CASA EX49/15 - Exemption — weigh aircraft and determine the centre of gravity

Link to law: https://www.comlaw.gov.au/Details/F2015L00530

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Instrument number CASA EX49/15
I, MARK ALAN SKIDMORE, Director of Aviation Safety, on behalf of CASA, make this instrument under regulation 11.160 of the Civil Aviation Safety Regulations 1998 (CASR 1998).
[Signed Mark Skidmore AM]
Mark Skidmore AM
Director of Aviation Safety
10 April 2015
Exemption — weigh aircraft and determine the centre of gravity
1          Duration
                 This instrument:
(a)   commences on the day of registration; and
(b)   expires at the end of March 2018, as if it had been repealed by another instrument.
2          Definitions
        (1)     In this instrument:
ABAA means Amateur Built Aircraft Acceptance.
aircraft means an aircraft for which:
(a)   a special certificate of airworthiness for an amateur-built aircraft accepted under an ABAA has been issued in accordance with regulation 21.190 of CASR 1998; or
(b)   a special certificate of airworthiness in the form of an experimental certificate has been issued in accordance with regulation 21.195A of CASR 1998 for a purpose mentioned in paragraph 21.191 (g), (h) or (j) of CASR 1998.
balloon means an aircraft that is a balloon.
builder, in relation to an aircraft, means an individual who is 1 of the following:
(a)   the individual who has fabricated and assembled more than half of the aircraft;
(b)   is the sole owner of the aircraft and has fabricated and assembled more than half of an aircraft that is essentially similar to the aircraft;
(c)   for an amateur-built aircraft — an individual, other than the individual mentioned in paragraph (a), who has contributed to the fabrication and assembly of the aircraft.
category — see subsection (3).
CG means the centre of gravity position of an aircraft.
essentially similar — see subsection (2).
knowledge level means a level of knowledge described in Annex 2.
qualified weigher — see subsections (4) and (5).
SAAA means the Sport Aircraft Association of Australia Inc.
        (2)     Without limiting when 2 aircraft are not essentially similar, 2 aircraft are not essentially similar:
(a)   if they are made of different materials; or
(b)   if 1 has retractable landing gear and the other has fixed landing gear; or
(c)   if 1 has electrically-powered landing gear and the other has hydraulically‑powered landing gear; or
(d)   if 1 has electrically-powered flaps and the other has hydraulically‑powered flaps.
        (3)     In this instrument, each of the following is a category of aircraft:
(a)   aeroplane;
(b)   rotorcraft;
(c)   gyroplane;
(d)   balloon;
(e)   airship.
        (4)     In this instrument, an individual is a qualified weigher of an aircraft if the person:
(a)   is a builder of the aircraft; and
(b)   within the previous 2 years:
             (i)  satisfactorily completed a course of training which covers the topics and standards mentioned in column 2 of the table at Annex 1 for the category of aircraft; and
            (ii)  for each topic and standard mentioned in an item of the table at Annex 1 — attained the knowledge level mentioned in column 4 of the item; and
           (iii)  obtained a certificate of attainment for the category of aircraft, in the topics and standards mentioned in subparagraph (i), from a course or an organisation mentioned in Annex 3; and
(c)   for an aircraft, other than a balloon — has, at least once during the fabrication and assembly of the aircraft or an essentially similar aircraft, participated in setting the aircraft in the levelled or rigging position for the purpose of:
             (i)  measuring rigging angles; and
            (ii)  performing symmetry checks; and
           (iii)  measuring control surface travels, if applicable.
        (5)     For subparagraph (4) (b) (i), an individual is taken not to have satisfactorily completed a course of training which covers the topics and standards mentioned in column 2 of the table at Annex 1 unless:
(a)   the topics mentioned in column 2 of the table are addressed by the course in sufficient detail to allow the individual to answer questions about the matters set out in column 3 of the table; and
(b)   for each topic and standard mentioned in an item of the table at Annex 1 — the questions are selected from the knowledge verification requirements in column 3 of the item and framed to determine whether the individual has the knowledge level in column 4 of the item; and
(c)   the assessment consists of at least:
             (i)  for aeroplanes, rotorcraft and gyroplanes — 23 multiple choice questions, including the following:
(A)  5 questions on the topic in item 9 of the table (empty weight CG) requiring calculations involving a typical aircraft type;
(B)   5 questions on the topic in item 10 of the table (loading system);
(C)   1 question on the topic in each other item of the table;
            (ii)  for balloons — 20 multiple choice questions, including the following:
(A)  5 questions on the topic in item 8 of the table (empty weight);
(B)   2 questions on the topic in each of items 1 (legislation), 5 (scales), 6 (preparation of aircraft), 7 (conduct of weighing), 10 (loading system) and 11 (record of alterations form) of the table; and
(d)   the individual has achieved a mark of at least 90%.
3          Application
                 This instrument applies to:
(a)   an aircraft; and
(b)   the operator and the pilot in command of a balloon.
4          Exemption
        (1)     An aircraft, other than a balloon, is exempt from compliance with paragraphs 4.1, 4.7, 6.4 and 6.7 and subparagraph 5.2 (3) of Civil Aviation Order (CAO) 100.7.
        (2)     A balloon is exempt from compliance with subparagraph 2.1 (a) and paragraphs 3.3, 3.4 and 3.5 of CAO 100.96.
        (3)     The operator and pilot in command of a balloon are exempt from compliance with paragraph 3.1 of CAO 100.96.
5          Conditions
        (1)     The exemption in subsection 4 (1) is subject to the conditions mentioned in Schedule 1.
        (2)     The exemption in subsection 4 (2) is subject to the conditions mentioned in Schedule 2.
        (3)     The exemption in subsection 4 (3) is subject to the condition mentioned in Schedule 3.
Schedule 1          Conditions on aircraft other than balloons
        1     Aircraft weighing must be carried out under the control of a qualified weigher of the aircraft.
        2     The empty weight and empty weight CG of the aircraft must be certified as correct by a qualified weigher of the aircraft. Weighing details and the determination of the empty weight and empty weight CG of the aircraft must be entered in an aircraft weighing summary approved by CASA.
        3     Loading data prepared in accordance with the provisions of CAO 100.7 may be approved by a qualified weigher of the aircraft. Where a flight manual page is used as the load data sheet or to specify any required loading system, 2 copies of the flight manual page must be submitted to CASA.
        4     The aircraft must comply with paragraphs 6.4 and 6.7 of CAO 100.7 as if references in subparagraph 5.2 (3) of CAO 100.7 to a weight control officer whose appointment covers the activity were references to a qualified weigher of the aircraft.
        5     To weigh or determine the CG of an aircraft, a qualified weigher must:
(a)   weigh the aircraft on scales that are approved by CASA or SAAA; and
(b)   ensure that flight tests are carried out in accordance with subregulation 262AP (3) of the Civil Aviation Regulations 1988 (CAR 1988) with the aircraft at maximum and minimum permitted take-off weights and loaded so that it is tested at forward and aft CG limits.
Schedule 2          Conditions on balloons
        1     The initial weighing and subsequent weighing of a balloon for the purpose of determining the empty weight for an operation must be in accordance with paragraphs 3.2 and 3.6 of CAO 100.96 and the conditions in this Schedule.
        2     The empty weight of the balloon, including the weight of each balloon component:
(a)   must be certified as correct and entered in the weighing summary by a qualified weigher of the balloon; and
(b)   may only be so certified and entered:
             (i)  following at least 2 consecutive and consistent weighings; and
            (ii)  if the qualified weigher is satisfied with the accuracy of the weighing.
        3     Each balloon weighing must be carried out under the control of a qualified weigher of the balloon.
        4     Each balloon must be weighed on scales that:
(a)   the qualified weigher considers are suitable; and
(b)   are approved by CASA or SAAA; and
(c)   over the temperature range for which the scales are designed — are accurate to within:
             (i)  plus or minus 2 kg of the applied load up to 1 000 kg; and
            (ii)  plus or minus 0.2% of the applied load above 1 000 kg.
        5     To weigh a balloon, a qualified weigher must ensure that flight tests are carried out in accordance with subregulation 262AP (3) of CAR 1988 with the balloon at maximum and minimum permitted take-off weights.
Schedule 3          Condition on operator and pilot in command of balloon
               The operator and pilot in command of a balloon must not allow the balloon to take off unless the weighing procedures have been completed for each balloon component in accordance with Schedule 2.
Annex 1 – Aircraft weighing procedures course – minimum requirements

1
Item
2
Topics and standards
3
Knowledge verification requirements
4
Knowledge levels

   1
Legislation:
·         CAO 100.7
·         CAO 100.96
·      who is permitted to control the weighing of an amateur-built experimental aircraft
        1

   2
Terms:
·         datum
·         empty weight
·         operating weight
·         fixed equipment
·         removable equipment
·         centre of gravity (CG)
·         CG limits
·         mean aerodynamic chord
·         unusable fuel and oil
·      the effects of CG variations on aeroplane stability
·      the effect on CG position if a sliding canopy is open or closed
·      the effect on CG position of forward or rearward retracting undercarriage systems
        2

   3
Use of moments in weight and balance calculations:
·         arm
·         moment
·         moment index
·         weight and balance calculations
·         basic principles of calculations involving plus and minus quantities
·      how longitudinal measurements are determined and how they are used to establish:
o   datum
o   CG limits
o   moment arms of fuel tanks, luggage compartments and pilot and passenger seats
        3

   4
Plumb-bobs and levels:
·         uses and serviceability checks
·      how to stabilise a
plumb-bob
·      how to check a level for accuracy
        2

   5
Scales:
·         types
·         accuracy
·         calibration requirements
·         precautions during transport and operation
·      the required accuracy of the scales to be used
·      types of scales or load cells that are acceptable for weighing an aircraft
·      when recalibration is required
·      who may calibrate scales
        2

   6
Preparation of aircraft:
·         equipment lists
·         jacking and levelling
·      how to prepare an aircraft for weighing
·      platform scales v. load cells
        2

   7
Conduct of weighing:
·         consecutive and independent weighing requirements
·         permissible discrepancies between weighings
·         factors that affect accuracy of weighing
·      how many times an aircraft should be weighed and why
·      the maximum variation that is permitted between consecutive weighings
 
        3

   8
Empty weight:
·         method of determination
·         typical deductions and additions
·         standard weights for:
o   engine fuel
o   oil
o   passengers and crew
·      what items are required to be included in the empty weight of an aircraft
·      the difference between empty weight and operating weight
        3

   9
Empty weight CG:
·         methods of determining position of CG
·         compilation of Aircraft Weighing Summary and Load Data Sheet
·      calculation of:
o   empty weight and position of empty weight CG
o   effect on luggage and fuel allowances at various pilot and passenger weight scenarios
        3

10
Loading system:
·         when a loading system is required
·         cockpit and compartment placards
·         uses of fixed and disposable ballast
·      which units of measurement may be used in a loading system
·      when a loading system is or is not required (extreme case calculations)
        3

11
Record of Alterations form:
·         purpose
·         compilation
·      when an amateur-built experimental aircraft is required to be reweighed
        2

Annex 2 — Knowledge levels
Level 1
A familiarity with the principal elements of the topic such that the following objectives are met.
Objectives:
·         The applicant must be familiar with the basic elements of the topic
·         The applicant must be able to give a simple description of the topic, using common words and examples
·         The applicant must be able to use typical terms.
 
Level 2
A general knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the topic and an ability to apply that knowledge, such that the following objectives are met.
Objectives:
·         The applicant must be able to understand the theoretical fundamentals of the topic
·         The applicant must be able to give a general description of the topic using, as appropriate, typical examples
·         The applicant must be able to demonstrate awareness of practical applications of the topic.
Level 3
A detailed knowledge of the theoretical and practical aspects of the topic, and a capacity to combine and apply the separate elements of knowledge in a logical and comprehensive manner, such that the following objectives are met.
Objectives:
·         The applicant must be able to describe the underlying intent and implications of the topic
·         The applicant must be able to give a detailed description of the topic using theoretical fundamentals and specific examples
·         The applicant must be able to explain in detail the theoretical and practical application of the topic.
Annex 3 — Training course and training organisation recognised by CASA for weight and balance
              SAAA Maintenance Procedures Course Module 15 (Weight Control) and (SAAA MPC Supplemental Exam – Weight Control of Aircraft) as approved by CASA.