Civil Aviation Order 20.91 (Instructions and directions for performance-based navigation) 2012

Link to law: https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2012L01570

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I, JOHN FRANCIS McCORMICK, Director of Aviation Safety, on behalf of CASA, make this instrument under regulation 179A of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 and regulation 11.245 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998.
[Signed John F. McCormick]
John F. McCormick
Director of Aviation Safety
13 July 2012
Civil Aviation Order 20.91 (Instructions and directions for performance‑based navigation) 2012
1          Name of instrument
                 This instrument is the Civil Aviation Order 20.91 (Instructions and directions for performance-based navigation) 2012.
2          Commencement and duration
       2.1     This Order commences on the day after registration.
       2.2     For paragraph 11.250 (a) of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR 1998), anything in this Order that is a direction under regulation 11.245 of CASR 1998, ceases to be in force on 30 June 2017.
Note   To support this Order, CASA is using both the power to issue instructions under regulation 179A of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988, and the power to issue directions under regulation 11.245 of CASR 1998. For paragraph 11.250 (a) of CASR 1998, an expiry date must be included for a direction which is to endure for longer than 1 year. This Order will have been superseded by new regulations before 30 June 2017.
3          Definitions
       3.1     In this Order:
AA means Airservices Australia.
AC means Advisory Circular.
AFM means Aircraft Flight Manual.
approved means approved by CASA.
Note   See subregulation 2 (1) of CAR 1988. Unless otherwise indicated, CASA approvals are issued in writing.
APU means Auxiliary Power Unit.
APV means Approach with Vertical Guidance.
AR means authorisation required.
ARINC 424 Path Terminator means Aeronautical Radio Incorporated Specification 424 format for coding airborne navigation databases.
ARP means Aerodrome Reference Point.
ATC means Air Traffic Control.
Baro-VNAV means Barometric Vertical Navigation.
CAAP means Civil Aviation Advisory Publication.
CAO means Civil Aviation Order.
CAR 1988 means Civil Aviation Regulations 1988.
CBT means computer-based training.
CDI means Course Deviation Indicator.
cross-track error/deviation means the perpendicular distance between the planned flight path of an aircraft and the computed aircraft position as displayed by the aircraft’s navigation instruments.
DA means Decision Altitude.
DME means Distance Measuring Equipment.
EASA means European Aviation Safety Agency.
(E)HSI means Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator.
EOSID means Engine-Out Standard Instrument Departure.
ETSO means a European Technical Standard Order.
FAA means Federal Aviation Administration.
FAF means Final Approach Fix.
FAP means Final Approach Point.
FCC means Flight Control Computer.
FMC means Flight Management Computer.
FMS means Flight Management System.
FOSA means a Flight Operational Safety Assessment.
FPA means Flight Procedure Authorisation.
FTE means Flight Technical Error.
GNSS means Global Navigation Satellite System.
GNSS/FMS means an FMS area navigation system that has GNSS capability but does not have IRU or IRS inputs.
GPS means Global Positioning System.
HSI means Horizontal Situation Indicator.
IAF means Initial Approach Fix.
IAL means Instrument Approach to Land.
ICAO means International Civil Aviation Organization.
I.F.R. means Instrument Flight Rules.
INS means Inertial Navigation Systems.
IRS means Inertial Reference System.
IRU means Inertial Reference Unit.
L/DEV means Lateral Deviation.
LNAV means Lateral Navigation.
long range navigation system means a navigation system comprising an INS, an IRS or a GNSS capable for use in oceanic or remote airspace.
LP means Localiser Performance.
LPV means Localiser Performance with Vertical Guidance.
MDA means Minimum Descent Altitude.
MEL means Minimum Equipment List.
MMR means Multi-mode Receiver.
MNPS means Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications.
MOC means Minimum Obstacle Clearance.
navaid means navigation aid, for example, VOR.
navigation specification means 1 of the PBN navigation specifications mentioned in subsection 11.
NDB means non-directional beacon.
NNDP means Non-Normal Decision Point.
NOTAM means Notice to Airmen.
NPA means Non-Precision Approach.
NPS means Navigation Performance Scales.
OEM means Original Equipment Manufacturer.
PBN means Performance-based Navigation.
PF means pilot flying.
pilot in command, when used in an Appendix, means the pilot in command of the PBN operation to which the Appendix applies.
PNF/PM means pilot not flying/pilot monitoring.
P-RNAV means Precision Area Navigation.
QNH means the barometric pressure setting which will cause an altimeter to read altitude relative to mean sea level.
QRH means the quick reference handbook.
RADALT means Radio Altimeter.
requisite GNSS satellites means not less than the number of serviceable GNSS satellites specified in writing by the manufacturer of an RNP system to provide a particular level of RNP capability.
restricted aerodrome means an aerodrome for which an operator restricts operations to aircraft with certain equipment, or flight crew with a certain combination of training, qualifications and experience, as set out in the operations manual.
RF means Radius to Fix.
RNAV means Area Navigation.
RNP means Required Navigation Performance.
RNP AR (APCH) means an RNP AR Approach.
RNP AR APCH (ICAO) means an RNP AR Approach designed in accordance with ICAO design criteria.
RNP AR APCH (Proprietary) means an RNP AR Approach designed in accordance with proprietary design criteria.
RNP AR DEP means an RNP AR Departure.
RNP AR DEP (ICAO) means an RNP AR Departure designed in accordance with ICAO design criteria.
RNP AR DEP (Proprietary) means an RNP AR Departure designed in accordance with proprietary design criteria.
RNP AR EOSID means an RNP AR Engine-Out Standard Instrument Departure.
RNP AR EOSID (Proprietary) means an RNP AR Engine-Out Standard Instrument Departure designed in accordance with proprietary design criteria.
SBAS means Satellite-based Augmentation System.
self-contained navigation system means INS, IRS or GNSS.
SID means Standard Instrument Departure.
SIS means signal in space.
STAR means Standard Instrument Arrival.
TAWS means Terrain Awareness Warning System.
TSE means Total System Error.
TSO means Technical Standard Order.
US means United States.
V/DEV means Vertical Deviation.
VIP means Vertical Intercept Point.
VNAV means Vertical Navigation.
VOR means Very High Frequency (VHF) Omni Range.
VPA means Vertical Path Angle.
VSD means Vertical Situation Display.
       3.2     In this Order, unless the contrary intention appears, a reference to a TSO standard, an ETSO standard, an ICAO document, an FAA document, an EASA document, or a CASA document is taken to include a later version of the standard or document as in force or existing from time to time.
Note   Subsection 98 (5D) of the Civil Aviation Act 1988 permits the Order to apply, adopt or incorporate matter contained in any instruments or other writing as in force or existing from time to time.
       3.3     Without affecting paragraph 3.2, in this Order, a reference to a TSO or an ETSO with an empty bracket at the end of the reference includes the TSO or ETSO in a version that contains a number within the bracket.
       3.4     In this Order, unless the contrary intention appears, a reference to ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 6, Implementing RNP AR APCH is taken to include a reference to Chapter 6 under the title Implementing RNP AR Operations.
Note   ICAO intends to retitle Chapter 6.
4          Transitional — B-RNAV
       4.1     If, immediately before the commencement of this Order, the operator of an Australian aircraft held a B‑RNAV instrument or equivalent, he or she is taken, after the commencement of this Order to be in compliance with Appendix 1 for use of RNAV 5 until whichever of the following happens first:
(a)   the B-RNAV instrument or equivalent:
             (i)  lapses; or
            (ii)  is surrendered; or
           (iii)  is revoked;
(b)      2 years have elapsed from the commencement of this Order;
(c)   CASA issues the operator with an RNAV 5 navigation authorisation.
Note   RNAV 5 replaces the European Basic RNAV (B-RNAV) navigation specification.
       4.2     An operator, who under paragraph 4.1 is taken to be in compliance with Appendix 1 for use of RNAV 5, may apply to CASA in writing for an RNAV 5 navigation authorisation and CASA must issue the authorisation.
5          Transitional — P-RNAV and US-RNAV Type A and Type B
       5.1     If, immediately before the commencement of this Order:
(a)   the operator of an Australian aircraft held a P-RNAV, or US-RNAV Type A or Type B, navigation authorisation; and
(b)   paragraph 5.3 or 5.4 applies, as the case requires;
                 he or she is taken, after the commencement of this Order, to be in compliance with Appendix 2 for use of RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 until whichever of the following happens first:
(c)   the P-RNAV, or US-RNAV Type A or Type B, authorisation as the case may be:
             (i)  lapses; or
            (ii)  is surrendered; or
           (iii)  is revoked;
(d)   2 years have elapsed from the commencement of this Order;
(e)   CASA issues the operator with an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation authorisation.
Note   RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 replace the European Precision RNAV (P-RNAV) and the US RNAV (US-RNAV) Type A and Type B navigation specifications.
       5.2     An operator, who under paragraph 5.1 is taken to be in compliance with Appendix 2 for use of RNAV 1 and RNAV 2, may apply to CASA in writing for an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation authorisation and CASA must issue the authorisation.
       5.3     The AFM, an AFM Supplement or an OEM service letter states that the operator’s aircraft navigation system is approved for P-RNAV in accordance with JAA TGL-10, and the additional requirements for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 are met as set out in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part B, Chapter 3, Implementing RNAV 1 and RNAV 2.
       5.4     The AFM, an AFM Supplement, or an OEM service letter states that the operator’s aircraft navigation system is approved for US-RNAV in accordance with FAA AC 90-100A, and the additional requirements for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 are met as set out in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part B, Chapter 3, Implementing RNAV 1 and RNAV 2.
6          Transitional — GPS Oceanic
                 If, immediately before the commencement of this Order, the operator of an Australian aircraft held a GPS Oceanic approval, he or she must cease using the approval 2 years after the commencement of this Order, unless the approval sooner ceases to be in force because it lapses, is surrendered, is revoked or is replaced by an RNP 4 navigation authorisation.
Note   An RNP 4 navigation authorisation, issued as appropriate on application under Subpart 91U of CASR 1998, may replace GPS Oceanic approval when the latter ceases to be in force.
7          Transitional — Australian RNAV (AUSEP)
                 If, immediately before the commencement of this Order, the operator of an Australian aircraft held an Australian RNAV (AUSEP) approval, he or she must cease using the approval 2 years after the commencement of this Order, unless the approval sooner ceases to be in force because it lapses, is surrendered, is revoked or is replaced by an RNAV 5 navigation authorisation.
Note   An RNAV 5 navigation authorisation, issued as appropriate on application under Appendix 1 of this Order, may replace an Australian RNAV (AUSEP) approval when the latter ceases to be in force.
8          Transitional — GPS RNAV
                 If, immediately before the commencement of this Order, the operator of an Australian aircraft held a GPS RNAV approval, he or she must cease using the approval 2 years after the commencement of this Order, unless the approval sooner ceases to be in force because it lapses, is surrendered, is revoked or is replaced by an RNP 2 navigation authorisation.
Note   An RNP 2 navigation authorisation, issued as appropriate on application under Appendix 3 of this Order, may replace a GPS RNAV approval when the latter ceases to be in force.
9          Transitional — MNPS (Reserved)
Note   MNPS will be retained until the North Atlantic Program Coordination Office publishes a PBN navigation specification alternative procedure. It is anticipated that RNP 2, used in an Oceanic application, may provide this alternative. In the interim, CASA MNPS approvals will remain in force according to their terms.
10        Scope
                 This Order contains:
(a)   instructions to pilots in command for I.F.R. flights, specifying the method by which an aircraft engaged in PBN is to be navigated; and
(b)   directions to pilots in command and operators in relation to the conduct of I.F.R. flight using a PBN navigation specification mentioned in subsection 11.
11        Application — PBN navigation specifications
                 The instructions and directions in this Order apply to the operation of an Australian aircraft that uses 1 or more of the following PBN navigation specifications in I.F.R. flight:
(a)   RNAV 5;
Note   See Appendix 1.
(b)   RNAV 1 and RNAV 2;
Note   See Appendix 2.
(c)   RNP 2;
Note   See Appendix 3.
(d)   RNP 1;
Note   See Appendix 4.
(e)   RNP 0.3 (but only when RNP 0.3 is provided for under this Order by provisions that are in effect);
Note   See Appendix 5.
(f)    RNP APCH, including:
             (i)  LNAV; and
`           (ii)  LNAV/VNAV(APV Baro-VNAV); and
           (iii)  LP; and
           (iv)  LPV;
Note   See Appendix 6.
(g)   RNP AR, including:
             (i)  RNP AR APCH (ICAO); and
            (ii)  RNP AR APCH (Proprietary); and
           (iii)  RNP AR DEP (ICAO); and
           (iv)  RNP AR DEP (Proprietary); and
            (v)  RNP AR EOSID (Proprietary);
Note   See Appendix 7.
(h)   APV Baro-VNAV.
Note 1   See Appendix 8.
Note 2   PBN navigation specification RNAV 10 and RNP 4 are each dealt with in Part 91 of CASR 1998, as RNP 10 and RNP 4, respectively.
12        Instructions and directions for authorised use of PBN navigation specifications
     12.1     An Australian aircraft using a PBN navigation specification mentioned in subsection 11 (the particular PBN navigation specification) may be navigated in I.F.R. flight only in accordance with the navigation authorisation and other requirements set out in this Order and in the Appendix to this Order that applies for the use of the specification.
     12.2     The pilot in command of an I.F.R. flight must not use the particular PBN navigation specification unless:
(a)   he or she satisfies each requirement to be satisfied by the pilot under this Order for the use of the particular PBN navigation specification; and
(b)   the operator of the aircraft holds, or is deemed to hold, a navigation authorisation under this Order for the particular PBN navigation specification; and
(c)   the flight is conducted in accordance with the navigation authorisation for the particular PBN navigation specification.
     12.3     The operator of an aircraft engaged in an I.F.R. flight using a PBN navigation specification mentioned in subsection 11 is directed not to permit the flight to commence unless:
(a)   the operator:
             (i)  holds a navigation authorisation under the Appendix of this Order which applies for the use of the PBN navigation specification (the relevant Appendix); and
            (ii)  complies with each requirement for the flight set out in the relevant Appendix; and
           (iii)  ensures that each member of the flight crew of the aircraft:
(A)    satisfies each flight crew requirement for the flight set out in the relevant Appendix; and
(B)    conducts the flight in accordance with the navigation authorisation; or
(b)   the operator:
             (i)  is deemed to hold a navigation authorisation under a subsection of this Order, which applies for the use of the PBN navigation specification (the relevant subsection); and.
            (ii)  complies with each requirement for the flight set out in the relevant subsection; and
           (iii)  ensures that each member of the flight crew of the aircraft:
(A)    satisfies each flight crew requirement for the flight set out in the relevant subsection; and
(B)    conducts the flight in accordance with the deemed navigation authorisation.
13        Certain operators deemed to hold navigation authorisations for Appendices 1, 2, 3 and 4
     13.1     The operator of an Australian aircraft to whom paragraph 13.2 applies is deemed to hold a navigation authorisation for:
(a)   RNAV 5; and
(b)   RNAV 1 and RNAV 2; and
(c)   RNP 2; and
(d)   RNP 1.
     13.2     This paragraph applies to the operator of an aircraft that is equipped, in accordance with paragraph 13.4 with equipment that was installed in accordance with paragraph 13.5.
     13.3     It is a condition of the navigation authorisation that the aircraft is flown by a pilot in accordance with paragraph 13.6.
     13.4     The aircraft must be equipped with a GNSS stand-alone system with en route and terminal navigation capability having:
(a)   TSO-C129 ( ) authorisation for Class A1 or A2; or
(b)   TSO-C146 ( ) or ETSO-C146 ( ) authorisation for Class Gamma and operational Class 1, 2 or 3.
     13.5     The equipment must have been installed:
(a)   if installed before 13 April 2005 — in accordance with CAAP 35-1; or
(b)   if installed on or after 13 April 2005 — in accordance with CASA AC 21‑36 ( ).
     13.6     For paragraph 13.3, the aircraft may be flown in a navigation specification only by a pilot who complies with the requirements of paragraph 13.7 or 13.8 for the navigation specification.
     13.7     For paragraph 13.6, for the navigation specification, the pilot must have:
(a)   successfully completed a course of ground training:
             (i)  conducted by CASA, a training and checking organisation or an instrument flight school; and
            (ii)  based on, or in accordance with, the syllabus set out in Appendix IV of CAO 40.2.1; and
(b)   a log book:
             (i)  certifying successful completion of that ground training; and
            (ii)  containing an endorsement or entry under CAO 40.2.1, valid for navigation equivalent to the navigation specification in which the aircraft is to be flown by the pilot under the deemed authorisation.
     13.8     For paragraph 13.6, for the navigation specification, the pilot must have:
(a)   successfully completed a course of training for the issue of a GNSS FPA under CAO 40.2.3; and
(b)   a log book:
             (i)  certifying successful completion of that training; and
            (ii)  containing an entry under CAO 40.2.3, valid for navigation equivalent to the navigation specification in which the aircraft is to be flown by the pilot under the deemed authorisation.
14        Certain operators deemed to hold navigation authorisations for Appendices 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
     14.1     The operator of an Australian aircraft to whom paragraph 14.2 applies is deemed to hold a navigation authorisation for:
(a)   RNAV 5; and
(b)   RNAV 1 and RNAV 2; and
(c)   RNP 2; and
(d)   RNP 1; and
(e)   RNP APCH-LNAV.
     14.2     This paragraph applies to the operator of an aircraft that is equipped, in accordance with paragraph 14.4, with equipment that was installed in accordance with paragraph 14.5.
     14.3     It is a condition of the navigation authorisation that the aircraft is flown by a pilot in accordance with paragraph 14.6.
     14.4     The aircraft must be equipped with a GNSS stand-alone system with en route, terminal and NPA capability having TSO-C129a or ETSO-C129a authorisation for Class A1.
     14.5     The equipment must have been installed:
(a)   if installed before 13 April 2005 — in accordance with CAAP 35-1; or
(b)   if installed on or after 13 April 2005 — in accordance with CASA AC 21‑36 ( ).
     14.6     For paragraph 14.3, the aircraft may be flown in a navigation specification only by a pilot who complies with the requirements of paragraph 14.7 or 14.8 for the navigation specification.
     14.7     For paragraph 14.6, for the navigation specification, the pilot must have:
(a)   successfully completed a course of ground training:
             (i)  conducted by CASA, a training and checking organisation or an instrument flight school; and
            (ii)  based on, or in accordance with, the syllabus set out in Appendix IV of CAO 40.2.1; and
(b)   a log book:
             (i)  certifying successful completion of that ground training; and
            (ii)  containing an endorsement or entry under CAO 40.2.1, valid for navigation equivalent to the navigation specification in which the aircraft is to be flown by the pilot under the deemed authorisation.
     14.8     For paragraph 14.6, for the navigation specification, the pilot must have:
(a)   successfully completed a course of training for the issue of a GNSS FPA under CAO 40.2.3; and
(b)   a log book:
             (i)  certifying successful completion of that training; and
            (ii)  containing an entry under CAO 40.2.3, valid for navigation equivalent to the navigation specification in which the aircraft is to be flown by the pilot under the deemed authorisation.
15        Certain other operators deemed to hold navigation authorisations for Appendices 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5
     15.1     The operator of an Australian aircraft to whom paragraph 15.2 applies is deemed to hold a navigation authorisation for:
(a)   RNAV 5; and
(b)   RNAV 1 and RNAV 2; and
(c)   RNP 2; and
(d)   RNP 1; and
(e)   RNP APCH-LNAV; and
(f)    RNP APCH-LP or RNP APCH-LPV.
     15.2     This paragraph applies to the operator of an aircraft that is equipped, in accordance with paragraph 15.4, with equipment that was installed in accordance with paragraph 15.5.
     15.3     It is a condition of the navigation authorisation that the aircraft is flown by a pilot in accordance with paragraph 15.6.
     15.4     The aircraft must be equipped with a GNSS stand-alone system with en route, terminal, NPA and APV capability having TSO-C146 ( ) or ETSO-C146 ( ) authorisation for Class Gamma and operational Class 1, 2 or 3.
     15.5     The equipment must have been installed:
(a)   if installed before 13 April 2005 — in accordance with CAAP 35-1; or
(b)   if installed on or after 13 April 2005 — in accordance with CASA AC 21‑36 ( ).
     15.6     For paragraph 15.3, the aircraft is flown in a navigation specification by a pilot who complies with the requirements of paragraph 15.7 or 15.8 for the navigation specification.
     15.7     For paragraph 15.6, for the navigation specification, the pilot must have:
(a)   successfully completed a course of ground training:
             (i)  conducted by CASA, a training and checking organisation or an instrument flight school; and
            (ii)  based on, or in accordance with, the syllabus set out in Appendix IV of CAO 40.2.1; and
(b)   a log book:
             (i)  certifying successful completion of that ground training; and
            (ii)  containing an endorsement or entry under CAO 40.2.1, valid for navigation equivalent to the navigation specification in which the aircraft is to be flown by the pilot under the deemed authorisation.
     15.8     For paragraph 15.6, for the navigation specification, the pilot must have:
(a)   successfully completed a course of training for the issue of a GNSS FPA under CAO 40.2.3; and
(b)   a log book:
             (i)  certifying successful completion of that training; and
            (ii)  containing an entry under CAO 40.2.3, valid for navigation equivalent to the navigation specification in which the aircraft is to be flown by the pilot under the deemed authorisation.
Appendix 1 — Requirements for use of RNAV 5
1          RNAV 5 navigation authorisation for I.F.R. flights
       1.1     RNAV 5 may only be used for PBN by an aircraft if:
(a)   the operator has an RNAV 5 navigation authorisation in writing from CASA; and
(b)   the aircraft is:
             (i)  equipped with a self-contained navigation system; or
            (ii)  flying on an approved or designated RNAV 5 route.
          Note   Air routes may be designed to support RNAV 5 depending on the supporting navaid infrastructure. In Australia, as the navaid infrastructure is limited, RNAV 5 operations are typically dependent on self-contained navigation systems.
       1.2     An RNAV 5 navigation authorisation may only be issued to an operator who:
(a)   applies in writing to CASA for it; and
(b)   supplies the documents mentioned in clause 2; and
(c)   satisfies CASA that RNAV 5 operations can, and are likely to continue to, meet the requirements of this Appendix, including in relation to the following:
             (i)  aircraft eligibility;
            (ii)  RNAV 5 equipment, system performance and system functionality;
           (iii)  operating standards, including flight planning and flight procedures;
           (iv)  approved flight crew training;
            (v)  MEL procedures;
           (vi)  aircraft and RNAV system maintenance;
          (vii)  validity and continuing integrity of the airborne navigation database (if carried);
         (viii)  navigation error reporting procedures.
       1.3     An RNAV 5 navigation authorisation may not be issued unless the aircraft meets the requirements of this Appendix.
       1.4     Despite subclauses 1.2 and 1.3, an RNAV 5 navigation authorisation may be issued to an operator who:
(a)   holds an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation authorisation, or an RNP 2 or RNP 1 navigation authorisation; and
(b)   operates an aircraft which meets the aircraft eligibility requirements for:
             (i)  an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation authorisation, or an RNP 2 or RNP 1 navigation authorisation; or
            (ii)  an RNAV 5 navigation authorisation; and
(c)   applies in writing to CASA for an RNAV 5 navigation authorisation.
       1.5     An RNAV 5 navigation authorisation may be issued subject to conditions if CASA considers this is necessary in the interests of safety.
       1.6     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that the applicable operational requirements of this Appendix are complied with after the issue of the authorisation.
       1.7     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that where an operational check, consideration, procedure or task (however described) is required under this Appendix, the operator must ensure that it is performed, given, followed or carried out, as the case may be.
Note   The check, consideration, procedure or task may in practice be performed etc. by the pilot in command, other members of the flight crew, the despatch officer or other operational personnel. However, legal responsibility for compliance is placed on the operator who must ensure that the performance etc. occurs in accordance with his or her established procedures.
2          Application — documents
                 The application for a navigation authorisation must be made on the approved form and be accompanied by the following documents:
(a)   aircraft airworthiness documents that satisfy CASA the aircraft is equipped for RNAV 5 operations, for example, the AFM, the AFM Supplement or OEM service letters;
(b)   a detailed description of relevant aircraft equipment for RNAV 5 operations, including a configuration list of the components and equipment;
(c)   a detailed description of the proposed flight crew training for RNAV 5 operations, including a copy of the training syllabus, for approval by CASA;
(d)   a detailed description of the operating procedures to be used for RNAV 5 operations (including flight planning and flight procedures) supported by relevant copies of, or extracts from, the following:
             (i)  the operations manual;
            (ii)  the checklists;
           (iii)  the contingency procedures;
           (iv)  the QRH;
(e)   copies of the sections of the MEL applicable to RNAV 5 operations;
(f)    a detailed description of the maintenance program used to ensure the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft for RNAV 5 operations;
(g)   a detailed description of the method used to ensure the validity and continuing integrity of the airborne navigation database (if carried);
(h)   if the aircraft is not equipped with GNSS — documentary evidence that satisfies CASA of the aircraft’s capability to meet RNAV 5 time limits for any relevant route on which it may be flown;
Note   An acceptable means of evaluation of capability is contained in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual.
(i)    if requested in writing by CASA — a copy of any relevant document referred to in any of the documents mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (h).
3          Aircraft eligibility
       3.1     An aircraft is eligible for RNAV 5 operations if the aircraft’s AFM, AFM supplement, or OEM service letter states that the aircraft navigation system is approved for RNAV 5 or B-RNAV operations in accordance with:
(a)   AMC 20-4 — Airworthiness Approval and Operational Criteria For the Use of Navigation Systems in European Airspace Designated For Basic RNAV Operations; or
(b)   any of the following FAA documents:
             (i)  AC 90-96A — Approval of U.S. Operators and Aircraft to Operate under Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) in European Airspace Designated for Basic Area Navigation (B-RNAV) and Precision Area Navigation (P‑RNAV);
            (ii)  AC 90-45A — Approval of Area Navigation Systems for use in the U.S. National Airspace System;
           (iii)  AC 20-130 — Airworthiness Approval of Navigation or Flight Management Systems Integrating Multiple Navigation Sensors;
           (iv)  AC 20-138 — Airworthiness Approval of Global Positioning System (GPS) Navigation Equipment for use as a VFR and IFR Supplemental Navigation System;
            (v)  AC 25-15 — Approval of Flight Management Systems in Transport Category Airplanes.
       3.2     An aircraft is eligible for RNAV 5 operations if the operator has demonstrated to CASA that the aircraft meets the requirements of ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part B, Chapter 2, Implementing RNAV 5.
4          RNAV 5 system performance
       4.1     An eligible aircraft’s navigation system (the system) must meet the performance, monitoring and alerting requirements for RNAV 5 operations as stated in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part B, Chapter 2, Implementing RNAV 5.
       4.2     If GNSS is used for an RNAV 5 operation, positioning data from non-GNSS navigation sensors may be integrated with GNSS data if:
(a)   the non-GNSS data does not cause position errors exceeding the TSE budget; or
(b)   if paragraph (a) cannot be complied with — there is a means to deselect the non‑GNSS inputs.
5          RNAV 5 system functionality
       5.1     The system must meet the following minimum standards of functionality:
(a)   the aircraft position relative to track must be continuously displayed on a navigation display situated in the primary field of view of the pilot flying the aircraft;
(b)   where the minimum flight crew is 2 pilots, the aircraft position relative to track must also be continuously displayed on a navigation display situated in the primary field of view of the pilot not flying the aircraft;
(c)   the system must display distance and bearing to the active (to) waypoint;
(d)   the system must display ground-speed or time to the active (to) waypoint;
(e)   the system must store at least 4 waypoints;
(f)    the system must indicate failure of the system, including the sensors.
       5.2     The following standards apply to navigation displays:
(a)   navigation data must be available on:
             (i)  a display forming part of the RNAV equipment; or
            (ii)  an L/DEV display, for example, CDI, (E)HSI, or a navigation map display;
(b)      the display must be suitable for use:
             (i)  as the primary flight instrument for navigation of the aircraft; and
            (ii)  for manoeuvre anticipation; and
           (iii)  for failure, status or integrity indication;
(c)   the display must be visible to the pilot when looking forward along the flight path;
(d)   where an L/DEV display is implemented, the L/DEV display must have:
             (i)  scaling compatible with any alerting and annunciation limits; and
            (ii)  scaling and full-scale deflection suitable for RNAV 5 operations.
6          RNAV 5 equipment
       6.1     RNAV 5 navigation equipment must:
(a)   enable the eligible aircraft to establish and follow a desired flight path; and
(b)   automatically determine the aircraft’s position in the horizontal plane using inputs from 1 or more of the following types or combinations of position sensors:
             (i)  VOR/DME;
            (ii)  DME/DME;
           (iii)  INS or IRS;
           (iv)  GNSS.
       6.2     If an aircraft is not equipped with GNSS, it must, nevertheless, have the capability to satisfy the RNAV 5 time limits for any relevant route on which it is flown.
7          Operating standards — flight planning – general
       7.1     Before an RNAV 5 operation commences, proper consideration must be given to matters that may affect the safety of the operation, including the following:
(a)   whether the aircraft and the flight crew have relevant authorisations for RNAV 5;
(b)   whether the aircraft can be operated in accordance with the RNAV 5 requirements for:
             (i)  the planned route, including the route to any alternate aerodromes; and
            (ii)  minimum equipment requirements for the flight;
(c)   whether the navaids required for the planned route are available and adequate for the period of the operation, including any non-RNAV contingencies;
(d)   whether, if a navigation database is used, it is current and appropriate for the region of operation and includes the navaids and waypoints required for the route;
(e)   whether operating restrictions, including time limits, apply to the operation.
       7.2     If the aircraft’s essential RNAV 5 equipment is functioning properly, the PBN capability of the aircraft must be indicated in the flight plan.
8          Operating standards — flight planning – GNSS integrity availability
       8.1     This subclause only applies to an aircraft that:
(a)   is equipped with a stand-alone GNSS or a GNSS/FMS; and
(b)   derives its RNAV position data solely from GNSS signals without other navigation system inputs.
       8.2     If a continuous loss of the GNSS integrity function for more than 5 minutes is predicted for any part of the RNAV 5 operation, the flight plan must be revised, for example, by delaying the departure time or planning a different route.
       8.3     For an RNAV 5 operation navigating with SBAS receivers, a check must be made for GNSS integrity availability in areas where SBAS is unavailable.
9          Operating standards — flight procedures
       9.1     An RNAV 5 operation must comply with the following:
(a)   the instructions and procedures of the OEM in relation to the performance requirements of RNAV 5;
(b)   any AFM limitations or operating procedures required to maintain the navigation accuracy specified for RNAV 5.
       9.2     The following checks and cross-checks must be made:
(a)   a check that the navigation database is valid;
(b)   a cross-check of the flight plan by comparing charts or other applicable resources with the navigation system flight plan and the aircraft map display (if applicable) and, if necessary, excluding specific navaids.
       9.3     Flight progress must be monitored for navigational reasonableness by periodic cross‑checks with conventional navaids, where available.
       9.4     Subject to subclause 9.5, the maximum permissible cross-track error/deviation is 2.5 NM.
Note   2.5 NM is half of the navigation accuracy.
       9.5     Deviation from the standard mentioned in subclause 9.4 is acceptable during and immediately after turns, but only to the minimal extent that accurate cross‑track information may not be provided during the turn.
Note   Flight crew procedures and training should emphasise observance of turn anticipation commands and management of rate of turn.
       9.6     If ATC issues a heading assignment taking the aircraft off a route, the navigation system flight plan may only be modified when:
(a)   ATC clearance is received to rejoin the route; or
(b)   ATC confirms a new clearance.
10        Contingency procedures for performance failure
     10.1     If the system performance ceases to meet RNAV 5 requirements during an RNAV 5 operation in controlled airspace, ATC must be notified immediately.
     10.2     Where stand-alone GNSS or GNSS/FMS equipment is used for an RNAV 5 operation and a loss of the integrity monitoring function occurs, the following checks and procedures must be followed:
(a)   while continuing to navigate using GNSS — cross-check the aircraft position with other sources of position information, for example, VOR, DME and NDB information, to confirm an acceptable level of navigation performance;
(b)   if unable to confirm navigation accuracy — revert to an alternative means of navigation and advise ATC accordingly.
     10.3     If:
(a)   stand-alone GNSS or GNSS/FMS equipment is used for an RNAV 5 operation; and
(b)   a navigation display is flagged invalid due to an integrity alert;
                 the aircraft must:
(c)   revert to an alternative means of navigation; and
(d)   ATC must be advised accordingly.
11        Flight crew knowledge and training
     11.1     An RNAV 5 operation may only be commenced if each member of the flight crew has knowledge of the following:
(a)   the capabilities and limitations of the system installed in the aircraft;
(b)   the operations and airspace for which the system is approved to operate;
(c)   the limitations of the navaids to be used for the RNAV 5 operation;
(d)   contingency procedures for RNAV 5 failures;
(e)   the radio telephony phraseology for the relevant airspace in accordance with ICAO Doc 4444 and Doc 30;
(f)    the flight planning requirements for the RNAV 5 operation;
(g)   RNAV 5 procedure requirements as determined from chart depiction and textual description;
(h)   RNAV 5 system-specific information, including:
             (i)  levels of automation, mode annunciations, changes, alerts, interactions, reversions and degradation; and
            (ii)  functional integration with other aircraft systems; and
           (iii)  monitoring procedures for each phase of the flight; and
           (iv)  types of navigation sensors, for example, DME, IRU, GNSS, utilised by the system, and associated system prioritisation, weighting and logic; and
            (v)  turn anticipation with consideration of speed and altitude effects; and
           (vi)  interpretation of electronic displays and symbols.
     11.2     An RNAV 5 operation may only be conducted if each member of the flight crew has received training in, or has equivalent experience of, RNAV 5 equipment and operating procedures, including training or experience in how to do the following:
(a)   verify that the aircraft navigation data is current;
(b)   verify the successful completion of the system self-tests;
(c)   initialise RNAV 5 system position;
(d)   fly direct to waypoint;
(e)   intercept a course or track;
(f)    vector off and rejoin a procedure;
(g)   determine cross-track error/deviation;
(h)   remove and reselect navigation sensor input;
(i)    confirm exclusion of a specific navaid or navaid type;
(j)    perform gross navigation error checks using conventional aids.
12        MEL
                 The operator’s MEL must identify any unserviceability that affects the conduct of an RNAV 5 operation.
13        Navigation database — standards and discrepancies
     13.1     If a navigation database is used for RNAV 5 operations, the navigation database:
(a)   may only be used if it has been obtained from a supplier who complies with:
             (i)  Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO 200A; or
            (ii)  European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) document ED-76, Standards for Processing Aeronautical Data; and
(b)   must be compatible with the intended function of the equipment in accordance with ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Chapter 7.
Note   An LOA, issued by an appropriate regulatory authority to each of the participants in the data chain, demonstrates compliance with this requirement, for example, FAA LOA issued in accordance with FAA AC 20-153 or EASA LOA issued in accordance with EASA Implementing Rule (IR) 21, Subpart G.
     13.2     An operator who has an RNAV 5 navigation authorisation from CASA, and who uses a navigation database for RNAV 5 operations, must periodically check the navigation database for database integrity.
Note   While an LOA provides assurance of minimum standards for the supply of a navigation database, errors may still occur. All operators must conduct periodic checks to ensure database integrity.
     13.3     Any discrepancy in data in the operator’s navigation database must be:
(a)   reported as soon as practicable to the navigation database supplier; and
(b)   resolved before further operational use by:
             (i)  reissue of the database; or
            (ii)  prohibition of the route; or
           (iii)  instructions to the flight crew.
14        Navigation errors
     14.1     The operator must take immediate action to remedy any condition that led to, or is likely to lead to, navigation error in the course of an RNAV 5 operation.
     14.2     Without affecting the obligation in subclause 14.1, each of the following navigation errors must be reported to CASA and to AA within 72 hours of its occurrence:
(a)   a lateral navigational error of at least 5 NM;
(b)   a longitudinal navigational error of at least 5 NM;
(c)   a longitudinal navigational error of at least 3 minutes variation between the aircraft’s estimated time of arrival at a reporting point and its actual time of arrival;
(d)   a navigation system failure.
     14.3     Each report mentioned in subclause 14.2 must:
(a)   be on the approved form; and
(b)   contain a preliminary analysis of the cause of the error; and
(c)   include a statement of the remedial action taken, and to be taken, to prevent a recurrence of the error.
Note   The Navigation Error Investigation Form is the approved form for reporting a navigation error or an equipment failure.
     14.4     Unless subclause 14.5 applies, the operator must take the remedial action mentioned in subclause 14.3 as soon as practicable.
     14.5     Without affecting subclauses 14.1 to 14.3, for this clause CASA may:
(a)   determine the cause of the error; and
(b)   notify the operator of the cause and of the remedial action to be taken to prevent a recurrence of the error.
     14.6     If subclause 14.5 applies, the operator must take the remedial action notified by CASA to prevent a recurrence of the error.
Appendix 2 — Requirements for use of RNAV 1 and RNAV 2
1          RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation authorisation for I.F.R. flights
       1.1     RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 may only be used for PBN by an aircraft if:
(a)   the operator has an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation authorisation in writing from CASA; and
(b)   the aircraft is either:
             (i)  equipped with a self-contained navigation system; or
            (ii)  flying on an approved or designated RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 route.
Note   Air routes may be designed to support RNAV 1 or RNAV 2 depending on the supporting navaid infrastructure. In Australia, as the navaid infrastructure is limited, RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations are dependent on self-contained navigation systems.
       1.2     RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 requirements are identical and a single navigation authorisation may be issued applying to both RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations. However, some operating procedures may be different.
Note   In Australian airspace, RNAV 1 will be used only in terminal area operations and RNAV 2 routes or procedures will not be used.
       1.3     An RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation authorisation may only be issued to an operator who:
(a)   applies in writing to CASA for it; and
(b)   supplies the documents mentioned in clause 2; and
(c)   satisfies CASA that RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations can, and are likely to continue to, meet the requirements of this Appendix, including in relation to:
             (i)  aircraft eligibility; and
            (ii)  RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 equipment, system performance and system functionality; and
           (iii)  operating standards, including flight planning and flight procedures; and
           (iv)  approved flight crew training; and
            (v)  MEL procedures; and
           (vi)  aircraft and RNAV system maintenance; and
          (vii)  validity and continuing integrity of the airborne navigation database; and
         (viii)  navigation error reporting procedures.
       1.4     An RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation authorisation may not be issued unless the aircraft meets the requirements of this Appendix.
       1.5     Despite subclauses 1.3 and 1.4, an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation authorisation may be issued to an operator who:
(a)   holds an RNP 2 or RNP 1 navigation authorisation; and
(b)   operates an aircraft which meets the aircraft eligibility requirements for:
             (i)  an RNP 2 or RNP 1 navigation authorisation; or
            (ii)  an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation authorisation; and
(c)   applies in writing to CASA for an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation authorisation.
       1.6     An RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation authorisation may be issued subject to conditions if CASA considers this is necessary in the interests of safety.
       1.7     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that the applicable operational requirements of this Appendix are complied with after the issue of the authorisation.
       1.8     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that where an operational check, consideration, procedure or task (however described) is required under this Appendix, the operator must ensure that it is performed, given, followed or carried out, as the case may be.
Note   The check, consideration, procedure or task may in practice be performed etc. by the pilot in command, other members of the flight crew, the despatch officer or other operational personnel. However, legal responsibility for compliance is placed on the operator who must ensure that the performance etc. occurs in accordance with his or her established procedures.
2          Application — documents
                 The application must be made on the approved form and be accompanied by the following documents:
(a)   aircraft airworthiness documents which satisfy CASA that the aircraft is equipped for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations, for example, the AFM, the AFM Supplement or OEM service letters;
(b)   a detailed description of relevant aircraft equipment for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations, including a configuration list of the components and equipment;
(c)   a detailed description of the proposed flight crew training for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations, including a copy of the training syllabus, for approval by CASA;
(d)   a detailed description of the operating procedures to be used for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations (including flight planning and flight procedures) supported by relevant copies of, or extracts from, the following:
             (i)  the operations manual;
            (ii)  the checklists;
           (iii)  the contingency procedures;
           (iv)  the QRH;
(e)   copies of the sections of the MEL applicable to RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations;
(f)    a detailed description of the maintenance program used to ensure the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations;
(g)   a detailed description of the method used to ensure the validity and continuing integrity of the airborne navigation database;
(h)   if requested in writing by CASA — a copy of any relevant document referred to in any of the documents mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (g).
3          Aircraft eligibility
       3.1     An aircraft is eligible for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations if at least 1 of the following applies:
(a)   the aircraft’s AFM, an AFM Supplement or an OEM service letter states that the aircraft navigation system is approved for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations;
(b)   the aircraft’s AFM, an AFM Supplement or an OEM service letter states that the aircraft navigation system is approved for P-RNAV in accordance with JAA TGL-10, and the additional requirements for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 are met as set out in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part B, Chapter 3, Implementing RNAV 1 and RNAV 2;
(c)   the aircraft’s AFM, an AFM Supplement or an OEM service letter states that the aircraft navigation system is approved for US-RNAV in accordance with FAA AC 90-100A, and the additional requirements for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 are met as set out in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part B, Chapter 3, Implementing RNAV 1 and RNAV 2.
       3.2     An aircraft is eligible for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations if the operator has demonstrated to CASA that the aircraft meets the requirements of ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part B, Chapter 3, Implementing RNAV 1 and RNAV 2.
4          RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 system performance
       4.1     The system must meet the system performance, monitoring and alerting requirements for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations as stated in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part B, Chapter 3, Implementing RNAV 1 and RNAV 2.
       4.2     If GNSS is used for an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operation, positioning data from non-GNSS navigation sensors may be integrated with GNSS data if:
(a)   the non-GNSS data does not cause position errors exceeding the TSE budget; or
(b)   if paragraph (a) cannot be complied with — there is a means to deselect the non‑GNSS inputs.
5          RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 system functionality
       5.1     The system must as a minimum meet the functional requirements for navigation displays and standards stated in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part B, Chapter 3, Implementing RNAV 1 and RNAV 2.
6          Operating standards — flight planning – general
       6.1     Before an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operation commences, consideration must be given to matters that may affect the safety of the RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operation, including the following:
(a)   whether the aircraft and the flight crew have relevant authorisations for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2;
(b)   whether the aircraft can be operated in accordance with the RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 requirements for:
             (i)  the planned route, including the route to any alternate aerodromes; and
            (ii)  minimum equipment requirements for the flight;
(c)   whether the navaids required for the planned route are available and adequate for the period of the operation, including any non-RNAV contingencies;
(d)   whether, if a navigation database is used, it is current and appropriate for the region of operation and includes the navaids and waypoints required for the route;
(e)   for navigation relying on DME — whether operating procedures properly require the pilot in command:
             (i)  to check NOTAMs to verify the condition of critical DMEs; and
            (ii)  to consider his or her capability to navigate (including to an alternate destination) in the case of a failure of a critical DME while airborne;
(f)    whether operating restrictions, including time limits, apply to the operation.
       6.2     If the aircraft’s essential RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 equipment is functioning properly, the PBN capability of the aircraft must be indicated in the flight plan.
7          Operating standards — flight planning – GNSS integrity availability
       7.1     This clause only applies to an aircraft that:
(a)   is equipped with a stand-alone GNSS or a GNSS/FMS; and
(b)   derives its RNAV position data solely from GNSS signals without other navigation system inputs.
       7.2     If a continuous loss of the GNSS integrity function for more than 5 minutes is predicted for any part of the RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operation, the flight plan must be revised, for example, by delaying the departure time or planning a different route.
       7.3     For an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operation navigating with SBAS receivers, a check must be made of GNSS integrity availability in areas where SBAS is unavailable.
8          Operating standards — flight procedures – general
       8.1     An RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operation must comply with the instructions and procedures of the OEM in relation to the performance requirements of RNAV 1 and RNAV 2.
       8.2     At system initialisation, the following must occur:
(a)   confirmation that the navigation database is current;
(b)   verification that the aircraft position has been entered correctly;
(c)   verification of proper entry of the ATC-assigned route immediately after initial clearance from ATC to conduct the relevant RNAV route;
(d)   action to ensure the waypoints sequence, depicted by the navigation system, matches the route depicted on the appropriate charts and the assigned route.
       8.3     The following steps must occur:
(a)   selection of an RNAV 1 or RNAV 2 SID or STAR by route name from the on-board navigation database;
(b)   confirmation that the selected route conforms to the charted route, or the route as modified through the insertion or deletion of specific waypoints in response to ATC clearances.
       8.4     Except in response to ATC clearances, the following must not occur:
(a)   creation of new waypoints by manual entry; or
(b)   making manual entry of latitude, longitude or rho/theta values; or
(c)   changing an RNAV SID or STAR database waypoint type from a fly-by to a flyover or vice versa.
Note   Wherever possible, the pilot in command should extract RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 routes in the en route domain from the database in their entirety rather than load individual waypoints from the database into the navigation system flight plan. The pilot in command may, however, select and insert individual, named fixes and waypoints from the navigation database, provided all fixes along the published route to be flown are inserted.
       8.5     The following checks and cross-checks must be made:
(a)   a cross-check of the flight plan by comparing charts or other applicable resources with the navigation system flight plan and the aircraft map display (if applicable);
(b)   if required, confirm the exclusion of specific navaids.
Note   Small differences between charted navigation information and displayed navigation data may be noted. Differences of 3 degrees or less due to the equipment manufacturer’s application of magnetic variation or leg track averaging are operationally acceptable.
       8.6     Flight progress must be monitored for navigational reasonableness by periodic cross‑checks with available data from ground-based aids.
       8.7     For RNAV 1 routes, an L/DEV indicator, flight director or autopilot in LNAV mode must be used.
Note   For RNAV 2 routes, an L/DEV indicator, flight director or autopilot in the LNAV mode is recommended. In lieu of an L/DEV indicator, a navigation map display with equivalent functionality to an L/DEV indicator is recommended.
       8.8     Where an L/DEV indicator is used, scaling must be selected suitable for the navigation accuracy associated with the route or procedure, for example, full scale deflection ±1 NM for RNAV 1, ±2 NM for RNAV 2, or ±5 NM for TSO‑C129 ( ) equipment on RNAV 2 routes.
       8.9     Route centrelines must be maintained, as depicted by L/DEV indicators or flight guidance, unless authorised to deviate by ATC or under emergency conditions.
     8.10     Subject to subclause 8.11, the maximum permissible cross-track error/deviation is 0.5 NM for RNAV 1 and 1.0 NM for RNAV 2.
Note   0.5 NM and 1.0 NM are half of the navigation accuracy for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2, respectively.
     8.11     Deviation from the standard mentioned in subclause 8.10 is acceptable during and immediately after turns, but only to the minimal extent that accurate cross‑track information may not be provided during the turn.
Note   Flight crew procedures and training should emphasise observance of turn anticipation commands and management of rate of turn.
     8.12     If ATC issues a heading assignment taking the aircraft off a route, the navigation system flight plan may only be modified when:
(a)   ATC clearance is received to rejoin the route; or
(b)   ATC confirms a new clearance.
9          Operating standards — flight procedures – RNAV SID requirements
       9.1     Before an eligible aircraft takes-off, the following RNAV SID requirements must be verified:
(a)   that the aircraft’s RNAV system is available, is operating correctly and the correct aerodrome and runway data is loaded;
(b)   that the aircraft navigation system is operating correctly;
(c)   that the correct runway and departure procedure (including any applicable en route transition) is entered in the navigation system flight plan and properly depicted;
(d)   that, if an RNAV departure procedure is assigned and the runway, procedure or transition is subsequently changed, the appropriate changes are entered in the navigation system flight plan, properly depicted and available for navigation.
Note   It is recommended that, within the constraints of normal operations, there be a final check of proper runway entry and correct route depiction, shortly before take-off.
       9.2     RNAV guidance must be selected and available to provide flight guidance for lateral RNAV at no later than 153 m (or 500 ft) above the aerodrome field elevation.
Note   The altitude at which RNAV guidance begins on a given route may be higher, for example, “climb to 304 m (or 1 000 ft), then direct to X….”.
       9.3     For an RNAV 1 operation, an authorised method must be used to achieve an appropriate level of performance, for example, L/DEV indicator, flight director or autopilot.
       9.4     For operations without GNSS using DME/DME/IRU, the aircraft navigation system position must be confirmed within 304 m (or 1 000 ft) of a known position, at the starting point of the take-off roll.
Note 1   This is usually achieved by the use of an automatic or manual runway update function. A navigation map may also be used to confirm aircraft position if procedures and the display resolution allow for compliance with the 304 m (1 000 ft) tolerance requirement.
Note 2   Based on evaluated IRU performance, the growth in position error after reverting to IRU can be expected to be less than 2 NM per 15 minutes.
       9.5     When the aircraft is using GNSS, the signal must be acquired before the take-off roll commences.
10        Operating standards — flight procedures – RNAV STAR requirements
     10.1     The following must be checked and confirmed for RNAV STAR:
(a)   that the aircraft navigation system is operating correctly;
(b)   that the correct arrival procedure and runway (including any applicable transition) are entered in the navigation system flight plan and properly depicted.
     10.2     The following must be checked and confirmed:
(a)   the active navigation system flight plan, by comparing the charts with the navigation displays;
(b)   the sequence of waypoints;
(c)   the reasonableness of track angles;
(d)   distances, altitude or speed constraints;
(e)   as far as practicable, which waypoints are fly-by and which are flyover;
(f)    that updating excludes a particular navaid, if so required by a route.
     10.3     A route is not to be used if doubt exists as to its validity in the navigation database.
     10.4     No member of the flight crew may create a new waypoint by manual entry into the RNAV system.
     10.5     If the operator’s contingency procedures require reversion to a conventional arrival route, provision for that arrival route must be made before commencement of the RNAV STAR.
     10.6     Route modifications in the terminal area may take the form of radar headings or “direct to” clearances and may require the insertion of tactical waypoints from the navigation database. However, no member of the flight crew may make a manual entry or modification of the loaded route using temporary waypoints or fixes not contained in the database.
     10.7     All relevant published altitude and speed constraints must be observed.
11        Contingency procedures for performance failure
                 ATC must be notified immediately if the system performance ceases to meet RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 requirements (as applicable) during an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operation in controlled airspace.
12        Flight crew knowledge and training
     12.1     An RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operation may only be commenced if each member of the flight crew has knowledge of the following:
(a)   the meaning and proper use of aircraft equipment and navigation suffixes;
(b)   the capabilities and limitations of the RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 system installed in the aircraft;
(c)   the operations and airspace for which the RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 system is approved to operate;
(d)   the limitations of the navaids to be used for the RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operation;
(e)   the required navigation equipment for operation on RNAV routes with SIDs or STARs, for example, DME/DME, DME/DME/IRU and GNSS;
(f)    depiction of waypoint types (flyover and fly-by), ARINC 424 Path Terminators, and associated aircraft flight paths;
(g)   contingency procedures for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 failures;
(h)   the radio telephony phraseology for the relevant airspace in accordance with ICAO Doc 4444 and Doc 7030;
(i)    the flight planning requirements for the RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operation;
(j)    RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 procedure requirements as determined from chart depiction and textual description;
(k)   RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 system-specific information, including:
             (i)  levels of automation, mode annunciations, changes, alerts, interactions, reversions and degradation; and
            (ii)  functional integration with other aircraft systems; and
           (iii)  monitoring procedures for each phase of the flight; and
           (iv)  types of navigation sensors, for example, DME, IRU, GNSS, utilised by the RNAV 1 or RNAV 2 system, and associated system prioritisation, weighting and logic; and
            (v)  aircraft configuration and operational conditions required to support RNAV operations, including appropriate selection of CDI scaling (L/DEV display scaling); and
           (vi)  pilot procedures consistent with the operation; and
          (vii)  the meaning and appropriateness of route discontinuities and related flight crew procedures; and
         (viii)  turn anticipation with consideration of speed and altitude effects; and
           (ix)  interpretation of electronic displays and symbols.
     12.2     An RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operation may only be conducted if each member of the flight crew has received training in, or has equivalent experience of, RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 equipment and operating procedures, including training or experience in how to do the following:
(a)   verify that the aircraft navigation data is current;
(b)   verify the successful completion of RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 system self‑tests;
(c)   initialise RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 system position;
(d)   perform a manual or automatic update (with take-off point shift, if applicable);
(e)   retrieve and fly a SID and a STAR with appropriate transition;
(f)    verify waypoints and navigation system flight plan programming;
(g)   resolve route discontinuities;
(h)   adhere to speed and altitude constraints associated with a SID or a STAR;
(i)    fly direct to waypoint;
(j)    fly a course or track to waypoint;
(k)   intercept a course or track;
(l)    vector off and rejoin a procedure;
(m)  fly radar vectors and rejoining an RNAV route from a heading mode;
(n)   determine cross-track error/deviation;
(o)   determine allowable deviation limits and maintain flight within those limits;
(p)   remove and reselect navigation sensor input;
(q)   confirm exclusion of a specific navaid or navaid type;
(r)    perform gross navigation error checks using conventional aids;
(s)    change arrival aerodrome and alternate aerodrome;
(t)    perform parallel offset function if capability exists, and advise ATC if this functionality is not available;
(u)   carry out contingency procedures for RNAV failures.
13        MEL
                 The operator’s MEL must identify any unserviceability that affects the conduct of an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operation.
14        Navigation database — standards and discrepancies
     14.1     A navigation database for RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operations:
(a)   may only be used if it has been obtained from a supplier who complies with:
             (i)  Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO 200A; or
            (ii)  European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) document ED-76, Standards for Processing Aeronautical Data; and
(b)   must be compatible with the intended function of the equipment in accordance with ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Chapter 7.
Note   An LOA, issued by an appropriate regulatory authority to each of the participants in the data chain, demonstrates compliance with this requirement, for example, FAA LOA issued in accordance with FAA AC 20-153 or EASA LOA issued in accordance with EASA Implementing Rule (IR) 21, Subpart G.
     14.2     An operator who has an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation authorisation from CASA must periodically check the RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 navigation database for database integrity.
Note   While an LOA provides assurance of minimum standards for the supply of a navigation database, errors may still occur. All operators must conduct periodic checks to ensure database integrity.
     14.3     Any discrepancy in data in the operator’s navigation database must be:
(a)   reported as soon as practicable to the navigation database supplier; and
(b)   resolved before further operational use by:
             (i)  reissue of the database; or
            (ii)  prohibition of the route; or
           (iii)  instructions to the flight crew.
15        Navigation errors
     15.1     The operator must take immediate action to remedy any condition that led to, or is likely to lead to, navigation error in the course of an RNAV 1 and RNAV 2 operation.
     15.2     Without affecting the obligation in subclause 15.1, each of the following navigation errors or events must be reported to CASA and to AA within 72 hours of its occurrence:
(a)   a lateral navigational error of at least:
             (i)  1 NM for RNAV 1; and
            (ii)  2 NM for RNAV 2;
(b)   a longitudinal navigational error of at least:
             (i)  1 NM for RNAV 1; and
            (ii)  2 NM for RNAV 2;
(c)   a navigation system failure.
     15.3     Each report mentioned in subclause 15.2 must:
(a)   be on the approved form; and
(b)   contain a preliminary analysis of the cause of the error, and
(c)   include a statement of the remedial action taken, and to be taken, to prevent a recurrence of the error.
Note   The Navigation Error Investigation Form is the approved form for reporting a navigation error or an equipment failure.
     15.4     Unless subclause 15.5 applies, the operator must take the remedial action mentioned in subclause 15.3 as soon as practicable.
     15.5     Without affecting subclauses 15.1 to 15.3, for this clause CASA may:
(a)   determine the cause of the error; and
(b)   notify the operator of the cause and of the remedial action to be taken to prevent a recurrence of the error.
     15.6     If subclause 15.5 applies, the operator must take the remedial action notified by CASA to prevent a recurrence of the error.
Appendix 3 — Requirements for use of RNP 2
1          RNP 2 navigation authorisation for I.F.R. flights
       1.1     RNP 2 may only be used for PBN by an aircraft if the operator has an RNP 2 navigation authorisation in writing from CASA.
       1.2     An operator may fly on a route or in airspace designated as RNP 2 only if the operator holds an RNP 2 navigation authorisation.
       1.3     RNP 2 requires GNSS as the primary navigation sensor.
       1.4     An RNP 2 navigation authorisation may only be issued to an operator who:
(a)   applies in writing to CASA for it; and
(b)   supplies the documents mentioned in clause 2; and
(c)   satisfies CASA that RNP 2 operations can, and are likely to continue to, meet the requirements of this Appendix, including in relation to:
             (i)  aircraft eligibility; and
            (ii)  RNP 2 equipment, system performance and system functionality; and
           (iii)  operating standards, including flight planning and flight procedures; and
           (iv)  approved flight crew training; and
            (v)  MEL procedures; and
           (vi)  aircraft and RNP system maintenance; and
          (vii)  validity and continuing integrity of the airborne navigation database (if carried); and
         (viii)  navigation error reporting procedures.
       1.5     An RNP 2 navigation authorisation may not be issued unless the aircraft meets the requirements of this Appendix.
       1.6     Despite subclauses 1.4 and 1.5, an RNP 2 navigation authorisation may be issued to an operator who:
(a)   holds a RNP 1, RNP APCH or RNP AR navigation authorisation; and
(b)   operates an aircraft which meets the aircraft eligibility requirements for:
             (i)  a RNP 1, RNP APCH or RNP AR navigation authorisation; or
            (ii)  an RNP 2 navigation authorisation; and
(c)   applies in writing to CASA for an RNP 2 navigation authorisation.
       1.7     An RNP 2 navigation authorisation may be issued subject to conditions if CASA considers this is necessary in the interests of safety.
       1.8     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that the applicable operational requirements of this Appendix are complied with after the issue of the authorisation.
       1.9     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that where an operational check, consideration, procedure or task (however described) is required under this Appendix, the operator must ensure that it is performed, given, followed or carried out, as the case may be.
Note   The check, consideration, procedure or task may in practice be performed etc. by the pilot in command, other members of the flight crew, the despatch officer or other operational personnel. However, legal responsibility for compliance is placed on the operator who must ensure that the performance etc. occurs in accordance with his or her established procedures.
2          Application — documents
                 The application must be made on the approved form and be accompanied by the following documents:
(a)   aircraft airworthiness documents which satisfy CASA that the aircraft is equipped for RNP 2 operations, for example, the AFM, the AFM Supplement or OEM service letters;
(b)   a detailed description of relevant aircraft equipment for RNP 2 operations, including a configuration list of the components and equipment;
(c)   a detailed description of the proposed flight crew training for RNP 2 operations, including a copy of the training syllabus for approval by CASA;
(d)   a detailed description of the operating procedures to be used for RNP 2 operations (including flight planning and flight procedures) supported by relevant copies of, or extracts from, the following:
             (i)  the operations manual;
            (ii)  the checklists;
           (iii)  the contingency procedures;
           (iv)  the QRH;
(e)   copies of the sections of the MEL applicable to RNP 2 operations;
(f)    a detailed description of the maintenance program used to ensure the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft for RNP 2 operations;
(g)   a detailed description of the method used to ensure the validity and continuing integrity of the airborne navigation database;
(h)   if requested in writing by CASA — a copy of any relevant document referred to in any of the documents mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (g).
3          Aircraft eligibility
       3.1     An aircraft is eligible for RNP 2 operations if the aircraft’s AFM, AFM Supplement or OEM service letter states that the aircraft navigation system is approved for RNP 2 operations.
       3.2     An aircraft is eligible for RNP 2 operations if the aircraft is equipped with a stand-alone GNSS that is certified by the manufacturer for en route operations, installed in accordance with AC 21-36(0), and compliant with:
(a)   TSO-C129 ( ) Class A1 or A2; or
(b)   TSO-C146 ( ) Class Gamma and operational Class 1, 2 or 3; or
(c)   ETSO-C146 ( ) Class Gamma and operational Class 1, 2 or 3; or
(d)   standards that CASA considers are equivalent to the standards mentioned in paragraph (a), (b) or (c).
       3.3     An aircraft is eligible for RNP 2 operations if the aircraft is equipped with a multi-sensor system (for example, FMS) with GNSS equipment that is certified by the manufacturer for en route operations, installed in accordance with AC 21‑37 (0), and meets:
(a)   the requirements of TSO-C115b FMS or ETSO-C115b FMS, and 1 of the following:
             (i)  TSO-C129(a) sensor Class B or C;
            (ii)  ETSO-C129(a) sensor Class B or C;
           (iii)  TSO-C145( ) Class 1, 2 or 3;
           (iv)  ETSO-C145( ) Class 1, 2 or 3;
            (v)  TSO-C196 ( ); or
(b)   standards that CASA considers are equivalent to the standards mentioned in paragraph (a).
       3.4     An aircraft is eligible for RNP 2 operations if the operator has demonstrated to CASA that the aircraft meets the requirements of ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 2, Implementing RNP 2.
4          RNP 2 system performance
       4.1     The system must meet the performance, monitoring and alerting requirements for RNP 2 operations as stated in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 2, Implementing RNP 2.
       4.2     Positioning data from non-GNSS navigation sensors may be integrated with GNSS data if:
(a)   the non-GNSS data does not cause position errors exceeding the TSE budget; or
(b)   if paragraph (a) does not apply — there is a means to deselect the non‑GNSS inputs.
5          RNP 2 system functionality
                 The system must as a minimum meet the standards of functionality stated in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 2, Implementing RNP 2.
5          RNP 2 equipment
       5.1     An aircraft conducting RNP 2 operations in oceanic or remote airspace must be equipped with appropriate dual, independent, serviceable long-range navigation systems.
       5.2     An aircraft conducting RNP 2 operations in continental en route airspace must be equipped with at least an appropriate single GNSS RNAV system, provided that an alternative means of navigation is available if required for the class of the operation.
6          Operating standards — flight planning – general
       6.1     Before an RNP 2 operation commences, consideration must be given to matters that may affect the safety of the operation, including the following:
(a)   whether the aircraft and the flight crew have relevant authorisations for RNP 2;
(b)   whether the aircraft can be operated in accordance with the RNP 2 requirements for:
             (i)  the planned route, including the route to any alternate aerodromes; and
            (ii)  minimum equipment requirements for the flight;
(c)   whether the navaids required for the planned route are available and adequate for the period of the operation, including any non-RNAV contingencies;
(d)   whether, if a navigation database is used, it is current and appropriate for the region of operation and includes the navaids and waypoints required for the route;
(e)   whether operating restrictions, including time limits, apply to the operation.
       6.2     If the aircraft’s essential RNP 2 equipment is functioning properly, the PBN capability of the aircraft must be indicated in the flight plan.
7          Operating standards — flight planning – GNSS integrity availability
       7.1     As part of flight planning, a prediction for GNSS integrity availability must be obtained.
       7.2     For an RNP 2 operation navigating with SBAS receivers, a check must be made for GNSS integrity availability in areas where SBAS is unavailable.
       7.3     If a continuous loss of the GNSS integrity function for more than 5 minutes is predicted for any part of an RNP 2 operation, the flight plan must be revised, for example, by delaying the departure time or planning a different route.
       7.4     Subclauses 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3 do not apply to an aircraft whose RNP system can achieve LNAV accuracy equal to, or less than, 2 NM using requisite GNSS satellites.
Note   Requisite GNSS satellites is defined in subsection 3 of this Order.
8          Operating standards — flight procedures – general
       8.1     An RNP 2 operation must comply with the instructions and procedures of the OEM in relation to the performance requirements of RNP 2.
       8.2     At system initialisation, the following must occur:
(a)   confirmation that the navigation database is current;
(b)   verification of proper entry of the ATC-assigned route immediately after initial clearance from ATC to conduct the relevant RNAV route;
(c)   action to ensure the waypoints sequence, depicted by the navigation system, matches the route depicted on the appropriate charts and the assigned route.
       8.3     The following checks and cross-checks must be made:
(a)   a cross-check of the flight plan by comparing charts or other applicable resources with the navigation system flight plan and the aircraft map display (if applicable);
(b)   if required, confirm the exclusion of specific navaids.
Note   Small differences between charted navigation information and displayed navigation data may be noted. Differences of 3 degrees or less due to the equipment manufacturer’s application of magnetic variation or leg track averaging are operationally acceptable.
       8.4     During flight, as far as practicable, navigation reasonableness must be periodically confirmed by cross-reference to available data from ground-based aids.
       8.5     For RNP 2 routes, 1 or more of the following must be used:
(a)   subject to subclause 8.6, an L/DEV indicator;
(b)   a flight director; or
(c)   an autopilot in the L/DEV mode.
       8.6     A navigation map display may be used instead of an L/DEV indicator, if the navigation map display has functionality equivalent to an L/DEV indicator as described in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 2, Implementing RNP 2.
       8.7     Where an L/DEV indicator is used, scaling must be selected suitable for the navigation accuracy associated with the route or procedure, for example:
(a)   full scale deflection ±2 NM; or
(b)   on an RNP 2 route using an L/DEV indicator that complies with TSO‑C129 ( ) — full scale deflection ±5 NM.
       8.8     Route centrelines must be maintained, as depicted by L/DEV indicators or flight guidance, unless authorised to deviate by ATC or under emergency conditions.
       8.9     Subject to subclause 8.10, the maximum permissible cross-track error/deviation is half of the navigation accuracy, namely, 1.0 NM.
     8.10     Deviation from the standard mentioned in subclause 8.9 is acceptable during and immediately after turns, but only to the minimal extent that accurate cross-track information may not be provided during the turn.
Note   Flight crew procedures and training should emphasise observance of turn anticipation commands and management of rate of turn.
     8.11     If ATC issues a heading assignment taking the aircraft off a route, the navigation system flight plan may only be modified when:
(a)   ATC clearance is received to rejoin the route; or
(b)   ATC confirms a new clearance.
9          Contingency procedures for performance failure
                 ATC must be notified immediately if the system performance ceases to meet RNP 2 requirements during an RNP 2 operation in controlled airspace.
10        Flight crew knowledge and training
     10.1     An RNP 2 operation may only be commenced if each member of the flight crew has knowledge of the following:
(a)   the meaning and proper use of aircraft equipment and navigation suffixes;
(b)   the capabilities and limitations of the RNAV system installed in the aircraft;
(c)   the operations and airspace for which the RNP 2 system is approved to operate;
(d)   the limitations of the navaids to be used for the RNP 2 operation;
(e)   depiction of waypoint types (flyover and fly-by), ARINC 424 Path Terminators, and associated aircraft flight paths;
(f)    contingency procedures for RNP 2 failures;
(g)   the radio telephony phraseology for the relevant airspace in accordance with ICAO Doc 4444 and Doc 7030;
(h)   the flight planning requirements for RNP 2 operation;
(i)    RNP 2 procedure requirements as determined from chart depiction and textual description;
(j)    RNP 2 system-specific information, including:
             (i)  levels of automation, mode annunciations, changes, alerts, interactions, reversions and degradation; and
            (ii)  functional integration with other aircraft systems; and
           (iii)  monitoring procedures for each phase of the flight; and
           (iv)  types of navigation sensors, for example, DME, IRU, GNSS, utilised by the RNP 2 system, and associated system prioritisation, weighting and logic; and
            (v)  aircraft configuration and operational conditions required to support RNAV operations, including appropriate selection of CDI scaling (L/DEV display scaling); and
           (vi)  pilot procedures consistent with the operation; and
          (vii)  the meaning and appropriateness of route discontinuities and related flight crew procedures; and
         (viii)  turn anticipation with consideration of speed and altitude effects; and
           (ix)  interpretation of electronic displays and symbols.
     10.2     An RNP 2 operation may only be conducted if each member of the flight crew has received training in, or has equivalent experience of, RNP 2 equipment and operating procedures, including training or experience in how to do the following:
(a)   verify that the aircraft navigation data is current;
(b)   verify the successful completion of RNP 2 system self-tests;
(c)   initialise RNP 2 system position;
(d)   perform a manual or automatic update (with take-off point shift, if applicable);
(e)   verify waypoints and navigation system flight plan programming;
(f)    resolve route discontinuities;
(g)   fly direct to waypoint;
(h)   fly a course or track to waypoint;
(i)    intercept a course or track;
(j)    fly radar vectors and rejoin an RNAV route from a heading mode;
(k)   determine cross-track error/deviation;
(l)    determine allowable deviation limits and maintain flight within those limits;
(m)  remove and reselect navigation sensor input;
(n)   confirm exclusion of a specific navaid or navaid type;
(o)   perform gross navigation error checks using conventional aids;
(p)   change arrival aerodrome and alternate aerodrome;
(q)   perform parallel offset function if capability exists, and advise ATC if this functionality is not available;
(r)    carry out contingency procedures for RNAV failures.
11        MEL
                 The operator’s MEL list must identify any unserviceability that affects the conduct of an RNP 2 operation.
12        Navigation database — standards and discrepancies
     12.1     A navigation database for RNP 2 operations:
(a)   may only be used if it has been obtained from a supplier who complies with:
             (i)  Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO 200A; or
            (ii)  European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) document ED-76, Standards for Processing Aeronautical Data; and
(b)   must be compatible with the intended function of the equipment in accordance with ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Chapter 7.
Note   An LOA, issued by an appropriate regulatory authority to each of the participants in the data chain, demonstrates compliance with this requirement, for example, FAA LOA issued in accordance with FAA AC 20-153 or EASA LOA issued in accordance with EASA Implementing Rule (IR) 21, Subpart G.
     12.2     An operator who has an RNP 2 navigation authorisation from CASA must periodically check the RNP 2 navigation database for database integrity.
Note   While an LOA provides assurance of minimum standards for the supply of a navigation database, errors may still occur. All operators must conduct periodic checks to ensure database integrity.
     12.3     Any discrepancy in data in the operator’s navigation database must be:
(a)   reported as soon as practicable to the navigation database supplier; and
(b)   resolved, before further operational use, by:
             (i)  reissue of the database; or
            (ii)  prohibition of the route; or
           (iii)  instructions to the flight crew.
13        Navigation errors
     13.1     The operator must take immediate action to remedy any condition that led to, or is likely to lead to, navigation error in the course of an RNP 2 operation.
     13.2     Without affecting the obligation in subclause 13.1, each of the following navigation errors or events must be reported to CASA and to AA within 72 hours of its occurrence:
(a)   a lateral navigational error of at least 2 NM;
(b)   a longitudinal navigational error of at least 2 NM;
(c)   a navigation system failure.
     13.3     Each report mentioned in subclause 13.2 must:
(a)   be on the approved form; and
(b)   contain a preliminary analysis of the cause of the error; and
(c)   include a statement of the remedial action taken, and to be taken, to prevent a recurrence of the error.
Note   The Navigation Error Investigation Form is the approved form for reporting a navigation error or an equipment failure.
     13.4     Unless subclause 13.5 applies, the operator must take the remedial action mentioned in subclause 13.3 as soon as practicable.
     13.5     Without affecting subclauses 13.1 to 13.3, for this clause CASA may:
(a)   determine the cause of the error; and
(b)   notify the operator of the cause of the error and of the remedial action to be taken to prevent a recurrence of the error.
     13.6     If subclause 13.5 applies, the operator must take the remedial action notified by CASA to prevent a recurrence of the error.
Appendix 4 — Requirements for use of RNP 1
1          RNP 1 navigation authorisation for I.F.R. flights
       1.1     RNP 1 may only be used for PBN by an aircraft if the operator has an RNP 1 navigation authorisation in writing from CASA.
       1.2     An operator may fly on a route or in airspace designated as RNP 1 only if the operator holds an RNP 1 navigation authorisation.
       1.3     RNP 1 requires GNSS as the primary navigation sensor.
       1.4     An RNP 1 navigation authorisation may only be issued to an operator who:
(a)   applies in writing to CASA for it; and
(b)   supplies the documents mentioned in clause 2; and
(c)   satisfies CASA that RNP 1 operations can, and are likely to continue to, meet the requirements of this Appendix, including in relation to:
             (i)  aircraft eligibility; and
            (ii)  RNP 1 equipment, system performance and system functionality; and
           (iii)  operating standards, including flight planning and flight procedures; and
           (iv)  approved flight crew training; and
            (v)  MEL procedures; and
           (vi)  aircraft and RNP system maintenance; and
          (vii)  validity and continuing integrity of the airborne navigation database (if carried); and
         (viii)  navigation error reporting procedures.
       1.5     An RNP 1 navigation authorisation may not be issued unless the aircraft meets the requirements of this Appendix.
       1.6     Despite subclauses 1.4 and 1.5, an RNP 1 navigation authorisation may be issued to an operator who:
(a)   holds an RNP APCH or RNP AR navigation authorisation; and
(b)   operates an aircraft which meets the aircraft eligibility requirements for:
             (i)  an RNP APCH or RNP AR navigation authorisation; or
            (ii)  an RNP 1 navigation authorisation; and
(c)   applies in writing to CASA for an RNP 1 navigation authorisation.
       1.7     An RNP 1 navigation authorisation may be issued subject to conditions if CASA considers this is necessary in the interests of safety.
       1.8     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that the applicable operational requirements of this Appendix are complied with after the issue of the authorisation.
       1.9     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that where an operational check, consideration, procedure or task (however described) is required under this Appendix, the operator must ensure that it is performed, given, followed or carried out, as the case may be.
Note   The check, consideration, procedure or task may in practice be performed etc. by the pilot in command, other members of the flight crew, the despatch officer or other operational personnel. However, legal responsibility for compliance is placed on the operator who must ensure that the performance etc. occurs in accordance with his or her established procedures.
2          Application — documents
                 The application must be made on the approved form and be accompanied by the following documents:
(a)   aircraft airworthiness documents which satisfy CASA that the aircraft is equipped for RNP 1 operations, for example, the AFM, the AFM Supplement or OEM service letters;
(b)   a detailed description of relevant aircraft equipment for RNP 1 operations, including a configuration list of the components and equipment;
(c)   a detailed description of the proposed flight crew training for RNP 1 operations, including a copy of the training syllabus for approval by CASA;
(d)   a detailed description of the operating procedures to be used for RNP 1 operations (including flight planning and flight procedures) supported by relevant copies of, or extracts from, the following:
             (i)  the operations manual;
            (ii)  the checklists;
           (iii)  the contingency procedures;
           (iv)  the QRH;
(e)   copies of the sections of the MEL applicable to RNP 1 operations;
(f)    a detailed description of the maintenance program used to ensure the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft for RNP 1 operations;
(g)   a detailed description of the method used to ensure the validity and continuing integrity of the airborne navigation database;
(h)   if requested in writing by CASA — a copy of any relevant document referred to in any of the documents mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (g).
3          Aircraft eligibility
       3.1     An aircraft is eligible for RNP 1 operations if the aircraft’s AFM, an AFM Supplement or an OEM service letter states that the aircraft navigation system is approved for RNP 1 operations.
       3.2     An aircraft is eligible for RNP 1 operations if the operator has demonstrated to CASA that the aircraft meets the requirements of ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 3, Implementing RNP 1.
4          RNP 1 system performance
       4.1     The system must meet the performance, monitoring and alerting requirements for RNP 1 operations as stated in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 3, Implementing RNP 1.
       4.2     Positioning data from non-GNSS navigation sensors may be integrated with GNSS data if:
(a)   the non-GNSS data does not cause position errors exceeding the TSE budget; or
(b)   if paragraph (a) does not apply — there is a means to deselect the non‑GNSS inputs.
5          RNP 1 system functionality
                 The system must as a minimum meet the standards of functionality stated in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 3, Implementing RNP 1.
6          Operating standards — flight planning – general
       6.1     Before an RNP 1 operation commences, consideration must be given to matters that may affect the safety of the operation, including the following:
(a)   whether the aircraft and the flight crew have relevant authorisations for RNP 1;
(b)   whether the aircraft can be operated in accordance with the RNP 1 requirements for:
             (i)  the planned route, including the route to any alternate aerodromes; and
            (ii)  minimum equipment requirements for the flight;
(c)   whether the navaids required for the planned route are available and adequate for the period of the operation, including any non-RNAV contingencies;
(d)   whether, if a navigation database is used, it is current and appropriate for the region of operation and includes the navaids and waypoints required for the route;
(e)   whether operating restrictions, including time limits, apply to the operation.
       6.2     If the aircraft’s essential RNP 1 equipment is functioning properly, the PBN capability of the aircraft must be indicated in the flight plan.
7          Operating standards — flight planning – GNSS integrity availability
       7.1     As part of flight planning, a prediction for GNSS integrity availability must be obtained.
       7.2     For an RNP 1 operation navigating with SBAS receivers, a check must be made for GNSS integrity availability in areas where SBAS is unavailable.
       7.3     If a continuous loss of the GNSS integrity function for more than 5 minutes is predicted for any part of an RNP 1 operation, the flight plan must be revised, for example, by delaying the departure time or planning a different route.
       7.4     Subclauses 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3 do not apply to an aircraft whose RNP system can achieve LNAV accuracy equal to or less than 1 NM using requisite GNSS satellites.
Note   Requisite GNSS satellites is defined in subsection 3 of this Order.
8          Operating standards — flight procedures – general
       8.1     An RNP 1 operation must comply with the instructions and procedures of the OEM in relation to the performance requirements of RNP 1.
       8.2     At system initialisation, the following must occur:
(a)   confirmation that the navigation database is current;
(b)   verification of proper entry of the ATC-assigned route immediately after initial clearance from ATC to conduct the relevant RNAV route;
(c)   action to ensure the waypoints sequence, depicted by the navigation system, matches the route depicted on the appropriate charts and the assigned route.
       8.3     The following steps must occur:
(a)   selection of an RNP 1 SID or STAR by route name from the on-board navigation database;
(b)   confirmation that the selected route conforms to the charted route, or the route as modified through the insertion or deletion of specific waypoints in response to ATC clearances.
       8.4     Except in response to ATC clearances, the following must not occur:
(a)   creation of new waypoints by manual entry; or
(b)   making manual entry of latitude, longitude or rho/theta values; or
(c)   changing an RNAV SID or STAR database waypoint type from a fly-by to a flyover or visa versa.
       8.5     The following checks and cross-checks must be made:
(a)   a cross-check of the flight plan by comparing charts or other applicable resources with the navigation system flight plan and the aircraft map display (if applicable);
(b)   if required, confirm the exclusion of specific navaids.
Note   Small differences between charted navigation information and displayed navigation data may be noted. Differences of 3 degrees or less due to the equipment manufacturer’s application of magnetic variation or leg track averaging are operationally acceptable.
       8.6     For RNP 1 routes, an L/DEV indicator, flight director or autopilot in LNAV mode must be used.
Note   Examples of an L/DEV indicator include CDI and HSI.
       8.7     Where an L/DEV indicator is used, scaling must be selected suitable for the navigation accuracy associated with the route or procedure, for example, full scale deflection ±1 NM.
       8.8     Route centrelines must be maintained, as depicted by L/DEV indicators or flight guidance, unless authorised to deviate by ATC or under emergency conditions.
       8.9     Subject to subclause 8.10, the maximum permissible cross-track error/deviation is half of the navigation accuracy, namely, 0.5 NM.
     8.10     Deviation from the standard mentioned in subclause 8.9 is acceptable during and immediately after turns, but only to the minimal extent that accurate cross-track information may not be provided during the turn.
Note   Flight crew procedures and training should emphasise observance of turn anticipation commands and management of rate of turn.
     8.11     If ATC issues a heading assignment taking the aircraft off a route, the navigation system flight plan may only be modified when:
(a)   ATC clearance is received to rejoin the route; or
(b)   ATC confirms a new clearance.
9          Operating standards — flight procedures – RNAV SID requirements
       9.1     Before an eligible aircraft takes-off, the following RNAV SID requirements must be verified:
(a)   that the aircraft’s RNP system is available, is operating correctly and the correct aerodrome and runway data is loaded;
(b)   that the aircraft navigation system is operating correctly;
(c)   that the correct runway and departure procedure (including any applicable en route transition) is entered in the navigation system flight plan and properly depicted;
(d)   that, if an RNAV departure procedure is assigned and the runway, procedure or transition is subsequently changed, the appropriate changes are entered in the navigation system flight plan, properly depicted and available for navigation.
Note   It is recommended that, within the constraints of normal operations, there be a final check of proper runway entry and correct route depiction, shortly before take-off.
       9.2     The operator must ensure that each member of the flight crew is aware of the functional limitations of relevant RNP systems and the correct application of manual tracking procedures.
       9.3     RNAV guidance must be selected and available to provide flight guidance for lateral RNAV at no later than 153 m (or 500 ft) above the aerodrome field elevation.
Note   The altitude at which RNAV guidance begins on a given route may be higher, for example, “climb to 304 m (or 1 000 ft), then direct to X….”.
       9.4     For an RNP 1 operation, an authorised method must be used to achieve an appropriate level of performance for RNP 1, for example, L/DEV indicator, navigation map display, flight director or autopilot.
       9.5     The GNSS signal must be acquired before the take-off roll commences.
       9.6     If:
(a)   an RNP 1 SID extends beyond 30 NM from the ARP; and
(b)   CDI scaling automatically changes to en route mode;
                 then CDI scale to +/-1 NM must be selected until termination of the SID.
10        Operating standards — flight procedures – RNAV STAR requirements
     10.1     The following must be checked and confirmed for RNAV STAR:
(a)   that the aircraft navigation system is operating correctly;
(b)   that the correct arrival procedure and runway (including any applicable transition) are entered in the system and properly depicted.
     10.2     The following must be checked and confirmed:
(a)   the active navigation system flight plan, by comparing the charts with the navigation displays;
(b)   the sequence of waypoints;
(c)   the reasonableness of track angles;
(d)   distances, altitude or speed constraints;
(e)   as far as practicable, which waypoints are fly-by and which are flyover;
     10.3     The operator must ensure that updating will exclude a particular navaid, if so required by a route.
     10.4     A route is not to be used if doubt exists as to its validity in the navigation database.
     10.5     No member of the flight crew may create a new waypoint by manual entry into the RNP system.
     10.6     If the operator’s contingency procedures require reversion to a conventional arrival route, provision for that arrival route must be made before commencement of the RNAV STAR.
     10.7     Route modifications in the terminal area may take the form of radar headings or “direct to” clearances and may require the insertion of tactical waypoints from the navigation database. However, no member of the flight crew may make a manual entry or modification of the loaded route using temporary waypoints or fixes not contained in the database.
     10.8     All relevant published altitude and speed constraints must be observed.
11        Contingency procedures for performance failure
                 ATC must be notified immediately if the system performance ceases to meet RNP 1 requirements during an RNP 1 operation in controlled airspace.
12        Flight crew knowledge and training
     12.1     An RNP 1 operation may only be commenced if each member of the flight crew has knowledge of the following:
(a)   the meaning and proper use of aircraft equipment and navigation suffixes;
(b)   the capabilities and limitations of the RNP system installed in the aircraft;
(c)   the operations and airspace for which the RNP 1 system is approved to operate;
(d)   the limitations of the navaids to be used for the RNP 1 operation;
(e)   the required navigation equipment for operation on RNAV routes with SIDs or STARs;
(f)    depiction of waypoint types (flyover and fly-by), ARINC 424 Path Terminators, and associated aircraft flight paths;
(g)   contingency procedures for RNP 1 failures;
(h)   the radio telephony phraseology for the relevant airspace in accordance with ICAO Doc 4444 and Doc 7030;
(i)    the flight planning requirements for RNP 1 operation;
(j)    RNP 1 procedure requirements as determined from chart depiction and textual description;
(k)   RNP 1 system-specific information, including:
             (i)  levels of automation, mode annunciations, changes, alerts, interactions, reversions and degradation; and
            (ii)  functional integration with other aircraft systems; and
           (iii)  monitoring procedures for each phase of the flight; and
           (iv)  types of navigation sensors, for example, DME, IRU, GNSS, utilised by the RNP 1 system, and associated system prioritisation, weighting and logic; and
            (v)  aircraft configuration and operational conditions required to support RNP operations, including appropriate selection of CDI scaling (L/DEV display scaling); and
           (vi)  pilot procedures consistent with the operation; and
          (vii)  the meaning and appropriateness of route discontinuities and related flight crew procedures; and
         (viii)  turn anticipation with consideration of speed and altitude effects; and
           (ix)  interpretation of electronic displays and symbols.
     12.2     An RNP 1 operation may only be conducted if each member of the flight crew has received training in, or has equivalent experience of, RNP 1 equipment and operating procedures, including training or experience in how to do the following:
(a)   verify that the aircraft navigation data is current;
(b)   verify the successful completion of RNP 1 system self-tests;
(c)   initialise RNP 1 system position;
(d)   perform a manual or automatic update (with take-off point shift, if applicable);
(e)   retrieve and fly a SID and STAR with appropriate transition;
(f)    verify waypoints and navigation system flight plan programming;
(g)   resolve route discontinuities;
(h)   adhere to speed and altitude constraints associated with a SID or STAR;
(i)    fly direct to waypoint;
(j)    fly a course or track to waypoint;
(k)   intercept a course or track;
(l)    vector off and rejoin a procedure;
(m)  fly radar vectors and rejoining an RNAV route from a heading mode;
(n)   determine cross-track error/deviation;
(o)   determine allowable deviation limits and maintain flight within those limits;
(p)   remove and reselect navigation sensor input;
(q)   confirm exclusion of a specific navaid or navaid type;
(r)    perform gross navigation error checks using conventional aids;
(s)    change arrival aerodrome and alternate aerodrome;
(t)    perform parallel offset function if capability exists, and advise ATC if this functionality is not available;
(u)   carry out contingency procedures for RNAV failures.
13        MEL
                 The operator’s MEL list must identify any unserviceability that affects the conduct of an RNP 1 operation.
14        Navigation database — standards and discrepancies
     14.1     A navigation database for RNP 1 operations:
(a)   may only be used if it has been obtained from a supplier who complies with:
             (i)  Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO 200A; or
            (ii)  European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) document ED-76, Standards for Processing Aeronautical Data; and
(b)   must be compatible with the intended function of the equipment in accordance with ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Chapter 7.
Note   An LOA, issued by an appropriate regulatory authority to each of the participants in the data chain, demonstrates compliance with this requirement, for example, FAA LOA issued in accordance with FAA AC 20-153 or EASA LOA issued in accordance with EASA Implementing Rule (IR) 21, Subpart G.
     14.2     An operator who has an RNP 1 navigation authorisation from CASA must periodically check the RNP 1 navigation database for database integrity.
Note   While an LOA provides assurance of minimum standards for the supply of a navigation database, errors may still occur. All operators must conduct periodic checks to ensure database integrity.
     14.3     Any discrepancy in data in the operator’s navigation database must be:
(a)   reported as soon as practicable to the navigation database supplier; and
(b)   resolved, before further operational use, by:
             (i)  reissue of the database; or
            (ii)  prohibition of the route; or
           (iii)  instructions to the flight crew.
15        Navigation errors
     15.1     The operator must take immediate action to remedy any condition that led to, or is likely to lead to, navigation error in the course of an RNP 1 operation.
     15.2     Without affecting the obligation in subclause 15.1, each of the following navigation errors or events must be reported to CASA and to AA within 72 hours of its occurrence:
(a)   a lateral navigational error of at least 1 NM;
(b)   a longitudinal navigational error of at least 1 NM;
(c)   a navigation system failure.
     15.3     Each report mentioned in subclause 15.2 must:
(a)   be on the approved form; and
(b)   contain a preliminary analysis of the cause of the error; and
(c)   include a statement of the remedial action taken, and to be taken, to prevent a recurrence of the error.
Note   The Navigation Error Investigation Form is the approved form for reporting a navigation error or an equipment failure.
     15.4     Unless subclause 15.5 applies, the operator must take the remedial action mentioned in subclause 15.3 as soon as practicable.
     15.5     Without affecting subclauses 15.1 to 15.3, for this clause CASA may:
(a)   determine the cause of the error; and
(b)   notify the operator of the cause of the error and of the remedial action to be taken to prevent a recurrence of the error.
     15.6     If subclause 15.5 applies, the operator must take the remedial action notified by CASA to prevent a recurrence of the error.
Appendix 5 — Requirements for use of RNP 0.3
1          RNP 0.3 navigation authorisation for I.F.R. flights
                 As of the date of commencement of this Order, RNP 0.3 navigation authorisation for I.F.R. flights is not yet provided for or in effect.
Appendix 6 — Requirements for use of RNP APCH
1          RNP APCH navigation authorisation for I.F.R. flights
       1.1     RNP APCH may only be used for PBN by an aircraft if:
(a)   the operator has an RNP APCH navigation authorisation in writing from CASA; and
(b)   the aircraft is equipped with:
             (i)  a stand-alone GNSS system; or
            (ii)  an FMS with GNSS input.
       1.2     RNP APCH means 1 of the following:
(a)   the NPA known as RNP APCH-LNAV:
             (i)  where lateral and longitudinal guidance is provided by GNSS SIS; and
            (ii)  which is flown to a MDA charted as LNAV minima on the approach plate;
Note   RNP APCH-LNAV was formerly known as RNAV (GNSS).
(b)   the APV known as RNP APCH-LNAV/VNAV, where:
             (i)  lateral and longitudinal guidance is provided by GNSS SIS; and
            (ii)  vertical guidance is provided by Baro-VNAV; and
Note   There is, therefore, some overlap of scope and meaning between RNP APCH‑LNAV/VNAV on the one hand, and APV Baro‑VNAV on the other. See Appendix 6 for APV Baro-VNAV.
           (iii)  the approach is flown to a DA charted as LNAV/VNAV minima on the approach plate;
(c)   the NPA known as RNP APCH-LP:
             (i)  where lateral and longitudinal guidance equivalent to a localiser approach is provided by SBAS augmented GNSS SIS; and
            (ii)  which is flown to a MDA charted as LP minima on the approach plate;
Note   The NPA known as RNP APCH-LP has not yet been deployed in Australia.
(d)   the APV known as RNP APCH-LPV, where:
             (i)  lateral, longitudinal and vertical guidance is provided by SBAS augmented GNSS SIS; and
            (ii)  the approach is flown to a DA charted as LPV minima on the approach plate.
Note   The APV known as RNP APCH-LPV has not yet been deployed in Australia.
       1.3     An RNP APCH navigation authorisation may only be issued to an operator who:
(a)   applies in writing to CASA, specifying which type of RNP APCH navigation authorisation is sought; and
(b)   supplies the documents mentioned in clause 2; and
(c)   satisfies CASA that RNP APCH operations can, and are likely to continue to, meet the requirements of this Appendix, including in relation to:
             (i)  aircraft eligibility; and
            (ii)  RNP APCH equipment, system performance and system functionality; and
           (iii)  operating standards, including flight planning and flight procedures; and
           (iv)  approved flight crew training; and
            (v)  MEL procedures; and
           (vi)  aircraft and RNP system maintenance; and
          (vii)  validity and continuing integrity of the airborne navigation database; and
         (viii)  navigation error reporting procedures.
       1.4     An RNP APCH navigation authorisation may not be issued unless the aircraft meets the requirements of this Appendix.
       1.5     Despite subclauses 1.3 and 1.4, an RNP APCH-LNAV/VNAV navigation authorisation may be issued to an operator who:
(a)   holds both of the following:
             (i)  an APV Baro-VNAV navigation authorisation;
            (ii)  an RNP APCH-LNAV navigation authorisation; and
(b)   operates an aircraft which meets the aircraft eligibility requirements for both of the following:
             (i)  an APV Baro-VNAV navigation authorisation;
            (ii)  an RNP APCH-LNAV navigation authorisation; and
(c)   applies in writing to CASA for an RNP APCH-LNAV/VNAV navigation authorisation.
       1.6     Despite subclauses 1.3 and 1.4, an RNP APCH-LNAV navigation authorisation and an RNP APCH-LNAV/VNAV navigation authorisation (the respective authorisations) may be issued to an operator who:
(a)   holds an RNP AR APCH navigation authorisation; and
(b)   operates an aircraft which meets the aircraft eligibility requirements for an RNP AR APCH navigation authorisation; and.
(c)   applies in writing to CASA for the respective authorisations.
       1.7     An RNP APCH navigation authorisation may be issued subject to conditions if CASA considers this is necessary in the interests of safety.
       1.8     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that the applicable operational requirements of this Appendix are complied with after the issue of the authorisation.
       1.9     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that where an operational check, consideration, procedure or task (however described) is required under this Appendix, the operator must ensure that it is performed, given, followed or carried out, as the case may be.
Note   The check, consideration, procedure or task may in practice be performed etc. by the pilot in command, other members of the flight crew, the despatch officer or other operational personnel. However, legal responsibility for compliance is placed on the operator who must ensure that the performance etc. occurs in accordance with his or her established procedures.
2          Application — documents
                 The application must be made on the approved form and be accompanied by the following documents:
(a)   aircraft airworthiness documents which satisfy CASA that the aircraft is equipped for RNP APCH operations, for example, the AFM, the AFM Supplement or OEM service letters;
(b)   a detailed description of relevant aircraft equipment for RNP APCH operations, including a configuration list of the components and equipment;
(c)   a detailed description of the proposed flight crew training for RNP APCH operations, including a copy of the training syllabus, for approval by CASA;
(d)   a detailed description of the operating procedures to be used for RNP APCH operations (including flight planning and flight procedures) supported by relevant copies of, or extracts from, the following:
             (i)  the operations manual;
            (ii)  the checklists;
           (iii)  the contingency procedures;
           (iv)  the QRH;
(e)   copies of the sections of the MEL applicable to RNP APCH operations;
(f)    a detailed description of the maintenance program used to ensure the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft for RNP APCH operations;
(g)   a detailed description of the method used to ensure the continuing integrity of the airborne navigation database;
(h)   if requested in writing by CASA — a copy of any relevant document referred to in any of the documents mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (g).
3          Aircraft eligibility
                 An aircraft is eligible for RNP APCH operations if:
(a)   the AFM, an AFM Supplement, or OEM service letter states that the aircraft navigation system is approved for RNP 0.3 approach operations with GNSS updating; or
(b)   the aircraft is equipped with a navigation system which meets the requirements for PBN type RNP AR navigation authorisation; or
(c)   the aircraft is equipped with a GNSS stand-alone system approved for NPA operations in accordance with AC 21-36 (TSO‑C129a/ETSO-C129a Class A1 or E/TSO-C146 Class Gamma and operational Class 1, 2 or 3); or
(d)   the aircraft is equipped with a multi-sensor system (for example, FMS) with GNSS equipment that is:
             (i)  in accordance with TSO-C129/ETSO-C129 Class B1, C1, B3, C3 or E/TSO-C145 Class 1, 2 or 3 or TSO-C196 ( ); and
            (ii)  approved for approach operations by virtue of being in accordance with AC 21-36 and AC 21-37.
4          RNP APCH system performance
       4.1     The system must meet the performance, monitoring and alerting requirements for RNP APCH operations as stated in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 5, Implementing RNP APCH.
       4.2     Positioning data from non-GNSS navigation sensors may be integrated with GNSS data if:
(a)   the non-GNSS data does not cause position errors exceeding the TSE budget; or
(b)   if paragraph (a) does not apply — there is a means to deselect the non‑GNSS inputs.
5          RNP APCH system functionality
       5.1     Subject to subclause 5.2, the system must, as a minimum, meet the standards of functionality stated in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 5, Implementing RNP APCH.
Note   Guidance provided in AC 21-36, Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Equipment: Airworthiness Guidelines, is also relevant.
       5.2     An alternative means for the display of cross-track information is as follows:
(a)   the aircraft’s position relative to the flight path must be displayed in the pilot’s primary field of view;
(b)   there must be display of numeric cross-track deviation in 1/10th NM or less which may be outside the pilot’s primary field of view;
(c)   the flight crew must consist of at least 2 pilots;
(d)   the pilot not flying must be able to monitor the numeric cross-track deviation;
(e)   crew procedures (including callouts) must be implemented to ensure that each member of the operating crew can perform all normal duties in addition to monitoring cross-track deviation;
(f)    CASA must have conducted a satisfactory operational evaluation of the displays and crew procedures.
       5.3     The requirement for the display of lateral position relative to the desired path is:
(a)   a digital indication in 1/10th NM or less; or
(b)   a relative indication which allows the pilot to determine deviation in proportion to a known indicator scale.
       5.4     Where the minimum flight crew is 2 pilots, there must be a means for the pilot not flying to accurately verify the desired path and the aircraft position relative to that path.
       5.5     Navigation system failure or alert must be displayed in the pilot’s primary field of view for the following:
(a)   loss of GNSS integrity or integrity monitoring capability; or
(b)   failure of a GNSS sensor.
       5.6     The RNP APCH system must have the capability to determine:
(a)   that GNSS positioning is active; or
(b)   if the RNP system is one in which an alert is not immediately enunciated when GNSS updating is not available — that the current navigation performance of the system is adequate.
6          Operational standards — flight planning – general
       6.1     Before an RNP APCH operation commences, consideration must be given to matters that may affect the safety of the operation, including the following:
(a)   whether the aircraft, and each member of the flight crew, has relevant authorisations for RNP APCH;
(b)   whether, if a navigation database is used, it is current and appropriate for the region of operation and includes the navaids and waypoints required for the route;
       6.2     If the aircraft’s essential RNP APCH equipment is functioning properly, the PBN capability of the aircraft must be indicated in the flight plan.
7          Operational standards — flight planning – GNSS integrity availability
       7.1     As part of flight planning, a prediction for GNSS integrity availability must be obtained.
       7.2     For an RNP APCH operation navigating with SBAS receivers, a check must be made for GNSS integrity availability in areas where SBAS is unavailable.
       7.3     If a continuous loss of the GNSS integrity function for more than 5 minutes is predicted for any part of an RNP APCH operation, the flight plan must be revised, for example, by delaying the departure time or planning a different route.
       7.4     Subclauses 7.1, 7.2 and 7.3 do not apply to an aircraft whose RNP system can achieve LNAV accuracy less than 0.3 NM using requisite GNSS satellites.
Note   Requisite GNSS satellites is defined in subsection 3 of this Order.
8          Operating standards — flight procedures
       8.1     An operator must ensure that flight procedures described in this clause are complied with.
       8.2     The following must be checked and confirmed:
(a)   the waypoint sequence;
(b)   the reasonableness of the tracks and distances;
(c)   the VPA;
(d)   that the GNSS sensor is used for position computation;
(e)   if barometric aiding is used — that the current aerodrome barometric altimeter setting is entered.
       8.3     The operator must ensure that the appropriate displays are selected to permit monitoring of the aircraft’s:
(a)   approach path; and
(b)   position relative to the approach path (cross-track and, where applicable, V/DEV).
       8.4     The aircraft is to be established on the final approach course no later than the FAF.
       8.5     Descent in the final segment is not to be commenced unless:
(a)   the appropriate approach mode is annunciated, namely, LNAV, LNAV/VNAV, LP or LPV; and
(b)   RNP 0.3 is selected and available.
       8.6     The approach procedure is to be discontinued if:
(a)   the navigation system display is flagged invalid; or
(b)   there is a loss of integrity alert; or
(c)   the integrity alerting function is not available; or
(d)   FTE is excessive.
       8.7     Subject to subclause 8.9, standard for limitation of cross-track error/deviation is:
(a)   0.5 NM for the initial segment, the intermediate segment and a missed approach; and
(b)   0.15 NM for the final approach segment.
       8.8     A missed approach must be conducted if, in the final approach segment, the cross-track error/deviation equals or exceeds:
(a)   0.3 NM; or
(b)   if RNP is equal to 0.3 NM — 1 x RNP; or
(c)   if the aircraft is equipped with serviceable automated cross-track error alerting — when a cross-track error alert is received.
       8.9     Deviation from the standard mentioned in subclause 8.7 is acceptable during and immediately after turns, but only to the minimal extent that accurate cross-track information may not be provided during the turn.
Note   The use of a flight director or autopilot is recommended.
     8.10     Subject to subclause 8.11, the standard for V/DEV is:
(a)   for RNP APCH-LNAV/VNAV after passing the VIP — + 75 feet, or a different value approved by CASA; or
(b)   for RNP APCH-LPV — + ½ scale defection from the FAF.
     8.11     Transient deviation from the standard mentioned in subclause 8.10 is acceptable during aircraft configuration changes.
9          Contingency procedures for performance failure
                 The operator must ensure that the flight crew have and implement contingency procedures for a loss of RNP APCH capability during the approach.
10        Flight crew knowledge and training
     10.1     An RNP APCH operation may only be commenced if each member of the flight crew has knowledge of the following:
(a)   the requirements for RNP APCH authorisation;
(b)   GNSS and RNP principles;
(c)   navigation system operation;
(d)   IAL procedure characteristics as determined from chart depiction and textural description;
(e)   flight path construction, including waypoint types (flyover and fly-by), path terminators and other elements;
(f)    for FMS/MMR systems, the method used to derive displayed position, including input from navigation sensors (for example, IRU, GNSS, DME) and system prioritisation/weighting/logic;
(g)   functional integration with other aircraft systems;
(h)   display symbology and interpretation;
(i)    navigation equipment necessary to conduct RNP APCH operations;
Note   Pilots need to be aware that the type of navigation equipment capable of RNP APCH procedures includes stand-alone and FMS installations and that the conduct of an RNP APCH varies accordingly.
(j)    levels of automation, mode annunciations, changes, alerts, reversions and degradation;
(k)   speed constraints;
(l)    altitude limitations;
(m)  operator policy on use of automation, including methods to minimise cross‑track error;
(n)   radio telephony phraseology for RNP APCH applications.
     10.2     An RNP APCH operation may only be conducted if each member of the flight crew has received training in RNP APCH equipment and operating procedures, including how to do the following:
(a)   navigation equipment operation through the operating procedures, including:
             (i)  navigation database currency verification; and
            (ii)  system self-tests; and
           (iii)  position initialisation; and
           (iv)  retrieval, loading and execution of an RNP APCH;
(b)   approach review, verification of waypoint sequence and navigation system flight plan;
(c)   display and equipment set-up;
(d)   management of route discontinuities;
(e)   normal approach and landing;
(f)    missed approach and holding;
(g)   flying direct to a waypoint;
(h)   intercepting an initial or intermediate segment of an approach;
(i)    turn anticipation, including ground speed and altitude effects;
(j)    determining cross-track error/deviation;
(k)   determining vertical path deviation (where appropriate);
(l)    monitoring procedures for each phase of flight;
(m)  changing approach, destination or alternate;
(n)   conducting contingency procedures following RNP system failure.
     10.3     Without affecting the requirements of subclauses 10.1 and 10.2, before conducting an RNP APCH operation, each member of the flight crew must have sufficient ground training and flight training (whether in actual or simulated flight) in normal and abnormal operations to achieve operational competency.
11        MEL
                 The operator’s MEL must identify any unserviceability that affects the conduct of an RNP APCH operation.
12        Continuing airworthiness
     12.1     The operator must have procedures in force to ensure the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft for RNP APCH operations.
     12.2     The operator must ensure that the aircraft equipment and configuration control are consistent with:
(a)   RNP APCH capability; and
(b)   minimum equipment requirements.
     12.3     The operator must ensure that engineering and maintenance personnel are trained in, and familiar with, RNP APCH airworthiness requirements.
13        Navigation database — standards and discrepancies
     13.1     A navigation database for RNP APCH operations:
(a)   may only be used if it has been obtained from a supplier who complies with:
             (i)  Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO 200A; or
            (ii)  European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) document ED-76, Standards for Processing Aeronautical Data; and
(b)   must be compatible with the intended function of the equipment in accordance with ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Chapter 7.
Note   An LOA, issued by an appropriate regulatory authority to each of the participants in the data chain, demonstrates compliance with this requirement, for example, FAA LOA issued in accordance with FAA AC 20-153 or EASA LOA issued in accordance with EASA Implementing Rule (IR) 21, Subpart G.
     13.2     An operator who has an RNP APCH navigation authorisation from CASA must periodically check the RNP APCH navigation database for database integrity.
Note   While an LOA provides assurance of minimum standards for the supply of a navigation database, errors may still occur. All operators must conduct periodic checks to ensure database integrity.
     13.3     Any discrepancy in data in the operator’s navigation database must be:
(a)   reported as soon as practicable to the navigation database supplier; and
(b)   before further operational use — resolved by:
             (i)  reissue of the database; or
            (ii)  prohibition of the route or procedure; or
           (iii)  instructions to the flight crew.
Appendix 7 — Requirements for use of RNP AR
1          RNP AR navigation authorisation for I.F.R. flights
       1.1     An RNP AR may only be used for PBN by an aircraft if the operator has an RNP AR navigation authorisation in writing from CASA.
       1.2     An RNP AR may only be used for PBN by an aircraft for instrument approach and departure procedures that are supported by:
(a)   a GNSS LNAV system; and
(b)   an FMS supported by suitable flight control, cockpit control and display systems; and
(c)   a Baro-VNAV system.
       1.3     An RNP AR navigation authorisation is for 1 or more of the following RNP AR operations:
(a)   RNP AR APCH (ICAO);
(b)   RNP AR APCH (Proprietary);
(c)   RNP AR DEP (ICAO);
(d)   RNP AR DEP (Proprietary);
(e)   RNP EOSID (Proprietary).
Note   RNP AR APCH procedures and RNP AR DEP procedures operate to ICAO or proprietary design criteria. RNP AR EOSID procedures operate to proprietary design criteria only. Proprietary design criteria are more demanding than ICAO design criteria.
       1.4     An RNP AR navigation authorisation may only be issued to an operator who:
(a)   applies in writing to CASA, specifying which type of RNP AR navigation authorisation is sought; and
(b)   supplies the documents mentioned in clause 3; and
(c)   satisfies CASA that RNP AR operations for the navigation authorisation sought can, and are likely to continue to, meet the requirements of this Appendix, including in relation to the following:
             (i)  aircraft eligibility;
            (ii)  RNP AR equipment, system performance and system functionality;
           (iii)  operating standards, including flight planning and flight procedures;
           (iv)  approved flight crew training and recency;
            (v)  MEL procedures;
           (vi)  aircraft and RNP system maintenance;
          (vii)  continued integrity of the airborne navigation database;
         (viii)  navigation error reporting procedures;
           (ix)  FOSA.
       1.5     An RNP AR navigation authorisation may not be issued unless the aircraft meets the requirements of this Appendix.
       1.6     Despite subclauses 1.4 and 1.5:
(a)   an RNP AR APCH (ICAO) navigation authorisation may be issued to an operator who:
             (i)  holds an RNP AR APCH (proprietary) navigation authorisation; and
            (ii)  complies with subclause 1.8; and
(b)   an RNP AR DEP (ICAO) navigation authorisation may be issued to an operator who:
             (i)  holds an RNP AR DEP (proprietary) navigation authorisation; and
            (ii)  complies with subclause 1.8; and
       1.7     Despite subclauses 1.4 and 1.5, an RNP AR DEP navigation authorisation, whether ICAO or proprietary, may be issued to an operator who:
(a)   holds an RNP AR EOSID (Proprietary) navigation authorisation; and
(b)   complies with subclause 1.8.
       1.8     For subclauses 1.6 and 1.7, the operator must:
(a)   operate an aircraft which meets the aircraft eligibility requirements for the navigation authorisation sought; and
(b)   apply in writing to CASA for the navigation authorisation sought.
2          Conditions for RNP AR operations
       2.1     An RNP AR navigation authorisation may be issued subject to conditions if CASA considers this is necessary in the interests of safety.
       2.2     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that the applicable operational requirements of this Appendix are complied with after the issue of the authorisation.
       2.3     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that where an operational check, consideration, procedure or task (however described) is required under this Appendix, the operator must ensure that it is performed, given, followed or carried out, as the case may be.
Note   The check, consideration, procedure or task may in practice be performed etc. by the pilot in command, other members of the flight crew, the despatch officer or other operational personnel. However, legal responsibility for compliance is placed on the operator who must ensure that the performance etc. occurs in accordance with his or her established procedures.
3          Application — documents
                 The application must be made on the approved form and be accompanied by the following documents:
(a)   aircraft airworthiness documents which satisfy CASA that the aircraft is equipped for RNP AR operations, for example, the AFM, the AFM Supplement or OEM service letters;
(b)   a detailed description of relevant aircraft equipment for RNP AR operations, including a configuration list of the components and equipment;
(c)   a detailed description of the proposed flight crew training for RNP AR operations, including a copy of the training syllabus, for approval by CASA;
(d)   a detailed description of the operating procedures to be used for RNP AR operations (including flight planning and flight procedures) supported by relevant copies of, or extracts from, the following:
             (i)  the operations manual;
            (ii)  the checklists;
           (iii)  the contingency procedures;
           (iv)  the QRH;
(e)   a FOSA as set out in clause 4;
(f)    copies of the sections of the MEL applicable to RNP AR operations;
(g)   a detailed description of the maintenance program used to ensure the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft for RNP AR operations;
(h)   a detailed description of the method used to ensure the continued integrity of the airborne navigation database;
(i)    if requested in writing by CASA — a copy of any relevant document referred to in any of the documents mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (h).
4          FOSA
       4.1     An operator must conduct a FOSA in each of the following circumstances:
(a)   before applying to CASA for an RNP EOSID;
(b)   before conducting an RNP AR operation that requires an RNP value of less than 0.3NM;
(c)   before conducting an RNP AR operation in which it is planned to have at least 1 engine inoperative.
       4.2     For paragraph 4.1 (a), the operator’s application for an RNP EOSID must be accompanied by a copy of the FOSA.
Note   The FOSA is to be consistent with ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 6, Implementing RNP AR APCH. (See also the definition in paragraph 3.4 of this Order.).
       4.3     The FOSA must set out details of the methods used by the operator to manage the risks associated with non-normal events arising from RNP AR operations.
       4.4     The FOSA must include the mitigations implemented by the operator to reduce non-normal safety risks to the level of “As Low as Reasonably Practical”.
Note 1   Suitable methods to mitigate non-normal safety risks include flight crew procedures (including contingency procedures), flight crew training, engineering modifications, operating limitations, and procedure design.
Note 2   Additional guidance on provision for non-normal operations is contained in FAA AC 120-29A, Criteria for Approval of Category I and Category II Weather Minima for Approach.
5          Aircraft eligibility
                 An aircraft is eligible for RNP AR operations only if:
(a)   the OEM has documented that the aircraft is capable of RNP AR approach operations, or RNP AR departure operations or both RNP AR approach and departure operations; and
(b)   the aircraft meets the requirements for RNP AR operations in accordance with ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 6, Implementing RNP AR APCH; and
(c)   for an aircraft equipped with GNSS sensors which comply with TSO‑C129a or an equivalent standard, the following minimum equipment:
             (i)  2 FMS;
            (ii)  2 GNSS sensors (which may be included in an MMR);
           (iii)  1 IRS;
           (iv)  2 flight directors;
            (v)  2 flight mode annunciators;
           (vi)  2 RADALTs;
          (vii)  duplicated primary flight and navigation displays;
         (viii)  duplicated alternating current power source (for which an APU may be used);
           (ix)  1 autopilot channel;
            (x)  1 TAWS appropriate to the class of operation; and
(d)   for an aircraft equipped with GNSS sensors or GNSS receivers which comply with TSO-C145a or TSO-C146a or an equivalent standard, the following minimum equipment:
             (i)  2 FMS;
            (ii)  2 GNSS sensors or receivers (and which may be included in an MMR);
           (iii)  1 flight director;
           (iv)  1 flight mode annunciator;
            (v)  1 RADALT;
           (vi)  duplicated primary flight and navigation displays;
          (vii)  duplicated alternating current power source (for which an APU may be used);
         (viii)  1 autopilot channel;
           (ix)  1 TAWS appropriate to the class of operation; and
(e)   all modifications, options or particular part numbers required by the manufacturer are installed in, or on, the aircraft.
6          RNP AR system performance
       6.1     The system must meet the performance, monitoring and alerting requirements for RNP AR operations as stated in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 6, Implementing RNP AR APCH.
       6.2     Positioning data from non-GNSS navigation sensors may be integrated with GNSS data if:
(a)   the non-GNSS data does not cause position errors exceeding the TSE budget; or
(b)   if paragraph (a) does not apply — there is a means to deselect the non‑GNSS inputs.
7          RNP AR system functionality
       7.1     Subject to this clause, an eligible aircraft’s RNP AR system must, as a minimum, meet the standards of functionality stated in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 6, Implementing RNP AR APCH.
       7.2     The system must be capable of executing leg transitions and maintain tracks consistent with an RF leg.
Note   ICAO Doc 9613 includes this requirement only where approaches are designed with RF legs. However, RNP AR procedures designed in accordance with proprietary design criteria for use by operators of Australian aircraft are dependent upon RF leg capability.
       7.3     The following requirements must be complied with for the display of cross-track deviation, namely, within the pilot’s primary field of view there must be:
(a)   a suitably scaled CDI; and
(b)   a map display with a numeric indication of cross-track deviation in 1/100th NM or less.
       7.4     Despite subclause 7.3, for an RNP AR approach or departure with an RNP of not less than 0.3, there must be within the pilot’s primary field of view:
(a)   a map display; and
(b)   a numeric display of cross-track deviation of 1/10th NM or less.
       7.5     Despite subclause 7.3, for an RNP AR approach or departure with an RNP of 0.3 or less, the means by which the flight crew monitor and manage cross-track deviations must be:
(a)   demonstrated by the operator to be adequate for all normal and non‑normal conditions within the FTE appropriate to the RNP to be used; and
(b)   arrived at only after operator consideration of relevant factors, including the following:
             (i)  information displayed in the pilot’s primary field of view;
            (ii)  information displayed outside the pilot’s primary field of view;
           (iii)  the resolution, scaling, numeric and other cross-track indications available;
           (iv)  the predictive display of aircraft flight path;
            (v)  the crew procedures used to monitor and manage FTE;
           (vi)  operator procedures for initiation of a missed approach;
          (vii)  information provided by the aircraft manufacturer;
         (viii)  simulator demonstration of FTE management.
       7.6     The navigation system is not required to provide an alert to the flight crew when GNSS updating is lost, provided there is an alert when the selected RNP no longer meets the criteria for continued navigation.
       7.7     Subject to subclause 7.8, the system must provide LNAV guidance throughout a go-round conducted at any point in the approach.
Note   This function is commonly referred to as TOGA to LNAV.
       7.8     Where continuous LNAV guidance is not available, an alternative means is acceptable only if:
(a)   each flight crew member receives specific training in accurate track‑keeping during a go-round; and
(b)   the operator demonstrates to CASA that the lateral track can be accurately maintained under all normal and non-normal conditions.
8          Operational standards — flight planning – general
                 Operating procedures for RNP AR must be in accordance with clauses 9 to 23 of this Appendix.
Note   The operating procedures contained in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 6, Implementing RNP AR APCH do not apply and are replaced by the operating standards in clauses 9 to 23 of this Appendix.
9          RNP availability prediction
       9.1     Subject to subclause 9.2, before an RNP AR operation commences, availability of an RNP service must be predicted, taking into account relevant matters, including the following:
(a)   aerodrome location;
(b)   approach or departure operation;
(c)   terrain masking;
(d)   satellite serviceability (NOTAMs);
(e)   installed avionics algorithms.
       9.2     Subclause 9.1 does not apply if the aircraft can achieve LNAV accuracy that is at least equal to that required for the RNP AR operation using requisite GNSS satellites.
Note   Requisite GNSS satellites is defined in subsection 3 of this Order.
10        Radio updating
                 If radio updating may degrade the GNSS position, radio updating must be inhibited before commencement of the RNP AR operation.
11        Procedure selection
                 An approach or departure procedure must be retrievable by procedure identifier from the aircraft navigation database.
12        Procedure verification
     12.1     Before an RNP AR operation commences, the following must be verified:
(a)   that the correct approach or departure procedure has been selected;
(b)   that the cockpit electronic displays correctly replicate the route, the waypoint sequence and significant operational details shown on the published IAL procedure chart.
     12.2     However, paragraph 12.1 (b) must not be carried out for an RNP AR operation that is an EOSID.
Note   Verification that cockpit electronic displays correctly replicate the route, the waypoint sequence and significant operational details shown on the published IAL procedure chart is specifically prohibited for an EOSID in order to avoid inadvertent activation of the wrong route.
13        Procedure modification
                 The flight crew must not modify the loaded procedure.
14        Vectoring
                 When vectored by an air traffic service, a procedure may be intercepted at a position inside the IAF but not later than the VIP. However, descent on an approach procedure below the minimum vectoring altitude is not permitted until the aircraft is established within the vertical and lateral tolerances of the procedure, and the appropriate navigation mode is engaged.
15        Required equipment to be serviceable
                 Before an RNP AR operation commences, the required equipment must be serviceable and its serviceability confirmed.
Note   A list of required equipment should be readily available to the flight crew on the flight deck.
16        Autopilot and flight director
                 The standard method of flight control for RNP AR operations is autopilot coupled. However, the use of a flight director instead of the autopilot is acceptable if:
(a)   the aircraft manufacturer’s recommended operating procedures permit such use of the flight director; and
(b)   the operator has provided each member of the flight crew with:
             (i)  guidance on when a flight director may be so used; and
            (ii)  training in the conduct of RNP AR operations using the flight director; and
(c)   the operator has demonstrated to CASA that when the aircraft is flown with the flight director, FTE can be maintained within the permitted tolerances during all normal, rare-normal and non-normal circumstances.
Note   The FTE used by the aircraft manufacturer to demonstrate RNP capability may be dependent upon the use of a coupled autopilot. A lesser RNP capability may be applicable to procedures flown using flight director.
17        RNP selection
                 Before an RNP AR operation commences, the appropriate RNP must be entered into the FMC and its appropriateness and accurate entry confirmed.
Note   The appropriate RNP is determined by the flight crew after consideration of the published DA (or multiple DAs), the weather and other ambient conditions, the current RNP service, and the predicted RNP service. For RNP AR procedures designed in accordance with proprietary design criteria for use by operators of Australian aircraft, other than a system default value, RNP is not extracted from the navigation database.
18        GNSS updating
     18.1     Before an RNP AR operation commences, GNSS updating must be operating and such operation confirmed.
     18.2     Unless the AFM requires otherwise, if GNSS updating is lost during an approach, the approach may be continued if the navigation system continues to provide a solution consistent with the selected RNP.
Note   The AFM may require an approach to be discontinued in the event of a loss of GNSS updating in which case the approach must be discontinued.
19        Track deviation monitoring
     19.1     Deviation from the defined lateral path must not exceed 1 x RNP at all stages of flight.
     19.2     To ensure compliance with subclause 19.1, the operator’s procedures must provide for the following:
(a)   monitoring lateral tracking;
(b)   track deviation alerts and callouts;
(c)   flight crew intervention;
(d)   regaining track;
(e)   discontinuing the operation.
Note   RNP AR procedures designed in accordance with proprietary design criteria for use by operators of Australian aircraft require that the standard for track-keeping is applied during turns and no allowance is made for overshoot or undershoot during entry or exit. All turns for these procedures are RF legs.
20        V/DEV monitoring
     20.1     After the aircraft has passed the VIP on an approach, deviation from the defined vertical path must not exceed the limiting value for V/DEV stated in the operator’s RNP AR operating procedures.
     20.2     The operator must have RNP AR operating procedures containing the limiting value for V/DEV.
     20.3     The limiting value for V/DEV may only be determined after the operator has considered the following:
(a)   the aircraft manufacturer’s data relating to vertical flight path accuracy;
(b)   the cockpit display of V/DEV;
(c)   the value used by the designer of the IAL procedure.
     20.4     The operator’s determination of the limiting value for V/DEV must not exceed 75 ft below the defined vertical flight path.
     20.5     The operator’s determination of the limiting value for V/DEV above the defined vertical path must not exceed 75 ft unless a figure greater than 75 ft is determined as appropriate for the aircraft type after taking into account the following:
(a)   aircraft flight characteristics;
(b)   the effect that any deviation may have on the safe continuation of a stabilised approach;
(c)   airspeed;
(d)   energy management;
(e)   aircraft height above ground level;
(f)    autopilot vertical gain performance.
     20.6     For the purposes of this clause, the operator must have flight crew procedures for the following:
(a)   monitoring V/DEV;
(b)   deviation alerts and callouts;
(c)   flight crew intervention;
(d)   missed approach.
21        Maximum airspeeds
     21.1     For approach procedures, the limiting indicated airspeeds by segment and category are:
(a)   as stated in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 6, Implementing RNP AR APCH; or
(b)   if other speeds are specified by the procedure designer — the other speeds.
     21.2     For departure procedures, the limiting indicated airspeeds are as specified by the procedure designer.
22        Limiting temperature
     22.1     Before an RNP AR operation commences, the operator must ensure that the flight crew of an aircraft are informed of the following:
(a)   whether temperature limitations apply to the operation;
(b)   for what purpose temperature limitations apply (if they apply);
(c)   the circumstances when temperature limitations do not apply.
     22.2     Temperature limitations do not apply to VNAV of an aircraft that is equipped with a temperature-compensated Baro-VNAV system.
     22.3     Temperature limitations apply to an operation in which the DA is determined by consideration of the one-engine inoperative missed approach performance.
     22.4     The operator of an aircraft that is equipped with a temperature-compensated Baro-VNAV system must ensure that each member of the flight crew is trained in the use of the system.
23        Altimeter setting
                 The operator must not permit the use of remote altimeter settings.
24        Qualification flight
     24.1     An RNP AR authorisation may be issued to an operator only after a qualification flight conducted by the operator demonstrates to CASA that:
(a)   the operator meets all operating standards for RNP AR operations; and
(b)   the aircraft navigation, flight control, cockpit display and other systems function correctly; and
(c)   the operator’s flight crew procedures are adequate; and
(d)   procedure design, aircraft systems, airworthiness and flight crew procedures function correctly and interact appropriately; and
(e)   the operator has the capability to safely operate the most complex procedures proposed to be flown.
Note   Where the qualification flight does not demonstrate capability at the operator’s most complex port, the RNP AR authorisation may include a condition or limitation on operations.
     24.2     The qualification flight may be conducted in a Level D flight simulator only if:
(a)   the flight simulator reasonably replicates the RNP AR related functions, software version and options of the aircraft in which the RNP AR operations will be conducted; and
(b)   CASA is satisfied that any RNP AR related functions not replicated in the flight simulator are not safety critical, and are demonstrated by other means; and
(c)   the flight simulation is carried out by a flight crew trained in accordance the operator’s RNP AR approved training program.
     24.3     Where the qualification flight is flown in an aircraft, the flight is to be conducted:
(a)   in an aircraft of the same type and configuration as the aircraft in which the RNP AR operations will be conducted; and
(b)   by a flight crew trained in accordance the operator’s RNP AR approved training program; and
(c)   in V.M.C. by day.
Note   A qualification flight may be conducted on a scheduled revenue service.
25        Flight crew proficiencies
     25.1     Subject to this clause, an RNP AR operations may only be commenced if each member of the flight crew has the knowledge and training provided for in ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 6, Implementing RNP AR APCH.
     25.2     An RNP AR operation may only be conducted if each member of the flight crew has the proficiencies set out in this clause.
     25.3     Each member of the flight crew must have sufficient ground training and flight training (whether in actual or simulated flight) in normal and abnormal operations to achieve operational competency.
     25.4     RNP AR training proficiencies may only be acquired from successful completion of the knowledge and training elements of the operator’s training course.
     25.5     The required RNP AR training proficiencies to be acquired from the operator’s training course are set out in Table 24-1 in Attachment 1 (Table 24-1).
     25.6     Subject to subclause 25.8, each member of the flight crew must successfully complete each item of training proficiency listed in Table 24-1.
     25.7     Each item of training proficiency listed in Table 24-1 must be delivered in accordance with each delivery method specified for the item.
Note   A Delivery Method Legend in Table 24-1 explains the meaning of the symbols used in each item.
     25.8     For the flight crew training for RNP AR operations approved by CASA, CASA may permit previous relevant RNP APCH-LNAV operational experience, including operational experience in FMC-based RNAV procedures, to exempt a pilot from some or all of an item specified in Table 24-1.
Note   See paragraph 3 (c) of this Appendix for CASA approval of training. Exemption from an item of training because of prior learning is specifically noted in writing by CASA in approving an operator’s training course.
     25.9     If the flight crew training approved by CASA is for RNP AR APCH operations only, or for combined RNP AR APCH and RNP AR APCH DEP operations only, CASA may permit the pilot to be exempted from some or all of an item specified in Table 24-1 that is not relevant to the training.
Note   See paragraph 3 (c) of this Appendix for CASA approval of training. Exemption from an item of training because of the exclusive nature of the operations is specifically noted in writing by CASA in approving an operator’s training course.
26        Flight crew recency
     26.1     Each member of the flight crew must satisfy recency requirements in accordance with this clause.
     26.2     Subject to subclause 26.3, recency requirements for RNP AR operations (for example, RNP AR APCH) are satisfied if relevant RNP AR procedures are included in the recurrent training program for pilots provided by the operator’s training and checking organisation under regulation 217 of CAR 1988.
     26.3     Recency requirements for an RNP AR APCH operation (the operation), for a pilot who is not a member of an operating crew mentioned in regulation 217 of CAR 1988, are satisfied if the pilot has conducted an RNP AR APCH procedure during the 35 days before the operation.
     26.4     For this clause, conduct of either an RNP APCH-LNAV, or an RNP APCH‑LNAV/VNAV, or an RNP AR APCH, meets the recency requirement for RNP APCH-LNAV, RNP APCH‑LNAV/VNAV and RNP AR APCH, provided the approach is conducted in an FMS equipped aircraft.
     26.5     Where RNP AR operations are to be at a restricted aerodrome, or are to involve operations in the vicinity of mountainous terrain, the pilot in command must successfully complete a Route Training and Restricted Minima Program.
     26.6     For RNP AR operations that are not to be at a restricted aerodrome, or not to involve operations in the vicinity of mountainous terrain, a pilot in command who has not successfully completed a Route Training and Restricted Minima Program must successfully complete at least 1 RNP AR APCH at any airfield in V.M.C. before conducting unrestricted operations.
Note   Restricted aerodrome is defined in subsection 3 of this Order.
27        MEL
                 The operator’s MEL must identify any unserviceability that affects the conduct of an RNP AR operation.
28        Continuing airworthiness
     28.1     The operator must have procedures in force to ensure the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft for RNP AR operations.
     28.2     The operator must ensure that the aircraft equipment and configuration control are consistent with:
(a)   RNP AR capability; and
(b)   minimum equipment requirements.
     28.3     The operator must ensure that engineering and maintenance personnel are trained in, and familiar with, RNP AR airworthiness requirements.
29        Navigation database — standards and discrepancies
                    General
     29.1     Subject to this clause, management of the navigation databases must be in accordance with the requirements of ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 6, Implementing RNP AR APCH.
     29.2     A navigation database for RNP AR operations:
(a)   may only be used if it has been obtained from a supplier who complies with:
             (i)  Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO 200A; or
            (ii)  European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) document ED-76, Standards for Processing Aeronautical Data; and
(b)   must be compatible with the intended function of the equipment in accordance with ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Chapter 7.
Note   An LOA, issued by an appropriate regulatory authority to each of the participants in the data chain, demonstrates compliance with this requirement, for example, FAA LOA issued in accordance with FAA AC 20-153 or EASA LOA issued in accordance with EASA Implementing Rule (IR) 21, Subpart G.
                    Data updates
     29.3     Data management and procedure validation for RNP AR procedures must be in accordance with:
(a)   the provisions of ICAO Doc 9613, Performance-based Navigation (PBN) Manual, Volume II, Part C, Chapter 6, Implementing RNP AR APCH relating to data updates; or
(b)   subclauses 29.4 to 29.9.
                    Alternative data updates — cyclic data checks
     29.4     For paragraph 29.3 (b), the operator must:
(a)   implement procedures for the continued validity and integrity of navigation data at each data cycle; and
(b)   periodically check the RNP AR navigation database for database integrity; and
Note   While an LOA provides assurance of minimum standards for the supply of a navigation database, errors may still occur. All operators must conduct periodic checks to ensure database integrity.
(c)   ensure that any discrepancy in data is resolved before operational use by:
             (i)  reissue of the navigation database; or
            (ii)  withdrawal of the approach or departure procedure; or
           (iii)  appropriate instructions to flight crew.
                    Flight validation
     29.5     For paragraph 29.3 (b), where a certificated procedure designer has not conducted a flight validation in an aircraft of the type and configuration to be used for the RNP AR operation, the operator is required to conduct a flight validation for each such aircraft type and configuration to verify that:
(a)   the aircraft navigation, flight control, cockpit display and other systems function correctly; and
(b)   the procedure is flyable.
Note   It is the responsibility of the operator to ensure that a validation is conducted in the aircraft type/configuration to be operated. However, that responsibility may be discharged if the operator has documentary evidence that the required validation has been conducted by the aircraft manufacturer or another RNP AR qualified operator.
                    Flight validation in a flight simulator
     29.6     The validation flight mentioned in subclause 29.5 may only be conducted in a Level D flight simulator if:
(a)   the flight simulator reasonably replicates the RNP AR related functions, the software version, and the options of the aircraft in which the RNP AR operation will be conducted; or
(b)   where paragraph (a) does not apply — the RNP AR operation procedure is:
             (i)  typical of other procedures previously validated in the aircraft type by the operator; and
            (ii)  not complex; and
           (iii)  such that CASA is satisfied that the Level D flight simulator validation is adequate.
Note   Complex is defined in subclause 29.9.
     29.7     For paragraph 29.3 (b), unless subclause 29.6 applies, the validation flight must be conducted in the operator’s aeroplane in V.M.C. by day. However, non‑normal operations may not be conducted during a validation flight.
Note   The validation flight may be conducted on a scheduled revenue service.
     29.8     For paragraph 29.3 (b), before entry into operational service, alignment of the first segment of a departure procedure, and alignment of the final approach lateral and vertical paths of an approach procedure, must be flight checked by the operator as follows:
(a)   in an aircraft of the same type and configuration as is to be operated;
(b)   in V.M.C;
(c)   by an RNP AR qualified pilot in command and flight crew;
(d)   by the pilot in command confirming in writing that the alignments are fit for service.
Note   The flight check may be conducted on a scheduled revenue service.
     29.9     For subparagraph 29.6 (b) (ii), an RNP AR operation procedure is complex if:
(a)   for an approach:
             (i)  a turn is required for obstacle clearance within the final approach segment; or
            (ii)  2 or more turns are required for obstacle clearance within the missed approach segment; or
(b)   for a departure:
             (i)  a turn is required for any reason below 1 000 ft; or
`           (ii)  2 or more turns are required for obstacle clearance.
30        Implementation program
     30.1     RNP AR operations may only be conducted in accordance with the operator’s approved implementation program.
     30.2     If an operator that has not previously conducted RNP AR operations, or RNP AR operations using a particular aircraft type, the implementation program must include limits on operating minima until the operator is able to demonstrate to CASA the capability to safely conduct RNP AR operations without such limits.
Note   The initial operating period is determined after consideration of all relevant factors including operator RNAV and VNAV operating experience, the number and frequency of RNP AR operations conducted and the number of non-compliant incidents recorded.
     30.3     The implementation program must have procedures to identify any negative trend in performance or operations, including procedures for monitoring RNP AR operations and collecting relevant data.
     30.4     At intervals as specified in the operator’s implementation program, the operator must submit to CASA a report containing a review of operations including the following elements:
(a)   the total number of RNP AR procedures conducted;
(b)   the number of satisfactory approaches and departures by aircraft and system;
Note   Satisfactory means the approach or departure was completed as planned without any navigation or guidance system anomalies.
(c)   the reasons for unsatisfactory operations, for example:
             (i)  UNABLE REQ NAV PERF – RNP, GPS PRIMARY LOST, or other RNP related messages; and
            (ii)  excessive lateral or V/DEV; and
           (iii)  TAWS warning; and
           (iv)  autopilot system disconnect; and
            (v)  navigation data errors; and
           (vi)  pilot report of anomaly;
(d)   comments, both oral and written, from the flight crew.
31        Conditions arising from the implementation program
     31.1     Full RNP AR operational capability may not be achieved until the operator has demonstrated to CASA satisfactory operations at defined stages in accordance with the operator’s approved implementation program.
     31.2     An RNP AR authorisation may be issued subject to:
(a)   conditions to be met for each stage of the operator’s approved implementation program; and
(b)   conditions under which the operator may progress to full operational capability.
Note   A suitable implementation program will impose limits on RNP AR operations until sufficient operating experience and flight data has been collected to warrant progress (usually in stages) to full operational capability. Initial operations will normally be limited to day V.M.C., and subsequent phases will permit operations to I.M.C. operations with ceiling, visibility and RNP limits until full capability is achieved. It is intended that a navigation authorisation will be issued before commencement of the operator’s implementation program, with specified conditions under which the operator is able to progress to full operational capability.
Attachment 1 to Appendix 7 — RNP AR training proficiencies
Table 24-1    RNP AR training proficiencies
Delivery method legend
         A     Paper based training. (See Note 1.)
          B     CBT.
          #     Recognition of prior learning if qualified to conduct RNAV (GNSS) operations in the same aircraft and FMS type. A different FMS update status is considered to be the same FMS type.
          S     Level D flight simulator training.
          P     Proficiency check required. (See Note 2.)
 
Item
RNP AR training proficiencies
Delivery methods

1
GNSS Theory (Architecture, Accuracy, Integrity, etc.)
A
B
#
 
 

2
RNP APCH Procedure Design Basics
A
B
#
 
 

3
RNP AR Procedure Design Basics
A
B
 
 
 

4
Rare Normal wind protection and maximum coded speeds
A
B
 
 
 

5
RNP/ANP/EPE Definitions and the Navigational Concept
A
B
 
 
 

6
RNP DEP and Engine Out Procedures
(Only required for an RNP AR DEP navigation authorisation.)
A
B
 
 
 

7
EO SID obstacle clearance areas
(Only required for an RNP AR EOSID navigation authorisation.)
A
B
 
 
 

8
Missed Approach Extraction Capability
A
B
 
 
 

9
FMS System Architecture
A
B
#
 
 

10
Multi Sensor Navigation and Sensor Blending
A
B
#
 
 

11
FMS Failure Modes and Indications
A
B
 
 
 

12
Navigation Performance Displays (NPS, L/DEV, V/DEV)
A
B
 
 
 

13
Allowable Lateral and Vertical FTE’s
A
B
 
 
 

14
VSD (where fitted)
A
B
#
 
 

15
MEL
A
B
 
 
 

16
Critical System Losses Prior to the VIP or NNDP4
A
B
 
 
P

17
Critical System Losses after the VIP or NNDP4
A
B
 
S
P

18
Navigation System Losses after the VIP or NNDP4
A
B
 
S
P

19
FMS Database Integrity
A
B
 
 
 

20
RNP Performance Prediction
A
B
 
 
 

21
Flight Crew Procedure Review
 
 
 
 
 

21.1
Selecting an RNP procedure
A
B
 
S
P

21.2
Changing an RNP procedure
A
B
 
 
 

21.3
Briefing an RNP procedure
A
B
 
S
P

21.4
Checking an RNP procedure
A
B
 
S
P

21.5
RNP Missed Approach Requirements
A
B
 
S
P

21.6
Navigation System Failures
A
B
 
S
 

21.7
VIP Definition
A
B
 
 
 

21.8
Runway Changes inside the VIP
A
B
 
 
 

21.9
Managing a Non-Normal prior to the VIP
A
B
 
S
P

21.10
Managing a Non-Normal after the VIP
A
B
 
S
P

21.11
Autopilot Requirements
A
B
 
S
P

21.12
FMS Default RNP Values and Alerts
A
B
#
 
 

21.13
Effect of an Incorrectly Set Local QNH
A
B
#
S
 

21.14
Effect of Non-Standard Temperature on Nominal Path
A
B
#
 
 

21.15
Approach Procedures including PF and PNF/PM duties
A
B
 
S
P

21.16
HUGS (if fitted)
A
B
 
S
 

21.17
Monitoring and Flying Raw Data
A
B
#
S
 

21.18
FMS Modes/Functionality (On Approach Logic, VNAV PATH, FINAL APP MODE, SPD INTV, ALT INTV, Managed/Selected modes)
A
B
#
S
 

21.19
FCC Lateral and Vertical Go-around functionality
A
B
 
 
 

21.20
RNP Holding Patterns and Managing the FMS
A
B
 
 
 

22
Flight simulator training
 
 
 
 
 

22.1
Departure
(Only required for an RNP AR DEP navigation authorisation.)
 
 
 
S
 

22.2
Approach
 
 
 
S
P

22.3
Approach Dual FMC Failure
 
 
 
S
 

22.4
Departure with High Drift Condition
(Only required for an RNP AR DEP navigation authorisation.)
 
 
 
S
 

22.5
Approach with High Drift Condition
 
 
 
S
 

22.6
Departure Asymmetric Thrust
(Only required for an RNP AR DEP navigation authorisation.)
 
 
 
S
P

22.7
Approach IRS Failure
 
 
 
S
 

22.8
Approach with Asymmetric Thrust and Missed Approach
 
 
 
S
 

22.9
Approach Single GPS Receiver failure
 
 
#
S
 

22.10
Approach Navigation System Alerts
 
 
#
S
 


Note 1   Where both paper-based and CBT methods appear, it is intended that the item is included in written study-material as well as ground school computer-based sessions.
Note 2   Not all proficiency requirements need to be demonstrated in a flight simulator. Some proficiency items may be demonstrated by written or oral examinations, including multi-choice questions and quiz tests.
Note 3   Some proficiencies apply to specific manufacturer/operator selected equipment options. These items must be covered if they are applicable to the aircraft type or the operator’s equipment.
Note 4   Operators may choose to nominate an NNDP (in addition to the VIP) for the purpose of defining actions to be taken in the event of systems failures.
Appendix 8 — Requirements for use of APV Baro-VNAV
1          APV Baro-VNAV navigation authorisation for I.F.R. flights
                 APV Baro-VNAV may only be used for PBN by an aircraft if:
(a)   the operator has an APV Baro-VNAV authorisation in writing from CASA; and
(b)   the aircraft is engaged in 3-dimensional instrument approach procedures, flown to a DA, using vertical guidance based on information derived from:
             (i)  air data sensors; and
            (ii)  a suitable LNAV system.
Note 1   In combination with RNP APCH-LNAV, APV Baro-VNAV uses:
(a)     lateral guidance, provided by GNSS; and
(b)     vertical guidance, provided by a Baro-VNAV system; and
(c)     obstacle clearance, provided by MOC methodology for approach and missed approach segments; and
(d)     a vertical flight path for final approach, defined by a VPA originating at a specified waypoint (normally the runway threshold or RW waypoint) and extending back along the flight path to an FAP.
Note 2   The VPA is contained in the specification of the instrument procedure within the RNAV system navigation database.
2          Requirements for APV Baro-VNAV
       2.1     An APV Baro-VNAV navigation authorisation may only be issued to an operator who:
(a)   holds an RNP APCH-LNAV; and
(b)   complies with subclause 2.2.
       2.2     For paragraph 2.1 (b), an APV Baro-VNAV navigation authorisation may only be issued to an operator who:
(a)   applies in writing to CASA for it; and
(b)   supplies the documents mentioned in clause 3; and
(c)   satisfies CASA that APV Baro-VNAV operations can, and are likely to continue to, meet the requirements of this Appendix, including in relation to the following:
             (i)  aircraft eligibility;
            (ii)  APV Baro-VNAV equipment, system performance and system functionality;
           (iii)  operating standards, including flight planning and flight procedures;
           (iv)  approved flight crew training, and recency;
            (v)  MEL procedures;
           (vi)  aircraft and RNP system maintenance;
          (vii)  validity and continuing integrity of the airborne navigation database;
         (viii)  navigation error reporting procedures.
       2.3     An APV Baro-VNAV navigation authorisation may not be issued unless the operator meets the requirements of this Appendix.
       2.4     Despite subclauses 2.1, 2.2 and 2.3, an APV Baro-VNAV navigation authorisation may be issued to an operator who:
(a)   holds an RNP AR APCH navigation authorisation; and
(b)   operates an aircraft which meets the aircraft eligibility requirements for an RNP AR APCH navigation authorisation; and
(c)   applies in writing to CASA for an APV Baro-VNAV navigation authorisation.
       2.5     An APV Baro-VNAV navigation authorisation may be issued, subject to conditions, if CASA considers this is necessary in the interests of safety.
       2.6     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that the applicable operational requirements of this Appendix are complied with after the issue of the authorisation.
       2.7     It is a condition of the issue of a navigation authorisation that where an operational check, consideration, procedure or task (however described) is required under this Appendix, the operator must ensure that it is performed, given, followed or carried out, as the case may be.
Note   The check, consideration, procedure or task may in practice be performed etc. by the pilot in command, other members of the flight crew, the despatch officer or other operational personnel. However, legal responsibility for compliance is placed on the operator who must ensure that the performance etc. occurs in accordance with his or her established procedures.
3          Application — documents
                 The application must be made on the approved form and be accompanied by the following documents:
(a)   aircraft airworthiness documents which satisfy CASA that the aircraft is equipped for APV Baro-VNAV operations, for example, the AFM, the AFM Supplement or OEM service letters;
(b)   a detailed description of relevant aircraft equipment for APV Baro-VNAV operations, including a configuration list of the components and equipment;
(c)   a detailed description of the proposed flight crew training for APV Baro‑VNAV operations, including a copy of the training syllabus, for approval by CASA;
(d)   a detailed description of the proposed training for maintenance personnel in APV Baro-VNAV operations, including a copy of the training syllabus, for approval by CASA;
(e)   a detailed description of the operating procedures to be used for APV Baro‑VNAV operations (including flight planning and flight procedures) supported by relevant copies of, or extracts from, the following:
             (i)  the operations manual;
            (ii)  the checklists;
           (iii)  the contingency procedures;
           (iv)  the QRH;
(f)    copies of the sections of the MEL applicable to APV Baro-VNAV operations;
(g)   a detailed description of the maintenance program used to ensure the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft for APV Baro-VNAV operations;
(h)   a detailed description of the method used to ensure the validity and continuing integrity of the airborne navigation database;
(i)    revisions to the MEL;
(j)    if requested in writing by CASA — a copy of any relevant document referred to in any of the documents mentioned in paragraphs (a) to (i).
4          Aircraft eligibility
       4.1     An aircraft is eligible for APV Baro-VNAV operations if the aircraft is equipped with the following:
(a)   a barometric VNAV system that meets the requirements set out in subclause 4.2;
(b)   a navigational database that permits the lateral and vertical path to be defined;
(c)   navigation displays which enable V/DEV from the defined VNAV path to be determined;
(d)   a GNSS RNAV system approved for I.F.R. approach operations in accordance with an RNP APCH authorisation.
       4.2     For paragraph 4.1 (a), a barometric VNAV system must meet the requirements of at least 1 of the following:
(a)   FAA AC 20-129 — Airworthiness Approval of Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Systems for use in the United States National Airspace System (NAS) and Alaska;
(b)   FAA AC 90-105 — Approval Guidance for RNP Operations and Barometric Vertical Navigation in the U.S. National Airspace System;
(c)   EASA AMC 20-27 — Airworthiness Approval and Operational Criteria for RNP APPROACH (RNP APCH) Operations including APV BARO‑VNAV Operations;
(d)   an approval issued in the aircraft’s State of operation or registry, and which is assessed by CASA as meeting requirements that are the same as, or equivalent to, the requirements of this clause;
(e)   a CASA assessment of the aircraft which results in a CASA determination that the aircraft meets the standards for eligibility set out in this clause.
5          APV Baro-VNAV system performance
       5.1     An eligible aircraft’s Baro-VNAV system used in APV Baro-VNAV operations must meet the following performance standards:
(a)   the performance requirements set out in FAA AC 20-129 — Airworthiness Approval of Vertical Navigation (VNAV) Systems for use in the United States National Airspace System (NAS) and Alaska; or
(b)   a demonstration to CASA that the VNAV TSE, including altimetry errors, is less than 75 m (246 ft) for a probability of 99.99%.
       5.2     For the purposes of the demonstration mentioned in paragraph 5.1 (b), the VNAV TSE analysis is to include the following:
(a)   altimetry errors including allowance for accuracy of reported barometric pressure (ATIS error);
(b)   VNAV system error, including VPA resolution error;
(c)   waypoint resolution error;
(d)   FTE.
Note   Provision for RNAV along-track system error is not included.
6          APV Baro-VNAV system functionality
       6.1     Subject to subclause 6.2, an eligible aircraft’s Baro-VNAV system must have the following functionality in APV Baro-VNAV operations:
(a)   the system must be able to load the entire procedure to be flown into the RNP system from the on-board navigation database, including the approach, the missed approach and the approach transitions for the selected aerodrome and runway;
(b)   the system must make it impossible for the flight crew to modify instrument approach procedure data;
(c)   the resolution of VPA entry (from the navigation database) and display must be no greater than 0.1;
(d)   the vertical path must be defined by a waypoint and a vertical angle;
(e)   V/DEV from the defined VNAV path must be continuously displayed in the primary field of view of the pilot or each pilot, as the case requires;
(f)    V/DEV resolution must be not more than 10 ft;
(g)   for aircraft with a flight crew of 2 pilots — a barometric altitude from 2 independent sources must be displayed, 1 in each pilot’s primary field of view;
(h)   there must be a means for the flight crew to readily determine:
             (i)  the VNAV mode of operation, including establishment or capture of the vertical path; and
            (ii)  any mode change or reversion.
       6.2     As an alternative to meeting the system functionality specified in subclause 6.1 for the display and monitoring of V/DEV, the following functionality may be met: an operational assessment that enables CASA to determine that the pilot flying the aircraft is able to readily distinguish V/DEV not exceeding plus or minus 75 ft, such that timely corrective action (including a go-round) can be initiated.
       6.3     For subclause 6.2, the operational assessment must include the following:
(a)   digital display of V/DEV;
(b)   displays not in the primary field of view;
(c)   aural or other warnings or annunciations;
(d)   crew procedures and training;
(e)   use of flight director or autopilot or both;
(f)    flight trials, or other performance indicators, or both of these means of assessment.
7          Operating standards
                 The standards for the conduct of APV Baro-VNAV operations are as follows:
(a)   operations must be conducted using an approved local barometric pressure source;
(b)   before an APV Baro-VNAV approach operation may commence, the correct barometric pressure must be set and a method of cross-checking must be applied;
(c)   a stabilized approach must be flown to a DA indicated on an approach chart by an LNAV/VNAV minima;
(d)   the flight must limit deviations below the defined vertical path to no more than 75 ft;
(e)   a missed approach procedure must be conducted if the V/DEV exceeds 75 ft below the defined vertical path;
(f)    any sustained deviations above the defined vertical path must not exceed 75 ft unless the operator determines that a figure greater than 75 ft is appropriate for the aircraft type after taking into account the following:
             (i)  aircraft flight characteristics;
            (ii)  the effect that any deviation may have on the safe continuation of a stabilised approach;
           (iii)  airspeed;
           (iv)  energy management;
            (v)  aircraft height above ground level;
           (vi)  autopilot vertical gain performance.
(g)   temperature limitations, as published on the relevant approach chart, must be applied for an aircraft that is:
             (i)  operating under an APV Baro-VNAV authorisation; and
            (ii)  equipped with a Baro-VNAV system that does not provide temperature compensation in the determination of the vertical path;
(h)      temperature limitations need not be applied for an aircraft that is:
             (i)  operating under a APV Baro-VNAV authorisation; and
            (ii)  equipped with a Baro-VNAV system that provides temperature compensation in the determination of the vertical path;
(i)    the aircraft must be established on the vertical path no later than the FAF;
(j)    if Baro-VNAV guidance is intended for use before the FAF operating procedures — the following requirements apply:
             (i)  minimum altitudes must be displayed;
            (ii)  the computed vertical flight path must not permit descent below any minimum altitude;
(k)   the flight crew must have a means to determine the aircraft configuration and serviceability for APV Baro-VNAV operations.
8          Flight crew knowledge and training
                 An APV Baro-VNAV operation may only be commenced if each member of the flight crew has knowledge of, and approved training in, how to safely conduct an APV Baro-VNAV operation, with particular reference to the following:
(a)   APV Baro-VNAV instrument approach charts, including LNAV/VNAV minima, temperature limitations, and vertical flight path angle;
(b)   principles of Baro-VNAV vertical guidance, including path construction and the effect of temperature;
(c)   basic APV Baro-VNAV instrument approach procedure design;
(d)   use of MDA and DA for LNAV and LNAV/VNAV minima respectively;
(e)   approach procedure selection;
(f)    barometric datum selection (altimeter subscale setting), and cross-checking and verification procedures, including effect of incorrect setting;
(g)   VNAV mode selection and monitoring;
(h)   VNAV failure modes and mode reversions;
(i)    VNAV flight tolerances.
9          MEL
                 The operator’s MEL must identify any unserviceability that affects the conduct of an APV Baro-VNAV operation.
10        Continuing airworthiness
     10.1     The operator must have procedures in force to ensure the continuing airworthiness of the aircraft for APV Baro-VNAV operations.
     10.2     The operator must ensure that the aircraft equipment and configuration control are consistent with:
(a)   APV Baro-VNAV capability; and
(b)   minimum equipment requirements.
     10.3     The operator must ensure that engineering and maintenance personnel are trained in, and familiar with, APV Baro-VNAV airworthiness requirements.
11        Navigation database — standards and discrepancies
     11.1     A navigation database for APV Baro-VNAV operations:
(a)   may only be used if it has been obtained from a supplier who complies with:
             (i)  Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO 200A; or
            (ii)  European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment (EUROCAE) document ED-76, Standards for Processing Aeronautical Data; and
(b)   must be compatible with the intended function of the equipment in accordance with ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Chapter 7.
Note   An LOA, issued by an appropriate regulatory authority to each of the participants in the data chain, demonstrates compliance with this requirement, for example, FAA LOA issued in accordance with FAA AC 20-153 or EASA LOA issued in accordance with EASA Implementing Rule (IR) 21, Subpart G.
     11.2     An operator who has an APV Baro-VNAV navigation authorisation from CASA must periodically check the APV Baro-VNAV navigation database for database integrity.
Note   While an LOA provides assurance of minimum standards for the supply of a navigation database, errors may still occur. All operators must conduct periodic checks to ensure database integrity.
     11.3     Any discrepancy in data in the operator’s navigation database must be:
(a)   reported as soon as practicable to the navigation database supplier; and
(b)   resolved, before further operational use, by:
             (i)  reissue of the database; or
            (ii)  prohibition of the route; or
           (iii)  instructions to the flight crew.
12        Implementation program
     12.1     APV Baro-VNAV operations may only be conducted in accordance with the operator’s approved implementation program.
     12.2     If an operator that has not previously conducted APV Baro-VNAV operations, or APV Baro-VNAV operations using a particular aircraft type, the implementation program must include limits on operating minima until the operator is able to demonstrate to CASA the capability to safely conduct APV Baro-VNAV operations without such limits.
Note   The initial operating period is determined after consideration of all relevant factors, including operator RNAV and VNAV operating experience, the number and frequency of APV Baro-VNAV operations conducted and the number of non-compliant incidents recorded.
     12.3     The implementation program must have procedures to identify any negative trend in performance or operations, including procedures for monitoring APV Baro-VNAV operations and collecting relevant data.
     12.4     At intervals as specified in the operator’s implementation program, the operator must submit to CASA a report containing a review of operations including the following elements:
(a)   the total number of APV Baro-VNAV procedures conducted;
(b)   the number of satisfactory approaches and departures, by aircraft and system;
Note   Satisfactory means the approach or departure was completed as planned without any navigation or guidance system anomalies.
(c)   the reasons for unsatisfactory operations, for example:
             (i)  UNABLE REQ NAV PERF – RNP, GPS PRIMARY LOST, or other RNP related messages; and
            (ii)  excessive lateral or V/DEV; and
           (iii)  TAWS warning; and
           (iv)  autopilot system disconnect; and
            (v)  navigation data errors; and
           (vi)  pilot report of anomaly; and
(d)   comments, both oral and written, from the flight crew.