Commercial Sale of Goods Act 2001
Whereas it is expedient to provide detailed rules of law for the regulation of transactions for
the sale of goods in commerce;
Now, therefore, be it enacted by the Gyalyong Tshogdu Chhenmo as follows:
The Commercial Sale of Goods Act
of the Kingdom of Bhutan, 2001
1. This Act may be cited as “The Commercial Sale of Goods Act of the Kingdom of
2. This Act shall come into effect from the 26th day of the 5th month of the Female Iron
Snake Year corresponding to 17 July, 2001.
3. This Act shall extend to the whole of the Kingdom of Bhutan.
4. Unless the context otherwise requires, this Act applies only to transactions in goods. It
does not apply to other types of transactions, such as transactions in services, securities,
or immovable property.
RULES OF CONSTRUCTION
5. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires;
i) Words in the singular number include the plural, and words in the plural include
ii) Words of the masculine gender include the feminine and the neuter, and when the
sense so indicates words of the neuter gender may refer to any gender.
OBLIGATION OF GOOD FAITH
6. Every contract or duty within this Act imposes an obligation of good faith in its
performance or enforcement.
ACTIONS BY AGENTS OF THE BUYER OR SELLER
7. Any action required or permitted to be taken by either the buyer or the seller under this
Act, may be taken instead by an agent of the buyer or seller, provided the other party is
given notice of the agency.
STATUTE OF LIMITATIONS IN SALES CONTRACTS
8.1 An action for breach of any contract for sale must be commenced within three years after
the cause of action has accrued. The parties, however, may agree to reduce or extend the
period of time within which a lawsuit must be commenced.
8.2 A cause of action accrues when the breach of contract occurs, regardless of the aggrieved
party's lack of knowledge of the breach. Provided, however, that a cause of action for a
breach of warranty occurs when tender of delivery is made, except that where a warranty
explicitly extends to future performance of the goods and discovery of the breach must
await the time of such performance, the cause of action accrues when the breach is or
should have been discovered.
8.3 This section does not prevent parties from agreeing to toll the statute of limitations nor
does it apply to causes of action that have accrued before this Act became effective.
9. In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires:
(i) "Agreement" means the bargain of the parties as determined from their language or
actions, or from other circumstances, including course of dealing, usage of trade, or
course of performance. In order for an agreement to be formed, there must be an offer
and an acceptance.
(ii) "Bill of Lading" means a document evidencing the receipt of goods for transport
(whether by ship, land, or air) issued by a person engaged in the business of transporting
(iii) "Buyer” means a person who buys or contracts to buy goods.
(iv) "Cause of Action" means a situation or state of facts, which would entitle a party to
sustain a legal action and would give the party the right to seek a judicial remedy.
(v) “Conforming” means in accordance with a party’s obligations under the contract.
(vi) "Consideration" means a right, interest, profit or benefit accruing to one party, or some
forbearance, detriment, loss, or responsibility given, undertaken, or suffered by another
party as part of a bargained-for exchange.
(vii) "Contract" means the total legal obligation that results from the parties' agreement as
affected by this Act and any other applicable rules of law.
(viii) “Course of Dealing, Course of Performance, Usage of Trade”
a) A "course of dealing" is a sequence of previous conduct between the parties to a
particular transaction, which is fairly regarded as establishing a common basis of
understanding for interpreting their expressions and other conduct.
b) A "course of performance" with respect to a contract for sale that involves
repeated occasions for performance by either party, means any pattern of action
or inaction that is acquiesced in without objection by the other party and may
fairly be regarded as relevant to determining the meaning of the contract.
c) A "usage of trade" is any practice or method of dealing having such regularity of
observance in a place, vocation, or trade as to justify an expectation that it will be
observed with respect to the transaction in question.
d) A “course of dealing” or “course of performance” between parties and any “usage
of trade” in the vocation or trade in which they are engaged give particular
meaning to and supplement or qualify terms of an agreement.
e) The express terms of an agreement and any applicable “course of performance”,
“course of dealing”, or “usage of trade” shall be construed wherever reasonable
as consistent with each other. When such construction is not reasonable, these
interpretative tools are to be deemed controlling in the following order of priority:
(1) express terms, (2) course of performance, (3) course of dealing (4) usage
(ix) “Document of Title” means any document that in the regular course of business is
treated as adequately evidencing that the person in possession of it is entitled to receive,
hold, and dispose of the document and the goods it covers.
(x) “Force Majeure” means a material occurrence that causes the performance of all or part
of a contract to be impracticable due to causes that: (1) are outside the control of the
parties, (2) were not specifically contemplated by the parties at the time of contracting,
and (3) could not have been avoided by precaution that a reasonable person under like
circumstances would have taken.
(xi) “Good Faith” means honesty in fact and the observance of reasonable standards of fair
dealing. In the case of a merchant, it also requires reasonable standards of fair dealing in
(xii) “Goods” means all things (including specially manufactured goods) that are movable at
the time of identification to the contract for sale. "Goods" includes animals and their
unborn young. "Goods" also includes minerals, oil and gas, growing crops, and other
things to be severed from real property, but does not include the real property itself.
Goods must be both existing and identified before any interest in them can pass. Goods
that are not both existing and identified are "future goods".
(xiii) “Identification” of goods means the designation of existing goods as the goods to which
the contract refers.
(xiv) “Insolvent” means a person who either has ceased to pay his debts in the ordinary course
of business or cannot pay his debts as they become due.
(xv) “Lien” means a claim or charge on property for payment of some debt, obligation, or
(xvi) “Liquidated Damages” means a specific sum of money that the parties to a contract
have expressly indicated to be the amount of damages to be recovered for a breach of the
(xvii) “Person” means an individual, a business entity, a governmental entity, or other form of
(xviii) “Sale” means the passing of title from the seller to the buyer for a price.
(xix) “Seller” means a person who sells or contracts to sell goods.
(xx) “Ship or Shipment” when used with respect to goods, to "ship" means to transport the
goods, whether by sea, land, or air. The place of "shipment" is the place from which the
goods are to be transported.
(xxi) “Tender” means to be ready and willing to perform one's obligations under a contract in
the case of concurrent performance by another party, with present ability to so perform,
and notice to the other party of such readiness.
(xxii) “Termination and Cancellation”
a) "Termination" occurs when either party, pursuant to a power created by
agreement or law, puts an end to the contract otherwise than for its breach. On
"termination”, all obligations not yet performed by either side are discharged,
provided however that any right based on a prior breach or performance survives.
b) "Cancellation" occurs when either party puts an end to the contract as a result of a
breach by the other party. Cancellation has the same effect as termination except
that the cancelling party also retains any remedy for breach of the whole contract
or any unperformed balance.
(xxiii) "Commercial Unit” means unit of goods that in commercial usage is a single whole for
purposes of sale. A commercial unit may be a single article (as a machine) or a set of a
quantity (as a suite of furniture or an assortment of sizes) or a quantity (as a bale, gross,
or carload) or any other unit, division of which would materially impair its character or
value on the market or in use.
(xxiv) “Warranty” means a promise that certain facts are as they are represented to be and that
they will remain so, subject to any specified limitations.
FORM, FORMATION AND READJUSTMENT OF CONTRACT
10.1 Except as otherwise provided in this Act, a contract for the sale of goods for a price
exceeding Nu.100/-, or the equivalent in merchandise or services, is not enforceable
unless there is some writing indicating that a contract for sale was made between the
10.2 The writing referred to in subsection 1 must be in compliance with the Rules on Use of
Judicial Stamps in Bhutan, as amended, attested to by disinterested witness(s), and must
be signed by the party against whom enforcement is sought or by that party's authorized
agent or broker. A writing may be sufficient, even though it omits or incorrectly states a
term agreed upon, but the contract is not enforceable under this paragraph beyond the
quantity of goods shown in such writing. Where one or more party-signatories to the
writing are resident outside of Bhutan, the writing may be sufficient, even though it was
not attested to by disinterested witnesses.
FINAL WRITTEN EXPRESSION: PAROL OR EXTRINSIC EVIDENCE
11. The terms of the writing intended by the parties to be a final expression of their
agreement may not be contradicted by evidence of any prior agreement or of a
contemporaneous oral agreement. Such a writing, however, may be explained or
a. by course of performance, course of dealing, or usage of trade; and
b. by evidence of consistent additional terms unless the writing was intended to be a
complete and exclusive statement of the terms of the agreement.
FORMATION IN GENERAL
12.1 Notwithstanding Section 10, a contract for the sale of goods for the price up to Nu.100/-
or the equivalent in merchandise or services may be made in any manner sufficient to
show agreement, including conduct by both parties which tends to show their recognition
of the existence of such a contract.
12.2 Even though one or more terms are left open, a contract for sale does not fail for
indefiniteness if the parties have intended to make a contract and there is a reasonably
certain basis for giving an appropriate remedy.
OFFER AND ACCEPTANCE IN FORMATION OF CONTRACT
13.1 Unless otherwise unambiguously indicated by language or circumstances -
a. an offer to make a contract shall be construed as inviting acceptance in any
manner and by any medium reasonable in the circumstances;
b. an order or other offer to buy goods for prompt or current shipment shall be
construed as inviting acceptance either by a promise to ship or by the prompt
shipment of conforming goods.
13.2 Where promptly beginning performance is a reasonable mode of accepting an offer, the
offerer who does not receive notice of acceptance within a reasonable time may treat the
offer as having lapsed before acceptance.
MODIFICATION, RESCISSION AND WAIVER
14.1 An agreement modifying a contract for the sale of goods needs no consideration to be
14.2 A signed agreement that requires that modification or rescission be done by a signed
writing cannot be otherwise modified or rescinded.
14.3 The requirements of Section 10 of this Act must be satisfied if the contract as modified
falls within its provisions.
14.4 Subject to the preceding provisions of this section, a course of performance between the
parties shall be relevant to show a waiver or modification of any term inconsistent with
such course of performance.
GENERAL OBLIGATION AND CONSTRUCTION OF CONTRACT
General Obligations of Parties
15. The obligation of the seller is to transfer and deliver the goods. The obligation of the
buyer is to accept and pay for the goods in accordance with the contract.
UNCONSCIONABLE CONTRACT OR CLAUSE
16. If the court as a matter of law finds the contract or any clause of the contract to have been
unconscionable at the time it was entered into, the court may refuse to enforce the
contract, or it may enforce the remainder of the contract without the unconscionable
clause, or it may limit the application of any unconscionable clause so as to avoid an
PRICE PAYABLE IN MONEY, GOODS, OR OTHERWISE
17. The contract may permit or require the price to be paid in money or otherwise. If it is
payable in whole or in part in goods, each party is a seller of the goods that he is to
OPEN PRICE TERM
18. 1 If they so intend, the parties can conclude a contract for sale even though the price is not
settled. In such a case the price is a reasonable price at the time for delivery if -
a. nothing is said as to price; or
b. the price is left to be agreed by the parties and they fail to agree; or
c. the price is to be fixed in relation to some agreed upon standard set or recorded
by a third person and such standard is not so set or recorded.
18.2 A price to be fixed by the seller or by the buyer means a price to be fixed in good faith.
18.3 When a price left to be fixed otherwise than by agreement of the parties fails because of
the fault of one party, the other party may at his option treat the contract as cancelled or
he fix a reasonable price.
18.4 Where, however, the parties intend not to be bound unless the price be fixed or agreed
upon and it is not fixed or agreed upon there is no contract. In such a case, the buyer
must return any goods already received or if unable to do so must pay their reasonable
value at the time of delivery, and the seller must return any portion of the price paid for
such goods returned by the buyer.
DELIVERY IN SINGLE LOT OR SEVERAL LOTS
19. Unless otherwise agreed, all goods must be tendered in a single delivery, and payment is
due only when all goods are tendered. Where the circumstances, however, give either
party the right to make or demand delivery in lots, payment may be demanded for each
ABSENCE OF SPECIFIED PLACE FOR DELIVERY
20. Unless otherwise agreed -
a. the place for delivery of goods is the seller's place of business or, if he has none,
his residence; but
b. in a contract for the sale of identified goods which, to the knowledge of the
parties at the time of contracting, are in some other place, that place is the place
ABSENCE OF SPECIFIC TIME PROVISIONS; NOTICE OF TERMINATION
21.1 The time for shipment or delivery or any other action under a contract if not provided in
this Act or agreed upon by the parties shall be a reasonable time.
21.2 Where the contract provides for successive performances but is indefinite in duration, it
is valid for a reasonable time. Unless otherwise agreed, however, such a contract may be
terminated at any time by either party.
21.3 Termination of a contract by one party, except on the happening of an agreed upon event,
requires that reasonable notice be received by the other party.
OPEN TIME FOR PAYMENT
22. Unless otherwise agreed, payment is due at the time and place at which the buyer is to
receive the goods, even though the place of shipment is the place of delivery.
OPTIONS AND COOPERATION RESPECTING PERFORMANCE
23. An agreement for sale which is otherwise sufficiently definite to be a contract is not made
invalid by the fact that it leaves certain details of performance to be specified by one of
the parties. Any such specification must be made in good faith and within limits set by
WARRANTY OF TITLE
24.1 Subject to subsection 2, there is in a contract for sale a warranty by the seller that -
a. the title conveyed shall be good, and its transfer rightful; and
b. the goods shall be delivered free from any lien or encumbrance of which the
buyer at the time of contracting has no knowledge.
24.2 A warranty under subsection 1 will be excluded or modified only by specific language or
by circumstances that give the buyer reason to know that the seller is purporting to sell
only such right or title as he or a third person may have.
EXPRESS WARRANTIES BY AFFIRMATION, PROMISE, DESCRIPTION, SAMPLE
25.1 Express warranties by the seller are created as follows -
a. any affirmation of fact or promise made by the seller to the buyer that relates to
the goods and becomes part of the basis of the bargain creates an express
warranty that the goods shall conform to the affirmation or promise.
b. any description of the goods that is made part of the basis of the bargain creates
an express warranty that the goods shall conform to the description.
c. any sample or model that is made part of the basis of the bargain creates an
express warranty that the whole of the goods shall conform to the sample or
25.2 It is not necessary to the creation of an express warranty that the seller use formal words
such as "warrant" or "guarantee" or that he have a specific intention to make a warranty,
but an affirmation merely of the value of the goods or a statement purporting to be
merely the seller's opinion or commendation of the goods does not create a warranty.
IMPLIED WARRANTY: MERCHANTABILITY; USAGE OF TRADE
26.1 Unless excluded or modified, a warranty that the goods shall be merchantable is implied
in a contract for their sale if the seller is a merchant with respect to goods of that kind.
26.2 Goods to be merchantable must be at least such as -
a. pass without objection in the trade under the contract description; and
b. in the case of fungible goods, are of fair average quality within the description;
c. are fit for the ordinary purposes for which such goods are used; and
d. are adequately packaged and labelled as the agreement may require.
26.3 Unless excluded or modified, other implied warranties may arise from course of dealing
or usage of trade.
CUMULATION AND CONFLICT OF WARRANTIES EXPRESS OR IMPLIED
27. Warranties, whether express or implied, shall be construed as consistent with each other
and as cumulative, but if such construction is unreasonable, the intention of the parties
shall determine which warranty is dominant. In ascertaining that intention the following
a. Exact or technical specifications displace an inconsistent sample or model or
general language of description.
b. A sample from an existing bulk displaces inconsistent general language of
c. Express warranties displace inconsistent implied warranties.
F.O.B. AND F.A.S. TERMS
28.1 Unless otherwise agreed, the term F.O.B. (which means "free on board") at a named
place is a delivery term under which -
a. when the term is F.O.B. the place of shipment, the seller must, at his own expense
and risk, transport the goods to that place in the manner provided in this Act and
put them into the possession of the carrier; or
b. when the term is F.O.B. the place of destination, the seller must, at his own
expense and risk, transport the goods to that place and there tender delivery of
them in the manner provided in this Act;
28.2 Unless otherwise agreed the term F.A.S. vessel (which means "free alongside") at a
named port is a delivery term under which the seller must -
a. at his own expense and risk deliver the goods alongside the vessel in the manner
usual in that port or on a dock designated and provided by the buyer; and
b. obtain and tender a receipt for the goods in exchange for which the carrier is
under a duty to issue a bill of lading.
28.3 Unless otherwise agreed, in any case falling within subsection 1 b. or subsection 2 the
buyer must reasonably give any needed instructions for making delivery.
28.4 Under the term F.O.B. vessel or F.A.S., unless otherwise agreed, the buyer must make
payment against tender of the required documents and the seller may not tender nor the
buyer demand delivery of the goods in substitution for the documents.
C.I.F. AND C. & F. TERMS
29.1 The term C.I.F. means that the price includes in a lump sum the cost of the goods and the
insurance and freight to the named destination. The term C. & F. or C.F. means that the
price so includes cost and freight to the named destination.
29.2 Unless otherwise agreed, the term C.I.F. followed by a destination or its equivalent
requires the seller, at his own expense and risk, to -
a. put the goods into the possession of a carrier at the port for shipment and obtain
negotiable bills of lading covering the entire transportation to the named
b. load the goods and obtain a receipt from the carrier (which may be contained in
the bill of lading) showing that the freight has been paid; and
c. obtain a policy or certificate of insurance on terms then current at the port of
shipment in the usual amount, in the currency of the contract, shown to cover the
same goods covered by the bill of lading and providing for payment of loss to the
buyer or for the account of whom it may concern; and
d. prepare an invoice of the goods and procure any other documents required to
effect shipment or to comply with the contract; and
e. send with commercial promptness all the documents with any endorsement
necessary to perfect the buyer's rights.
29.3 Unless otherwise agreed, the term C. & F. or its equivalent imposes upon the seller the
same obligations and risks as a C.I.F. term except the obligation as to insurance.
29.4 Under the term C.I.F. or C. & F., unless otherwise agreed, the buyer must make payment
against tender of the required documents. The seller may not tender nor the buyer
demand delivery of the goods in substitution for the documents.
TITLE, CREDITORS AND GOOD FAITH PURCHASERS
PASSING OF TITLE
30.1 Title to goods cannot pass under a contract for sale prior to their identification to the
contract, and unless otherwise explicitly agreed, the buyer acquires by their identification
a special property interest as limited by this Act. Any reservation by the seller of the title
(property) in goods shipped or delivered to the buyer is limited to a reservation of a
security interest. Subject to the foregoing, title to goods passes from the seller to the
buyer in any manner explicitly agreed on by the parties.
30.2 Unless otherwise explicitly agreed, title passes to the buyer when the seller completes
physical delivery of the goods, even though the seller may have reserved a security
interest or a document of title is to be delivered at a different time or place. In particular-
a. if the contract requires or authorizes the seller to send the goods to the buyer but
does not require him to deliver them at destination, title passes to the buyer at the
time and place of shipment; but
b. if the contract requires delivery at destination, title passes when the seller tenders
the goods at that destination.
30.3 Unless otherwise explicitly agreed, where delivery is to be made without moving the
a. if the seller is to deliver a document of title, title passes when he delivers such
b. if the goods are, at the time of contracting already identified and no documents
are to be delivered, title passes at the time and place of contracting.
30.4 A refusal by the buyer to receive the goods, whether or not justified, or a revocation of
acceptance, if justified, re-vests title to the goods in the seller. Such re-vesting occurs by
operation of law and is not a "sale".
POWER TO TRANSFER; GOOD FAITH PURCHASE OF GOODS; "ENTRUSTING”
31.1 A purchaser of goods acquires all title which his transferor had power to transfer, but a
purchaser of a limited interest acquires rights only to the extent of the interest purchased.
A person with voidable title has power to transfer good title to a good faith purchaser for
value. When goods have been delivered under a transaction of purchase the purchaser
acquires such power to transfer good title even though -
a. the transferor was deceived as to the identity of the purchaser; or
b. the delivery was in exchange for a cheque which is later dishonoured; or
c. the delivery was procured through fraud.
31.2 Any entrusting of goods to a merchant who deals in goods of that kind gives the
merchant the power to transfer all rights held by the one entrusting to the one who buys
the goods in the ordinary course of business.
Note: "Entrusting" means keeping of goods by a person in the possession of a merchant who
deals in similar goods.
INSURABLE INTEREST IN GOODS; MANNER OF IDENTIFICATION OF GOODS
32.1 The buyer obtains a special property interest and an insurable interest in goods by
identification of existing goods as goods to which the contract refers, even though the
goods so identified do not conform to the contract, and he has the right to reject them.
Such identification can be made in any manner explicitly agreed to by the parties. In the
absence of explicit agreement, identification occurs -
a. when the contract is made if it is for the sale of goods already existing and
b. if the contract is for the sale of future goods other than those described in
paragraph c., when goods are shipped, marked, or otherwise designated by the
seller as goods to which the contract refers;
c. when the crops are planted or the young are conceived, if the contract is for the
sale of crops or of unborn young animals.
32.2 The seller also retains an insurable interest in goods as long as title to or any security
interest in the goods remains in him. Where the seller alone identifies the goods, he may
substitute other goods for those identified, but he may do so only until a default under the
contract or insolvency or his notifying the buyer that his identification of goods is final.
BUYER'S RIGHT TO GOODS ON SELLER'S INSOLVENCY
33. Even though the goods have not been shipped, a buyer who has paid part or all of the
price for goods in which he has a special property interest may, by tendering any unpaid
portion of their price, recover them from the seller if the seller becomes insolvent within
ten days after receiving the first instalment on their price.
SELLER'S DELIVERY OF GOODS
34.1 Tender of delivery requires that the seller hold conforming goods at the buyer's
disposition and give the buyer notice reasonably necessary to enable him to take delivery.
34.2 Where the seller is to send goods to the buyer, tender requires that the seller comply with
the provisions of Section 35.
SHIPMENT BY SELLER
35. Where the seller is required or authorized to send the goods to the buyer and the contract
does not specify a particular destination, then unless otherwise agreed he must -
a. put the goods in the possession of a carrier and enter into a contract for their
transportation that is reasonable under the circumstances; and
b. promptly tender any document necessary to enable the buyer to obtain possession
of the goods; and
c. promptly notify the buyer of the shipment.
The seller's failure to notify the buyer under paragraph c., or to make a proper contract under
paragraph a., is a ground for the buyer to reject the goods only if the failure causes material delay
EFFECT OF SELLER'S TENDER; DELIVERY ON CONDITION
36.1 The seller's tender of delivery is a condition to the buyer's duty to accept the goods and
pay for them.
36.2 Where payment is due upon delivery to the buyer of goods or documents of title, the
buyer's right to retain or dispose of the goods is conditional upon making the payment
CURE BY SELLER OF IMPROPER TENDER OR DELIVERY; REPLACEMENT
37.1 Where any tender or delivery by the seller is rejected because of non-conforming tender
and the time for performance has not yet expired, the seller may promptly notify the
buyer of his intention to cure and may then within the contract time make a conforming
37.2 When the buyer rejects a non-conforming tender which the seller had reasonable grounds
to believe would be acceptable, the seller may promptly notify the buyer and have a
further reasonable time to substitute a conforming tender.
RISK OF LOSS IN THE ABSENCE OF BREACH
38.1 Where the contract authorizes the seller to ship the goods by carrier -
a. if it does not require him to deliver them at a particular destination, the risk of
loss passes to the buyer when the goods are delivered to the carrier; but
b. if it does require him to deliver them at a particular destination, the risk of loss
passes to the buyer when the goods are tendered so as to enable the buyer to take
38.2 Where the goods are held by a bailee to be delivered without being physically moved, the
risk of loss passes to the buyer -
a. when he receives a negotiable or non-negotiable document of title covering the
b. when the bailee acknowledges the buyer's right to the goods.
38.3 In any case not within subsection 1 or 2, the risk of loss passes to the buyer when he
receives the goods if the seller is a merchant; otherwise the risk passes to the buyer on
tender of delivery.
38.4 The provisions of this section are subject to any contrary agreement by the parties and to
the provisions of Section 39 on the effect of breach on risk of loss.
EFFECT OF BREACH ON RISK OF LOSS
39.1 Where a tender or delivery of goods so fails to conform to the contract as to give the
buyer the right to reject them, the risk of loss remains on the seller until cure or
39.2 Where the buyer rightfully revokes acceptance, he has the right to treat the risk of loss as
having rested on the seller from the beginning.
39.3 Where the buyer as to conforming goods already identified to the contract repudiates the
contract, or otherwise breaches the contract before risk of their loss has passed to him, the
seller has the right to treat the risk of loss as resting on the buyer for a commercially
TENDER OF PAYMENT BY BUYER
40. Unless otherwise agreed, the buyer's tender of payment is a condition to the seller's duty
to tender and complete delivery of the goods.
BUYER'S RIGHT TO INSPECTION OF GOODS
41.1 Unless otherwise agreed, the buyer has a right before payment or acceptance to inspect
the goods in any reasonable manner. When the seller sends the goods to the buyer, the
inspection may be after their arrival.
41.2 Unless otherwise agreed, the expenses of inspecting the goods must be borne by the
buyer but may be recovered from the seller if the goods do not conform and are rejected.
PRESERVING EVIDENCE OF GOODS IN DISPUTE
42. In order to resolve any dispute, either party on reasonable notification to the other has the
right to inspect and test the goods, even though the goods may be under the control of the
BREACH, REPUDIATION AND EXCUSE
BUYER'S RIGHTS ON IMPROPER DELIVERY
43. Unless otherwise agreed under the sections on contractual limitations of remedy, if the
goods or the tender of delivery fail in any material respect to conform to the contract, the
buyer may -
a. reject the whole; or
b. accept the whole; or
c. accept any commercial unit or units and reject the rest.
MANNER AND EFFECT OF RIGHTFUL REJECTION
44.1 Rejection of goods must be within a reasonable time after their delivery or tender. The
rejection of goods is ineffective unless the buyer timely notifies the seller and states his
reasons for rejection.
44.2 Subject to Section 45 on rejected goods-
a. after rejecting the goods, any exercise of ownership by the buyer is wrongful as
against the seller; and
b. if the buyer, before rejecting the goods, has taken physical possession of goods in
which he does not have a security interest, he is under a duty after rejection to
hold them with reasonable care for a time sufficient to permit the seller to remove
c. the buyer has no further obligations with regard to goods rightfully rejected.
44.3 The seller's rights with respect to goods wrongfully rejected are governed by Section 55.
MERCHANT BUYER'S DUTIES AS TO RIGHTFULLY REJECTED GOODS
45.1 Notwithstanding Section 44.2 c., and subject to any security interest held by the buyer,
when the seller has no agent or place of business at the market where the goods are
rejected, a merchant buyer has a further duty after rejecting goods in his possession or
control to follow any reasonable instructions received from the seller with respect to the
goods. In the absence of such instructions, the merchant buyer is to make reasonable
efforts to sell the goods for the seller's account if the goods are perishable or threaten to
decline in value speedily. Instructions are not reasonable if, upon demand, indemnity for
expenses is not forthcoming.
45.2 When the buyer sells goods under subsection 1, he is entitled to reimbursement from the
seller or out of the proceeds for the reasonable expenses of caring for and selling the
WHAT CONSTITUTES ACCEPTANCE OF GOODS
46. Acceptance of goods occurs when the buyer -
a. after a reasonable opportunity to inspect the goods signifies to the seller that the
goods are conforming or that he will take or retain them in spite of their non-
b. fails to make an effective rejection, but such acceptance does not occur until the
buyer has had a reasonable opportunity to inspect the goods; or
c. does any act that, to a reasonable person, would indicate that the seller does not
own the goods.
EFFECT OF ACCEPTANCE; NOTICE OF BREACH; BURDEN OF ESTABLISHING
BREACH AFTER ACCEPTANCE
47.1 The buyer must pay at the contract rate for any goods accepted.
47.2 Once the buyer accepts the goods, he may not later revoke his acceptance based on the
goods not conforming to the contract if, at the time he accepted the goods, he knew of
this non-conformity, unless he accepted the goods on the reasonable assumption that the
non-conformity would be timely cured. Acceptance under the preceding sentence does
not of itself impair any other remedy provided by this Act for non-conformity.
47.3 Where a tender has been accepted, the buyer must within a reasonable time after he
discovers or should have discovered any breach notify the seller of breach or be barred
from any remedy; and
47.4 The burden is on the buyer to establish any breach with respect to the goods accepted.
REVOCATION OF ACCEPTANCE IN WHOLE OR IN PART
48.1 If the non-conformity of goods substantially impairs the value of a commercial unit, the
buyer may revoke his acceptance if he has accepted the goods -
a. on the reasonable assumption that the non-conformity would be cured and it has
not been timely cured; or
b. without discovering such non-conformity, provided his acceptance was
reasonably induced either by the difficulty of discovering the non-conformity or
by the seller's assurances.
48.2 Revocation of acceptance must occur within a reasonable time after the buyer discovers
or should have discovered the ground for it and before any substantial change in the
condition of the goods which is not caused by their own defects. Revocation is not
effective until the buyer notifies the seller of it.
48.3 A buyer who so revokes goods has the same rights and duties with regard to those goods
as if he had rejected them.
RIGHT TO ADEQUATE ASSURANCE OF PERFORMANCE
49.1 A contract for sale imposes an obligation on each party not to impair the other party's
expectation of receiving due performance. When reasonable grounds for insecurity arise
with respect to the performance of either party, the other may in writing demand adequate
assurance of performance. Until he receives such assurance, the party may, if
commercially reasonable, suspend any performance for which he has not already
received the agreed return.
49.2 After receiving a justified demand for assurance, a party's failure to provide adequate
assurance under the circumstances and within a reasonable time may be deemed by the
other party to be a repudiation of the contract.
50. When either party repudiates the contract with respect to a performance not yet due the
loss of which will substantially impair the value of the contract to the other, the aggrieved
party may -
a. for a commercially reasonable time await performance by the repudiating party;
b. resort to any remedy for breach, even though he has notified the repudiating party
that he will await the latter's performance and has urged retraction; and
c. in either case suspend his own performance or proceed in accordance with the
provisions of this Act.
RETRACTION OF ANTICIPATORY REPUDIATION
51.1 Until the repudiating party's next performance is due, he can retract his repudiation,
unless the aggrieved party has materially changed his position after the repudiation or
otherwise indicated that he considers the repudiation final.
51.2 Retraction must include any assurance justifiably demanded under the provisions of this
51.3 Retraction reinstates the repudiating party's rights under the contract with due excuse and
allowance to the aggrieved party for any delay occasioned by the repudiation.
CASUALTY TO IDENTIFIED GOODS
52. Where the contract requires goods to be identified when the contract is made, and the
goods suffer casualty without the fault of either party before the risk of loss passes to the
buyer, then -
a. if the loss is total, the buyer and seller are relieved of their obligations under the
b. if the loss is partial or the goods have so deteriorated as no longer to conform to
the contract, the buyer may nevertheless demand inspection and, at his option, he
may either treat the contract as void or accept the goods with due allowance from
the contract price for the deterioration or the deficiency in quantity but without
further right against the seller.
EXCUSE BY FAILURE OF PRESUPPOSED CONDITIONS
53. Unless otherwise agreed, the failure of either buyer or the seller to perform under the
contract is not a breach if performance has been made impracticable by the occurrence of
a material contingency that both parties assumed would not occur or any applicable
foreign or domestic governmental law or order, whether or not it later proves to be
invalid. Under these circumstances, the seller promptly must notify the buyer that there
will be a delay or non-delivery, and the buyer may demand assurances pursuant to
SELLER'S REMEDIES ON DISCOVERY OF BUYER'S INSOLVENCY
54.1 Where the seller discovers that the buyer is insolvent, he may refuse to deliver the goods
except for a cash payment that includes payment for all goods already delivered under the
contract, and he may stop delivery pursuant to Section 57.
54.2 Where the seller discovers that the buyer has received goods on credit while insolvent, he
may reclaim the goods, but his right to reclaim is subject to the rights of a buyer in
ordinary course or other good faith purchaser under this Act. Successful reclamation of
goods excludes all other remedies with respect to those goods.
SELLER'S REMEDIES IN GENERAL
55.1 Where the buyer breaches the contract, the seller is entitled to damages sufficient to place
him in as good a position as if the buyer had fully performed.
55.2 In addition, where the buyer wrongfully rejects or revokes acceptance of goods or fails to
make a payment due on or before delivery or repudiates with respect to a part or the
whole, then the aggrieved seller may do any of the following -
a. withhold delivery of any shipments of goods under the contract;
b. stop delivery by any bailee as hereafter provided;
c. proceed under Section 56 concerning goods still unidentified to the contract;
d. resell the goods in a commercially reasonable manner;
e. cancel the contract.
55.3 A purchaser who buys goods in good faith at a resale takes the goods free of any rights of
the original buyer.
SELLER'S RIGHT TO IDENTIFY GOODS TO THE CONTRACT
NOTWITHSTANDING BREACH OR TO SALVAGE UNFINISHED GOODS
56.1 An aggrieved seller under the preceding section may -
a. identify to the contract conforming goods not already identified if at the time he
learns of the breach the goods are in his possession or control;
b. attempt to resell goods that had been demonstrated as intended for the particular
contract, even though those goods are unfinished.
56.2 Where the goods are unfinished, an aggrieved seller exercising reasonable commercial
judgement and attempting to avoid a loss, may -
a. complete the manufacture of the goods and wholly identify them to the contract;
b. cease manufacturing the goods and resell the unfinished goods for scrap or
salvage value; or
c. proceed in any other reasonable manner.
SELLER'S STOPPAGE OF DELIVERY IN TRANSIT OR OTHERWISE
57.1 The seller may stop delivery of goods in the possession of a carrier or other bailee when
he discovers the buyer to be insolvent, or when the buyer repudiates or fails to make a
payment due before delivery, or if the seller has a right (for any other reason) to withhold
or reclaim the goods.
57.2 As against such buyer the seller may stop delivery until such time as the buyer receives
the goods or a negotiable document of title covering the goods.
SELLER'S DAMAGES FOR NON-ACCEPTANCE OR REPUDIATION
58.1 Subject to subsection 2, the measure of damages for non-acceptance or repudiation by the
buyer is the difference between the market price at the time and place for tender and the
unpaid contract price together with any incidental damages provided in this Act (Section
59), but less expenses saved in consequence of the buyer's breach.
58.2 If the measure of damages provided in subsection 1 is inadequate to put the seller in as
good a position as performance would have done, then the measure of damages is the
profit (including reasonable overhead) that the seller would have made from full
performance by the buyer, together with any incidental damages provided in this Act
with due allowance for costs reasonably incurred and due credit for payments or proceeds
SELLER'S INCIDENTAL DAMAGES
59. Incidental damages to an aggrieved seller include any commercially reasonable charges,
expenses, or commissions incurred in stopping delivery, and in transporting and caring
for the goods after the buyer's breach, and in returning or reselling the goods as a result of
BUYER'S REMEDIES IN GENERAL; BUYER'S SECURITY INTEREST IN REJECTED GOODS
60.1 Where the seller breaches the contract, the buyer is entitled to damages sufficient to place
him in as good a position as if the seller had fully performed.
60.2 In addition, where the seller fails to make delivery or repudiates, or where the buyer
rightfully rejects or justifiably revokes acceptance, then the buyer may cancel the
Whether or not the buyer cancels the contract, he may in addition do any of the following -
a. recover so much of the price as has been paid; or
b. "cover" pursuant to Section 61; or
c. if the goods have been identified, recover them as provided in this Act; or
d. in a proper case, obtain specific performance; or
e. in a proper case, recover incidental and consequential damages.
60.3 On rightful rejection or justifiable revocation of acceptance, a buyer has a security
interest in goods in his possession or control for any payments made on their price and
any expenses reasonably incurred in their inspection, receipt, transportation, care, or
custody. The buyer may hold such goods and resell them in like manner as an aggrieved
"COVER"; BUYER'S PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS
61.1 After a breach within the preceding section, the buyer may "cover" by making in good
faith and without unreasonable delay any reasonable purchase of or contract to purchase
goods in substitution for those due from the seller.
61.2 The buyer may recover from the seller as damages the difference between the cost of
cover and the contract price together with any incidental or consequential damages as
hereinafter defined, but less expenses saved in consequence of the seller's breach.
61.3 A buyer's failure to effect cover within this section does not bar him from any other
BUYER'S DAMAGES FOR NON-DELIVERY OR REPUDIATION
62. The measure of damages for non-delivery or repudiation by the seller is the difference
between the market price at the time when the buyer learned of the breach and the
contract price together with any incidental and consequential damages provided in this
Act, but less expenses saved in consequence of the seller's breach.
BUYER'S DAMAGES FOR BREACH IN REGARD TO ACCEPTED GOODS
63.1 Where the buyer has accepted goods and given notification of seller's breach, he may
recover as damages the loss resulting from the seller's breach as determined in any
63.2 The measure of damages for breach of any warranty is the difference at the time and
place of acceptance between the value of the goods accepted and the value they would
have had if they had been as warranted, unless special circumstances show proximate
damages of a different amount.
63.3 In a proper case, incidental and consequential damages under Section 64 may also be
BUYER'S INCIDENTAL AND CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES
64.1 Incidental damages resulting from the seller's breach include expenses reasonably
incurred in inspecting, receiving, transporting, and caring for goods rightfully rejected,
together with any reasonable expenses incident to the breach or incurred by effecting
64.2 Consequential damages resulting from the seller's breach include -
a. any loss resulting from the seller's failure to fulfil any of the buyer's requirements
of which the seller at the time of contracting had reason to know and which could
not reasonably be prevented by the buyer; and
b. injuries to persons or property proximately resulting from any breach of warranty.
BUYER'S RIGHT TO SPECIFIC PERFORMANCE
65.1 The Court has discretion to direct that the seller perform as provided under the contract,
without the option of retaining the goods and paying damages.
65.2 The court's order of specific performance may also include damages or other relief, as the
court may deem just.
DEDUCTION OF DAMAGES FROM THE PRICE
66. The buyer, on notifying the seller of his intention to do so, may deduct all or any part of
the damages resulting from any breach of the contract from any part of the price still due
under the same contract.
LIQUIDATION OR LIMITATION OF DAMAGES
67.1 An agreement may specify liquidated damages, and such provisions are enforceable, but
only if the amount is reasonable in light of the anticipated or actual harm (whichever is
greater) caused by the breach. A term fixing unreasonably large liquidated damages is
void as a penalty.
67.2 Where the seller justifiably withholds delivery of goods because of the buyer's breach,
the buyer is entitled to restitution of any amount by which the sum of his payments
exceeds the liquidated damages to which the seller is entitled in accordance with
67.3 Where a seller has received payment in goods, their reasonable value or the proceeds of
their resale shall be treated as payments for the purposes of subsection 2; but if the seller
has notice of the buyer's breach before reselling goods received in part performance, his
resale is subject to the conditions laid down in this Act on resale by an aggrieved seller.
CONTRACTUAL MODIFICATION OR LIMITATION OF REMEDY
68.1 Subject to the provisions of subsections 2 and 3 of this Section and Section 67 on
liquidation and limitation of damages -
a. an agreement may provide for remedies in addition to or in substitution for those
provided in this Act and may limit or alter the measure of damages recoverable
under this Act, as by limiting the buyer's remedies to return of the goods and
repayment of the price or to repair and replacement of non-conforming goods or
b. resort to a remedy as provided is optional unless the remedy is expressly agreed
to be exclusive, in which case it is the sole remedy.
68.2 Where circumstances cause an exclusive or limited remedy to fail of its essential purpose,
remedy may be had as provided in this Act.
68.3 Consequential damages may be limited or excluded unless the limitation or exclusion is
BREACHES BEFORE CANCELLATION OR TERMINATION
69. Unless the contrary intention is clearly expressed, a party's cancellation or termination of
the contract or the like shall not be construed as discharging that party's claim against the
other for damages caused by a breach occurring before the cancellation or termination.
PROOF OF MARKET PRICE: TIME AND PLACE
70. If a lawsuit based on a party's anticipatory repudiation of the contract is decided by the
court before the time that performance is required with respect to some or all of the goods,
any damages based on market price shall be determined with reference to the price of such
goods that existed at the time when the aggrieved party learned of the repudiation.
Done at the 79th Session of the Gyalyong Tshogdu Chhenmo on the 26th day of the 5th month
of the Female Iron Snake Year corresponding to 17 July, 2001.
The Commercial Sale of Goods Act
of the Kingdom of Bhutan, 2000
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART I 2
Territorial Extent 2
Rules of Construction 2
Obligation of Good Faith 2
Actions by Agents of the Buyer or Seller 2
Statute of Limitations in Sales Contracts 3
PART II 3
PART III 6
FORM, FORMATION AND READJUSTMENT OF CONTRACT 6
Formal Requirements 6
Final Written Expression: Parol or Extrinsic Evidence 6
Formation in General 6
Offer and Acceptance in Formation of Contract 6
Modification, Rescission and Waiver 7
PART IV 8
GENERAL OBLIGATION AND CONSTRUCTION
OF CONTRACT 8
General Obligations of Parties 8
Unconscionable Contract or Clause 8
Price Payable in Money, Goods, or Otherwise 8
Open Price Term 8
Delivery in Single Lot or Several Lots 9
Absence of Specified Place for Delivery 9
Absence of Specific Time Provisions; Notice of Termination 9
Open Time for Payment 9
Options and Cooperation Respecting Performance 9
Warranty of Title 9
Express Warranties by Affirmation, Promise, Description, Sample 10
Implied Warranty: Merchantability; Usage of Trade 10
Cumulation and Conflict of Warranties Express or Implied 11
F.O.B. and F.A.S. Terms 11
C.I.F. and C. & F. Terms 12
PART V 12
TITLE, CREDITORS AND GOOD FAITH PURCHASERS 12
Passing of Title 12
Power to Transfer; Good Faith Purchase of Goods; "Entrusting” 13
PART VI 14
Insurable Interest in Goods; Manner of Identification of Goods 14
Buyer's Right to Goods on Seller's Insolvency 14
Seller's Delivery of Goods 14
Shipment by Seller 14
Effect of Seller's Tender; Delivery on Condition 15
Cure by Seller of Improper Tender or Delivery; Replacement 15
Risk of Loss in the Absence of Breach 15
Effect of Breach on Risk of Loss 16
Tender of Payment by Buyer 16
Buyer's Right to Inspection of Goods 16
Preserving Evidence of Goods in Dispute 16
PART VII 17
BREACH, REPUDIATION AND EXCUSE 17
Buyer's Rights on Improper Delivery 17
Manner and Effect of Rightful Rejection 17
Merchant Buyer's Duties as to Rightfully Rejected Goods 17
What Constitutes Acceptance of Goods 18
Effect of Acceptance; Notice of Breach; Burden of Establishing 18
Breach After Acceptance 18
Revocation of Acceptance in Whole or in Part 18
Right to Adequate Assurance of Performance 19
Anticipatory Repudiation 19
Retraction of Anticipatory Repudiation 19
Casualty to Identified Goods 20
Excuse by Failure of Presupposed Conditions 20
PART VIII 20
Seller's Remedies on Discovery of Buyer's Insolvency 20
Seller's Remedies in General 20
Seller's Right to Identify Goods to the Contract
Notwithstanding Breach or to Salvage Unfinished Goods 21
Seller's Stoppage of Delivery in Transit or Otherwise 21
Seller's Damages for Non-acceptance or Repudiation 22
Seller's Incidental Damages 22
Buyer's Remedies in General;Buyer's Security Interest in Rejected Goods22
"Cover"; Buyer's Procurement of Substitute Goods 23
Buyer's Damages for Non-delivery or Repudiation 23
Buyer's Damages for Breach in Regard to Accepted Goods 23
Buyer's Incidental and Consequential Damages 23
Buyer's Right to Specific Performance 24
Deduction of Damages from the Price 24
Liquidation or Limitation of Damages 24
Contractual Modification or Limitation of Remedy 24
Breaches Before Cancellation or Termination 25
Proof of Market Price: Time and Place 25