S.I. No. 323/1995 - Double Taxation Relief (Taxes on Income)(State of Israel) Order, 1995.

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S.I. No. 323/1995 - Double Taxation Relief (Taxes on Income)(State of Israel) Order, 1995.
S.I. No. 323/1995:

DOUBLE TAXATION RELIEF (TAXES ON INCOME)(STATE OF ISRAEL) ORDER, 1995.
DOUBLE TAXATION RELIEF (TAXES ON INCOME)(STATE OF ISRAEL) ORDER, 1995.
WHEREAS it is enacted by section 361 (1) of the Income Tax Act, 1967 (No. 6 of 1967), as amended by section 86 of the Finance Act, 1974 (No. 27 of 1974), section 38 (1) of the Capital Gains Tax Act, 1975 (No. 20 of 1975), section 166 of the Corporation Tax Act, 1976 (No. 7 of 1976), and section 47 (4) of the Finance Act, 1983 (No. 15 of 1983), that if the Government by order declare that

arrangements specified in the order have been made with the government of any territory outside the State in relation to affording relief from double taxation in respect of income tax, corporation tax or capital gains tax and any taxes of a similar character, imposed by the laws of the State or by the laws of that territory, and that it is expedient that those arrangements should have the force of law, the arrangements shall, notwithstanding anything in any enactment other than section 47 of the Finance Act, 1983 , have the force of law:
AND WHEREAS it is further enacted by section 361 (6) of that Act that where such an order is proposed to be made, a draft thereof shall be laid before Dáil Éireann and the order shall not be made until a resolution approving of the draft has been passed by Dáil Éireann:
AND WHEREAS a draft of this order has been laid before Dáil Éireann and a resolution approving of the draft has been passed by Dáil Éireann:
NOW, the Government, in exercise of the powers conferred on them by section 361 of the Income Tax Act, 1967 (No. 6 of 1967), as amended by section 86 of the Finance Act, 1974 (No. 27 of 1974), section 38 (1) of the Capital Gains Tax Act, 1975 (No. 20 of 1975), section 166 of the Corporation Tax Act, 1976 (No. 7 of 1976), and section 47 (4) of the Finance Act, 1983 (No. 15 of 1983), hereby

order as follows:
1. This Order may be cited as the Double Taxation Relief (Taxes on Income) (State of Israel) Order, 1995.
2. It is hereby declared—
( a ) that the arrangements specified in the Convention set out in the Schedule to this Order have been made with the Government of the State of Israel in relation to affording relief from double taxation in respect of income tax, corporation tax or capital gains tax and any taxes of a similar character, imposed by the laws of the State or by the laws of the State of Israel, and
( b ) that it is expedient that those arrangements should have the force of law.
SCHEDULE
CONVENTION BETWEEN THE STATE OF ISRAEL AND IRELAND FOR THE AVOIDANCE OF DOUBLE TAXATION AND FOR THE PREVENTION OF FISCAL EVASION WITH RESPECT TO TAXES ON INCOME
The Government of the State of Israel and the Government of Ireland desiring to conclude a Convention for the avoidance of double taxation and the prevention of fiscal evasion with respect to taxes on income, have agreed as follows:
ARTICLE 1
Personal Scope
This Convention shall apply to persons who are residents of one or both of the Contracting States.
ARTICLE 2
Taxes Covered
1. This Convention shall apply to taxes on income imposed by each Contracting State irrespective of the manner in which they are levied.
2. There shall be regarded as taxes on income all taxes imposed on total income, or on elements of income, including taxes on gains from the alienation of movable or immovable property.
3. The existing taxes to which the Convention shall apply are in particular:
(a) in the case of Israel:
(i) taxes imposed according to the Income Tax Ordinance and its adjunct laws; and
(ii) taxes imposed upon gains from the alienation of property according to the Land Appreciation Tax Law;
(hereinafter referred to as "Israeli tax").
(b) in the case of Ireland:
(i) the income tax;
(ii) the corporation tax; and
(iii) the capital gains tax;
(hereinafter referred to as "Irish tax").
4. The Convention shall apply also to any identical or substantially similar taxes which are imposed after the date of signature of the Convention in addition to, or in place of, the existing taxes. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall notify each other of any substantial changes which have been made in their respective taxation laws.
ARTICLE 3
General Definitions
1. For the purposes of this Convention, unless the context otherwise requires:
(a) The term "Israel" means the State of Israel, and when used in a geographic sense, includes the territorial sea, Continental Shelf and economic zone thereof as well as that area of the high seas in respect of which Israel is entitled, in accordance with international law, to exercise sovereign rights over the sea bed and subsoil and their natural resources;
(b) The term "Ireland" includes any area outside the territorial waters of Ireland which, in accordance with international law, has been or may hereafter be designated under the laws of Ireland concerning the Continental Shelf, as an area within which the rights of Ireland with respect to the sea bed and subsoil and their natural resources may be exercised;
(c) The terms "Contracting State", "one of the Contracting States" and "the other Contracting State" mean Israel or Ireland, as the context requires; and the term "Contracting States" means Israel and Ireland;
(d) The term "person" includes an individual, a company and any other body of persons;
(e) The term "company" means any body corporate or any entity which is treated as a body corporate for tax purposes;
(f) The terms "enterprise of a Contracting State" and "enterprise of the other Contracting State" mean respectively an enterprise carried on by a resident of a Contracting State and an enterprise carried on by a resident of the other Contracting State;
(g) The term "national" means:
(i) any individual who is a citizen of a Contracting State;
(ii) any legal person or association deriving its status as such from the laws in force in a Contracting State;
(h) The term "international traffic" means any transport by a ship or aircraft operated by an enterprise of a Contracting State, except when the ship or aircraft is operated solely between places in the other Contracting State;
(i) The term "competent authority" means:
(i) in the case of Israel — the Minister of Finance or his authorised representative;
(ii) in the case of Ireland — the Revenue Commissioners or their authorised representative.
2. As regards the application of the Convention by a Contracting State, any term not defined therein shall, unless the context otherwise requires, have the meaning which it has under the laws of that State concerning the taxes to which the Convention applies.
ARTICLE 4
Resident
1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "resident of a Contracting State" means any person who, under the laws of that State, is liable to tax therein by reason of his domicile, residence, place of management, place of incorporation or any other criterion of a similar nature. However, a person will not be deemed to be a resident of a Contracting State by virtue only of his being liable to tax in that State in respect only of income from sources in that State or capital situated therein.
2. Where by reasons of the provisions of paragraph 1, an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then his status shall be determined as follows:
(a) he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State with which his personal and economic relations are closer (centre of vital interests); if his centre of vital interests cannot be determined he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which he has a permanent home available to him;
(b) if he has a permanent home available to him in both Contracting States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State in which he has an habitual abode;
(c) if he has an habitual abode in both Contracting States or in neither of them, he shall be deemed to be a resident of the Contracting State of which he is a national;
(d) if he is a national of both Contracting States or of neither of them, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall settle the question by mutual agreement.
3. Where by reason of the provisions of paragraph 1 a person other than an individual is a resident of both Contracting States, then it shall be deemed to be a resident of the State in which its place of effective and central management is situated. If the State in which its place of effective and central management cannot be determined, the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to settle the question by mutual agreement.
ARTICLE 5
Permanent Establishment
1. For the purposes of this Convention, the term "permanent establishment" means a fixed place of business through which the business of an enterprise is wholly or partly carried on.
2. The term "permanent establishment" includes especially:
(a) a place of management;
(b) a branch;
(c) an office;
(d) a factory;
(e) a workshop;
(f) a mine, an oil or gas well, a quarry or any other place of extraction of natural resources; and
(g) an installation or structure used for the exploration or exploitation of natural resources.
3. The term "permanent establishment" includes also:
(a) a building site, a construction, installation or assembly project, or supervisory activities connected therewith, but only where such site, project or activities continue for a period of more than six months;
(b) the furnishing of services, including consultancy services, by an enterprise of a Contracting State through employees or other personnel engaged by such enterprise for such purpose, but only where the activities of that nature continue (for the same or a connected project) within the other Contracting State for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate six months within any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned.
4. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, the term "permanent establishment" shall be deemed not to include:
(a) the use of facilities solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise;
(b) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of storage, display or delivery;
(c) the maintenance of a stock of goods or merchandise belonging to the enterprise solely for the purpose of processing by another enterprise;
(d) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of purchasing goods or merchandise or of collecting information, for the enterprise;
(e) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for the purpose of carrying on, for the enterprise, any other activity of a preparatory or auxiliary character;
(f) the maintenance of a fixed place of business solely for any combination of activities mentioned in subparagraphs (a) to (e), provided that the overall activity of the fixed place of business resulting from this combination is of a preparatory or auxiliary character.
5. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2, where a person — other than an agent of an independent status to whom paragraph 6 applies — is acting on behalf of an enterprise and has, and habitually exercises, in a Contracting State an authority to conclude contracts in the name of the enterprise, that enterprise shall be deemed to have a permanent establishment in that State in respect of any activities which that person undertakes for the enterprise, unless the activities of such person are limited to those mentioned in paragraph 4 which, if exercised through a fixed place of business, would not make this fixed place of business a permanent establishment under the provisions of that paragraph.
6. An enterprise shall not be deemed to have a permanent establishment in a Contracting State merely because it carries on business in that State through a broker, general commission agent or any other agent of an independent status, provided such persons are acting in the ordinary course of their business.
7. The fact that a company which is a resident of a Contracting State controls or is controlled by a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, or which carries on business in that other State (whether through a permanent establishment or otherwise), shall not of itself constitute either company a permanent establishment of the other.
ARTICLE 6
Income from Immovable Property
1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State from immovable property (including income from agriculture or forestry) situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. The term "immovable property" shall have the meaning which it has under the law of the Contracting State in which the property in question is situated. The term shall in any case include property accessory to immovable property, livestock and equipment used in agriculture and forestry, rights to which the provisions of general law respecting landed property apply, usufruct of immovable property and rights to variable or fixed payments as consideration for the working of, or the right to work, mineral deposits, sources and other natural resources; ships, boats and aircraft shall not be regarded as immovable property.
3. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall apply to income derived from the direct use, letting, or use in any other form of immovable property.
4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 3 shall also apply to the income from immovable property of an enterprise and to income from immovable property used for the performance of independent personal services.
ARTICLE 7
Business Profits
1. The profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State shall be taxable only in that State unless the enterprise carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein. If the enterprise carries on business as aforesaid, the profits of the enterprise may be taxed in the other State but only so much of them as is attributable to that permanent establishment.
2. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 3, where an enterprise of a Contracting State carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, there shall in each Contracting State be attributed to that permanent establishment the profits which it might be expected to make if it were a distinct and separate enterprise engaged in the same or similar activities under the same or similar conditions and dealing wholly independently with the enterprise of which it is a permanent establishment.
3. In determining the profits of a permanent establishment, there shall be allowed as deductions expenses which are incurred for the purposes of the permanent establishment, including executive and general administrative expenses so incurred, whether in the State in which the permanent establishment is situated or elsewhere.
4. Insofar as it has been customary in a Contracting State to determine the profits to be attributed to a permanent establishment on the basis of an apportionment of the total profits of the enterprise to its various parts, nothing in paragraph 2 shall preclude that Contracting State from determining the profits to be taxed by such an apportionment as may be customary; the method of apportionment adopted shall, however, be such that the result shall be in accordance with the principles contained in this Article.
5. No profits shall be attributed to a permanent establishment by reason of the mere purchase by that permanent establishment of goods or merchandise for the enterprise.
6. For the purposes of the preceding paragraphs, the profits to be attributed to the permanent establishment shall be determined by the same method year by year unless there is good and sufficient reason to the contrary.
7. Where profits include items of income or gains which are dealt with separately in other Articles of this Convention, then the provisions of those Articles shall not be affected by the provisions of this Article.
ARTICLE 8
International Transport
1. Profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic shall be taxable only in that State.
2. Profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State from the use, maintenance or rental of containers (including trailers, barges and related equipment for the transport of containers) used for the transport of goods or merchandise shall be taxable only in that State, except where such containers are used for the transport of goods or merchandise solely between places within the other Contracting State.
3. For the purposes of this Article, profits derived from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic include profits derived from the rental of ships or aircraft if such ships or aircraft are operated in international traffic or if such rental profits are incidental to other profits described in paragraph 1 of this Article.
4. If the place of effective and central management of a shipping enterprise is aboard a ship, then it shall be deemed to be situated in the Contracting State in which the home harbour of the ship is situated, or, if there is no such home harbour, in the Contracting State of which the operator of the ship is a resident.
5. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall also apply to profits from the participation in a pool, a joint business or an international operating agency.
ARTICLE 9
Associated Enterprises
1. Where
(a) an enterprise of a Contracting State participates directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of the other Contracting State, or
(b) the same persons participate directly or indirectly in the management, control or capital of an enterprise of a Contracting State and an enterprise of the other Contracting State,
and in either case conditions are made or imposed between the two enterprises in their commercial or financial relations which differ from those which would be made between independent enterprises, then any profits which would, but for those conditions, have accrued to one of the enterprises, but, by reason of those conditions, have not so accrued, may be included in the profits of that enterprise and taxed accordingly.
2. Where a Contracting State includes in the profits of an enterprise of that State — and taxes accordingly — profits on which an enterprise of the other Contracting State has been charged to tax in that other State and the profits so included are claimed by the first-mentioned State to be profits which would have accrued to the enterprise of the first-mentioned State if the conditions made between the two enterprises had been those which would have been made between independent enterprises, then that other State shall make an appropriate adjustment to the amount of the tax charged therein on those profits, where that other State considers that the adjustment is justified. In determining such adjustment, due regard shall be paid to the other provisions of this Convention and the competent authorities of the Contracting States shall if necessary consult each other.
ARTICLE 10
Dividends
1. Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of Israel to a resident of Ireland may by taxed in Ireland. Such dividends may also be taxed in Israel, and according to the laws of Israel, but provided that the beneficial owner of the dividends is a resident of Ireland the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the dividend.
2. ( a ) Dividends paid by a company which is a resident of Ireland to a resident of Israel may be taxed in Israel.
( b ) Where, under paragraph 3, a resident of Israel is entitled to a tax credit in respect of such a dividend, tax may also be charged in Ireland, and according to the laws of Ireland, on the aggregate of the amount or value of such dividend and the amount of the tax credit at a rate not exceeding 10 per cent.
( c ) Except as provided in subparagraph (b), dividends paid by a company which is a resident of Ireland and which are beneficially owned by a resident of Israel shall be exempt from any tax in Ireland which is chargeable on dividends.
3. A resident of Israel who receives dividends from a company which is a resident of Ireland shall, subject to the provisions of paragraph 4 and provided he is the beneficial owner of the dividends, be entitled to the tax credit in respect thereof to which an individual resident in Ireland would have been entitled had he received those dividends, and to the payment by Ireland of any excess of that tax credit over any tax chargeable in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2 (b) on those dividends.
4. The provisions of paragraph 3 shall not apply where the beneficial owner of the dividends (being a company) is, or is associated with, a company which either alone or together with one or more associated companies controls directly or indirectly 10 per cent or more of the voting power in the company paying the dividend. For the purposes of this paragraph two companies shall be deemed to be associated if one controls directly or indirectly more than 50 per cent of the voting power in the other company, or a third company controls more than 50 per cent of the voting power in both of them.
5. The preceding paragraphs shall not affect the taxation of the company in respect of the profits out of which the dividends are paid.
6. The term "dividends" as used in this Article means income from shares, "jouissance" shares or "jouissance" rights, mining shares, founders' shares or other rights, not being debt-claims, participating in profits, as well as income from other corporate rights which is subjected to the same taxation treatment as income from shares by the laws of the State of which the company making the distribution is a resident.
7. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the recipient of the dividends, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State of which the company paying the dividends is a resident, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
8. Where a company which is a resident of a Contracting State derives profits or income from the other Contracting State, that other State may not impose any tax on the dividends paid by the company, except insofar as such dividends are paid to a resident of that other State or insofar as the holding in respect of which the dividends are paid is effectively connected with a permanent establishment or a fixed base situated in that other State, nor subject the company's undistributed profits to a tax on the company's undistributed profits, even if the dividends paid or the undistributed profits consist wholly or partly of profits or income arising in such other State.
ARTICLE 11
Interest
1. Interest arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. However, such interest may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the interest the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the interest.
The competent authorities of the Contracting State shall by mutual consent settle the mode of application of this limitation.
3. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 2, any such interest as is mentioned in paragraph 1 may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which it arises and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the interest the tax so charged shall not exceed 5 per cent of the gross amount of the interest where such interest is paid:
( a ) in connection with the sale on credit of any industrial, commercial or scientific equipment,
( b ) in connection with the sale on credit of any merchandise by one enterprise to another enterprise, or
( c ) on any loan of whatever kind granted by a bank.
4. The term "interest" as used in this Article means income from debt-claims of every kind, whether or not secured by mortgage and whether or not carrying a right to participate in the debtor's profits, and in particular, income from government securities and income from bonds or debentures, including premiums and prizes attaching to bonds or debentures, but does not include any income which is treated as a dividend under Article 10. Penalty charges for late payment shall not be regarded as interest for the purpose of this Article.
5. The provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 3 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the interest, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the interest arises, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the interest, having regard to the debt-claim for which it is paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.
7. Interest shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State when the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the interest, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the indebtedness on which the interest is paid was incurred, and such interest is borne by such permanent establishment or fixed base, then such interest shall be deemed to arise in the State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
8. The provisions of paragraphs 2 and 3 shall not apply if the debt-claim in respect of which the interest is paid was created or assigned mainly for the purpose of taking advantage of this Article and not for bona fide commercial reasons.
ARTICLE 12
Royalties
1. Royalties arising in a Contracting State and paid to a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. However, such royalties may also be taxed in the Contracting State in which they arise and according to the laws of that State, but if the recipient is the beneficial owner of the royalties, the tax so charged shall not exceed 10 per cent of the gross amount of the royalties.
The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall by mutual agreement settle the mode of application of this limitation.
3. The term "royalties" as used in this Article means payments of any kind received as a consideration for the use of, or the right to use, any copyright of literary, artistic or scientific work (including cinematograph films, video recordings, and films or tapes for radio or television broadcasting), any patent, trade mark, design or model, plan, secret formula or process, or for information concerning industrial, commercial or scientific experience.
4. The provisions of paragraphs 1 and 2 shall not apply if the beneficial owner of the royalties, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State in which the royalties arise, through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the royalties are paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
5. Royalties shall be deemed to arise in a Contracting State where the payer is that State itself, a political subdivision, a local authority or a resident of that State. Where, however, the person paying the royalties, whether he is a resident of a Contracting State or not, has in a Contracting State a permanent establishment or a fixed base in connection with which the obligation to pay the royalties was incurred, and the royalties are borne by that permanent establishment or fixed base, then the royalties shall be deemed to arise in the Contracting State in which the permanent establishment or fixed base is situated.
6. Where, by reason of a special relationship between the payer and the beneficial owner or between both of them and some other person, the amount of the royalties, having regard to the use, right or information for which they are paid, exceeds the amount which would have been agreed upon by the payer and the beneficial owner in the absence of such relationship, the provisions of this Article shall apply only to the last-mentioned amount. In such case, the excess part of the payments shall remain taxable according to the laws of each Contracting State, due regard being had to the other provisions of this Convention.
7. The provisions of paragraph 2 shall not apply if the right or property giving rise to the royalties was created or assigned mainly for the purpose of taking advantage of this Article and not for bona fide commercial reasons.
ARTICLE 13
Capital Gains
1. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the alienation of immovable property referred to in Article 6 and situated in the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
2. Gains from the alienation of movable property forming part of the business property of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State or of movable property pertaining to a fixed base available to a resident of a Contracting State in the other Contracting State for the purpose of performing independent personal services, including such gains from the alienation of such a permanent establishment (alone or with the whole enterprise) or of such fixed base, may be taxed in that other Contracting State.
3. Gains derived by an enterprise of a Contracting State from the alienation of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic, or movable property pertaining to the operation of such ships or aircraft, shall be taxable only in that Contracting State.
4. Gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State from the sale, exchange or other disposition, directly or indirectly, of shares or similar rights in a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State, but only if the resident of the first-mentioned State owned either directly or indirectly at any time within the two-year period preceding such sale, exchange or other disposition, shares giving the right to 10 per cent or more of the voting power in the company. For the purposes of this paragraph indirect ownership shall be deemed to include, but not be limited to, ownership by a related person.
5. Gains from the alienation of shares or similar rights in a company, 50 per cent or more of the assets of which consist directly or indirectly of immovable property situated in a Contracting State, may be taxed in that State. Gains from the alienation of an interest in a partnership, trust or estate, the property of which consists principally of immovable property situated in a Contracting State, may be taxed in that State.
6. Gains from the alienation of any property other than that referred to in paragraphs 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 shall be taxable only in the Contracting State of which the alienator is a resident.
ARTICLE 14
Independent Personal Services
1. Income derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of professional services or other activities of an independent character shall be taxable only in that State. However, such income may also be taxed in the other Contracting State if:
( a ) the resident has a fixed base regularly available to him in that other State for the purpose of performing his activities; or
( b ) the resident, being an individual, is present in the other State for a period or periods exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned of that other State;
but only so much thereof as is attributable to services performed in that other State.
2. The term "professional services" includes especially independent scientific, literary, artistic, educational or teaching activities as well as the independent activities of physicians, lawyers, engineers, architects, dentists and accountants.
ARTICLE 15
Dependent Personal Services
1. Subject to the provisions of Articles 16, 18, 19 and 20, salaries, wages and other similar remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment shall be taxable only in that State unless the employment is exercised in the other Contracting State. If the employment is so exercised, such remuneration as is derived therefrom may be taxed in that other State.
2. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph 1, remuneration derived by a resident of a Contracting State in respect of an employment exercised in the other Contracting State shall be taxable only in the first-mentioned State if:
( a ) the recipient is present in the other State for a period or periods not exceeding in the aggregate 183 days in any twelve month period commencing or ending in the fiscal year concerned, and
( b ) the remuneration is paid by, or on behalf of, an employer who is not a resident of the other State, and
( c ) the remuneration is not borne by a permanent establishment or a fixed base which the employer has in the other State.
3. Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this Article, remuneration derived in respect of an employment exercised aboard a ship or aircraft operated in international traffic by an enterprise of a Contracting State, may be taxed in that State.
ARTICLE 16
Directors' Fees
Directors' fees and other similar payments derived by a resident of a Contracting State in his capacity as a member of the board of directors or any similar organ of a company which is a resident of the other Contracting State may be taxed in that other State.
ARTICLE 17
Artistes and Athletes
1. Notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 14 and 15, income derived by a resident of a Contracting State as an entertainer, such as a theatre, motion picture, radio or television artiste, or a musician, or as an athlete, from his personal activities as such exercised in the other Contracting State, may be taxed in that other State.
2. Where income in respect of personal activities exercised by an entertainer or an athlete in his capacity as such accrues not to the entertainer or athlete himself but to another person, that income may, notwithstanding the provisions of Articles 7, 14 and 15, be taxed in the Contracting State in which the activities of the entertainer or athlete are exercised.
ARTICLE 18
Pensions and Annuities
1. Subject to the provisions of paragraph 2 of Article 19, pensions and other similar remuneration paid to a resident of a Contracting State in consideration of past employment and any retirement annuity paid to such a resident shall be taxable only in that State.
2. The term "annuity" means a stated sum payable periodically at stated times during life or during a specified or ascertainable period of time under an obligation to make the payments in return for adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth.
ARTICLE 19
Government Service
1. ( a ) Remuneration, other than a pension, paid by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
( b ) However, such remuneration shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the services are rendered in that State and the individual is a resident of that State who:
(i) is a national of that State; or
(ii) did not become a resident of that State solely for the purpose of rendering the services.
2. ( a ) Any pension paid by, or out of funds created by, a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof to an individual in respect of services rendered to that State or subdivision or authority shall be taxable only in that State.
( b ) However, such pension shall be taxable only in the other Contracting State if the individual is a resident of, and a national of, that State.
3. The provisions of Articles 15, 16 and 18 shall apply to remuneration and pensions in respect of services rendered in connection with a business carried on by a Contracting State or a political subdivision or a local authority thereof.
ARTICLE 20
Professors and Teachers
A professor or teacher who visits one of the Contracting States for the principal purpose of teaching or carrying out advanced study or research at any educational institution not operated for profit in that Contracting State and who was immediately before that visit a resident of the other Contracting State shall be exempt from tax in the first-mentioned Contracting State for a period of two years from the date of his arrival therein.
ARTICLE 21
Students and Business Apprentices
1. Payments which a student or a business apprentice who is or was immediately before visiting a Contracting State a resident of the other Contracting State and who is present in the first-mentioned Contracting State solely for the purpose of his education or training receives for the purpose of his maintenance, education or training shall not be taxed in that State, provided that such payments arise from sources outside that State.
2. In respect of grants, scholarships and remuneration from employment not covered by paragraph 1, a student or business apprentice described in paragraph 1 shall, in addition, be entitled during such education or training to the same exemptions, reliefs or reductions in respect of taxes as are available to residents of the Contracting State which he is visiting.
ARTICLE 22
Other Income
1. Items of income of a resident of a Contracting State, wherever arising, not dealt with in the foregoing Articles of this Convention shall be taxable only in that State.
2. The provisions of paragraph 1 shall not apply to income, other than income from immovable property as defined in paragraph 2 of Article 6, if the beneficial owner of such income, being a resident of a Contracting State, carries on business in the other Contracting State through a permanent establishment situated therein, or performs in that other State independent personal services from a fixed base situated therein, and the right or property in respect of which the income paid is effectively connected with such permanent establishment or fixed base. In such case the provisions of Article 7 or Article 14, as the case may be, shall apply.
ARTICLE 23
Elimination of Double Taxation
1. Subject to the laws of Israel from time to time in force regarding the allowance as a credit against Israeli tax of tax paid in any country other than Israel, Irish tax paid in respect of income derived from Ireland shall be allowed as a credit against Israeli tax payable in respect of that income. The credit shall not, however, exceed that portion of Israeli tax which the income from sources within Ireland bears to the entire income subject to Israeli tax. In the case of a dividend paid by a company which is a resident of Ireland to a company which is a resident of Israel and which controls directly or indirectly 10 per cent or more of the voting power in the company paying the dividend, the credit shall take into account (in addition to any Irish tax for which credit may be allowed under the provisions of the first sentence of this paragraph) Irish tax payable by the company in respect of the profits out of which such dividend is paid.
2. Subject to the provisions of the laws of Ireland regarding the allowance as a credit against Irish tax of tax payable in a territory outside Ireland (which shall not affect the general principal hereof):
(a) Israeli tax payable under the laws of Israel and in accordance with this Convention, whether directly or by deduction, on profits, income or gains from sources within Israel (excluding in the case of a dividend tax payable in respect of the profits out of which the dividend is paid) shall be allowed as a credit against any Irish tax computed by reference to the same profits, income or gains by reference to which Israeli tax is computed.
(b) In the case of a dividend paid by a company which is a resident of Israel to a company which is a resident of Ireland and which controls directly or indirectly 10 per cent or more of the voting power in the company paying the dividend, the credit shall take into account (in addition to any Israeli tax for which credit may be allowed under the provisions of subparagraph (a) of this paragraph) Israeli tax payable by the company in respect of the profits out of which such dividend is paid.
3. For the purposes of this Article, profits, income and gains derived by a resident of a Contracting State which may be taxed in the other Contracting State in accordance with this Convention shall be deemed to be derived from sources in that other State.
ARTICLE 24
Non-Discrimination
1. Nationals of a Contracting State shall not be subjected in the other Contracting State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith, which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which nationals of that other State in the same circumstances are or may be subjected. This provision shall, notwithstanding the provisions of Article 1, also apply to persons who are not residents of one or both of the Contracting States.
2. The taxation of a permanent establishment which an enterprise of a Contracting State has in the other Contracting State shall not be less favourably levied in that other State than the taxation levied on enterprises of that other State carrying on the same activities. This provision shall not be construed as obliging a Contracting State to grant to residents of the other Contracting State any personal allowances, reliefs and reductions for taxation purposes on account of civil status or family responsibilities which it grants to its own residents.
3. Except where the provisions of paragraph 1 of Article 9, paragraph 6 of Article 11, or paragraph 6 of Article 12, apply, interest (other than interest treated as a dividend), royalties and other disbursements paid by an enterprise of a Contracting State to a resident of the other Contracting State shall, for the purpose of determining the taxable profits of such enterprise, be deductible under the same conditions as if they had been paid to a resident of the first-mentioned State.
4. An enterprise of a Contracting State, the capital of which is wholly or partly owned or controlled, directly or indirectly, by one or more residents of the other Contracting State, shall not be subjected in the first-mentioned State to any taxation or any requirement connected therewith which is other or more burdensome than the taxation and connected requirements to which other similar enterprises of the first-mentioned State are or may be subjected.
5. Nothing in this Article shall be construed as preventing Israel from imposing income tax according to its laws, in addition to the tax imposed upon the profits of a company resident in Ireland, on the amount of the remittance from Israel of profits made by a permanent establishment of such Irish company situated in Israel at a rate not exceeding the rate applicable to dividends as specified in paragraph 1 of Article 10.
6. Payments made by an individual who is a resident of a Contracting State to a pension scheme established in the other Contracting State may be relieved from tax in the first-mentioned State; in such case relief from tax shall be given in the same way and subject to the same conditions and limitations as if the pension scheme was recognised for tax purposes by the first-mentioned State, and as if the individual was making the contributions to such a pension scheme in that State, provided that:
(a) the pension scheme is accepted by the competent authority of that State as corresponding to a pension scheme recognised for tax purposes by that State;
(b) the individual was a resident of, and was contributing for a period in excess of two years to the pension scheme in, the other Contracting State before he became a resident of the first-mentioned State; and
(c) for the period during which the individual is entitled to relief under this paragraph for contributions to the pension scheme in the other Contracting State, such individual shall be precluded from enjoying any tax relief granted by the other Contracting State in respect of the same contributions.
ARTICLE 25
Mutual Agreement Procedure
1. Where a person considers that the actions of one or both of the Contracting States result or will result for him in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, he may, irrespective of the remedies provided by the domestic law of those States, present his case to the competent authority of the Contracting State of which he is a resident or, if his case comes under paragraph 1 of Article 24, to that of the Contracting State of which he is a national.
The case must be presented within three years from the first notification of the action resulting in taxation not in accordance with the provisions of the Convention.
2. The competent authority shall endeavour, if the objection appears to it to be justified and if it is not itself able to arrive at a satisfactory solution, to resolve the case by mutual agreement with the competent authority of the other Contracting State, with a view to the avoidance of taxation which is not in accordance with the Convention. Any agreement reached shall be implemented notwithstanding any time limits in the domestic law of the Contracting States.
3. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall endeavour to resolve by mutual agreement any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention. In particular, they may agree:
(a) to the same attribution of profits of an enterprise of a Contracting State and its permanent establishment situated in the other Contracting State;
(b) to the same allocation of income between a resident of a Contracting State and any associated or related person; or
(c) to the same classification of particular items of income.
They may also consult together for the elimination of double taxation in cases not provided for in the Convention.
4. The competent authorities of the Contracting States may communicate with each other directly for the purpose of reaching an agreement in the sense of the preceding paragraphs. When it seems advisable in order to reach agreement to have an oral exchange of opinions, such exchange may take place through a commission consisting of representatives of the competent authorities of the Contracting States.
5. If any difficulty or doubt arising as to the interpretation or application of this Convention cannot be resolved by the competent authorities pursuant to the previous paragraphs of this Article, the case may, if both competent authorities and the taxpayer agree, be submitted for arbitration, provided that the taxpayer agrees in writing to be bound by the decision of the arbitration board. The decision of the arbitration board in a particular case shall be binding on both Contracting States with respect to that case. The procedures shall be established between the Contracting States by notes to be exchanged through diplomatic channels. The provisions of this paragraph shall have effect when the Contracting States have so agreed through the exchange of diplomatic notes.
ARTICLE 26
Exchange of Information
1. The competent authorities of the Contracting States shall exchange such information as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of this Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning taxes covered by the Convention insofar as the taxation thereunder is not contrary to the Convention. The exchange of information is not restricted by Article 1. Any information received by a Contracting State shall be treated as secret in the same manner as information obtained under the domestic laws of that State and shall be disclosed only to persons or authorities (including courts and administrative bodies) involved in the assessment or collection of, the enforcement or prosecution in respect of, or the determination of appeals in relation to, the taxes covered by the Convention. Such persons or authorities shall use the information only for such purposes. They may disclose the information in public court proceedings or in judicial decisions.
2. In no case shall the provisions of paragraph 1 be construed so as to impose on a Contracting State the obligation:
(a) to carry out administrative measures at variance with the laws and administrative practice of that or the other Contracting State;
(b) to supply information which is not obtainable under the laws or in the normal course of the administration of that or of the other Contracting State;
(c) to supply information which would disclose any trade, business, industrial, commercial or professional secret or trade process, or information, the disclosure of which would be contrary to public policy (ordre public).
ARTICLE 27
Diplomatic Agents and Consular Officers
Nothing in this Convention shall affect the fiscal privileges of diplomatic agents or consular officers under the general rules of international law or under the provisions of special agreements.
ARTICLE 28
Entry into Force
1. The Contracting States shall notify each other that the constitutional requirements for the entry into force of this Convention have been complied with.
2. This Convention shall enter into force on the date of the later of the notifications referred to in paragraph 1 and its provisions shall apply:
(a) In Israel:
(i) in respect of taxes withheld at source, to amounts of income derived on or after 1 January 1996;
(ii) in respect of other taxes on income, to such taxes chargeable for any taxable year beginning on or after 1 January 1996.
(b) In Ireland:
(i) as respects income tax and capital gains tax, for any year of assessment beginning on or after 6 April 1996;
(ii) as respects corporation tax, for any financial year beginning on or after 1 January 1996.
ARTICLE 29
Termination
This Convention shall remain in force until terminated by one of the Contracting States. Either Contracting State may terminate the Convention, through diplomatic channels, by giving notice of termination at least six months before the end of any calendar year following after the period of five years from the date on which the Convention enters into force. In such event the Convention shall cease to have effect:
(a) In Israel:
(i) in respect of taxes withheld at source, to amounts of income derived on or after 1 January in the calendar year next following the year in which the notice is given;
(ii) in respect of other taxes on income, to such taxes chargeable for any taxable year beginning on or after 1 January in the calendar year next following the year in which the notice is given.
(b) In Ireland:
(i) as respects income tax and capital gains tax, for any year of assessment beginning on or after the sixth day of April in the year next following the date on which the period specified in the said notice of termination expires;
(ii) as respects corporation tax, for any financial year beginning on or after the first day of January next following the date on which the period specified in the said notice of termination expires.
In witness whereof the undersigned, duly authorised thereto, have signed this Convention.
Done at Dublin on 20th day of November, 1995 corresponding to 27 Cheshvan 5756, in duplicate in the English and Hebrew languages, both texts being equally authentic.
RUAIRI QUINN

For Ireland
ZVI GABAY

For the State of Israel
GIVEN under the Official Seal of the Government, this 5th
day of December, 1995.
JOHN BRUTON,
Taoiseach.
EXPLANATORY NOTE.
This Order gives the force of law to the Convention with Israel which is set out in the Schedule. The effect of the Convention is summarised as follows.
This Convention with Israel, which was signed in Dublin on 20th November, 1995, is comprehensive in scope and is based on the OECD Model Convention.
It provides, with regard to income (which includes capital gains) which under the laws of Ireland and the laws of Israel may be taxed in both countries, for the allocation of taxing rights between the two countries and for the granting of relief from double taxation if under the Convention items of income continue to be taxable in both countries.
For example, items such as business profits and gains on movable property (provided that they do not arise through or are not connected with a permanent establishment in the source state), profits from the operation of ships or aircraft in international traffic and non-government pensions, are taxable only in the state of residence of the recipient.
Where both countries continue to have taxing rights, for example, with regard to business profits arising through a permanent establishment which an enterprise of one state has in the other state, or dividends, interest or royalties received in one state from the other state, the Convention provides that the state of residence of the recipient will allow a credit against its own tax for the tax imposed on the same income by the state of source. Thus double taxation is relieved.
Capital gains arising from the disposal of immovable property, or of shares in a company or an interest in a partnership, trust or estate, the majority or principal part of the assets of which consist of immovable property, may be taxed by the state in which the property is situated. Other gains, including gains arising from the disposal of ships or aircraft operated in international traffic, are normally taxable only in the state of residence of the taxpayer, unless they arise from the disposal of assets of a permanent establishment or a fixed base, or from shares in a company in the other state in which the alienator has held 10 per cent or more of the voting power at any time in the previous two years; if so, the gains may be taxed in that other state.
The Convention preserves the taxation rights of a state in respect of income and capital gains arising from the exploration or exploitation of natural resources in its territory.
The Convention also preserves a state's taxing rights in respect of income arising from the provision in that state of services for a period exceeding six months ending in the fiscal year concerned by an enterprise of the other Contracting State.
In the case of dividends, interests and royalties flowing between the two states, the Convention provides for a withholding tax of 10 per cent of the gross amount. Except where the shareholder is entitled to a refund of the Irish tax credit attaching to the dividend, no withholding tax is imposed in Ireland under Irish domestic law.
The Convention also contains provisions for safeguarding citizens and enterprises of one state against discriminatory taxation in the other, for consultation between the competent authorities in both states for the purpose of resolving any difficulties or doubts arising as to the interpretation or application of the Convention and for the exchange of information between these authorities as is necessary for carrying out the provisions of the Convention or of the domestic laws of the Contracting States concerning the taxes covered by the Convention.
Following ratification of the Convention and its being given force in law, it will become operative in both States for the tax periods beginning in 1996.

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