Bills Of Exchange Ordinance


Published: 1997-06-30

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Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 1

Chapter: 19 BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE Gazette Number Version Date

Long title 30/06/1997


To codify the law relating to bills of exchange, cheques and promissory notes.


[4 May 1885]

(Originally 9 of 1885 (Cap 19, 1950))

Part: I PRELIMINARY PROVISIONS 30/06/1997


(Added 51 of 1911; 63 of 1911 Schedule)

Section: 1 Short title 30/06/1997


This Ordinance may be cited as the Bills of Exchange Ordinance.
(Amended 5 of 1924 s. 6)
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 1 U.K.]


Section: 2 Interpretation 35 of 1998 18/09/1998


In this Ordinance, unless the context otherwise requires-
"acceptance" (承兌) means an acceptance completed by delivery or notification;
"action" (法律行動) means action or suit and includes counterclaim and set-off;
"banker" (銀行) includes a body of persons, whether incorporated or not, who carry on the business of banking;
"bankrupt" (破產人) includes any person whose estate is vested in a trustee or assignee under the law relating to

bankruptcy; (Amended 50 of 1911; 62 of 1911 Schedule)
"bearer" (持票人) means the person in possession of a bill or note which is payable to bearer;
"bill" means bill of exchange, and "note" means promissory note;
"delivery" (交付) means transfer of possession, actual or constructive, from one person to another;
"general holiday" (公眾假期) has the same meaning as in the General Holidays Ordinance (Cap 149); (Added 5 of

1912 s. 8. Amended 35 of 1998 s. 5)
"holder" (持有人) means the payee or indorsee of a bill or note who is in possession of it, or the bearer thereof;
"indorsement" (背書) means an indorsement completed by delivery;
"issue" (發給) means the first delivery of a bill or note, complete in form, to a person who takes it as a holder;
"person" (人) includes a body of persons, whether incorporated or not;
"value" (價值) means valuable consideration.

(Amended 43 of 1912 Schedule)
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 2 U.K.]


Part: II BILLS OF EXCHANGE* 30/06/1997

____________________________________________________________________
Note:
* (Amended 51 of 1911; 63 of 1911 Schedule)

Section: 3 Definition of bill of exchange 30/06/1997


Form and Interpretation




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(1) A bill of exchange is an unconditional order in writing, addressed by one person to another, signed by the
person giving it, requiring the person to whom it is addressed to pay on demand or at a fixed or determinable future
time a sum certain in money to, or to the order of, a specified person or to bearer.

(2) An instrument which does not comply with these conditions, or which orders any act to be done in addition
to the payment of money, is not a bill of exchange.

(3) An order to pay out of a particular fund is not unconditional within the meaning of this section; but an
unqualified order to pay, coupled with-

(a) an indication of a particular fund out of which the drawee is to reimburse himself or a particular
account to be debited with the amount; or

(b) a statement of the transaction which gives rise to the bill,
is unconditional.

(4) A bill is not invalid by reason-
(a) that it is not dated;
(b) that it does not specify the value given or that any value has been given therefor;
(c) that it does not specify the place where it is drawn or the place where it is payable.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 3 U.K.]

Section: 4 Inland and foreign bills 60 of 1999 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 60 of 1999 s. 3


(1) An inland bill is a bill which is or on the face of it purports to be-
(a) both drawn and payable within Hong Kong; or
(b) drawn within Hong Kong, upon some person resident therein. (Amended 60 of 1999 s. 3)

(2) Any other bill is a foreign bill.
(3) Unless the contrary appears on the face of the bill, the holder may treat it as an inland bill.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 4 U.K.]

Section: 5 Effect where different parties to bill are the same person 30/06/1997


(1) A bill may be drawn payable to, or to the order of, the drawer; or it may be drawn payable to, or to the order
of, the drawee.

(2) Where, in a bill, drawer and drawee are the same person, or where the drawee is a fictitious person or a
person not having capacity to contract, the holder may treat the instrument, at his option, either as a bill of exchange or
as a promissory note.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 5 U.K.]

Section: 6 Address to drawee 30/06/1997


(1) The drawee must be named or otherwise indicated in a bill with reasonable certainty.
(2) A bill may be addressed to two or more drawees, whether they are partners or not, but an order addressed to

two drawees in the alternative, or to two or more drawees in succession, is not a bill of exchange.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 6 U.K.]


Section: 7 Certainty required as to payee 30/06/1997


(1) Where a bill is not payable to bearer, the payee must be named or otherwise indicated therein with
reasonable certainty.

(2) A bill may be made payable to two or more payees jointly, or it may be made payable in the alternative to
one of two or one or some of several payees. A bill may also be made payable to the holder of an office for the time
being.

(3) Where the payee is a fictitious or non-existing person, the bill may be treated as payable to bearer.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 7 U.K.]





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Section: 8 What bills are negotiable 30/06/1997


(1) Where a bill contains words prohibiting transfer, or indicating an intention that it should not be transferable,
it is valid as between the parties thereto, but is not negotiable.

(2) A negotiable bill may be payable either to order or to bearer.
(3) A bill is payable to bearer which is expressed to be so payable, or on which the only or last indorsement is

an indorsement in blank.
(4) A bill is payable to order which is expressed to be so payable, or which is expressed to be payable to a

particular person, and does not contain words prohibiting transfer or indicating an intention that it should not be
transferable.

(5) Where a bill, either originally or by indorsement, is expressed to be payable to the order of a specified
person, and not to him or his order, it is nevertheless payable to him or his order at his option.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 8 U.K.]

Section: 9 Sum payable 30/06/1997


(1) The sum payable by a bill is a sum certain within the meaning of this Ordinance, although it is required to
be paid-

(a) with interest;
(b) by stated instalments;
(c) by stated instalments, with a provision that, upon default in payment of any instalment, the whole shall

become due;
(d) according to an indicated rate of exchange or according to a rate of exchange to be ascertained as

directed by the bill.
(2) Where the sum payable is expressed in words and also in figures, and there is a discrepancy between the

two, the sum denoted by the words is the amount payable.
(3) Where a bill is expressed to be payable with interest, unless the instrument otherwise provides, interest runs

from the date of the bill, and, if the bill is undated, from the issue thereof.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 9 U.K.]


Section: 10 Bill payable on demand 30/06/1997


(1) A bill is payable on demand-
(a) which is expressed to be payable on demand, or at sight, or on presentation; or
(b) in which no time for payment is expressed.

(2) Where a bill is accepted or indorsed when it is overdue, it shall, as regards the acceptor who so accepts or
any indorser who so indorses it, be deemed a bill payable on demand.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 10 U.K.]

Section: 11 Bill payable at future time 30/06/1997


(1) A bill is payable at a determinable future time within the meaning of this Ordinance which is expressed to
be payable-

(a) at a fixed period after date or sight;
(b) on or at a fixed period after the occurrence of a specified event which is certain to happen, though the

time of happening may be uncertain.
(2) An instrument expressed to be payable on a contingency is not a bill, and the happening of the event does

not cure the defect.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 11 U.K.]


Section: 12 Omission of date in bill payable after date 30/06/1997


Where a bill expressed to be payable at a fixed period after date is issued undated, or where the acceptance of a
bill payable at a fixed period after sight is undated, any holder may insert therein the true date of issue or acceptance,



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and the bill shall be payable accordingly:
Provided that-

(a) where the holder in good faith and by mistake inserts a wrong date; and
(b) in every case where a wrong date is inserted,

if the bill subsequently comes into the hands of a holder in due course, the bill shall not be avoided thereby, but shall
operate and be payable as if the date so inserted had been the true date.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 12 U.K.]

Section: 13 Ante-dating and post-dating 30/06/1997


(1) Where a bill or an acceptance or any indorsement on a bill is dated, the date shall, unless the contrary is
proved, be deemed to be the true date of the drawing, acceptance, or indorsement, as the case may be.

(2) A bill is not invalid by reason only that it is ante-dated or post-dated, or that it bears date on a Sunday or
any other general holiday. (Amended 5 of 1912 s. 8)

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 13 U.K.]

Section: 14 Computation of time of payment 30/06/1997


Where a bill is not payable on demand, the day on which it falls due is determined as follows-
(a) the bill is due and payable in all cases on the last day of the time of payment as fixed by the bill or, if

that is a general holiday, on the succeeding business day; (Replaced 67 of 1972 s. 2) [cf. 1971 c. 80 s.
3(2) U.K.]

(b) where a bill is payable at a fixed period after date, after sight, or after the happening of a specified
event, the time of payment is determined by excluding the day from which the time is to begin to run
and by including the day of payment;

(c) where a bill is payable at a fixed period after sight, the time begins to run from the date of the
acceptance if the bill is accepted, and from the date of noting or protect if the bill is noted or protested
for non-acceptance or for non-delivery;

(d) the term "month" in a bill means calendar month.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 14 U.K.]


Section: 15 Referee in case of need 30/06/1997


The drawer of a bill and any indorser may insert therein the name of a person to whom the holder may resort in
case of need, that is to say, in case the bill is dishonoured by non-acceptance or non-payment. Such person is called
the referee in case of need. It is in the option of the holder to resort to the referee in case of need or not, as he may
think fit.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 15 U.K.]

Section: 16 Optional stipulations by drawer or indorser 30/06/1997


The drawer of a bill and any indorser may insert therein an express stipulation-
(a) negativing or limiting his own liability to the holder;
(b) waiving, as regards himself, some or all of the holder's duties.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 16 U.K.]

Section: 17 Definition and requisites of acceptance 30/06/1997


(1) The acceptance of a bill is the signification by the drawee of his assent to the order of the drawer.
(2) An acceptance is invalid unless it complies with the following conditions, namely-

(a) it must be written on the bill and be signed by the drawee. The mere signature of the drawee, without
additional words, is sufficient;

(b) it must not express that the drawee will perform his promise by any other means than the payment of
money.



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[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 17 U.K.]

Section: 18 Time for acceptance 30/06/1997


(1) A bill may be accepted-
(a) before it has been signed by the drawer, or while otherwise incomplete;
(b) when it is overdue, or after it has been dishonoured by a previous refusal to accept or by non-payment.

(2) When a bill payable after sight is dishonoured by non-acceptance, and the drawee subsequently accepts it,
the holder, in the absence of any different agreement, is entitled to have the bill accepted as of the date of first
presentment of the drawee for acceptance.

(Amended 51 of 1911; 63 of 1911 Schedule)
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 18 U.K.]


Section: 19 General and qualified acceptance 30/06/1997


(1) An acceptance is either (a) general; or (b) qualified.
(2) A general acceptance assents without qualification to the order of the drawer. A qualified acceptance in

express terms varies the effect of the bill as drawn.
(3) In particular, an acceptance is qualified which is-

(a) conditional, that is to say, which makes payment by the acceptor dependent on the fulfilment of a
condition therein stated;

(b) partial, that is to say, an acceptance to pay part only of the amount for which the bill is drawn;
(c) local, that is to say, an acceptance to pay only at a particular specified place; an acceptance to pay at a

particular place is a general acceptance, unless it expressly states that the bill is to be paid there only
and not elsewhere;

(d) qualified as to time;
(e) the acceptance of some one or more of the drawees, but not of all.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 19 U.K.]

Section: 20 Inchoate instruments 30/06/1997


(1) Where a simple signature on a blank paper is delivered by the signer in order that it may be converted into a
bill, it operates as a prima facie authority to fill it up as a complete bill for any amount, using the signature for that of
the drawer, or the acceptor, or an indorser; and, in like manner, when a bill is wanting in any material particular, the
person in possession of it has a prima facie authority to fill up the omission in any way he thinks fit. (Amended 31 of
1981 s. 65)

(2) In order that any such instrument, when completed, may be enforceable against any person who became a
party thereto prior to its completion, it must be filled up within a reasonable time and strictly in accordance with the
authority given. Reasonable time for this purpose is a question of fact: Provided that if any such instrument after
completion is negotiated to a holder in due course, it shall be valid and effectual for all purposes in his hands, and he
may enforce it as if it had been filled up within a reasonable time and strictly in accordance with the authority given.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 20 U.K.]

Section: 21 Delivery 30/06/1997


(1) Every contract on a bill, whether it is the drawer's, the acceptor's or an indorser's, is incomplete and
revocable, until delivery of the instrument in order to give effect thereto:

Provided that where an acceptance is written on a bill, and the drawee gives notice to or according to the
directions of the person entitled to the bill that he has accepted it, the acceptance then becomes complete and
irrevocable.

(2) As between immediate parties, and as regards a remote party other than a holder in due course, the delivery-
(a) in order to be effectual, must be made either by or under the authority of the party drawing, accepting,

or indorsing, as the case may be;
(b) may be shown to have been conditional or for a special purpose only, and not for the purpose of



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transferring the property in the bill;
but if the bill is in the hands of a holder in due course, a valid delivery of the bill by all parties prior to him, so as to
make them liable to him, is conclusively presumed.

(3) Where a bill is no longer in the possession of a party who has signed it as drawer, acceptor, or indorser, a
valid and unconditional delivery by him is presumed until the contrary is proved.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 21 U.K.]

Section: 22 Capacity of parties 30/06/1997


Capacity and authority of parties


(1) Capacity to incur liability as a party to a bill is co-extensive with capacity to contract:
Provided that nothing in this section shall enable a corporation to make itself liable as drawer, acceptor, or

indorser of a bill unless it is competent to it to do so under the law relating to corporations. (Amended 50 of 1911; 62
of 1911 Schedule)

(2) Where a bill is drawn or indorsed by an infant, minor, or corporation having no capacity or power to incur
liability on a bill, the drawing or indorsement entitles the holder to receive payment of the bill, and to enforce it
against any other party thereto.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 22 U.K.]

Section: 23 Signature essential to liability 30/06/1997


No person is liable as drawer, indorser, or acceptor of a bill who has not signed it as such:
Provided that-

(a) where a person signs a bill in a trade or assumed name, he is liable thereon as if he had signed it in his
own name;

(b) the signature of the name of a firm is equivalent to the signature by the person so signing of the names
of all persons liable as partners in that firm.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 23 U.K.]

Section: 24 Forged or unauthorized signature 30/06/1997


Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, where a signature on a bill is forged or placed thereon without the
authority of the person whose signature it purports to be, the forged or unauthorized signature is wholly inoperative,
and no right to retain the bill, or to give a discharge therefor, or to enforce payment thereof against any party thereto
can be acquired through or under that signature, unless the party against whom it is sought to retain or enforce
payment of the bill is precluded from setting up the forgery or want of authority:

Provided that nothing in this section shall affect the ratification of an unauthorized signature not amounting to a
forgery.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 24 U.K.]

Section: 25 Procuration signature 30/06/1997


A signature by procuration operates as notice that the agent has but a limited authority to sign, and the principal
is only bound by such signature if the agent in so signing was acting within the actual limits of his authority.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 25 U.K.]

Section: 26 Person signing as agent or in representative capacity 30/06/1997


(1) Where a person signs a bill as drawer, indorser, or acceptor, and adds words to his signature, indicating that
he signs for or on behalf of a principal or in a representative character, he is not personally liable thereon; but, subject
to section 26A, the mere addition to his signature of words describing him as an agent, or as filling a representative
character, does not exempt him from personal liability. (Amended 16 of 1983 s. 2)

(2) In determining whether a signature on a bill is that of the principal or that of the agent by whose hand it is



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written, the construction most favourable to the validity of the instrument shall be adopted.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 26 U.K.]


Section: 26A Corporate signatures L.N. 163 of 2013 03/03/2014


(1) A person who makes, accepts or indorses a bill for, in the name of, on behalf of or on account of a company
shall not be liable in respect of that making, acceptance or indorsement where, on a proper construction of the bill as a
whole, that making, acceptance or indorsement is a making, acceptance or indorsement of that company.

(2) In subsection (1), "company" (公司) has the meaning given by section 2(1) of the Companies Ordinance
(Cap 622) and includes a non-Hong Kong company as defined by that section. (Amended 28 of 2012 ss. 912 & 920)

(3) This section shall apply to the making, acceptance or indorsement of a bill after the commencement of the
Bills of Exchange (Amendment) Ordinance 1983 (16 of 1983).

(Added 16 of 1983 s. 3)

Section: 27 Value and holder for value 30/06/1997


Consideration for bill


(1) Valuable consideration for a bill may be constituted by-
(a) any consideration sufficient to support a simple contract;
(b) an antecedent debt or liability. Such a debt or liability is deemed valuable consideration whether the

bill is payable on demand or at a future time.
(2) Where value has at any time been given for a bill, the holder is deemed to be a holder for value as regards

the acceptor and all parties to the bill who became parties prior to such time.
(3) Where the holder of a bill has a lien on it, arising either from contract or by implication of law, he is

deemed to be a holder for value to the extent of the sum for which he has a lien.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 27 U.K.]


Section: 28 Accommodation party 30/06/1997


(1) An accommodation party to a bill is a person who has signed a bill as drawer, acceptor, or indorser, without
receiving value therefor, and for the purpose of lending his name to some other person.

(2) An accommodation party is liable on the bill to a holder for value; and it is immaterial whether, when such
holder took the bill, he knew such party to be an accommodation party or not.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 28 U.K.]

Section: 29 Holder in due course 30/06/1997


(1) A holder in due course is a holder who has taken a bill, complete and regular on the face of it, under the
following conditions, namely-

(a) that he became the holder of it before it was overdue, and without notice that it had been previously
dishonoured, if such was the fact;

(b) that he took the bill in good faith and for value, and that at the time the bill was negotiated to him he
had no notice of any defect in the title of the person who negotiated it.

(2) In particular, the title of a person who negotiates a bill is defective within the meaning of this Ordinance
when he obtained the bill, or the acceptance thereof, by fraud, duress, or force and fear, or other unlawful means, or
for an illegal consideration, or when he negotiates it in breach of faith or in such circumstances as amount to a fraud.

(3) A holder (whether for value or not) who derives his title to a bill through a holder in due course, and who is
not himself a party to any fraud or illegality affecting it, has all the rights of that holder in due course as regards the
acceptor and all parties to the bill prior to that holder.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 29 U.K.]




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Section: 30 Presumption of value and good faith 30/06/1997


(1) Every party whose signature appears on a bill is prima facie deemed to have become a party thereto for
value.

(2) Every holder of a bill is prima facie deemed to be a holder in due course; but if, in an action on a bill, it is
admitted or proved that the acceptance, issue, or subsequent negotiation of the bill is affected with fraud, duress, or
force and fear, or illegality, the burden of proof is shifted unless and until the holder proves that, subsequent to the
alleged fraud or illegality, value has in good faith been given for the bill.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 30 U.K.]

Section: 31 Negotiation of bill 30/06/1997


Negotiation of bill


(1) A bill is negotiated when it is transferred from one person to another in such a manner as to constitute the
transferee the holder of the bill.

(2) A bill payable to bearer is negotiated by delivery.
(3) A bill payable to order is negotiated by the indorsement of the holder completed by delivery.
(4) Where the holder of a bill payable to his order transfers it for value without indorsing it, the transfer gives

the transferee such title as the transferor had in the bill, and the transferee in addition acquires the right to have the
indorsement of the transferor.

(5) Where any person is under obligation to indorse a bill in a representative capacity, he may indorse the bill
in such terms as to negative personal liability.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 31 U.K.]

Section: 32 Requisites of valid indorsement 30/06/1997


An indorsement in order to operate as a negotiation must comply with the following conditions, namely-
(a) it must be written on the bill itself and be signed by the indorser. The simple signature of the indorser

on the bill, without additional words, is sufficient. An indorsement written on an allonge, or on a
"copy" of a bill issued or negotiated in a country where "copies" are recognized, is deemed to be
written on the bill itself;

(b) it must be an indorsement of the entire bill. A partial indorsement, that is to say, an indorsement which
purports to transfer to the indorsee a part only of the amount payable, or which purports to transfer the
bill to two or more indorsees severally, does not operate as a negotiation of the bill;

(c) where a bill is payable to the order of two or more payees or indorsees who are not partners, all must
indorse, unless the one indorsing has authority to indorse for the others;

(d) where, in a bill payable to order, the payee or indorsee is wrongly designated or his name is mis-spelt,
he may indorse the bill as therein described, adding, if he thinks fit, his proper signature;

(e) where there are two or more indorsements on a bill, each indorsement is deemed to have been made in
the order in which it appears on the bill, until the contrary is proved;

(f) an indorsement may be made in blank or special. It may also contain terms making it restrictive.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 32 U.K.]


Section: 33 Conditional indorsement 30/06/1997


Where a bill purports to be indorsed conditionally, the condition may be disregarded by the payer, and payment
to the indorsee is valid whether the condition has been fulfilled or not.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 33 U.K.]

Section: 34 Indorsement in blank and special indorsement 30/06/1997


(1) An indorsement in blank specifies no indorsee, and a bill so indorsed becomes payable to bearer.
(2) A special indorsement specifies the person to whom, or to whose order, the bill is to be payable.



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(3) The provisions of this Ordinance relating to a payee apply, with the necessary modifications, to an indorsee
under a special indorsement.

(4) When a bill has been indorsed in blank, any holder may convert the blank indorsement into a special
indorsement by writing above the indorser's signature a direction to pay the bill to or to the order of himself or some
other person.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 34 U.K.]

Section: 35 Restrictive indorsement 30/06/1997


(1) An indorsement is restrictive which prohibits the further negotiation of the bill or which expresses that it is
a mere authority to deal with the bill as thereby directed and not a transfer of the ownership thereof, as, for example, if
a bill is indorsed "Pay D only," or "Pay D for the account of X," or "Pay D or order for collection."

(2) A restrictive indorsement gives the indorsee the right to receive payment of the bill and to sue any party
thereto that his indorser could have sued, but gives him no power to transfer his rights as indorsee, unless it expressly
authorizes him to do so.

(3) Where a restrictive indorsement authorizes further transfer, all subsequent indorsees take the bill with the
same rights and subject to the same liabilities as the first indorsee under the restrictive indorsement.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 35 U.K.]

Section: 36 Negotiation of overdue or dishonoured bill 30/06/1997


(1) Where a bill is negotiable in its origin, it continues to be negotiable until it has been-
(a) restrictively indorsed; or
(b) discharged by payment or otherwise.

(2) Where an overdue bill is negotiated, it can only be negotiated subject to any defect of title affecting it at its
maturity, and thenceforward no person who takes it can acquire or give a better title than that which the person from
whom he took it had.

(3) A bill payable on demand is deemed to be overdue, within the meaning and for the purposes of this section,
when it appears on the face of it to have been in circulation for an unreasonable length of time. What is an
unreasonable length of time for this purpose is a question of fact.

(4) Except where an indorsement bears date after the maturity of the bill, every negotiation is prima facie
deemed to have been effected before the bill was overdue.

(5) Where a bill which is not overdue has been dishonoured, any person who takes it with notice of the
dishonour takes it subject to any defect of title attaching thereto at the time of dishonour, but nothing in this subsection
shall affect the rights of a holder in due course.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 36 U.K.]

Section: 37 Negotiation of bill to party already liable thereon 30/06/1997


Where a bill is negotiated back to the drawer, or to a prior indorser, or to the acceptor, such party may, subject to
the provisions of this Ordinance, reissue and further negotiate the bill, but he is not entitled to enforce payment of the
bill against any intervening party to whom he was previously liable.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 37 U.K.]

Section: 38 Rights and powers of holder 30/06/1997


The rights and powers of the holder of a bill are as follows-
(a) he may sue on the bill in his own name;
(b) where he is a holder in due course, he holds the bill free from any defect of title of prior parties, as well

as from mere personal defences available to prior parties among themselves, and may enforce payment
against all parties liable on the bill;

(c) where his title is defective-
(i) if he negotiates the bill to a holder in due course, that holder obtains a good and complete title to

the bill; and



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(ii) if he obtains payment of the bill, the person who pays him in due course gets a valid discharge
for the bill.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 38 U.K.]

Section: 39 When presentment for acceptance is necessary 30/06/1997


General duties of the holder


(1) Where a bill is payable after sight, presentment for acceptance is necessary in order to fix the maturity of
the instrument.

(2) Where a bill expressly stipulates that it shall be presented for acceptance, or where a bill is drawn payable
elsewhere than at the place of business or residence of the drawee, it must be presented for acceptance before it can be
presented for payment.

(3) In no other case is presentment for acceptance necessary in order to render liable any party to the bill.
(4) Where the holder of a bill, drawn payable elsewhere than at the place of business or residence of the

drawee, has not time, with the exercise of reasonable diligence, to present the bill for acceptance before presenting it
for payment on the day that it falls due, the delay caused by presenting the bill for acceptance before presenting it for
payment is excused, and does not discharge the drawer and indorsers.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 39 U.K.]

Section: 40 Time for presenting bill payable after sight 30/06/1997


(1) Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, when a bill payable after sight is negotiated, the holder must
either present it for acceptance or negotiate it within a reasonable time.

(2) If he does not do so, the drawer and all indorsers prior to that holder are discharged.
(3) In determining what is a reasonable time within the meaning of this section, regard shall be had to the

nature of the bill, the usage of trade with respect to similar bills, and the facts of the particular case.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 40 U.K.]


Section: 41 Rules as to presentment for acceptance, and excuses for

non-presentment
30/06/1997



(1) A bill is duly presented for acceptance which is presented in accordance with the following rules-
(a) the presentment must be made by or on behalf of the holder to the drawee, or to some person

authorized to accept or refuse acceptance on his behalf, at a reasonable hour on a business day and
before the bill is overdue;

(b) where a bill is addressed to two or more drawees, who are not partners, presentment must be made to
them all, unless one has authority to accept for all, then presentment may be made to him only;

(c) where the drawee is dead, presentment may be made to his personal representative;
(d) where the drawee is bankrupt, presentment may be made to him or to his trustee or assignee;
(e) where authorized by agreement or usage, a presentment through the Post Office is sufficient.

(2) Presentment in accordance with these rules is excused, and a bill may be treated as dishonoured by non-
acceptance-

(a) where the drawee is dead or bankrupt, or is a fictitious person or a person not having capacity to
contract by bill;

(b) where, after the exercise of reasonable diligence, such presentment cannot be effected;
(c) where, although the presentment has been irregular, acceptance has been refused on some other

ground.
(3) The fact that the holder has reason to believe that the bill, on presentment, will be dishonoured does not

excuse presentment.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 41 U.K.]





Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 11

Section: 42 Non-acceptance 30/06/1997


When a bill is duly presented for acceptance and is not accepted within the customary time, the person
presenting it must treat it as dishonoured by non-acceptance. If he does not, the holder shall lose his right of recourse
against the drawer and indorsers.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 42 U.K.]

Section: 43 Dishonour by non-acceptance and its consequences 30/06/1997


(1) A bill is dishonoured by non-acceptance-
(a) when it is duly presented for acceptance, and such an acceptance as is prescribed by this Ordinance is

refused or cannot be obtained; or
(b) when presentment for acceptance is excused and the bill is not accepted.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, when a bill is dishonoured by non-acceptance, an immediate
right of recourse against the drawer and indorsers accrues to the holder, and no presentment for payment is necessary.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 43 U.K.]

Section: 44 Duties as to qualified acceptances 30/06/1997


(1) The holder of a bill may refuse to take a qualified acceptance, and, if he does not obtain an unqualified
acceptance, may treat the bill as dishonoured by non-acceptance.

(2) Where a qualified acceptance is taken, and the drawer or an indorser has not expressly or impliedly
authorized the holder to take a qualified acceptance or does not subsequently assent thereto, such drawer or indorser is
discharged from his liability on the bill. The provisions of this subsection do not apply to a partial acceptance, whereof
due notice has been given. Where a foreign bill has been accepted as to part, it must be protested as to the balance.

(3) When the drawer or indorser of a bill receives notice of a qualified acceptance, and does not within a
reasonable time express his dissent to the holder, he shall be deemed to have assented thereto.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 44 U.K.]

Section: 45 Rules as to presentment for payment 30/06/1997


Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, a bill must be duly presented for payment. If it is not so presented,
the drawer and indorsers shall be discharged. A bill is duly presented for payment which is presented in accordance
with the following rules-

(a) where the bill is not payable on demand, presentment must be made on the day it falls due;
(b) where the bill is payable on demand, then, subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, presentment

must be made within a reasonable time after its issue in order to render the drawer liable, and within a
reasonable time after its indorsement, in order to render the indorser liable. In determining what is a
reasonable time, regard shall be had to the nature of the bill, the usage of trade with respect to similar
bills, and the facts of the particular case;

(c) presentment must be made by the holder, or by some person authorized to receive payment on his
behalf, at a reasonable hour on a business day, at the proper place as hereinafter defined, either to the
person designated by the bill as payer or to some person authorized to pay or refuse payment on his
behalf, if, with the exercise of reasonable diligence, such person can there be found;

(d) a bill is presented at the proper place-
(i) where a place of payment is specified in the bill and the bill is there presented;
(ii) where no place of payment is specified, but the address of the drawee or acceptor is given in the

bill, and the bill is there presented;
(iii) where no place of payment is specified and no address given, and the bill is presented at the

drawee's or acceptor's place of business, if known, and, if not, at his ordinary residence, if
known;

(iv) in any other case, if presented to the drawee or acceptor wherever he can be found, or if
presented at his last-known place of business or residence;

(e) where a bill is presented at the proper place, and, after the exercise of reasonable diligence, no person



Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 12

authorized to pay or refuse payment can be found there, no further presentment to the drawee or
acceptor is required;

(f) where a bill is drawn upon or accepted by two or more persons who are not partners, and no place of
payment is specified, presentment must be made to them all;

(g) where the drawee or acceptor of a bill is dead, and no place of payment is specified, presentment must
be made to a personal representative, if such there be, and, with the exercise of reasonable diligence,
he can be found;

(h) where authorized by agreement or usage, a presentment through the Post Office is sufficient.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 45 U.K.]


Section: 46 Excuses for delay or non-presentment for payment 30/06/1997


(1) Delay in making presentment for payment is excused when the delay is caused by circumstances beyond the
control of the holder, and not imputable to his default, misconduct, or negligence. When the cause of delay ceases to
operate, presentment must be made with reasonable diligence.

(2) Presentment for payment is dispensed with-
(a) where, after the exercise of reasonable diligence, presentment, as required by this Ordinance, cannot be

effected.The fact that the holder has reason to believe that the bill will, on presentment, be dishonoured
does not dispense with the necessity for presentment;

(b) where the drawee is a fictitious person;
(c) as regards the drawer, where the drawee or acceptor is not bound, as between himself and the drawer,

to accept or pay the bill, and the drawer has no reason to believe that the bill would be paid, if
presented;

(d) as regards an indorser, where the bill was accepted or made for the accommodation of that indorser,
and he has no reason to expect that the bill would be paid, if presented;

(e) by waiver of presentment, express or implied.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 46 U.K.]


Section: 47 Dishonour by non-payment 30/06/1997


(1) A bill is dishonoured by non-payment-
(a) when it is duly presented for payment and payment is refused or cannot be obtained; or
(b) when presentment is excused and the bill is overdue and unpaid.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, when a bill is dishonoured by non-payment, an immediate right
of recourse against the drawer and indorsers accrues to the holder.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 47 U.K.]

Section: 48 Notice of dishonour and effect of non-notice 30/06/1997


Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, when a bill has been dishonoured by non-acceptance or by non-
payment, notice of dishonour must be given to the drawer and each indorser, and any drawer or indorser to whom such
notice is not given is discharged:

Provided that-
(a) where a bill is dishonoured by non-acceptance and notice of dishonour is not given, the rights of a

holder in due course subsequent to the omission shall not be prejudiced by the omission;
(b) where a bill is dishonoured by non-acceptance and due notice of dishonour is given, it shall not be

necessary to give notice of a subsequent dishonour by non-payment, unless the bill has in the
meantime been accepted.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 48 U.K.]

Section: 49 Rules as to notice of dishonour 30/06/1997


Notice of dishonour, in order to be valid and effectual, must be given in accordance with the following rules-
(a) the notice must be given by or on behalf of the holder or by or on behalf of an indorser who, at the



Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 13

time of giving it, is himself liable on the bill;
(b) the notice may be given by an agent, either in his own name or in the name of any party entitled to give

notice, whether that party is his principal or not;
(c) where the notice is given by or on behalf of the holder, it enures for the benefit of all subsequent

holders and all prior indorsers who have a right of recourse against the party to whom it is given;
(d) where the notice is given by or on behalf of an indorser entitled to give notice as hereinbefore

provided, it enures for the benefit of the holder and all indorsers subsequent to the party to whom
notice is given;

(e) the notice may be given in writing or by personal communication, and may be given in any terms
which sufficiently identify the bill, and intimate that the bill has been dishonoured by non-acceptance
or non-payment;

(f) the return of a dishonoured bill to the drawer or an indorser is, in point of form, deemed a sufficient
notice of dishonour;

(g) a written notice need not be signed, and an insufficient written notice may be supplemented and
validated by verbal communication. A misdescription of the bill shall not vitiate the notice unless the
party to whom the notice is given is in fact misled thereby;

(h) where the notice is required to be given to any person, it may be given either to the party himself or to
his agent in that behalf;

(i) where the drawer or indorser is dead, and the party giving notice knows it, the notice must be given to
a personal representative, if such there be, and, with the exercise of reasonable diligence, he can be
found;

(j) where the drawer or indorser is bankrupt, the notice may be given either to the party himself or to his
trustee or assignee;

(k) where there are two or more drawers or indorsers who are not partners, the notice must be given to
each of them, unless one of them has authority to receive such notice for the others;

(l) the notice may be given as soon as the bill is dishonoured and must be given within a reasonable time
thereafter. In the absence of special circumstances, notice is not deemed to have been given within a
reasonable time, unless-
(i) where the person giving and the person to receive notice reside in the same place, the notice is

given or sent off in time to reach the latter on the day after the dishonour of the bill;
(ii) where the person giving and the person to receive notice reside in different places, the notice is

sent off on the day after the dishonour of the bill, if there is a post at a convenient hour on that
day, and, if there is no such post on that day, then by the next post thereafter;

(m) where a bill when dishonoured is in the hands of an agent, he may either himself give notice to the
parties liable on the bill or he may give notice to his principal. If he gives notice to his principal, he
must do so within the same time as if he were the holder, and the principal, upon receipt of such notice,
has himself the same time for giving notice as if the agent had been an independent holder;

(n) where a party to a bill receives due notice, he has, after the receipt of such notice, the same period of
time for giving notice to antecedent parties that the holder has after the dishonour;

(o) where the notice is duly addressed and posted, the sender is deemed to have given due notice of
dishonour, notwithstanding any miscarriage by the Post Office.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 49 U.K.]

Section: 50 Excuses for non-notice and delay 30/06/1997


(1) Delay in giving notice of dishonour is excused where the delay is caused by circumstances beyond the
control of the party giving notice, and not imputable to his default, misconduct, or negligence. When the cause of
delay ceases to operate, the notice must be given with reasonable diligence.

(2) Notice of dishonour is dispensed with-
(a) where, after the exercise of reasonable diligence, notice, as required by this Ordinance, cannot be given

to or does not reach the drawer or indorser sought to be charged;
(b) by waiver, express or implied. Notice of dishonour may be waived before the time of giving notice has

arrived or after the omission to give due notice;
(c) as regards the drawer, in the following cases, namely-

(i) where drawer and drawee are the same person;



Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 14

(ii) where the drawee is a fictitious person or a person not having capacity to contract;
(iii) where the drawer is the person to whom the bill is presented for payment;
(iv) where the drawee or acceptor is, as between himself and the drawer, under no obligation to

accept or pay the bill;
(v) where the drawer has countermanded payment;

(d) as regards the indorser, in the following cases, namely-
(i) where the drawee is a fictitious person or a person not having capacity to contract, and the

indorser was aware of the fact at the time he indorsed the bill;
(ii) where the indorser is the person to whom the bill is presented for payment;
(iii) where the bill was accepted or made for his accommodation.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 50 U.K.]

Section: 51 Noting or protest of bill 35 of 1998 18/09/1998


(1) Where an inland bill has been dishonoured, it may, if the holder thinks fit, be noted for non-acceptance or
non-payment, as the case may be; but it shall not be necessary to note or protest any such bill in order to preserve the
recourse against the drawer or indorser.

(2) Where a foreign bill, appearing on the face of it to be such, has been dishonoured by non-acceptance, it
must be duly protested for non-acceptance, and where such a bill, which has not been previously dishonoured by non-
acceptance, is dishonoured by non-payment, it must be duly protested for non-payment. If it is not so protested, the
drawer and indorsers are discharged. Where a bill does not appear on the face of it to be a foreign bill, protest thereof
in case of dishonour is unnecessary.

(3) A bill which has been protested for non-acceptance may be subsequently protested for non-payment.
(4) Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, and of the General Holidays Ordinance (Cap 149), when a bill

is noted or protested, it may be noted on the day of its dishonour and must be noted not later than the next succeeding
business day. When a bill has been duly noted, the protest may be subsequently extended as of the date of the noting.
(Amended 5 of 1912 s. 8; 4 of 1918 s. 2; 35 of 1998 s. 5)

(5) Where the acceptor of a bill becomes bankrupt or insolvent or suspends payment before it matures, the
holder may cause the bill to be protested for better security against the drawer and indorsers.

(6) A bill must be protested at the place where it is dishonoured:
Provided that-

(a) when a bill is presented through the Post Office, and returned by post dishonoured, it may be protested
at the place to which it is returned, and on the day of its return, if received during business hours, and,
if not received during business hours, then not later than the next business day;

(b) when a bill drawn payable at the place of business or residence of some person other than the drawee
has been dishonoured by non-acceptance, it must be protested for non-payment at the place where it is
expressed to be payable, and no further presentment for payment to, or demand on, the drawee is
necessary.

(7) A protest must contain a copy of the bill, and must be signed by the notary making it, and must specify-
(a) the person at whose request the bill is protested;
(b) the place and date of protest, the cause or reason for protesting the bill, the demand made, and the

answer given, if any, or the fact that the drawee or acceptor could not be found.
(8) Where a bill is lost or destroyed or is wrongly detained from the person entitled to hold it, protest may be

made on a copy or written particulars thereof.
(9) Protest is dispensed with by any circumstance which would dispense with notice of dishonour. Delay in

noting or protesting is excused when the delay is caused by circumstances beyond the control of the holder, and not
imputable to his default, misconduct, or negligence. When the cause of delay ceases to operate, the bill must be noted
or protested with reasonable diligence.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 51 U.K.]

Section: 52 Duties of holder as regards drawee or acceptor 30/06/1997


(1) When a bill is accepted generally, presentment for payment is not necessary in order to render the acceptor
liable.

(2) When by the terms of a qualified acceptance presentment for payment is required, the acceptor, in the



Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 15

absence of an express stipulation to that effect, is not discharged by the omission to present the bill for payment on the
day that it matures.

(3) In order to render the acceptor of a bill liable, it is not necessary to protest it or that notice of dishonour
should be given to him.

(4) Where the holder of a bill presents it for payment, he shall exhibit the bill to the person from whom he
demands payment, and when a bill is paid the holder shall forthwith deliver it up to the party paying it.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 52 U.K.]

Section: 53 Funds in hands of drawee 30/06/1997


Liabilities of parties


A bill, of itself, does not operate as an assignment of funds in the hands of the drawee available for the payment
thereof, and the drawee of a bill who does not accept, as required by this Ordinance, is not liable on the instrument.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 53 U.K.]

Section: 54 Liability of acceptor 30/06/1997


The acceptor of a bill, by accepting it-
(a) engages that he will pay it according to the tenor of his acceptance;
(b) is precluded from denying to a holder in due course-

(i) the existence of the drawer, the genuineness of his signature, and his capacity and authority to
draw the bill;

(ii) in the case of a bill payable to drawer's order, the then capacity of the drawer to indorse, but not
the genuineness or validity of his indorsement;

(iii) in the case of a bill payable to the order of a third person, the existence of the payee and his then
capacity to indorse, but not the genuineness or validity of his indorsement.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 54 U.K.]

Section: 55 Liability of drawer or indorser 30/06/1997


(1) The drawer of a bill, by drawing it-
(a) engages that, on due presentment, it shall be accepted and paid according to its tenor, and that if it is

dishonoured he will compensate the holder or any indorser who is compelled to pay it, provided that
the requisite proceedings on dishonour are duly taken;

(b) is precluded from denying to a holder in due course the existence of the payee and his then capacity to
indorse.

(2) The indorser of a bill, by indorsing it-
(a) engages that, on due presentment, it shall be accepted and paid according to its tenor, and that if it is

dishonoured he will compensate the holder or a subsequent indorser who is compelled to pay it,
provided that the requisite proceedings on dishonour are duly taken;

(b) is precluded from denying to a holder in due course the genuineness and regularity in all respects of
the drawer's signature and all previous indorsements;

(c) is precluded from denying to his immediate or a subsequent indorsee that the bill was, at the time of
his indorsement, a valid and subsisting bill, and that he had then a good title thereto.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 55 U.K.]

Section: 56 Stranger signing bill liable as indorser 30/06/1997


Where a person signs a bill otherwise than as drawer or acceptor, he thereby incurs the liabilities of an indorser
to a holder in due course.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 56 U.K.]




Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 16

Section: 57 Measure of damages against parties to dishonoured bill 23 of 1998 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 23 of 1998 s. 2


Where a bill is dishonoured, the measure of damages, which shall be deemed to be liquidated damages, shall be
as follows-

(a) the holder may recover from any party liable on the bill, and the drawer who has been compelled to
pay the bill may recover from the acceptor, and an indorser who has been compelled to pay the bill
may recover from the acceptor, or from the drawer, or from a prior indorser-
(i) the amount of the bill;
(ii) interest thereon from the time of presentment for payment, if the bill is payable on demand, and

from the maturity of the bill in any other case;
(iii) the expenses of noting, or when protest is necessary and the protest has been extended, the

expenses of protest;
(b) in the case of a bill which has been dishonoured at any place outside Hong Kong, in lieu of the above

damages, the holder may recover from the drawer or an indorser, and the drawer or an indorser who
has been compelled to pay the bill may recover from any party liable to him, the amount of the re-
exchange, with interest thereon until the time of payment; (Amended 23 of 1998 s. 2)

(c) where by this Ordinance interest may be recovered as damages, such interest may, if justice requires it,
be withheld wholly or in part, and where a bill is expressed to be payable with interest at a given rate,
interest as damages may or may not be given at the same rate as interest proper.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 57 U.K.]

Section: 58 Transferor by delivery and transferee 30/06/1997


(1) Where the holder of a bill payable to bearer negotiates it by delivery without indorsing it, he is called a
"transferor by delivery" ( 以交付方式轉讓匯票的移轉人 ).

(2) A transferor by delivery is not liable on the instrument.
(3) A transferor by delivery who negotiates a bill thereby warrants to his immediate transferee, being a holder

for value, that the bill is what it purports to be, that he has a right to transfer it, and that, at the time of transfer, he is
not aware of any fact which renders it valueless.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 58 U.K.]

Section: 59 Payment in due course 30/06/1997


Discharge of bill


(1) A bill is discharged by payment in due course by or on behalf of the drawee or acceptor. "Payment in due
course" (按期付款) means payment made at or after the maturity of the bill to the holder thereof in good faith and
without notice that his title to the bill is defective.

(2) Subject to the provisions hereinafter contained, when a bill is paid by the drawer or an indorser it is not
discharged; but-

(a) where a bill payable to, or to the order of, a third party is paid by the drawer, the drawer may enforce
payment thereof against the acceptor, but may not reissue the bill;

(b) where a bill is paid by an indorser, or where a bill payable to drawer's order is paid by the drawer, the
party paying it is remitted to his former rights as regards the acceptor or antecedent parties, and he
may, if he thinks fit, strike out his own and subsequent indorsements, and again negotiate the bill.

(3) Where an accommodation bill is paid in due course by the party accommodated, the bill is discharged.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 59 U.K.]





Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 17

Section: 60 Banker paying demand draft whereon indorsement is
forged

30/06/1997



When a bill payable to order on demand is drawn on a banker, and the banker on whom it is drawn pays the bill
in good faith and in the ordinary course of business, it is not incumbent on the banker to show that the indorsement of
the payee or any subsequent indorsement was made by or under the authority of the person whose indorsement it
purports to be, and the banker is deemed to have paid the bill in due course, although such indorsement has been
forged or made without authority.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 60 U.K.]

Section: 61 Acceptor the holder at maturity 30/06/1997


When the acceptor of a bill is or becomes the holder of it at or after its maturity, in his own right, the bill is
discharged.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 61 U.K.]

Section: 62 Express waiver 30/06/1997


(1) When the holder of a bill at or after its maturity absolutely and unconditionally renounces his rights against
the acceptor, the bill is discharged. The renunciation must be in writing, unless the bill is delivered up to the acceptor.

(2) The liabilities of any party to a bill may in like manner be renounced by the holder before, at, or after its
maturity; but nothing in this section shall affect the rights of a holder in due course without notice of the renunciation.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 62 U.K.]

Section: 63 Cancellation 30/06/1997


(1) Where a bill is intentionally cancelled by the holder or his agent, and the cancellation is apparent thereon,
the bill is discharged.

(2) In like manner, any party liable on a bill may be discharged by the intentional cancellation of his signature
by the holder or his agent. In such case, any indorser who would have had a right of recourse against the party whose
signature is cancelled is also discharged.

(3) A cancellation made unintentionally, or under a mistake, or without the authority of the holder is
inoperative; but where a bill or any signature thereon appears to have been cancelled, the burden of proof lies on the
party who alleges that the cancellation was made unintentionally, or under a mistake, or without authority.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 63 U.K.]

Section: 64 Alteration of bill 30/06/1997


(1) Where a bill or acceptance is materially altered without the assent of all parties liable on the bill, the bill is
avoided except as against a party who has himself made, authorized, or assented to the alteration, and subsequent
indorsers:

Provided that where a bill has been materially altered, but the alteration is not apparent, and the bill is in the
hands of a holder in due course, such holder may avail himself of the bill as if it had not been altered, and may enforce
payment of it according to its original tenor.

(2) In particular, the following alterations are material, namely, any alteration of the date, the sum payable, the
time of payment, the place of payment, and, where a bill has been accepted generally, the addition of a place of
payment without the acceptor's assent.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 64 U.K.]

Section: 65 Acceptance for honour supra protest 30/06/1997


Acceptance and payment for honour


(1) Where a bill has been protested for dishonour by non-acceptance or protested for better security, and is not



Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 18

overdue, any person, not being a party already liable thereon, may, with the consent of the holder, intervene and
accept the bill supra protest, for the honour of any party liable thereon or for the honour of the person for whose
account the bill is drawn.

(2) A bill may be accepted for honour for part only of the sum for which it is drawn.
(3) An acceptance for honour supra protest in order to be valid must-

(a) be written on the bill, and indicate that it is an acceptance for honour;
(b) be signed by the acceptor for honour.

(4) Where an acceptance for honour does not expressly state for whose honour it is made, it is deemed to be an
acceptance for the honour of the drawer.

(5) Where a bill payable after sight is accepted for honour, its maturity is calculated from the date of the noting
for non-acceptance, and not from the date of the acceptance for honour.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 65 U.K.]

Section: 66 Liability of acceptor for honour 30/06/1997


(1) The acceptor for honour of a bill, by accepting it engages that he will, on due presentment, pay the bill
according to the tenor of his acceptance, if it is not paid by the drawee, provided it has been duly presented for
payment and protested for non-payment, and that he receives notice of these facts.

(2) The acceptor for honour is liable to the holder and to all parties to the bill subsequent to the party for whose
honour he has accepted.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 66 U.K.]

Section: 67 Presentment to acceptor for honour 30/06/1997


(1) Where a dishonoured bill has been accepted for honour supra protest or contains a reference in case of need,
it must be protested for non-payment before it is presented for payment to the acceptor for honour or referee in case of
need.

(2) Where the address of the acceptor for honour is in the same place where the bill is protested for non-
payment, the bill must be presented to him not later than the day following its maturity; and where the address of the
acceptor for honour is in some place other than the place where the bill was protested for non-payment, the bill must
be forwarded not later than the day following its maturity for presentment to him.

(3) Delay in presentment or non-presentment is excused by any circumstance which would excuse delay in
presentment for payment or non-presentment for payment.

(4) When a bill is dishonoured by the acceptor for honour, it must be protested for non-payment by him.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 67 U.K.]


Section: 68 Payment for honour supra protest 30/06/1997


(1) Where a bill has been protested for non-payment, any person may intervene and pay it supra protest, for the
honour of any party liable thereon or for the honour of the person for whose account the bill is drawn.

(2) Where two or more persons offer to pay a bill for the honour of different parties, the person whose payment
will discharge most parties to the bill shall have the preference.

(3) Payment for honour supra protest, in order to operate as such and not as a mere voluntary payment, must be
attested by a notarial act of honour which may be appended to the protest or form an extension of it.

(4) The notarial act of honour must be founded on a declaration made by the payer for honour, or his agent in
that behalf, declaring his intention to pay the bill for honour and for whose honour he pays.

(5) Where a bill has been paid for honour, all parties subsequent to the party for whose honour it is paid are
discharged, but the payer for honour is subrogated for, and succeeds to both the rights and duties of, the holder as
regards the party for whose honour he pays and all parties liable to that party.

(6) The payer for honour, on paying to the holder the amount of the bill and the notarial expenses incidental to
its dishonour, is entitled to receive both the bill itself and the protest. If the holder does not on demand deliver them
up, he shall be liable to the payer for honour in damages.

(7) Where the holder of a bill refuses to receive payment supra protest, he shall lose his right of recourse
against any party who would have been discharged by such payment.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 68 U.K.]



Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 19


Section: 69 Holder's right to duplicate of lost bill 30/06/1997


Lost instrument


(1) Where a bill has been lost before it is overdue, the person who was the holder of it may apply to the drawer
to give him another bill of the same tenor, giving security to the drawer, if required, to indemnify him against all
persons whomsoever in case the bill alleged to have been lost shall be found again.

(2) If the drawer, on request as aforesaid, refuses to give such duplicate bill, he may be compelled to do so.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 69 U.K.]


Section: 70 Action on lost bill 30/06/1997


In any action or proceeding upon a bill, the court or a judge may order that the loss of the instrument shall not be
set up, provided an indemnity be given, to the satisfaction of the court or judge, against the claims of any other person
upon the instrument in question.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 70 U.K.]

Section: 71 Rules as to bill in set 30/06/1997


Bill in a set


(1) Where a bill is drawn in a set, each part of the set being numbered and containing a reference to the other
parts, the whole of the parts constitute one bill.

(2) Where the holder of a set indorses two or more parts to different persons, he is liable on every such part,
and every indorser subsequent to him is liable on the part he has himself indorsed as if the said parts were separate
bills.

(3) Where two or more parts of a set are negotiated to different holders in due course, the holder whose title
first accrues is, as between such holders, deemed the true owner of the bill; but nothing in this subsection shall affect
the rights of a person who in due course accepts or pays the part first presented to him.

(4) The acceptance may be written on any part, and it must be written on one part only. If the drawee accepts
more than one part and such accepted parts get into the hands of different holders in due course, he is liable on every
such part as if it were a separate bill.

(5) When the acceptor of a bill drawn in a set pays it without requiring the part bearing his acceptance to be
delivered up to him, and that part at maturity is outstanding in the hands of a holder in due course, he is liable to the
holder thereof.

(6) Subject to the preceding rules, where any one part of a bill drawn in a set is discharged by payment or
otherwise, the whole bill is discharged.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 71 U.K.]

Section: 72 Rules where laws conflict 23 of 1998; 60 of

1999
01/07/1997



Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 23 of 1998 s. 2; 60 of 1999 s. 3


Conflict of laws


Where a bill drawn in one country is negotiated, accepted, or payable in another, the rights, duties, and liabilities
of the parties thereto are determined as follows-

(a) the validity of a bill, as regards requisites in form, is determined by the law of the place of issue, and
the validity, as regards requisites in form, of the supervening contracts, such as acceptance or
indorsement or acceptance supra protest, is determined by the law of the place where such contract was
made:

Provided that-



Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 20

(i) where a bill is issued out of Hong Kong, it is not invalid by reason only that it is not stamped in
accordance with the law of the place of issue;

(ii) where a bill issued out of Hong Kong conforms, as regards requisites in form, to the law of Hong
Kong, it may, for the purpose of enforcing payment thereof, be treated as valid as between all
persons who negotiate, hold, or become parties to it in Hong Kong;

(b) subject to the provisions of this Ordinance, the interpretation of the drawing, indorsement, acceptance,
or acceptance supra protest of a bill is determined by the law of the place where such contract is made:

Provided that where an inland bill is indorsed in a place outside Hong Kong, the indorsement
shall, as regards the payer, be interpreted according to the law of Hong Kong; (Amended 23 of 1998 s.
2)

(c) the duties of the holder with respect to presentment for acceptance or payment and the necessity for or
sufficiency of a protest or notice of dishonour, or otherwise, are determined by the law of the place
where the act is done or the bill is dishonoured;

(d) where a bill is drawn out of but payable in Hong Kong and the sum payable is not expressed in the
currency of Hong Kong, the amount, if the bill is paid in Hong Kong and in the currency of Hong
Kong, shall, in the absence of any express stipulation, be calculated according to the rate of exchange
for sight drafts in Hong Kong on the day on which the bill is actually paid; and (Replaced 18 of 1921
s. 2)

(e) where a bill is drawn in one country and is payable in another, the due date thereof is determined
according to the law of the place where it is payable.

(Amended 60 of 1999 s. 3)
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 72 U.K.]


Part: III CHEQUES ON A BANKER* 30/06/1997

____________________________________________________________________
Note:
* (Amended 51 of 1911; 63 of 1911 Schedule)

Section: 73 Definition of cheque 30/06/1997


(1) A cheque is a bill of exchange drawn on a banker payable on demand.
(2) Except as otherwise provided in this Part, the provisions of this Ordinance applicable to a bill of exchange

payable on demand apply to a cheque.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 73 U.K.]


Section: 73A Presentment of cheque for payment: alternative means of

presentment by banker
10 of 2003 28/03/2003



(1) For the purposes of the rules under section 45 as to the presentment of a bill for payment, the presentment
of a cheque by a banker may be made by sending to the banker on whom the cheque is drawn, in the form of an
electronic record, an image of both the front and back of the cheque and the essential information relating to the
cheque, instead of being made in accordance with the rule specified in paragraph (c) of that section.

(2) If, before noon on the next business day following the day on which a cheque is presented under subsection
(1), the banker on whom the cheque is drawn requests, in the manner agreed between him and the banker by whom the
cheque is presented, that the cheque itself shall be presented-

(a) the presentment under subsection (1) shall be disregarded; and
(b) this section shall not apply to the subsequent presentment of the cheque.

(3) A request under subsection (2) that the cheque itself shall be presented shall not constitute dishonour of the
cheque by non-payment.

(4) For the purposes of this section, the essential information relating to a cheque is-
(a) the serial number of the cheque assigned to it by the banker on whom the cheque is drawn;
(b) the code printed on the cheque which identifies the banker on whom the cheque is drawn;
(c) the account number of the account maintained by the drawer of the cheque with the banker on whom

the cheque is drawn; and



Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 21

(d) the amount of the cheque entered by the drawer of the cheque.
(5) In this section, "electronic record" (電子紀錄) has the same meaning as in the Electronic Transactions

Ordinance (Cap 553).
(Added 10 of 2003 s. 2)


Section: 73B Duties of holder as regards cheque presented under section

73A(1)
10 of 2003 28/03/2003



Section 52(4)-
(a) so far as it relates to presenting a bill for payment, shall not apply to presenting a cheque for payment

under section 73A(1); and
(b) so far as it relates to a bill which is paid, shall not apply to a cheque which is paid following

presentment under section 73A(1).
(Added 10 of 2003 s. 2)


Section: 74 Delay in presentment of cheque for payment 10 of 2003 28/03/2003


Delay in presentment of cheque for payment
(Amended 10 of 2003 s. 3)


Subject to the provisions of this Ordinance-

(a) where a cheque is not presented for payment within a reasonable time of its issue, and the drawer or
the person on whose account it is drawn had the right, at the time of such presentment, as between him
and the banker, to have the cheque paid and suffers actual damage through the delay, he is discharged
to the extent of such damage, that is to say, to the extent to which such drawer or person is a creditor of
such banker to a larger amount than he would have been had such cheque been paid;

(b) in determining what is a reasonable time, regard shall be had to the nature of the instrument, the usage
of trade and of bankers, and the facts of the particular case;

(c) the holder of such cheque as to which such drawer or person is discharged shall be a creditor, in lieu of
such drawer or person, of such banker to the extent of such discharge and entitled to recover the
amount from him.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 74 U.K.]

Section: 75 Revocation of banker's authority 30/06/1997


The duty and authority of a banker to pay a cheque drawn on him by his customer are determined by-
(a) countermand of payment;
(b) notice of the customer's death.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 75 U.K.]

Section: 76 Definition of general and special crossings 30/06/1997


Crossed cheques


(1) Where a cheque bears across its face an addition of-
(a) the words "and company", or any abbreviation thereof, between two parallel transverse lines, either

with or without the words "not negotiable"; or
(b) two parallel transverse lines simply, either with or without the words "not negotiable",

that addition constitutes a crossing, and the cheque is crossed generally.
(2) Where a cheque bears across its face an addition of the name of a banker, either with or without the words

"not negotiable", that addition constitutes a crossing, and the cheque is crossed specially and to that banker.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 76 U.K.]





Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 22

Section: 77 Crossing by drawer or after issue 30/06/1997


(1) A cheque may be crossed generally or specially by the drawer.
(2) Where a cheque is uncrossed, the holder may cross it generally or specially.
(3) Where a cheque is crossed generally, the holder may cross it specially.
(4) Where a cheque is crossed generally or specially, the holder may add the words "not negotiable".
(5) Where a cheque is crossed specially, the banker to whom it is crossed may again cross it specially to

another banker for collection.
(6) Where an uncrossed cheque, or a cheque crossed generally, is sent to a banker for collection, he may cross

it specially to himself.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 77 U.K.]


Section: 78 Crossing a material part of cheque 30/06/1997


A crossing authorized by this Ordinance is a material part of the cheque; it shall not be lawful for any person to
obliterate or, except as authorized by this Ordinance, to add to or alter the crossing.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 78 U.K.]

Section: 79 Duties of banker as to crossed cheque 30/06/1997


(1) Where a cheque is crossed specially to more than one banker, except when crossed to an agent for
collection being a banker, the banker on whom it is drawn shall refuse payment thereof.

(2) Where the banker on whom a cheque is drawn which is so crossed nevertheless pays the same, or pays a
cheque crossed generally otherwise than to a banker, or, if crossed specially, otherwise than to the banker to whom it
is crossed or his agent for collection being a banker, he is liable to the true owner of the cheque for any loss he may
sustain owing to the cheque having been so paid:

Provided that where a cheque is presented for payment which does not, at the time of presentment, appear to be
crossed, or to have had a crossing which has been obliterated, or to have been added to or altered otherwise than as
authorized by this Ordinance, the banker paying the cheque, in good faith and without negligence, shall not be
responsible or incur any liability, nor shall the payment be questioned by reason of the cheque having been crossed, or
of the crossing having been obliterated or having been added to or altered otherwise than as authorized by this
Ordinance, and of payment having been made otherwise than to a banker, or to the banker to whom the cheque is or
was crossed, or to his agent for collection being a banker, as the case may be.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 79 U.K.]

Section: 80 Protection to banker and drawer where cheque is crossed 30/06/1997


Where the banker on whom a crossed cheque is drawn, in good faith and without negligence, pays it, if crossed
generally, to a banker, and, if crossed specially, to the banker to whom it is crossed or his agent for collection being a
banker, the banker paying the cheque, and, if the cheque has come into the hands of the payee, the drawer, shall
respectively be entitled to the same rights and be placed in the same position as if payment of the cheque had been
made to the true owner thereof.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 80 U.K.]

Section: 81 Effect of crossing on holder 30/06/1997


Where a person takes a crossed cheque which bears on it the words "not negotiable", he shall not have, and shall
not be capable of giving, a better title to the cheque than that which the person from whom he took it had.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 81 U.K.]

Section: 82 Drafts on bankers payable to order on demand sufficient

authority for payment without proof of indorsement
30/06/1997



Any draft or order drawn upon a banker for a sum of money payable to order on demand which shall, when



Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 23

presented for payment, purport to be indorsed by the person to whom the same shall be drawn payable, shall be a
sufficient authority to such banker to pay the amount of such draft or order to the bearer thereof: and it shall not be
incumbent on such banker to prove that such indorsement or any subsequent indorsement was made by or under the
direction or authority of the person to whom the said draft or order was or is made payable either by the drawer or any
indorser thereof.

(Added 7 of 1907 s. 3)
[cf. 1853 c. 59 s. 19 U.K.]


Section: 83 Protection of bankers paying unindorsed or irregularly

indorsed cheques, etc.
30/06/1997



(1) Where a banker in good faith and in the ordinary course of business pays a cheque drawn on him which is
not indorsed or is irregularly indorsed, he does not, in doing so, incur any liability by reason only of the absence of, or
irregularity in, indorsement, and he is deemed to have paid it in due course.

(2) Where a banker in good faith and in the ordinary course of business pays any such instrument as the
following, namely-

(a) a document issued by a customer of his which, though not a bill of exchange, is intended to enable a
person to obtain payment from him of the sum mentioned in the document;

(b) a draft payable on demand drawn by him upon himself, whether payable at the head office or some
other office of his bank,

he does not, in doing so, incur any liability by reason only of the absence of, or irregularity in, indorsement, and the
payment discharges the instrument.

(Added 55 of 1960 s. 2)
[cf. 1957 c. 36 s. 1 U.K.]


Section: 84 Rights of bankers collecting cheques not indorsed by

holders
30/06/1997



A banker who gives value for, or has a lien on, a cheque payable to order which the holder delivers to him for
collection without indorsing it, has such (if any) rights as he would have had if, upon delivery, the holder had indorsed
it in blank.

(Added 55 of 1960 s. 2)
[cf. 1957 c. 36 s. 2 U.K.]


Section: 85 Unindorsed cheques as evidence of payment 10 of 2003 28/03/2003


(1) An unindorsed cheque which appears to have been paid by the banker on whom it is drawn is evidence of
the receipt by the payee of the sum payable by the cheque. (Amended 10 of 2003 s. 4)

(2) A copy of an unindorsed cheque which appears to contain a statement made by the banker on whom the
cheque is drawn stating that-

(a) the copy is a true copy of the image of the cheque received by him for the purposes of the presentment
of the cheque for payment under section 73A(1); and

(b) he has made payment of the cheque to the banker by whom the presentment was made,
is evidence of the receipt by the payee of the sum payable by the cheque. (Added 10 of 2003 s. 4)

(Added 55 of 1960 s. 2)
[cf. 1957 c. 36 s. 3 U.K.]


Section: 86 Protection of bankers collecting payment of cheques, etc. 30/06/1997


(1) Where a banker, in good faith and without negligence-
(a) receives payment for a customer of an instrument to which this section applies; or
(b) having credited a customer's account with the amount of such an instrument, receives payment thereof

for himself,
and the customer has no title, or a defective title, to the instrument, the banker does not incur any liability to the true



Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 24

owner of the instrument by reason only of having received payment thereof.
(2) This section applies to the following instruments, namely-

(a) cheques;
(b) any document issued by a customer of a banker which, though not a bill of exchange, is intended to

enable a person to obtain payment from that banker of the sum mentioned in the document;
(c) any document issued by a public officer which is intended to enable a person to obtain payment from

the Director of Accounting Services of the sum mentioned in the document but is not a bill of
exchange; (Amended L.N. 16 of 1977; L.N. 453 of 1993)

(d) any draft payable on demand drawn by a banker upon himself, whether payable at the head office or
some other office of his bank.

(3) A banker is not to be treated for the purposes of this section as having been negligent by reason only of his
failure to concern himself with absence of, or irregularity in, indorsement of an instrument.

(Added 55 of 1960 s. 2)
[cf. 1957 c. 36 s. 4 U.K.]


Section: 87 Application of provisions of this part to instruments not

being bills of exchange
30/06/1997



The provisions of this Part of this Ordinance relating to crossed cheques shall, so far as applicable, have effect in
relation to instruments (other than cheques) to which section 86 applies as they have effect in relation to cheques.

(Added 55 of 1960 s. 2)
[cf. 1957 2 c. 36 s. 5 U.K.]


Section: 88 Saving 30/06/1997


The provisions of this Part of this Ordinance do not make negotiable any instrument which, apart from such
provisions, is not negotiable.

(Added 55 of 1960 s. 2)
[cf. 1957 c. 36 s. 6 U.K.]


Part: IV PROMISSORY NOTES* 30/06/1997

__________________________________________________________________
Note:
* (Amended 51 of 1911; 63 of 1911 Schedule)

Section: 89 Definition of promissory note 60 of 1999 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 60 of 1999 s. 3


(1) A promissory note is an unconditional promise in writing made by one person to another signed by the
maker, engaging to pay, on demand or at a fixed or determinable future time, a sum certain in money to, or to the
order of, a specified person or to bearer.

(2) An instrument in the form of a note payable to maker's order is not a note within the meaning of this
section, unless and until it is indorsed by the maker.

(3) A note is not invalid by reason only that it contains also a pledge of collateral security, with authority to sell
or dispose thereof.

(4) A note which is, or on the face of it purports to be, both made and payable within Hong Kong is an inland
note. Any other note is a foreign note. (Amended 60 of 1999 s. 3)

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 83 U.K.]

Section: 90 Delivery necessary 30/06/1997


A promissory note is inchoate and incomplete until delivery thereof to the payee or bearer.



Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 25

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 84 U.K.]

Section: 91 Joint and several notes 30/06/1997


(1) A promissory note may be made by two or more makers, and they may be liable thereon jointly, or jointly
and severally, according to its tenor.

(2) Where a note runs "I promise to pay" and is signed by two or more persons, it is deemed to be their joint
and several note.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 85 U.K.]

Section: 92 Note payable on demand 30/06/1997


(1) Where a note payable on demand has been indorsed, it must be presented for payment within a reasonable
time of the indorsement. If it is not so presented, the indorser is discharged.

(2) In determining what is a reasonable time, regard shall be had to the nature of the instrument, the usage of
trade, and the facts of the particular case.

(3) Where a note payable on demand is negotiated, it is not deemed to be overdue, for the purpose of affecting
the holder with defects of title of which he had no notice, by reason that it appears that a reasonable time for
presenting it for payment has elapsed since its issue.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 86 U.K.]

Section: 93 Presentment for payment 30/06/1997


(1) Where a promissory note is in the body of it made payable at a particular place, it must be presented for
payment at that place in order to render the maker liable. In any other case, presentment for payment is not necessary
in order to render the maker liable.

(2) Presentment for payment is necessary in order to render the indorser of a note liable.
(3) Where a note is in the body of it made payable at a particular place, presentment at that place is necessary in

order to render an indorser liable; but when a place of payment is indicated by way of memorandum only, presentment
at that place is sufficient to render the indorser liable, but a presentment to the maker elsewhere, if sufficient in other
respects, shall also suffice.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 87 U.K.]

Section: 94 Liability of marker 30/06/1997


The maker of a promissory note, by making it-
(a) engages that he will pay it according to its tenor;
(b) is precluded from denying to a holder in due course the existence of the payee and his then capacity to

indorse.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 88 U.K.]


Section: 95 Application of Part II to notes 30/06/1997


(1) Subject to the provisions in this Part and except as by this section provided, the provisions of this Ordinance
relating to bills of exchange apply, with the necessary modifications, to promissory notes.

(2) In applying those provisions, the maker of a note shall be deemed to correspond with the acceptor of a bill,
and the first indorser of a note shall be deemed to correspond with the drawer of an accepted bill payable to drawer's
order.

(3) The following provisions as to bills do not apply to notes, namely, provisions relating to-
(a) presentment for acceptance;
(b) acceptance;
(c) acceptance supra protest;
(d) bills in a set.

(4) Where a foreign note is dishonoured, protest thereof is unnecessary.



Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 26

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 89 U.K.]

Part: V SUPPLEMENTARY* 30/06/1997

___________________________________________________________________
Note:
* (Amended 51 of 1911; 63 of 1911 Schedule)

Section: 96 Good faith 30/06/1997


A thing is deemed to be done in good faith, within the meaning of this Ordinance, where it is in fact done
honestly, whether it is done negligently or not.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 90 U.K.]

Section: 97 Signature 30/06/1997


(1) Where by this Ordinance any instrument or writing is required to be signed by any person, it is not
necessary that he should sign it with his own hand, but it is sufficient if his signature is written thereon by some other
person by or under his authority.

(2) In the case of a corporation, where by this Ordinance any instrument or writing is required to be signed, it is
sufficient if the instrument or writing is sealed with the corporate seal.

(3) But nothing in this section shall be construed as requiring the bill or note of a corporation to be under seal.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 91 U.K.]


Section: 98 Computation of time 30/06/1997


(1) Where by this Ordinance the time limited for doing any act or thing is less than three days, in reckoning
time, non-business days are excluded.

(2) "Non-business days" (非營業日), for the purposes of this Ordinance, means general holidays. (Amended
5 of 1912 s. 8)

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 92 U.K.]

Section: 99 When noting equivalent to protest 30/06/1997


For the purposes of this Ordinance, where a bill or note is required to be protested within a specified time or
before some further proceeding is taken, it is sufficient that the bill has been noted for protest before the expiration of
the specified time or the taking of the proceeding; and the formal protest may be extended at any time thereafter as of
the date of the noting.

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 93 U.K.]

Section: 100 Protest when notary not accessible 30/06/1997


(1) Where a dishonoured bill or note is authorized or required to be protested, and the services of a notary
cannot be obtained at the place where the bill is dishonoured, any house-holder or substantial resident of the place
may, in the presence of two witnesses, give a certificate, signed by them, attesting the dishonour of the bill, and the
certificate shall in all respects operate as if it were a formal protest of the bill.

(2) The form in the Schedule may be used, with necessary modifications, and, if used, shall be sufficient.
(Amended 50 of 1911 s. 4)

[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 94 U.K.]

Section: 101 Crossing of dividend warrant 30/06/1997


The provisions of this Ordinance relating to crossed cheques shall apply to a warrant for payment of dividend.
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 95 U.K.]



Cap 19 - BILLS OF EXCHANGE ORDINANCE 27


Section: 102 Saving 30/06/1997


(1) The rules in bankruptcy relating to bills of exchange, promissory notes, and cheques shall continue to apply
thereto, notwithstanding anything in this Ordinance.

(2) The rules of common law, including the law merchant, save in so far as they are inconsistent with the
express provisions of this Ordinance, shall continue to apply to bills of exchange, promissory notes, and cheques.

(3) Nothing in this Ordinance shall affect-
(a) the provisions of the Stamp Duty Ordinance (Cap 117) or any law or enactment relating to the revenue;

or (Amended 31 of 1981 s. 65)
(b) the provisions of any Ordinance relating to joint-stock banks or companies; or
(c) the validity of any usage relating to dividend warrants or the indorsements thereof. (Amended 50 of

1911 s. 4)
[cf. 1882 c. 61 s. 97 U.K.]


Schedule: SCHEDULE 30/06/1997


[section 100]


FORM OF PROTEST WHICH MAY BE USED WHEN THE SERVICES OF A
NOTARY CANNOT BE OBTAINED


Know all men that I, A.B., of , at the request of C.D., there being no notary

public available, did on the day of ,19 , at
demand payment [or acceptance] of the bill of exchange hereunder written from E.F., to which demand he made
answer [state answer, if any]; wherefore I now, in the presence of G.H., and J.K., do protest the said bill of exchange.


Dated the day of , 19 .


(Signed) A.B.

G.H.


Witnesses
J.K.

N.B.-The bill itself should be annexed, or a copy of the bill and all that is written thereon should be
underwritten.

Related Laws