become a
witness regarding any information pursuant to Sub-section (1), for the purpose of
this Sub-section, it shall be considered that the party concerned has permitted to
disclose such fact or information.
46. A person shall not be compelled to disclose any communication between
him/herself and his/her professional legal advisor: A person shall not be
compelled to disclose any fact or communication exchanged between him/her and
his/her professional legal advisor.
Provided that, when such person wishes to disclose such communication on
his/her own before the court, he/she has to disclose any other related fact which the
court finds necessary to clarify the fact involved into the communication.
47. Witness shall have to answer: A witness shall not be excused from answering any
question upon the ground that the answer to such question may criminate him/her.
Provided that, no such answer, which a witness shall be compelled to give,
shall subject to him/her to any arrest or prosecution and shall not be taken as an
evidence in any other criminal case.
48. Production and Examination of witness: Subject to the provisions of the
prevailing laws, witnesses shall be produced and examined in the order so
prescribed by the court.
49. Procedure relating to the Examination of the witness: (1) A witness shall be
caused to swear/take oath to speak the truth before providing statement of facts
regarding what he/she has seen, known or heard.
(2) Witness shall be examined in the presence of all the parties to the case.
Provided that, a witness may be examined in the presence of the parties who
are present on the date and time appointed by the court for the examination of the
(3) A witness shall be examined in such a manner that the examination of
one witness shall not be heard by another witness.
(4) In case it becomes essential to further examine any witness, on the basis
of any reasonable ground, a T timba (further examination) of a witness may be
done only to the facts which were not clearly specifi d in the previous
(5) Parties to the case shall have to put signature on the top of the document
of statement of the witness. In case any party denies to put his/her signature, the
judge shall note the same and put his/her signature.
50. Examination-in-chief and cross-examination: (1) In the course of examination
of the witness, the party who calls the witness may conduct the examination-in-
chief to his/her witness. Thereafter, the adverse party to the case, if so desires, may
conduct the cross-examination.
(2) After the completion of the cross-examination by the adverse party
pursuant to Sub-section (1), the party who calls the witness may conduct the re-
examination of such witness.
Provided that, the re-examination shall be directed to the explanation of the
facts referred to in the cross-examination.
(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in the provis of Sub-section (2), a
party to the case may ask question regarding any new fact with his/her witness if it
is so permitted by the court.
Provided that, the adverse party may cross examine such witness again, if
any question on new facts is asked in the course of r -examination.
(4) In the course of conducting examination-in-chief or re-examination, the
party to the case shall not ask any leading question, which suggest the intended
answer if so objected by the adverse party.
Provided that, such question may be asked with the permission of the court.
(5) While providing permission by the court to ask any leading question
with his/her witness to a party to the case pursuant to the proviso of Sub-section
(4), the court shall permit leading questions as to matters which are introductory in
nature or undisputed or which have, on its opinion, already been proved
(6) Notwithstanding contained in forgoing Sections, a party to a case may
not conduct examination-in-chief by him/herself rather may request to the court for
examination-in-chief and if so requested by the party, the court shall conduct the
examination-in-chief; and the adverse may conduct cross-examination, if so
(a) In case any witness has been examined by the court under this Sub-
section, the party calling such witness shall not be permitted to
conduct examination-in-chief or re-examination.
(b) A party to the case shall not be permitted to ask some of the witness
by him/herself pursuant to Clause (a) and to apply before the court to
ask question to some of other witness from the court p rsuant to this
51. Court to forbid to ask unreasonable question with the witness: The court shall
forbid to ask any question which could unnecessarily insult or annoy the witness.
52. Examination-in-chief and cross examination of the expert: When it is necessary
to reach to the conclusion regarding any fact relating to signature, finger
impression, law of a foreign country, science, custom- radition, art or any other
similar subject, the court may cause to appear, the person who deserves special
expertise, experience or training and examine him/her as a witness. In case an
expert witness is so examined by the court, it has to provide opportunity to the
parties to the case for cross examination of such witness pursuant to this Act.
53. Court may ask necessary question with the witness: The court may ask any
question, which deems it necessary, to the witness.
54. Consequence of improper admission or rejection of evidence: The improper
admission or rejection of evidence pursuant to this Act shall not be ground of itself
from the reversal of any verdict (decision) or order of the court.
Provided that, if the improper admission or rejection of evidence causes any
effect in the decision such verdict (decision) or order shall be reversed.
55. Saving: This Act shall not bar to pursue the proceedings and conclude a case using
the evidence which has been already examined pursuant to the law in force before
the commencement of this Act.
56. Repeal: Number 148, 149, 151, 153, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168 77, and 178 of the
Chapter on Court Procedure Part-2 of the General Code (Muluki Ain) is, hereby,