Landlord And Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance


Published: 1997-06-30

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Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 1

Chapter: 7 LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION)
ORDINANCE

Gazette Number Version Date


Long title 30/06/1997


To consolidate Ordinances relating to landlord and tenant, protection and determination of tenancies, and control and
recovery of rent.


[23 May 1947]


(Originally 25 of 1947 (Cap 255, 1964); 1 of 1883 (Cap 7, 1964); 27 of 1897 (Cap 17, 1969); 8 of 1952 (Cap 276,

1964); 14 of 1962 (Cap 335, 1964); 56 of 1970 (Cap 338, 1970))

Section: 1 Short title 30/06/1997


This Ordinance may be cited as the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance.

Part: I PROTECTED TENANCIES AND PERMITTED RENTS 30/06/1997




Section: 2 Interpretation 29 of 1998 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 29 of 1998 s. 105


Interpretation and Application


In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires-
"agricultural land" (農地) means land which is held from the Government on terms the effect of which is to prohibit

the use thereof otherwise than as agricultural land or to prohibit the erection thereon of any building without the
consent of the Government; (Added 22 of 1953 s. 2. Amended 29 of 1998 s. 105)

"Building Authority" (建築事務監督) means the Building Authority as defined in section 2 of the Buildings
Ordinance (Cap 123); (Added 22 of 1953 s. 2)

"business premises" (商用處所) means premises which are not domestic premises; (Replaced 22 of 1953 s. 2)
"Commissioner" (署長) means the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation; (Added 10 of 1975 s. 2)
"domestic premises" (住宅處所) means premises the subject of a separate letting (including any bed-space, cubicle,

room, floor or portion of a floor or building) which are used wholly or primarily for human habitation:
(Amended 22 of 1953 s. 2)

Provided that the following shall not be deemed to be domestic premises within the meaning of this
definition-

(a) any building or portion of a building which is used for habitation only by caretakers or watchmen not
exceeding 2 in number;

(b) any building or portion of a building which is used for habitation only by office attendants or their
families;

(c) any particular portion of an hotel or boarding-house which is let by the keeper of such hotel or
boarding-house to a guest of such hotel or boarding-house;

"landlord" (業主) includes any person, other than the Government, who is from time to time entitled to receive rent in
respect of any premises and in relation to a particular tenant means the person entitled to receive rent from such
tenant; (Amended 29 of 1998 s. 105)

"lease" (租契) or "tenancy agreement" (租賃協議) includes every agreement for the letting of any premises, whether
oral or in writing;

"let" (出租、租出) includes sublet and "letting" (出租、租出) includes subletting;



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 2

"order" (命令、令) means an order of the Tribunal; (Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 2)
"permitted rent" (准許租金) means the rent lawfully payable under this Part in respect of any premises; (Added 22

of 1953 s. 2)
"premises" (處所) means the subject matter of any tenancy;
"prevailing market rent" (市值租金) means the rent, exclusive of rates, at which premises the subject matter of a

tenancy to which this Part applies might reasonably be expected to be let, at the date-
(a) of service of a notice under section 10(1A)(a); or
(b) on which the Commissioner issues his certificate under section 10E,

as may be appropriate, on the terms of the tenancy (other than those relating to rent and duration of the tenancy)
but disregarding the effect of this Part; (Replaced 53 of 1993 s. 2)

"principal tenant" (主租客) means a tenant of premises other than a Government lessee, who has or shall sublet any
part or parts thereof as a separate holding or holdings but shall not include a tenant, hereinafter referred to as a
derivative landlord, who has or shall sublet the whole of such premises as one holding; (Amended 29 of 1998 s.
105)

"standard rent" (標準租金) with respect to any premises means-
(a) if the premises were actually let unfurnished on 25 December 1941, the rate of rent which was

recoverable from the sitting tenant; and
(b) if the premises were not actually let on 25 December 1941, or were then let furnished, but had been let

unfurnished on some previous date, the rate of rent which was recoverable from the sitting tenant on
the last occasion before 25 December 1941, on which the premises were actually let unfurnished; and

(c) if the premises were not let unfurnished until after 25 December 1941, then such rate of rent as may be
assessed by the Commissioner under section 8 having regard to what would have constituted a
standard rent for the premises if let unfurnished immediately before 1 December 1941; (Amended 22
of 1953 s. 2; 76 of 1981 s. 2; 53 of 1993 s. 2)

"tenancy" (租賃) includes a sub-tenancy;
"tenant" (租客) does not include a Government lessee but includes a sub-tenant and- (Amended 29 of 1998 s. 105)

(a) a person who before 23 May 1947 had retained possession of premises by virtue of any enactment
repealed by this Part* and who was on 23 May 1947 in possession of premises, to which this Part
applies;

(b) a person who retains possession of any premises by virtue of this Part;
(c) the widow of a tenant, residing with the tenant at the time of his death, or where the tenant leaves no

widow or is a woman, such member of the tenant's family so residing as aforesaid as may be decided
in default of agreement by the Tribunal; (Replaced 22 of 1953 s. 2. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 2)

"tenement" (物業單位) means any building, structure or part thereof, which is held or occupied as a distinct or
separate tenancy or holding or under any licence; (Added 76 of 1981 s. 2)

"Tribunal" (審裁處) means the Lands Tribunal established under the Lands Tribunal Ordinance (Cap 17). (Replaced
76 of 1981 s. 2)

(25 of 1947 s. 2 incorporated. Amended 53 of 1993 s. 2)
___________________________________________________________________
Note:
* See s. 38 of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance 1947 (25 of 1947).

Section: 3 Application of this Part 29 of 1998 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 29 of 1998 s. 105


(1) This Part shall not apply to-
(a) any premises-

(i) in a building in respect of which an occupation permit, including a temporary occupation permit,
was first issued by the Building Authority under section 21(2) of the Buildings Ordinance (Cap
123) after 16 August 1945; or

(ii) which were completed or substantially rebuilt after 16 August 1945; (Replaced 29 of 1983 s. 2)



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 3

(b) agricultural land or any building thereon, other than a building erected before 17 August 1945; (Added
22 of 1953 s. 3)

(c) land let unbuilt upon save where such land has been let with, and for the better enjoyment of, any
building, or save where a building to which this Part applies has subsequently been erected thereon;
(Added 22 of 1953 s. 3)

(d) (Repealed 29 of 1983 s. 2)
(e) (Repealed 40 of 1984 s. 2)
(f) any particular portion of an hotel or boarding-house which is let furnished by the keeper of such hotel

or boarding-house to a guest of such hotel or boarding-house;
(g) any premises for the time being vested in or in the custody of the Custodian of Property or the

Custodian of Enemy Property;
(h) any lease or tenancy held directly from the Government; (Amended 13 of 1948 s. 3; 40 of 1984 s. 2;

29 of 1998 s. 105)
(i) any premises which are, or since 4 May 1979 have been, business premises. (Replaced 40 of 1984 s.

2)
(2) In the event of any doubt or dispute as to whether any premises are excepted from the application of this

Part by any of the provisions of subsection (1), the same may be determined by the Commissioner on the application
of a landlord or tenant. (Amended 76 of 1981 s. 3)

(3) Where immediately before 23 May 1947, a tenant of premises to which this Part does not apply was entitled
to protection against eviction by reason of an enactment repealed by this Part*, he shall be deemed to be holding at the
rent payable immediately before 23 May 1947, and shall be entitled to such notice to quit as would have been required
under the original contract of tenancy or if such notice had already been given and had expired at or before 23 May
1947 then to 1 month's notice.

(25 of 1947 s. 3 incorporated)
___________________________________________________________________
Note:
* See s. 38 of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance 1947 (25 of 1947).

Section: 4 Power to exclude application of this Part 44 of 2000 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 44 of 2000 s. 3


(1) The Chief Executive may, in his absolute discretion and without the necessity of hearing any interested
party, by order exclude from the further application of this Part any class of premises. (Replaced 40 of 1968 s. 3.
Amended 72 of 1973 s. 2; 44 of 2000 s. 3)

(2) The Tribunal may, in accordance with this section, make an order excluding any particular premises from
the further application of this Part. (Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 4)

(3) Every order made under subsection (1) shall be published in the Gazette whereupon the tenant of any such
premises shall be deemed to be holding at the rent payable immediately before the publication of such order and shall
be entitled to such notice to quit as would have been required under the original contract of tenancy, or, if such notice
has already been given and has expired, then to 1 month's notice expiring at the end of the calendar month next after
the month in which such order was published: (Amended 76 of 1981 s. 4)

Provided that in the event of any notice having been given prior to such order being published nothing herein
contained shall entitle a landlord to recover possession prior to the expiration of such notice. (Added 40 of 1968 s. 3)

(3A) Upon the making of an order under subsection (2) the tenant of any such premises shall be deemed to be
holding at the rent payable immediately before the making of the order and shall be entitled to such notice to quit as
would have been required under the original contract of tenancy or, if such notice has already been given and has
expired, then to 1 month's notice expiring at the end of the calendar month next after the month in which such order
was made:

Provided that in the event of any notice having been given prior to such order being made nothing herein
contained shall entitle a landlord to recover possession prior to the expiration of such notice. (Added 29 of 1983 s. 3)

(4) Any landlord or tenant desiring to obtain an order of the Tribunal under subsection (2) shall serve notice
thereof on his immediate tenant or landlord as the case may be in the prescribed form and shall also post such notice in
a conspicuous place at the entrance to the premises to which the application relates. Such service and posting shall be



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 4

verified by affidavit in the prescribed form which shall be lodged in the registry of the Tribunal. (Amended 30 of
1955 s. 5; 56 of 1961 s. 2; 40 of 1968 s. 3; 76 of 1981 s. 4)

(5) Any party other than the person served under subsection (4) who opposes the application shall within 14
days of such notice having been posted as aforesaid give notice in writing to the registrar of the Tribunal in the
prescribed form stating his interest in the matter and whether he wishes to make written representations to the Tribunal
or whether he wishes to appear by himself or by his advocate on the hearing of the application. (Amended 76 of 1981
s. 4)

(6) (Repealed 76 of 1981 s. 4)
(7) (a) After hearing the parties and considering such representations as it thinks fit, the Tribunal may make

an order in terms of subsection (2), either absolutely or subject to such conditions as it thinks fit
(including a condition requiring payment of compensation by the landlord to any tenant). (Replaced
76 of 1981 s. 4)

(b) For the purposes of any review under section 11A of the Lands Tribunal Ordinance (Cap 17), the time
limit mentioned in that section shall not apply to a decision, other than in relation to the payment of
compensation, under paragraph (a). (Added 29 of 1983 s. 3)

(8) (a) A landlord who has made an application under this section may enter into an agreement with any
tenant who in accordance with the provisions of subsection (5) opposes the landlord's application
whereby the tenant agrees to withdraw his opposition to such application subject to such terms as may
be agreed between the landlord and the tenant: (Amended 53 of 1993 s. 3)
Provided that-
(i) no such agreement shall contain any term whereby the tenant agrees to quit his premises before

an order excluding the said premises from the further application of this Part has been made;
(ii) if no order excluding the said premises from the further application of this Part is made, the

agreement shall be null and void;
(iii) if an order excluding the said premises from the further application of this Part is made, the

agreement shall be enforceable only in so far as it is consistent with such order.
(b) In the event of the Tribunal ordering that the premises to which the application relates shall be

excluded from the further application of this Part, the Tribunal shall make such order subject to the
terms agreed between the parties together with such other conditions, if any, as it may think fit to
impose in accordance with subsection (7). (Added 30 of 1955 s. 5. Amended 40 of 1968 s. 3; 76 of
1981 s. 4)

(9)-(13) (Repealed 76 of 1981 s. 4)
(14) Where any class of premises has been excluded from the further application of this Part by an order made

under subsection (1), the Tribunal shall have jurisdiction to determine whether any particular premises fall within such
class. (Amended 76 of 1981 s. 4; 29 of 1983 s. 3)

(25 of 1947 s. 32 incorporated. Amended 23 of 1963 s. 3; 40 of 1968 s. 3)

Section: 5 (Repealed 76 of 1981 s. 5) 30/06/1997




Section: 6 Re-entry by Government 29 of 1998 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 29 of 1998 s. 4


(1) Where-
(a) there is a breach of any condition of an order made under section 4 in respect of premises on land

which the landlord holds under a Government lease or other tenancy from the Government; or
(b) prior to the making of an order under section 4 in respect of any such premises there has been made an

assignment or underlease of, or an agreement to assign or underlet, an undivided share of or in the land
together with the right to the exclusive possession, use, occupation or enjoyment of any portion of any
building to be erected thereon pursuant to such order, (Amended 76 of 1981 s. 6)

such breach, or assignment or underlease, or agreement to assign or underlet shall be deemed to be a breach of a
covenant in the Government lease, or of a condition or stipulation of the tenancy of such land, and a right of re-entry
thereon under the Government Rights (Re-entry and Vesting Remedies) Ordinance (Cap 126) shall be deemed to have



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 5

accrued to the Government.
(2) Where a right of re-entry is deemed under subsection (1) to have accrued to the Government and in exercise

of such right the Government has re-entered upon the land, any person who has taken an assignment or underlease, or
has entered into an agreement to take an assignment or underlease, of an undivided share of or in the land together
with the right to exclusive possession, use, occupation or enjoyment of any portion of any building to be erected
thereon shall, in addition to any other claim he may have, be entitled to recover from the person to whom it was paid
any money or other property which passed, whether by way of consideration or otherwise, under or by virtue of such
assignment, underlease or agreement.

(3) Subsection (1)(b) shall not apply to an assignment or underlease of, or an agreement to assign or underlet,
an undivided share of or in land where the consideration or part of the consideration therefor is the erection of the
building to be erected on the land pursuant to an order made under section 4.

(Replaced 46 of 1975 s. 2. Amended 29 of 1998 s. 4)

Section: 7 Registration in Land Registry of order under section 4 30/06/1997


(1) The Commissioner shall cause an order made under section 4 to be registered by memorial in the Land
Registry against the premises affected. (Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 7. Amended 8 of 1993 s. 2)

(2) Where premises are excluded from the further application of this Part by order under section 4, and it is a
condition of the order that a building or buildings shall be erected upon the site of such premises in accordance with
the terms of such order, then upon the order being registered by virtue of subsection (1), such condition shall be
binding on any executor, administrator, successor or assign of the landlord of the premises and may be enforced
against any such executor, administrator, successor or assign by re-entry or otherwise, in like manner as it could have
been enforced against the landlord.

(Added 30 of 1955 s. 7. Amended 72 of 1973 s. 2)

Section: 7A (Repealed 40 of 1984 s. 3) 30/06/1997




Section: 8 Assessment of standard rent 30/06/1997


Standard Rent


(1) The landlord or tenant of any premises to which this Part applies may apply to the Commissioner in the
specified form for his assessment of the standard rent of such premises. (Replaced 93 of 1975 s. 2)

(2) (Repealed 93 of 1975 s. 2)
(3) A certificate given pursuant to the provisions of this section by the Commissioner of his assessment of the

standard rent of premises described therein shall be prima facie evidence of such standard rent in any legal
proceedings whatsoever, whether civil or criminal. (Amended 93 of 1975 s. 2)

(Added 22 of 1953 s. 5)

Section: 9 (Repealed 53 of 1993 s. 4) 30/06/1997




Section: 9A Relevance of prevailing market rent 30/06/1997


The rent of any premises to which this Part applies-
(a) may, by virtue of section 9B; but
(b) shall not, by virtue of section 10,

exceed the prevailing market rent of the premises or, where the rates in respect of the premises are payable by the
landlord, the aggregate of the following amounts-

(i) the prevailing market rent of the premises; and
(ii) the amount of the rates payable in respect of the premises.

(Replaced 53 of 1993 s. 5)




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 6

Section: 9B Alterations in rent by agreement 30/06/1997


(1) Subject to subsection (2), there shall be payable and recoverable by way of rent of premises to which this
Part applies such amount as may be agreed between the landlord and tenant.

(2) Where an alteration in rent is agreed between a landlord and a tenant the landlord shall lodge with the
Commissioner a notice of the alteration in rent in triplicate in the specified form signed by both the landlord and
tenant.

(3) A notice under subsection (2) is not valid unless-
(a) it is signed by the tenant not earlier than 1 month before the date on which it is lodged with the

Commissioner and the alteration of rent to which it relates takes effect neither earlier than 1 month
before, nor later than 6 months after, the date on which the notice is so lodged; or

(b) the notice is endorsed by the Commissioner, the application for which endorsement shall be
accompanied by a fee of $500, to the effect that he is satisfied that the tenant understands the effect of
the alteration in rent and has not been subject to any undue pressure or influence.

(4) Where a notice is lodged with the Commissioner under subsection (2), he shall record the agreement
concerning the alteration in rent and shall endorse on 2 copies of the notice a statement to that effect and shall return 1
copy to the landlord and 1 copy to the tenant.

(5) Where there is an increase in rent under an agreement mentioned in subsection (2), a landlord shall not be
entitled to maintain an action to recover rent at the increased rate unless a valid notice mentioned in that subsection is
endorsed by the Commissioner under subsection (4).

(6) The security of tenure afforded to a tenant under section 48(3) shall apply where the rent payable by the
tenant is increased by agreement, notwithstanding the failure of the landlord to lodge notice of it under subsection (2).

(7) Subject to section 10H, the rent of premises payable and recoverable by virtue of this section may be
increased-

(a) by a further agreement to which this section applies;
(b) if the rent is less than the rent permitted under section 10(1), by an increase made under section

10(1A)(a) or by virtue of a certificate under section 10E;
(c) under section 10(3) or (3AC) only if, after the alteration in rent is agreed under this section, the

landlord incurs expenditure on improvements as set out in that section, in which case section 10(3A)
shall apply only in respect of expenditure incurred on improvements after the time of that agreement;

(d) under section 10AA, 10B or 10C.
(Added 53 of 1993 s. 6)


Section: 10 Permitted increases and adjustments 30/06/1997


(1) Subject to section 9A but without prejudice to section 9B, there shall be payable and recoverable by way of
rent of premises to which this Part applies the following amounts-

(a) in respect of any period before 1 July 1994, an amount equal to 55 times the standard rent of the
premises or 60% of the prevailing market rent of the premises, whichever is the greater;

(b) in respect of any period after 30 June 1994 and before 1 July 1995, an amount equal to 65 times the
standard rent of the premises or 70% of the prevailing market rent of the premises, whichever is the
greater;

(c) in respect of any period after 30 June 1995 and before 1 July 1996, an amount equal to 75 times the
standard rent of the premises or 80% of the prevailing market rent of the premises, whichever is the
greater;

(d) in respect of any period after 30 June 1996, an amount equal to 85 times the standard rent of the
premises or 90% of the prevailing market rent of the premises, whichever is the greater. (Replaced 53
of 1993 s. 7)

(1A) If at any date within the period specified in paragraph (a), (b), (c) or (d) of subsection (1) the rent of any
premises is less than the rent permitted under that paragraph, the landlord may-

(a) subject to section 10H and subsections (1B) and (1C), by serving on the tenant on that date a notice in
the specified form, increase the rent to an amount equal to the multiple of the standard rent of the
premises specified in that paragraph; or

(b) on that date apply to the Commissioner in the specified form for a certificate under section 10D.
(Replaced 53 of 1993 s. 7)



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 7

(1B) Any increase in rent under subsection (1A)(a) shall take effect not earlier than the first day when rent
becomes due after the expiration of one month from the service of the notice. (Added 93 of 1975 s. 3. Amended 53 of
1993 s. 7)

(1C) Where a landlord serves a notice on the tenant under subsection (1A)(a) he shall, at the same time, send a
copy of the notice to the Commissioner. (Added 93 of 1975 s. 3. Amended 39 of 1976 s. 6; 53 of 1993 s. 7)

(2) Where as part of the tenancy agreement furniture is provided for the use of the tenant, the references in
subsection (1) to an amount equal to a multiple of the standard rent of the premises shall be treated as references to
such an amount plus such a charge for the use of that furniture (whether expressed by way of rent or otherwise) as,
having regard to the value of that use to the tenant, is reasonable:

But this subsection shall not apply until the landlord has specified by notice in writing to the tenant the
consideration (whether by way of rent or otherwise) that he attributes to the furniture. (Replaced 53 of 1993 s. 7)

(3) Where the landlord of any premises incurs expenditure of $5000 or more on improvements to such
premises, the landlord may increase the rent payable in respect of those premises by 20% per annum of the amount
expended on the improvements. (Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 9)

(3AA) Where rent is increased under subsection (3), the increase shall not take effect except in pursuance of a
notice of increase in the specified form served by the landlord on the tenant, specifying the increase and the date from
which it is to take effect. (Added 76 of 1981 s. 9)

(3AB) The date specified in a notice of increase under subsection (3AA) shall be not earlier than the first day
when rent becomes due after the expiry of one month from the service of the notice. (Added 76 of 1981 s. 9)

(3AC) Where the landlord of any premises incurs expenditure of $5000 or more on improvements to such
premises and those premises comprise 2 or more tenements then the amount expended shall be apportioned between
the tenements and the rent payable in respect of any tenement may be increased in accordance with this section by
reference to the part of the expenditure apportioned to it. (Added 76 of 1981 s. 9)

(3A) In determining the amount of expenditure incurred on improvements, expenditure incurred in the 6 months
immediately prior to the date of service of the notice of increase under subsection (3AA) may be aggregated.
(Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 9)

(3B) No account shall be taken of-
(a) expenditure incurred prior to the commencement of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation)

(Amendment) Ordinance 1976 (56 of 1976);
(b) expenditure in respect of which an increase in rent has previously been made under this section; or

(Added 56 of 1976 s. 2. Amended 53 of 1993 s. 7)
(c) expenditure which has been taken into account when a certificate was issued under section 10E.

(Added 53 of 1993 s. 7)
(3BA) Where a landlord serves on a tenant a notice of increase under subsection (3AA), the landlord shall send a

copy of that notice to the Commissioner. (Added 76 of 1981 s. 9)
(3BB) A tenant on whom a notice of increase in rent is served under subsection (3AA) may, not later than one

month after the service of the notice, apply to the Tribunal for an order cancelling or reducing the increase on the
ground-

(a) that the improvement was unnecessary:
Provided that where the premises the subject of the improvement comprise 3 or more tenements

and more than two-thirds of the tenants of those premises (other than sub-tenants) have consented in
writing to the improvement, the improvement shall be deemed to be necessary;

(b) that a greater amount was expended on the improvement than was reasonable; or
(c) where the increase follows an apportionment under subsection (3AC), that the apportionment was

unreasonable,
and the Tribunal may make an order accordingly. (Added 76 of 1981 s. 9)

(4) If the Commissioner is satisfied on the application of a landlord or tenant of premises that the services and
facilities which the landlord is liable to provide under the tenancy agreement differ from those which the landlord was
liable to provide under the tenancy agreement by reference to which the standard rent was ascertained, the
Commissioner may adjust the standard rent accordingly and upon such adjustment the rent substituted by the
Commissioner shall be and become the standard rent for the purposes of this Part but without prejudice to further
adjustment under this subsection or under other provisions of this Part. (Amended 76 of 1981 s. 9; 53 of 1993 s. 7)

(5) Nothing in this Part shall be taken to authorize any increase of rent in respect of a period prior to 23 May
1947.

(6) If any notice served for the purposes of subsection (1) contains any statement or representation which is



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 8

false or misleading in any material respect, the landlord shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine of $1000
unless he proves that the statement was made innocently and without intent to deceive.

(7) Where the notice of an increase of rent which at the time was valid has been served on any tenant, the
increase may be continued without service of any fresh notice on any subsequent tenant.

(8) The Legislative Council may by resolution amend subsection (1) by substituting, for the periods, multipliers
and percentages specified in subsection (1), such periods, multipliers and percentages as may be specified in the
resolution. (Replaced 53 of 1993 s. 7)

(9) In this section-
"improvement" (改善) includes structural alteration, extension or addition and the provision of additional fixtures and

fittings, but does not include anything done by way of decoration or repair. (Added 76 of 1981 s. 9)
(25 of 1947 s. 6 incorporated)


Section: 10A Certificates of prevailing market rent 30/06/1997


(1) Where a landlord serves a tenant with a notice of increase of rent under section 10(1A)(a) the tenant may,
within 14 days of being so served, apply for a certificate under subsection (5) by sending an application in the
specified form in duplicate to the Commissioner. (Amended 53 of 1993 s. 8)

(2) On receipt of an application under subsection (1) the Commissioner shall serve a copy thereof on the
landlord.

(3) Within 14 days of service on him under subsection (2) of a copy of the tenant's application, the landlord
may send his representations thereon to the Commissioner.

(4) Where the Commissioner receives representations from a landlord under subsection (3) which indicate that
the landlord disputes any fact set out in the tenant's application, he shall determine the facts in dispute and then deal
with the application in accordance with subsection (5).

(5) Where a tenant makes an application under subsection (1), the Commissioner shall, if satisfied that the
increased rent specified in the landlord's notice under section 10(1A)(a)- (Amended 53 of 1993 s. 8)

(a) does not exceed the prevailing market rent of the premises aggregated, where the rates in respect of the
premises are payable by the landlord, with the amount of the rates, issue free of charge and serve on
the landlord and tenant certificates in the specified form to that effect;

(b) exceeds the prevailing market rent of the premises aggregated, where the rates in respect of the
premises are payable by the landlord, with the amount of the rates, issue free of charge and serve on
the landlord and tenant certificates in the specified form stating-
(i) the prevailing market rent of the premises; and
(ii) where the rates in respect of the premises are payable by the landlord, the amount of the rates,

and may endorse on the certificates such matters as he thinks proper relating to such application, which, in the case of
a dispute as to facts shall include the Commissioner's determination thereof under subsection (4). (Amended 29 of
1983 s. 46)

(6) A certificate issued under subsection (5) shall in any proceedings be prima facie evidence of the facts set
out therein.

(7) (Repealed 40 of 1984 s. 5)
(8) Nothing in this section shall prejudice any right which a landlord, tenant or sub-tenant may have to make an

application under section 32 to the Tribunal. (Amended 76 of 1981 s. 10)
(9) (Repealed 53 of 1993 s. 8)

(Added 39 of 1979 s. 8)

Section: 10AA Increase in rent on account of rates 30/06/1997


(1) Where-
(a) a landlord bears the rates in respect of any premises and after 31 March 1975 there is an increase in the

amount of the rates payable; or
(b) rates are imposed after 31 March 1975 in respect of any premises and the landlord bears those rates,

the landlord may, subject to subsection (2), increase the amount of rent payable by the tenant of those premises by the
amount of the increase in rates or by the amount of the rates imposed, as the case may be.

(1A) For the purposes of subsection (1)(b), rates shall be deemed not to be imposed where rates become payable



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 9

by reason only that the premises cease to be exempt from assessment to or payment of rates under section 36 of the
Rating Ordinance (Cap 116). (Added 29 of 1983 s. 4)

(2) Where the amount of rent is increased under this section the increase shall not take effect except in
pursuance of a notice of increase in the specified form served by the landlord on the tenant, specifying the increase
and the date from which it is to take effect.

(3) The date specified in a notice of increase under subsection (2) shall not be earlier than-
(a) the date from which the increased rates or the rates imposed, as the case may be, are payable; or
(b) 24 months prior to the date of service of the notice,

whichever is the later. (Replaced 29 of 1983 s. 4)
(Added 10 of 1975 s. 4. Amended 39 of 1979 s. 7)


Section: 10B Increase in rent following apportionment 30/06/1997


(1) Where section 10AA(1) applies in respect of any premises and the premises form part of a tenement or
consist of, or form part of, more than one tenement, the landlord may apply to the Commissioner in the specified form
for a certificate under subsection (2).

(2) On receipt of an application under subsection (1), the Commissioner shall make such apportionment or
aggregation of the rates as he considers necessary to determine the amount of rates attributable to the premises and
shall serve on the landlord and on the tenant certificates in the specified form stating the amount by which the rent
may be increased.

(3) Where the Commissioner has served a certificate under subsection (2), the rent of the tenancy may be
increased, in accordance with section 10AA, by the amount shown in the certificate.

(4) In this section "tenement" (物業單位) shall have the meaning assigned to it by section 2 of the Rating
Ordinance (Cap 116).

(Added 10 of 1975 s. 4. Amended 39 of 1979 s. 9)

Section: 10C Increase in rent of sub-tenancy on account of rates 30/06/1997


(1) Where-
(a) a principal tenant bears the rates in respect of any premises the subject of a sub-tenancy and after 31

March 1975 there is an increase in the amount of rates payable;
(b) rates are imposed after 31 March 1975 in respect of any premises the subject of a sub-tenancy and the

principal tenant bears those rates; or
(c) the rent of a tenancy has been increased under section 10AA or 10B and a sub-tenancy has been

created out of that tenancy, (Amended 39 of 1979 s. 10)
the principal tenant may, subject to subsection (5), increase the amount of the rent payable by the sub-tenant by the
amount of the increase in the rates of by the amount of the rates imposed, as the case may be, attributable to the
premises the subject of the sub-tenancy.

(1A) For the purposes of subsection (1)(b), rates shall be deemed not to be imposed where rates become payable
by reason only that the premises cease to be exempt from assessment to or payment of rates under section 36 of the
Rating Ordinance (Cap 116). (Added 29 of 1983 s. 5)

(2) Where subsection (1) applies in respect of any premises, a principal tenant may apply to the Commissioner
in the specified form for a certificate under subsection (3).

(3) On receipt of an application under subsection (2) the Commissioner shall make such apportionment or
aggregation of the rates as he considers necessary to determine the amount of rates attributable to the premises the
subject of the sub-tenancy and shall serve on the principal tenant and on the sub-tenant certificates in the specified
form stating the amount by which the rent of the sub-tenancy may be increased.

(4) Where the Commissioner has served a certificate under subsection (3), the rent of the sub-tenancy may,
subject to subsection (5), be increased by the amount shown in the certificate.

(5) Where the amount of rent of a sub-tenancy is increased under this section, the increase shall not take effect
except in pursuance of a notice of increase in the specified form served by the principal tenant on the sub-tenant
specifying the amount of the increase and the date from which it is to take effect.

(6) The date specified in a notice of increase under subsection (5) shall be not earlier than-
(a) the date from which the increased rates or the rates imposed, as the case may be, are payable; or



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 10

(Replaced 29 of 1983 s. 5)
(b) the date on which the increase in rent of the principal tenancy on account of rates became payable; or
(c) 24 months prior to the date of service of the notice of increase on the sub-tenant,

whichever is the later. (Amended 29 of 1983 s. 5)
(Added 10 of 1975 s. 4)


Section: 10D Application for certificate of increase in rent 30/06/1997


(1) Where a landlord wishes to increase the rent payable by his tenant, he may apply to the Commissioner for a
certificate.

(2) An application under subsection (1) shall be made by sending a notice in duplicate in the specified form to
the Commissioner.

(3) Where the Commissioner is of the opinion that, having regard to section 10H, no increase in rent is due, or
such increase in rent is not due within a period of 6 months from the date of receipt of the application under subsection
(1), he may decline to deal with such application or defer dealing with such application until it appears to him that the
increase in rent is due within a period of 6 months.

(4) Subject to subsection (3), upon receipt of an application under subsection (1) the Commissioner shall serve
a copy of it on the tenant.

(5) Within 14 days of service on him under subsection (4) of a copy of the landlord's application the tenant may
send his representations on the application in writing to the Commissioner.

(6) Where the Commissioner receives representations from a tenant under subsection (5) which indicate that
the tenant disputes any fact set out in the application of the landlord, he shall determine the facts in dispute and shall
then deal with the application in accordance with section 10E.

(Added 53 of 1993 s. 9)

Section: 10E Certificates of increase in rent 30/06/1997


(1) Where a landlord applies for a certificate under section 10D, the Commissioner shall-
(a) if satisfied that, on the date of the receipt of the application, the rent permitted under section 10(1)

exceeded the current rent paid by the tenant, issue free of charge and serve on the landlord and on the
tenant certificates in the specified form stating the amount, as ascertained in accordance with
subsection (2), by which the current rent may be increased; or

(b) if not satisfied that, on the date of the receipt of the application, the rent permitted under section 10(1)
exceeded the current rent paid by the tenant, issue free of charge and serve on the landlord and on the
tenant certificates in the specified form to that effect,

and he may endorse on the certificates such matters as he thinks proper relating to such application, which, in the case
of a dispute as to facts, shall include the Commissioner's determination of those facts under section 10D(6).

(2) The amount mentioned in subsection (1)(a) shall be the difference between-
(a) the rent permitted under section 10(1) on the date of the receipt of the application;
(b) the current rent,

disregarding any cents in that amount.
(3) Where a certificate has been issued under subsection (1)(b) in relation to any premises, no further

application under section 10D in respect of those premises shall be made by the person to whom the certificate has
been issued before the expiry of 6 months from the date of service of the certificate.

(Added 53 of 1993 s. 9)

Section: 10F Review 30/06/1997


(1) Where the Commissioner issues a certificate under section 10E, the landlord or the tenant may within 14
days of service on him of the certificate apply to the Commissioner by notice in duplicate in the specified form for a
review of the certificate.

(2) On receipt of an application under subsection (1) and such fee as may be determined by the Financial
Secretary, the Commissioner shall review his certificate issued under section 10E and, after giving both parties the
opportunity of making written submissions, he may affirm the certificate or cancel it and issue a new certificate under
that section, and shall serve on the parties a notice of his decision in the specified form.



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 11

(3) The Commissioner may, at the time of any review under subsection (2), determine the date from which any
increase in rent shall take effect, and, if he makes such determination, shall include such determination in the notice of
decision served under subsection (2).

(4) For the purpose of section 32(aa), an appeal shall lie to the Tribunal in respect of a decision of the
Commissioner under this section but not under section 10E.

(Added 53 of 1993 s. 9)

Section: 10G Notices of increases 30/06/1997


(1) Unless the Commissioner has made a determination under section 10F(3) or the Tribunal has made an order
under section 32(aa) regarding the date from which an increase in rent shall take effect, an increase in rent specified in
a certificate issued under section 10E(1)(a) shall not take effect except in pursuance of a notice of increase in the
specified form served by the landlord on the tenant, specifying the date from which the increase is to take effect.

(2) Where a landlord serves a notice of increase on the tenant under subsection (1) he shall, at the same time,
send a copy of the notice to the Commissioner.

(3) The date specified in a notice under subsection (1) shall not, subject to section 10H, be earlier than the first
day when rent becomes due after the expiration of 1 month from the service of the notice.

(4) Notwithstanding this section, where proceedings on a review under section 10F or an appeal under section
32(aa) are not concluded on the date specified in a notice under subsection (1), the failure by the tenant to pay the
increase in rent prior to the conclusion of such proceedings shall not be a breach of covenant to pay rent nor give rise
to a right to forfeiture.

(Added 53 of 1993 s. 9)

Section: 10H Effective date for increases 30/06/1997


(1) No increase in rent of any premises pursuant to-
(a) a notice under section 10(1A)(a);
(b) a certificate under section 10E or 10F; or
(c) an order of the Tribunal under section 32(aa),

shall take effect within a period of 1 year from the date on which the rent of the premises was last increased, whether
by agreement or otherwise.

(2) For the purposes of this section rent shall, until the contrary is proved, be deemed to have been increased if
the tenant has made any payments, other than rates, to the landlord, and such additional payments have been made as a
condition of the right to occupation of the premises.

(3) Any increase in rent under section 10(2), (3) or (3AC), 10AA, 10B or 10C shall not be an increase in rent
for the purposes of this section.

(Added 53 of 1993 s. 9)

Section: 11 Rent of premises conditionally excluded 30/06/1997


Where premises are excluded from the further application of this Part by order under section 4, and it is a
condition of the order that a building or buildings shall be erected upon the site of such premises in accordance with
the terms of such order, then until the Building Authority has certified that such condition has been fulfilled the
provisions of this Part in regard to permitted rent shall continue to apply to such premises notwithstanding such
exclusion, and it shall be unlawful to demand or receive in respect of such premises or any part thereof any rent in
excess of the permitted rent of the premises or such part, and any person who demands or receives any rent in
contravention of this section shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine of
$10000.

(Added 30 of 1955 s. 7)

Section: 12 (Repealed 53 of 1993 s. 10) 30/06/1997






Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 12

Section: 13 Statement to be supplied as to standard rent 30/06/1997


A landlord of any premises to which this Part applies shall, on being so requested in writing by the tenant of
such premises or by the superior landlord of such landlord, supply the tenant or the superior landlord, as the case may
be, with a statement in writing of the standard rent of such premises, and, if, without reasonable excuse, he fails within
14 days so to do, or supplies a statement which is false in any material particular, he shall be liable on summary
conviction to a fine of $1000.

(25 of 1947 s. 21 incorporated)

Section: 14 Postponement of permitted increase where repairs effected

by tenant
30/06/1997



If the tenant of any premises has since 16 August 1945, with the consent of the landlord of such premises,
effected repairs thereto which were necessary to render the said premises reasonably habitable and the sum expended
by such tenant has amounted to the equivalent of not less than the standard rent of such premises for a period of 6
months, that portion of the rent permitted under section 10(1) which exceeds the standard rent shall not commence to
accrue or become payable or recoverable until such time as the amount thereof would, but for this provision, have
been equal to one-half of the amount expended by the tenant on such repairs.

(25 of 1947 s. 7 incorporated. Amended 39 of 1979 s. 11)

Section: 15 Offences 30/06/1997


(1) Any person who-
(a) demands or receives rent in excess of the permitted rent of any premises; (Replaced 22 of 1953 s. 8)
(b)-(d) (Repealed 53 of 1993 s. 11)

shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine of $4000. (Amended 22 of 1953 s. 8)
(1A) It shall be a defence for a person charged with demanding or receiving rent of any premises contrary to

subsection (1) to prove-
(a) that the demand or receipt was made pursuant to a notice purportedly served under section 10(1A)(a);

and
(b) that at the time of the demand or receipt he did not know and had no reason to believe that the rent

demanded or received was in excess of the permitted rent of those premises. (Added 53 of 1993 s. 11)
(2) Upon conviction of a person of an offence against subsection (1), it shall be lawful for a magistrate, in

addition to imposing a fine-
(a) to order the defendant to pay to the tenant any sum received in excess of the permitted rent; and

(Replaced 53 of 1993 s. 11)
(b) if the defendant is a principal tenant to order his ejectment. (Replaced 22 of 1953 s. 8)

(3) Nothing in this section shall prejudice the right of any person to recovery by civil action any such sums as a
magistrate may order to be paid under the provisions of subsection (2).

(4) Any person who, in any document required under this Part to be lodged with or served on the
Commissioner, makes a false statement, knowing it to be false or not believing it to be true, commits an offence and is
liable to a fine of $5000. (Added 40 of 1984 s. 6)

(25 of 1947 s. 8 incorporated)

Section: 16 Recovery of excessive payments by civil action 30/06/1997


The person by whom any payment has been made the demanding or receiving of which is made an offence
under the provisions of section 15 may recover the amount or value thereof by action: (Amended 76 of 1981 s. 11)

Provided that any action for such recovery shall be commenced within 6 months after the making of such
payment.

(25 of 1947 s. 9 incorporated. Amended 53 of 1993 s. 12)




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 13

Section: 17 Restriction on recovery of possession and effect of
retention of possession

30/06/1997



Protected Tenancies


(1) No order against a tenant for the recovery of possession of or for ejectment from any premises to which this
Part applies shall be made otherwise than under this Part or under any Ordinance empowering any court or magistrate
to make an order terminating the tenancy of any premises or for the closure of or ejection of the tenant from, any
premises, by reason of the use thereof for immoral or illegal purposes or of the dangerous, insanitary or overcrowded
state thereof, or with respect to which any offence has been committed.

(2) Any tenant who before 23 May 1947 has retained possession of any premises by virtue of any enactment
repealed by this Part* and who is on 23 May 1947 in possession of premises to which this Part applies and any tenant
who shall retain possession by virtue of this Part shall so long as he retains possession observe and be entitled to the
benefit of all the terms and conditions of the original contract of tenancy, so far as the same are consistent with this
Part, and shall be entitled to give up possession only on giving such notice as would have been required under the
original contract of tenancy, or, if no notice would have been so required on giving not less than 1 month's notice:

Provided that notwithstanding anything in the contract of tenancy a landlord who obtains an order for the
recovery of possession from or the eviction of any tenant retaining possession as aforesaid shall not be required to give
any notice to quit to the tenant.

(3) Subsection (1) shall not apply to-
(a) proceedings by a person claiming under a title adverse and superior to that under which the original

tenancy, by virtue of which the tenant became entitled to retain possession, was derived; or
(b) proceedings against a derivative landlord:

Provided that no order or judgment against a derivative landlord for the recovery of possession or ejectment
therefrom shall affect the right of any sub-tenant to whom the premises or any part thereof shall have been lawfully
sublet before proceedings for recovery of possession or ejectment were commenced to retain possession under this
section or be in any way operative against any such sub-tenant.

(4) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (1), a closure order may be made under section 27 (Closure
Order) of the Buildings Ordinance (Cap 123). (Added 43 of 1949 s. 3)

(25 of 1947 s. 5 incorporated)
___________________________________________________________________
Note:
* See s. 38 of the Landlord and Tenant Ordinance 1947 (25 of 1947).

Section: 18 No surrender etc. of tenancy without approval 30/06/1997


(1) Subject to subsection (2), a tenant may agree to surrender or terminate his tenancy. (Replaced 53 of 1993 s.
13)

(2) An agreement mentioned in subsection (1) shall have no effect unless it is-
(a) in such form as the Commissioner shall approve;
(b) endorsed by the Commissioner under subsection (3)(c); and
(c) lodged with the Commissioner within 28 days of its execution, with such fee as may be determined by

the Financial Secretary. (Replaced 53 of 1993 s. 13)
(3) The Commissioner or any public officer authorized by him in that behalf-

(a) shall satisfy himself that the tenant-
(i) in entering or proposing to enter into an agreement under this section understands the effect of

such agreement; and
(ii) in signing or agreeing to sign such an agreement has not been subject to any undue pressure or

influence; and
(b) may make such inquiries as he thinks fit for the purposes of paragraph (a); and
(c) shall, if satisfied as to the matters specified in paragraph (a), endorse upon the agreement a certificate

to that effect in such form as the Commissioner shall, from time to time, specify. (Amended 93 of
1975 s. 5; 32 of 1985 s. 3)

(4) Nothing in subsection (3) shall be construed as imposing upon the Commissioner or any public officer any
duty to inquire into or be satisfied as to the reasonableness or otherwise of the consideration specified in the



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 14

agreement.
(5) Where, after the commencement of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1973

(64 of 1973), an agreement is made for the surrender or termination of a tenancy under subsection (1), the premises to
which the agreement relates shall be excluded from the further application of this Part. (Added 64 of 1973 s. 2)

(Added 40 of 1968 s. 2. Amended 18 of 1974 s. 2; 10 of 1975 s. 6)

Section: 19 Duties of principal tenant 30/06/1997


(1) Every principal tenant shall affix and shall keep affixed on a conspicuous part of the premises comprised in
his principal tenancy a notice in Form 1 in the Second Schedule stating the rent payable by him to his landlord and
shall give to each sub-tenant notice in writing of the part of such rent which he attributes to the premises let to such
sub-tenant.

(2) Every principal tenant shall, whether the same shall be demanded or not, give to each sub-tenant at the time
of his paying the same a receipt for the amount of the rent paid and such receipt shall state the period in respect of
which such rent was payable.

(3) Every principal tenant shall, within 1 month after becoming a principal tenant, furnish to his landlord a full
and true statement showing the name of all the sub-tenants of such principal tenant with sufficient particulars of the
parts of the premises occupied by and of the standard rent and gross rent payable by and of the date of first occupation
by each of them. (Amended 11 of 1954 s. 3)

(4) A principal tenant who fails to comply with any of the provisions of subsections (1), (2) and (3) shall be
guilty of an offence and shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine of $2000. (Amended 22 of 1953 s. 10)

(5) Upon the hearing of any summons issued under this section, it shall be lawful for a magistrate, in addition
to imposing a fine if the defendant is convicted, to order the eviction of the defendant. (Amended 22 of 1953 s. 10)

(6) Where a principal tenant is evicted under the provisions of this section or of section 15, the sub-tenants of
such principal tenant shall be deemed to be and shall thereafter be tenants of the immediate landlord of such principal
tenant and shall be deemed to hold their respective premises upon the terms and conditions upon which they held them
from the principal tenant:

Provided that such immediate landlord shall be entitled to demand or receive from such sub-tenant only such
rent as he would have been entitled to demand or receive if the tenancy of the principal tenant had been terminated
under the provisions of section 21 and shall undertake towards the sub-tenants all those obligations formerly
undertaken by the principal tenant.

(7) It shall be the duty of the immediate landlord of the principal tenant to ensure that the provisions of
subsection (1) are complied with, and an immediate landlord who fails without reasonable excuse (the burden of
proving which shall be upon him) to ensure that the said provisions are complied with shall be guilty of an offence and
shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine of $2000. (Added 22 of 1953 s. 10)

(25 of 1947 s. 11 incorporated)

Section: 19A Provision of rent receipts 30/06/1997


(1) A landlord shall give to his tenant, at the time the tenant pays the rent, a receipt for the amount of rent paid
and the receipt shall contain-

(a) the name and address of the landlord;
(b) the period in respect of which such rent was paid; and
(c) the date of payment.

(2) A landlord who fails to comply with subsection (1) commits an offence and is liable to a fine of $2000.
(Added 29 of 1983 s. 6)


Section: 20 (Repealed 40 of 1984 s. 8) 30/06/1997




Section: 21 Termination of principal tenancy 29 of 1998 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 29 of 1998 s. 105




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 15

(1) The immediate landlord of a principal tenant may by service of notice to quit in Form 2 in the Second
Schedule and in manner specified in section 44 terminate the tenancy of such tenant in accordance with the provisions
of, and to the extent provided in, this section.

(2) The length of notice given by the notice to quit aforesaid shall be either that required by the contract
between the landlord and the principal tenant or in default of any term in the contract specifying the length of notice,
one calendar month from the date of service thereof.

(3) Upon the expiration of such notice to quit-
(a) each sub-tenant shall be deemed to be the tenant of the immediate landlord and to hold the premises

upon the same terms and conditions as he held them from the principal tenant;
(b) each sub-tenant affected thereby shall be liable to pay to the immediate landlord on demand the

permitted rent of the premises let to him under contract with the principal tenant;
(c) the immediate landlord shall undertake towards each sub-tenant all those obligations undertaken by the

principal tenant previous to service of notice under subsection (1).
(4) At any time within 14 days after the service of the notice to quit, the principal tenant may elect by notice in

writing to the landlord to deliver up the whole of the premises subject to the tenancy or to retain any portion thereof
retained, immediately before the service of the notice to quit, for his own occupation.

(5) Where the principal tenant retains for his own occupation any part of the premises the subject of his tenancy
from the immediate landlord, he shall be deemed to be the tenant of the immediate landlord in respect of the retained
part and to hold the same upon a monthly tenancy. The rent of the retained part shall, subject to this Part, be such
proportion of the rent of the whole of the premises immediately before the expiration of the notice to quit as is fairly
attributable to the retained part: (Amended 53 of 1993 s. 14)

Provided that in the event of any dispute between the immediate landlord and the principal tenant as to the
amount of the rent payable by such principal tenant, such dispute may be referred to and decided by the
Commissioner. (Amended 76 of 1981 s. 12)

(6) Notwithstanding anything in this Part, and in particular, the definition of "tenant" (租客) in section 2, a
lessee of the Government who recovers by virtue of this section any premises to which this section relates shall be
deemed to be an immediate landlord of his principal tenant for all the purposes of this section and shall have all the
rights and obligations conferred and imposed by this section on an immediate landlord. (Amended 29 of 1998 s. 105)

(Replaced 22 of 1953 s. 11)

Section: 22 Saving as to new agreements to vacate 30/06/1997


Nothing in this Part shall be taken to limit the right of a landlord and tenant (whether or not the tenant is a tenant
to whom section 17(2) applies) to agree to such stipulations and conditions as they shall think fit in regard to the
duration of the tenancy and in particular to any stipulation in regard to termination of the tenancy in the event of the
landlord desiring to sell the premises or to obtain possession for occupation by himself or any member of his family:
(Amended 53 of 1993 s. 15)

Provided that no landlord shall be entitled by reason of any agreement made under the foregoing provision to
obtain an order for the ejectment of any tenant unless he satisfies the Tribunal or a court, as the case may be, that the
tenant intended by such agreement to deprive himself of the protection against ejectment afforded by this Part.
(Amended 30 of 1955 s. 4; 76 of 1981 s. 13)

(25 of 1947 s. 13 incorporated)

Section: 23 Saving for unexpired term 30/06/1997


Nothing in this Part shall entitle any landlord during the currency of any written lease of any premises for a
definite and unexpired term, to any rent higher than the rent reserved in such lease.

(25 of 1947 s. 14 incorporated)

Section: 24 Landlord may enter and effect necessary repairs 30/06/1997


(1) A landlord and his servants and agents may-
(a) at all reasonable times, enter and inspect the premises the subject of the tenancy with a view to

ascertaining whether they require any necessary repairs; and



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 16

(b) after service upon the tenant of 14 days' notice in writing of intention so to do, enter upon the premises
the subject of the tenancy and effect all necessary repairs.

(2) For the purposes of this section, "necessary repairs" (必需的修茸) means any repairs which the tenant
would be required to perform were he under covenant with the landlord to keep the premises in a tenantable state of
repair.

(3) The Tribunal on the application of a tenant or a landlord may-
(a) determine any dispute or difference between a tenant and a landlord as to the construction and

application of this section;
(b) decide whether any repairs which the landlord proposes to execute are necessary repairs;
(c) order a tenant for such period as to the Tribunal may appear reasonable to vacate the premises the

subject of the tenancy or part thereof to facilitate the execution of necessary repairs, and in its
discretion grant any extension of such period;

(d) order the ejectment of a tenant who, in the opinion of the Tribunal, has unreasonably refused to allow
the landlord to enter the premises the subject of the tenancy or any part thereof for the purpose of
effecting any necessary repairs or in order to ascertain whether there are necessary repairs to be
effected;

(e) order the tenant to suffer the landlord and his servants and agents to enter upon the premises the
subject of the tenancy or part thereof for the purpose of executing all necessary repairs, or in order to
ascertain whether there are any necessary repairs to be effected, and give any direction which may
appear to it to be desirable with regard to the manner and times in which and at which the repairs are to
be effected;

(f) order that in respect of any period during which the premises the subject of the tenancy have been
reasonably vacated by the tenant to facilitate the execution of necessary repairs, the permitted rent
shall abate by such proportion as the period during which the tenant has so vacated the premises bears
to the concurrent period or periods in respect of which rent is payable; or

(g) order restoration of possession to a tenant entitled to such possession by virtue of subsection (4).
(4) A tenant who in order to facilitate the execution of necessary repairs vacates the premises the subject of the

tenancy or part thereof whether of his own volition or at the request of the landlord or pursuant to an order of the
Tribunal shall not be deemed to have lost possession thereof unless the Tribunal has ordered his ejectment under
subsection (3)(d), and shall be entitled to have possession restored to him (as soon as conveniently may be after the
repairs have been effected), and the Tribunal is hereby empowered upon application by the tenant to make an order
that possession be restored to the tenant.

(Added 22 of 1953 s. 7. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 14)

Section: 25 (Repealed 76 of 1981 s. 15) 30/06/1997




Section: 26 (Repealed 76 of 1981 s. 15) 30/06/1997




Section: 27 (Repealed 76 of 1981 s. 15) 30/06/1997




Section: 28 Commissioner may approve contracting out in certain
circumstances

30/06/1997



(1) A landlord and a tenant or prospective tenant of any premises to which this Part applies may make a joint
application to the Commissioner for his approval under subsection (3) of the terms of any tenancy agreement into
which they propose to enter.

(2) An application under subsection (1) shall be in the specified form in triplicate and shall be accompanied by
a copy of the proposed agreement and such fee as may be determined by the Financial Secretary. (Amended 32 of
1985 s. 4)

(3) Notwithstanding anything contained in this Part, the Commissioner shall, if he is satisfied in relation to the
proposed agreement- (Amended 32 of 1985 s. 4)



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 17

(a) that the tenant or prospective tenant understands its effect;
(b) that the tenant or prospective tenant in assenting to enter into such an agreement has not been subject

to any undue pressure or influence; and
(c) that no sub-tenants are prejudiced thereby,

approve the proposed agreement and endorse the application submitted to him under subsection (1) with a statement to
that effect and serve a copy thereof on the landlord and on the tenant or prospective tenant.

(4) The Commissioner may make such inquiries as he thinks fit for the purposes of subsection (3) but nothing
in subsection (3) or this subsection shall be construed as imposing on the Commissioner or any public officer any duty
to inquire into or be satisfied as to the reasonableness or otherwise of the consideration specified in the agreement.

(5) Where the Commissioner approves the terms of a proposed agreement under subsection (3) the parties may
execute a tenancy agreement in the terms so approved, notwithstanding anything in this Part.

(6) Where an agreement is executed under subsection (5)-
(a) the landlord shall lodge a copy thereof with the Commissioner within 28 days of its execution; and

(Amended 40 of 1984 s. 9)
(b) the building or part thereof to which the agreement relates shall be excluded from the further

application of this Part notwithstanding the termination or expiry of the agreement.
(Replaced 39 of 1979 s. 12)

(For savings and transitional provisions see 39 of 1979 s. 25(1))

Section: 29 Commissioner may revise rent in certain cases 30/06/1997


Subject to section 23, if the standard rent of any premises either-
(a) is a rent which was agreed upon in writing at some date before 1 July 1937; or
(b) is not higher than the rent recoverable from the tenant in actual occupation on 1 July 1937,

the landlord of such premises may apply to the Commissioner to fix, and the Commissioner may fix, such other rent as
the Commissioner shall think fit as the standard rent to be paid in respect of such premises during the continuance of
this Part:

Provided that nothing in this section shall affect any rent which became due before the date of the determination
by the Commissioner fixing the rent.

(25 of 1947 s. 16 incorporated. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 16)

Section: 30 Commissioner may increase standard rent if unreasonably

low
30/06/1997



Notwithstanding anything contained in this Part, the Commissioner may, on the application of a landlord,
increase the standard rent of any premises by such amount as the Commissioner considers reasonable, if the
Commissioner is satisfied that- (Amended 76 of 1981 s. 17; 32 of 1985 s. 5)

(a) the standard rent of the premises is unreasonably low, having regard to the general level of rents
prevailing on 25 December 1941 for premises of a similar character in the same neighbourhood; or

(b) the standard rent of the premises ought to be increased, having regard to improvements in the
amenities of the neighbourhood in which the premises are situate, such improvements having occurred
after 25 December 1941.

(Added 22 of 1953 s. 13)

Section: 31 Commissioner may decrease standard rent if unreasonably

high
30/06/1997



Notwithstanding anything contained in this Part, the Commissioner may, on the application of a tenant, decrease
the standard rent of any premises by such amount as he considers reasonable, if the Commissioner is satisfied that the
standard rent of the premises ought to be decreased, having regard to any deterioration in the amenities of the
neighbourhood, or in the condition of the premises, such deterioration having occurred after 25 December 1941.

(Added 22 of 1953 s. 13. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 18; 29 of 1983 s. 7)




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 18

Section: 32 Tribunal may hear appeals and, in certain cases, fix or
apportion rent, etc.

30/06/1997



The Tribunal on the application of landlord or tenant may-
(aa) hear any appeal from any decision, determination or assessment of the Commissioner made under this

Part, provided that the application is made within 1 month after the applicant is notified of the
decision, determination or assessment; or (Added 76 of 1981 s. 19. Amended 53 of 1993 s. 16)

(a) fix any rent which for any reason is not otherwise determinable under the provisions of this Part; or
(b) apportion any rent to which this Part relates; or (Amended 29 of 1983 s. 8; 53 of 1993 s. 16)
(c) entertain and determine any dispute or difference as to the amount of rent payable in respect of any

premises to which this Part applies including any increase of rent, and any charge for the use of
furniture by or the provision of services to the tenant, or so far as may be necessary to carry this Part
into effect as to the right to the possession of such premises; or

(d) entertain and determine concurrently with any other application, any application for the payment of
rent or mesne profits of any premises to which this Part applies accruing due on or after 1 October
1945,

and make such order thereon as the Tribunal shall think fit.
(25 of 1947 s. 17 incorporated. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 19)


Section: 33 Order for ejectment of tenant 30/06/1997


(1) The Tribunal on the application of a landlord may make an order for the recovery of possession from or the
ejectment of-

(a) a principal tenant who has been served with a notice under section 21 and who has elected to quit and
failed to do so or who has collected or attempted to collect rent from the sub-tenants of such premises
in respect of a period subsequent to the expiration of a calendar month following the service of such
notice; (Amended 11 of 1954 s. 5)

(b) a tenant who has been convicted of an offence against this Part or of using or suffering or permitting to
be used the premises or any part thereof for an immoral or illegal purpose;

(c) a tenant who, except for a cause which the Tribunal shall deem sufficient to entitle the tenant to the
continued protection of this Part being a cause not attributable either to his own default or to lack of
means, fails to pay within 15 days after demand the permitted rent which has accrued due; (Replaced
22 of 1953 s. 14. Amended 29 of 1983 s. 9)

(d) a tenant who has failed to observe and perform any stipulation or condition of his tenancy agreement
other than save as hereinafter provided a stipulation or condition imposing an obligation to vacate the
premises;

(e) a tenant who has agreed to vacate the premises and who, in the opinion of the Tribunal, intended by
such agreement to deprive himself of the protection against ejectment afforded by this Part;

(f) a person who became a tenant between 16 August 1945 and 23 May 1947 upon the condition that he
should vacate the premises on the return of the person who was the tenant before 25 December 1941
and who has neglected or refused so to vacate the premises upon receipt of notice from the landlord
that such former tenant had returned to Hong Kong and that the premises were required for his use;
(Amended 32 of 1985 s. 6)

(g) a tenant who has given written notice to quit the premises and has failed to quit the same on the expiry
of such notice;

(h) a tenant who has been guilty of conduct, or has suffered any person residing or lodging with him to be
guilty of conduct, which is a nuisance or annoyance to the landlord or to other tenants or the occupiers
of adjacent premises, or has persistently failed to keep his premises in a reasonably sanitary condition
by reason of which failure the landlord has been required to comply with a notice served upon him
under section 127 of the Public Health and Municipal Services Ordinance (Cap 132); (Amended 10 of
1986 s. 32(1))

(i) a tenant who obtained a tenancy by reason of being employed by his landlord and who has ceased to be
in such employment;

(j) a tenant of land which has not been developed by the erection of buildings of a permanent character,
which is required by a landlord for his own use or for the erection of buildings of a permanent



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 19

character.
(2) No order for the recovery of possession of any premises from a tenant or for the ejectment of a tenant of

any premises shall be made under the provisions of subsection (1)(c) unless it is established by the landlord to the
satisfaction of the Tribunal that the demand which the tenant has failed to meet was for a sum of money not in excess
of the permitted rent of the premises. (Added 22 of 1953 s. 14)

(25 of 1947 s. 18 incorporated. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 20)

Section: 34 Order for ejectment of principal tenant not to operate

against sub-tenants
30/06/1997



An order for ejectment made against any principal tenant shall not, unless the Tribunal so directs, operate as an
order for ejectment of any sub-tenant of such principal tenant, but immediately upon the making of such an order such
sub-tenants shall be deemed to be tenants of the immediate landlord of the principal tenant in like manner as is
provided by section 21(3) and such immediate landlord shall undertake towards them the obligations theretofore
undertaken by the principal tenant.

(25 of 1947 s. 23 incorporated. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 21)

Section: 35 Order for recovery where domestic premises are required

for occupation by landlord, etc.
30/06/1997



(1) The Tribunal on the application of a landlord or of the personal representative of a deceased landlord (not
being a landlord who has become such landlord by purchasing premises or any interest therein after 1 September
1946) may make an order for the recovery of possession of any domestic premises or for the ejectment of the tenant
therefrom where such premises are reasonably required for occupation as a residence for such landlord or for any son
or daughter of his over 18 years of age, or, where the landlord is dead, for the surviving spouse, son or daughter over
18 years of age or father or mother of such deceased landlord:

Provided that no such order shall be made unless the Tribunal is satisfied having regard to all the circumstances
of the case, including any alternative accommodation available for the persons for whose occupation the premises are
so required or for the tenant, that greater hardship would be caused by refusing to grant the order than by granting it.

(2) No person obtaining an order for the recovery of possession of or ejectment from any premises under
subsection (1) shall within 12 months after the date of such order assign, transfer, sublet or part with the possession of
the premises or any part thereof without the previous consent of the Tribunal.

(3) Where a person has obtained an order for the recovery of possession of or ejectment from any premises
under the provision of subsection (1) and it is subsequently made to appear to the Tribunal that the order was obtained
in bad faith or by the misrepresentation or concealment of material facts or where such person is shown to have acted
in breach of the provisions of subsection (2), the Tribunal may order the landlord to pay to the former tenant such sum
as may appear to the Tribunal to be sufficient to compensate such tenant for the cost, damage, loss or inconvenience
sustained by him as a result of the order for recovery of possession or ejectment.

(25 of 1947 s. 19 incorporated. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 22)

Section: 36 Order where subletting is made without landlord's consent 30/06/1997


The Tribunal on the application of a landlord may make an order for the recovery of possession from or
ejectment of the occupier of any premises the rent whereof is payable monthly, the tenant of which has, after 1 March
1946 without the consent in writing of the landlord, assigned, transferred, sublet or parted with the possession of such
premises or any part thereof:

Provided that no order shall be made under this section against an occupier holding as the sub-tenant of a
principal tenant any portion of any domestic premises which premises before 22 October 1945 were divided into and
let as separate domestic premises, or since that date have, with the consent of the landlord, been so divided and let.

(25 of 1947 s. 20 incorporated. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 23)




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 20

Section: 37 Tenant if a party to an application under section 36 shall
be bound by an order made thereunder

30/06/1997



A tenant who has been made a party to an application under section 36 shall without prejudice to any appeal be
bound by an order in favour of the landlord made under that section, and any tenancy in the premises to which the
order relates to which such tenant is or might be entitled by virtue of this Part shall cease and determine.

(Added 22 of 1953 s. 15)

Section: 38 Apparent change in occupancy shifts onus of proof to

tenant
30/06/1997



Where a landlord establishes a prima facie case that there has been an apparent change in the occupancy of
premises or of part thereof, the tenant shall be deemed to have parted with the possession of such premises or of such
part unless he satisfies the Tribunal to the contrary.

(Added 22 of 1953 s. 15. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 24)

Section: 39 A tenant about to absent himself from Hong Kong for

certain periods may sublet under conditions
30/06/1997



(1) A tenant of domestic premises not being a corporation or unincorporate body shall not be deemed to have
assigned, transferred, sublet or parted with possession for the purposes of section 36 if the Tribunal is satisfied that-
(Amended 76 of 1981 s. 25)

(a) he sublet to a person for a period during which the tenant was absent from Hong Kong; and
(b) such subletting occurred with the consent of the landlord or the landlord's consent was unreasonably

withheld; and
(c) the tenant was absent from Hong Kong for a period of not less than 3 and not more than 9 months; and
(d) such person did not pay or promise to pay to the tenant a consideration in excess of the rent payable by

the tenant to the landlord. (Amended 32 of 1985 s. 7)
(2) Whether or not the conditions of this section have been complied with a person who has obtained

possession of premises to which this Part applies on condition that he will give up possession to the tenant on the
tenant's return to Hong Kong shall not be entitled to the protection of this Part as against the tenant after such tenant's
return or as against the landlord. (Amended 32 of 1985 s. 7)

(3) Nothing herein contained shall entitle a person who has obtained possession of any premises by reason of
this section to retain possession as against the landlord after the expiration of 9 months from the date when he first
obtained such possession.

(Added 22 of 1953 s. 15)

Section: 40 Power to adjourn, etc. 30/06/1997


Upon any application for the recovery of possession of any premises or the ejectment of the tenant therefrom the
Tribunal may-

(a) in lieu of making an order adjourn the application for a period not exceeding 30 days and subject to
such conditions as it thinks proper;

(b) upon making such order direct that it shall not be operative until the expiration of any period not
exceeding 30 days specified in such order and may make any such direction subject to such conditions
as it thinks proper.

(25 of 1947 s. 22 incorporated. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 26)

Section: 41 (Repealed 76 of 1981 s. 27) 30/06/1997




Section: 42 (Repealed 76 of 1981 s. 27) 30/06/1997






Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 21

Section: 43 Appeal to Court of Appeal 30/06/1997


(1) Any party to proceedings before the Tribunal may appeal to the Court of Appeal against a determination or
order of the Tribunal on the ground that such determination or order is erroneous in point of law.

(2) An appeal under this section shall be subject to the provisions of, and any rules made under, the Lands
Tribunal Ordinance (Cap 17).

(Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 28)

Section: 43A Costs 30/06/1997


In any proceedings under this Part, the Tribunal shall not make an order as to costs against a party unless that
party has conducted his case in frivolous or vexatious manner.

(Added 76 of 1981 s. 29)

Section: 43B Enlargement of time 30/06/1997


General


The Commissioner may extend any time fixed by this Part for the making of any application to him or for the
lodging of any document with him.

(Added 40 of 1984 s. 10)

Section: 44 Service of notice 44 of 2000 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 44 of 2000 s. 3


(1) Service of any notice, application, certificate or other document under this Part may be effected-
(a) by personal service;
(b) by post, addressed to the last known place of business or residence of the person to be served;
(c) in the case of service on a tenant, by leaving the notice, application, certificate or other document with

an adult occupier of the premises in which the tenant resides and to which such document relates; or
(d) by affixing a copy of it to a prominent part of the premises to which it relates. (Replaced 53 of 1993 s.

17)
(1A) A certificate purporting to be signed by a person who states in that certificate that he effected service under

subsection (1) or (2) shall be prima facie evidence of the facts stated in the certificate relating to that service. (Added
53 of 1993 s. 17)

(2) The provisions of subsection (1) shall not apply in respect of the service of any notice under section 21, but
in such cases service shall be effected by posting the prescribed form of notice in English and Chinese, upon the main
door or entrance of the premises affected, and by reposting the same if necessary upon the second and third day
thereafter, and upon the expiration of the third day such notice shall be deemed to have been served upon all persons
including sub-tenants affected thereby. (Added 22 of 1953 s. 22. Amended 14 of 1957 s. 3; 44 of 2000 s. 3)

(3) (Repealed 53 of 1993 s. 17)

Section: 44A Exercise of powers of Commissioner 30/06/1997


(1) The Commissioner may, for the purposes of this Part-
(a) serve on any person a requisition in the specified form requiring him to furnish to the Commissioner,

within such reasonable period as the Commissioner may specify in the form, the particulars reasonably
required by the Commissioner by the requisition;

(b) require the landlord, tenant or sub-tenant or former landlord, tenant or sub-tenant of any premises to
exhibit to him all documents relating to the tenancy and user of the premises, including leases, receipts
for rent, rent-books and accounts, and the Commissioner may take copies of those documents;

(c) at any reasonable time, with the consent of the occupier, enter and inspect any premises and take such
measurements and other particulars as he thinks fit;



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 22

(d) require the occupier or other person in control of the premises, following not less than 24 hours notice
in writing delivered at the premises, to allow the Commissioner to enter and inspect those premises at
any reasonable time and take such measurements and other particulars as he thinks fit;

(e) after the expiry of not less than 24 hours notice in writing to the occupier of the premises or, if the
occupier cannot be found, to the landlord or other person in control of the premises, enter at any
reasonable time during day-light (using such force as may be necessary) and inspect any premises and
take such measurements and other particulars as he thinks fit.

(2) Any public officer or class of public officer employed in the Rating and Valuation Department and
authorized in writing in that behalf by the Commissioner may exercise any of the powers and perform any of the
duties conferred or imposed on the Commissioner by this Part.

(Replaced 40 of 1984 s. 12)

Section: 44B Refusal to furnish information and obstruction 30/06/1997


(1) Any person who, without reasonable excuse-
(a) refuses or neglects to furnish any of the particulars specified under section 44A(1)(a);
(b) refuses or neglects to exhibit any document he is required to exhibit under section 44A(1)(b);
(c) refuses to allow the Commissioner to take copies of any document exhibited under section 44A(1)(b);

or
(d) obstructs or evades the exercise of any power under section 44A(1)(c), (d) or (e),

commits an offence and is liable to a fine of $10000 and to imprisonment for 3 months.
(2) Where the Commissioner is frustrated or obstructed in the exercise of any power under section 44A(1)(c),

(d) or (e), he may apply to the court for an order authorizing him to enter and inspect the premises concerned and
exercise his powers and requiring the landlord, tenant, sub-tenant, occupier or person having control of the premises to
allow the Commissioner to enter and inspect those premises and exercise his powers; and the court shall have
jurisdiction to make such order as it thinks fit.

(3) An application under subsection (2) may be made at the conclusion of any proceedings in respect of an
alleged offence under subsection (1) (whether or not any person is convicted) or independently of any such
proceedings.

(4) In this section, "court" (法院) means the District Court, the Tribunal or a magistrate.
(Added 40 of 1984 s. 12)


Section: 45 Prohibition of acts done mala fide with intent to induce a

lessee to quit
30/06/1997



(1) Any person who shall mala fide do any act whatsoever with intent to induce the lessee of any premises to
give up possession thereof shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine of $2000.

(2) Upon the hearing of any summons issued under this section it shall be lawful for a magistrate, in addition to
imposing a fine if the defendant is convicted, to order the defendant to pay to the lessee such sum as may appear to the
magistrate to be sufficient to compensate the lessee for any costs, damages, loss or inconvenience sustained by him by
reason of such act.

(25 of 1947 s. 33 incorporated. Amended 22 of 1953 s. 23)

Section: 46 Collection of rates not to be affected 30/06/1997


Nothing in this Part shall be construed so as to prevent a landlord from collecting from his tenant the rates for
the time being payable in respect of any premises or such apportioned sum as shall properly be attributable to such
premises in respect of rates, provided that the obligation of paying the rates in respect of such premises was assumed
by the tenant under the terms of the tenancy.

(25 of 1947 s. 37 incorporated)

Section: 47 Forms 44 of 2000 01/07/1997


Remarks:



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 23

Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 44 of 2000 s. 3


(1) The forms in the Second Schedule are prescribed for use under this Part and shall in each case be in English
and Chinese. (Added 22 of 1953 s. 33. Amended 44 of 2000 s. 3)

(2) Subject to subsection (1), the Commissioner may-
(a) specify any form to be used under this Part;
(b) publish any such form in the Gazette; and
(c) in his discretion accept any notice or application served on him which is not in the specified form.

(Added 93 of 1975 s. 10)

Section: 48 Expiry of this Part 30/06/1997


(1) Subject to subsections (3), (4) and (5), this Part, except sections 6 and 7, shall expire at midnight on 31
December 1998. (Amended L.N. 518 of 1996)

(2) The Legislative Council may by resolution amend subsection (1) by substituting for the date specified in
that subsection such date as may be specified in the resolution.

(3) If, within 1 year before the expiry of this Part under subsection (1)-
(a) an increase in the rent of any premises, other than an increase under section 10(2), (3) or (3AC),

10AA, 10B or 10C, becomes effective;
(b) a notice of an alteration in rent of any premises is lodged with the Commissioner under section 9B(2);
(c) the landlord of any premises serves notice of an increase in rent in accordance with section 10(1A)(a)

or 10G(1); or
(d) the Tribunal makes an order in respect of an appeal under section 32(aa) from a decision of the

Commissioner under section 10F,
this Part, except section 10D, shall continue to apply to those premises for a period of 1 year from the date on which
that increase or alteration becomes effective.

(4) If, before this Part ceases to apply to any particular premises, the landlord or tenant of those premises serves
and posts notice of his desire to obtain an order of the Tribunal under section 4(2) excluding the premises from the
further application of this Part-

(a) section 4 shall continue to apply to that application notwithstanding this section; and
(b) if an order is made under section 4(2) the tenancy of the premises shall be excluded from the

application of Part IV.
(5) If, before this Part ceases to apply to any particular premises, a tenant of those premises agrees in such form

as the Commissioner shall approve to surrender or terminate his tenancy-
(a) that agreement may become effective under section 18 notwithstanding this section; and
(b) if the agreement becomes effective the tenancy shall be surrendered or terminated notwithstanding Part

IV.
(6) If, before this Part ceases to apply to any particular premises, an application is made under section 33, 35 or

36 for the recovery of possession of those premises or for the ejectment of a tenant or occupier of those premises-
(a) that section and sections 34, 37, 38, 39, 40, 43 and 43A shall continue to apply to that application

notwithstanding this section;
(b) an order of the Tribunal under section 33(1), 35(1) or 36 shall take effect notwithstanding Part IV; and
(c) any tenancy deemed to arise under section 34 after this Part has ceased to apply to the premises shall

be governed by Part IV.
(7) Subject to subsections (4), (5) and (6), when by virtue of subsection (1) or (3) this Part ceases to apply to

any particular premises, Part IV shall apply to the tenancy of those premises.
(Added 53 of 1993 s. 18)


Part: II TENURE AND RENT OF DOMESTIC PREMISES 30/06/1997


(Part II replaced 78 of 1973 s. 2)




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 24

Section: 49 Interpretation 23 of 1998; 29 of
1998

01/07/1997



Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 23 of 1998 s. 2; 29 of 1998 s. 105


Interpretation and Application


In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires-
"Building Authority" (建築事務監督) means the Building Authority under the Buildings Ordinance (Cap 123);
"Commissioner" (署長) means the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation;
"court" (法院) means the District Court;
"current rent" (現行租金) means, except in section 51B, the rent, exclusive of rates, payable by a tenant at the date of

an application under section 57; (Amended 40 of 1984 s. 13)
"forfeiture" (沒收租賃權) means forfeiture-

(a) for breach of any provision of a tenancy or sub-tenancy; or
(b) under a provision of a tenancy or sub-tenancy allowing forfeiture or determination following the

destruction, or partial destruction, of or damage to the premises; (Added 40 of 1984 s. 13)
"landlord" (業主) includes any person, other than the Government, who is from time to time entitled to receive rent in

respect of any premises and, in relation to a particular tenant, means a person entitled to receive rent from such
tenant; (Amended 29 of 1998 s. 105)

"prevailing market rent" (市值租金) means, except in section 51B, the rent, exclusive of rates, at which premises the
subject matter of a tenancy to which this Part applies might reasonably be expected to be let, at the date upon
which the Commissioner issues his certificate under section 58, on the terms of the tenancy (other than those
relating to rent and duration of the tenancy) but disregarding the effect of this Part; (Amended 29 of 1983 ss. 10
& 46; 40 of 1984 s. 13)

"principal tenant" (主租客) means a tenant of premises, other than a Government lessee, who has sublet the whole or
any part or parts thereof as a separate holding or holdings; (Amended 29 of 1998 s. 105)

"repealed Part II" (已廢除的第II部) means Part II of the Ordinance repealed by section 2 of the Landlord and
Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) (No. 2) Ordinance 1973 (78 of 1973);

"tenancy" (租賃) includes an agreement for a tenancy;
"tenant" (租客) or "sub-tenant" (分租客) does not include a Government lessee but includes- (Amended 29 of 1998

s. 105)
(a) a person who, on 18 December 1979, is in possession of premises the subject matter of a tenancy or

sub-tenancy to which this Part, whether by virtue of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation)
(Amendment) Ordinance 1980 (6 of 1980) or otherwise, applies; (Amended 6 of 1980 s. 2)

(b) (Repealed 6 of 1980 s. 2)
(c) a person who retains possession of any premises by virtue of this Part; (Amended 93 of 1975 s. 12)
(d) any government other than the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, or a

public body, corporation, partnership or firm, which is the tenant or sub-tenant of premises the subject
matter of a tenancy or sub-tenancy to which this Part applies; (Added 6 of 1980 s. 2. Amended 23 of
1998 s. 2)

"tenement" (物業單位) means any building, structure, or part thereof, which is held or occupied as a distinct or
separate tenancy or holding or under any licence; (Added 93 of 1975 s. 12)

"Tribunal" (審裁處) means the Lands Tribunal established under the Lands Tribunal Ordinance (Cap 17). (Replaced
76 of 1981 s. 31)


Section: 50 Application 29 of 1998; 44 of

2000
01/07/1997



Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 29 of 1998 s. 105; 44 of 2000 s. 3



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 25


(1) Subject to subsection (6), this Part applies to every domestic tenancy and domestic sub-tenancy of post-war

premises, whether the same was effected orally or in writing and notwithstanding any provision in such tenancy or
sub-tenancy, including any provision purporting generally or specifically to exclude this Part. (Amended 29 of 1983
s. 11)

(2) For the purposes of this section, "post-war premises" (戰後處所) means premises to which Part I does not
apply by virtue of section 3(1)(a). (Replaced 29 of 1983 s. 11)

(3) The burden of proving that premises in a building are not post-war premises shall lie on the person so
asserting; and a copy of a written permit of the Building Authority to occupy a building shall be prima facie evidence
that premises in that building are not post-war if the permit purports to have been issued prior to 17 August 1945.
(Amended 29 of 1983 s. 11)

(4) (a) The benefits and protection afforded by this Part shall, in any tenancy or sub-tenancy to which it
applies, be available to the widow, widower, mother, father or any daughter or son over the age of 18
years of the tenant or sub-tenant, as the case may be, where she or he was residing with the tenant or
sub-tenant at the time of his or her death, and for the purposes of this Part references to tenant or sub-
tenant shall, except in this subsection, be deemed to include a reference to such widow, widower,
mother, father, daughter or son. (Amended 29 of 1983 s. 11; 40 of 1984 s. 14)

(b) Only one person mentioned in paragraph (a) shall be entitled to the benefits and protection of this Part
at one time and, in default of agreement by those persons, the Tribunal shall nominate that person on
such grounds as appears to it to be just and equitable. (Added 29 of 1983 s. 11)

(c) The benefits and protection afforded by this Part shall not be available to a personal representative of a
deceased tenant or sub-tenant or, notwithstanding any will or the law of succession on intestacy, any
other person who is not a person mentioned in paragraph (a) as entitled to those benefits or that
protection. (Added 40 of 1984 s. 14)

(5) (Repealed 6 of 1980 s. 3)
(6) This Part shall not apply to the following-

(a) a tenancy or sub-tenancy-
(i) of premises to which Part I applies; or
(ii) of premises in respect of which there is in existence an order under section 4; (Replaced 24 of

1980 s. 2. Amended 29 of 1983 s. 11)
(b) a tenancy or sub-tenancy of land unbuilt on;
(c) a tenancy or sub-tenancy of agricultural land, which expression shall have the meaning assigned to it

by section 36 of the Rating Ordinance (Cap 116), including such a tenancy or sub-tenancy where there
is on the land a dwelling house occupied by persons working the land;

(d) a tenancy or sub-tenancy where the landlord or principal tenant is the employer and the tenant or sub-
tenant is the employee in possession of the premises in accordance with the terms and conditions of his
employment, being terms and conditions which require him to vacate the accommodation on ceasing to
be so employed;

(e) a tenancy held from the Government, the Hong Kong Housing Authority, the Hong Kong Housing
Society or the Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation Limited, or a sub-tenancy created out of such
a tenancy; (Amended 52 of 1981 s. 2; 53 of 1993 s. 19; 29 of 1998 s. 105)

(f)-(g) (Repealed 76 of 1981 s. 32)
(h) (Repealed 29 of 1983 s. 11)
(i)-(k) (Repealed 6 of 1980 s. 3)
(l) a tenancy or sub-tenancy of any premises in a building in respect of which an appropriate certificate

was first issued or which premises were completed or substantially rebuilt on or after 19 June 1981;
and, for the purposes of this paragraph, "appropriate certificate" (適當證明書) means-
(i) an occupation permit, including a temporary occupation permit, issued by the Building Authority

under section 21 (2) of the Buildings Ordinance (Cap 123); or
(ii) where section 21 of the Buildings Ordinance (Cap 123) does not apply to the premises by virtue

of the Buildings Ordinance (Application to the New Territories) Ordinance (Cap 322 1964 Ed.)
or the Buildings Ordinance (Application to the New Territories) Ordinance (Cap 121), a
certificate issued by the Director of Lands, or any person authorized by him, certifying that the
premises are complete; or (Amended L.N. 370 of 1981; L.N. 76 of 1982; L.N. 94 of 1986; 60 of



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 26

1987 s. 14; L.N. 291 of 1993)
(iii) where section 21 of the Buildings Ordinance (Cap 123) does not apply to the premises by virtue

of section 18 of the Housing Ordinance (Cap 283), a certificate issued by the Director of
Housing, or any person authorized by him, certifying that the premises are complete; (Added 52
of 1981 s. 2. Amended 29 of 1983 s. 11)

(m) a tenancy or sub-tenancy of premises the rateable value of which is not less than $30000 or such other
sum as the Legislative Council by resolution determines; (Replaced 52 of 1981 s. 3. Amended 29 of
1983 s. 11; 40 of 1984 s. 14; 32 of 1985 s. 8)

(n) a tenancy or sub-tenancy in writing created after 18 December 1981 for a fixed term of 5 years or
longer which contains no provision-
(i) for earlier determination by the landlord otherwise than by forfeiture; and
(ii) for any premium or fine or for any increase in the rent during the fixed term; (Added 76 of 1981

s. 32)
(o) a tenancy or sub-tenancy created on or after 10 June 1983 of premises of which, or of part of which,

the tenant or sub-tenant under that tenancy or sub-tenancy is not already in possession under another
tenancy or sub-tenancy. (Added 29 of 1983 s. 11)

(7)-(8) (Repealed 29 of 1983 s. 11)
(9) The Chief Executive may by order exclude from the further application this Part any class of tenancy or

sub-tenancy, any class of premises or any particular tenancy or sub-tenancy or premises. (Amended 44 of 2000 s. 3)
(10) Subject to subsection (12), for the purposes of this section, the rateable value of any premises shall be-

(a) in the case of premises being a tenement included in the valuation list declared in March 1977 under
section 13 of the Rating Ordinance (Cap 116) as amended or altered from time to time up to and
including 10 June 1983, the rateable value contained in that list on 10 June 1983; and

(b) in any other case, the rateable value which would have been contained in the list referred to in
paragraph (a) on 10 June 1983 had the premises been included in that list and which is certified by the
Commissioner as regards the premises for the purposes of this section and that certificate shall be final
and binding. (Replaced 29 of 1983 s. 11. Amended 77 of 1988 s. 3)

(11) The dates mentioned in subsection (10) may be amended by resolution of the Legislative Council. (Added
29 of 1983 s. 11. Amended 77 of 1988 s. 3)

(12) Any tenancy or sub-tenancy of premises excluded from this Part at any time by virtue of the operation of
subsection (6)(m) shall continue to be so excluded notwithstanding any amendment of subsection (10). (Added 29 of
1983 s. 11. Amended 77 of 1988 s. 3)

Section: 50A Block lettings 30/06/1997


Expanded Cross Reference:

55, 55A, 56, 56A, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 63A, 64, 65, 66



(1) For the purposes of this Part, where a tenancy is of premises consisting of 2 or more dwellings, which
dwellings have an aggregated rateable value of not less than the sum mentioned in paragraph (m) of section 50(6), that
paragraph shall not have the effect of excluding from the application of this Part a dwelling in those premises the
rateable value of which is less than that sum; and unless otherwise excluded, this Part shall apply to such a dwelling in
accordance with subsection (2).

(2) Where, by virtue of subsection (1), this Part applies to a dwelling, that dwelling-
(a) shall be deemed to be premises subject to a separate tenancy to which this Part applies and, if it is

subject to a sub-tenancy, that sub-tenancy shall be deemed to have been created out of that separate
tenancy; and

(b) shall have, for the purposes of sections 55 to 66, a rent, as determined under section 50B, payable and
recoverable in respect of it. (Amended 40 of 1984 s. 15)

(Added 52 of 1981 s. 4)

Section: 50B Continuation of tenancies in block lettings 30/06/1997


(1) Where-



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 27

(a) by virtue of section 50A(2), a dwelling is deemed to be subject to a separate tenancy; and
(b) that separate tenancy continues in existence by virtue of section 52,

the rent and other terms of the tenancy of that dwelling during that continuation shall be consistent with this Part and-
(i) shall be as agreed by the parties; or
(ii) failing agreement-

(A) the rent shall be as determined by the Commissioner in accordance with subsection (2); and
(B) the other terms shall be as determined by the Tribunal in accordance with subsection (3).

(2) (a) The rent of a tenancy for the purposes of subsection (1)(ii)(A) shall be such part of the whole rent
payable for the premises mentioned in section 50A(1) as is apportioned to that tenancy by the
Commissioner who shall have regard to the relative size and other features of the dwellings in those
premises.

(b) The Commissioner shall notify the parties in writing of the rent so apportioned and the apportionment
shall be final and binding.

(c) (Repealed 40 of 1984 s. 16)
(3) In determining the other terms of the tenancy under subsection (1)(ii)(B), the Tribunal shall have regard to-

(a) the terms of the tenancy of which the dwelling forms part;
(b) the terms ordinarily applicable to a tenancy of a dwelling in premises consisting of 2 or more

dwellings; and
(c) such other considerations as appear to be equitable,

and the determination shall be final and binding.
(Added 52 of 1981 s. 4. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 33)


Section: 50C Interpretation 30/06/1997


(1) For the purposes of sections 50A, 50B and this section-
(a) section 50(10) shall apply to a dwelling as it applies to premises;
(b) "tenancy" (租賃) includes a sub-tenancy;
(c) "dwelling" (住宅) means a building, or part of a building, which is designed and constructed for the

purpose of separate occupation as a dwelling, whether or not it is subject to a separate tenancy.
(2) For the purposes of this Part, the date of the tenancy of a dwelling shall be the date on which the parties

entered into the tenancy of the premises which included that dwelling.
(Added 52 of 1981 s. 4)


Section: 51 Meaning of "domestic tenancy" (住宅租賃) 29 of 1998 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 29 of 1998 s. 105


(1) For the purposes of section 50, "domestic tenancy" (住宅租賃) and "domestic sub-tenancy" (住宅分租租
賃) mean a tenancy or sub-tenancy of premises let as a dwelling.

(2) Notwithstanding the purpose for which premises were let, in determining the nature of a tenancy for the
purposes of this Part, the following provisions shall apply-

(a) in any agreement in writing between a landlord and tenant, or between a principal tenant and sub-
tenant, a term that the premises shall be used for a specified purpose shall be prima facie evidence that
the premises are being used for such purpose;

(b) notwithstanding any evidence as to whether premises were originally let as a dwelling or not let as a
dwelling, premises which are being used primarily for another purpose shall be deemed to have been
let for such other purpose:

Provided that where such primary user is user as a dwelling and in breach of any term in the
agreement with the landlord or principal tenant, as the case may be, then the tenant or sub-tenant shall
be required to establish that such user has been agreed to by the landlord or principal tenant, expressly
or by implication, or acquiesced in by him;

(c) subject to paragraph (d), where there exists insufficient evidence as to whether premises were let as a
dwelling or not let as a dwelling, the nature of the tenancy or sub-tenancy shall be determined by the



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 28

primary user of the premises;
(d) where there is evidence that premises were let otherwise than as a dwelling, or that they were being

used otherwise than as a dwelling at the commencement of a sub-tenancy created out of the original
tenancy, any premises the subject of such sub-tenancy shall themselves be deemed to be used
otherwise than as a dwelling until the sub-tenant satisfies the Tribunal to the contrary; (Amended 76
of 1981 s. 34)

(e) the use of premises as a boarding or lodging house is a use other than as a dwelling.
(3) In determining whether premises were let, or are being used, as a dwelling, the following may be taken into

account-
(a) the covenants, terms and conditions in any Government lease, tenancy or sub-tenancy; (Amended 29

of 1998 s. 105)
(b) any occupation permit given by the Building Authority under section 21 of the Buildings Ordinance

(Cap 123), or under any Ordinance replaced thereby, in relation to the premises;
(c) normal additional uses of premises consistent with the domestic nature of a tenancy or sub-tenancy

having regard to the following-
(i) floor area in occupation part or full-time for such uses;
(ii) the number of people engaged in such uses but not dwelling on the premises;
(iii) the furnishings, fittings and contents of the premises; and
(iv) the gross profits resulting from such uses relative to the rent or proportion thereof paid by the

person making such profits.
(4) Where a dispute arises as to whether a tenancy or sub-tenancy is domestic, the landlord, tenant, principal

tenant or sub-tenant may, if primary user is relevant to the dispute apply in the specified form to the Commissioner for
his certificate as to the primary user of the premises and shall specify in the form the nature of the dispute.

(4A) Whether or not a dispute arises as to whether a tenancy or sub-tenancy is domestic, a landlord, tenant,
principal tenant or sub-tenant may apply in the specified form to the Commissioner for his certificate as to the primary
user of the premises. (Added 56 of 1976 s. 3)

(4B) Where a person applies to the Commissioner under subsection (4A) he shall-
(a) specify in the application form a day, other than a public holiday, on which he would like the

inspection to be carried out;
(b) at the time when he lodges the application, pay such fee as may be determined by the Financial

Secretary; and
(c) lodge the application form with the Commissioner not less than 10 days before the day specified in the

form. (Added 56 of 1976 s. 3)
(4C) (Repealed 32 of 1985 s. 9)
(4D) The Commissioner shall, where practicable, carry out the inspection under subsection (5) on the day

specified in the application or, if the inspection cannot be carried out on that day, as soon thereafter as is reasonably
possible. (Added 56 of 1976 s. 3)

(5) Subject to subsection (5A), where an application under subsection (4) or (4A) is made to the Commissioner,
he shall inspect the premises, and may-

(a) where he is satisfied on the evidence available as to the primary user, issue free of charge in the case of
an application under subsection (4) and serve on the landlord and tenant or principal tenant and sub-
tenant, as the case may be, a certificate in the specified form as to the primary user of the premises on
the day of his inspection;

(b) where he is not so satisfied, issue free of charge in the case of an application under subsection (4) and
serve on the landlord and tenant or principal tenant and sub-tenant, as the case may be, a notice in the
specified form declining to express an opinion as to the primary user of the premises. (Amended 56 of
1976 s. 3; 29 of 1983 s. 12)

(5A) Where the Commissioner issues a certificate under subsection (5)(a), no further application may be made
under subsection (4) or (4A) before the expiry of 1 year from the date on which that certificate is issued. (Added 29 of
1983 s. 12)

(6) A certificate issued by the Commissioner under subsection (5)(a) shall, for all purposes, including an
application under subsection (8), be prima facie evidence of the facts set out therein and of the primary user of the
premises on the day on which they were inspected. (Amended 76 of 1981 s. 34)

(7) (Repealed 29 of 1983 s. 12)
(8) A party to any tenancy or sub-tenancy may apply to the Tribunal to determine whether or not a tenancy or



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 29

sub-tenancy is domestic and the Tribunal may determine that question for the purposes of this Part. (Replaced 29 of
1983 s. 12)

Section: 51A Transfer of tenancy to Part IV on joint application 30/06/1997


(1) A landlord and tenant, or principal tenant and sub-tenant, of premises to which this Part applies may apply
jointly to the Commissioner in the specified form in triplicate for the tenancy, or sub-tenancy, to be excluded from the
application of this Part.

(2) An application under subsection (1) may be made during the contractual period of the tenancy, or sub-
tenancy, or during its continuation under section 52(1) and shall be lodged with the Commissioner within 28 days of
its execution.

(3) The Commissioner shall-
(a) if he is satisfied that the tenant, or sub-tenant, understands the effect of the exclusion of the tenancy, or

sub-tenancy, from this Part and has not been subject to any undue pressure or influence, endorse his
approval on copies of the application and serve a copy on each of the applicants; or

(b) if he is not so satisfied, serve a notice to that effect on each of the applicants.
(4) Where an application is endorsed under subsection (3)(a), the tenancy, or sub-tenancy, to which the

application relates shall be excluded from the application of this Part and Part IV shall apply to it with effect from a
future date specified in the application by the applicants or, if no such date is specified, from the date of that
endorsement.

(5) Where an application is endorsed under subsection (3)(a), that application shall constitute-
(a) a discontinuance by an applicant of any proceedings under section 53 for possession of the premises to

which that application relates; and
(b) a waiver by an applicant to any right to increase the rent under this Part in relation to the premises to

which that application relates.
(6) The applicants may in the specified form specify the terms of the tenancy, or sub-tenancy, to which Part IV

shall apply and the lodging of the application under this section shall be sufficient compliance with section 119L.
(Added 40 of 1984 s. 17)


Section: 51B Transfer of tenancy to Part IV on unilateral application 30/06/1997


(1) A landlord or tenant, or principal tenant or sub-tenant, of premises to which this Part applies may apply to
the Commissioner in the specified form in duplicate for the tenancy, or sub-tenancy, to be excluded from the
application of this Part.

(2) An application under subsection (1) may be made-
(a) during the contractual period of the tenancy, or sub-tenancy (but not earlier than 12 months before the

expiry of that period); or
(b) during its continuation under section 52(1).

(3) An application under subsection (1) in relation to tenancy, or sub-tenancy, continuing under section 52(1)
shall not be made-

(a) within 12 months after the date on which an increase in rent (other than on account of improvements or
an increase in rates) becomes effective; or

(b) within 12 months after the date of service of a notice under subsection (5)(b) following an earlier
application under this section.

(4) Upon receipt of an application under subsection (1), the Commissioner shall serve a copy thereof on the
other party and within 14 days of that service that party may make representations to the Commissioner.

(5) The Commissioner shall consider any representations, determine any facts in dispute and shall-
(a) if he is satisfied that the current rent for the premises is not less than 77% of the prevailing market rent,

issue a certificate approving the application and serve 1 copy on the landlord, or principal tenant, and 1
copy on the tenant, or sub-tenant; or

(b) if he is not so satisfied, issue and serve a notice to that effect on the landlord, or principal tenant, and
on the tenant, or sub-tenant.

(6) Where the Commissioner approves the application under subsection (5), he shall state in his certificate a
date upon which the tenancy, or sub-tenancy, shall be excluded from this Part; and, on that date, the tenancy shall,
subject to subsection (8), be excluded from the application of this Part and Part IV shall apply to it.



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 30

(7) The date mentioned in subsection (6) shall be-
(a) in a case where the application is made during the contractual period of the tenancy, or sub-tenancy,

the date on which the Commissioner issues his certificate under subsection (5)(a):
Provided that the Commissioner shall not issue that certificate earlier than 7 months before the

expiry of the contractual period; or
(b) in a case where the application is made during the continuation of the tenancy, or sub-tenancy, under

section 52(1) and-
(i) the current rent is not less than the prevailing market rent; or
(ii) the rent has not been increased (other than on account of improvements or an increase in rates)

during that continuation,
the date on which the Commissioner issues his certificate under subsection (5)(a); or

(c) in a case where-
(i) the application is made during the continuation of the tenancy, or sub-tenancy, under section

52(1); and
(ii) the current rent is less than the prevailing market rent; and
(iii) the rent has been increased (other than on account of improvements or an increase in rates)

during that continuation,
a date not more than 18 and not less than 17 months after the date on which that increase became
effective or, if there is more than 1 such increase, the date on which the last such increase became
effective:

Provided that, where a period of 18 months has elapsed since the date on which that increase or
that last increase became effective, the date mentioned in subsection (6) shall be the date on which the
Commissioner issues his certificate under subsection (5)(a).

(8) A certificate issued under subsection (5)(a) shall not affect-
(a) any proceedings under section 53 commenced before the date of the issue of that certificate; or
(b) any right to increase the rent under this Part following a proper notice served under section 55, 55A,

56, 63 or 63A or a certificate issued by the Commissioner under section 56A or 58 before that date.
(9) In this section-

"current rent" (現行租金) means the rent, exclusive of rates, payable by the tenant, or sub-tenant at the date of the
application under subsection (1); and

"prevailing market rent" (市值租金) means the rent, exclusive of rates, at which the premises might reasonably be
expected to be let on a term of 2 years at the date upon which the Commissioner issues his certificate or notice
under subsection (5), on the terms of the tenancy, or sub-tenancy (other than those relating to rent and duration
of the tenancy or sub-tenancy) but disregarding the effect of this Part.

(Added 40 of 1984 s. 17)

Section: 51C Review of decisions under sections 51A and 51B 30/06/1997


(1) Where the Commissioner-
(a) serves a notice under section 51A(3)(b); or
(b) serves a copy of his certificate under section 51B(5)(a); or
(c) serves a notice under section 51B(5)(b),

a party to the tenancy, or sub-tenancy, which is the subject of the application under those sections and who is
aggrieved may, within 14 days of that service, apply to the Commissioner by notice in duplicate in the specified form
for a review of his decision.

(2) On receipt of an application under subsection (1) and of such fee as may be determined by the Financial
Secretary, the Commissioner shall review his decision and, after giving the parties the opportunity of making written
submissions, he may affirm the decision or cancel it and decide the matter afresh, and shall serve a notice of his
decision on the parties. (Amended 32 of 1985 s. 10; 77 of 1988 s. 4)

(3) (Repealed 32 of 1985 s. 10)
(Added 40 of 1984 s. 17)





Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 31

Section: 51D Appeal 30/06/1997


A party to the tenancy, or sub-tenancy, which is the subject of the application under section 51A or 51B and who
is aggrieved by a decision of the Commissioner under section 51C may, within 1 month of the service of the notice of
the decision, appeal to the Tribunal which may make such order thereon as it thinks fit.

(Added 40 of 1984 s. 17. Amended 77 of 1988 s. 5)

Section: 52 Continuation of tenancies 30/06/1997


Continuation and Termination of Tenancies


(1) Where the contractual period of a tenancy or sub-tenancy, whether created before, on or after 19 December
1981, is terminated by effluxion of time or by the landlord or principal tenant, otherwise than by forfeiture, the
tenancy or sub-tenancy shall not, subject to subsection (2), sections 52A and 53, come to an end during the
continuance in force of this Part. (Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 35. Amended 29 of 1983 s. 13)

(1A) During the continuation of the tenancy or sub-tenancy under subsection (1), the contractual tenancy or sub-
tenancy shall continue except to the extent that the terms and conditions thereof are varied under, or are inconsistent
with, this Part. (Replaced 29 of 1983 s. 13)

(1B) During the continuation of the tenancy or sub-tenancy under subsection (1), the landlord or principal tenant
shall have no right to forfeiture, re-entry or to obtain possession of the premises except as provided by section 53.
(Added 76 of 1981 s. 35)

(1C) A tenancy or sub-tenancy which, immediately before 19 December 1981, was continuing under this Part
shall be a tenancy or sub-tenancy continuing under subsection (1). (Added 76 of 1981 s. 35)

(1D) A tenancy or sub-tenancy shall not continue under subsection (1) where the tenant or sub-tenant delivers up
vacant possession on termination of the contractual period of the tenancy or sub-tenancy. (Added 76 of 1981 s. 35)

(2) Subject to section 50(4), a tenancy or sub-tenancy shall not by virtue of this Part continue in existence after
any change in the identity of the tenant, principal tenant or sub-tenant which would terminate such tenancy or sub-
tenancy in law.

(3) In every tenancy and sub-tenancy there shall, in the absence of any express covenant or condition, be
implied a covenant to pay rent on the due date and a condition for forfeiture for non-payment within 15 days of such
date.

(4) (Repealed 53 of 1993 s. 20)

Section: 52A Surrender by tenant 30/06/1997


(1) Subject to subsection (2), a tenant or sub-tenant may agree to surrender a tenancy or sub-tenancy continuing
under section 52(1).

(2) An agreement mentioned in subsection (1) shall have no effect unless it is-
(a) in the specified form;
(b) lodged with the Commissioner within 28 days of execution, with such fee as may be determined by the

Financial Secretary; and (Amended 40 of 1984 s. 18; 32 of 1985 s. 11)
(c) endorsed by the Commissioner under subsection (3).

(3) The Commissioner-
(a) shall satisfy himself that the tenant or sub-tenant-

(i) in entering into an agreement under subsection (1) understands the effect of that agreement; and
(ii) has not been subject to any undue pressure or influence;

(b) may make such inquiries as he thinks fit for the purposes of paragraph (a); and
(c) shall, if satisfied as to the matters mentioned in paragraph (a), endorse upon the agreement a certificate

to the effect that he has approved it under this section. (Amended 32 of 1985 s. 11)
(4) The Commissioner shall not be obliged to be satisfied as to the reasonableness of any consideration payable

under an agreement mentioned in this section.
(Added 29 of 1983 s. 14)





Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 32

Section: 53 Termination of tenancies 30/06/1997


(1) A tenancy or sub-tenancy continuing under section 52(1) shall come to an end when-
(a) the tenant or sub-tenant delivers up vacant possession of the premises;
(aa) with effect after 18 December 1981, the tenant or sub-tenant of the premises enters into a tenancy or

sub-tenancy mentioned in paragraph (n) of section 50(6) of the same premises; (Added 29 of 1983 s.
15)

(b) an order of the Tribunal under subsection (2), (4A) or (4B) takes effect; or (Amended 29 of 1983 s.
15)

(c) the tenancy out of which the sub-tenancy was created is itself terminated:
Provided that upon such termination this Part shall apply to any tenancy arising under subsection

(6A). (Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 36)
(1A) Where a tenant or sub-tenant fails to give at least 1 month's notice of his intention to deliver up vacant

possession under paragraph (a) of subsection (1), the landlord or principal tenant shall be entitled to 1 month's rent in
place of such notice. (Added 76 of 1981 s. 36)

(2) The Tribunal shall not make an order for possession of premises in respect of which there is a tenancy or
sub-tenancy continuing under section 52(1) unless it is satisfied that- (Amended 29 of 1983 s. 15)

(a) any rent lawfully due from the tenant or sub-tenant has not been paid or, where any covenant or
condition of the tenancy or sub-tenancy has been broken or not performed, such breach or non-
performance would, but for this Part, have been a cause of forfeiture;

(b) the premises or any part thereof are reasonably required by the landlord or principal tenant for
occupation as a residence for himself, his father, his mother or any son or daughter of his over the age
of 18: (Amended 29 of 1983 s. 15)

Provided that the Tribunal shall not make an order by reason only that the circumstances of the
case fall within this paragraph if-
(i) in the case of a tenancy, the tenant satisfies the Tribunal that in all the circumstances of the case

it would manifestly not be just and equitable to do so;
(ii) in the case of a sub-tenancy, the Tribunal is satisfied having regard to all the circumstances of the

case, including the question whether other accommodation is available for the principal tenant or
the sub-tenant, greater hardship would be caused by granting the order than by refusing it;
(Replaced 6 of 1980 s. 5)

(c) the landlord or principal tenant intends to rebuild the premises;
(d) the tenant or the sub-tenant has caused unnecessary annoyance, inconvenience or disturbance to the

landlord or the principal tenant or to any other person: (Amended 39 of 1979 s. 14)
Provided that no order shall be made under this paragraph unless the Tribunal is satisfied that the

annoyance, inconvenience or disturbance had continued after a warning in writing had been served by
the landlord or principal tenant on the tenant or sub-tenant causing the same; (Amended 93 of 1975 s.
14)

(e) the tenant-
(i) in the case of a tenancy to which this Part applied immediately prior to 18 December 1979, has at

any time after 14 December 1973; and
(ii) in any other case, has at any time after 18 December 1979,
in breach of the contractual tenancy sublet the whole or any part of the premises of which he is the
tenant; (Replaced 6 of 1980 s. 5)

(f) the tenant or sub-tenant has used, or has suffered or permitted the use of, the premises of which he is
the tenant or sub-tenant or any part thereof, for an immoral or illegal purpose; (Added 6 of 1980 s. 5)

(g) the tenant or the sub-tenant has entered into an endorsed agreement mentioned in section 52A and has
failed to deliver up vacant possession under that agreement; or (Added 29 of 1983 s. 15)

(h) the tenant has sublet the whole or any part of the premises of which he is tenant and does not occupy
any part of the premises as his dwelling. (Added 29 of 1983 s. 15)

(2A) (a) For the purposes of subsection (2)(b)-
"landlord or principal tenant" (業主或主租客) includes one or more landlords or principal tenants,

holding the premises jointly or in common, with the other landlord or landlords or principal
tenant or tenants so holding assenting to an order for possession; and



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 33

"his father, his mother or any son or daughter of his" (其父親、母親、兒子或女兒) includes the
father, mother, son or daughter of one or more landlords or principal tenants, holding the
premises jointly or in common, with the other landlord or landlords or principal tenant or tenants
so holding assenting to an order for possession. (Added 29 of 1983 s. 15)

(b) For the purpose of subsection (2)(d), a tenant or sub-tenant who persistently fails to pay rent as and
when it falls due may be regarded as causing unnecessary inconvenience to the landlord or principal
tenant, as the case may be. (Added 39 of 1979 s. 14)

(3) For the purposes of subsection (2)(e) or (2)(h), where a landlord establishes a prima facie case that there has
been an apparent change in the occupancy of the premises or of any part thereof, the tenant shall be deemed to have
sublet such premises or such part unless he satisfies the Tribunal to the contrary. (Amended 29 of 1983 s. 15)

(4) (a) An order for possession under subsection (2) shall take effect on such date as the Tribunal may order:
Provided that-

(i) in a case where a person acquires a right which, but for section 52 and this section, would entitle
him to occupy premises which are subject to a tenancy or sub-tenancy and the Tribunal makes an
order for possession on the grounds mentioned in subsection (2)(b) before the expiry of a period
of 12 months from the date of the acquisition, the Tribunal shall not make the order to take effect
either earlier than 12 months or later than 18 months from the date of the acquisition; and

(ii) in any other case, the Tribunal shall not make an order for possession to take effect later than 6
months from the date of the order.

(b) Subparagraph (i) of paragraph (a) shall not have effect in relation to a case where a person entered into
an enforceable contract to acquire the right mentioned in that paragraph before 19 June 1981; and in
that case subparagraph (ii) of paragraph (a) shall apply.

(c) When making an order for possession under subsection (2), the Tribunal may also order the payment
of rent or mesne profits. (Replaced 52 of 1981 s. 5)

(d) When making an order for possession under subsection (2)(b), the Tribunal shall specify the name of
the person for whose occupation it is satisfied the premises are required. (Added 29 of 1983 s. 15)

(4A) Subject to subsection (2)(b), where an application for an order for possession is made on the ground
mentioned in that subsection and the Tribunal is satisfied that only part of the premises is reasonably required, the
Tribunal shall-

(a) in a case where any tenant or sub-tenant is willing to remain in possession of the remainder of the
premises in terms of an order made under subparagraph (ii)-
(i) make an order for possession of such part of the premises as the Tribunal thinks fit having regard

to those reasonable requirements and all the circumstances of the case; and
(ii) make such orders under subsection (4B) in relation to the remainder of the premises as it thinks

fit; or
(b) in any other case, make an order for possession of the whole of the premises. (Added 29 of 1983 s. 15)

(4B) Notwithstanding subsections (5), (6) and (6A), where the Tribunal makes an order for possession under
subsection (4A) in relation to only part of the premises, it may, in relation to the remainder of the premises-

(a) apportion that remainder for occupation by the tenant and any sub-tenant, by the tenant alone or by any
sub-tenant alone as may be just and equitable;

(b) having regard to the terms and conditions of the existing tenancy or sub-tenancy and subsection
(6B)(b), fix the terms and conditions of the tenancy or sub-tenancy under which the remainder
apportioned under paragraph (a) shall be occupied. (Added 29 of 1983 s. 15)

(5) Where a tenant has, in breach of the contractual tenancy, sublet the whole or any part of the premises, an
order for possession of the premises under subsection (2) against the tenant shall also operate as an order for
possession against the sub-tenant whether or not that sub-tenant is a party to the proceedings in which that order is
granted. (Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 36. Amended 40 of 1984 s. 19)

(6) Where a tenant has, without breach of the contractual tenancy, sublet the whole or any part of the premises,
the Tribunal shall not make any order for possession under subsection (2) against the sub-tenant unless-

(a) the Tribunal makes the order on the ground mentioned in paragraph (b) or (c) of subsection (2); or
(b) the Tribunal is satisfied that, if the application had been by the tenant for an order for possession

against the sub-tenant, the tenant would have been entitled to such an order. (Replaced 76 of 1981 s.
36)

(6A) Where the Tribunal makes an order for possession against the tenant but does not make an order for
possession against a sub-tenant to whom the premises or any part has been sublet, the sub-tenant shall become the



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 34

tenant of the landlord on the same terms, subject to this Part, as the sub-tenant held from the principal tenant:
Provided that, where a part only of the premises would remain in the possession of a sub-tenant or sub-tenants if

an order were made under this subsection, the Tribunal, on the application of the landlord, shall either, order the sub-
tenant or the sub-tenants jointly to accept a tenancy of the whole premises on the same terms, subject to this Part, as
the principal tenant held from the landlord or make an order for possession of the whole premises. (Added 76 of 1981
s. 36)

(6B) (a) Any tenancy or sub-tenancy arising under subsections (4A) and (4B) or subsection (6A) shall be a
tenancy or sub-tenancy to which this Part applies and which is continuing under section 52(1).

(b) Where a sub-tenant becomes the tenant of a landlord under subsections (4A) and (4B) or subsection
(6A), any subletting on or after 10 June 1983 under that tenancy by that tenant, without the written
permission of the landlord, shall be in breach of the contractual tenancy.

(c) For the purposes of section 64, the date of a tenancy or sub-tenancy arising under subsections (4A) and
(4B) shall be the date of the order of the Tribunal.

(d) Section 64 shall have effect in relation to a tenancy arising under subsection (6A) as it would have had
effect in relation to the sub-tenancy from the principal tenant if that sub-tenancy had continued.
(Added 29 of 1983 s. 15)

(6C) (a) Where a landlord believes that a tenant may have, without breach of the contractual tenancy, sublet the
whole or any part of the premises and the landlord is unable, with reasonable diligence, to ascertain the
identity of any such sub-tenant, the Tribunal may, on an ex parte application by the landlord, make an
order calling upon any sub-tenant to give notice to the landlord of his interest in the premises and may
give directions regarding the service of that order.

(b) Where any sub-tenant fails, within the period specified in the order mentioned in paragraph (a), to give
notice to the landlord of his interest in the premises, the Tribunal may, when it makes an order for
possession of the premises against the tenant, also make an order for possession against any sub-tenant.
(Added 40 of 1984 s. 19)

(7) Subject to subsection (7A), a person-
(a) who has obtained an order for possession of premises under subsection (2)(b) or (c) shall not for a

period of 24 months after the date of that order-
(i) let the premises or any part thereof; or
(ii) assign, transfer or part with possession of the premises or any part thereof except, in a case of an

order for possession under subsection (2)(c), where the assignment, transfer or parting with
possession is solely to facilitate the rebuilding of the premises; and

(b) who has obtained an order for possession under subsection (2)(b) shall not for a period of 24 months
after the date of that order use, or allow the use of, the premises or any part thereof other than as a
residence for the person for whose occupation the Tribunal was satisfied the premises were required
under that subsection. (Replaced 29 of 1983 s. 15)

(7A) (a) Where an applicant has obtained an order for possession under subsection (2)(b) or (c)-
(i) the Tribunal may authorize him to let, assign, transfer or part with possession of the premises or

any part thereof or use, or allow the use of, the premises or any part thereof other than as a
residence for the person for whose occupation the Tribunal was satisfied the premises were
required under subsection (2)(b); and

(ii) the Commissioner may, on an application accompanied by such fee as may be determined by the
Financial Secretary, authorize the applicant to let the premises or any part thereof for a particular
purpose and for a term not exceeding 1 year or to use, or allow the use, of for a period not
exceeding 1 year, the premises or any part thereof for a particular purpose other than as a
residence for the person for whose occupation the Tribunal was satisfied the premises were
required under subsection (2)(b). (Amended 29 of 1983 s. 15; 32 of 1985 s. 12)

(b) The Tribunal or Commissioner, when granting an authority under paragraph (a) to let, shall specify the
terms, including the rent, on which the premises or the part may be let:

Provided that the rent shall not be more than that payable by the tenant or sub-tenant last in
possession. (Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 36)

(7B) Without prejudice to subsection (8), a person who contravenes subsection (7) commits an offence and is
liable on conviction on indictment to a fine of $500000 and in addition, on a second or subsequent conviction, to
imprisonment for 12 months, and in any case to forfeit a sum not exceeding the equivalent of-

(a) in the case of a contravention of subsection (7)(a)(i), 2 years' rent calculated at the rate at which the



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 35

premises were let without the authority of the Tribunal or the Commissioner; or
(b) in the case of a contravention of subsection (7)(a)(ii), the difference at the date of the contravention

between the market value of the premises with vacant possession and the market value of the premises
with the former tenant or sub-tenant in possession. (Added 6 of 1980 s. 5. Amended 29 of 1983 s. 15)

(7C) Any court which sentences a person for an offence under subsection (7B) may, in addition to imposing a
penalty under that subsection, make an order under subsection (8) after hearing the former tenant or sub-tenant and the
defendant. (Added 6 of 1980 s. 5)

(7D) (Repealed 29 of 1983 s. 15)
(7E) A letting, assignment, transfer or parting with possession of premises or any part thereof shall not be void,

voidable or unenforceable by reason only of a contravention of subsection (7). (Added 76 of 1981 s. 36)
(7F) Where, in an application for possession of premises under subsection (2), the applicant alleges a ground

mentioned in paragraph (b) or (c) of subsection (2) and-
(a) an order for possession is granted with the consent of the tenant or sub-tenant; or
(b) the application does not proceed and the tenant or sub-tenant consents to deliver up vacant possession

of the premises,
the applicant shall be deemed, for the purposes of subsections (7), (7G) and (8), to have obtained an order for
possession under paragraph (b) or (c) of subsection (2); and, in a case mentioned in paragraph (b) of this subsection
and for the purposes of fixing the commencement of the period mentioned in subsection (7), the date of the order shall
be deemed to be the date upon which the application for possession is issued from the Tribunal. (Added 76 of 1981 s.
36)

(7G) Any applicant who has obtained an order for possession under paragraph (b) or (c) of subsection (2) shall be
presumed, until the contrary is shown, to have knowledge of that order, of the application for possession, of the
grounds alleged upon which the order was obtained, of the outcome of the application and of any consent given by the
tenant or sub-tenant in connection with the order or the delivery of vacant possession. (Added 76 of 1981 s. 36)

(8) Where a landlord or principal tenant has obtained an order for possession of the premises under subsection
(2) and it is subsequently made to appear to the Tribunal that the order was obtained by the misrepresentation or
concealment of material facts or where such landlord or principal tenant is shown to have acted in contravention of
subsection (7), the Tribunal or, as the case may be, the court referred to in subsection (7C) may order the landlord or
principal tenant to pay to the former tenant or sub-tenant such sum as it thinks fit by way of compensation for damage
or loss sustained by that tenant or sub-tenant as a result of the order. (Amended 32 of 1985 s. 12) [cf. 1968 c. 23 s. 19
U.K.]

(9) Where a tenant or sub-tenant successfully opposes an order for possession of the premises under subsection
(2) and it is subsequently made to appear to the Tribunal that the opposition was successful by reason of the
misrepresentation or concealment of material facts, the Tribunal may order the tenant or sub-tenant to pay to the
landlord or principal tenant such sum as it thinks fit by way of compensation for damage or loss sustained by the
landlord or principal tenant as a result of that opposition. (Added 76 of 1981 s. 36)

(Amended 76 of 1981 s. 36)

Section: 53A Restriction on order for possession for rebuilding 29 of 1998 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 29 of 1998 s. 5


(1) The Tribunal shall not make an order for possession of premises on the ground mentioned in paragraph (c)
of section 53(2) unless, in addition, it is satisfied that-

(a) the rebuilding will result in an increase in the number of dwellings or in accommodation for domestic
use or in accommodation for other than domestic use; and, if for other than domestic use, the site of the
premises is suitable for the intended use; or

(b) the rebuilding is in the public interest; or
(c) the expenditure required to restore or repair the premises would not be economically reasonable,

and, where the approval or authority of any person is required in respect of the rebuilding, the Tribunal may-
(i) state that it is satisfied as mentioned in paragraph (c) of section 53(2) and this subsection, if that be the

case;
(ii) postpone the hearing of the application to enable the landlord or principal tenant to apply for that

approval or authority; and



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 36

(iii) if that approval or authority is obtained, but not otherwise, make an order for possession of the
premises.

(2) Where the Tribunal grants an order for possession on the grounds mentioned in paragraph (c) of section
53(2), it may impose any reasonable condition on the landlord in relation to his intention to rebuild the premises and
shall order that compensation be paid to the tenant and-

(a) that plans of the new building showing the number and size of any dwellings to be erected be lodged
with the Tribunal and that the new building be erected to provide that number of dwellings; and

(b) that the rebuilding work (including any demolition that is required) be commenced, and the new
building be ready for occupation, on the dates ordered. (Amended 29 of 1983 s. 16; 32 of 1985 s. 13)

(2A) For the purposes of any review under section 11A of the Lands Tribunal Ordinance (Cap 17), the time limit
mentioned in that section shall not apply to a decision, other than in relation to the payment of compensation, under
subsection (2). (Added 29 of 1983 s. 16)

(3) The Commissioner shall cause an order of the Tribunal under this section to be registered by memorial in
the Land Registry against the premises affected and the conditions imposed under subsection (2) shall be binding on
and enforceable against any successors in title to the landlord. (Amended 8 of 1993 s. 2)

(4) (a) The compensation ordered by the Tribunal under subsection (2) shall be-
(i) where the rateable value of the premises does not exceed $30000, an amount equal to 7 times the

rateable value;
(ii) where the rateable value of the premises exceeds $30000 and does not exceed $60000, $210000

plus 5 times the amount by which the rateable value exceeds $30000;
(iii) where the rateable value of the premises exceeds $60000 and does not exceed $90000, $360000

plus 3 times the amount by which the rateable value exceeds $60000;
(iv) where the rateable value of the premises exceeds $90000, $450000 plus the amount equivalent to

that by which the rateable value exceeds $90000. (Replaced L.N. 153 of 1996)
(b) Where a tenant has sublet premises or any part of premises, the compensation payable under this

subsection shall be apportioned by the Tribunal so that a sub-tenant shall be entitled to receive a
portion of the compensation payable under paragraph (a) which is just and equitable. (Amended 40 of
1984 s. 20)

(c) Where it appears that premises or any part of premises is sublet, the Tribunal may call upon the
Commissioner for a certificate as to which part of the premises is occupied by a sub-tenant and such a
certificate purporting to be signed by or on behalf of the Commissioner shall be admissible in evidence
for the purposes of paragraph (b) upon its mere production without further proof, subject to the right of
any party, including any sub-tenant, to cross-examine the Commissioner or a public officer in his
department nominated by the Commissioner for that purpose.

(d) For the purposes of this subsection-
"premises" (處所) means the subject matter of a tenancy; and
"rateable value" (應課差餉租值) means-

(a) in the case of premises being a tenement that was, at the date of the application for an order
for possession on the ground mentioned in section 53(2)(c), included in the valuation list in
force under section 14 of the Rating Ordinance (Cap 116), the rateable value of those
premises contained in that list on that date (disregarding any amendment or alteration to
that list made after that date, even if retrospective); (Amended 22 of 1995 s. 36)

(b) in any other case, the rateable value that would have been contained in that list on that date
had the premises been included in that list, a certificate signed by the Commissioner as
regards the premises for the purposes of this section being final and binding as to such
value. (Replaced 53 of 1993 s. 21)

(e) The method of calculating the compensation mentioned in paragraph (a) may be amended by
resolution of the Legislative Council. (Replaced 40 of 1984 s. 20)

(f) Where an order for possession on the ground mentioned in section 53(2)(c) is made pursuant to an
application made before the commencement of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment)
Ordinance 1993 (53 of 1993), the definition of "rateable value" (應課差餉租值) in paragraph (d)
shall be construed as if each reference to the date of the application were a reference to the date of that
commencement. (Added 53 of 1993 s. 21)

(5) (a) Where there is a breach of a condition imposed under paragraph (a) of subsection (2) which results in



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 37

fewer dwellings or less accommodation being erected than appeared in the plans lodged, the Tribunal
may, on the application of the Commissioner, impose a penalty of a sum not exceeding what would
have been the market value, at the time of the imposition, of the building if it had been erected in
accordance with the plans.

(b) Where there is a breach of a condition imposed under paragraph (b) of subsection (2), the Tribunal
may, on the application of the Commissioner,-
(i) where the applicant for an order for possession holds the premises under a Government lease or

other tenancy from the Government, decree such breach to be a breach of covenant in the
Government lease or of a condition or stipulation in the tenancy and a right of re-entry under the
Government Rights (Re-entry and Vesting Remedies) Ordinance (Cap 126) shall accrue to the
Government; or (Amended 29 of 1998 s. 5)

(ii) in any case, impose a penalty not exceeding the market value of the premises at the time of the
imposition of the penalty.

(c) Where there is a breach of any other condition imposed under subsection (2), the Tribunal may, on the
application of the Commissioner, impose a penalty of a sum not exceeding $500000.

(6) In this section, "dwelling" (住宅) has the meaning given to that phrase by section 50C(1).
(Added 76 of 1981 s. 37)


Section: 54 (Repealed 40 of 1984 s. 21) 30/06/1997


Increases in Rent




Section: 55 Alterations in rent by agreement 30/06/1997


(1) Where an alteration in rent is agreed between a landlord and a tenant the landlord shall lodge with the
Commissioner a notice thereof in triplicate in the specified form signed by both the landlord and tenant. (Amended 6
of 1980 s. 7; 29 of 1983 s. 18; 32 of 1985 s. 14)

(1A) A notice under subsection (1) shall not be valid unless-
(a) (i) it is signed by the tenant not earlier than 1 month before the date on which it is lodged with the

Commissioner; and
(ii) the alteration of rent to which it relates takes effect neither earlier than 1 month before, nor later

than 6 months after, the date on which the notice is so lodged; or
(b) the notice is endorsed by the Commissioner, the application for which endorsement shall be

accompanied by a fee of $500, to the effect that he is satisfied that the tenant understands the effect of
the alteration in rent and has not been subject to any undue pressure or influence. (Replaced 40 of
1984 s. 22. Amended 32 of 1985 s. 14)

(2) Where a notice is lodged with the Commissioner under subsection (1), he shall record the agreement
concerning the alteration in rent and shall endorse on 2 copies of the notice a statement to that effect and shall return 1
copy to the landlord and 1 copy to the tenant. (Amended 29 of 1983 s. 18; 53 of 1993 s. 22)

(3) Where there is an increase in rent under an agreement mentioned in subsection (1), a landlord shall not be
entitled to maintain an action to recover rent at the increased rate unless a valid notice mentioned in that subsection is
endorsed by the Commissioner under subsection (2). (Replaced 40 of 1984 s. 22)

(4) The security of tenure afforded to a tenant under section 74B(4) shall apply where the rent payable by the
tenant is increased by agreement, notwithstanding the failure of the landlord to lodge notice thereof under subsection
(1). (Amended 53 of 1993 s. 22)

(5) Where, on 18 December 1979, a tenant was in possession of premises under a tenancy agreement which
provided for the rent payable by the tenant to be varied during the term of the tenancy by reference to fixed and
ascertained periods of time, any alteration in rent pursuant to that tenancy agreement shall take effect as if this section
had not been enacted, save that where the alteration takes effect on or after 18 December 1979 the security of tenure
afforded to a tenant by section 74B(4) shall extend to such tenancy as if the rent had been altered under this Part.
(Replaced 6 of 1980 s. 7. Amended 29 of 1983 s. 18; 53 of 1993 s. 22)




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 38

Section: 55A Increase in rent on account of improvements 30/06/1997


(1) Where the landlord of any premises incurs expenditure of $5000 or more on improvements to such
premises, the landlord may, subject to subsection (2), increase the rent payable in respect of those premises by 20%
per annum of the amount expended on the improvements.

(2) Where rent is increased under this section the increase shall not take effect except in pursuance of a notice
of increase in the specified form served by the landlord on the tenant, specifying the increase and the date from which
it is to take effect.

(3) The date specified in a notice of increase under subsection (2) shall be not earlier than the first day when
rent becomes due after the expiry of one month from the service of the notice.

(4) Where the landlord of any premises incurs expenditure of $5000 or more on improvements to such premises
and those premises comprise 2 or more tenements then the amount expended shall be apportioned between the
tenements and the rent payable in respect of any tenement may be increased in accordance with this section by
reference to the part of the expenditure apportioned to it.

(5) Subject to subsection (6), in determining the amount of expenditure incurred on improvements expenditure
incurred in the 6 months immediately prior to the date of service of the notice of increase under subsection (2) may be
aggregated.

(6) No account shall be taken of-
(a) (i) in the case of a tenancy of premises to which this Part applied prior to 18 December 1979,

expenditure incurred prior to 9 July 1976;
(ii) in any other case, expenditure incurred prior to 18 December 1979; (Replaced 6 of 1980 s. 8)

(b) expenditure in respect of which an increase in rent has previously been made under this section.
(7) Where a landlord serves on a tenant a notice of increase under subsection (2), the landlord shall send a copy

of that notice to the Commissioner.
(8) A tenant on whom a notice of increase in rent is served under this section may, not later than one month

after the service of the notice, apply to the Tribunal for an order cancelling or reducing the increase on the ground-
(a) that the improvement was unnecessary:

Provided that where the premises the subject of the improvement comprise 3 or more tenements
and more than two-thirds of the tenants of those premises (other than sub-tenants) have consented in
writing to the improvement, the improvement shall be deemed to be necessary;

(b) that a greater amount was expended on the improvement than was reasonable; or
(c) where the increase follows an apportionment under subsection (4), that the apportionment was

unreasonable,
and the Tribunal may make an order accordingly. (Amended 76 of 1981 s. 40)

(9) In this section-
"improvement" (改善) includes structural alteration, extension or addition and the provision of additional fixtures and

fittings, but does not include anything done by way of decoration or repair;
"landlord" (業主) includes principal tenant;
"tenant" (租客) includes sub-tenant.

(Added 56 of 1976 s. 5)
[cf. 1968 c. 23 ss. 25 & 38 U.K.]


Section: 56 Increase in rent on account of rates 30/06/1997


(1) Where-
(a) a landlord bears the rates in respect of any premises the subject of a tenancy and there is an increase in

the amount of rates payable; or
(b) rates are imposed in respect of any such premises and the landlord bears those rates,

the landlord may, subject to subsection (2), increase the amount of rent payable by the tenant of those premises by the
amount of the increase in rates or by the amount of the rates imposed, as the case may be.

(1A) For the purpose of subsection (1)(b), rates shall be deemed not to be imposed where rates become payable
by reason only that the premises cease to be exempt from assessment to or payment of rates under section 36 of the
Rating Ordinance (Cap 116). (Added 29 of 1983 s. 19)

(2) Where the amount of rent is increased under this section the increase shall not take effect except in



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 39

pursuance of a notice of increase in the specified form served by the landlord on the tenant, specifying the increase
and the date from which it is to take effect.

(3) The date specified in a notice of increase under subsection (2) shall not be earlier than-
(a) the date from which the increased rates or the rates imposed, as the case may be, are payable; or
(b) 24 months prior to the date of service of the notice,

whichever is the later. (Replaced 29 of 1983 s. 19)
(Replaced 10 of 1975 s. 9)


Section: 56A Increase in rent following apportionment 30/06/1997


(1) Where section 56(1) applies in respect of any premises and the premises form part of a tenement or consist
of, or form part of, more than one tenement, the landlord may, if he cannot agree with the tenant an increase in rent of
the tenancy, apply to the Commissioner in the specified form for a certificate under subsection (2).

(2) On receipt of an application under subsection (1) the Commissioner shall make such apportionment or
aggregation of rates as he considers necessary to determine the amount of rates attributable to the premises and shall
serve on the landlord and on the tenant certificates in the specified form stating the amount by which the rent may be
increased.

(3) Where the Commissioner has served a certificate under subsection (2), the rent of the tenancy may be
increased, in accordance with section 56, by the amount shown in the certificate.

(Added 10 of 1975 s. 10. Amended 93 of 1975 s. 15)

Section: 57 Application for certificate of increase in rent 30/06/1997


(1) Where a landlord wishes to increase the rent payable by his tenant, he may apply to the Commissioner for a
certificate.

(2) An application under subsection (1) shall be made by sending a notice in duplicate in the specified form to
the Commissioner.

(3) Where the Commissioner is of the opinion that, having regard to section 64, no increase in rent is due, or
such increase in rent is not due within a period of 6 months from the date of receipt of the application under subsection
(1), he may decline to deal with such application or defer dealing with such application until it appears to him that the
increase in rent is due within a period of 6 months.

(4) Subject to subsection (3), upon receipt of an application under subsection (1) the Commissioner shall serve
a copy thereof on the tenant.

(5) Within 14 days of service on him under subsection (4) of a copy of the landlord's application the tenant may
send his representations thereon in writing to the Commissioner.

(6) Where the Commissioner receives representations from a tenant under subsection (5) which indicate that
the tenant disputes any fact set out in the application of the landlord, he shall determine the facts in dispute and shall
then deal with the application in accordance with section 58.

(For savings and transitional provisions see Ord. No. 39 of 1979 s. 25(2))

Section: 58 Certificates of increase in rent 30/06/1997


(1) Where a landlord applies for a certificate under section 57, the Commissioner shall-
(a) if satisfied that the prevailing market rent exceeds the current rent paid by the tenant, issue free of

charge and serve on the landlord and on the tenant certificates in the specified form stating the amount,
as ascertained in accordance with subsection (2), by which the current rent may be increased; or

(b) if not satisfied that the prevailing market rent exceeds the current rent paid by the tenant, issue free of
charge and serve on the landlord and on the tenant certificates in the specified form to that effect,

and he may endorse on the certificates such matters as he thinks proper relating to such application, which, in the case
of a dispute as to facts, shall include the Commissioner's determination thereof under section 57(6). (Amended 5 of
1975 s. 2; 29 of 1983 ss. 20 & 46)

(2) The amount mentioned in subsection (1)(a) shall be-
(a) the difference between the prevailing market rent and the current rent; or
(b) 20% of the current rent, (Amended L.N. 519 of 1996)

whichever is the lesser:



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 40

Provided that if, on the date that the Commissioner receives the application under section 57, the sum of the
amount so ascertained and the current rent is less than the percentage of the prevailing market rent specified below in
relation to the period within which that date falls, the amount shall be the difference between that percentage of the
prevailing market rent and the current rent.




Period
Percentage of prevailing

market rent
Before 1 July 1994 75
After 30 June 1994 and before 80

1 July 1995
After 30 June 1995 and before 85

1 July 1996
After 30 June 1996 and before 90

13 December 1996
After 12 December 1996 80

(Replaced 29 of 1983 s. 20. Amended 40 of 1984 s. 23; 32 of 1985 s. 15; 37 of 1986 s. 3; L.N. 235 of 1989; L.N. 237
of 1990; 53 of 1993 s. 23; L.N. 519 of 1996) (N.B.: L.N. 235 of 1989 contains a transitional provision)

(2A) Any cents in the amount ascertained or adjusted in accordance with subsection (2) shall be disregarded.
(Added 29 of 1983 s. 20)

(3) The percentages and periods mentioned in subsection (2) may be amended by resolution of the Legislative
Council. (Replaced 29 of 1983 s. 20. Amended 40 of 1984 s. 23; 53 of 1993 s. 23)

(4) Where a certificate has been issued under subsection (1)(b) in relation to any premises, no further
application under section 57 in respect of those premises shall be made by the person to whom the certificate has been
issued before the expiration of 1 year from the date of service of the certificate.

(5)-(6) (Repealed 6 of 1980 s. 9)

Section: 59 Review 30/06/1997


(1) Where the Commissioner issues a certificate under section 58, the landlord or the tenant may within 14 days
of service on him of the certificate apply to the Commissioner by notice in duplicate in the specified form for a review
of the certificate.

(2) On receipt of an application under subsection (1) and such fee as may be determined by the Financial
Secretary, the Commissioner shall review his certificate issued under section 58 and, after giving both parties the
opportunity of making written submissions, he may affirm the certificate or cancel it and issue a new certificate under
that section, and shall serve on the parties a notice of his decision in the specified form. (Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 41.
Amended 32 of 1985 s. 16; 77 of 1988 s. 6; 53 of 1993 s. 24)

(3) (Repealed 32 of 1985 s. 16)
(4) The Commissioner may, at the time of any review under subsection (2), determine the date from which any

increase in rent shall take effect, and, if he makes such determination, shall include such determination in the notice of
decision served under subsection (2). (Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 41. Amended 77 of 1988 s. 6)

Section: 60 Appeal 30/06/1997


Any person aggrieved by a decision of the Commissioner under section 59 may, within 1 month of the service of
the notice of the decision, appeal to the Tribunal which may make such order thereon as it thinks fit.

(Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 42. Amended 77 of 1988 s. 7)

Section: 61 Notices of increases 30/06/1997


(1) Unless the Commissioner has made a determination under section 59(4) or the Tribunal has made an order
under section 60 regarding the date from which an increase in rent shall take effect, an increase in rent specified in a
certificate issued under section 58(1)(a) shall not take effect except in pursuance of a notice of increase in the
specified form served by the landlord on the tenant, specifying the date from which the increase is to take effect.
(Amended 5 of 1975 s. 5; 77 of 1988 s. 8)



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 41

(2) Where a landlord serves a notice of increase on the tenant under subsection (1) he shall, at the same time,
send a copy of the notice to the Commissioner.

(3) The date specified in a notice under subsection (1) shall not, subject to section 64, be earlier than the first
day when rent becomes due after the expiration of 1 month from the service of the notice.

(4) Notwithstanding this section, where proceedings on a review under section 59 or an appeal under section 60
are not concluded on the date specified in a notice under subsection (1), the failure by the tenant or sub-tenant to pay
the increase in rent prior to the conclusion of such proceedings shall not be a breach of covenant to pay rent nor give
rise to a right to forfeiture.

Section: 62 Application of certain sections to sub-tenancies 30/06/1997


Sections 55, 57, 58, 59, 60 and 61 shall apply to a sub-tenancy and any references therein to landlord and tenant
shall be construed, for this purpose, as references to principal tenant and sub-tenant respectively.

(Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 43. Amended 40 of 1984 s. 24)

Section: 63 Increase in rent of sub-tenancy on account of rates 30/06/1997


(1) Where-
(a) a principal tenant bears the rates in respect of any premises the subject of a tenancy out of which a sub-

tenancy has been created and there is an increase in the amount of rates payable;
(b) rates are imposed in respect of any premises the subject of a tenancy out of which a sub-tenancy has

been created and the principal tenant bears those rates; or
(c) the rent of a tenancy has been increased under section 56 or 56A and a sub-tenancy has been created

out of that tenancy,
the principal tenant may, if he cannot agree with the sub-tenant an increase in rent of the sub-tenancy, apply to the
Commissioner in the specified form for a certificate under subsection (2).

(1A) For the purposes of subsection (1)(b), rates shall be deemed not to be imposed where rates become payable
by reason only that the premises cease to be exempt from assessment to or payment of rates under section 36 of the
Rating Ordinance (Cap 116). (Added 29 of 1983 s. 21)

(2) On receipt of an application under subsection (1) the Commissioner shall make such apportionment or
aggregation of the rates as he considers necessary to determine the amount of rates attributable to the premises the
subject of the sub-tenancy and shall serve on the principal tenant and on the sub-tenant certificates in the specified
form stating the amount by which the rent of the sub-tenancy may be increased.

(3) Where the Commissioner has served a certificate under subsection (2), the rent of the sub-tenancy may be
increased by the amount shown in the certificate, but the increase in rent shall not take effect except in pursuance of a
notice of increase in the specified form served by the principal tenant on the sub-tenant specifying the date from which
the increase is to take effect.

(4) The date specified in a notice of increase under subsection (3) shall be not earlier than-
(a) the date from which the increased rates or the rates imposed, as the case may be, are payable;
(b) the date on which the increase in rent of the principal tenancy on account of rates became payable; or
(c) 24 months prior to the date of service of the notice of increase on the sub-tenant,

whichever is the later. (Amended 29 of 1983 s. 21)
(Replaced 10 of 1975 s. 11)


Section: 63A Increase in rent of sub-tenancy on account of

improvements
30/06/1997



(1) Where the rent of a tenancy has been increased under section 55A and a sub-tenancy has been created out
of that tenancy, the principal tenant may, subject to subsection (3), increase the rent payable by the sub-tenant by such
appropriate amount as may be agreed between them.

(2) In the absence of any agreement between the principal tenant and his sub-tenant under subsection (1), the
Commissioner may, on an application in the specified form, determine the amount by which the rent payable by the
sub-tenant is to be increased, and after any such determination, shall serve a notice of his determination on both
parties. (Replaced 77 of 1988 s. 9)

(3) Where the rent payable by a sub-tenant is increased following a determination of the Commissioner under



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 42

this section the increase shall not take effect except in pursuance of a notice of increase in the specified form served by
the principal tenant on the sub-tenant, specifying the increase and the date from which it is to take effect.

(4) The date specified in a notice of increase under subsection (3) shall be such date as shall be determined by
the Commissioner.

(5) Where a principal tenant serves on a sub-tenant a notice of increase under subsection (3), the principal
tenant shall send a copy of that notice to the Commissioner.

(6) Any person aggrieved by the determination of the Commissioner under subsection (2) may, within 1 month
of the service of the notice of determination under subsection (2), appeal to the Tribunal which may make such order
thereon as it thinks fit. (Added 76 of 1981 s. 44. Amended 77 of 1988 s. 9)

(Added 56 of 1976 s. 7. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 44)

Section: 64 Effective date for increases 30/06/1997


(1) No increase in rent in any tenancy pursuant to a certificate under section 58 or 59 or to an order of the
Tribunal under section 60 or in any sub-tenancy under section 62 shall take effect within a period of 2 years from-
(Amended 76 of 1981 s. 45)

(a) the date on which the rent of the tenancy or sub-tenancy was last increased, whether or not such
increase was by agreement; or

(b) the date of the tenancy or sub-tenancy,
whichever is the later. (Replaced 6 of 1980 s. 11)

(2)-(4) (Repealed 6 of 1980 s. 11)
(5) Where a tenancy or sub-tenancy was created after 18 December 1979 or, in the case of a tenancy or sub-

tenancy to which this Part applied immediately before that date, at any time after 14 December 1973 or where the rent
of a tenancy or sub-tenancy has been increased under section 55 or pursuant to a certificate under section 58 or 59 or
an order of the Tribunal under section 60, or under section 62 and the rent of the tenancy or sub-tenancy has been
increased or further increased pursuant to a certificate under section 58 or 59 or an order of the Tribunal under section
60, or under section 62, no order shall be made for the recovery of any increased rent or for the recovery of possession
for non-payment thereof unless the landlord or principal tenant satisfies the court that 2 years has or will have elapsed
between the commencement of the tenancy or sub-tenancy or the previous increase in rent and the date on which the
increase or further increase takes effect. (Amended 6 of 1980 s. 11; 76 of 1981 s. 45)

(6) For the purposes of this section rent shall, until the contrary is proved, be deemed to have been increased if
the tenant or sub-tenant has made any payments, other than rates, to the landlord or the principal tenant, and such
additional payments have been made as a condition of the right to occupation of the premises.

(7) Any increase in rent under section 55A or 63A shall not be an increase in rent for the purposes of this
section. (Added 29 of 1983 s. 22)

Section: 65 Provision of rent receipts 30/06/1997


(1) A landlord shall give to his tenant, and a principal tenant shall give to his sub-tenant, at the time that the
tenant or sub-tenant pays his rent, a receipt for the amount of rent paid and the receipt shall contain-

(a) the name and address of the landlord or principal tenant or the agent thereof, as the case may be;
(b) the period in respect of which such rent was paid; and
(c) the date of payment.

(2) A landlord or principal tenant who fails to comply with subsection (1) shall be guilty of an offence and shall
be liable on conviction to a fine of $2000.

Section: 66 Obligation to notify subletting of premises 30/06/1997


(1) Where the whole or any part of any premises is sublet, the tenant of the premises shall, within 14 days of
being so required by his landlord, supply his landlord with a statement in writing of the subletting showing-
(Amended 6 of 1980 s. 12; 32 of 1985 s. 17)

(a) the name of the sub-tenant;
(b) the part of the premises occupied by the sub-tenant;
(c) the rent payable by the sub-tenant; and
(d) the date of first occupation by the sub-tenant. (Replaced 5 of 1975 s. 6)



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 43

(2) A tenant who is required to supply a statement in accordance with subsection (1) and who, without
reasonable excuse-

(a) fails to supply a statement; or
(b) supplies a statement which is false in any material particular,

shall be guilty of an offence and shall be liable on conviction to a fine of $2000.

Section: 67 (Repealed 29 of 1983 s. 23) 30/06/1997




Section: 68 Proceedings in, and jurisdiction of, court or Tribunal 30/06/1997


General


(1) Subject to subsections (1A) and (2), neither the Commissioner nor any public officer employed in the
Rating and Valuation Department shall be called to give evidence in proceedings before the court or the Tribunal and
no subpoena shall be issued against the Commissioner or such public officer. (Amended 93 of 1975 s. 17; 76 of 1981
s. 46)

(1A) The Commissioner or any public officer employed in the Rating and Valuation Department may be called
to give evidence in any proceedings under sections 51(8), 53, 53A and 60. (Added 93 of 1975 s. 17. Amended 76 of
1981 s. 46)

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (1), a subpoena duces tecum may be issued against the Commissioner requiring
him to produce in any proceedings an application under section 51(4), 51(4A), 56A(1), 57(1), 59(1) or 63(1), and a
subpoena issued under this subsection shall be deemed to be complied with by the production of any document
specified in the subpoena by any public officer employed in the Rating and Valuation Department. (Amended 10 of
1975 s. 13; 39 of 1979 s. 16; 76 of 1981 s. 46)

(3)-(5) (Repealed 76 of 1981 s . 46)
(6) The court shall have the jurisdiction conferred on it by this Part notwithstanding anything in the District

Court Ordinance (Cap 336).
(7) Subject to section 68A, any determination or order, other than a conviction, of the court or the Tribunal

under this Part shall be final. (Replaced 93 of 1975 s. 17. Amended 76 of 1981 s. 46)

Section: 68A Appeal on point of law 25 of 1998 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 25 of 1998 s. 2


(1) Any party to proceedings before the court or the Tribunal may appeal to the Court of Appeal against a
determination or order other than a conviction of the court or the Tribunal on the ground that such determination or
order is erroneous in point of law. (Amended 92 of 1975 s. 59; 76 of 1981 s. 47)

(2) An appeal under this section shall be-
(a) in the case of an appeal from the court, subject to any rules made under the High Court Ordinance

(Cap 4); and (Amended 25 of 1998 s. 2)
(b) in the case of an appeal from the Tribunal, subject to the provisions of, and any rules made under, the

Lands Tribunal Ordinance (Cap 17). (Replaced 76 of 1981 s. 47)
(Added 93 of 1975 s. 18)


Section: 68B Costs 30/06/1997


In any proceedings under this Part, the Tribunal shall not make any order as to costs against a party unless that
party has conducted his case in a frivolous or vexatious manner.

(Added 76 of 1981 s. 48)




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 44

Section: 69 (Repealed 76 of 1981 s. 49) 30/06/1997




Section: 70 Exercise of powers of Commissioner 30/06/1997


(1) The Commissioner may, for the purposes of this Part-
(a) serve on any person a requisition in the specified form requiring him to furnish to the Commissioner,

within such reasonable period as the Commissioner may specify in the form, the particulars reasonably
required by the Commissioner by the requisition; (Amended 40 of 1984 s. 25)

(b) require the landlord, tenant or sub-tenant or former landlord, tenant or sub-tenant of any premises to
exhibit to him all documents relating to the tenancy and user of the premises, including leases, receipts
for rent, rent-books and accounts, and the Commissioner may take copies of those documents;

(c) at any reasonable time, with the consent of the occupier, enter and inspect any premises and take such
measurements and other particulars as he thinks fit;

(ca) require the occupier or other person in control of the premises, following not less than 24 hours notice
in writing delivered at the premises, to allow the Commissioner to enter and inspect those premises at
any reasonable time and take such measurements and other particulars as he thinks fit; (Added 40 of
1984 s. 25)

(d) after the expiry of not less than 24 hours notice in writing to the occupier of the premises or, if the
occupier cannot be found, to the landlord or other person in control of the premises, enter at any
reasonable time during day-light (using such force as may be necessary) and inspect any premises and
take such measurements and other particulars as he thinks fit. (Replaced 29 of 1983 s. 24)

(2) Any public officer or class of public officer employed in the Rating and Valuation Department and
authorized in writing in that behalf by the Commissioner may exercise any of the powers and perform any of the
duties conferred or imposed on the Commissioner by this Part.

Section: 70A Refusal to furnish information and obstruction 30/06/1997


(1) Any person who, without reasonable excuse-
(a) refuses or neglects to furnish any of the particulars specified under section 70(1)(a);
(b) refuses or neglects to exhibit any document he is required to exhibit under section 70(1)(b);
(c) refuses to allow the Commissioner to take copies of any document exhibited under section 70(1)(b); or
(d) obstructs or evades the exercise of any power under section 70(1)(c), (ca) or (d), (Replaced 40 of 1984

s. 26)
commits an offence and is liable to a fine of $10000 and to imprisonment for 3 months. (Added 29 of 1983 s. 25.
Amended 40 of 1984 s. 26)

(2) Where the Commissioner is frustrated or obstructed in the exercise of any power under section 70(1)(c),
(ca) or (d), he may apply to the court for an order authorizing him to enter and inspect the premises concerned and
exercise his powers and requiring the landlord, tenant, sub-tenant, occupier or person having control of the premises to
allow the Commissioner to enter and inspect those premises and exercise his powers; and the court shall have
jurisdiction to make such order as it thinks fit. (Added 40 of 1984 s. 26)

(3) An application under subsection (2) may be made at the conclusion of any proceedings in respect of an
alleged offence under subsection (1) (whether or not any person is convicted) or independently of any such
proceedings. (Added 40 of 1984 s. 26)

(4) In this section, "court" (法院) means the District Court, the Tribunal or a magistrate. (Added 40 of 1984 s.
26)

Section: 70B Harassment 44 of 2000 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 44 of 2000 s. 3


(1) Any person who unlawfully deprives a tenant or sub-tenant of occupation of any premises commits an
offence and is liable on conviction on indictment to a fine of $500000 and, in addition, on a second or subsequent



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 45

conviction, to imprisonment for 12 months.
(2) Any person who, with intent to cause a tenant or sub-tenant-

(a) to give up occupation of any premises or part of premises; or
(b) to refrain from exercising any right or pursuing any remedy in respect of any premises or part of

premises,
does any act calculated to interfere with the peace or comfort of the tenant or sub-tenant or members of his household
or persistently withdraws or withholds services reasonably required for occupation of the premises as a dwelling
commits an offence and is liable on conviction on indictment to a fine of $500000 and, in addition, on a second or
subsequent conviction, to imprisonment for 12 months.

(3) Where a person is convicted of an offence under subsection (1) or (2), the court, in addition to passing
sentence, may order the person convicted to pay to the tenant or sub-tenant such sum as it thinks fit by way of
compensation for damage, loss or inconvenience suffered by the tenant or sub-tenant by reason of the acts constituting
the offence and to forfeit to the Government a sum not exceeding the equivalent of the difference at the date of the
contravention between the market value of the premises with vacant possession and the market value of the premises
with the former tenant or sub-tenant in possession. (Amended 44 of 2000 s. 3)

(Added 29 of 1983 s. 25)

Section: 70C False statement 30/06/1997


Any person who, in any document required under this Part to be lodged with or served on the Commissioner,
makes a false statement, knowing it to be false or not believing it to be true, commits an offence and is liable to a fine
of $5000.

(Added 40 of 1984 s. 27)

Section: 71 Forms 30/06/1997


(1) The Commissioner may specify the forms to be used under this Part.
(2) The Commissioner may publish in the Gazette any form specified by him under subsection (1).
(3) The Commissioner may in his discretion accept any notice or application served on him which is not in the

specified form.

Section: 72 Enlargement of time 30/06/1997


The Commissioner may extend any time fixed by this Part for the making of any application to him or for the
lodging of any document with him except a notice under section 55.

(Amended 40 of 1984 s. 28)

Section: 73 (Repealed 76 of 1981 s. 50) 30/06/1997




Section: 74 Service of notice 30/06/1997


(1) Service of any notice, application, certificate or other document under this Part or of a notice to quit in
respect of a periodic tenancy, or sub-tenancy, to which this Part applies may be effected- (Amended 40 of 1984 s. 29)

(a) by personal service;
(b) by post, addressed to the last known place of business or residence of the person to be served;

(Amended 39 of 1979 s. 17; 29 of 1983 s. 26)
(c) in the case of service on a tenant or sub-tenant, by leaving the notice, application, certificate or other

document with an adult occupier of the premises in which the tenant or sub-tenant resides and to which
such document relates; or

(d) by affixing a copy of it to a prominent part of the premises to which it relates. (Added 29 of 1983 s.
26)

(2) A certificate purporting to be signed by a person who states in that certificate that he effected service under
subsection (1) shall be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein relating to that service. (Added 29 of 1983 s.



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 46

26)

Section: 74A Saving 30/06/1997


Nothing in this Part shall-
(a) authorize any increase in rent in respect of a tenancy or sub-tenancy which is not a tenancy or sub-

tenancy continuing under section 52(1); or (Replaced 40 of 1984 s. 30)
(aa) (Repealed 76 of 1981 s. 51)
(b) subject to section 53(1)(c), (4A), (4B), (5), (6), (6A) and (6B), afford to any sub-tenant any security of

tenure greater than that enjoyed by his principal tenant. (Amended 76 of 1981 s. 51; 29 of 1983 s. 27)

Section: 74B Expiry of this Part 30/06/1997


(1) Subject to subsections (3), (4) and (5), this Part shall expire at midnight on 31 December 1998. (Amended
56 of 1976 s. 8; 39 of 1979 s. 18; 6 of 1980 s. 14; 52 of 1981 s. 10; 29 of 1983 s. 28; 32 of 1985 s. 18; L.N. 202 of
1987; L.N. 235 of 1989; L.N. 273 of 1991; 53 of 1993 s. 25; L.N. 519 of 1996)

(2) The Legislative Council may by resolution amend subsection (1) by substituting for the date specified
therein such date as may be specified in the resolution. (Added 32 of 1985 s. 18)

(3) Section 53A(5) shall continue in operation despite the expiry of this Part. (Added 53 of 1993 s. 25)
(4) If, within 2 years before the expiry of this Part under subsection (1),-

(a) an increase of the rent payable under a tenancy or sub-tenancy, other than an increase under section
55A, 56, 56A, 63 or 63A, becomes effective; or

(b) a notice of an alteration in rent under a tenancy or sub-tenancy is lodged with the Commissioner under
section 55(1); or

(c) the landlord or principal tenant of any premises the subject of a tenancy or sub-tenancy serves notice of
an increase in rent in accordance with section 61(1); or

(d) the Tribunal makes an order under section 60,
this Part, except section 57, shall continue to apply to that tenancy or sub-tenancy for a period of 2 years from the date
on which that increase or alteration becomes effective. (Added 53 of 1993 s. 25)

(5) If, before this Part ceases to apply to any particular tenancy or sub-tenancy of premises, an application for
an order for possession of the premises is made on a ground mentioned in section 53(2)-

(a) sections 53 and 53A shall continue to apply to that application notwithstanding this section;
(b) an order of the Tribunal under section 53(2), (4A), (4B) or (6A) shall take effect notwithstanding Part

IV; and
(c) any tenancy arising under section 53(4A), (4B) or (6A) after this Part has ceased to apply to the

premises shall be governed by Part IV. (Added 53 of 1993 s. 25)
(6) Subject to subsection (5), when by virtue of subsection (1) or (4) this Part ceases to apply to any particular

tenancy or sub-tenancy, Part IV shall apply to that tenancy or sub-tenancy. (Added 53 of 1993 s. 25)

Section: 74C Provisions transitional to the enactment of the Landlord

and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1980
30/06/1997



For the avoidance of doubt it is hereby declared that-
(a) where prior to 18 December 1979 a tenant or sub-tenant-

(i) was in possession of premises under a tenancy or sub-tenancy which became subject to this Part
on that date by virtue of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1980
(6 of 1980); and

(ii) made an agreement with his landlord or principal tenant for a new tenancy or sub-tenancy of the
premises to commence on or after 18 December 1979, or for a continuation of the existing
tenancy or sub-tenancy at an increased rent to take effect on or after that date,

he shall be entitled to the benefits and protection afforded by this Part as if the agreement had not been
made;

(b) where a tenant or sub-tenant-
(i) was immediately prior to 18 December 1979 in possession of premises under a tenancy or sub-

tenancy which was subject to this Part, or which became subject to this Part on that date by virtue



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 47

of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1980 (6 of 1980); and
(ii) made an agreement with his landlord or principal tenant on or after 18 December 1979 and

before the commencement of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance
1980 (6 of 1980) for an increase in rent,

the amount of rent recoverable by the landlord or principal tenant shall be the amount so agreed,
whether or not any notice has been lodged under section 55;

(c) where a tenant or sub-tenant has paid by way of rent any amount which, by virtue of the Landlord and
Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1980 (6 of 1980), is not recoverable by the landlord
or principal tenant, the tenant or sub-tenant shall be entitled to recover the amount from the landlord or
principal tenant who received it or from his personal representatives.

(Added 6 of 1980 s. 15)

Part: III DISTRESS FOR RENT 30/06/1997




Section: 75 Interpretation 32 of 2002 27/12/2002


Interpretation and Application


In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires-
"Commissioner" (署長) means the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation;" (Added 32 of 2002 s. 2)
"court" (法院) means the District Court;
"rateable value" (應課差餉租值) means-

(a) in the case of premises being a tenement included in the valuation list in forced under section 14 of the
Rating Ordinance (Cap 116), the rateable value shown in that list; or (Amended 22 of 1995 s. 36)

(b) in any other case, the rateable value certified under section 75A; (Added 37 of 1986 s. 4)
"Registrar" (司法常務官) means the Registrar of the District Court;
"warrant" (手令) means a warrant of distress for arrears of rent.

(Amended 5 of 1924 Schedule; 13 of 1966 Schedule; 22 of 1995 s. 36)

Section: 75A Certificate as to rateable value L.N. 42 of 2005 01/06/2005


(1) For the purposes of ascertaining the rateable value of any premises in connection with any application under
section 101 a certificate purporting to be under the hand of an officer of the Rating and Valuation Department not
below the rank of Rent Officer showing in respect of any particular day- (Amended 32 of 2002 s. 3)

(a) in the case of premises being a tenement included in the valuation list in force under section 14 of the
Rating Ordinance (Cap 116), the rateable value shown in that list; or (Amended 22 of 1995 s. 36)

(b) in any other case, whether or not the rateable value of those premises exceeds the sum mentioned in
section 101(1),

shall be admissible in any proceedings on its production and without further proof and shall be prima facie evidence of
the facts stated therein.

(2) A person may apply to the Commissioner for a certificate under subsection (1). (Added 32 of 2002 s. 3)
(3) An application under subsection (2) shall-

(a) be made by sending a notice in the specified form to the Commissioner; and
(b) be accompanied by such fee as may be determined by the Financial Secretary by notice published in

the Gazette. (Added 32 of 2002 s. 3)
(4) The Commissioner shall comply with an application under subsection (2). (Added 32 of 2002 s. 3)

(Added 37 of 1986 s. 5)

Section: 76 Application of this Part 30/06/1997


The provisions of this Part shall extend to New Kowloon and to any other land exempted from Part II of the
New Territories Ordinance (Cap 97), notwithstanding anything contained in that Ordinance.



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 48

(Replaced 9 of 1950 Schedule)

Section: 77 Issuing of warrants of distress 30/06/1997


Jurisdiction


The court shall have jurisdiction to issue warrants of distress for arrears of rent in all cases, without respect to
the value of the property on which the rent is to be levied and without respect to the amount of rent to be levied.

(1 of 1883 s. 1 incorporated)

Section: 78 Penalty for unauthorized distress 30/06/1997


(1) No distress shall be levied for arrears of rent except under the provisions of this Part.
(2) Any person, not being a bailiff or officer acting under this Part, who levies or attempts to levy any such

distress shall be liable on summary conviction to a fine of $500 or to imprisonment for 3 months, in addition to any
other liability which he may have incurred by his proceedings. (1 of 1883 s. 2 incorporated. Amended 51 of 1911 s. 4;
21 of 1912; 22 of 1950 Schedule)

Section: 79 Limitation of time for issue of warrant 30/06/1997


No warrant shall be issued in any case for arrears of rent due for more than 12 months at the time of the
application.

(1 of 1883 s. 5 incorporated)

Section: 80 Fees 30/06/1997


No fees shall be taken or demanded for distress under this Part except those prescribed in the Fourth Schedule.
(1 of 1883 s. 4 incorporated. Amended 50 of 1911; 62 of 1911 Schedule)


Section: 81 Application for warrant 30/06/1997


Making of distress


Any person claiming to be entitled to arrears of rent, or his duly constituted attorney or agent, may apply for a
warrant.

(1 of 1883 s. 6 incorporated)

Section: 82 Form of affidavit 30/06/1997


Every application for a warrant shall be supported by an affidavit in Form 1 in the Fifth Schedule, sworn in like
manner as other affidavits in the court.

(1 of 1883 s. 8 incorporated. Amended 50 of 1911; 51 of 1911; 20 of 1948 s. 4)

Section: 83 Issue of warrant 30/06/1997


A warrant in Form 2 in the Fifth Schedule may be issued by a judge or, in the absence of any judge from the
court house, by the Registrar, returnable within 6 days and addressed to a bailiff of the court.

(1 of 1883 s. 9 incorporated. Amended 50 of 1911; 62 of 1911; 20 of 1948 s. 4)

Section: 84 Refusal of warrant 30/06/1997


The judge or Registrar to whom application is made may, on examination of the person applying for a warrant,
decline to issue the same.

(1 of 1883 s. 10 incorporated. Amended 50 of 1911; 51 of 1911; 62 of 1911 Schedule; 63 of 1911 Schedule)



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 49


Section: 85 Appeal from refusal 25 of 1998 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 25 of 1998 s. 2


(1) If a judge declines to issue a warrant, application may be made to the Court of Appeal under section 14 of
the High Court Ordinance (Cap 4). (Amended 92 of 1975 s. 58; 25 of 1998 s. 2)

(2) If the Registrar declines to issue a warrant, application may be made to a judge in the first instance. A
deputy registrar may, however, refer any application to the Registrar.

(1 of 1883 s. 11 incorporated. Amended 50 of 1911; 51 of 1911; 62 of 1911 Schedule; 63 of 1911 Schedule)

Section: 86 Time for making distress 32 of 2002 27/12/2002


Every distress shall be made after 9 a.m. and before 7 p.m., and not at any other time, except by special leave of
the court or a judge.

(1 of 1883 s. 12 incorporated. Amended 50 of 1911; 62 of 1911 Schedule; 32 of 2002 s. 4)

Section: 87 Property liable to seizure 30/06/1997


In pursuance of a warrant, a bailiff shall seize the movable property found in or upon the house or premises
mentioned in the warrant, and in the apparent possession of the person from whom the rent is claimed (hereinafter
called the debtor), or such part thereof as may, in the bailiff's judgment, be sufficient to cover the amount of the rent,
together with the costs of the distress.

(1 of 1883 s. 13 incorporated. Amended 8 of 1928 s. 2; L.N. 446 of 1994)

Section: 88 Property not liable to seizure 30/06/1997


A bailiff shall not seize-
(a) things in actual use, in the hands of a person at the time of seizure; or
(b) tools and implements not in use, where there is other movable property in or upon the house or

premises sufficient to cover the amount of the rent and costs; or
(c) goods of a temporary guest at an inn; or
(d) goods of a lodger at a furnished lodging-house; or
(e) the debtor's necessary wearing apparel; or
(f) goods in the custody of the law; or
(g) goods delivered to a person or firm exercising a public trade, to be carried, wrought, worked up, or

managed in the way of the trade or employ of such person or firm. (Replaced 8 of 1928 s. 3)
(1 of 1883 s. 14 incorporated)


Section: 89 Making of inventory on seizure 30/06/1997


On seizing any property under section 87, the bailiff shall make an inventory and appraisement of such property,
and shall give a copy of such inventory and appraisement together with a notice in Form 3 in the Fifth Schedule, to the
debtor or to any other person on his behalf, in or upon the said house or premises.

(1 of 1883 s. 15 incorporated. Amended 20 of 1948 s. 4)

Section: 90 Filing of inventory, etc. 30/06/1997


The bailiff shall, as soon as may be, file in the court copies of the inventory and appraisement and notice given
under section 89.

(1 of 1883 s. 16 incorporated)




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 50

Section: 91 Entry, and forcible entry 30/06/1997


(1) A bailiff or officer appointed to execute a warrant may break open inner doors.
(2) If he is denied admittance to any building in respect of which he has a warrant to distrain, after declaring his

name and business, or if, after waiting a reasonable time, no person answers or is in the building, he may apply to the
court for authority to break open outer doors and windows, so far as may be necessary to enable him to execute the
warrant.

(3) The court, on being satisfied, by the affidavit of the bailiff or officer, that there are no reasonable means of
executing the warrant without breaking open the outer doors or windows, may grant an order in writing, addressed to a
bailiff, authorizing him to break open, or have broken open, the doors and windows.

(4) Before executing such order, however, the bailiff shall inform any person in or about the building that he
has such order and that he is about to act on it, unless the doors or windows are opened. (Amended 50 of 1911)

(1 of 1883 ss. 17 & 18 incorporated)

Section: 92 Impounding of property seized 30/06/1997


The bailiff may impound or otherwise secure the property seized in or on the house or premises chargeable with
the rent or may remove the same.

(1 of 1883 s. 19 incorporated. Amended L.N. 587 of 1995)

Section: 93 Discharge or suspension of warrant or release of distress 30/06/1997


Discharge of Warrant


(1) The debtor, or any other person alleging himself to be the owner of any property seized under this Part,
may, at any time within 5 days from such seizure, apply to the court to discharge or suspend the warrant or to release a
restrained article; and the court may discharge or suspend the warrant or release the article, on such terms as it may
think just.

(2) An applicant under subsection (1) shall give to the person who obtained the warrant and the bailiff who
executed it 24 hours' notice of the application. The notice shall set out the facts on which the claim is founded and the
facts shall be verified by affidavit.

(1 of 1883 s. 20 incorporated)

Section: 94 Costs of application 30/06/1997


The costs attending an application under section 93 and the costs attending the issue and execution of the
warrant shall be in the discretion of the court, and shall be paid as the court directs.

(1 of 1883 s. 21 incorporated)

Section: 95 Wrongful distress 30/06/1997


If any claim is made to or in respect of any property seized under a warrant, or in respect of the proceeds or
value thereof, by any person not being the debtor, the Registrar, on the application of the bailiff who seized the
property, may issue a summons calling before the court the claimant and the person who obtained the warrant, and
thereupon any action which may have been brought in respect of such claim shall be stayed, and the court, on proof of
the service of such summons and that the property was so distrained, may order the plaintiff to pay the costs of all
proceedings in such action after the service of such summons.

(1 of 1883 s. 22 incorporated)

Section: 96 Adjudication in case of wrongful distress 30/06/1997


(1) Every claim under section 95 shall be verified by affidavit setting out the facts on which it is founded.
(Amended 51 of 1911)

(2) When so verified the court shall adjudicate thereupon, and make such order between the parties in respect



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 51

thereof, and of the costs of the proceedings, as it thinks fit.
(3) An order under subsection (2) shall be enforced as if it were an order made in an action brought in the court.

(1 of 1883 s. 23 incorporated)

Section: 97 Compensation for wrongful distress 30/06/1997


(1) In any case under section 93 or 95, the court may, if a claim for compensation is made at the time of
application, and if it appears to the court that the landlord or bailiff had no reasonable ground for believing that the
goods were properly distrainable, award such compensation by way of damages to the applicant or claimant, as the
case may be, as the court thinks fit, and may for that purpose make any inquiry it thinks necessary.

(2) The order of the court awarding or refusing compensation under subsection (1) shall bar any action in
respect of injury caused by the distress.

(1 of 1883 s. 24 incorporated)

Section: 98 Power to allow time for payment of rent 30/06/1997


The court may, at any time, on the application of the debtor and on reasonable notice being given of the
application to the person who obtained the warrant, give time to the debtor to pay the rent due from him, on such
terms as it may think just and reasonable.

(1 of 1883 s. 25 incorporated Amended 50 of 1911; 62 of 1911 Schedule)

Section: 99 Mode of sale of distress 30/06/1997


Sale of Distress


(1) In default of any order to the contrary, the distrained property shall be sold on the day mentioned in the
notice given under section 89 and the sale shall be conducted at such place and time and by such auctioneer or bailiff
as the Registrar may direct.

(2) The auctioneer or bailiff shall, on realizing the proceeds, pay over the amount thereof to the court, and such
amount shall be applied first in payment of the costs of the distress, and then in satisfaction of the debt; and the
surplus, if any, shall be returned to the debtor.

(1 of 1883 s. 26 incorporated)

Section: 100 Right of debtor as to manner of sale 30/06/1997


The debtor may require that the sale shall take place in any other manner than that directed by the Registrar, on
giving security for any extra costs or loss thereby, or that, in the opinion of the Registrar, may be thereby occasioned.

(1 of 1883 s. 27 incorporated)

Section: 101 Case of deserted premises, where no distress left 32 of 2002 27/12/2002


Deserted Premises


(1) If a tenant of premises with a rateable value not exceeding $100000 at the time of an application for a
warrant under this section is in arrears for 2 months and deserts the demised premises and leaves the same
uncultivated or unoccupied, so as no sufficient distress can be had to countervail the arrears of rent, the court may, on
the application of the lessor or landlord or his agent and on information upon oath, issue its warrant authorizing any
bailiff to enter on the premises, breaking any doors, windows, or gates, if necessary; and, if the premises are found to
be deserted with no sufficient distress therein, to place the same in charge of a bailiff and to affix a notice thereon, in a
conspicuous place, that, unless cause to the contrary is shown before the court within 10 days, the premises will be
given over to the applicant. (Amended 37 of 1986 s. 6; 32 of 2002 s. 5)

(2) If no such cause is shown, the court may, on proof of the fact of desertion, of non-payment of at least 2
months' rent last due, of want of sufficient distress, and that the applicant is the lessor or landlord of the premises or
entitled under this Part to a warrant, make an order directing a bailiff to put the applicant in possession of the



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 52

premises, and the demise shall become void.
(3) The Legislative Council may by resolution amend the sum mentioned in subsection (1). (Added 37 of 1986

s. 6)
(1 of 1883 s. 28 incorporated)

[cf. 1737 c. 19 s. 16 U.K.; 1817 c. 52 U.K.]

Section: 102 Distress for arrears of rent on determination of lease 30/06/1997


Rules as to Distress


Arrears of rent may be distrained for after the end or determination of any term or lease at will, in the same
manner as if such term or lease had not been ended or determined:

Provided that such distress is made during the continuance of the possession of the tenant from whom such
arrears became due.

(1 of 1883 s. 29 incorporated)

Section: 103 Priority of landlord's right 44 of 2000 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 29 of 1998 s. 105; 44 of 2000 s. 3


No personal property shall be removed from any premises under any writ from any court, other than writs in
Government suits, until the claim for rent due to the landlord or lessor or person entitled to receive the rent is satisfied:
(Amended 44 of 2000 s. 3)

Provided that such claim shall not in any case exceed the amount due for 6 months' rent last due.
(1 of 1883 s. 30 incorporated)

[cf. 1709 c. 18 or c. XIV U.K.]

Section: 104 Property seized under writ or warrant of Court of First

Instance or the District Court
25 of 1998 01/07/1997



Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 25 of 1998 s. 2


(1) If personal property, otherwise liable to distress for rent, is, at the time of the issue of a warrant or thereafter
before seizure by the bailiff under the warrant, seized under any writ or warrant of the Court of First Instance or the
District Court, the bailiff shall not seize the personal property, but shall return the warrant into court and deliver copies
thereof to the execution creditor or his agent and to the debtor, either personally or by leaving the same at the place
where the goods were seized. (Amended 1 of 1953 Fourth Schedule; 92 of 1975 s. 59; 25 of 1998 s. 2)

(2) The execution creditor or debtor or either of them may apply to the court to discharge or suspend the
warrant within the time and in the manner mentioned in section 93, and if no application is made within the
prescribed time, the Registrar shall, out of the first money to be received by him from the officer executing the writ or
warrant, pay over to the person obtaining the warrant the amount thereof:

Provided that if the amount mentioned in the warrant exceeds the amount due for 6 months' rent, the Registrar
shall pay the amount of rent due for 6 months and the costs and no more.

(1 of 1883 s. 31 incorporated)

Section: 105 Distraint after satisfaction of execution 30/06/1997


If any execution is paid off after the issue of a warrant, the bailiff shall immediately execute the warrant.
(1 of 1883 s. 32 incorporated)


Section: 106 Persons who may apply for warrant 30/06/1997


The following persons may, either personally or by their attorneys or agents, apply for warrants to distrain for



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 53

arrears of rent due to the estates represented by them; that is to say-
(a) executors or administrators of any lessor or landlord or person entitled to receive rents;
(b) guardians for infants;
(c) committees of lunatics for the lunatics;
(d) receivers appointed by courts for the estate over or for which they are appointed;
(e) assignees and trustees in bankruptcy for the estate of the bankrupt;
(f) mortgagees for the property mortgaged, if the mortgagee is in possession;
(g) trustees for the estate over which the trust extends;
(h) lessees against their underlessees; and
(i) the Registrar for premises seized under execution, if rented to tenants by the person against whom the

execution is issued, or otherwise rented so that the rent is payable to such person.
(1 of 1883 s. 33 incorporated. Amended 72 of 1971 s. 3)


Section: 107 Right of one of several parties interested to institute

proceedings
30/06/1997



Where a right to distrain accrues to parties jointly interested or together interested in any premises, such as
coparceners, joint tenants, tenants in common, executors, administrators, trustees, guardians, partners, or otherwise,
proceedings under this Part may be taken by any one of such parties, in his own name and the name or names of those
jointly or together interested with him, and the levying of rent so distrained for shall be a complete discharge to the
tenant for the rent or for so much thereof as may be so levied; and the party so levying shall be liable to account to the
parties having the interest jointly or together with him for all sums so levied:

Provided that if, in any particular case, it appears to the court or to the Registrar to be advisable to do so, the
court or the Registrar may require the party so applying to produce a written authority to distrain, signed by one or
more of the persons jointly or together interested with him. (Amended 50 of 1911; 62 of 1911 Schedule)

(1 of 1883 ss. 34 & 35 incorporated)

Section: 108 Removal of property under distraint 30/06/1997


No property found at the time of distraint in or on any premises as to which an arrear of rent is due shall be
removed from the premises without the consent of the person issuing the warrant, or by direction of the Registrar, until
satisfaction is made for the rent due, if the arrear has accrued during the current tenancy, and if at any time the
property would have been liable to distraint for rent under this Part; and the landlord or lessor shall be entitled to
require the bailiff, on giving the bailiff a sufficient indemnity, to the satisfaction of the Registrar, to follow the
property, if removed, and seize the same under the warrant, whether or not the property was afterwards disposed of by
the owner by way of sale, exchange, mortgage, pledge, or otherwise.

(1 of 1883 s. 36 incorporated)

Section: 109 Following property liable to seizure and removed 30/06/1997


If the tenant or lessee or person in possession or occupation of any premises on which there is an arrear of rent
due, recoverable by distress, removes or carries away, or causes or permits to be removed or carried away, from the
premises any movable property liable to be seized for such rent, so as to prevent or hinder the bailiff from distraining
the same, the court may, on application verified by affidavit, authorize the bailiff to whom the warrant to distrain for
the rent on such premises is addressed, and the officers acting with him, to follow and to take and seize the property as
a distress for the arrears of rent, wherever the same may be found, at any time within 30 days from the day of its
removal, exclusive of the day of removal, and to deal with the property so removed in the same way as if it had been
found on the premises, and, if advisable to do so, to place the same again in the premises:

Provided that the bailiff may, without such authority, follow and seize any such property found by him in the act
of being removed from any such premises, and before the same is placed in any other house or building.

(1 of 1883 ss. 37 & 38 incorporated)




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 54

Section: 110 Restoration of property removed but bona fide sold 30/06/1997


If the property or any part thereof so removed or carried away under section 108 or 109 has been sold bona fide
and for a sufficient consideration, before or after removal from the premises distrained, to any person not knowing and
not having the means of knowing that the same was liable to distraint for rent, or was removed or carried away, or was
to be removed or carried away, so as to prevent or hinder the landlord or lessee from distraining, the same, or so much
thereof as has been so sold, shall be restored by the bailiff distraining or by the court on application under section 93.

(1 of 1883 s. 39 incorporated)

Section: 111 Fraudulent removal of property by tenant 32 of 2002 27/12/2002


Any tenant or lessee or person in possession or occupation who fraudulently removes or carries away movable
property under section 108 or 109, and any person who wilfully and knowingly aids or assists such tenant or lessee or
person in such fraudulent removal or carrying away, shall be guilty of an offence triable upon indictment.

(1 of 1883 s. 40 incorporated. Amended 50 of 1991 s. 4; 32 of 2002 s. 6)

Section: 112 Protection against irregularity in proceedings 30/06/1997


Where any distress is made for any sum of money to be levied by virtue of this Part, the distress itself shall not
be deemed unlawful, nor the party making the same be deemed a trespasser, on account of any defect or want of form
in the proceeding relating thereto, nor shall the party distraining be deemed a trespasser from the beginning on account
of any irregularity which may afterwards be committed by the party so distraining, but the person aggrieved by such
irregularity may recover satisfaction for the special damages in an action under section 97.

(1 of 1883 s. 42 incorporated)

Section: 113 Exclusion of Government rents 29 of 1998 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 29 of 1998 s. 105


General


Nothing in this Part shall be held to apply to rents due to the Government.
(1 of 1883 s. 43 incorporated. Amended 29 of 1998 s. 105)


Section: 114 Power to amend Schedules 32 of 2002 27/12/2002


The Chief Justice may by notice published in the Gazette amend the Fourth Schedule and the Fifth Schedule in
any manner whatsoever.

(Added 17 of 1929 s. 2. Amended 72 of 1973 s. 2; 44 of 2000 s. 3; 32 of 2002 s. 7)

Section: 114A Forms 32 of 2002 27/12/2002


(1) The Commissioner may specify the forms to be used under section 75A(3)(a).
(2) The Commissioner may publish in the Gazette any form specified by him under subsection (1).
(3) The Commissioner may in his discretion accept any notice or application served on him which is not in the

specified form.
(Added 32 of 2002 s. 8)


Part: IV NEW TENANCIES OF DOMESTIC PREMISES* 30/06/1997


(Part IV replaced 76 of 1981 s. 52)
________________________________________________________________________________
Note:



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 55

* Sections 116(3), (4) and (4A), 117(1) and (2), 118, 119, 119A, 119AA#, 119B, 119C, 119D, 119E, 119F,
119FA, 119FB#, 119G, 119H, 119I, 119J, 119K, 119M, 119N, 119NA, 119O, 119P and 119Q (all in Part IV)
have been repealed by section 3 of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance
2004 (16 of 2004). The related savings and transitional provisions, set out in sections 5 to 7 of 16 of 2004,
are reproduced as follows:


"5. Savings in respect of Part IV


(1) In the case of a tenancy to which Part IV applies and which is in existence on the day
before the commencement date*, if-

(a) the landlord has before the commencement date given notice under and in
accordance with section 119 of the principal Ordinance to terminate the tenancy; or

(b) the tenant has before the commencement date made a request for a new tenancy
under and in accordance with section 119A of the principal Ordinance,

then on and after the commencement date-
(c) the provisions repealed by section 3 of this Ordinance shall continue to apply to the

tenancy as if they were not repealed; and
(d) the enactments amended by sections 10 to 16 of and the Schedule to this Ordinance

shall, if applicable, apply to the tenancy as if they were not amended.
(2) On and after the commencement date, a tenancy to which Part IV applies and which is in

existence on the day before the commencement date, but in respect of which no notice or request
has been given or made before the commencement date under section 119 or 119A of the principal
Ordinance, may, subject to subsections (4) and (5), only be terminated by a transitional termination
notice as provided for by section 6.

(3) The term "the tenancy" (該租賃) as used in subsection (1)(c) and (d) does not include any
new tenancy granted pursuant to Part IV on or after the commencement date.

(4) The requirement in subsection (2) for a transitional termination notice in respect of a
tenancy, and any such notice that has been issued in respect of a tenancy, ceases to apply if, on or
after the commencement date-

(a) the parties to the tenancy-
(i) agree to some other period for notice of termination; or
(ii) alter any other term of the tenancy; or

(b) the tenancy is assigned to a new tenant.
(5) Subsection (2) is without prejudice to-

(a) section 7(1) as to the making of an order for possession;
(b) any right of forfeiture conferred on a landlord;
(c) any right of surrender or early termination conferred on a tenant.

(6) (a) The benefits and protection afforded by this Part shall, in any tenancy to which it
applies, be available to the widow, widower, mother, father or any daughter or son
over the age of 18 years of the tenant where she or he was residing with the tenant at
the time of the tenant's death; and, for the purposes of this Part, references to a
tenant shall except in this subsection include a reference to such widow, widower,
mother, father, daughter or son.

(b) Only one person mentioned in paragraph (a) shall be entitled to the benefits and
protection of this Part at one time and, in default of agreement by those persons, the
Tribunal shall nominate that person on such grounds as appears to it to be just and
equitable.

(c) The benefits and protection afforded by this Part shall not be available to a personal
representative of a deceased tenant or, notwithstanding any will or the law of
succession on intestacy, any other person who is not a person mentioned in
paragraph (a) as entitled to those benefits and that protection.

(7) On and after the commencement date, a tenancy which would have terminated, but for the
requirement in subsection (2) for a transitional termination notice, shall, until terminated by such a
notice, but subject to section 7, continue at the same rent and upon the same covenants, conditions
and other terms of the original tenancy as are appropriate to a month to month tenancy.

(8) If, before the commencement date, a landlord has successfully opposed the grant of a
new tenancy on a ground specified in paragraph (b) or (c) of section 119E(1) of the principal
Ordinance, the provisions of sections 119F and 119H of that Ordinance and of any condition
imposed or order made under either of those sections apply in respect of the landlord as if those
sections were not repealed on that date.



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 56

(9) If, on the commencement date, a tenant is in possession of premises in the
circumstances described in section 119NA(1) of the principal Ordinance, the provisions of section
119NA of that Ordinance apply in respect of the tenant as if that section was not repealed on that
date.

(10) Proceedings relating to Part IV which are pending in the Tribunal on the commencement
date, and decisions of the Tribunal relating to that Part which have not been given effect to on that
date, may respectively continue and be given effect to on and after the commencement date
notwithstanding the repeal of certain provisions of that Part by section 3 of this Ordinance.

(11) Proceedings relating to provisions of Part IV saved by this section may be commenced in
the Tribunal on or after the commencement date.


* Commencement date: 9 July 2004.


6. Transitional termination notice


(1) For the purpose of section 5(2), a "transitional termination notice" (過渡性終止通知書)

means a written notice of termination of a tenancy served on or after the commencement date* in
accordance with this section.

(2) A transitional termination notice must be served-
(a) by a landlord, not less than 12 months; or
(b) by a tenant, not less than 1 month,

before the day on which it is to take effect.
(3) A transitional termination notice may be served at any time on or after the

commencement date, but-
(a) in respect of a tenancy for a fixed term which was in existence on the day before the

commencement date, may not be served earlier than the last day of the term;
(b) in respect of a periodic tenancy which was in existence on the day before the

commencement date, may not be served earlier than the last day of the period of the
tenancy current at the commencement date.

(4) A transitional termination notice may be served in any of the ways specified in section
119Y(1) of the principal Ordinance and subsection (2) of that section applies to such service.

(5) Where a transitional termination notice is served on a tenant, if-
(a) the notice is in both Chinese and English; and
(b) the notice is posted on 3 successive days upon the main door or entrance of the

premises affected,
the notice shall take effect terminating also any sub-tenancies created out of the tenancy to which it
relates.

(6) Subject to section 5(4), a transitional termination notice duly served in respect of a
tenancy in accordance with this section takes effect according to its terms, notwithstanding-

(a) a change of landlord that does not create a new tenancy;
(b) any express or implied provision in the tenancy regarding the giving of notice of

termination (subject to section 5(5)(c) as to early termination); or
(c) any other rule of law regarding the date on which a termination notice takes effect.


* Commencement date: 9 July 2004.


7. Other transitional provisions


(1) During the continuance of a tenancy as described in section 5(7), the Tribunal may, on the

application of the landlord, make an order for possession of the premises to which the tenancy
relates, or any part of them, notwithstanding that a transitional termination notice in respect of the
premises has not been served, or has been served but has not expired, if the Tribunal is satisfied
that the premises are, or that that part of them is, reasonably required by the landlord for occupation
as a residence for himself, his father, his mother or any son or daughter of his over the age of 18.

(2) The Tribunal shall not make an order for possession under subsection (1) if-
(a) in the case of a tenancy, the tenant satisfies the Tribunal that, in all the

circumstances of the case, it would manifestly not be just and equitable to make the
order; or

(b) in the case of a sub-tenancy, the Tribunal is satisfied in all the circumstances of the
case, including whether other accommodation is available for the principal tenant or



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 57

the sub-tenant, greater hardship would be caused by making the order than by
refusing it.

(3) If the Tribunal makes an order for possession under subsection (1)-
(a) the Tribunal must specify the name of the person for whose occupation it is satisfied

the premises are, or the part of the premises is, required;
(b) subject to subsection (4), the landlord must not, for a period of 24 months after the

date of the order, use, or allow the use of the premises, or the part of the premises,
other than as a residence for the person specified under paragraph (a);

(c) subject to subsection (4), the landlord must not, for a period of 24 months after the
date of the order-
(i) let the premises or any part of them; or
(ii) assign, transfer or part with possession of the premises or any part of them.

(4) If the Tribunal makes an order for possession under subsection (1), the Tribunal may
authorize the landlord to-

(a) let the premises or any part of them;
(b) assign, transfer or part with possession of the premises or any part of them; or
(c) use, or allow the use of, the premises, or any part of them, other than as a residence

for the person specified under subsection (3)(a).
(5) The Tribunal, when granting an authority under subsection (4) to let, must specify the

terms, including the rent, on which the premises are, or the part of the premises is, to be let, and the
rent must not be more than that payable by the tenant last in possession.

(6) Without prejudice to subsection (8), a landlord who contravenes subsection (3)(b) or (c)
commits an offence and is liable on conviction on indictment-

(a) to a fine of $500000;
(b) in addition, on a second or subsequent conviction, to imprisonment for 12 months;
(c) in any case, to forfeit a sum not exceeding the equivalent of-

(i) in the case of a contravention of subsection (3)(c)(i), 2 years' rent calculated at
the rate at which the premises were let without the authority of the Tribunal; or

(ii) in the case of a contravention of subsection (3)(c)(ii), the difference, at the date
of the contravention, between the market value of the premises with vacant
possession and the market value of the premises with the former tenant in
possession.

(7) A court which sentences a landlord for an offence under subsection (6) may, in addition
to imposing a penalty under that subsection, make an order under subsection (8) after hearing the
former tenant and the landlord.

(8) If-
(a) an application for an order for possession is made by the landlord under subsection

(1) and it is subsequently made to appear to the Tribunal that the application was
successful by reason of the misrepresentation or concealment of material facts by
the landlord; or

(b) the landlord is shown to have acted in contravention of subsection (3)(b) or (c),
the Tribunal or, as the case may be, the court referred to in subsection (7) may order the landlord to
pay to the former tenant such sum as it thinks fit by way of compensation for damage or loss
sustained by that tenant as a result of the application.

(9) A letting, assignment, transfer or parting with possession of premises or part of them
shall not be void, voidable or unenforceable by reason only of a contravention of subsection (3)(b)
or (c).

(10) A landlord who has been granted an order for possession pursuant to subsection (1) shall
be presumed, until the contrary is shown, to have knowledge of the making of the order, of the
terms of the order, and of any consent given by the tenant or sub-tenant in connection with the
delivery of vacant possession.

(11) For the purpose of this section-
"his father, his mother or any son or daughter of his" (其父親、母親、兒子或女兒) includes the father,

mother, son or daughter of one or more landlords, holding the premises jointly or in common,
with the other landlord or landlords so holding assenting to the application for an order for
possession;

"landlord" (業主) includes one or more landlords, holding the premises jointly or in common, with
the other landlord or landlords so holding assenting to the application for an order for
possession.".





Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 58

# Sections 119AA and 119FB have been added by sections 14 and 19 of the Landlord and Tenant
(Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 2002 (32 of 2002). Both sections have not yet commenced
operation before their repeal by section 3 of 16 of 2004.


Section: 115 Interpretation 16 of 2004 09/07/2004


Interpretation and Application


(1) In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires-
"Commissioner" (署長) means the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation;
"domestic tenancy" (住宅租賃) means a tenancy of premises let as a dwelling; (Replaced 53 of 1993 s. 26)
"forfeiture" (沒收租賃權) means forfeiture-

(a) for breach of any provision of a tenancy; or
(b) under a provision of a tenancy allowing forfeiture or determination following the destruction, or

partial destruction, of or damage to the premises; (Added 40 of 1984 s. 31)
"landlord" (業主) includes any person, other than the Government, who is, from time to time, entitled to receive rent

in respect of any premises and, in relation to a particular tenant, means the person entitled to receive rent from
that tenant; (Amended 29 of 1998 s. 105)

"notice to quit" (遷出通知書) means a notice to terminate a tenancy given in accordance with the express or implied
provisions of that tenancy;

"premises" (處所) means the subject matter of any tenancy; (Added 29 of 1983 s. 29)
"tenancy" (租賃) means a tenancy entered into orally or in writing and includes-

(a) an agreement for a tenancy; and
(b) a sub-tenancy; (Amended 16 of 2004 s. 10)
(c) (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 10)

"tenant" (租客) does not include a Government lessee but includes- (Amended 29 of 1998 s. 105)
(a) a sub-tenant; and
(b) any government other than the Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, or a

public body, corporation, partnership or firm which is the tenant of premises which is the subject
matter of a tenancy to which this Part applies; (Amended 23 of 1998 s. 2)

"Tribunal" (審裁處) means the Lands Tribunal established under the Lands Tribunal Ordinance (Cap 17).
(2) (Repealed 53 of 1993 s. 26)
(3) No notice or application under this Part shall, for the purposes of the Land Registration Ordinance (Cap

128), be regarded as an instrument in writing by which any parcel of ground, tenement or premises may be affected or
as creating a lis pendens. (Added 29 of 1983 s. 29)

(Amended 16 of 2004 s. 10)
[cf. 1954 c. 56 s. 46 U.K.]

________________________________________________________________________________
Note:
* Sections 116(3), (4) and (4A), 117(1) and (2), 118, 119, 119A, 119AA#, 119B, 119C, 119D, 119E, 119F,

119FA, 119FB#, 119G, 119H, 119I, 119J, 119K, 119M, 119N, 119NA, 119O, 119P and 119Q (all in Part IV)
have been repealed by section 3 of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance
2004 (16 of 2004). The related savings and transitional provisions, set out in sections 5 to 7 of 16 of 2004,
are reproduced as follows:


"5. Savings in respect of Part IV


(1) In the case of a tenancy to which Part IV applies and which is in existence on the day
before the commencement date*, if-

(a) the landlord has before the commencement date given notice under and in
accordance with section 119 of the principal Ordinance to terminate the tenancy; or

(b) the tenant has before the commencement date made a request for a new tenancy
under and in accordance with section 119A of the principal Ordinance,

then on and after the commencement date-
(c) the provisions repealed by section 3 of this Ordinance shall continue to apply to the



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 59

tenancy as if they were not repealed; and
(d) the enactments amended by sections 10 to 16 of and the Schedule to this Ordinance

shall, if applicable, apply to the tenancy as if they were not amended.
(2) On and after the commencement date, a tenancy to which Part IV applies and which is in

existence on the day before the commencement date, but in respect of which no notice or request
has been given or made before the commencement date under section 119 or 119A of the principal
Ordinance, may, subject to subsections (4) and (5), only be terminated by a transitional termination
notice as provided for by section 6.

(3) The term "the tenancy" (該租賃) as used in subsection (1)(c) and (d) does not include any
new tenancy granted pursuant to Part IV on or after the commencement date.

(4) The requirement in subsection (2) for a transitional termination notice in respect of a
tenancy, and any such notice that has been issued in respect of a tenancy, ceases to apply if, on or
after the commencement date-

(a) the parties to the tenancy-
(i) agree to some other period for notice of termination; or
(ii) alter any other term of the tenancy; or

(b) the tenancy is assigned to a new tenant.
(5) Subsection (2) is without prejudice to-

(a) section 7(1) as to the making of an order for possession;
(b) any right of forfeiture conferred on a landlord;
(c) any right of surrender or early termination conferred on a tenant.

(6) (a) The benefits and protection afforded by this Part shall, in any tenancy to which it
applies, be available to the widow, widower, mother, father or any daughter or son
over the age of 18 years of the tenant where she or he was residing with the tenant at
the time of the tenant's death; and, for the purposes of this Part, references to a
tenant shall except in this subsection include a reference to such widow, widower,
mother, father, daughter or son.

(b) Only one person mentioned in paragraph (a) shall be entitled to the benefits and
protection of this Part at one time and, in default of agreement by those persons, the
Tribunal shall nominate that person on such grounds as appears to it to be just and
equitable.

(c) The benefits and protection afforded by this Part shall not be available to a personal
representative of a deceased tenant or, notwithstanding any will or the law of
succession on intestacy, any other person who is not a person mentioned in
paragraph (a) as entitled to those benefits and that protection.

(7) On and after the commencement date, a tenancy which would have terminated, but for the
requirement in subsection (2) for a transitional termination notice, shall, until terminated by such a
notice, but subject to section 7, continue at the same rent and upon the same covenants, conditions
and other terms of the original tenancy as are appropriate to a month to month tenancy.

(8) If, before the commencement date, a landlord has successfully opposed the grant of a
new tenancy on a ground specified in paragraph (b) or (c) of section 119E(1) of the principal
Ordinance, the provisions of sections 119F and 119H of that Ordinance and of any condition
imposed or order made under either of those sections apply in respect of the landlord as if those
sections were not repealed on that date.

(9) If, on the commencement date, a tenant is in possession of premises in the
circumstances described in section 119NA(1) of the principal Ordinance, the provisions of section
119NA of that Ordinance apply in respect of the tenant as if that section was not repealed on that
date.

(10) Proceedings relating to Part IV which are pending in the Tribunal on the commencement
date, and decisions of the Tribunal relating to that Part which have not been given effect to on that
date, may respectively continue and be given effect to on and after the commencement date
notwithstanding the repeal of certain provisions of that Part by section 3 of this Ordinance.

(11) Proceedings relating to provisions of Part IV saved by this section may be commenced in
the Tribunal on or after the commencement date.


* Commencement date: 9 July 2004.


6. Transitional termination notice


(1) For the purpose of section 5(2), a "transitional termination notice" (過渡性終止通知書)



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 60

means a written notice of termination of a tenancy served on or after the commencement date* in
accordance with this section.

(2) A transitional termination notice must be served-
(a) by a landlord, not less than 12 months; or
(b) by a tenant, not less than 1 month,

before the day on which it is to take effect.
(3) A transitional termination notice may be served at any time on or after the

commencement date, but-
(a) in respect of a tenancy for a fixed term which was in existence on the day before the

commencement date, may not be served earlier than the last day of the term;
(b) in respect of a periodic tenancy which was in existence on the day before the

commencement date, may not be served earlier than the last day of the period of the
tenancy current at the commencement date.

(4) A transitional termination notice may be served in any of the ways specified in section
119Y(1) of the principal Ordinance and subsection (2) of that section applies to such service.

(5) Where a transitional termination notice is served on a tenant, if-
(a) the notice is in both Chinese and English; and
(b) the notice is posted on 3 successive days upon the main door or entrance of the

premises affected,
the notice shall take effect terminating also any sub-tenancies created out of the tenancy to which it
relates.

(6) Subject to section 5(4), a transitional termination notice duly served in respect of a
tenancy in accordance with this section takes effect according to its terms, notwithstanding-

(a) a change of landlord that does not create a new tenancy;
(b) any express or implied provision in the tenancy regarding the giving of notice of

termination (subject to section 5(5)(c) as to early termination); or
(c) any other rule of law regarding the date on which a termination notice takes effect.


* Commencement date: 9 July 2004.


7. Other transitional provisions


(1) During the continuance of a tenancy as described in section 5(7), the Tribunal may, on the

application of the landlord, make an order for possession of the premises to which the tenancy
relates, or any part of them, notwithstanding that a transitional termination notice in respect of the
premises has not been served, or has been served but has not expired, if the Tribunal is satisfied
that the premises are, or that that part of them is, reasonably required by the landlord for occupation
as a residence for himself, his father, his mother or any son or daughter of his over the age of 18.

(2) The Tribunal shall not make an order for possession under subsection (1) if-
(a) in the case of a tenancy, the tenant satisfies the Tribunal that, in all the

circumstances of the case, it would manifestly not be just and equitable to make the
order; or

(b) in the case of a sub-tenancy, the Tribunal is satisfied in all the circumstances of the
case, including whether other accommodation is available for the principal tenant or
the sub-tenant, greater hardship would be caused by making the order than by
refusing it.

(3) If the Tribunal makes an order for possession under subsection (1)-
(a) the Tribunal must specify the name of the person for whose occupation it is satisfied

the premises are, or the part of the premises is, required;
(b) subject to subsection (4), the landlord must not, for a period of 24 months after the

date of the order, use, or allow the use of the premises, or the part of the premises,
other than as a residence for the person specified under paragraph (a);

(c) subject to subsection (4), the landlord must not, for a period of 24 months after the
date of the order-
(i) let the premises or any part of them; or
(ii) assign, transfer or part with possession of the premises or any part of them.

(4) If the Tribunal makes an order for possession under subsection (1), the Tribunal may
authorize the landlord to-

(a) let the premises or any part of them;
(b) assign, transfer or part with possession of the premises or any part of them; or



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 61

(c) use, or allow the use of, the premises, or any part of them, other than as a residence
for the person specified under subsection (3)(a).

(5) The Tribunal, when granting an authority under subsection (4) to let, must specify the
terms, including the rent, on which the premises are, or the part of the premises is, to be let, and the
rent must not be more than that payable by the tenant last in possession.

(6) Without prejudice to subsection (8), a landlord who contravenes subsection (3)(b) or (c)
commits an offence and is liable on conviction on indictment-

(a) to a fine of $500000;
(b) in addition, on a second or subsequent conviction, to imprisonment for 12 months;
(c) in any case, to forfeit a sum not exceeding the equivalent of-

(i) in the case of a contravention of subsection (3)(c)(i), 2 years' rent calculated at
the rate at which the premises were let without the authority of the Tribunal; or

(ii) in the case of a contravention of subsection (3)(c)(ii), the difference, at the date
of the contravention, between the market value of the premises with vacant
possession and the market value of the premises with the former tenant in
possession.

(7) A court which sentences a landlord for an offence under subsection (6) may, in addition
to imposing a penalty under that subsection, make an order under subsection (8) after hearing the
former tenant and the landlord.

(8) If-
(a) an application for an order for possession is made by the landlord under subsection

(1) and it is subsequently made to appear to the Tribunal that the application was
successful by reason of the misrepresentation or concealment of material facts by
the landlord; or

(b) the landlord is shown to have acted in contravention of subsection (3)(b) or (c),
the Tribunal or, as the case may be, the court referred to in subsection (7) may order the landlord to
pay to the former tenant such sum as it thinks fit by way of compensation for damage or loss
sustained by that tenant as a result of the application.

(9) A letting, assignment, transfer or parting with possession of premises or part of them
shall not be void, voidable or unenforceable by reason only of a contravention of subsection (3)(b)
or (c).

(10) A landlord who has been granted an order for possession pursuant to subsection (1) shall
be presumed, until the contrary is shown, to have knowledge of the making of the order, of the
terms of the order, and of any consent given by the tenant or sub-tenant in connection with the
delivery of vacant possession.

(11) For the purpose of this section-
"his father, his mother or any son or daughter of his" (其父親、母親、兒子或女兒) includes the father,

mother, son or daughter of one or more landlords, holding the premises jointly or in common,
with the other landlord or landlords so holding assenting to the application for an order for
possession;

"landlord" (業主) includes one or more landlords, holding the premises jointly or in common, with
the other landlord or landlords so holding assenting to the application for an order for
possession.".


# Sections 119AA and 119FB have been added by sections 14 and 19 of the Landlord and Tenant

(Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 2002 (32 of 2002). Both sections have not yet commenced
operation before their repeal by section 3 of 16 of 2004.


Section: 115A Determining the nature of a tenancy 32 of 2002 27/12/2002


(1) Notwithstanding the purpose for which premises were let, in determining the nature of a tenancy for the
purposes of this Part the following provisions shall apply-

(a) in any agreement in writing between a landlord and tenant, a term that the premises shall be used for a
specified purpose shall be prima facie evidence that the premises are being used for such purpose;

(b) notwithstanding any evidence as to whether premises were originally let as a dwelling or not let as a
dwelling, premises which are being used primarily for another purpose shall be deemed to have been
let for such other purpose; but where such primary user is user as a dwelling and in breach of any term
in the agreement with the landlord, the onus is on the tenant to establish that such user has been agreed
to by the landlord, expressly or by implication, or acquiesced in by him;



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 62

(c) subject to paragraph (d), where there exists insufficient evidence as to whether premises were let as a
dwelling or not let as a dwelling, the nature of the tenancy shall be determined by the primary user of
the premises;

(d) where there is evidence that premises were let otherwise than as a dwelling, or that they were being
used otherwise than as a dwelling at the commencement of a sub-tenancy created out of the original
tenancy, any premises the subject of such sub-tenancy shall themselves be deemed to be used
otherwise than as a dwelling until the sub-tenant satisfies the Tribunal to the contrary;

(e) the use of premises as a boarding or lodging house is a use other than as a dwelling.
(2) In determining whether premises were let, or are being used, as a dwelling, the following may be taken into

account-
(a) the covenants, terms and conditions in any Government lease or tenancy; (Amended 29 of 1998 s.

105)
(b) any occupation permit given by the Building Authority under section 21 of the Buildings Ordinance

(Cap 123), or under any Ordinance replaced thereby, in relation to the premises;
(c) normal additional uses of premises consistent with the domestic nature of a tenancy having regard to

the following-
(i) floor area in occupation part or full-time for such uses;
(ii) the number of people engaged in such uses but not dwelling on the premises;
(iii) the furnishings, fittings and contents of the premises; and
(iv) the gross profits resulting from such uses relative to the rent or proportion thereof paid by the

person making such profits.
(3) Where a dispute arises as to whether a tenancy is domestic, the landlord or tenant may, if primary user is

relevant to the dispute, apply in the specified form to the Commissioner for his certificate as to the primary user of the
premises and shall specify in the form the nature of the dispute.

(4) Whether or not a dispute arises as to whether a tenancy is domestic, a landlord or tenant may apply in the
specified form to the Commissioner for his certificate as to the primary user of the premises.

(5) Where a person applies to the Commissioner under subsection (4) he shall-
(a) specify in the application form a day, other than a public holiday, on which he would like the

inspection to be carried out;
(b) at the time when he lodges the application, pay such fee as may be determined by the Financial

Secretary by notice published in the Gazette; and (Amended 32 of 2002 s. 9)
(c) lodge the application form with the Commissioner not less than 10 days before the day specified in the

form.
(6) The Commissioner shall, where practicable, carry out the inspection under subsection (7) on the day

specified in the application or, if the inspection cannot be carried out on that day, as soon thereafter as is reasonably
possible.

(7) Subject to subsection (8), where an application under subsection (3) or (4) is made to the Commissioner, he
shall inspect the premises, and may-

(a) where he is satisfied on the evidence available as to the primary user, issue free of charge in the case of
an application under subsection (3) and serve on the landlord and tenant a certificate in the specified
form as to the primary user of the premises on the day of his inspection;

(b) where he is not so satisfied, issue free of charge in the case of an application under subsection (3) and
serve on the landlord and tenant a notice in the specified form declining to express an opinion as to the
primary user of the premises.

(8) Where the Commissioner issues a certificate under subsection (7)(a), no further application may be made
under subsection (3) or (4) before the expiry of 1 year from the date on which that certificate is issued.

(9) A certificate issued by the Commissioner under subsection (7)(a) shall, for all purposes, including an
application under subsection (10), be prima facie evidence of the facts set out therein and of the primary user of the
premises on the day on which they were inspected.

(10) A party to any tenancy may apply to the Tribunal to determine whether or not a tenancy is domestic and the
Tribunal may determine that question for the purposes of this Part.

(Added 53 of 1993 s. 27)




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 63

Section: 116 Application of this Part 16 of 2004 09/07/2004


(1) Subject to subsection (2), this Part applies to any domestic tenancy- (Amended 16 of 2004 s. 11)
(a) notwithstanding any provision in such tenancy, including any provision purporting generally or

specifically to exclude this Part; and
(b) including any domestic tenancy to which Part I or Part II has ceased to apply. (Replaced 53 of 1993 s.

28)
(1A)-(1B) (Repealed 53 of 1993 s. 28)
(2) This Part shall not apply to any tenancy-

(a) to which Part I or Part II applies; or
(b) of land unbuilt on; or (Replaced 53 of 1993 s. 28)
(ba) of agricultural land, which expression shall have the meaning assigned to it by section 36 of the Rating

Ordinance (Cap 116), including such a tenancy where there is on the land a dwelling house occupied
by persons working the land; or (Added 53 of 1993 s. 28)

(bb) where the landlord is the employer and the tenant is the employee in possession of the premises in
accordance with the terms and conditions of his employment, being terms and conditions which
require him to vacate the accommodation on ceasing to be so employed; or (Added 53 of 1993 s. 28)

(bc) held from the Government, the Hong Kong Housing Authority, the Hong Kong Housing Society or the
Hong Kong Settlers Housing Corporation Limited, or a sub-tenancy created out of such a tenancy; or
(Added 53 of 1993 s. 28. Amended 29 of 1998 s. 105)

(bd) in writing created after 18 December 1981 for a fixed term of 5 years or longer which contains no
provision-
(i) for earlier determination by the landlord otherwise than by forfeiture; and
(ii) for any premium or fine or for any increase in the rent during the fixed term; or (Added 53 of

1993 s. 28)
(c) of premises which is subsisting at the time an order under section 4 is made in respect of those

premises; or (Added 29 of 1983 s. 30)
(d) which is entered into under an authority under section 53(7A)(a)(ii). (Added 29 of 1983 s. 30.

Amended 16 of 2004 s. 11)
(3)-(4) (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3)
(4A) (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3)
(5) (a) The benefits and protection afforded by this Part shall, in any tenancy to which it applies, be available

to the widow, widower, mother, father or any daughter or son over the age of 18 years of the tenant
where she or he was residing with the tenant at the time of the tenant's death; and, for the purposes of
this Part, references to a tenant shall except in this subsection include a reference to such widow,
widower, mother, father, daughter or son.

(b) Only one person mentioned in paragraph (a) shall be entitled to the benefits and protection of this Part
at one time and, in default of agreement by those persons, the Tribunal shall nominate that person on
such grounds as appears to it to be just and equitable. (Added 29 of 1983 s. 30)

(c) The benefits and protection afforded by this Part shall not be available to a personal representative of a
deceased tenant or, notwithstanding any will or the law of succession on intestacy, any other person
who is not a person mentioned in paragraph (a) as entitled to those benefits and that protection.
(Added 40 of 1984 s. 32)

(6) (Repealed 40 of 1984 s. 32)

Section: 117 Continuation of tenancies and grant of new tenancies 16 of 2004 09/07/2004


Continuation and Renewal of Tenancies


(1)-(2) (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3)
(3) In the case of a tenancy entered into on or after the commencement* of this subsection-

(a) if the tenancy does not contain a covenant to pay the rent on the due date, then there shall be implied in
the tenancy-
(i) a covenant to pay the rent on the due date; and
(ii) a condition for forfeiture if that implied covenant is broken by virtue of non-payment of the rent



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 64

within 15 days of the due date;
(b) if the tenancy-

(i) does contain a covenant to pay the rent on the due date; but
(ii) does not contain a condition for forfeiture if that covenant is broken by virtue of non-payment of

the rent,
then there shall be implied in the tenancy a condition for forfeiture if that covenant is broken by virtue
of non-payment of the rent within 15 days of the due date;

(c) if the tenancy does not contain a covenant substantially to the effect that the tenant not use, or suffer or
permit the use of, the premises or any part thereof for an immoral or illegal purpose, then there shall be
implied in the tenancy-
(i) a covenant that the tenant not use, or suffer or permit the use of, the premises or any part thereof

for an immoral or illegal purpose; and
(ii) a condition for forfeiture if that implied covenant is broken;

(d) if the tenancy-
(i) does contain a covenant substantially to the effect that the tenant not use, or suffer or permit the

use of, the premises or any part thereof for an immoral or illegal purpose; but
(ii) does not contain a condition for forfeiture if that covenant is broken,
then there shall be implied in the tenancy a condition for forfeiture if that covenant is broken;

(e) if the tenancy does not contain a covenant substantially to the effect that the tenant not cause
unnecessary annoyance, inconvenience or disturbance to the landlord or to any other person, then there
shall be implied in the tenancy-
(i) a covenant that the tenant not cause unnecessary annoyance, inconvenience or disturbance to the

landlord or to any other person; and
(ii) a condition for forfeiture if that implied covenant is broken;

(f) if the tenancy-
(i) does contain a covenant substantially to the effect that the tenant not cause unnecessary

annoyance, inconvenience or disturbance to the landlord or to any other person; but
(ii) does not contain a condition for forfeiture if that covenant is broken,
then there shall be implied in the tenancy a condition for forfeiture if that covenant is broken;

(g) if the tenancy does not contain a covenant substantially to the effect that the tenant not make any
structural alteration to, or suffer or permit any structural alteration to, the premises without the prior
written consent of the landlord, then there shall be implied in the tenancy-
(i) a covenant that the tenant not make any structural alteration to, or suffer or permit any structural

alteration to, the premises without the prior written consent of the landlord; and
(ii) a condition for forfeiture if that implied covenant is broken; and

(h) if the tenancy-
(i) does contain a covenant substantially to the effect that the tenant not make any structural

alteration to, or suffer or permit any structural alteration to, the premises without the prior written
consent of the landlord; but

(ii) does not contain a condition for forfeiture if that covenant is broken,
then there shall be implied in the tenancy a condition for forfeiture if that covenant is broken. (Added
32 of 2002 s. 11)

(4) For the avoidance of doubt, it is hereby declared that, for the purposes of subsection (3)(b)(ii), (d)(ii), (f)(ii)
or (h)(ii), a tenancy mentioned in that subsection which contains a condition for forfeiture which may not be exercised
solely on the ground mentioned in that subsection is, notwithstanding that, still a tenancy which contains a condition
for forfeiture mentioned in that subsection. (Added 32 of 2002 s. 11)

(5) It is hereby declared that-
(a) subsection (3)(a) and (b) shall have effect subject to section 58(4) and (10) of the Conveyancing and

Property Ordinance (Cap 219) (and notwithstanding subsection (14) of that section);
(b) subsection (3)(c), (d), (e), (f), (g) and (h) shall have effect subject to section 58(1) to (13) of the

Conveyancing and Property Ordinance (Cap 219) (and notwithstanding subsection (14) of that
section);

(c) for the purposes of subsection (3)(e) and (f), the persistent delay of payment of rent is unnecessary
annoyance, inconvenience or disturbance. (Added 32 of 2002 s. 11)

[cf. 1954 c. 56 s. 24 U.K.]



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 65

________________________________________________________________________________
Note:
* Commencement date: 27 December 2002.

Section: 118 (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119 (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119A (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119B (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119C (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119D (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004


Application to Tribunal for new tenancy

Section: 119E (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119F (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119FA (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119G (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119H (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119I (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119J (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119K (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119L Endorsement of tenancy agreement L.N. 42 of 2005 01/06/2005


(1) Where the parties enter into or renew a tenancy to which this Part applies, the landlord shall lodge with the
Commissioner a notice in the specified form, and the Commissioner shall-

(a) endorse the notice with the date of its receipt; and
(b) notify both parties of the receipt of the notice. (Replaced 16 of 2004 s. 4)



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 66

(1A) The notice mentioned in subsection (1) may be lodged-
(a) without charge, within 1 month after the event notified; or
(b) upon payment to the Commissioner of such fee as may be determined by the Financial Secretary by

notice published in the Gazette, at any time. (Added 40 of 1984 s. 34. Amended 32 of 2002 s. 21)
(2) Subject to section 51A(6), a landlord shall not be entitled to maintain an action to recover rent under an

agreement mentioned in subsection (1) unless a notice relating to that agreement is endorsed by the Commissioner
under that subsection. (Amended 29 of 1983 s. 39)

(Amended 40 of 1984 s. 34)

Section: 119M (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119N (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119NA (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119O (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119P (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119Q (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 3) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004




Section: 119R Costs 30/06/1997


In any proceedings under this Part, the Tribunal shall not make any order as to costs against a party unless that
party has conducted his case in a frivolous or vexatious manner.

Section: 119RA Provision of rent receipts 30/06/1997


(1) A landlord shall give to his tenant, at the time that the tenant pays his rent, a receipt for the amount of the
rent paid and the receipt shall contain-

(a) the name and address of the landlord;
(b) the period in respect of which such rent was paid; and
(c) the date of payment.

(2) A landlord who fails to comply with subsection (1) commits an offence and is liable to a fine of $2000.
(Added 29 of 1983 s. 43)


Section: 119S Proceedings 16 of 2004 09/07/2004


(1) Subject to subsection (2), neither the Commissioner nor any public officer employed in the Rating and
Valuation Department shall be called to give evidence in proceedings before the Tribunal and no subpoena shall be
issued against the Commissioner or such public officer.

(2) The Commissioner or any public officer employed in the Rating and Valuation Department may be called
to give evidence in any proceedings under section 115A(10). (Amended 32 of 2002 s. 24)

(3) (Repealed 32 of 2002 s. 24)
(4) Any determination or order of the Tribunal under this Part shall be final.

(Amended 16 of 2004 s. 12)




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 67

Section: 119T Exercise of powers of Commissioner 16 of 2004 09/07/2004


(1) The Commissioner may, for the purposes of this Part-
(a) serve on any person a requisition in the specified form requiring him to furnish to the Commissioner,

within such reasonable period as the Commissioner may specify in the form, the particulars reasonably
required by the Commissioner by the requisition;

(b) require the landlord or tenant or former landlord or tenant of any premises to exhibit to him all
documents relating to the tenancy and user of the premises, including leases, receipts for rent, rent-
books and accounts, and the Commissioner may take copies of those documents;

(c) at any reasonable time, with the consent of the occupier, enter and inspect any premises and take such
measurements and other particulars as he thinks fit;

(d) require the occupier or other person in control of the premises, following not less than 24 hours notice
in writing delivered at the premises, to allow the Commissioner to enter and inspect those premises at
any reasonable time and take such measurements and other particulars as he thinks fit;

(e) after the expiry of not less than 24 hours notice in writing to the occupier of the premises or, if the
occupier cannot be found, to the landlord or other person in control of the premises, enter at any
reasonable time during daylight (using such force as may be necessary) and inspect any premises and
take such measurements and other particulars as he thinks fit.

(1A) The Commissioner may disclose any information obtained under this Part to any specified person where in
his opinion the disclosure will enable or assist the person to perform a function or exercise a power (including a right)
imposed or conferred on the person by-

(a) this Ordinance;
(b) the Rating Ordinance (Cap 116); or
(c) the Government Rent (Assessment and Collection) Ordinance (Cap 515). (Added 32 of 2002 s. 25)

(1B) In subsection (1A), "specified person" (指明人士) means-
(a) the Tribunal or a court or magistrate; or
(b) a public officer acting in his capacity as a public officer.
(c) (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 13)

(Added 32 of 2002 s. 25. Amended 16 of 2004 s. 13)
(2) Any public officer or class of public officer employed in the Rating and Valuation Department and

authorized in writing in that behalf by the Commissioner may exercise any of the powers and perform any of the
duties conferred or imposed on the Commissioner by this Part.

(Added 53 of 1993 s. 30)

Section: 119TA Use of returned requisition as evidence 32 of 2002 27/12/2002


(1) A returned requisition shall, in any proceedings before the Tribunal, a magistrate, the District Court or the
Court of Appeal, be admissible as evidence of the facts stated in the returned requisition; and any document purporting
to be a returned requisition shall in any such proceedings be presumed, unless the contrary is shown-

(a) to be such a returned requisition;
(b) to have been made by the person by whom it purports to have been made; and
(c) if it purports to have been made by a person in a capacity specified in the returned requisition, to have

been made by him in that capacity.
(2) In subsection (1), "returned requisition" (已交回的申報表) means either-

(a) a notice under section 119L(1) lodged with the Commissioner; or
(b) a requisition-

(i) served under section 119T(1)(a) on a person;
(ii) served under section 5(1)(a) of the Rating Ordinance (Cap 116) on the owner or occupier of a

tenement; or
(iii) served under section 31(1)(a) of the Government Rent (Assessment and Collection) Ordinance

(Cap 515) on the lessee of an applicable lease or the owner or occupier of a tenement,
and returned by him to the Commissioner containing or purporting to contain all or any of the
particulars required to be given by him to the Commissioner.

(Added 32 of 2002 s. 26)



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 68


Section: 119U Refusal to furnish information and obstruction 30/06/1997


(1) Any person who, without reasonable excuse-
(a) refuses or neglects to furnish any of the particulars specified under section 119T(1)(a);
(b) refuses or neglects to exhibit any document he is required to exhibit under section 119T(1)(b);
(c) refuses to allow the Commissioner to take copies of any document exhibited under section 119T(1)(b);

or
(d) obstructs or evades the exercise of any power under section 119T(1)(c), (d) or (e),

commits an offence and is liable to a fine of $10000 and to imprisonment for 3 months.
(2) Where the Commissioner is frustrated or obstructed in the exercise of any power under section 119T(1)(c),

(d) or (e), he may apply to the court for an order authorizing him to enter and inspect the premises concerned and
exercise his powers and requiring the landlord, tenant, occupier or person having control of the premises to allow the
Commissioner to enter and inspect those premises and exercise his powers; and the court shall have jurisdiction to
make such order as it thinks fit.

(3) An application under subsection (2) may be made at the conclusion of any proceedings in respect of an
alleged offence under subsection (1) (whether or not any person is convicted) or independently of any such
proceedings.

(4) In this section, "court" (法院) means the District Court, the Tribunal or a magistrate.
(Added 53 of 1993 s. 30)


Section: 119V Harassment 32 of 2002 27/12/2002


(1) Any person who unlawfully deprives a tenant or sub-tenant of occupation of any premises commits an
offence and is liable on conviction on indictment by the court-

(a) on a first conviction, to a fine of $500000 and to imprisonment for 12 months;
(b) on a second or subsequent conviction, to a fine of $1000000 and to imprisonment for 3 years.

(2) Subject to subsection (3), any person who, in relation to any premises-
(a) either-

(i) does any act calculated to interfere with the peace or comfort of the tenant or sub-tenant or
members of his household; or

(ii) persistently withdraws or withholds services reasonably required for occupation of the premises
as a dwelling; and

(b) knows, or has reasonable cause to believe, that that conduct is likely to cause the tenant or sub-tenant-
(i) to give up occupation of the premises; or
(ii) to refrain from exercising any right or pursuing any remedy in respect of the premises,

commits an offence and is liable on conviction on indictment by the court-
(i) on a first conviction, to a fine of $500000 and to imprisonment for 12 months;
(ii) on a second or subsequent conviction, to a fine of $1000000 and to imprisonment for 3 years.

(3) A person does not commit an offence under subsection (2) if he proves that he had reasonable grounds for
doing the act, or withdrawing or withholding the services, concerned.

(4) Where a person is convicted of an offence under subsection (1) or (2), the court, in addition to passing
sentence, may order the person convicted-

(a) to pay to the tenant or sub-tenant such sum as it thinks fit by way of compensation for damage, loss or
inconvenience suffered by the tenant or sub-tenant by reason of the conduct constituting the offence;

(b) to forfeit to the Government a sum not exceeding the equivalent of the difference at the date of the
contravention between the market value of the premises with vacant possession and the market value
of the premises with the former tenant or sub-tenant in possession.

(5) In this section-
"premises" (處所) includes part of any premises.

(Replaced 32 of 2002 s. 27)




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 69

Section: 119W False statement 30/06/1997


Any person who, in any document required under this Part to be lodged with or served on the Commissioner,
makes a false statement, knowing it to be false or not believing it to be true, commits an offence and is liable to a fine
of $5000.

(Added 53 of 1993 s. 30)

Section: 119X Forms 30/06/1997


(1) The Commissioner may specify the forms to be used under this Part.
(2) The Commissioner may publish in the Gazette any form specified by him under subsection (1).
(3) The Commissioner may in his discretion accept any notice or application served on him which is not in the

specified form.
(Added 53 of 1993 s. 30)


Section: 119Y Service of notice 30/06/1997


(1) Service of any notice, application, certificate or other document under this Part or of a notice to quit in
respect of a periodic tenancy to which this Part applies may be effected-

(a) by personal service;
(b) by post, addressed to the last known place of business or residence of the person to be served;
(c) in the case of service on a tenant, by leaving the notice, application, certificate or other document with

an adult occupier of the premises in which the tenant resides and to which such document relates; or
(d) by affixing a copy of it to a prominent part of the premises to which it relates.

(2) A certificate purporting to be signed by a person who states in that certificate that he effected service under
subsection (1) shall be prima facie evidence of the facts stated therein relating to that service.

(Added 53 of 1993 s. 30)

Section: 120 (Repealed 53 of 1993 s. 31) 30/06/1997




Part: V TENANCY (NOTICE OF TERMINATION) 30/06/1997




Section: 120A Interpretation 16 of 2004 09/07/2004


In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires-
"Commissioner" (署長) means the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation; (Added 39 of 1979 s. 20)
"landlord" (業主) includes any person, other than the Government, who is from time to time entitled to receive rent in

respect of any premises and, in relation to a particular tenant, means a person entitled to receive rent from such a
tenant; (Added 39 of 1979 s. 20. Amended 29 of 1998 s. 105)

"premises" (處所) means the subject matter of any tenancy; (Added 39 of 1979 s. 20)
"principal tenant" (主租客) means a tenant of premises other than a Government lessee, who has or shall sublet any

part or parts thereof as a separate holding or holdings; (Added 39 of 1979 s. 20. Amended 29 of 1998 s. 105)
"Tribunal" (審裁處) means the Lands Tribunal established under the Lands Tribunal Ordinance (Cap 17). (Added 76

of 1981 s. 53)
(Added 39 of 1979 s. 19. Amended 32 of 2002 s. 28; 16 of 2004 s. 14)


Section: 121 Application 16 of 2004 09/07/2004


(1) Save as otherwise provided in this section, this Part shall apply to every tenancy (which expression shall
wherever it occurs in this Part include sub-tenancies unless the context otherwise requires) whether the same be
effected orally or in writing and notwithstanding any provision in such tenancy, including any provision purporting



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 70

specifically to exclude the provisions of this Part.
(2) This Part shall not apply to the following-

(a) a tenancy for a fixed term of 3 years or more the agreement for which contains no provision for earlier
determination of the same other than for breach of any of the provisions of the agreement or under a
provision of the tenancy allowing forfeiture or determination following the destruction, or partial
destruction, of or damage to the premises; (Amended 40 of 1984 s. 36)

(b) a tenancy-
(i) of premises to which Part I applies; or
(ii) of premises in respect of which there is in existence an order under section 4; (Replaced 24 of

1980 s. 4. Amended 29 of 1983 s. 45)
(ba) a tenancy to which Part II applies; (Added 6 of 1980 s. 16)
(c) a tenancy to which Part IV applies;
(d) a tenancy in respect of which a valid notice to quit was given prior to 14 April 1962, including a

tenancy arising by reason of a tenant holding over in such circumstances;
(e) a tenancy of land unbuilt on, but such a tenancy shall cease to be excluded so soon as there is built on

the land in accordance with the provisions of the agreement for the tenancy any building of a
permanent nature;

(f) a tenancy of agricultural land, which expression shall have the meaning assigned to it by the Rating
Ordinance (Cap 116), including such a tenancy where there exists on the land any dwelling house
occupied by persons working the land;

(g) a tenancy where the landlord is the employer and the tenant is the employee in possession of the
premises in accordance with the terms and conditions of his employment where such terms and
conditions require him to vacate the accommodation upon ceasing to be so employed;

(h) a tenancy held from the Government; and (Amended 29 of 1998 s. 105; 16 of 2004 s. 15)
(i) (Repealed 29 of 1983 s. 45)
(j) a tenancy authorized by the Commissioner under section 53(7A)(a)(ii). (Added 29 of 1983 s. 45.

Amended 16 of 2004 s. 15)
(k)-(l) (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 15)

(3) This Part shall not apply to a tenancy in writing-
(a) for a fixed term not exceeding 1 year; and
(b) which-

(i) has been entered into for a period during which, or for most of which, the landlord will be absent
from Hong Kong; or

(ii) is in respect of premises which the landlord intends to rebuild and is for a period pending that
rebuilding; or

(iii) is in respect of premises normally occupied or intended to be occupied by the landlord but is
temporarily surplus to his requirements; or

(iv) is entered into in circumstances which are special having regard to the particular purposes of the
landlord and the particular needs of the tenant. (Replaced 40 of 1984 s. 36)

(4) A dispute as to whether a tenancy is excluded under subsection (3) shall be determined by the
Commissioner in a summary manner on application in writing to him and the Commissioner shall cause notice of the
determination to be served on the person who made the application. (Replaced 32 of 2002 s. 29)

(5) Any public officer or class of public officer employed in the Rating and Valuation Department and
authorized in writing in that behalf by the Commissioner may exercise the powers of the Commissioner under
subsection (4). (Added 40 of 1984 s. 36)

(6) Any person aggrieved by a determination under subsection (4) may, within 1 month of the service of the
notice of the determination, appeal to the Tribunal against the determination and the Tribunal may make such order
thereon as it thinks fit. (Added 32 of 2002 s. 29)

(14 of 1962 s. 2 incorporated)

Section: 122 (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 8) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004


________________________________________________________________________________
Note:
This section has been repealed by section 8 of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment)



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 71

Ordinance 2004 (16 of 2004). The related savings provisions, set out in section 9 of 16 of 2004, are reproduced
as follows:


"9. Savings in respect of Part V


(1) Notwithstanding the repeal of section 122 of the principal Ordinance on the commencement
date*-

(a) a notice of termination served under section 122(1) of that Ordinance before that date
shall have effect in relation to the tenancy to which it applies; and

(b) the definition of "notice of termination" in section 120A of that Ordinance shall
continue to apply in relation to that tenancy.

(2) On and after the commencement date, a tenancy to which Part V applies and which is in
existence on the day before the commencement date, but in respect of which no notice of termination
has been served before the commencement date under section 122(1) of the principal Ordinance-

(a) may be terminated in accordance with its terms or as otherwise agreed between the
parties; or

(b) if it is a tenancy which was continued by virtue of section 122(4) of that Ordinance, may
be terminated either as a month to month tenancy or as agreed between the parties.

(3) Proceedings relating to Part V which are pending in the Tribunal on the commencement
date, and decisions of the Tribunal relating to that Part which have not been given effect to on that
date, may respectively continue and be given effect to on and after the commencement date
notwithstanding the repeal of certain provisions of that Part by section 8 of this Ordinance.

(4) Proceedings relating to provisions of Part V saved by this section may be commenced in the
Tribunal on or after the commencement date.".


* Commencement date: 9 July 2004.


Section: 123 Exclusion of tenancies from this Part 44 of 2000 01/07/1997


Remarks:
Adaptation amendments retroactively made - see 44 of 2000 s. 3


(1) (Repealed 52 of 1981 s. 13) (For savings see Ord. No. 52 of 1981 s. 13(2))
(2) The Chief Executive in Council may in his absolute discretion by order exclude from the further application

of this Part or of any provisions contained in this Part any class of tenancy, and class of premises or any particular
tenancy or premises. (Amended 39 of 1979 s. 22; 44 of 2000 s. 3)

(3) (Repealed 52 of 1981 s. 13) (For savings see Ord. No. 52 of 1981 s. 13(2))
(14 of 1962 s. 4 incorporated. Amended 18 of 1974 s. 5)


Section: 124 (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 8) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004


________________________________________________________________________________
Note:
This section has been repealed by section 8 of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment)
Ordinance 2004 (16 of 2004). The related savings provisions, set out in section 9 of 16 of 2004, are reproduced
as follows:


"9. Savings in respect of Part V


(1) Notwithstanding the repeal of section 122 of the principal Ordinance on the commencement
date*-

(a) a notice of termination served under section 122(1) of that Ordinance before that date
shall have effect in relation to the tenancy to which it applies; and

(b) the definition of "notice of termination" in section 120A of that Ordinance shall
continue to apply in relation to that tenancy.

(2) On and after the commencement date, a tenancy to which Part V applies and which is in
existence on the day before the commencement date, but in respect of which no notice of termination
has been served before the commencement date under section 122(1) of the principal Ordinance-

(a) may be terminated in accordance with its terms or as otherwise agreed between the



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 72

parties; or
(b) if it is a tenancy which was continued by virtue of section 122(4) of that Ordinance, may

be terminated either as a month to month tenancy or as agreed between the parties.
(3) Proceedings relating to Part V which are pending in the Tribunal on the commencement

date, and decisions of the Tribunal relating to that Part which have not been given effect to on that
date, may respectively continue and be given effect to on and after the commencement date
notwithstanding the repeal of certain provisions of that Part by section 8 of this Ordinance.

(4) Proceedings relating to provisions of Part V saved by this section may be commenced in the
Tribunal on or after the commencement date.".


* Commencement date: 9 July 2004.


Section: 124A (Repealed 32 of 2002 s. 31) 32 of 2002 27/12/2002




Section: 124B (Repealed 32 of 2002 s. 31) 32 of 2002 27/12/2002




Section: 124C (Repealed 32 of 2002 s. 31) 32 of 2002 27/12/2002




Section: 125 (Repealed 52 of 1981 s. 14) 30/06/1997


(For savings see Ord. No. 52 of 1981 s. 14(2))

Section: 126 Covenant to pay rent to be implied 30/06/1997


In the absence of any express covenant for the payment of rent and condition for forfeiture, there shall be
implied in every tenancy a covenant to pay the rent on the due date and a condition for forfeiture for non-payment
within 15 days of the due date.

(Added 37 of 1965 s. 3)

Section: 127 (Repealed 16 of 2004 s. 8) 16 of 2004 09/07/2004


_______________________________________________________________________________
Note:
This section has been repealed by section 8 of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment)
Ordinance 2004 (16 of 2004). The related savings provisions, set out in section 9 of 16 of 2004, are reproduced
as follows:


"9. Savings in respect of Part V


(1) Notwithstanding the repeal of section 122 of the principal Ordinance on the commencement
date*-

(a) a notice of termination served under section 122(1) of that Ordinance before that date
shall have effect in relation to the tenancy to which it applies; and

(b) the definition of "notice of termination" in section 120A of that Ordinance shall
continue to apply in relation to that tenancy.

(2) On and after the commencement date, a tenancy to which Part V applies and which is in
existence on the day before the commencement date, but in respect of which no notice of termination
has been served before the commencement date under section 122(1) of the principal Ordinance-

(a) may be terminated in accordance with its terms or as otherwise agreed between the
parties; or

(b) if it is a tenancy which was continued by virtue of section 122(4) of that Ordinance, may
be terminated either as a month to month tenancy or as agreed between the parties.

(3) Proceedings relating to Part V which are pending in the Tribunal on the commencement
date, and decisions of the Tribunal relating to that Part which have not been given effect to on that



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 73

date, may respectively continue and be given effect to on and after the commencement date
notwithstanding the repeal of certain provisions of that Part by section 8 of this Ordinance.

(4) Proceedings relating to provisions of Part V saved by this section may be commenced in the
Tribunal on or after the commencement date.".


* Commencement date: 9 July 2004.


Section: 127A Tribunal may determine disputes 32 of 2002 27/12/2002


The Tribunal on the application of a landlord, tenant or sub-tenant may- (Amended 76 of 1981 s. 57)
(a) entertain and determine any dispute or difference which may arise under this Part between a landlord

and a tenant, or a tenant and a sub-tenant, or any of them, including any dispute as to the rent that is
payable for, or the right to possession of, any premises; (Amended 32 of 1985 s. 24)

(b) (Repealed 32 of 2002 s. 32)
(c) entertain and determine concurrently with any other application, any application for the payment of

rent or mesne profits of any premises to which this Part applies,
and make such order thereon, subject to section 127B, as the Tribunal shall think fit.

(Added 39 of 1979 s. 24)

Section: 127B Sub-tenants not to have greater security than tenants 30/06/1997


Nothing in this Part shall afford to any sub-tenant any security of tenure greater than that enjoyed by his
principal tenant.

(Added 39 of 1979 s. 24)

Part: VI SMALL TENEMENTS RECOVERY 30/06/1997




Section: 128 Interpretation 32 of 2002 27/12/2002


In this Part, unless the context otherwise requires-
"agent" (代理人) includes any person usually employed by the owner in the management of his property, or in the

letting of the premises, or in the collection of the rents thereof, or specially authorized to act in the particular
matter by writing under the hand of such owner;

"Commissioner" (署長) means the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation; (Added 32 of 2002 s. 33)
"house" (房屋) includes a matshed or other structure;
"owner" (擁有人) means the person entitled to the immediate reversion or, in cases within section 132, to the

possession of the premises, or, if the property is held in joint tenancy or tenancy in common, means any one of
the persons entitled to such reversion or possession;

"premises" (處所) means lands (including leaseholds), houses, and other corporeal hereditaments;
"rateable value" (應課差餉租值) means-

(a) in the case of premises being a tenement included in the valuation list in force under section 14 of the
Rating Ordinance (Cap 116), the rateable value shown in that list; or (Amended 22 of 1995 s. 36)

(b) in any other case, the rateable value certified under section 128A; (Added 37 of 1986 s. 7)
"warrant" (手令) means a warrant issued under section 131.

(27 of 1897 s. 2 incorporated. Amended 22 of 1995 s. 36)
[cf. 1838 c. 74 s. 7 U.K.]


Section: 128A Certificate as to rateable value L.N. 42 of 2005 01/06/2005


(1) For the purposes of ascertaining the rateable value of any premises in connection with any proceedings
under section 129 or 132 a certificate purporting to be under the hand of an officer of the Rating and Valuation
Department not below the rank of Rent Officer showing in respect of any particular day- (Amended 32 of 2002 s. 34)



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 74

(a) in the case of premises being a tenement included in the valuation list in force under section 14 of the
Rating Ordinance (Cap 116), the rateable value shown in that list; or (Amended 22 of 1995 s. 36)

(b) in any other case, whether or not the rateable value of those premises exceeds the sum mentioned in
section 129 or 132, as the case may be,

shall be admissible in any proceedings on its production and without further proof and shall be prima facie evidence of
the facts stated therein.

(2) A person may apply to the Commissioner for a certificate under subsection (1). (Added 32 of 2002 s. 34)
(3) An application under subsection (2) shall-

(a) be made by sending a notice in the specified form to the Commissioner; and
(b) be accompanied by such fee as may be determined by the Financial Secretary by notice published in

the Gazette. (Added 32 of 2002 s. 34)
(4) The Commissioner shall comply with an application under subsection (2). (Added 32 of 2002 s. 34)

(Added 37 of 1986 s. 8)

Section: 129 Summoning of tenant of premises with a rateable value not

exceeding $100000 unlawfully holding over
32 of 2002 27/12/2002



When and so soon as the term or interest of a tenant of any house, land, or other premises, held by him at will or
for any term not exceeding 7 years, with a rateable value at the time of an application by an owner under this section
not exceeding $100000, and upon which no fine has been reserved or made payable, has ended or has been duly
determined by a legal notice to quit or otherwise, and the tenant, or (if the tenant does not actually occupy the
premises or only occupies a part thereof) any person by whom the same or any part thereof is then actually occupied,
notwithstanding that demand for possession has been made, refuses or neglects to quit and deliver up possession of the
premises or of such part thereof respectively, the District Court may on application being made by the owner of such
premises or his agent, issue an originating summons requiring the person alleged to be in possession of the premises to
appear at a certain time and place before the District Court to show cause why he should not quit and deliver up
possession of the premises.

(27 of 1897 s. 3 incorporated. Amended 4 of 1951 s. 6; 35 of 1969 Schedule; 37 of 1986 s. 9; 32 of 2002 s. 35)
[cf. 1838 c. 74 s. 1 U.K.]


Section: 130 Service of originating summons 30/06/1997


An originating summons issued under section 129 may be served either personally or by leaving the same with
some person being in and apparently residing at the place of abode of the defendant:

Provided that if the defendant cannot be found, and the place of abode of the defendant is not known or
admission thereto cannot be obtained for serving the originating summons, the posting up of the originating summons
on some conspicuous part of the premises shall be deemed to be good service on the defendant.

(27 of 1897 s. 4 incorporated. Amended 51 of 1911; 2 of 1912 Schedule; 27 of 1937 Schedule; 37 of 1986 s. 10)
[cf. 1838 c. 74 s. 2 U.K.]


Section: 131 Issue of warrant for possession of premises 32 of 2002 27/12/2002


If the person served with an originating summons under section 130 does not appear before the District Court at
the time and place mentioned in the originating summons, or fails to show cause why he should not quit and deliver up
possession of the premises, the District Court may issue its warrant to any bailiff of the Court of First Instance or the
District Court, commanding him to enter (by force, if needful) into the premises, and give possession of the same to
the owner thereof or his agent: (Amended 37 of 1986 s. 11; 25 of 1998 s. 2)

Provided that-
(a) entry, upon a warrant, shall not be made at any time except between 9 a.m. and 7 p.m.; (Amended 32

of 2002 s. 36)
(b) nothing herein contained shall be deemed to protect any person on whose application a warrant may be

granted from any action which may be brought against him by a tenant or occupier for and in respect
of such entry and taking possession, where such person had not, at the time of granting the same,
lawful right to the possession of the said premises.

(27 of 1897 s. 5 incorporated. Amended 50 of 1911 s. 4; 51 of 1911 s. 4; 1 of 1912 Schedule; 21 of 1912 s. 2;



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 75

29 of 1962 s. 2; 35 of 1969 Schedule; 92 of 1975 s. 59)
[cf. 1838 c. 74 s. 1 U.K.]


Section: 132 Recovery of land in case of illegal encroachment or

inclosure with a rateable value not exceeding $100000
32 of 2002 27/12/2002



When any person by whom any illegal encroachment or inclosure has been made upon the land of another
person, the rateable value of which at the time of any demand made under this section does not exceed $100000,
refuses or neglects, upon demand made, to quit and deliver up possession of the same, or any part thereof, to the
owner of such land or his agent, the possession thereof may be recovered by such owner or agent under this Part, in
like manner as if the occupier of such encroachment or inclosure were the tenant of premises the possession of which
is recoverable under this Part, whose term or interest had ended.

(27 of 1897 s. 6 incorporated. Amended 4 of 1951 Schedule; 37 of 1986 s. 12; 32 of 2002 s. 37)

Section: 132A Amendment of sections 129 and 132 by Legislative Council 30/06/1997


The Legislative Council may by resolution amend the sums mentioned in sections 129 and 132.
(Added 37 of 1986 s. 13)


Section: 133 Stay of warrant 30/06/1997


In every case in which the person on whose application, or on whose behalf, a warrant is granted had not, at the
time of granting the same, lawful right to the possession of the premises, the obtaining of the warrant shall be deemed
a trespass by him against the tenant or occupier of the premises, although no entry may be made by virtue of the
warrant; and, in case any such tenant or occupier will become bound with 2 sureties as hereinafter provided, to be
approved of by the District Court, in such sum as to it may seem reasonable (regard being had to the value of the
premises and to the probable costs of an action), to sue the person on whose application, or on whose behalf, the
warrant was granted, with effect and without delay, and to pay all the costs of the proceedings in the action in case
judgment shall pass for the defendant or the plaintiff shall discontinue or not prosecute his action or become nonsuit
therein, execution of the warrant shall be delayed until judgment has been given in the action; and if, on the trial of the
action, judgment passes for the plaintiff, the judgment shall supersede the warrant so granted, and the plaintiff shall be
entitled to reasonable damages in the action.

(27 of 1897 s. 7 incorporated. Amended 35 of 1969 Schedule)
[cf. 1838 c. 74 s. 3 U.K.]


Section: 134 Giving of bond and proceedings thereon 30/06/1997


Every such bond as herein before mentioned shall be made to the complainant or his agent at the cost of such
complainant or agent, and shall be approved of and attested by the District Court, and if the bond so taken is forfeited
or if, on the trial of the action for securing the trial of which such bond was given, the judge by whom it is tried does
not certify that the condition of the bond has been fulfilled, the party to whom the bond has been so made may bring
an action and recover thereon: (Amended 35 of 1969 Schedule)

Provided that the court where such action as last aforesaid is brought may, by an order, give such relief to the
parties upon such bond as may be agreeable to justice, and such order shall have the nature and effect of a defeasance
to such bond.

(27 of 1897 s. 8 incorporated)
[cf. 1838 c. 74 s. 4 U.K.]


Section: 135 Protection of District Court and bailiff acting under this

Part
30/06/1997



No action or prosecution shall be brought against the District Court by whom a warrant is issued, or against a
bailiff by whom the warrant is executed, for issuing the warrant or executing the same respectively, by reason that the
person on whose application, or on whose behalf, the warrant is granted had not lawful right to the possession of the



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 76

premises.
(27 of 1897 s. 9 incorporated. Amended 29 of 1962 s. 3; 35 of 1969 Schedule)

[cf. 1838 c. 74 s. 5 U.K.]

Section: 135A Forms 32 of 2002 27/12/2002


(1) The Commissioner may specify the forms to be used under section 128A(3)(a).
(2) The Commissioner may publish in the Gazette any form specified by him under subsection (1).
(3) The Commissioner may in his discretion accept any notice or application served on him which is not in the

specified form.
(Added 32 of 2002 s. 38)


Section: 136 Recovery of bailiff's expenses 30/06/1997


The expenses incurred by a bailiff in the execution of a warrant may be recovered from the complainant.
(Added 29 of 1962 s. 4)


Part: VII MISCELLANEOUS 30/06/1997




Section: 136A Remission and refund of fees 30/06/1997


(1) All fees payable to the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation under this Ordinance are due at the time the
application or submission to which the fee relates is made to him, but where in any particular case the Commissioner
is of the opinion that a fee payable ought to be wholly or partly remitted or, having been paid, ought to be refunded, he
may so direct. (Added 32 of 1985 s. 25. Amended 37 of 1986 s. 14)

(2) Any public officer or class of public officer employed in the Rating and Valuation Department and
authorized in writing in that behalf by the Commissioner may exercise the powers of the Commissioner conferred on
him by this section. (Added 37 of 1986 s. 14)

Section: 137 Provisions transitional to the enactment of the Landlord

and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) (No. 2)
Ordinance 1981

30/06/1997



(1) A District Court or tenancy tribunal which has heard or commenced to hear any matter or proceeding
which, by the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) (No. 2) Ordinance 1981 (76 of 1981), becomes a
matter or proceeding within the jurisdiction of the Lands Tribunal or the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation shall
continue to have jurisdiction in relation to, and shall dispose of, such matter or proceeding as if the Landlord and
Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) (No. 2) Ordinance 1981 (76 of 1981) had not been enacted.

(2) Any matter or proceeding pending before a District Court or tenancy tribunal but which a District Court or
tenancy tribunal has not heard or commenced to hear and which, by the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation)
(Amendment) (No. 2) Ordinance 1981 (76 of 1981), becomes a matter or proceeding within the jurisdiction of the
Lands Tribunal or the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation shall be continued before the Lands Tribunal or
Commissioner, as the case may be; and the Lands Tribunal may give such directions as it thinks fit as to the lodging or
filing of papers and otherwise in relation to the procedure in such a matter or proceeding.

(76 of 1981 s. 59 incorporated)

Section: 138 Effect of substitution of "prevailing market rent" (市值租

金) for "fair market rent" (公平市值租金)
30/06/1997



"Prevailing market rent" (市值租金), where it appears in any provision of this Ordinance, shall be construed in
the same manner as was "fair market rent" (公平市值租金) in that provision before 10 June 1983.

(Added 29 of 1983 s. 46)



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 77


Section: 139 Provisions transitional to the enactment of the Landlord

and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1983
30/06/1997



(1) Sections 2 and 11(e)(i) of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1983 (29 of
1983) ("the amending Ordinance 1983") shall not affect any proceedings commenced in the Lands Tribunal before 10
June 1983.

(2) Section 11(e)(ii) and (f), section 30(c)(i) and section 45(c) of the amending Ordinance 1983 shall not affect
any tenancy or sub-tenancy ratified under section 50(7) before 10 June 1983.

(3) Section 15(b)(vi) of the amending Ordinance 1983, so far as it adds new paragraph (h) to section 53(2),
shall apply to a case where the tenant has sublet before 10 June 1983 as it applies to a case where the tenant has sublet
on or after 10 June 1983.

(4) Sections 15(b)(iii) and 15(f) of the amending Ordinance 1983 shall have effect in any proceedings pending
in the Lands Tribunal on 10 June 1983.

(5) Section 15(c) of the amending Ordinance 1983 shall have effect in any proceedings pending in the Lands
Tribunal on 10 June 1983.

(6) Section 15(g) of the amending Ordinance 1983, so far as it refers to tenancies or sub-tenancies arising under
section 53(6A), shall have effect in any proceedings pending in any court or tribunal on 10 June 1983.

(7) Section 15(h), (i) and (j) of the amending Ordinance 1983-
(a) shall not apply to an order mentioned in section 53(7) obtained before 10 June 1983; and
(b) subject to paragraph (a), shall apply to any use or continued use on or after 10 June 1983.

(8) Sections 13(a) and 30 of the amending Ordinance 1983 shall have effect in any proceedings pending in any
court or tribunal on 10 June 1983.

(9) Section 20(b) of the amending Ordinance 1983 shall not apply to applications under section 57 received by
the Commissioner before 19 December 1983.

(10) Sections 33 and 35 of the amending Ordinance 1983 shall have effect in any proceedings pending in the
Lands Tribunal on 10 June 1983.

(11) Section 37 of the amending Ordinance 1983-
(a) shall not apply to a case where the decision of the Lands Tribunal is made before 10 June 1983; and
(b) subject to paragraph (a), shall apply to any use or continued use on or after 10 June 1983.

(29 of 1983 s. 49 incorporated)

Section: 140 Provisions transitional to the enactment of the Landlord

and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1984
30/06/1997



(1) Section 2 of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1984 (40 of 1984) ("the
amending Ordinance 1984") shall not affect any proceedings commenced in the Lands Tribunal before 1 July 1984.

(2) Section 3 of the amending Ordinance 1984 shall not apply to applications under section 7A (which it
repeals) received by the Commissioner before 1 July 1984.

(3) Sections 7, 9, 10, 18 and 28 of the amending Ordinance 1984 shall apply to any document (except a notice
under section 55 as amended) executed before 1 July 1984 as they apply to documents executed on or after that date.

(4) Sections 13, 14(a), 31, 32(c) and (d) and 36(a) of the amending Ordinance 1984 shall have effect in any
proceedings pending in any court or tribunal on 1 July 1984 or commenced on or after that date.

(5) Section 17 of the amending Ordinance 1984 shall apply to tenancies and sub-tenancies entered into before 1
July 1984 as it applies to tenancies and sub-tenancies entered into on or after that date.

(6) Sections 19, 20 and 33 of the amending Ordinance 1984 shall have effect in any proceedings pending in the
Lands Tribunal on 1 July 1984 or commenced on or after that date.

(7) Section 21 of the amending Ordinance 1984 shall have effect in any proceedings pending in any court or
tribunal on 1 July 1984 or commenced on or after that date.

(8) Section 22 of the amending Ordinance 1984 shall apply to alterations in rent taking effect before 1 July
1984 as it applies to alterations taking effect on or after that date.

(9) Section 23 of the amending Ordinance 1984 shall not apply to applications under section 57 received by the
Commissioner before 19 December 1984.

(10) Section 34 of the amending Ordinance 1984 shall apply to an event mentioned in section 119L as amended
occurring before 1 July 1984 as it applies to such an event occurring on or after that date.



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 78

(11) Section 36(b) of the amending Ordinance 1984 shall not apply to tenancies and sub-tenancies entered into
before 1 July 1984.

(40 of 1984 s. 38 incorporated)

Section: 141 Provisions transitional to the enactment of the Landlord

and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1985
30/06/1997



(1) Section 2 of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1985 (32 of 1985) ("the
amending Ordinance 1985") shall not apply in respect of any notice served under section 10(1A) before 1 July 1985.

(2) Section 3(b) of the amending Ordinance 1985 shall not apply in respect of any agreement lodged under
section 18(2)(c) before 1 July 1985.

(3) Section 4(b) of the amending Ordinance 1985 shall not apply in respect of any proposed agreement a copy
of which is submitted under section 28(2) before 1 July 1985.

(4) Section 9 of the amending Ordinance 1985 shall apply in relation to a fee paid under section 51(4B)(b)
before 1 July 1985 as it applies in relation to a fee paid on or after that date.

(5) Section 11(b) of the amending Ordinance 1985 shall not apply in respect of any agreement lodged under
section 52A(2)(b) before 1 July 1985.

(6) Sections 13, 20, 21(b) and 26 of the amending Ordinance 1985 shall have effect in relation to proceedings
pending on 1 July 1985 as they have effect in relation to proceedings commenced on or after that date.

(7) Section 14(b) of the amending Ordinance 1985 shall not apply in respect of a notice lodged under section
55(1) before 1 July 1985.

(8) Section 15 of the amending Ordinance 1985 shall not apply in respect of applications under section 57 that
are received by the Commissioner of Rating and Valuation before 19 December 1985.

(9) Section 17 of the amending Ordinance 1985 shall apply in relation to a sub-tenancy created before 1 July
1985 as it applies in relation to a sub-tenancy created on or after that date.

(10) Section 19(a) of the amending Ordinance 1985 shall not apply in respect of a tenancy that is submitted
before 1 July 1985 for endorsement under section 116(4).

(11) Section 25 of the amending Ordinance 1985 shall not apply in relation to any fee paid before 1 July 1985,
or payable on or after that date by reason of anything occurring before that date.

(32 of 1985 s. 28 incorporated)

Section: 142 Provisions transitional to the enactment of the Landlord

and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1986
30/06/1997



(1) Section 2 of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1986 (37 of 1986) ("the
amending Ordinance 1986") shall not apply in respect of any notice served under section 10(1A) before 1 August
1986.

(2) Section 3 of the amending Ordinance 1986 shall not apply in respect of any application under section 57
received by the Commissioner before 19 December 1986.

(3) Section 6 of the amending Ordinance 1986 shall not apply in respect of any request for a warrant under
section 101 before 1 August 1986.

(4) Sections 9, 10 and 11 of the amending Ordinance 1986 shall not apply to an application by or on behalf of
an owner under section 129 made before 1 August 1986.

(5) Section 12 of the amending Ordinance 1986 shall not apply to an application by or on behalf of an owner
under section 132 made before 1 August 1986.

(37 of 1986 s. 15 incorporated)

Section: 143 Provision transitional to the enactment of the Landlord

and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1988
30/06/1997



Section 2 of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 1988 (77 of 1988) shall not
apply in respect of any notice served under section 10(1A) before the commencement of that Ordinance.

(77 of 1988 s. 10 incorporated)




Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 79

Section: 144 Provisions transitional, etc. to the enactment of the
Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment)
Ordinance 2002

L.N. 42 of 2005 01/06/2005



(1) A person may apply to the Commissioner for a certificate under section 50(10) or 53A(4)(d) as in force
before the expiry of Part II.

(2) An application under subsection (1) shall-
(a) be made by sending a notice in the specified form to the Commissioner; and
(b) be accompanied by such fee as may be determined by the Financial Secretary by notice published in

the Gazette.
(3) The Commissioner shall comply with an application under subsection (1).
(4) Section 119 shall apply to a notice given under that section before the commencement# of section 12 of the

Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 2002 (32 of 2002) as if that section 12 had never
commenced.

(5) Section 119A shall apply to a request for a new tenancy in accordance with that section made before the
commencement# of section 13 of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 2002 (32 of
2002) as if that section 13 had never commenced.

(6) Section 119F(4)-
(a) as amended by the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 2002 (32 of 2002)

shall apply in the case of a landlord who opposes, in accordance with rule 69 of the Lands Tribunal
Rules (Cap 17 sub. leg. A), the grant of a new tenancy on or after the commencement# of section 18(c)
of that Ordinance;

(b) as in force before that commencement shall apply in the case of a landlord who so opposes the grant of
a new tenancy before that commencement.

(7) Notwithstanding section 74B as in force before the expiry of Part II, section 119F(4)-
(a) as amended by the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) (Amendment) Ordinance 2002 (32 of 2002)

shall apply in the case of a landlord who has applied, in accordance with rule 68 of the Lands Tribunal
Rules (Cap 17 sub. leg. A), for an order for possession of premises on the ground specified in section
53(2)(c), as in force before that expiry, on or after the commencement# of section 18(c) of that
Ordinance;

(b) as in force before that commencement shall apply in the case of a landlord who so applies for an order
for possession of premises on the ground specified in section 53(2)(c), as in force before that expiry,
before that commencement.

(8) For the avoidance of doubt, it is hereby declared that, subject to the other provisions of this section, section
23 of the Interpretation and General Clauses Ordinance (Cap 1) applies to the expiry of any Part of this Ordinance
(including the expiry of any provision or provisions of any such Part) as it applies to the repeal in whole or in part of
any Ordinance.

(Added 32 of 2002 s. 39)
________________________________________________________________________________
Note:
# Commencement date: 27 December 2002.

Schedule: 1 (Repealed 76 of 1981 s. 58) 30/06/1997




Schedule: 2 30/06/1997


[section 47]


FORM 1 [section 19(1)]


NOTICE OF RENT PAYABLE BY PRINCIPAL TENANT TO LANDLORD

To all tenants in

occupation of



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 80

(1) .................................
YOU ARE INFORMED, in accordance with section 19(1) of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation)

Ordinance, that the rent payable by me, to
(2) .................................... ....................................................................................................................................... my
landlord in respect of (1) ............................................................................................... is .............................. dollars per
(3) .................................................................................. ............................... and is made up as follows-

(1) Standard rent is ...................................................................................... dollars
per(3) ..........................................................

(2) Permitted increase(s) is/are-
(4) ........................................................................................................
........................................................................................................

Dated the .......................day of ................................, 19...............


Principal Tenant.
NOTES.
(1) Identify premises.
(2) Give full name and address of landlord.
(3) State whether per week, month, etc.
(4) Give particulars of any permitted increase and state authority for charging the same (i.e. section of Ordinance or

date of decision of tribunal).


____________________


FORM 2 [section 21]

To the principal tenant in

occupation of...............
...................................


NOTICE OF TERMINATION OF PRINCIPAL TENANCY


I/WE HEREBY TERMINATE the tenancy of you (name) ........................................ the principal tenant of the

above premises, under section 21 of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance and require you peaceably to
deliver up the premises [on or before the expiration of one month from the third consecutive day of posting this notice
on the main door or entrance, namely on or before the ........................................... , 19 *].


You may elect either to deliver up the whole of the premises or to retain for your own use any part of the

premises used by you before service of the notice for your own occupation. If you retain such portion you will pay a
proportionate part of the rent previously paid to me/us and will be a monthly tenant. You are required to elect by
notice in writing to me/us within 14 days of service of this notice.

* [Substitute, if a period of notice is required by the contract between the landlord and the principal
tenant-
on or before the .........................., 19 ........]


To all tenants and sub-tenants in

occupation of ............................
.................................................
TAKE NOTICE that with effect from the said date the ......................... 19 , you will be a tenant of me/us

upon the same terms and conditions as you were a tenant of the principal tenant and the permitted rent under the
Ordinance is thereafter to be paid to me/us. I/we shall be responsible for any obligations previously undertaken by the
principal tenant.


Sgd. ...........................................
Address ...........................................

Date ............................................



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 81

(Amended 53 of 1993 s. 32)
(Second Schedule added 22 of 1953 s. 33)


Schedule: 3 (Repealed 93 of 1975 s. 20) 30/06/1997




Schedule: 4 Fees to be levied in distraints for rent 30/06/1997


[section 80]



Sum sued for

Fee for every affidavit,
warrant to distrain,

notice or other document


Commission on

sum realized
Under $5000.00
$5000.00 or above but
under $20000.00
$20000.00 or above

$ 60.00

$120.00
$250.00



} $10.00 for every $100.00
or part thereof.


1. This scale does not include auctioneer's commission and expenses but includes all other expenses, except in

actions where the tenant disputes the landlord's claim and witnesses have to be subpoenaed, in which case an
additional fee for each subpoena is payable at $55.


2. Where watchmen are kept in charge of property distrained, a fee of $330 per day or part thereof is payable

for each watchman.

3. Where property is removed and stored, the necessary expenses are payable according to actual expenditure.

4. Expenses for conveyance or transportation shall be payable according to actual expenditure plus 20% as

administrative charges.
(Replaced 32 of 1985 section 26. Amended L.N. 103 of 1988; L.N. 39 of 1991; L.N. 355 of 1992; L.N. 317 of
1994)


Schedule: 5 30/06/1997




FORM 1 [section 82]


AFFIDAVIT IN SUPPORT OF APPLICATION FOR WARRANT OF DISTRESS


In the District Court of Hong Kong


Holden at,


A.B., Plaintiff


V.


C.D., Defendant


I, A.B., an inhabitant of , make oath and say that C.D., of
, is justly indebted to in the sum of $ for arrears of rent of the house and premises
No. situate at in the due for months, to wit, from
the day of , 19 , to the day of , 19 , at the rate of per



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 82

mensem.
(Signed) A.B.

Sworn before me
at on the day of , 19 .


(Signed)

(Amended 1 of 1953 Fourth Schedule)


____________________


FORM 2 [section 83]


WARRANT OF DISTRESS


In the District Court of Hong Kong


Holden at


To E.F., Bailiff of the court.


I hereby direct you to distrain the goods and chattels on the premises of C.D. situate
at in the for the sum of $ being the amount of
months' rent due to A.B. for the same on the day of , 19 , according
to the provisions of Part III of the Landlord and Tenant (Consolidation) Ordinance, Chapter 7.


Before proceeding to distrain under this warrant, you shall demand payment of the amount endorsed hereon.


Dated the day of , 19 .


[L.S.] (Signed)

(Amended 1 of 1953 Fourth Schedule)


_________________________


FORM 3 [section 89]


NOTICE UNDER SECTION 89


In the District Court of Hong Kong


Holden at

To C.D.


Take notice that I have this day seized the goods and chattels contained in the attached inventory and
appraisement, for the sum of $ being the amount of months' rent due to A.B. on
the day of , 19 , and that unless you pay that amount together with the costs of this
distress within 5 days from the date thereof, or obtain an order from the court to the contrary, the same will be sold on
the day of , 19 , pursuant to the provisions of Part III of the Landlord and Tenant
(Consolidation) Ordinance, Chapter 7.


Dated the day of , 19 .


(Signed) E.F.
(Amended 1 of 1953 Fourth Schedule)



Cap 7 - LANDLORD AND TENANT (CONSOLIDATION) ORDINANCE 83

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