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CASA 187/13 - Instructions — GNSS primary means navigation (B737NG and B777-300ER aircraft)

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Instrument number CASA 187/13
I, GERARD JOHN CAMPBELL, Executive Manager, Operations Division, a delegate of CASA, make this instrument under regulation 179A of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 and subsection 33 (3) of the Acts Interpretation Act 1901.
[Signed G.J. Campbell]
Gerard J. Campbell
Executive Manager
Operations Division
23 August 2013
Instructions — GNSS primary means navigation (B737NG and B777‑300ER aircraft)
1          Duration
                 This instrument:
(a)   commences on the day after registration; and
(b)   expires at the end of July 2016, as if it had been repealed by another instrument.
2          Revocation
                 Instruments CASA 45/12 and CASA 390/12 are revoked.
3          Definitions
                 In this instrument:
ADIRU means air data inertial reference unit.
AFM means the aircraft flight manual.
approved navigation database means a navigation database on a medium approved by the manufacturer of the aircraft as suitable for use with the aircraft.
CDU means control display unit.
EICAS means engine indication and crew alerting system.
FMC means flight management computer.
FMS means flight management system.
FMS guided NPA (commonly referred to as an overlay approach) means any non-precision approach that:
(a)   can be derived from the approved FMS navigation database; and
(b)   can be flown using GNSS as the primary means of navigation.
GNSS means the Global Navigation Satellite System, a satellite navigation system used by a pilot on board an aircraft to determine position from satellite data.
GNSS primary means of navigation means use of the aircraft’s GNSS equipment as the only navigation equipment required to satisfy the necessary level of accuracy, integrity, continuity and availability for the intended operation.
GPS means the United States Government satellite navigation system known as the Global Positioning System.
IAP means instrument approach procedure.
method of control means autopilot or flight director.
non-precision approach and NPA mean an approach conducted using 1 of the following:
(a)   RNAV (GNSS);
(b)   NDB;
(c)   VOR;
(d)   DGA.
RNP means the required navigation performance for the commencement and continuation of an approach as displayed to the flight crew by the FMS.
RNP-capable RNAV system means an area navigation system fitted to an aircraft for which the AFM for the aircraft states that it is capable of meeting RNP 0.3 (or lower, as required) requirements.
XTK error means the cross-track difference between the indicated position of the aircraft and the planned position, as displayed to the flight crew by the FMS.
4          Application
                 This instrument applies to the conduct of NPA procedures (excluding LLZ approaches) by Virgin Australia International Airlines Pty Ltd, Aviation Reference Number 768593 (Virgin Australia International), in B737NG and B777–300ER aircraft with an RNP-capable RNAV system.
5          Instructions
                 I issue the instructions in Schedule 1.
Schedule 1          Instructions
1          GNSS primary means of navigation
     (1)     In GNSS primary means of navigation, B737NG and B777–300ER aircraft operated by Virgin Australia International under the I.F.R. may use an RNP‑capable RNAV system in accordance with these instructions to conduct an FMS guided NPA using a published NPA procedure, including a related missed approach procedure.
     (2)     For GNSS primary means of navigation, the NPA for the operation must be available for use with the aircraft and contained in an approved navigation database.
     (3)     If subclause (2) is satisfied, the NPA can be flown without:
(a)   the referenced ground-based navigation aid being operational or geographically in position; or
(b)   the airborne equipment for use in the NPA with the navigation aid being installed or serviceable.
2          Requirements
     (1)     The AFM must contain a statement that the aircraft is capable of meeting the requirements for RNP 0.3 or lower if required.
     (2)     The aircraft must be operated in accordance with the manufacturer’s instructions.
     (3)     The RNP-capable RNAV system must not be used as a navigation reference for flight below the lowest safe altitude/minimum sector altitude except in accordance with a published NPA procedure.
     (4)     The procedure to be flown by the flight crew must be extracted from an approved navigation database.
     (5)     The published NPA must not be subject to a NOTAM stating that it is unavailable or unusable.
     (6)     Virgin Australia International must inform CASA if any condition, operational bulletin, airworthiness directive or AFM amendment change or affect this instrument.
3          Procedures
     (1)     Virgin Australia International must ensure that flight crew are appropriately trained in the minimum equipment required for dispatch, commencement of the approach, the approach procedures and reasons to discontinue the approach.
     (2)     The training syllabus for training of flight crew must be included in Virgin Australia International’s approved training and checking manual.
     (3)     Virgin Australia International’s policy, procedures and limitations on the use of GNSS as the primary means of navigation must be included in Virgin Australia International’s operations manual.
     (4)     For planning destination alternate minima, Virgin Australia International may base the calculation upon any of the published RNAV (GNSS), RNP, RNP-AR (if authorised), NDB, VOR or DME landing minima plus the weather forecast tolerance.
     (5)     Before dispatch, the pilot in command must ensure that if GNSS is to be used as the primary means of navigation:
(a)   for B737NG operations — 2 FMCs, 2 CDUs, 2 GPS receivers, and 2 ADIRUs in NAV mode are operational; and
(b)   for B777–300ER operations:
             (i)  2 FMCs, 2 CDUs, 2 GPS receivers, and 1 ADIRU are operational; and
            (ii)  no ADIRU status message or ADIRU inertial EICAS message is annunciated; and
(c)   a prediction of GNSS availability is obtained.
     (6)     Where a prediction under paragraph (5) (c) indicates that the RNP may not be available:
(a)   sufficient holding fuel must be carried for the duration of the period for which RNP 0.3 (or lower if required) is not available; or
(b)   the flight must be planned using conventional ground-based
radio-navigation aids for which the aircraft is equipped; or
(c)   an alternate aerodrome must be planned for which the requirements of this subclause are met.
     (7)     Before commencing an FMS guided NPA, the flight crew must ensure that:
(a)   for B737NG operations — at least 1 FMC, 1 CDU, 1 GPS receiver and 1 ADIRU in NAV mode are operational and DME updating is inhibited; and
(b)   for B777–300ER operations — at least 1 FMC, 1 CDU, 1 GPS receiver and 1 ADIRU are operational and RAD NAV is inhibited; and
(c)   the IAP is selected by name from a current approved navigation database; and
(d)   the procedure conforms to the charted procedure; and
(e)   RNP 0.3 (or lower if required) is displayed or selected in the FMS; and
(f)    no modification of approach or missed approach waypoints is made except as required to modify speeds or apply cold weather corrections, as applicable.
Note   For B777–300ER operations, an ADIRU status message may be annunciated before commencing the approach.
     (8)     At all times during an FMS guided NPA, the pilot in command must ensure that:
(a)   the approach is flown using a method of control that, in accordance with the AFM, permits RNP 0.3 capability (or lower, if required) operations to be conducted; and
(b)   the approach is flown in accordance with the current approved charted approach procedure; and
(c)   an approved method is used to monitor XTK error; and
(d)   at least 1 pilot monitors the XTK error.
     (9)     The pilot in command must ensure that the FMS guided NPA is discontinued if:
(a)   the navigation of the aircraft exceeds the manufacturer’s stated limits for the RNP 0.3 capability (or lower, as required); or
(b)   an alert is displayed indicating that the navigation system cannot meet the manufacturer’s stated limits for the RNP 0.3 capability (or lower, if required); or
(c)   an XTK error alert is annunciated; or
(d)   if the manufacturer does not provide a means of XTK error alerting — the XTK error is greater than 0.2 nautical miles.