Legal Profession Act, 2008

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ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

THE LEGAL PROFESSION ACT, 2008

No. 22 of 2008

[Published in the Official Gazette Vol. XXVIII No. 81
dated 4th December, 2008.]

________
Printed at the Government Printing Office, Antigua and Barbuda,

by Eric T. Bennett, Government Printer
— By Authority, 2008.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 2

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.3

THE LEGAL PROFESSION ACT, 2008

ARRANGEMENT

Sections

PART 1 – PRELIMINAR Y

1. Short title and commencement.
2. Interpretation

PART II – BAR ASSOCIATION

3. The Bar Association.
4. Council to manage affairs of Association.
5. The purposes of the Association.
6. Practitioner members.
7. Non-practitioner member.
8. Honorary members.
9. Privileges of membership.
10. Expulsion and suspension of rights and privileges.
11. Termination of membership.
12. Annual subscription to Association.

PART III – ENROLMENT , ADMISSION AND STATUS

13. Roll of attorneys-at law.
14. Registrar’s duty.
15. Application fees
16. Application for admission
17. Limited applications
18. Objections to application to practise law
19. Oath of attorney-at law.
20. Status of attorney-at law.
21. Practising certificate.
22. Special cases.
23. Suspension of practising certificate.
24. Unlawful practice and similar offences.
25. Law officers.
26. Voluntary removal from the Roll.
27. Removal from Roll and suspension from practice by order of court.
28. Expiration of suspension to be noted on Roll.
29. Restoration of name to Roll and termination of suspension.
30. Procedure on application.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 4

PART IV - ACCOUNTS

31. Rules as to accounts and interests.
32. Relief to banks.
33. Dealings with clients’ accounts where improper conduct is alleged.
34. Dealing with clients’ accounts on death of attorney-at-law practising on his own account

PART V - DISCIPLINE

35. Rules to govern profession practice and conduct.
36. Disciplinary committee.
37. Complaints to committee.
38. Disciplinary proceedings schedule 6.
39. Hearing of application
40. Appeal from Disciplinary Committee.
41. Disciplinary proceedings by Supreme Court.
42. Saving of jurisdiction of courts.
43. Control of employment of certain clerks.
43A.Register

PART VI – LEGAL EDUCATION AND LAW REPORTING

44. Legal education and law reporting.

PART VII – REMUNERA TION AND COST

45. Interpretation of this part.
46. Payments in advance and accountability.
47. Bills of costs to be prepared.
48. Bills for non-contentious matters
49. Rules as to cost to non-contentious business.
50. Remuneration agreements for non-contentious business.

PART VIII - MISCELLANEOUS

51. Professional liability insurance.
52. Rules.
53. Repeal.

Schedules
SCHEDULE 1
SCHEDULE 2
SCHEDULE 3
SCHEDULE 4

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.5

SCHEDULE 5
SCHEDULE 6

APPENDIX

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 6

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.7

I Assent,
[ L.S.]

Louise Lake-Tack,
Governor-General.

11th November, 2008

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

THE LEGAL PROFESSION ACT, 2008

No. 22 of 2008

AN ACT to provide for the regulation of the legal profession, for the qualification, enrolment and
discipline of its members and for incidental and connected purposes.

ENACTED by the Parliament of Antigua and Barbuda as follows:

PART I

PRELIMINAR Y

1. Short title

This Act may be cited as the Legal Profession Act, 2008 and shall come into operation on a date as the
Minister may, by Notice published in the Gazette, appoint.

2. Interpr etation

(1) In this Act—

“Agreement” means the Agreement, including the protocols thereto providing for a system of
legal education and training and establishing the Council of Legal Education for the Common-
wealth Caribbean;

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 8

“attorney-at-law” means a person whose name has been entered on the Roll of Att rneys-at
law;

“Bar Association” and “Association” mean the Bar Association of Antigua and Barbuda;

“client” includes—

(a) in respect of contentious business, any person who as principal or on behalf of another
person retains or employs an attorney-at-law and any person who is or may be liable to
pay to an attorney-at-law costs for that business; and

(b) in relation to non-contentious business, any person who as a principal or on behalf of
another or as a trustee or executor or in any other capacity, has authority, expressed or
implied, to retain or employ and retains or employs and any person for the time being
liable to pay to an attorney-at-law costs for that business;

“costs” includes fees for any legal business done by an attorney-at-law;

“Council” means the Council of the Bar Association of Antigua and Barbuda;

“Court” means the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court of Antigua and Barbuda;

“Disciplinary Committee” and “Committee” mean the Disciplinary Committee established by
section 36;

“fees” includes remuneration, charges, disbursements and expenses;

“Fund” means the Professional Liability Insurance fund established by the council;

“Minister” means the Minister responsible for Legal Affairs;

“practise law” means practising as a barrister, solicitor or both or the undertaking or perform-
ing the functions of a barrister, solicitor or attorney-at-law, as recognised by any law whether
before or after the commencement of this Act;

“practising certificate” means a certificate issued pursuant to section 21;

“Registrar” means the Registrar of the Court;

“Registry” means the Registry of the Court;

“Roll” means the register of attorneys-at-law maintained by the Registrar pursuant to section
13;

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.9

“Secretary of the OECS Bar “ means the Secretary of the Organization of the Eastern Carib-
bean States Bar Association; and

“Supreme Court Act” means the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court Act.

(2) Any reference, in any enactment or any document having legal effect, to a barrister or solicitor
however expressed, with respect to the conferring of any right or privilege, the performance of any
function or in relation to the qualification for appointment to any office shall from and after the
commencement of this Act be considered to be reference to an attorney-at-law.

(3) For the purposes of any enactment where the qualification of an attorney-at-law for holding an
office depends upon his having been a barrister or a solicitor for a specified period, the number of
years during which he was previously a barrister or solicitor or registered under any enactment relat-
ing to the registration of barristers or solicitors as the case may be, shall be treated as part of the
period of his enrolment as an attorney-at-law.

PART II

BAR ASSOCIATION

3. The Bar Association

The Antigua and Barbuda Bar Association is continued.

4. Council to manage affairs of Association

The afairs of the Association shall be managed and its functions performed by a Council constituted
in accordance with Schedule 1.

5. The purposes of the Association

The purposes of the Association are to—

(a) maintain and improve the standards of professional conduct of attorneys-at-law in Antigua
and Barbuda;

(b) represent and protect the interests of the legal profession in Antigua and Barbuda;

(c) protect and assist the public in A tigua and Barbuda in all matters relating to law;

(d) promote good relations within the profession, between the profession and persons con-
cerned in the administration of justice in A tigua and Barbuda and between the profes-
sion and the public generally;

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(e) promote good relations between the profession and professional bodies of the legal pro-
fession in other countries and to participate in the activities of any regional and interna-
tional associations of attorneys-at-law and to become a member thereof;

(f) promote, maintain and support the administration of justice and the rule of law;

(g) provide independently or with government a legal aid programme to qualifying members
of the public;

(h) provide an ongoing public education programme on basic issues of law and current leg-
islation;

(i) provide a program of continuing legal education for its members whether by way of
seminars, workshops or lectures; and

(j) do all other things incidental or conducive to the achievement of the purposes set out at
(a) to (i).

6. Practitioner members

(1) Every attorney-at-law to whom a practising certificate is issued may be a member of the Asso-
ciation and shall remain a member for so long as his practising certificate has effect.

(2) A practising certificate shall immediately cease to have effect i the attorney-at-law to whom it
relates fails to pay an instalment of the insurance fee or the related amount referred to in section 51(3)
by the due date in accordance with rules made pursuant to section 51(4).

(3) Every attorney-at-law who is a member of the Association by virtue of subsection (1) is in this
Act referred to as “practitioner member”.

7. Non-practitioner member

A non-practitioner member is an attorney-at-law who is not the holder of a practising certificate.

8. Honorary members

The Council may confer honorary membership in the Association on those distinguished attorneys-
at-law as it may think fit and may in its discretion revoke that honorary membership.

9. Privileges of membership

(1) Subject to section 10, all members of the Association have the same rights and privileges.

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.11

(2) Only practitioner members who pay the annual subscription to the Association are eligible—

(a) to attend and vote at a general meeting or at an election of members of the Council;

(b) to be elected to the Council; or

(c) to be issued certificates of good standing.

(3) Practitioner members may by a resolution exclude from a general meeting of the Association
or any part thereof all other members where a meeting concerns business pertaining only to practitio-
ner members.

10. Expulsion and suspension of rights and privileges

(1) A practitioner member or a non-practitioner member of the Association may in the prescribed
manner, and upon those grounds as may be prescribed, after being given reasonable opportunity to
answer all allegations made against him—

(a) be expelled from membership; or

(b) be deprived of any one or more rights and privileges of membership.

(2) In this section “prescribed” means prescribed by rules made by the Council.

11. Termination of membership

A member of the Association other than an honorary member, who ceases to be qualified for member-
ship thereupon ceases to be a member.

12. Annual subscription to Association

(1) The amount of the annual subscription payable by members other than honorary members of
the Association shall, subject to subsection (3), be fixed by the Council and shall be paid to the
Treasurer of the Association. The annual subscription is in respect of the period of twelve months
commencing on the 1st October, in each year.

(2) In fixing the annual subscription the Council may divide the members into classes and provide
that different amounts shall be paid by different classes of members and for different periods, and
generally regulate and vary from time to time the subscription payable by members or by different
classes of members as the Council may think fit.

(3) The Council may fix levies payable by practitioner members for any of the purposes of the
Association.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 12

PART III

ENROLMENT , ADMISSION, STATUS

13. Roll of attorneys-at-law

(1) The Registrar shall maintain in accordance with this Act and any rules of Court a register of all
attorneys-at-law to be known as the Roll together with the following particulars in respect of each
attorney-at-law—

(a) full name and address;

(b) the date of admission to practise law; and

(c) a description and date of the qualifications obtained to practise law.

(2) The Roll shall at all reasonable times be open to inspection at the Registry of the Court.

(3) The Registrar shall keep an up to date register and in this regard shall from time to time—

(a) make alterations in the particulars registered on the Roll as are necessary; and

(b) remove from the Roll the name of any attorney-at-law who is deceased or no longer
entitled to practise law.

(4) The Registrar shall pursuant to subsection (1) issue to every attorney-at-law a certificate of
enrolment under the seal of the Court as set out in Form 1 of Schedule 3.

14. Registrar’s duty

The Registrar shall, as soon as practicable after the commencement of this Act, cause to be registered
on the Roll the name of every person that immediately before the commencement of this Act, ap-
peared on the Roll of barristers/solicitors/attorneys at law kept pursuant to the Legal Profession Act,
1997 according to the dates on which they were respectively admitted to practise law.

15. Application fees

(1) The Minister for Legal Affairs may make regulations specifying the fees to be paid on an
application—

(a) to be admitted to practise law in A tigua and Barbuda; and

(b) for a practising certificate.

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(2) The application fees prescribed under subsection (1) shall be paid into the Consolidated Fund.

16. Application for admission

(1) A person who makes an application to the Court to be admitted to practise law, and ho
satisfies the Court that he—

(a) is of good character;

(b) has attained the age of twenty-one years;

(c) is a citizen of Antigua and Barbuda or of a country listed in Schedule 2;

(d) holds the qualifications prescribed for admission to practise as an Attor ey-at-Law in
Antigua and Barbuda under A ticle 3 of the Agreement; and

(e) has not been disbarred or struck off the Roll of attorneys-at-law of any court of a country
listed in Schedule 2, England, Scotland or Northern Ireland or has not done any act or
thing which would render him liable to be disbarred or struck off the Roll of attorneys-at-
law of any country;

shall, on payment to the Registrar of the prescribed fee, be admitted by order of the Court to practise
law.

(2) A person applying to be admitted to practise law shall—

(a) serve copies of the application on the chambers of both the At orney General and the
President of the Bar Association;

(b) effect service under paragraph (a) on the same day; and

(c) file an afidavit of service.

(3) The Registrar shall set the date for the court to hear the application to be admitted to practise
law not earlier than two weeks from the date of service stated in the affidavit of service.

(4) Before any person is admitted as an attorney-at-law, the Registrar shall enquire from the Coun-
cil and the Attorney General whether the person has fulfilled all the conditions for admission laid
down by law, and if the Registrar is satisfied that the person has done so, he shall report accordingly
to the Court.

(5) The Registrar shall cause to be registered on the Roll the name of every person admitted to
practise law according to the dates on which the person was admitted to practise law.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 14

(6) An appeal lies to the Court of Appeal from an order of the Court refusing an application made
under this section.

(7) In this Part, “qualifications prescribed by law” means the qualifications for admission to prac-
tise law set out in the Agreement.

(8) Nothing in this Act affects any enactment relating to the placing of restrictions on any person,
not being a citizen of Antigua and Barbuda, entering, leaving, residing, or working in Antigua and
Barbuda.

17. Limited admissions

(1) In this section—

“visiting advocate” means a barrister or Attorney-at-Law who—

(a) has not been admitted to practise law in Antigua and Barbuda; and

(b) does not hold the qualifications prescribed by law to be eligible to be admitted by the
Court to practise as an attorney-at-law in Antigua and Barbuda; and

“matter” includes any interlocutory or appeal proceedings.

(2) A visiting advocate may apply to the Court to be admitted to practise law in Antigua and
Barbuda for the purpose of participating in any one matter and on application shall pay the prescribed
fee to the Registrar and—

(a) serve copies of the application on the chambers of both the At orney General and the
President of the Bar Association;

(b) effect service under paragraph (a) on the same day; and

(c) file an afidavit of service.

(3) The Registrar shall set the date for the court to hear the application to be admitted to practise
law not earlier than two weeks from the date of service stated in the affidavit of service.

(4) Where an application is made under subsection (2) the Court may, where it is satisfied that the
matter is dificult and complex, admit a visiting advocate to practise law in Antigua and Barbuda who


(a) is of good character;

(b) has attained the age of twenty-one years;

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.15

(c) has special qualifications or experience for the purpose of the matter;

(d) has not been disbarred or struck off the Roll of attorneys-at-law of any court; and

(e) has not done any act or thing which would render him liable to be disbarred or struck off
the Roll of attorneys-at-law of any country.

(5) If the application under this section is granted the Registrar shall, after the visiting advocate
has presented a valid work permit and paid the fee for the practising certificate, issue to the visiting
advocate a certificate to practise law specifying in it the matter in which the visiting advocate is
permitted to appear.

(6) The Registrar shall not enter the name of the visiting advocate admitted under this section upon
the roll but shall keep a separate roll for visiting advocates admitted under this section.

(7) An appeal lies to the Court of Appeal from an order of the Court refusing an application made
under this section.

18. Objections to application to practise law

(1) The Attorney General or the President of the Bar Association may, before the hearing of an
application to be admitted to practise law, object to the application by filing and serving on the
applicant, an affidavit in which the grounds for the objection are set out.

(2) An affidavit filed and served pursuant to subsection (1) if filed by —

(a) the Attorney General shall be served on the President of the Bar Association; and

(b) the President of the Bar Association shall be served on the Attorney General.

19. Oath of attorney-at-law

Every person on being admitted to practise law shall take the following oath—

“I ……………………………………………….do swear/affirm that I will truly and honestly
conduct myself in the practice of law as an attorney-at-law according to the best of my knowl-
edge and ability and the laws of Antigua and Barbuda.”

20. Status of attorney-at-law

(1) Every person whose name is entered on the Roll in accordance with this Act shall be known as
an attorney-at-law and—

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 16

(a) subject to subsection (2), is entitled to practise law and to sue and recover his fees for
services rendered in that respect;

(b) subject to subsection 2(b), has the right of audience before any court;

(c) except where engaged as an advocate in any court, is subject to liability in respect of
negligence, in a professional capacity; and

(d) is an oficer of the Supreme Court save and except when he appears in the presentation of
a case before any Tribunal.

(2) A person may not practise law unless—

(a) his name is entered on the Roll in accordance with this Act; and

(b) he is the holder of a valid practising certificate.

(3) A person who practises law in contravention of subsection (2) is not entitled to maintain any
action for the recovery of any fee on account of or in relation to any legal business done by him in the
course of practice.

(4) An attorney-at-law who draws or prepares a legal document shall sign his name under his hand
and print his name or the name of the firm (if any) in which he is employed together with the appro-
priate address.

(5) An attorney-at-law who contravenes subsection (4) commits an offe ce and is liable on sum-
mary conviction to a fine of one thousand dollars.

21. Practising certificate

(1) An attorney-at-law whose name has been entered on the Roll and who desires to practise law
shall pay to the Registrar the prescribed application fee for a certificate to be called a Practising
Certificate and shall make an application in writing to the Registrar for the certificate.

(2) On being satisfied that an attorney-at-law has paid the application fee under subsection (1) and
any fee or amount due for professional liability insurance under section 51, the Registrar shall issue to
him a practising certificate.

(3) A practising certificate shall be for a period of one year from the date of insurance and shall be
in the form set out in Form 2 in Schedule 2.

(4) The Registrar shall cause to be published in the Gazette and on the Government’s website—

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.17

(a) in the month of February in every year, n alphabetical list of persons who have as of the
31st January of that year obtained a practising certificate; and

(b) as soon as practicable after he obtains a practising certificate the name of any person
obtaining a practising certificate after the 31st January, in any year.

(5) A copy of the Gazette containing the name of any person published pursuant to subsection (4)
is prima facie evidence in any court of the registration on the Roll of the name of, and the holding of
a valid practising certificate by that person.

(6) The Minister for Legal Affairs may by Order direct that a proportion of the total amount
received from the fees paid on the applications for practising certificates in any year be transferred to
the Association.

(7) If the Minister makes an order under paragraph (6), the Council shall ensure that a copy of the
accounts presented to the Annual General Meeting of the Association are presented to the Minister no
later than they are presented to that meeting.

22. Special cases

(1) In the cases enumerated in subsection (2), an attorney-at-law applying for a practising certifi-
cate shall, unless the Court otherwise orders, give to the Registrar at least six weeks before the appli-
cation is made notice of intention to make the application and the Court may in its discretion order
that the Registrar issue or refuse the application or to issue a certificate to the applicant subject to the
terms and conditions as it may think fit.

(2) Subsection (1) applies to any case where an attorney-at-law makes an application for a practis-
ing certificate—

(a) where for twelve months or more he has ceased to hold a valid practising certificate;

(b) where he is an undischarged bankrupt or there is in force against him a receiving order in
bankruptcy;

(c) where having been suspended from practice or having had his name struck off the Roll,
the period of his suspension has expired, or his name has been restored to the Roll, as the
case may be;

(d) not having held a practising certificate within twelve months next following the date of
his registration on the Roll;

(e) when he has been adjudicated a person of unsound mind;

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 18

(f) without having paid any penalty, compensation or reimbursement or costs ordered by the
Disciplinary Committee to be paid by him, or without having otherwise complied with
any order of the Disciplinary Committee;

(g) after having had an order made against him for the issue of a writ of attachment;

(h) after having been adjudicated a bankrupt and obtained his discharge or after having en-
tered into a composition with his creditors or a deed of arrangement for the benefit of his
creditors; or

(i) after having had given against him any judgment which involves the payment of moneys
other than costs and is not a judgment as to the whole effect of which upon him he is
entitled to indemnity or relief from any other person, and without having produced to the
Court evidence of the satisfaction of the judgment.

(3) In the event of an appeal having been made against a receiving order referred to in subsection
(2)(b) or against the order for the issue of a writ of attachment referred to in subsection (2)(g), the
court shall not refuse the application while the appeal is pending unless in its opinion the proceedings
on the appeal have been unduly protracted by the appellant or is unlikely to be successful.

(4) Where, having regard to certain facts, a discretion becomes exercisable by the Court in any of
the cases set out in subsections 2(a), (c), (d), (g), (h) and (i), as soon thereafter as a practising certifi-
cate has been issued in the exercise of that discretion to the applicant free of conditions, those facts
shall cease to operate so as to require the attorney-at-law to give the notice mentioned in this section
or to vest any discretion on the court.

23. Suspension of practising certificate

(1) When and so long as any of the provisions of paragraph (b), (e), (f) or (g) of section 22(2) shall
apply to an attorney-at-law, he shall be suspended from practising law.

(2) Where an application is made pursuant to section 22(2) and the Court is satisfied that para-
graphs (b), (e), (f) or (g) of section 22(2) apply to an attorney-at-law, the Court shall order that the
attorney-at-law be suspended from practising law.

(3) The Attorney General may apply to the Court to have an attorney-at-law suspended from
practising law if an attorney-at-law—

(a) is found to be an undischarged bankrupt or there is in force against him a receiving order
in bankruptcy;

(b) is adjudicated a person of unsound mind;

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.19

(c) has not paid any penalty, compensation or reimbursement or costs ordered by the Disci-
plinary Committee to be paid by him, or has not otherwise complied with any order of the
Disciplinary Committee; or

(d) has had an order made against him for the issue of a writ of attachment.

24. Unlawful practice and similar offences

(1) If a person whose name is not registered on the Roll or who is suspended from practising law—

(a) practises law;

(b) wilfully pretends to be an attorney-at-law; or

(c) makes use of any name, title or description implying that he is entitled to be recognised or
to act as an attorney-at-law;

he commits an offence and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding ten thousand
dollars or imprisonment for a term not exceeding two years or on conviction on indictment to impris-
onment for a term not exceeding three years.

(2) A person who, not being entitled to act as an attorney-at-law, acts in any action or matter or in
any court in the name or through the agency of an attorney-at-law entitled to act commits an offence
and is liable on summary conviction to a fine not exceeding ten thousand dollars or to a term of
imprisonment not exceeding two years or on conviction on indictment to a term of imprisonment not
exceeding five years.

(3) Notwithstanding the provisions of any other law, an information for an offence under this
section may be laid at any time within two years after the commission of an ofence or within six
months after the first discovery of the offence by the informant, whichever period is the shorter.

(4) An attorney-at-law shall not, without the written permission of the Council, employ a person
who to his knowledge has been suspended from practising law or whose name has been removed
from the Roll otherwise than at his own request in accordance with section 26; permission may
however be given for a period subject to conditions as the Council may determine.

25. Law officers

(1) For the purposes of this Act, a law oficer is an attorney-at-law who holds office in the Public
Service.

(2) A law officer shall be considered to be the holder of a valid practising certificate.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 20

(3) A certificate in the form set out in Form 3 of Schedule 3 to the effect that a person is a law
officer is prima facie evidence of that fact.

(4) A law officer may not be a member of the Bar Association.

26. Voluntary removal from the Roll

An application by an attorney-at-law to procure the removal of his name from the Roll shall be made
in a summary manner to the Court which shall make an order thereon as it thinks fit.

27. Removal from Roll and suspension from practice by order of court

(1) The Registrar shall make the appropriate entry or alteration in the Roll and publish the appro-
priate notice in the Gazette and twice at an interval of sixty days in a newspaper circulating daily in
Antigua and Barbuda, whenever the Court orders the name of an attorney-at-law to be removed from
the Roll or that an attorney-at-law be suspended from practising law.

(2) An appeal lies to the Court of Appeal from an order made by the Court to remove the name of
an attorney-at-law from the Roll or that an attorney-at-law be suspended from practising law and such
an appeal shall be filed within 14 days of the order.

(3) Where an appeal is made under subsection (2), the Registrar shall ensure that he takes no
action under subsection (1) until the order altering the Roll has been confirmed on appeal.

(4) Where the name of an attorney-at-law is removed from the Roll his practising certificate ceases
to be valid.

(5) During the period of suspension of an attorney-at-law from practising law, no practising certifi-
cate shall be issued to him and any practising certificate issued to him prior to suspension, ceases to
be valid for the period of that suspension.

28. Expiration of suspension to be noted on Roll

Upon the termination of the suspension of an attorney-at-law from practising law, the Registrar shall
forthwith cause a note of termination of the suspension to be entered in the Roll against the name of
the attorney-at-law, and cause a notice thereof to be published in the Gaz tte.

29. Restoration of name to Roll and termination of suspension

(1) An attorney-at-law whose name has been removed from the Roll or who has been suspended
from practising law may, subject to section 30, apply to the Court by petition to have his name
restored to the Roll or the order of his suspension withdrawn.

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.21

(2) A petition filed under subsection (1) shall be served on the chambers of both the Attorn y
General and the President of the Bar Association and the Attorney General or the President of the Bar
Association may, before the hearing of such an application, object to the application by filing and
serving on the applicant, an affidavit in which the grounds for the objection are set out.

(3) An affidavit filed and served pursuant to subsection (2) if filed by —

(a) the Attorney General shall be served on the President of the Bar Association; and

(b) the President of the Bar Association shall be served on the Attorney General.

(4) An appeal lies to the Court of appeal from an Order of the Court refusing an application made
under this section.

30. Procedure on application

(1) On the hearing of an application made pursuant to section 29, the Court may request a report on
the applicant from the Disciplinary Committee, and may, if satisfied that the applicant is a fit and
proper person to practise law, order that his name be restored to the Roll or that the order suspending
him from practising law be withdrawn.

(2) Any order made by the Court under this section restoring the name of an attorney-at-law or
terminating the suspension of an attorney-at -law shall be published in the Gazette by the Registrar
and twice at an interval of sixty days in a newspaper circulating daily in Ant gua and Barbuda, at the
expense of the reinstated Attorney-at-Law.

(3) Upon the publication in the Gazette of an order made under subsection (2) and on the payment
of any fee prescribed the Registrar shall make the appropriate entry on the Roll and where appropri-
ate restore the name of the attorney to the Roll.

PART IV

ACCOUNTS

31. Rules as to accounts and interst

(1) All moneys received for or on behalf of a client by an attorney-at-law shall be held —

(a) on trust for that client to be paid to the client or as the client may direct; and

(b) in a bank account—

(i) in the name of the attorney-at-law; and

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 22

(ii) designated a client’s account.

(2) Where the moneys received for or on behalf of a client by an attorney-at-law are held by that
attorney-at-law in an interest bearing account, the interest earned on those moneys shall be for the
benefit of the client.

(3) Where moneys are held by an Attorney-at-Law in an interest bearing account on a client’s
behalf, the Attorney-at-Law shall pay to the client all of the interest earned on those moneys.

(4) The Council may, after consultation with the Bar Association, make rules generally for the
keeping and operating of bank accounts of clients’ money by attorneys-at-law, and without prejudice
to the generality of the foregoing, the rules may provide—

(a) for attorneys-at-law to open and keep accounts at banks for clients’ money;

(b) for attorneys-at-law to keep accounts containing particulars and information as to mon-
eys received, held or paid by them for or on account of their clients; and

(c) for the Council to take whatever action as may be necessary to enable them to ascertain
whether or not the rules are being complied with.

(5) Rules made under this section may also require an attorney-at-law, in prescribed cases to—

(a) keep on deposit in a separate account at a bank for the benefit of the client, money re-
ceived for or on account of a client; or

(b) make good to the client out of the attorney-at-law’s own money a sum equivalent to the
interest which would have accrued if the money received had been kept on deposit.

(6) An attorney-at-law shall be required to keep a record of any sum of money received and the period
for which it is or is likely to be retained or both.

(7) Nothing in subsections (4) and (5), or in rules made pursuant to subsection (3) shall—

(a) affect any arrangement in writing, whenever made, between an attorney-at-law and his
client as to the application of the client’s money or interest on that money; or

(b) apply to money received by an attorney-at-law being money subject to a trust of which
the attorney-at-law is a trustee.

32. Relief to banks

(1) Subject to subsection (2) a bank shall not be liable on any transaction concerning the account
of an attorney-at-law other than an account kept by an attorney-at-law as trustee for a specified ben-

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.23

eficiary; and a bank shall be under no obligation to make any enquiry or be considered to have
knowledge of any right of any person to money paid or credited to that account.

(2) Notwithstanding anything in subsection (1) a bank or other financial institution at which an
attorney-at-law keeps an account for clients’ moneys shall not, in respect of any liability of the attor-
ney-at-law to the bank, not being a liability in connection with that account, have or obtain any
recourse or right, whether by way of set-off, counterclaim, charge or otherwise, against moneys standing
to the credit of that account.

33. Dealings with clients’ accounts where improper conduct alleged

(1) Where a Judge is satisfied on application made to him in Chambers by a client, Attor ey-at-law
or the Attorney General that there is reasonable cause to believe that—

(a) an attorney-at-law has committed an offence involving fraud or improper conduct in
relation to the money or property of a person; or

(b) any money entrusted to the attorney-at-law has been appropriated by the attorney-at-law,
his employee or agent;

the Judge shall cause the Registrar forthwith to inform the attorney-at-law of the application and the
grounds upon which it is based and summon him to appear in Chambers before a Judge of the Court
on a date and at a time stated in the order to be examined concerning the matter and shall cause the
Registrar to summon the person who made the application also to appear before the same Judge on
that date and at that time.

(2) If on examination it appears to the Judge that the attorney-at-law has committed an offence
involving fraud or improper conduct he may order that—

(a) an account be kept by the attorney or his firm with a bank or other financial institution for
the client or make an order as to the keeping of an account by a bank or other financial
institution for the client by the attorney-at-law or his firm as he thinks proper, and that
order shall be served on the bank or financial institution; and

(b) that the Registrar make or cause to be made an application to the Council in respect of the
attorney-at-law, and Part B of the Code shall apply insofar as is practicable.

(3) If the Judge makes an order under subsection (2), the judge may also refer the matter to the
Director of Public Prosecutions.

(4) Rules of court may prescribe the form and procedure for any application or proceedings made
or brought under this section.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 24

34. Dealing with clients’ accounts on death of attorney-at-law practising on his own account

(1) At any time after the death of an attorney-at-law who immediately before his death was practis-
ing as an attorney-at-law on his own account and not in partnership with another attorney-at-law the
Council may, if it thinks fit, serve notice on any banker holding money in any clients’ account of the
attorney-at-law or his firm that this section applies to that account.

(2) From the date of the service of a notice under subsection (1) the right to operate or otherwise
deal with the account to which the notice relates shall vest in the Council to the exclusion of any other
person.

(3) Not later than the date on which a notice is served on a banker under subsection (1) the Council
shall serve a copy of the notice on the legal personal representative of the attorney-at-law unless the
identity or address of the representative cannot after reasonable enquiry be ascertained in which case
the notice shall be given as soon as is reasonably practicable.

(4) If the Council fails to serve a copy of the notice as required by subsection (3) and in conse-
quence of that failure the legal personal representative suffer loss as a result of his doing a lawful act
in good faith in relation to the account to which the notice relates, the Council shall indemnify him
against the loss so suffered.

(5) For the purposes of this section a certificate signed by the Secretary of the Council and certify-
ing that a banking account of an attorney-at-law is a clients’ account is evidence of the matter certi-
fied.

PART V

DISCIPLINE

35. Rules to govern professional practice and conduct

(1) The Code of Ethics Rules set out in Schedule 4 shall regulate the professional practice, eti-
quette, conduct and discipline of attorneys-at-law.

(2) A breach of the rules in Part A of the Code may constitute professional misconduct; but a
breach of the rules in Part B of the Code shall constitute professional misconduct.

(3) Where no provision is made in the rules in respect of any matter, the rules and practice of the
legal profession which obtained immediately before the commencement of this Act shall apply in so
far as is practicable.

(4) The Council, with the approval of the Chief Justice, may amend Schedule 4.

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.25

36. Disciplinary Committee

(1) A Disciplinary Committee (hereinafter referred to as “the Committee”) is established for the
purpose of dealing with complaints against attorneys-at-law.

(2) The Secretary of the OECS Bar shall perform the duties of secretary to the Committee.

(3) In performing the duties in subsection (2) the Secretary shall not divulge any of the complaints
or proceedings or exhibits which come into his hands or knowledge to anyone unless so authorised by
the Disciplinary Committee or a Court of law.

(4) The provisions of Schedule 5 shall have eff ct in relation to the constitution of the Committee
and other matters relating to it.

(5) Expenses incurred by the Committee shall be met from the Fund.

37. Complaints to Committee

(1) A client or, by leave of the Committee, any other person alleging himself aggrieved by an act of
professional misconduct committed by an attorney-at-law, other than the Attorney General or law
officer, may apply to the Committee to require the attorney-at-law to answer allegations contained in
an afidavit made by that person, and the Registrar or any member of the Committee may make a like
application to the Committee in respect of allegations concerning any professional misconduct or any
criminal offence as may for the purposes of this section be prescribed by the Council with the ap-
proval of the Chief Justice.

(2) In any matter or hearing before any court, where the court considers that an act referred to in
subsection (1) has been committed by an attorney-at-law other than the Attorney General or law
officer, the court may make or cause the Registrar to make an application to the Committee in respect
of the attorney-at-law under that subsection.

(3) A complaint against an attorney-at-law for misconduct shall not be brought more than three
years after—

(a) the date of occurrence of the facts giving rise to the complaint; or

(b) the date of knowledge of the facts giving rise to the complaint of the complainant.

38. Disciplinary Proceedings Schedule 6

(1) Schedule 6 shall have eff ct in relation to disciplinary proceedings against attorney-at-law
other than the Attorney General or law officers.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 26

(2) For the purposes of an application made to it pursuant to this Act, the Committee shall have the
powers of the Court to summon witnesses, call for the production of books and documents and exam-
ine witnesses and parties concerned on oath.

(3) The conviction of an attorney-at-law of a criminal offence may, for the purposes of disciplinary
proceedings against him, be accepted by the Committee as proof of his having committed the off nce.

39. Hearing of application

(1) On the hearing of an application under this Part, the Committee may—

(a) dismiss the application;

(b) impose on the attorney-at-law to whom the application relates, a fine as it thinks proper;

(c) reprimand the attorney-at-law to whom the application relates; and

(d) make an order as to costs as it thinks fit, and in addition, except where the application is
dismissed, the Committee may order the attorney-at-law to pay the applicant or person
aggrieved a sum by way of compensation and reimbursement and any further sum in
respect of expenses incidental to the hearing of the application and the consideration of
the report as it thinks fit.

(2) The removal from the Roll of the name of an attorney-at-law shall not be a bar to the continu-
ation of the hearing and determination of an application.

(3) Where the Committee is of the opinion that a case has been made out which justifies punish-
ment more severe than may be imposed by it under this section like suspension from practice or
removal from the Roll, the Committee shall forward to the Chief Justice and to the Attorney General
a copy of the proceedings before it and a report of its findings.

(4) Every decision or order made under this section shall be drawn up, settled and signed by the
Registrar who shall keep a written record of all decisions and orders.

(5) In addition to the register kept under section 43A, the Council shall also maintain a written
record of all decisions and orders referred to in subsection (4).

(6) Where an attorney-at-law is ordered by the Committee to pay compensation or to make reim-
bursement to an applicant or other aggrieved person, any compensation or reimbursement shall be
taken into account in the assessment of damages recoverable against the attorney-at-law in any civil
proceedings brought against him by the applicant or other aggrieved person in respect of any act or
default which was the subject matter of the application which gave rise to the order of the Committee.

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.27

40. Appeal from Disciplinary Committee

(1) An attorney-at-law aggrieved by a decision given or penalty imposed by the Committee may
appeal against that decision or penalty to the Court of Appeal.

(2) Upon an appeal under this section, the Court of Appeal may affirm or set aside the decision or
penalty appealed against or may substitute any other decision or penalty which the Committee could
have made or imposed or resubmit the matter to the Committee for a rehearing.

(3) Where in any proceedings brought under Part V an attorney-at-law is found to be guilty of
professional misconduct by the Committee and the Court of Appeal afirms the decision of the Com-
mittee, the Court of Appeal may make an order as to the keeping or distribution of money standing to
the credit of the account of an attorney-at-law as it thinks proper in the circumstances of the case.

41. Disciplinary proceedings before the Court

(1) The Attorney General may commence disciplinary proceedings before the court against an
attorney-at-law where he receives a report pursuant to section 39(3).

(2) Without prejudice to any other rule of law or to any rule of practice whereby the Supreme
Court is empowered to take disciplinary action against a person admitted to practise as an attorney-at-
law before it, it is hereby declared that the Court has the power to take disciplinary action in accor-
dance with rules of court made for the purpose pursuant to section 86 of the Eastern Caribbean
Supreme Court Act with respect to his professional conduct against an attorney-at-law and in particu-
lar the Court may make any one or more of the following orders, namely—

(a) an order removing from the Roll the name of the attorney-at-law against whom disciplin-
ary proceedings have been instituted;

(b) an order suspending the attorney-at-law from practice for a time that the Court considers
fit;

(c) an order as to costs, as regards both the proceedings before it and the proceedings before
the Committee as the Court considers fit; and

(d) any further or other order as the circumstances of the case may require.

(3) In the exercise of the powers under subsection (1) the Court shall sit as a full court consisting
of three judges.

(4) The attorney-at-law whose professional conduct is the subject of any disciplinary proceedings
before the Court shall be entitled to a right of appeal to the Court of Appeal from any decision or other
determination of the Court in those proceedings.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 28

42. Saving of jurisdiction of courts

Notwithstanding anything contained in this Act, the jurisdiction, power or authority vested in any
court immediately before the commencement of this Act—

(a)by the common law with respect to discipline; or

(b)by any enactment to deal with contempt of court committed by attorneys-at-law

shall continue to be exercisable after the commencement of this Act.

43. Control of employment of certain clerks

(1) An attorney-at-law shall not knowingly hire a person who is or was a clerk to an attorney-at-law
and who has been convicted by a court —

(a) of larceny, embezzlement or fraudulent conversion; or

(b) of any other criminal offence in respect of any money or property belonging to or held or
controlled by an attorney-at-law by whom he is or was employed or any client of that
attorney-at-law.

(2) An attorney-at-law who breaches the provisions of subsection (1) commits an offence and is
liable on summary conviction to a fine of seven thousand five hundred dollars or to imprisonment for
two years or to both and may be guilty of professional misconduct.

43A. Register

The Council shall maintain a register containing the names of all clerks referred to in subsection
43(1) along with the particulars of the relevant matters.

PART VI

LEGAL EDUCATION AND LAW REPORTING

44. Legal education and law reporting

(1) The Council may make arrangements—

(a) for the provision of a system of legal education and practical legal training and profes-
sional development; and

(b) for the provision of a system of law reporting.

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.29

(2) The Council may make rules relating to matters connected with its functions under subsection
(1) and, in particular, but without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, concerning—

(a) courses of instruction for students and generally for aff ding opportunities for students
to read and obtain practical experience in law; and

(b) the nature and conditions of examinations and fees payable in respect of these examina-
tions.

(3)Rules made under subsection (2) shall be subject to a negative resolution of Parliament.

PART VII

REMUNERATION AND COST

45. Interpretation of this Part

In this Part

“attorney-at-law” includes the executors, administrators and assignees of an attorney-at-law;

“costs” includes fees for any legal business done by an attorney-at-law;

“person chargeable” in relation to an attorney-at-law’s bill of costs, includes any person who
has paid or is liable to pay the bill either to the attorney-at-law or to any other person chargeable
with the bill;

“taxing officer” means in relation to the Court or any Court of Record, the Registrar of that
Court.

46. Payments in advance and accountability

(1) An attorney-at-law who receives any money in advance from or on behalf of a client to cover
prospective costs, other than a retainer, or as security for future costs shall, on the written demand of
the client made at any time after the expiration of three months from the receipt of the money or at any
subsequent time during any period which is at least three months from the date of the last demand,
deliver to the client a statement in writing showing—

(a) the amounts of money received up to the date of the statement;

(b) the dates when the amounts of money were received; and

(c) the purposes for which the money or so much of it as has been expended have been
applied.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 30

(2) If a client fails to obtain the statement referred to in subsection (1) after demanding it in
accordance with the subsection, he may apply to the Council or a Judge in Chambers for an order
requiring the attorney-at-law to deliver the statement, and the Council or Judge may on the making of
that order give other directions as it or he thinks fit.

47. Bills of costs to be prepared

(1) Subject to subsection (2), an attorney-at-law may not commence a claim for the recovery from
his client of the amount of any bill of costs for any legal business done by him unless the bill of costs
is prepared in accordance with Parts 64 and 65 of the Civil Procedure Rules, 2000, Eastern Caribbean
Supreme Court, and is served on the client with a demand in writing for payment thirty days before
the filing of the suit.

(2) The Court may on the application of an attorney-at-law authorise him to commence or proceed
with a suit for the recovery of any costs before the expiration of fifteen days from the delivery of the
copy of the bill of costs required by subsection (1) if it is satisfied that there is reasonable cause for
believing that the person chargeable with the costs is about to—

(a) leave Antigua and Barbuda;

(b) become bankrupt; or

(c) do any other act which would tend to prevent or delay the attorney-at-law from obtaining
payment.

(3) If in any proceedings before a court the amount set out in a bill of costs is sought to be recov-
ered or is disputed and the bill of costs or part of it relates to matters in respect of which no scale of
fees is prescribed, the court shall decide whether the fees set out in respect of those matters are fair
and reasonable having regard to the work done, or are excessive, and shall allow or reduce them
accordingly.

(4) It shall not be necessary in the first instance for an attorney-at-law in proving compliance with
this section to prove the contents of the bill of costs served, and it shall be suffici nt to prove that the
bill—

(a) signed by the attorney-at-law or, in the case of a partnership, by any one of the partners
either in his own name or in the name of the partnership; or

(b) being enclosed in or accompanied by a letter signed in the manner specified in paragraph
(a) referring to the bill;

was duly served.

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.31

48. Bills for noncontentious matters

Where an attorney-at-law issues a Bill to a client for a noncontentious matter, the attorney-at-law
shall also prepare and deliver to the client an itemised statement disclosing the basis upon which each
item is charged.

49. Rules as to costs for noncontentious business

(1) The Association may with the approval of the Chief Justice, make rules prescribing and regu-
lating the remuneration of attorneys-at-law in respect of non-contentious business.

(2) Rules made under this section may—

(a) regulate the amount of remuneration which may be charged, having regard to the follow-
ing—

(i) the skill, labour and complexity required by the attorney-at-law in handling the
business;

(ii) the number and importance of documents prepared or perused by the attorney-at-
law;

(iii) the place where and the circumstances in which the business or any part of it is
transacted; and

(iv) the amount of money that is expended or likely to be expended in the business; and

(b) authorise and regulate—

(i) the taking by an attorney-at-law from his client of security for payment of remu-
neration to be ascertained by taxation or otherwise which may become due to him;
and

(ii) the allowance of interest.

(3) Where rules made under this section are in force, the taxation of a bill of costs of an attorney-
at-law in respect of non-contentious business shall be regulated by those rules.

50. Remuneration agreements for non-contentious business

(1) Notwithstanding section 47, an attorney-at-law and his client may either before, after or in the
course of the transaction of any noncontentious business by the attorney-at-law, enter into an agree-
ment as to the remuneration of the attorney-at-law in respect of the work to be performed.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 32

(2) The agreement made by virtue of subsection (1) may provide for the remuneration of the
attorney-at-law by gross sum, by commission, by percentage, by salary, or otherwise, and it may be
made on terms that the amount of the remuneration stipulated in the agreement shall not include all or
any disbursements made by the attorney-at-law in respect of searches, plans, travelling, stamps, fees
or other matters.

(3) An agreement made by virtue of subsection (1) shall be in writing and signed by the person to
be bound or his agent.

(4) An agreement made by virtue of subsection (1) may be sued and recovered on or set aside in
the same manner and on the same grounds as an agreement not relating to the remuneration of an
attorney-at-law, but if on any taxation of costs the agreement is relied on by the attorney-at-law and
objected to by the client as unfair or unreasonable, the taxing officer may inquire into the facts and
certify them to the Court, and if on that certificate it appears just to the Court that the agreement
should be cancelled or the amount payable under it reduced, the Court may order the agreement to be
cancelled, or the amount payable under it to be reduced, and may give consequential directions as it
may think fit.

PART VIII

MISCELLANEOUS

51. Professional liability insurance

(1) The Council may make rules requiring attorneys-at-law to maintain professional liability insur-
ance.

(2) The Council may establish, administer, maintain and operate a professional liability insurance
scheme and may use for that purpose fees set under this section.

(3) The Council may, by resolution, set—

(a) the insurance fee, and

(b) the amount to be paid for each type of transaction under subsection (4) (c).

(4) The Council may make rules to do any of the following—

(a) permit attorneys-at-law to pay the insurance fee by instalments on or before the date by
which each instalment of that fee is due;

(b) establish classes of membership for insurance purposes and exempt an attorney-at-law or
class of attorneys-at-law from the requirement to maintain professional liability insur-
ance or from payment of all or part of the insurance fee; and

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.33

(c) designate types of transactions for which the attorney-at-law must pay a fee to fund the
professional liability insurance scheme.

(5) The Council may use fees set under this section to act as the agent for the members in obtaining
professional liability insurance.

(6) If the Council establishes a professional liability insurance scheme then it shall establish a
professional liability insurance fund, comprised of the insurance fees and other income of the profes-
sional liability insurance scheme, and the fund—

(a) must be accounted for separately from other funds, and

(b) is not subject to any process of seizure or attachment by a creditor of the Association.

(7) An attorney-at-law must not practise law unless the attorney-at-law has paid the insurance fee
when it is due, or is exempted from payment of the fee.

(8) An attorney-at-law must immediately surrender to the President his or her practising certificate
and any proof of professional liability insurance issued by the Association, if—

(a) the Association has paid a deductible amount on behalf of the attorney-at-law in respect
of a claim against the attorney-at-law, under a professional liability insurance scheme;
and

(b) the attorney-at-law has not reimbursed the Association, at the date that the insurance fee
or an instalment of that fee is due.

(9) The Council may waive or extend the time—

(a) to pay all or part of the insurance fee; or

(b) to repay all or part of a deductible amount paid on behalf of an attorney-at-law.

(10) If the Council extends the time for a payment under subsection (9), the later date for payment
is the date when payment is due for the purposes of subsections (7) and (8).

52. Rules

The Council may, after consulting the Chief Justice, make rules to give effect to the provisions of this
Act.

53. Repeal 9/1997

The Legal Profession Act, 1997, is hereby repealed.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 34

SCHEDULE 1

[Section 4]

Constitution of the Council

Council to be governing and executive body of Association

1. The Council shall be the governing and executive body of the Association and shall exercise and
perform all functions, duties and powers as are imposed or conferred upon it by this Act or any other
enactment.

Type of members

2. (1)The Council shall consist of—
(a) the immediate past president of the Association when he is resident in A tigua and

Barbuda

(b) elected members comprising—

(i) officers of the Association, and

(ii) ordinary members,

Officers of the Association

3. (1)The oficers of the Association shall be the President, the Vice-President and the Treasurer
who shall be elected at the same time as the ordinary members in accordance with paragraph 6 and the
Secretary who shall be appointed by the Council as soon as it is constituted from among elected
ordinary members.

(2) Every practitioner member of the Association of more than ten years standing shall be eligible
for election as President, Vice-President or Treasurer.

Ordinary members

4. There shall be seven ordinary members of the Council comprising seven practitioner members,
each of whom shall be of not less than five years standing on the day of his nomination for election to
the Council.

Elections to be held every two years

5. Every two years elections shall be held in accordance with this Schedule and any rules made

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.35

thereunder for the election of President, Vice-President and Treasurer of the Association and the
ordinary members of the Council.

Closing date for nomination

6. In the month of January every election year the Council shall publish in the Gazette and in any
other manner which it considers expedient so to do, the closing date for nominations of candidates for
election to the Council.

Candidate’s consent to be obtained

7. Every nomination of a candidate for election to the Council shall be in writing signed by not less
than five practitioner members and shall name only one candidate whose consent shall be endorsed
thereon.

Date of election and the publication

8. Election of members to the Council shall be held at the general meeting as soon as practicable
after the month of January in every election year but the names of the candidates nominated shall not
be published before the first day of February in that year.

Ballot voting

9. Voting shall be by ballot.

Election to offices

10. (1) A person may at the same election be a candidate for two or more of the offices Presi-
dent, Vice-President, Treasurer and ordinary member of the Council.

(2) The election to these offices shall be determined in the order in which the offices are mentioned
in subparagraph (1).

Equality of votes

11. In the event of an equality of votes between candidates, the one to be declared elected shall be
determined by lot in the manner prescribed.

Names of members of new Council to be published in the Gazette

12. (1) The names of the members of the new Council shall be published in the Gazette.

(2) On the date of the publication the new Council shall be considered to have been constituted
and its members to have taken office.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 36

(3) On that date, the term of office of each member of the previous Council shall expire.

New Council

13. All members of the Council shall hold office until the coming into office of a new Council
under paragraph 12.

Filling of vacancies

14. If a vacancy arises in the office of an elected member it shall be filled in one of the following
ways—

(a) where it arises less than six months after a member took office, by a by-election; and

(b) where it arises six months or more after the member took office, by the appointment by
the Council of a person qualified for election to the office.

15. If the position of President becomes vacant then it shall be filled only by an election from
among the members of the Association.

Presiding at meetings of Council and Association

16. (1) The President of the Association or, in his absence the Vice-President of the Association
shall be the Chairman of the Council and the Association and shall preside at all meetings of the
Council and the Association.

(2) In the absence from a meeting of both the President and the Vice-President the members
presents shall select one of their members to preside at that meeting.

Appointment of officer due to illness, etc.

17. Subject to paragraph 15, where for any reason an officer of the Association is unable to carry
out his functions pursuant to this Act, the Council shall appoint a member from among the elected
members of the Council to act in his place.

Vacation of office of member of Council

18. A member of the Council shall vacate his office if—

(a) he is struck off the Roll or is suspended from practising as an attorney-at-law;

(b) he becomes bankrupt or is insolvent;

(c) he becomes of unsound mind; or

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.37

(d) he resigns his seat on the Council.

Vacation of office of elected member

19. An elected member shall vacate his office in any of the circumstances specified in paragraph
18 and shall also vacate his office if—

(a) being elected under paragraph 5, he ceases for any reason to have in force a practising
certificate; or

(b) he is absent from three consecutive meetings of the Council without its consent.

Quorum of Council

20. Seven members present at a meeting of the Council shall constitute a quorum for the transac-
tion of any business.

Out-of-pocket expenses to be paid to members of the Council.

21. No fees shall be paid to any member of the Council but a member may be reimbursed from the
funds of the Association for out-of-pocket and travelling expenses incurred by him in relation to any
business of the Association.

Annual General Meeting

22. (1) The Council shall convene an A nual General Meeting which shall be held on or before the
31st day of March in each year and shall cause to be prepared and presented to the Annual General
Meeting—

(a) a report on the activities of the Association, and

(b) proper accounts, duly audited, of all funds, property and assets of the Association, for the
year terminating on the 31st day of January preceding the General Meeting.

(2) The Auditor shall be appointed at each Annual General Meeting.

General Meeting

23. The Council may convene a Special General Meeting of the Association at the time or times
that the Council considers expedient.

Twenty practitioner members can requisition Special General Meeting

24. (1) Any twenty practitioner members of the Association may at any time requisition a Special

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 38

General Meeting by written notice signed by them stating the objects of the meeting and served on the
President, the Vice-President or Secretary of the Association.

(2) The Council shall convene a Special General Meeting to be held in thirty days of the service of
the notice.

(3) If the Council fails to convene a Special General Meeting within the time required by subpara-
graph (2), the requisitioning members may convene that General Meeting within sixty days of the
service of the Notice.

Chairman to have casting vote at general meeting

25. At every General Meeting, every practitioner member present shall have one vote and the
person presiding at that meeting shall have a casting as well as an original vote.

Management of Association to be vested in Council

26. (1) All powers, acts, or things which are not by this Act expressly authorized, directed or
required to be exercised or done by the Association in General Meeting may, subject to this Act or any
rules made thereunder or any resolution passed from time to time by the Association in General
Meeting, be exercised or done by the Council.

(2) No resolution of the Association passed under subparagraph (1) shall invalidate the previous
exercise of any power or the previous doing of any act or thing by the Council which would have been
valid if that resolution had not been passed.

Council to have power to make rules

27. (1) The Council shall have power to make rules to provide for all matters not expressly re-
served to the Association in General Meeting (whether the same be expressed to be among its powers
or not) and for all things which appear to it to be necessary or desirable for carrying out its functions
pursuant to this Act or any other enactment.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the power conferred by subparagraph (1) the Council
may make rules on any of the following matters—

(a) the manner of nominating candidates;

(b) the manner of communicating to members the names of the persons nominated for elec-
tion;

(c) the form of nomination paper and the ballot paper;

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.39

(d) the times at which the various steps in an election are to take place;

(e) the mode of voting; and

(f) the number of practitioner members (not being less than twenty) to constitute a quorum at
a General Meeting.

SCHEDULE 2

[Section 16]

Listed Caricom Territories

Anguilla
Antigua and Barbuda
Bahamas
Barbados
Belize
British Virgin Islands
Cayman Islands
Dominica
Grenada
Guyana
Jamaica
Montserrat
St. Kitts and Nevis
St. Lucia
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Trinidad and Tobago
Turks and Caicos Islands

SCHEDULE 3

[Section 13,21,25]

Forms

FORM 1

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

SUPREME COURT OF JUDICATURE

IN THE HIGH COURT OF JUSTICE

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 40

(LEGAL PROFESSION ACT, 2008)

Certificate of Enrolment

It is hereby certified that ………………………………………………………….. is registered on
the Roll of Attorneys-at-law pursuant to section 13 of the Legal Profession Act, 2008.
Dated this day of 200 .

...........................................................................
Registrar of the Court

FORM 2

THE LEGAL PROFESSION ACT 2008

PRACTISING CERTIFICA TE

Pursuant to the Legal Profession Act , 2008 it is hereby certified that
……………………………………………....of ...................................................………………........
whose name is registered in the Roll of Attorneys-at-law is entitled to practise as an Attorney-at-law
until the …… day of ………….. 20.

Dated this day of 200 .

...........................................................................
Registrar of the Court

FORM 3

THE LEGAL PROFESSION ACT 2008

LAW OFFICERS CERTIFICA TE

It is hereby certified that …………………………………………………………………. is a law of-
ficer holding the office of …………………………….. in the Public Service at pleasure/ under con-
tract from the ……….day of ………………. 200 until the ……….day of ………………. 200 and
appointed by the Judicial and Legal Service Commission.

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.41

Dated this day of 200 .

.............……...................................…………
Attorney General

SCHEDULE 4

[Section 35]

Code of Ethics

PART A

GENERAL GUIDELINES

I In Relation to the Profession and Himself

1. An attorney-at-law shall observe the rules of this Code, maintain his integrity and the honour
and dignity of the legal profession and encourage other attorneys-at-law to act similarly and both in
the practise of his profession and in his private life, shall refrain from conduct which is detrimental to
the profession or which may tend to discredit it.

2. An attorney-at-law shall in the discharge of his professional duties expose without fear or
favour before the proper tribunals unprofessional or dishonest conduct by any other attorney-at-law
and shall not lightly refuse a retainer against another attorney-at-law who is alleged to have wronged
his client or committed any other act of professional misconduct.

3. (1) An attorney-at-law shall scrupulously preserve his independence in the discharge of his
professional duties.

(2) An attorney-at-law practising on his own account or in partnership shall not engage in any
other business or occupation which may cause him to cease to be independent.

4. An attorney-at-law shall protect the profession against the admission of any candidate whose
moral character or education renders him unfit for admission.

5. An attorney-at-law shall not endeavour by direct or indirect means to attract the clients of
another attorney-at-law and where a client is referred to him by another attorney-at-law, the client
remains for all other purposes the client of the referring attorney-at-law and the attorney-at-law to
whom the client is referred shall act with due deference to the relationship between the client and the
referring attorney-at-law.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 42

6. An attorney-at-law may speak in public or write for publication on legal topics so long that it is
not likely to be regarded as a result of that action as being concerned with the giving of individual
advice.

7. (1) An attorney-at-law shall endeavour to uphold standards of integrity, capability, dedication
to work, fidelity, and trust.

(2) It is unprofessional for an attorney-at-law to seek retainers through agents of any kind.

8. An attorney-at-law shall defend the interest of his client without fear of judicial disfavour or
public unpopularity and without regard to any unpleasant consequences to himself or to any other
person.

9. An attorney-at-law has a right to decline employment and is not obliged to act either as adviser
or advocate for every person who may wish to become his client.

10. A client is not entitled to receive nor is an attorney-at-law entitled to render any service or
advice—

(a) exhibiting disrespect for a judicial office;

(b) concerning the corruption of any person exercising a public or private trust;
or

(c) concerning the deception or betrayal of the public.

11. Every attorney-at-law shall bear in mind that the oath of office taken on his admission to
practice is not a mere formality but is a solemn undertaking to be strictly observed on his part.

II In Relation to the State and the Public

12. An attorney-at-law owes a duty to the State to maintain its integrity, constitution and laws and
not to aid, abet, counsel or assist anyone to act in a manner contrary to this duty.

13. The primary duty of an attorney-at-law when engaged as a public prosecutor is not to secure
a conviction but to see that justice is done and to that end he shall not withhold facts tending to prove
either guilt or innocence of the accused.

14. An attorney-at-law shall endeavour by lawful means where the needs of society require to
promote and encourage the modernisation, simplification and reform of legislation.

15. An attorney-at-law shall not by his actions, stir up strife or litigation by seeking out defects in
titles, claims for personal injury or other causes of action for the purpose of securing a retainer to
prosecute a claim or pay or reward any person directly or indirectly for the purpose of procuring him

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.43

to be retained in his professional capacity, and where it is in the interest of his client he shall seek to
obtain reasonable settlement of disputes.

16. An attorney-at-law shall not except for good reason refuse his services in capital offences.

17. An attorney-at-law shall not be deterred from accepting proffered employment owing to the
fear or dislike of incurring the disapproval of officials, other attorneys-at-law or members of the
public.

18. Where an attorney-at-law consents to undertake legal aid and he is requested by the Council
and consents to undertake the representation of a person who is unable to afford legal representation
or to obtain legal aid, the attorney-at-law shall not, except for compelling reasons, seek to be excused
from undertaking that representation.

19. An attorney-at-law in undertaking the defence of a person accused of crime shall use all fair
and reasonable means to present every defence available at law.

III In Relation to Client

20. (1) An attorney-at-law shall always act in the best interest of his client, represent him honestly,
competently and zealously and endeavour by all fair and honourable means to obtain for him the
benefit of any and every remedy and defence which is authorised by law, always bearing in mind that
his duties and responsibilities should be carried out within and not without the boundary of the law.

(2) The first concern of an attorney-at-law should always be the interest of his client and the
exigencies of the administration of justice which should rank before his right to compensation for his
services.

21. (1) An attorney-at-law should, before advising on the cause of a client, obtain a sound knowl-
edge of the matter and give a candid opinion of its merits or demerits and the probable results of
pending or contemplated litigation.

(2) An attorney-at-law should be reluctant in proffering bold and confident assurances to his client
especially where his employment may depend on these assurances in light of the fact that the law is
not always on the side of his client and that the law allows for the audi alteram partem rule to be
followed.

(3) Where a dispute allows for settlement without litigation, an attorney-at-law should advise his
client to avoid or settle the dispute.

22. (1) An attorney-at-law shall at the time of agreeing on a retainer disclose to his client all the
circumstances of his relations to the parties and his interest in or connection with the dispute which
may influence the client in his selection of an attorney-at-law.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 44

(2) An attorney-at-law shall scrupulously guard and never divulge the secrets and confidence of
his client except with his client’s consent.

23. An attorney-at-law shall treat adverse witnesses, litigants and other attorneys-at-law with fair-
ness and courtesy, refraining from offensive personal references and should refrain in conducting his
professional duties from being influenced by his client’s personal feelings and prejudices.

24. An attorney-at-law has the right to undertake the defence of a person accused of crime regard-
less of his own personal opinion as to the guilt of the accused and having undertaken to conduct the,
defence he is bound by all fair and honourable means to present every defence that the law of the land
permits so that no person may be unjustly deprived of life or liberty.

25. (1) An attorney-at-law may represent multiple clients only if he can adequately represent the
interests of each and if each consents to his representation after full disclosure of the possible effects
of multiple representation.

(2) An attorney-at-law shall, in all situations where a possible conflict of interest arises, resolve the
conflict by leaning against multiple representation.

26. (1) An attorney-at-law shall deal with the business of his client with all due expedition and
shall whenever reasonably so required by the client, provide him with full information as to the
progress of the business.

(2) It is improper for an attorney-at-law to accept a case unless he can handle it without undue
delay.

27. Where an attorney-at-law determines that the interest of his client requires it, he may with the
specific or general consent of the client refer his business or part of it to another attorney-at-law
whether or not a member of his own firm.

28. (1) A Queen’s Counsel/Senior Counsel may accept instructions, appear or do any work with-
out a junior, except where he would otherwise be unable properly to carry out his instructions or
conduct his case if he were to do so.

(2) Where more than one attorney-at-law appears as advocate for the same party in the same
proceedings, the decision of who shall lead the conduct of the case shall, subject to the instructions of
the client, be settled by the attorneys-at-law representing that party before they appear in court and
shall not be altered during the course of the proceedings and the leader shall have all authority over
the conduct of the case.

(3) An attorney-at-law, including a Queen’s Counsel/Senior Counsel, who appears with the leader
is entitled to an appropriate negotiated fee for his conduct of the case.

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.45

29. (1) An attorney-at-law is entitled to reasonable compensation for his services but should avoid
charges which either overestimate or undervalue the service rendered.

(2) An attorney-at-law shall not charge in excess of the value of the service rendered because of the
ability of a client to pay, however, he may consider the indigence of a client as a factor in charging
below the value of the service rendered, or not charging at all.

(3) An attorney-at-law should avoid controversies with clients regarding compensation for his
services as far as is compatible with self-respect and his right to receive compensation for his ser-
vices.

30. The right of an attorney-at-law to ask for a retainer or to demand payment of out-of-pocket
expenses and commitments and to withdraw his services for non-payment of these fees shall not be
exercised where the client may be unable to find other timely assistance to prevent irreparable dam-
age being done to his case.

31. Where an attorney-at-law engages a foreign colleague to advise on a case or to cooperate in
handling it, he is responsible for the payment of the charges involved except if there is an express
agreement to the contrary, but where an attorney-at-law directs a client to a foreign colleague he is not
responsible for the payment of the charges, nor is he entitled to a share of the fee of his foreign
colleague except where there is an express agreement to the contrary.

32. Subject to paragraph 12 of Part B, an attorney-at-law may at any time withdraw from employ-
ment—

(a) where the client fails, refuses or neglects to carry out an agreement with or his obligation
to the attorney-at-law as regards the expenses or fees payable by the client;

(b) where his inability to work with colleagues indicates that the best interest of the client is
likely to be served by his withdrawal;

(c) where his client freely assents to the termination of his employment;

(d) where by reason of his mental or physical condition or other good and compelling reason
it is difficult for him to carry out his employment eff ctively; or

(e) in cases of conflict as contemplated in paragraph 25 of this Part or paragraph 8 of Part B.

33. (1) An attorney-at-law may not appear as a witness for his own client except in merely formal
matters or where the appearance is essential to the ends of justice.

(2) If an attorney-at-law is a necessary witness for his client with respect to matters other than
those that are merely formal, he shall entrust the conduct of the case to another attorney-at-law of his
client’s choice.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 46

IV In r elation to the Courts and the Administration of Justice

34. (1) An attorney-at-law shall maintain a respectful attitude towards the Court and shall not
engage in undignified or discourteous conduct which is degrading to the Court.

(2) An attorney-at-law shall encourage respect for the Courts and the Judges.

(3) An attorney-at-law shall not support unjust criticisms of Judges and Magistrates.

(4) Where there is ground for complaint against a Judge or Magistrate an attorney-at-law may
make representation to the proper authorities and where this is done, the attorney-at-law shall be
protected.

35. An attorney-at-law shall endeavour always to maintain his status as an advocate and shall not
either in argument to the court or in address to the jury assert his personal belief in his client’inno-
cence or in the justice of his cause or his personal knowledge as to any of the facts involved in the
matter under investigation.

36. An attorney-at-law shall never seek privately to influence directly or indirectly the Judges of
the Court in his favour or in the favour of his client, nor shall he attempt to influence juries by
fawning, flattery or pretended solicitude for their personal comfort.

37. An attorney-at-law shall be punctual in attendance before the Courts and concise and direct in
the trial and disposition of causes.

38. An attorney-at-law appearing before the Court shall at all times be attired in the manner pre-
scribed or agreed upon by the proper authorities and as befits the dignity of the Court.

V In Relation to his Fellow Attorneys-at-law

39. (1) The conduct of an attorney-at-law towards his fellow attorneys-at-law shall be characterised
by courtesy, fairness and good faith and he shall not permit ill-feelings between clients to affect his
relationship with his colleagues.

(2) All personal conflicts between attorneys-at-law should be scrupulously avoided as should also
colloquies between them which cause delay and promote unseemly wrangling.

40. (1) An attorney-at-law shall reply promptly to letters from other attorneys-at-law making in-
quiries on behalf of their clients.

(2) An attorney-at-law shall endeavour as far as reasonable to suit the convenience of the opposing
attorney-at-law when the interest of his client or the cause of justice will not be injured by so doing.

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.47

41. An attorney-at-law shall not give a professional undertaking that he cannot fulfil.

42. (1) An attorney-at-law shall in the course of his professional duties report improper or unpro-
fessional conduct by a colleague to himself or his client to the Council, except where the information
relating to the improper or unprofessional conduct is received in professional confidence in which
case he shall respect the duty of silence imposed in those circumstances.

(2) An attorney-at-law shall in the course of his professional duties expose without fear an attor-
ney-at-law who is alleged to have wronged a client and shall not lightly refuse a retainer against
another attorney-at-law if called upon to do so.

43. Where an attorney-at-law has been sent money, documents or other things by a colleague in
pursuance of a legal matter on condition that the receiving party will use them for a particular pur-
pose, he must comply with that request or forthwith return the money, document or other things.

44. An attorney-at-law shall not in any way communicate upon a subject in controversy or attempt
to negotiate or compromise a matter directly with any party represented by another attorney-at-law
except through that other attorney-at-law or with his prior consent.

45. (1) An attorney-at-law shall not ignore the customs or practices of the legal profession even
when the law expressly permits it, without giving timely notice to the opposing attorney-at-law.

(2) An attorney-at-law should avoid all sharp practices and should refrain from taking any pal-
try advantage when his opponent has made or overlooked some technical error or matter, bearing in
mind that no client has a right to demand that an attorney-at-law representing him shall be illiberal or
shall do anything repugnant to his own sense of honour and propriety.

46. An attorney-at-law shall not accept instructions to act in court proceedings in which to his
knowledge a client has previously been represented by another attorney-at-law, unless he first noti-
fied the other attorney-at-law of the change, and makes reasonable efforts to ensure that the other
attorney-at-law has been paid for his services, however he shall be considered to have notified the
other attorney-at-law if he has made reasonable efforts to notify him of the change.

47. An attorney-at-law shall not accept instructions to act in proceedings other than Court pro-
ceedings in which to his knowledge, another attorney-at-law has previously represented the client
unless he makes reasonable efforts to ascertain that the retainer of that attorney-at-law has been
determined by the client or that the client wishes both attorneys-at-law to represent him.

48. An attorney-at-law who instructs or employs another attorney-at-law to act on behalf of his
client shall, unless otherwise agreed, pay the proper fee of that attorney-at-law whether or not he has
received payment from the client.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 48

VI General

49. Nothing contained in this Code shall be construed as derogating from any existing rules of
professional conduct and duties of an attorney-at-law which are in keeping with the traditions of the
legal profession and which are not specifically provided for in this code.

50. Where in any particular matter explicit ethical guidance does not exist, an attorney-at-law
shall determine his conduct by acting in a manner that promotes public confidence in the integrity and
efficiency of the legal system and the legal profession.

51. (1) A person who previously held a substantive appointment as a Judge of the Supreme Court
shall not appear as an attorney-at-law in any of the Courts of Antigua and Barbuda for a period of five
years commencing on the date of his retirement, resignation or other termination of appointment.

(2) This rule shall not apply to a person who is appointed to act as a Judge in a temporary capacity.

PART B

MANDA TORY PROVISIONS AND SPECIFIC PROHIBITIONS

1. An attorney-at-law shall not practise as an attorney-at-law unless he has been issued a practis-
ing certificate in accordance with the provisions of this Act.

2. (1) An attorney-at-law shall never knowingly mislead the Court.

(2) An attorney-at-law shall not withhold facts or secrete witnesses in order to establish the guilt or
innocence of the accused.

3. An attorney-at-law shall not hold out any person who is not qualified to practise law as a
partner, associate, consultant or attorney-at-law.

4. An attorney-at-law shall not become involved in a matter unless at the request of a party to the
matter; however, it is proper for an attorney-at-law to become involved in matters referred by the Bar
Association or by another attorney-at-law or for which he is engaged in any other manner not incon-
sistent with this Code.

5. An attorney-at-law shall not in the carrying on of his practice or otherwise permit any act or
thing which is likely or is intended to attract business unfairly or can reasonably be regarded as
touting or public advertising.

6. (1) An attorney-at-law shall not in any way make use of any form of public advertisement
calculated to attract clients to himself or any firm with which he is associated and he shall not permit,
authorise or encourage anyone to do so or reward anyone for doing so on his behalf.

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.49

(2) An attorney-at-law shall not permit his professional standing to be used for the purpose of
advertising any particular product, service or commercial organisation.

(3) Notwithstanding subparagraphs (1) and (2)—

(a) an attorney-at-law or law firm may have a website or publish professional newsletters,
the contents which shall be in accordance with good practice of the legal profession,
informing of the firm, its members and staff nd current legal issues. Websites and pro-
fessional newsletters must carry content of a professional nature and not contain anything
derogatory of the legal profession, Government, judiciary or their respective members.

(b) an attorney-at-law may permit limited and dignified identification of himself as an attor-
ney-at-law—

(i) in political advertisements relevant to the cause of a political campaign or issue;

(ii) in public notices where the announcement of his professional status is required or
authorised by law, or is reasonably necessary for a purpose other than attracting
potential clients;

(iii) in reports and announcements of bona fide commercial, civic, professional or po-
litical organisations in which he serves as a director or officer;

(iv) in and on legal textbooks, articles, professional journals and other legal publica-
tions and in dignified and restrained advertisements of these publications;

(v) in announcements of any public address, lecture, or publication by him on legal
topics except that these announcements do not emphasize his own professional
competence and are not likely to be regarded as being concerned with the giving of
individual advice by him;

(c) an attorney-at-law may speak in public or write for publication on legal topics so long as
it is not likely to be regarded as being concerned with the giving of individual advice;

(d) the following cards, office signs, letterheads or directory listings may be used by an
attorney-at-law but in a restrained and dignified form—

(i) a professional card identifying the attorney-at-law by name and as an attorney-at-
law, giving his decorations and degrees, legal or otherwise, his addresses, tele-
phone numbers and the name of his law firm or professional associates;

(ii) a brief professional announcement card which may be delivered only to attorneys-

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 50

at-law, clients, former clients personal friends and relations and government bod-
ies stating new or changed associations, addresses, or firm names or similar profes-
sional matters;

(iii) a sign of a size and design compatible with the existing practice of the profession
displayed on or near the door of the office and in the building directory identifying
the law ofice;

(iv) a letterhead identifying the attorney-at-law by name and as an attorney-at-law and
giving his decorations and degrees, legal or otherwise, his addresses, telephone
numbers and the name of his law firm and of his associates;

(v) a listing in a telephone directory, a reputable law list, legal directory or biographi-
cal reference giving a brief biographical or other relevant information and the pro-
fessional card, office sign, letterhead or listing may also state that the attorney-at-
law is a notary public.

(vi) a listing in a legal or other related journal or publication giving information on the
contact details of the attorney at law and his firm, and the services provided.

7. Where an attorney-at-law commits a criminal offence which in the opinion of the Council is of
a nature likely to bring the profession into disrepute, the commission of the offence shall constitute
professional misconduct if—

(a) he has been convicted by a Court, including a foreign court of competent jurisdiction,
for the ofence; or

(b) he has been prosecuted and has been acquitted by reason of a technical defence or he has
been convicted but the conviction is quashed by reason of some technical defence.

8. An attorney-at-law shall not acquire directly or indirectly by purchase or otherwise a financial
or other interest in the subject matter of a case which he is conducting.

9. (1) An attorney-at-law shall not enter into partnership or fee sharing arrangements concerning
the practise of law with a non-qualified body or person.

(2) An attorney-at-law shall not enter into an arrangement for or charge or collect a fee in contra-
vention of this Code or any law.

10. (1) An attorney-at-law shall not charge fees that are unfair or unreasonable and in determining
the fairness and reasonableness of a fee the following factors may be taken into account.

(a) the time and labour required, the novelty and difficulty of the questions involved and the
skill required to competently perform the legal service;

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.51

(b) the likelihood that the acceptance of the particular employment will preclude other em-
ployment by the attorney-at-law;

(c) the fee customarily charged in the locality for similar legal services;

(d) the amount, if any involved;

(e) the time limitations imposed by the client or by the circumstances;

(f) the nature and length of the professional relationship with the client;

(g) the experience, reputation and ability of the attorney-at-law concerned;

(h) any scale of fees or recommended guide as to charges prescribed by law or by the Coun-
cil.

(2) An attorney-at-law shall not accept any fee or reward for merely introducing a client or refer-
ring a case or client to another attorney-at-law.

(3) An attorney-at-law shall not charge a contingency fee except with the prior agreement of the
client for reasonable commissions on the collection of liquidated claims.

11. (1) An attorney-at-law shall not act in any manner in which his professional duties and per-
sonal interests conflict or are likely to conflict except with the specific approval of his client given
after full disclosure to the client.

(2) An attorney-at-law shall not accept or continue his retainer or employment on behalf of two or
more clients if their interests are likely to conflict or if his independent professional judgment is likely
to be impaired.

12. (1) An attorney-at-law who withdraws from employment under paragraph 32 of Part A shall
not do so until he has taken reasonable steps to avoid foreseeable prejudice or injury to the position
and rights of his client including—

(a) giving adequate notice;

(b) allowing time for employing another attorney-at-law;

(c) delivering to the client all documents and property to which he is entitled subject how-
ever to any lien which the attorney-at-law may have over these items;

(d) complying with any laws, rules or practice that may be applicable; and

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 52

(e) where appropriate, obtaining the permission of the Court where the hearing of the matter
has commenced.

(2) An attorney-at-law who withdraws from employment shall refund promptly that part of the
fees, if any, already paid by his client as may be fair and reasonable having regard to all the circum-
stances of the case.

13. An attorney-at-law shall withdraw forthwith from employment or from a matter pending be-
fore a tribunal—

(a) where the client insists upon his presenting a claim or defence that he cannot conscien-
tiously advance;

(b) where the client seeks to pursue a course of conduct which is illegal or which will result
in deliberately deceiving the Court;

(c) where a client has in the course of the proceedings perpetrated a fraud upon a person or
tribunal and on request by the attorney-at-law has refused or is unable to rectify the same;

(d) where his continued employment will involve him in the violation of the law; or

(e) where the client by any other conduct renders it unreasonably difficult for the attorney-at-
law to carry out his employment eff ctively, or in accordance with his judgment and
advice, or the rules of law or professional ethics;

(f) where for any good and compelling reason it is difficult for him to carry out his employ-
ment efectively.

14. An attorney-at-law shall not retain money he receives for his client for longer than is abso-
lutely necessary.

15. An attorney-at-law shall never disclose, unless ordered to do so by the Court or required by
statute, what has been communicated to him in his capacity as an attorney-at-law by his client or the
attorney-at-law of his client and this duty not to disclose extends to his partners and to any junior
attorney-at-law assisting him, however, an attorney-at-law may reveal confidences or secrets neces-
sary to establish or collect his fee or to defend himself or associates against an accusation of wrongful
conduct.

16. An attorney-at-law shall not permit his professional services or his name to be used in any way
that would make it possible for persons who are not legally authorised to do so to practise law.

17. An attorney-at-law shall not delegate to a person not legally qualified and not in his employ or
under his control any functions which are by the laws of Antigua and Barbuda should only to be
performed by a qualified attorney-at-law.

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.53

18. An attorney-at-law shall not act with inexcusable or undue delay, negligence or neglect in the
performance of his duties.

19. An attorney-at-law shall not engage in undignified or discourteous conduct which is degrad-
ing to the Court or his profession.

20. An attorney-at-law shall not wilfully make false accusations against a Judge or Magistrate.

21. An attorney-at-law who holds a public office shall not use his public position to influence or
attempt to influence a tribunal to act in favour of himself or of his client.

22. An attorney-at-law shall not accept private employment in a matter upon the merits of which
he previously acted in a judicial capacity or for which he had substantial responsibility while he was
in public employment.

23. An attorney-at-law shall not give, lend or promise any thing of value to a Judge, juror or
official of a tribunal before which there is pending any matter in which he is engaged.

24. An attorney-at-law shall not, in any proceedings in a Court, communicate or cause any other
person to communicate with a juror information as to the merits of the proceeding, and shall only do
so with a Judge or person exercising judicial functions—

(a) in the normal course of the proceedings; or

(b) where authorised by law or the practice of the Courts.

25. An attorney-at-law shall not for the purpose of making any person unavailable as a witness,
advise or cause that person to secrete himself or leave the jurisdiction of the Court.

26. An attorney-at-law shall not pay or offer to pay or acquiesce in the payment of compensation
to a witness for giving evidence in any cause or matter except as reimbursement for expenses reason-
ably incurred and as reasonable compensation for loss of time in attending, for preparation and testi-
fying, and in the case of an expert witness a reasonable fee for his professional services.

27. An attorney-at-law shall not knowingly use perjured testimony or false evidence or partici-
pate in the creation or use of evidence that he knows to be false.

28. An attorney-at-law shall not counsel or assist his client or a witness in conduct that the attor-
ney-at-law knows to be illegal or fraudulent, and where he is satisfied that his client has in the course
of the particular representation perpetrated a fraud upon a person or tribunal, he shall promptly call
upon the client to rectify the act.

29. An attorney-at-law shall not knowingly make a false statement of law or fact.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 54

30. (1) An attorney-at-law shall not commit a breach of an undertaking given by him to a Judge, a
Court, tribunal or any of its officials, whether the undertaking relates to an expression of intention as
to future conduct or is a representation that a particular state of facts exists.

(2) An attorney-at-law shall not knowingly represent falsely to a Judge, a Court or tribunal that a
particular state of facts exists.

31. In pecuniary matters an attorney-at-law shall be most punctual and diligent and shall never
mingle funds of others with his own and shall at all times be able to refund money he holds for others.

32. (1) An attorney-at-law shall keep accounts as clearly and accurately as is possible to distin-
guish the financial position between himself and his client as and when required.

(2) An attorney-at-law shall comply with the rules that may be made by the Council pursuant to
section 29 of the Act.

(3) Nothing contained in paragraphs 31 and 32 shall deprive an attorney-at-law of any recourse or
right whether by way of lien, set-off, counterclaim, charge or otherwise against moneys standing to
the credit of an account maintained by that attorney-at-law for a client.

33. An attorney-at-law shall reply promptly to any letter received from the Council relating to his
professional conduct.

34. Where no provision is made in this Code in respect of any matter, the rules and practice of the
legal profession which govern the particular matter shall apply in so far as is practicable.

35. (1) Breach by an attorney-at-law of any of the rules contained in this Part shall constitute
professional misconduct and an attorney-at-law who commits a breach is liable to any of the penalties
which the Disciplinary Committee and/or the Court is empowered to impose.

(2) Breach by an attorney-at-law of any of the provisions of Part A of his Code while not automati-
cally amounting to punishable professional misconduct is a derogation from the standard of conduct
expected from an attorney-at-law and may, depending on the circumstances of the particular case,
amount to misconduct or form a material ingredient thereof.

SCHEDULE 5

[Section 36]

DISCIPLINAR Y COMMITTEE

Constitution and membership

1. (1) The Disciplinary Committee shall consist of the President of the Association and six other

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.55

persons appointed by the Chief Justice after consultation with the Council and the Attorn y General.

(2) The appointed members shall include two members of the Council.

(3) Subject to subparagraph (4) the other appointed members shall be attorneys-at-law of not less
than six years standing and at least two non-attorneys at law.

(4) The Chairman and the Vice-Chairman of the Committee shall be appointed by the Chief Justice
after consultation with the Council and shall be persons who have held judicial offi e or are attor-
neys-at-law of not less than ten years standing.

Term of office

2. (1) The members of the Committee shall hold office for a period not exceeding three years,
with the exception of the President whose membership on the Committee shall end on the expiration
of his term of office as president.

(2) A member of the Committee shall be eligible for re-appointment upon the expiration of his
term of ofice.

Power of Disciplinary Committee to sit in divisions

3. (1) For the purposes of hearing applications made pursuant to section 37 of the Act, Disci-
plinary Committee may sit in two divisions.

(2) Subject to the directions of the Council, the Chairman of the Committee shall determine the
composition of each division.

(3) Each division shall be entitled to hear and determine any application and shall be entitled to
exercise all powers of the Disciplinary Committee; and any hearing by or determination or order of
that division shall be considered to be a hearing by or determination or order the Disciplinary Com-
mittee.

Resignation

4. A member of the Committee may at any time resign his office by letter addressed to the Chief
Justice and to the Chairman of the Committee.

5. The Chairman of the Committee may at any time resign his office by letter addressed to the
Chief Justice.

Revocation of appointment

6. The Council may, if it thinks it expedient so to do and with the approval of the Chief Justice, at

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 56

any time revoke the appointment of any member of the Committee.

Filing of vacancies

7. Where an appointed member of the Council vacates his seat before the expiration of his term of
office a person similarly qualified to him shall be appointed in a similar manner to fill the vacancy for
the remainder of that term of office.

Publication of membership

8. The names of all members of the Committee as first constituted and every change in member-
ship thereof shall be published—

(a) in the Gazette; and

(b) once annually in at least one newspaper upon appointment.

Liability for default of Committee

9. No member of the Committee shall be personally liable for any act or default of the Committee
done or omitted to be done in good faith in the performance of its functions pursuant to this Act.
Proceedings at meetings

10. (1) The Committee shall meet in private at times expedient for the transaction of business and
the meeting shall be held in places, at times and on days the Committee determines.

(2) The Chairman or, in his absence, the Vice-Chairman shall preside at the meetings of the Com-
mittee.

(3) If, at any meeting of the Committee, the Chairman or Vice-Chairman is for any reason unable
to act, the members present may elect one of their members to preside at that meeting.

(4) The quorum of the Committee shall, subject to paragraph 3, be three.

(5) The validity of any proceedings of the Committee shall not be affected by any vacancy among
the members thereof or by any defect in the appointment of a member thereof.

(6) The Committee shall have power to regulate its proceedings.

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.57

SCHEDULE 6

[Section 38]

DISCIPLINAR Y PROCEEDINGS RULES

1. Short title

These Rules may be cited as the Legal Profession (Disciplinary Proceedings) Rules 2008.

2. Interpr etation

For the purposes of these Rules “Secretary” means the secretary of the Disciplinary Committee who
shall be the Secretary of the OECS Bar or the person deputed by him for the time being to perform all
or any of the functions of the secretary.

3. Application and affidavits

(1) An application to the Committee to require an attorney-at-law to answer allegations shall be in
writing under the hand of the applicant in Form 1 of the Appendix and shall be sent to the Secretary
of the Bar Association together with an Affidavit by the applicant in Form 2 of the Appendix stating
the facts on which he relies in support of his application.

(2) An application referred to subsection (1) and any other document or communications pertain-
ing to that application shall be forwarded forthwith to the Secretary of the OECS Bar by the Secretary
of the Bar Association.

4. No case to answer

The Committee, before fixing a date for the hearing of a matter, may require the applicant to supply
further information and documents relating to all allegations as it thinks fit, and in any case where in
the opinion of the Committee no prima facie case is shown, the Committee may, without requiring the
attorney-at-law to answer the allegations, dismiss the application and notify the applicant and the
attorney-at-law of the dismissal.

5. Notice of hearing

In any case in which, in the opinion of the Committee, a prima facie case is shown, the Committee
shall fix a date for hearing and the Secretary shall serve notice of the date on the applicant and the
attorney-at-law together with a copy of the application and affi avit. The notice shall be served not
less than twenty one days before the date of hearing.

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 58

6. Lists of documents for hearing

The notice to the applicant shall be in Form 3 and the notice to the attorney-at-law shall be in Form 4
as set out in the Appendix and shall require the applicant and the attorney-at-law respectively to
furnish to the Secretary of the Bar Association and to each other a list of all documents on which they
respectively propose to rely. The lists shall, unless otherwise ordered by the Committee, be furnished
by the applicant and by the attorney-at-law respectively at least ten days before the date of hearing.

7. Inspection of documents

Either party may inspect the documents included in the list furnished by the other party and a copy of
any document mentioned in the list of either party shall, on the application of the requesting party, be
furnished to that party by the other within three days after the receipt of the application.

8. Absence of parties

If either or both parties fail to appear at the hearing the Committee may, upon proof of service of the
notice of hearing, proceed to hear and determine the application in his or their absence.

9. Affidavit evidence

The Committee may, either as to the whole case or as to any particular fact, proceed and act upon
evidence given by affidavit, but a party to the proceedings may require a deponent to be summoned to
appear before the Committee to be cross examined.

10. Summons

A summons issued by the Committee pursuant to section 38 may be in Form 5 as set out in the
Appendix with variation as the case may require.

11. Privacy of hearings

The Committee shall hear all applications in camera but shall pronounce its findings in public.

12. Notes of Proceedings

Notes of proceedings shall be taken by the Secretary or other person appointed by the Committee,
and any party who appeared at the proceedings shall be entitled to inspect the original or a copy
thereof. Every person entitled to be heard on an appeal from the decision of the Committee shall be
entitled to a copy of the notes on payment of the charges, if any, as prescribed by the Committee.

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.59

13. Power to extend time

Notwithstanding anything to the contrary, the Committee may extend or abridge the time for doing an
act under these Rules.

14. Privileges and immunities

(1) Attorneys-at-law and witnesses shall have the same privileges and immunities in relation to
hearings on applications pursuant to this Act as in a court of law.

(2) A party to an application is entitled to be represented by an attorney-at-law.

15. Exemption from stamp duty

No stamp duty shall be paid on any document and no fee shall be charg d by the Secretary in respect
of an application alleging professional misconduct by an attorney-at-law.

16. Dismissal of application after hearing

The Committee may, after hearing an application, dismiss it if it is satisfied that a case of professional
misconduct has not been made out.

17. Powers of Committee

The Committee may, where a case of professional misconduct has been established, make an order as
it thinks appropriate pursuant to section 39 (1) (b), (c), (d) or (3).

APPENDIX

FORM 1

APPLICA TION AGAINST AN ATTORNEY

To the Disciplinary Committee Constituted under the Legal Profession Act, 2008

IN THE MATTER OF ………………................................……. (ATTORNEY)

AND
……………………………................................................…….(APPLICANT)

IN THE MATTER OF THE LEGAL PROFESSION ACT, 2008

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 60

I, the undersigned ………………………………….. hereby make application that * ……………. of
…………………………., attorney-at-law be required to answer the allegations contained in the affi-
davit which accompanies this application.

I make this application on the ground that the matters of fact stated in the accompanying affidavit
constitute conduct unbecoming to his profession on the part of the
said.......………………………………..in his capacity of as attorney-at-law.

In witness whereof I have hereunto set my hand this ………….day of …………….. 20 .

……………...............………
Signature

…..........................…………………
Address

……...........................………………
Profession business or occupation

*insert full name and last know place or places of business.

FORM 2

AFFIDAVIT BY APPLICANT

IN THE MATTER OF …...........……(a)…………...........……….. (ATTORNEY-AT-LAW)

AND

…………………................…………(b)……..................…………….. (APPLICANT)

IN THE MATTER OF THE LEGAL PROFESSION ACT, 2008

AFFIDAVIT

I, …................……(b)…................…….. Make Oath and say as follows—

1. I reside at ….............……(c) …............…… in the country of …............……(d)..........……..

2. I am a ……...........…(e)...............……. and my postal address is………...……(f)……………

3. The above-named attorney-at-law ………………........….(g)………………………..….……

4. The complaint I make against the attorney-at-law is that he …........……(h)……………...…

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.61

Sworn at )

This day of 20 ) …..............................…………………………

Signature or mark of applicant

[the same having been first
read over and explained to the
deponent and he appeared fully
to understand the same]

Before me: )

)
(If the person making the affidavit can read and write strike out the words in square brackets).

(a) Name of the attorney-at-law

(b) Name of applicant

(c) Place of residence

(d) Country

(e) Occupation

(f) Postal Address

(g) Set out facts complained of

(h) Set out shortly the ground of complaint

FORM 3

NOTICE BY COMMITTEE TO APPLICANT

Complaint No. of 20

IN THE MATTER OF …………………(a).........………… (ATTORNEY-AT-LAW)

AND

……………………………………..……(b)..............................…… (APPLICANT)

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 62

IN THE MATTER OF THE LEGAL PROFESSION ACT, 2008

To ……………………………………………………………………………………………

of ……………………………………………………………………………………………

The ……………….. day of ………………….. 20…. is the day fixed for the hearing of your applica-
tion in the matter of ………………………., attorney-at-law, by the Committee constituted under the
Legal Profession Act, 2008.

The Committee will sit at …………………………at ………….o’clock in the forenoon.

If you fail to appear the Committee may in accordance with the rules made under the Legal Profession
Act, 2008 proceed in your absence.

You are requested by the rules under the Legal Profession Act, 2008 to furnish to the said
……………………….. and the Secretary of the Committee at ………………………………….. at
least 14 days before the said ……………….. day of ……………………20……… a list of all docu-
ments on which you propose to rely.

Either party may inspect the documents included in the list furnished by the other party and a copy of
any document mentioned in the list of either party must, on the application of a party requiring it, be
furnished to him by the other party within three days after receipt of the application.

You are requested to acknowledge the receipt of this Notice without delay.

Dated the ……………..day of ……………………… 20……..

……...............................................................…………………
Secretary, Disciplinary Committee

FORM 4

NOTICE BY COMMITTEE TO ATTORNEY-AT-LAW

Complaint No. of 20
IN THE MATTER OF ……………………………………. (ATTORNEY-AT-LAW)

AND

………………………………………………………. (APPLICANT)

No. 22 of 2008. The Legal Profession Act, 2008.63

IN THE MATTER OF LEGAL PROFESSION ACT, 2008

To ……………………….of ………………………, attorney-at-law.

Application has been made by ……………………..… of …..………….. to the Disciplinary Com-
mittee constituted under the Legal Profession Act, 2008 that you be required to answer the allegation
contained in the affidavit a copy of which accompanies this Notice.

The ..… day of ………. 20…… is the day fixed for the hearing of the application by the Council. The
Council will sit at ……….. at ….. o’clock in the forenoon.

If you fail to appear the Committee may in accordance with the Rules made under the Legal Profes-
sion Act, 2008 proceed in your absence.

You are required by the Rules made under the Legal Profession Act 2008 to furnish to the applicant

and to the Secretary of the Disciplinary Committee at ………………….. at least 14 days before the
day fixed for hearing a list of all the documents on which you propose to rely.

Either party may inspect the documents included in the list furnished by the other party and a copy of
any documents mentioned in that list shall on application of the party requiring it, be furnished to him
by the other party within 3 days after the receipt of at the application.

You are requested to acknowledge receipt of this Notice without delay.

Dated the ….......... day of ……........................……. 20…….

...............................……………………………
Secretary, Disciplinary Committee

FORM 5

SUMMONS BY COMMITTEE TO WITNESS

Complaint No. of 20

IN THE MATTER OF ……………………(ATTORNEY-AT-LAW)

AND

No. 22 of 2008.The Legal Profession Act, 2008. 64

…………………………..……………..………. (APPLICANT)

IN THE MATTER OF THE LEGAL PROFESSION ACT, 2008.

To …………………

You are hereby summoned to appear before the Disciplinary Committee constituted under the Legal
Profession Act, 2008 at …………..……. on the ……… day of …………………………. at the hour
of …….o’clock in the …...… noon, and so from day to day until the application in the above matter
is heard, to give evidence on behalf of …………………………. (if the person summoned is to pro-
duce books or documents add) and you are required to bring with you
………………………………………….(specify the books or documents required).

Dated this ……………………….. day of ………………………. 20………

………........................………………….
Secretary, Disciplinary Committee.

Passed by the Senate on this 21st day of
August, 2008.

Hazlyn M. Francis,
President.

L. Thomas,
Acting Clerk to the Senate.

Passed by the House of Representatives on
this 7th day of July, 2008.

D. Gisele Isaac-Arrindell,
Speaker.

L. Thomas,
Acting Clerk to the House of Representatives.

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