Companies Act 1995

Link to law: http://laws.gov.ag/acts/1995/a1995-18.pdf

NIES ACT, 1995

ARRANGEMENT OF SECTIONS

Section

1. Short title and commencement.
2. Interpretation.
3. Prohibition.

PART 1

FORMATION AND OPERATION OF COMPANIES

DIVISION A: INCORPORATION OF COMPANIES

4. Incorporation.
5. Formalities.
6. Required votes.
7. Documentation.
8. Certificate of incorporation.
9. Effective date.

10. Corporate name.
1 1. Reserved name.
12. Namechange. .
13. Continued name.
14. Name revocation.
15. Assigned name.
16. Pre-incorporation agreements.

DIVISION B: CORPORATE CAPACITY AND POWERS

17. Capacity and powers.
18, Powers reduced.
19. Validity of acts.
20. Notice not presumed.
21. No disclaimer allowed.
22. Contracts of company.
23. Bills and notes.
24. Power of attorney.
25. Company seals.

DIVISION C: SHARE CAPITAL

26. Nature of shares.
27. If only one class.

28. Share classes.
29. Share issues.
30. Consideration.
31. Stated capital accounts.
32. Open-ended mutual company.
33. Series shares.
34. Pre-emptive rights.
35. Conversion privileges.
36. Reserve shares.
37. Own shares.
38. Exemptions.
39. Acquisition of own shares.
40. Other acquisition.
41. Redeemable shares.
42. Donated shares.
43. Voting thereon.
44. Stated capital reduction.
45. Stated capital adjustment.
46. Cancellation of shares.
47. Presumption re own shares.
48. Changing share class.
49. Effect of purchase contract.
50. Commission for share purchase.
5 1. Prohibited dividend.
52. Payment of dividend.
53. Illicit loans by company.
54. Permitted loans.
55. Enforcement of illicit loans.
56. Immunity of shareholders.
57. Lien on shares.

DIVISION D: MANAGEMENT OF COMPANIES

58. Duty of directors to manage company.
59. Secretary.
50. Acts of Secretary, etc.
61. Secretary' of public company.
62. hiumber of directors.
63. Restricted powers.
64. By-Law powers.
65. Qrganisational meeting.
66: Disqualified directors.
67. Qualified directors.
68. No qualification required.
69. Notice of directors.
70. Alternate directors.
71. Cumulative voting.
72. Termination of office.

73. Removal of directors.
74. Rigilt to notice.
75. Filling vacancy:
76. Numbers changed.
77. Notice of change.
78. Directors' meetings.
79. Notice and waiver.
80. Adjourned meeting.
8 1. Telephone participation.
82. Delegation of powers.
83. Validity of acts.
84. Resolution in writing.
85. Liability for share issue.
86. Liability for other acts.
87. Conuibution for judgment.
88. Recovery by action.
89. Defence to liability.
90. T i e limit on liability.
91. Interests in contracts.
92. Interest declaration.
93. Avoidance of nullity.
94. Setting aside contract.
95. Designation of offices, etc.
96. Borrowing powers.
97. Duty of care.
98. Dissenting to resolutions.
99. Indemnifying diictors, etc.

100. For derivative action.
101. Right toindemnity.
102. Insurance of directors, etc.
103. Court approval of inde~nnity.
104. Remuneration.

DIVISION E: SHAREHOLDERS OF COMPANIES

105. Shareholders and their meetings.
106. Meeting outside Antigua and Barbuda.
107. Calling meetings.
108. Record date of shareholders.
109. Statutory date.
110. Notice of record date.
1 11. Notice of meeting.
112. Special business.
113. Shareholder meetings: waiver of notice and telephone

participation.
1 14. "Proposals" of shareholders.
1 15. Proxy circular.
1 16. Nomination in proposal.

117. Non-compliance with proxy solicitation.
1 18. Publishing immunity.
119. Refusal notice.
120. Restraining meeting.
121. Right to omit proposal.
122. Registrar's notice.
123. List of shareholders.
124. Exmination of list.
125. Quorum at meetings.
126. Right to vote share.
127. Representative of other body.
128. Joint shareholders.
129. Voting method at meetings.
130. Resolution in writing.
13 1. Requisitioned shareholders meeting.
132. Court-called meeting.
133. Court review controversy.
134. Pooling agreement.
135. Unanimous shareholder agreement.
136. Extra-ordinary transactions.

DIVISION F: PROXIES

137. Definitions
138. Proxy appointment.
139. Revocation of proxy.
140. Deposit of proxy.
141. Mandatory solicitation of proxy.
142. Prohibited solicitation.
143. Documents for Registrar.
144. Exemption by Registrar.
145. Proxy attending meeting.
146. Registrant's duty.
147. Governing prohibition.
148. Restraining order.

DIVISION G: FINANCWC DISCLOSURE

149. Annual financial returns.
150. Exemption for information.
151. Consolidated financial returns.
152. Approval of directors.
153. Copies of documents to be sent to shareholders.
154. Registrar's copies.
155. Declaration of solvency.
156. Audit Committee.
157. Purposes o f secuona 158 to 161.
158. Eligibil~ty for appointment.

159. Effect of appointment of partnership.
160. Ineligibility on ground of lack of independence.
161. Effect of ineligibility.
162. Appointment of auditor.
163. Dispensing with auditor.
164. Cessation of office.
165. Removal of auditor.
166. Filling auditor vacancy.
167. Court appointed auditor.
168. Auditor rights to notice.
169. Required attendance.
170. Right to comment.
171. Examination by auditor.
172. Right to inspect.
173. Detected error.
174. Privilege of auditor.

DIVISION H: CORPORATE

175. Registered office.
176. Notice of address.
177. Records of company.
178. Register of directors and secretaries.
179. Register of directors' holdings.
180. Extension of section to associates of directors.
181. Substantial shareholder.
182. Substantial shareholder to give notice to company.
183. Person ceasing to be a substantla1 shareholder to notify

company.
184. Company to keep register of substantial shareholders.
185. Offence.
186. Trust notices.
187. Other records.
188. Records form.
189. Duty of care for records.
190. Access to records.
191. Basic list of shareholders.
192, Options list.
193. Restricted use of 11s~.
194. Annual returns.

DIVISION I: TKANSPEK OF SHAKISS AN11
DEBENTURES

195. Transferring of shares.
196. Restrictions on tsan\fcrs.
197. Duty to Issue.
198. Transfb cert~ticate.

199. Registration.
200. Effect of certificate.

DIVISION J: TAKEOVER BIDS

201. Definitions.
202. Offeror rights.
203. Notice to dissenling shareholders.
204. Adverse claims.
205. Delivery of certificates.
206. Payment for shares.
207. Money in trust.
208. Duty of offeree-company.
209. Application to court.
2 10. Joined parties.
21 1. Powers and order of court.
212. Additional orders.

DIVISION K: FUNDAMENTAL COMPANY CHANGES

2 13. Fundamental amendment to articles.
214. Proposal to amend articles.
215. Class vote on proposal.
216. Delivery of arlicles.
217. C

ertifi

cate of amendment.
218. Re-stated articles.
2 19. Amalgamation.
220. Agreement for amalgamation.
221. Approval by shareholders.
222. Vertical short-form amalgamation.
223. Horizontal short-fonn amalgamation.
224. Articles of amalgamation.
225. Certificate of amalgamation.
226. Dissent by shareholder.
227. Demand for payment.
228. Suspension of rights.
229. Offer to pay for share.
230. Application to court.
23 1. Joined parties.
232. Court powers.
233. Interest.
234. Recourse of dissenting shareholder.
235. Prohibition of payment.
236. Re-organisation.
237. Arrangements.

DIVISION L : CIVIL REMEDIES

238. Definitions.
239. Derivative actions.
240. Court powers.
241. Oppression restrained.
242. Staying action.
243. Interim costs.
244. Rectification of records.
245. Directions for Registrar.
246. Refusal by Registrar.
247, Appeal from Registrar.
248. Restraining order, etc.
249. Summay application.

PROTECTION OF CREDITORS AND INVESTORS

DIVISION A: REGISTRATION OF CHARGES

CHARGES

250. Registration with Registrar.
25 1. Contents of charge statements.
252. Cer

tifi

ed copy of instrument.
253. Later charges.
254. Effect on enactments.
255. Fluctuating charges.
256. Charge on acquisition of property.
257. Duty t register.
258. Register of charges.
259. Endorsement on debenture.
260. Satisfaction and payment.
261. Rectification of error.
262. Retention of copy.
263. Inspection of copies.
264. Registration of receiver.
265. External company.

DIVISION B: TRUST DEEDS AND DEBENTURES

266. Definitions.
267. Application of Division.
268. Conflict of interest.
269. List of debenture holders.
270. Evidence of compliance.

27 1. Contents of evidence.
272. Further evidence.
273. Evide~lce reladtlg to conditions.
274. Certificate of compliance.
275. Notice of default.
276. Redemption of debenture.
277. Duty of care.
278. Reliance on statcrnents.
279. No exculpation.
280. Rights of trustees.
281. Need for trust deed.
282. Kinds of debentures.
283. Cover of trust deed.
284. Exception.
285. Contents of trust deecl.
286. Contents of debentures.
287. Equity realisation.

1)IVISION C: RECEIVERS AND KECEIVER-
MANAGERS

288. Disqualified receivers.
289. Functions of receivers.
290. Functions of receiver-mana~ers.
291. Directors' powers stopped.
292. Duty under court direction.
293. Duty under insuumcnt.
294. Duty of care.
205. Directio~~s by court.
206. Duties of receivers, ctc.
207. Liability of rcceivcrs, etc.
298. Nolice of receivership.
209. Floating charges priorities.
300. S tate~nent of al'fairs.
301. Contenla 01' statclncrit.

1)IVISION I): PKOSl'KC'I'USICS

302. Definitions.
303. App1ic;ltiou of Division.
304. Prohibition re public issue.
305. ('ootents oC prospectuses.
306. Profcssiond niunea.
307. N o w;iivers.
308. Certain 11oticc rcclu~rcd.
3W). Responsibility re certificate.
3 10. Evidence.
3 1 I . re pi st ratio^^ crt ' propectus.

3 12. Prospectus presumed.
3 13. Expert's consent.
3 14. Liability on prospectus.
315. Subscription lists.
3 16. Minimum subscription.
3 17. Escrow of subscription money.
3 18. Rescission of contract.
319. Time limit on allotment.
320. Restriction on allotment.
321. Statements in lieu of prospectus.

DIVISION E: INSIDER TRADING

322. "Insider" defined.
323. Presumed insider.
3%. Liability of insider.
325. Time limit on action.

OTHER REGISTERED COMPANIES

DIVISION A: COMPANIES WITHOUT SHARE
CAPITAL

326. Application of Act.
327. "Member" defined.

4328. Incorporation.
329. Form of articles.
330. Directors ex officio.
331. "Incorporated or "Inc" etc.
332. Members unlimited.
333. Admission to membership.
334. Voting by members.
335. Transfer of members.
336. By laws.
337. Dissolution and distribution.

DIVISION B: EXTERNAL COMPANIES

338. External companies carrying on business.
339. Exceptions.
340. Prohibition.
341. Registration required.
342. Restrictions on activities.
343. External amalgamated company.
344. Registering external companies.
345. Language.

346. Power of Attorney of company.
347. Failure of power.
348. Capacity of attorney.
349. Certificate of registration.
350. Effect of registration.
35 1. Suspension of registration.
352. Cancelling registration.
353. Revival of registration.
354. Previous activities.
355. Fundamental changes.
356. Returns.
357. Incapacity of company.
358. Resumption of action.
359. Other provisions.

DIVISION C: FORMER-ACT COMPANIES

360. Former- Act company.
361. Effect of corporate instrument.
362. Continuation as company.
363. Amending instrument.
364. Articles of continuance.
365. Certificate of continuance.
366. Preservation of company.
367. Previous shares.
368. Continuance not applied for within prescribed time.
369. Effect of earlier references.

PART IV

WINDING UP

DIVISION A: PRELIMINARY

370. Modes of winding up.
371. Liability of members.
372. Saving.
373. Definiuon of contributory.
374. Nature of liability of contributory.
375. Contributories in case of death of member.
376. Contributories in case of bankruptcy of members.

DIVISION B: WINDING UP BY THE COURT

377. Circumstances in which company may be wound up by
court.

378. Definition of inability to pay debts.

379. Petition for winding up.
380. Powers of court on hearing petition.
381. Power to stay or restrain proceedings against company.
382. Avoidance of dispositions of property, etc. after com-

mencement of winding up.
383. Avoidance of attachments, etc.
384. Commencement of winding up by the court.
385. Copy of order to be forwarded to Registrar.
386. Actions stayed on winding-up order.
387. Effect of winding up order.
388. Meaning of Official Receiver.
389. Statement of company's affairs.
390. Report by Official Receiver.
391. Power of court to appoint liquidators.
392. Appointment and powers of provisional liquidator.
393. Appointment, style, etc. of liquidators.
394. Provisions where person other than Official Receiver is

appointed liquidator.
395. General provisions as to liquidators.
3%. Custody of company's property.
397. Vesting of property of company in liquidator.
398. Powers of liquidator.
399. Exercise and control of liquidator's powers.
400. Books to be kept by liquidator.
401. Payments of liquidator into bank.
402. Audit of liquidator's accounts.
403. Control of Registrar over liquidators.
404. Release of liquidator.
405. Meeting of creditors andcontributories todetermine whether

committee of inspection shall be appointed.
406. Constitution and proceedings of committee of inspection.
407. Powers of court where no committee of inspection.
408. Power to stay winding-up, etc.
409. Settlement of list of contributories and application of

assets.
410. Delivery of property to liquidator.
411. Payment of debts due by contributories to company and

extent to which set-off allowed.
412. Power of court to make calls.
413. Payment into bank of moneys due to company.
414. Order on contributory is conclusive evidence.
415. Appointment of special manager.
416. Power to exclude creditors not proving in time.
417. Adjustment of rights of contributories.
418. Inspection of books by creditors or contributories.
419. Power to order costs of winding up to be paid out of assets.
420. Power to summons persons suspectedof having property of

company.

421. Power to order public examination of promoters, directors,
etc.

422. Power to arrest absconding contributory.
423. Powers of court cumulative.
424. Delegation to liquidator of certain powers of court.
425. Dissolution of company.
426. Power to enforce orders and zppeals from orders.

DIVLSION C: VOLUNTARY WINDING UP

427. Winding-up resolutions.
428. Notice of resolution to wind up voluntarily.
429. Commencement of voluntary winding up.
430. Effect of voluntary winding up on business and status of

company.
431. Avoidanceof transfers, etc. after commencement of volun-

tary winding up.
432. Statutory declaration of solvency in case of proposal of

winding up voluntarily.
433. Power of company to appoint and fix remuneration of

liquidators.
434. Power to fill vacancy in office of liquidator.
435. Power of liquidator to accept shares, etc. as consideration

for sale of property of company.
436. Duty of liquidator to call creditors' meeting in case of

insolvency.
437. Duty of liquidator to call general meeting at end of each

year.
438. Final meeting and dissolution.
439. Alternative provisions as to annual and final meetings in , -

case of insolvency.
440. Meeting of creditors. - -- -
441. Appointment of liquidator.
442. Appointment of committee of inspection.
443. Fixing of liquidators' remuneration andcesser of directors'

powers.
444. Power to fill vacancy in office of liquidator.
445. Application of section 435 to a creditors' winding up.
446. Dury of liquidator to call meetings of company and of

crediters at end of each year.
447. Final meefhg and dissolution.
448. Distribution of property of company.
449. Powers and duties of liquidator in voluntary winding up.
450. Power of court to appoint and remove liquidator in volun-

tary winding up.
451. Notice by liquidator of his appointment.
452. Arrangement when binding on creditors.

453. Power to apply to court to have questions determined or
powers exercised.

454. Costs of voluntary winding up.
455. Saving for rights of creditors and contributories.

DIVISION D: PROVISIONS APPLICABLE
TO EVERY MODE OF WINDING UP

PROOF AND RANKING OF CLAIMS

456. Debts of all descriptions to be proved.
457. Preferential payments.
458. Fraudulent preference.
459. Liabilities and righ~t of certain fraudulently preferred

persons.
460. Effect of floating charge.
461. Disclaimer of onerous property.
462. Interpretation.
463. Restriction of rights of creditor as to execution or attach-

ment.
464. Duties of bailiff as to goods taken in execution.
465. Offences by officers of companies in liquidation.
466. Penalty for falsification of books.
467. Frauds by officers of companies which have gone into

liquidation.
468. Liability where proper accounts not kept.
469. Fraudulent trading.
470. Power of court to assess damages against delinquent direc-

tors, etc.
471. Prosecution of delinquent officers and members of a com-

pany e
472. Disqualification for appointment as liquidator.
473. Notification that a company is in liquidation.
474. Failure to comply with section 473.
475. Exemption of certain documents from stamp duty on

winding up of companies.
476. Books of company to be evidence.
477. Disposal of books and papers of company.
478. Information as to pending liquidations.
479. Unclaimed assets.
480. Meetings to ascellain wishes of creditors or contributories.
48 1. Affidavits, etc.
482. Power of court to declare dissolution of company void.
483. Registrar may strike defunct company off register.
484. Outstanding assets of defunct company to vest in Registrar.
485. Disposal of moneys.
486. Rules.

DIVISION E: WINDING UP OF
UNREGISTERED COMPANIES

487:TJnregistered company ."
488. Winding up of unregistered companies.
489. Contributories in winding up of unregistered company.
490. Power of court to stay or resrrain proceedings.
491. Outstanding assets of defunct unregistered company.

PART V

ADMINISTRATION AND GENERAL

DIVISION A: FUNCTIONS OF THE REGISTRAR

492. Responsibility.
493. Service upon the Registrar.
494. Register of companies.
495. Inspection of register.
496. Notice to directors, etc.
497. Presumption of receipt.
498. Undelivered documents.
499. Notice waiver.
500. Certificate by company.
501. Evidentiary value.
502. Copies.
503. Filed articles.
504. Alteration of documents.
505. Correction of documents.
506. Proof of documents.
507. Retention of documents.
508. Registrar's certificate.
509. Refusal power.
510. Filing form.
5 11. Striking off register.
5 12. Liability continues.
5 13. Service on company.
5 14. Reservation of name.
5 15. Prohibited name.
5 16. Refusal of articles.
5 17. Amalgamated company.

DIVISION B: INVESTIGATION OF COMPANIES

5 18. Investigation order.
5 19. Court powers.
520. Inspector's powers.
52 1. In camera hearing.

522. Incriminating evidence.
523. Privilege absolute.
524. Ownership interest.
525. Client privileges.
526. Inquiries.

DIVISION C: REGULATIONS

527. Regulations.

DIVISION D: OFFENCES AND PENALTIES

528. Name offence.
529. Abuse of corporate status.
530. Reports.
531. Specific offences.
532. Company offences.
533. General offence.
534. Defence re prospectuses.
535. Order to comply.
536. Limitation.
537. Civil remedies unaffected.

DIVISION E: CONSTRUCTION AND
INTERPRETATION OF ACT

CORPORATE RELATIONSHIPS

538. Affiliated corporations.
539. "Control".
540. "Holdmg" and "subsidiary"
541. "Distribution" to public.
542. "Offer" to the public.
543. Definition of technical words.

DIVISION F: INCIDENTAL AND CONSEQUENTIAL
MA'ITEW

544. Repeal.
545. References to Companies Act.
546. Transitional.
547. Repeal effect.
548. Security for costs.
549. Power of court to grant relief in certain cases.
550. Saving for privileged communications.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 1 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

[ L.S. ]

I Assent,

James B. Carlisle,
Governor-General.

ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

No. 18 of 1995

An Act to revise and amend the law relating to companies and to
provide for related and consequential matters.

[ 28th March, 19% ]

ENACTED by the Parliament of Antigua and Barbuda as
follows -

1. (1) This Act may be cited as the Companies Act, 1995. short title and
commencement.

(2) This Act shall come into operation on a date to be appointed
by the Minister by notice in the Gazette.

2. The provisions of section 543 shall apply for the purpose of Interpretation.
construing the words andexpressions set out therein and the other
provisions of Division E of Part V shall apply for the purpose of
this Act.

Commercial Enterprises

3. No association, partnership, society, body or other group Prohibition.
consisling of more than twenty persons may be formed for the
purpose of carrying on any trade or business for gain unless it is
incorporated under this Act or formed under some other enact-
ment.

ANTIGUA 2
AND

BARBUDA

The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

PART I

FORMATLON AND OPERATION OF COMPANIES

DIVISION A

INCORPORATION OF COMPANIES

Incorporation. 4. (1) Subject to subsection (2), one or more persons may
incorporate a company by signing and sending articles of incor-
poration to the Registrar and the name of every incorporator shall
be entered in the company's register of members as soon as may
be after the company's registration.

(2) No individual who

(a) is less than 18 years of age;

(b) is of unsound mind and has been so found by a
tribunal in Antigua and Barbuda or elsewhere; or

(c) has the status of a bankrupt,

shall form or join in the formation of a company under this Act.

(3) If articles of incorporation submitted to the Registrar are
accompanied with a statutory declaration by an attorney-at-law
that to the best of his knowledge and belief no signatory to the
articles is an individual described in subsection ( 3 , the declara-
tion is, for the purposes of this Act, conclusive of the facts therein
declared.

Formal~tles. 5. (1) Articles of incorporation shall follow the prescribed form
and set out, in respect of the proposed company,

(a) its proposed name;

(b) the classes and any maxhum number of shares that
the company is authorised to issue; and

(1) if there w~ll be two or more clases of shares,
the nghls, pnvilege4, reslnctions and con&-
bons attaching to each class of shares; and

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 3 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

(ii) if a class of shares can be issued in series, the
authority given to the directors to f~ the number
of shares in, or to determine the designation of,
and the rights, privileges, restrictions and condi-
tions aaachiig to, the shares of each series;

( c ) if the right to transfer shares of the company is to be
restricted, a statement that the right to transfer shares
is restricted and the nature of those restrictions;

(d) the number of directors, cr subject to paragraph (a)
of section 7 1 the minimum and maximum number of
directors;

(e) 21.j restrictions on the business that the company
may carry on.

(2) The articlesmay setout any provisions permittedby this Act
or by-law permitted to be set out in the by-laws of the company.

(3) Where the right to transfer any shares is restricted. a
notification to that effect shall be given on each share certificate
issued in respect of those shares.

6. (1) Subject to subsection (2), if the articles or any unanimous Required
shareholder agreement require a greater number of votes of
directors or shareholders than that required by this Act to effect
any action, the provisions of the articles or of the unanimous
shareholder agreement prevail.

(2) The articles may not require a greater number of votes of
shareholders to remove a director than the number specified in
section 73.

7. An incorporator shall send to the Registrar with the articles Documenta-
of incorporation the documents required by subsection (I) of tion.
section 69, subsection (1) of section 176 and section 503.

8. Upon receipt of articles of incorporatiqn, the Registrar shall Certificate of
issue a certificate of incorporation in accordance with section inc0rp0ration.
503; and the certificate is conclusive proof of the incorporation
of the company nailed in the certificate.

ANTIGUA 4 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

Effective 9. A company comes into existence on the date shown in its
date. certificate of incorporation.

Corporate name. 10. (1) The word "limited", "corporation" or "incorporated" or
the abbreviation "ltd." or "corp." or "inc." shall be part of the
name of every company; but a company may use and may be
legally designated by either the full or the abbreviated form.

(2) The Regism may exempt a body corporate continued as
acompany under this Act from the requirements of subsection (1).

Reserved name. 11. A company shall not be incorporated with or have a name

(a) that is prohibited or refused under sections 5 15 and
516; or

(b) that is reserved for another company or intended
company under section 514.

Name change. 12. Where, through inadvertence or otherwise, a company

(a) comes into existence with a name that contravenes
section 1 1, or

(b) is, upon an application to change its name, granted a
name that contravenes section 1 1,

the Regism may direct the company to change its name in
accordance with section 213.

Continued name. 13. Notwithstanding sections 11 and 12, a company that is
continued under this Act is entitled to be continued with the name
it lawfully had before that continuance.

Name revocation. 14. Where a company has been directed under section 12 to
change its name and has not, within 60 days from the service of
the direction to that effect, changed its name to a name that
complies with this Act, the Registrar may revoke the name of the
company and assign to it aname; and, until changed in accordance
with section 213, the name of the company is thereafter thename
so assigned.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 5 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

15. (1) When a company has had its name revoked and a name Assigned name.
assigned to it under section 14, the Registrar shall issue a
certificate of amendment showing the new name of the company
and shall forthwith give notice of the change in the Gazette.

(2) Upon the issue of a certificate of amendment under subsec-
tion (I), the articles of the company to which the certificate refers
are amended accordingly on the date shown in the certificate.

16. (1) Except as provided in this section, a person who enters re-incorporation
into a written contract in the name of or on behalf of a company agreements.
before it comes into existznce is personally bound by the contract
and is entitled to the benefits of the contract.

(2) Within a reasonable h e after a company comes into
existence, it may, by any action or conduct signifying the
intention to be bound thereby, adopt a written contract made, in
its name or on its behalf, before it came into existence.

(3) When a company adopts a contract under subsection (2),

(a) the company is bound by the contract and is entitled
to the benefits thereof as if the company had been in
existence at the date of the contract and had been a
party to it; and

(b) a person, who purported to act in the name of the
company or on its behalf ceases, except as provided
in subsection (4), to be bound by or entitled to the
benefits of the contract.

(4) Except as probided in subsection (5), whether or not a
written contract made before the coming into existence of the
company is adopted by the company, a party to the contract may
apply tothe court for an order fixing obligations under the contract
as joint or joint and several, or apportioning liability between or
among the company mda person whopr,r?r)M toact in the name
of the company or on its behalf; and the court may, upon the
application, make any order it thinks fit.

(5) If expressly so provided in the written contract, a person
who purported to act for or on behalf of acompany before it came
into existence is not in any event bound by the contract a entitled
m the benefits of the contract

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Capacity
and powers.

Powers reduced.

Validity of acts.

Validity of acts.

No disclaimer
allowed.

6 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

DIVISION B

CORPORATE CAPACITY AND POWERS

17. (1) A company has the capacity, and, subject to this Act, the
rights, powers and privileges of an individual.

(2) A company has the capacity to carry on its business, conduct
its affairs and exercise its powers in any jurisdiction outside
Antigua and Barbuda to the extent that the laws of Antigua and
Barbuda and of that jurisdiction pennit.

(3) It is not necessary for a by-law to be passed to confer any
particular power on a company or its directors.

(4) This section does not authorise any company to carry on any
business or activity in breach of

(a) any enactment prohibiting or restricting the carrying
on of the business or activity, or

(b) any provision requiring any permission or licence for
the carrying on of the business or activity.

18. (1) A company shall not carry on any business or exercise
any power that it is resmcted by its articles from carrying on or
exercising, nor shall a company exercise any of its powers in a
manner contrary to its articles.

(2) A company shall not commence business before it has made
an allotment of shares.

19. For the avoidance of doubt, it is declared that no act of a
company, including any transfer of property to or by a company, is
invalid by reason only that the act or transfer is contrary to its articles.

20. No person is affected by, or presumed to have notice or
knowledge of, the contents of a document concerning a company
by reason only that the document has been filed with the Registrar
or is available for inspection at any office of the company.

21. A company or a guarantor of an obligation of the company
may r3t assert against aperson dealing with the company or with
any person who has acquired rights from the company

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 7 ANTIGUA
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(a) that any of the articles, or by-laws of the company or
any unanimous shareholder agreement has not been
complied with;

(6) that the persons named in the mostrecent notice to the
Registrar under section 69 or 77 are not the directors
of the company;

(c) that the place named in the most recent notice sent to
the Registrar under section 176 is not the registered
office of the company;

(d) that a person held out by a company as a director, an
officer or an agent of the company has not been duly
appointed or ha1 no authority to exercise the powers
and perform the duties that are customary in the
business of the company or usual for such a director,
officer or agent;

(e) that a document issued by any director, officer or
agent of the company with actual or usual authority
to issue the document is not val~d or not genuine; or

0 that the financial assistance referred to in section 53
or the sale, lease, or exchange of property referred to
in section 136 was not authorised;

except where that person has, or ought to have by virtue of his
position with or relationship to the cog%pany, knowledge to the
contrary.

22. (1) A contract made according to this section on behalf of contracts of acorn-
a company pany.

(a) is in form effective in law and binds the company and
the other party to the contract; and

(b) may be varied or discharged in the like manner that
it is authorised by this section to be made.

(2) A contract that. if made between individuals, would, by Iaw,
be requtred to bc m writing under seal may be made on behalf of
a conapany in writing under seal.

ANTIGUA 8 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

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(3) A contract that, if made between individuals, would, by law,
be required to be in writing or to be evidenced in writing by the
parties tobe charged thereby may be made or evidenced in writing
signed in the name or on behalf of the company.

(4) A contract that, ifmadebetween individuals, would, by law,
be valid although made by parol only and not reduced to writing
may be made by parol on behalf of the company.

Bills & notes. 23. A bill of exchange or promissory note is presumed to have
been made, accepted or endorsed, on behalf of the company, if
made, accepted or endorsed in the name of the company or if
expressed to be made, accepted or endorsed on behalf or on
account of the company.

Power of attorney- 24. (1) A company may, by writing under seal, empower any
person, either generally or in respect of any specified matter, as
its attorney to execute deeds on its behalf in any place within or
outside Antigua and Barbuda.

(2) A deed signed by a person empowered as provided in
subsection (1) binds the company and has the same effect as if it
were under the company's seal.

Company seals. 25. (1) A company may have a common seal with its name
engraved thereon in legible characters; but, except when required
by any enactment to use its common seal, the company may, for
the purpose of sealing any document, use its common seal or any
other form of seal.

(2) If authorised by its by-laws, a company may have for use in
any country other than Antigua and Barbuda or for use in any
district or place not situated in Antigua and Barbuda an official
seal, which shall be a facsimile of the common seal of the
company with the addition on its face of the name of every
country, district or place where it is to be used.

(3) Every document to which an official seal of the company is
duly affixed binds the company as if it had been sealed with the
common seal of the company.

(4) A company may, by an instrument in writing under its
common seal, authorise any person appointed for that purpose to
affix the company's official seal to any document to which the
company is party in the country, district or place where its official
seal can be used.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 9 ANTIGUA
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(5) Any person dealing with an agent appointed pursuant to
subsection (4) in reliance on the instrument conferring the
authority may assume that the authority of the agent continues
during the period, if any, mentioned in the instrument, or, if no
period is so mentioned, until that person has actual notice of the
revocation or determination of the authority.

(6) A person who affixes an official seal of a company to a
document shall, by writing under his hand, certify on the docu-
ment the date on which, and the place at which, the official seal
is &xed.

DIVISION C

SHARE CAPITAL

Shares

26. (1) Shares in a company are personal estate and are not of Nature of shares.
the nature of real estate; and a share is transferable in the manner
provided by this Act.

(2) Shares in a company are to be without nominal or par value.

(3) When a farmer-Act company is continued under this Act,
a share with nominal or par value issued by the company before
it was so continued is, for the purposes of subsection (3, deemed
to be a share without nominal or par value.

(4) Subject to subsection (5 ) , each share in a company shall be
distinguished by an appropriate designation.

(5) If at any time all the issued shares in a company, or all the
issued shares in a company of a particular class, rank equally for
all purposes, none of those shares need thereafter have a distin-
guishing designation so long as it ranks equally for all purposes
with all shares for the time being issued, or, as the case may be,
all the shares for the time being issued of the particular class.

27. When a company has only one class of shares, the rights of ~f only one class.
the holders are equal in all respects, and include

(a) the right to vote at any meeting of shareholders;

ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

Share classes.

Share issue.

Consideration.

Stated capital
acccunts.

10 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 180f 1995.

(b) the right to receive any dividend declared by the
company;

(c) the right to receive the remaining property of the
company on dissolution.

28. The articles of a company may provide for more than one
class of shares; and, if they so provide,

(a) the rights, privileges, restrictions and conditions
attaching to the shares of each class shall be set out
in the articles; and

(b) the rights set out in section 27 shall be attached to at
least one class of shares, but all of those rights need
not be attached to the same class of shares.

29. (1) Subject to the articles, the by-laws, any unanimous
shareholder agreement, and section 34 shares may be issued at
such times, and to such persons, and for such consideration, as the
directors may determine.

(2) No company may issue bearer shares or bearer share
certificates.

30. (1) A share shall not be issued until it is fully paid

(a) in money, or

(b) in property or past service that is the fair equivalent
of the money that the company would have received
if the share had been issued for money.

(2) 111 determining whether property or past service is the fair
equivalent of a money consideration, the directors may take into
account reasonable charges and expenses of organisation and
reorganisation, and payments for property and past services
reasonably expected to benefit the company.

(3) For the purposes of this section, ''property" does not include
a promissory note or a promise to pay.

31. (1) A company shall maintain a separate stated capital
account for each class and serles of shares that it issues.

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(2) A company shall add to the appropriate stated capital
account the full amount of the consideration that it receives for
any shares that it issues.

(3) A company shall not reduce its stated capital or any stated
capital account except in the manner provided by this Act.

(4) A company shall not, in respect of ashare that it issues, add
to a stated capital account an amount greater than the amount of
the consideration that it receives for the share.

(5) When a company proposes to add an amount to a stated
capital account that it maintains in respect of a class or series of
shares, that addition to the stated capital account shall be ap-
proved by special resolution if

(a) the amount to be added was not received by the
company as consideration for the issue of shares, and

(b) the company has issued any outstanding shares of
more than one class or series.

(6) Notwithstanding section 30 and subsection (2),

(a) when, in exchange for property, a company issues
shares

(i) to a body corporate that was an affiliate of the
company immediately before the exchange, or

t

(ii) to aperson who controlled the company irnme-
diately before the exchange,

the company, subject to subsection (4), may add to the stated
capital accounts that are maintained for the shares of the classes
or series issued, the amount agreed, by the company and the body
corporate or person, to be the consideration for the shares so
exchanged; ,

(b) when acompany issues shares in exchange for shares
of a body corporate that was an affiliate of the
company immediately before the exchange, the com-
pany may, subject to subsection (4), add to the stated
capital accounts that are maintained for the shares of

ANTIGUA 12 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

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the classes or series issued an amount that is not less
than the amount set out, in respect of the acquired
shares of the body corporate, in the stated capital or
equivalent accounts of the body corporate immedi-
ately before the exchange; or

(c) when acompany issues shares in exchange for shares
of a body corporate that becomes, because of b e
exchange, an affiliate of the company, the company
may, subject to subsection (4), add to the stated
capital accounts that are maintained for the classes or
series issued an amount that is not less than the
amount setout, in respect of the acquiredshares of the
body corporate, in the stated capital or equivalent
accounts of the body corporate immediately before
the exchange.

(7) When a former-Act company is continued under this Act,

(a) then, notwithstanding subsection (2), it is not re-
quired to add to a stated capital account any consid-
eration received by it before it was so continued,
unless the share in respect of which theconsideration
is received is issued after the company is continued
under this Act;

(b) an amount unpaid in respect of a share issued by the
former-Act company before it was so continued shall
be added to the stated capital account that is main-
tained for the shares of that class or series: and

(c) its stated capital account for the purposes of

(i) subsection (2) of section 39,

(ii) section 44,

(iii) paragraph (b) of subsection (2) of section 53,
and

(iv) paragraph (a) of subsection (2) of section 224,

includes the amount that would have been included in stated
capital if the company had been incorporated under this Act.

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32. SCXtion 3 1 and any other provision of this Act relating to Open-ended mutual
stated capital do not apply to a company company.

(a) that is a public company,

(6) that carries on only the business of investing the
consideration it receives for the shares it issues, and

(c) all or substantially all of whose issued shares are
redeemable upon the demand of shareholders.

33. (1) The articles of a company may authorise the issue of any series shares.
class of shares in one or more series, and may authorise the
directors to fix the number of shares in and to determine the
designation, rights, privileges, restrictions and conditions attach-
ing to the shares of each series, subject to the limitations set out
in the articles.

(2) If any cumulative dividends or amounts payable on return
of capital in respect of a series of shares are not paid in full, the
sharcs of all series of the same class participate rateably in respect
of accumulated dividends and return of capital.

(3) No rights, privileges, restrictions or conditions attached to a
series of shares authorised under this section may confer upon the
series a priority in respect of dividends or retum of capital over any
other series of shares of the same class that are then outstanding.

(4) Before the issue of shares of a series authorised under this
section, the directors shall send to the Registrar articles of
amendment in the prescribed fom to designate a series of shares.

(5) Upon receipt from a company of articles of amendment
designatmg a series of shares, the Registrar shall issue to the company
a certificate of amendment in i n a c c o r d a n c e with section 503.

(6) The articles of a company are amended accordingly on the
date shown in the cemcate of amendment issued under subsec-
tion (5).

3 4 (1) If the axtidm SO provide, no shares of a class of share may pre-emptive rights.
be issued unless the shares have fust been o f f e r
sf the company holding shares of that c k , and those shareholders
have a preemptwe right to acquire the offered shares in proportion
to their holdings of the dmes of that class, at such price and on such
tams as those shares are to be offered to others.

ANTIGUA 14 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

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(2) Notwithstanding that the articles of a company provide the
pre-emptive right referred to in subsection (I), the shareholders
of the company have no pre-emptive right in respect of shares to
be issued by the company

(a) for a consideration other than money;

(b) pursuant to the exercise of conversion privileges,
options or rights previously granted by the company.

Conversion privi- 35. (1) A company may grant conversion privileges, options or
leges. rights to acquire shares of the company, but shall set out the

conditions thereof in any certificates or other instruments issued
in respect thereof.

(2) Conversion privileges, options and rights to acquire shares
of acompany may be made transferable or non-transferable; and
options and rights to acquire shares may be made separable or
inseparable from any debentures or shares to which they are
attached.

Reserve shares. 36. Where a company

(a) has granted privileges to convert any debentures or
shares issued by the company into shares or into
shares of another class or series of shares, or

(b) has issued or granted options or rights to acquire
shares,

if the articles of the company limit the number of authorised
shares, the company shall reserve and continue to reserve suffi-
cient authorised shares to meet the exercise of those conversion
privileges, options and rights.

Own shares. 37. (1) Subject to subsection (2), and except as provided in
sections 38 to 41, a company shall not hold shares in itself or in
its holding body corporate.

(2) A company shall cause a subsidmy body corporate of the
company thatholds shares of the company to sell or otherwise dispose
of those shares within 5 years from the date, as the case requires,

(a) that the body corporate became a subsidiary of the
company , or

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(b) that the company was continued under this Act.

38. (1) A company may in the capacity of alegal representative Exemptions.
hold shares in itself or in its holding body corporate unless it, or
the holding body corporate, or a subsidmy of either of them has
a beneficial interest in the shares.

(2) A company may hold shares in itself or in its holding body
corporate by way of security for the purposes of a transaction
entered into by it in the ordinary course of a business that includes
the lending of money.

39. (1) Subject to subsection (2) and to its articles, a company Acquisition of own
may purchase or otherwise acquire shares issued by it. shares.

(2) A company shall not make any payment to purchase or
otherwise acquire shares issued by it, if there are reasonable
grounds for believing that

(a) the company is unable, or would, after that payment,
be unable to pay its liabilities as they become due, or

(b) the realisable value of the company's assets would,
after that payment, be less than the aggregate of its
liabilities and stated capital of all classes.

40, (1) Notwithstanding subsection (2) of section 45, but subject other acquisition.
to subsection (3) and to its articles, a company may purchase or
otherwise acquire its own issued shares

(a) to settle or compromise a debt or claim asserted by or
against the company;

(b) to eliminate fractional shares; or

(c) to fulfil the terms of a non-assignable agreement
under which the company has an option or is obli-
gated to purchase shares owned by a director, an
officer or an employee of the company.

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (2) of section 39, a company
may pwchase or otherwise acquire its own issued shares

(a) to satisfy the claim of a shareholder who dissents
under section 226, or

ANTIGUA 16 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

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(b) to comply with an order under section 241.

(3) A company shall not make any payment to purchase or
acquire under subsection (1) shares issued by it if there are
reasonable grounds for believing that

(a) the company is unable, or would, after the payment,
be unable to pay its liabilities as they become due, or

(b) the realisable value of the company's assets would,
after that payment, be less than the aggregate of its
liabilities and the amount required for payment on a
redemption or in a winding up of all shares the
holders of which have the right to be paid before the
holders of the shares to be purchased or acquired.

Redeemable shares. 41. (1) Notwithstanding subsection (2) of section 39 or subsec-
tion (3) of section 40, but subject to subsection (2) of this section
and to its articles, a company may, at prices not exceeding the
redemption price thereof stated in its articles or calculated
according to a formula stated in its articles, purchase or redeem
any redeemable shares issued by it.

(2) A company shall not make any payment to purchase or
redeem any redeemable shares issued by it if thereare reasonable
grounds for believing that

(a) the company is unable or would, after that payment,
be unable to pay its liabilities as they become due, or

(b) the realisable value of the company's assets would,
after that payment, be less than the aggregate of

(i) its liabilities, and

(ii) the amount that would be required to pay the
holders of shares that have aright to be paid, on
aredemption or in a windmg up, rateably with
or before the holders of the shares to be pur-
chased or redeemed.

Donated shares. 42. Subject to section 46, a company may accept from any
shareholder a share of the company surrendered to it as a gift, but
may not extinguish or reduce a liability in respect of any amount
unpaid on any such share except in accordance with section 44.

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43. A company holding shares in itself or in its holding body Voting thereon.
corporate shall not vote or permit those shares to be voted thereon
unless the company

(a) holds the shares in the capacity of a legal represen-
tative, and

(b) has complied with section 146.

44. (1) Subject to subsection (3, a company may by special Statedcapitalreduc-
resolution reduce its stated capital by tion.

(a) extinguishing or reducing a liability in respect of an
amount unpaid on any share,

(b) returning any amount in respect of consideration that
the company received for an issued share, whether or
not the company purchases, redeems or otherwise
acquires any share or fraction thereof that it issued,
and

(c) declaring its stated capital to be reduced by an
amount that is not represented by realisable assets.

(2) A special resolution under this section shall specify the
stated capital account or accounts from which the reduction of
stated capital effected by the special resolution will be de-
ducted.

(3) A company shall not reduce its stated capital under
paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (1) if there are reasonable
grounds for believing that

(a) the company is unable, or would, after that reduction,
be unable, to pay its liabilities as they become due,
or

(b) the realisable value of the company's assets would
thereby be less than the aggregate of its liabilities.

(4) A company that reduces its statedcapital under this section
shall not later than 30 days after the date of the passing of the
resolution, serve notice of the resolution on all persons who on the
date of the passing of the resolution were creditors of the
company.

ANTIGUA 18 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
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(5) A creditor may apply to the court for an order compelling
a shareholder or other recipient

(a) to pay to the company an amount equal to any
liability of the shareholder tbat was extinguished or
reduced contrary to this section, or

(b) to pay or deliver to the company any money or
property that was paid or distributed to the share-
holder or other recipient as a consequence of a
reduction of capital made contrary to this section,

(6) An action toenforcealiability imposed by this section may
not be commenced after 2 years from the date of the act
complained of.

(7) This section does not affect any liability that arises under
section 85 or 86.

Stated capital 45. (1) Upon a purchase, redemption or other acquisition by a
adjustment. company under section 39,40,41,57 or 226 or paragraph (f) of

subsection (3) of section 241, of shares or fractions thereof issued
by it, the company shall deduct, from the stated capital account
maintained for the class or series of shares purchased, redeemed
or otherwise acquired, an amount equal to the result obtained by
multiplying the stat&capital of the shares of that class or series
by the number of shares of that class or series or fractions thereof
purchased, redeemed or otherwise acquired, divided by the
number of issued shares of that class or series immediately before
the purchase, redemption or other acquisition.

(2) A company shall deduct the amount of apayment~ade by the
compny to a shareholder under paragraph (g) of subsection (3) of
section 241 from the stated capital account maintained for the class
or series of shares in respect of which the payment was ma&.

(3) A company shall adjust its stated capital accounts in
accordance with any special resolution referred to in subsection
(2) of section 44.

(4) Upon a conversion of issued shares of aclass into shares of
another class, or upon achange under section 213,236 or 241 of
issued shares of a company into shares of another class or series,
the company shall

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 19 ANTIGUA
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(a) deduct, from the smed capital account maintained
for the class or series of shares changed or converted,
an amount equal to the result obtained by multiplying
the stated capital of the shares of that class or series
by thenumber of shares of that class or series changed
or converted, divided by the number of issued shares
of that class or series immediately before the change
or conversion; and

(b) add the result obtained under paragraph (a), and any
additional consideration received by the company pur-
suant to the change, to the stated capital account main-
tainedor to be maintained for the class or series of shares
into which the shares have been changed or converted

(5) For the purposes of subsection (4), when a company issues
two classes of shares and there is attached to each of the classes
a right to convert a share of the one class into a share of the other
class, then, if a share of one class is converted into a share of the
other class, the amount of stated capital attributable to a share in
either class is the aggregate of the stated capid of both classes
divided by the number of issued shares of both classes immedi-
ately before the conversion.

46. Shares or fractions of shares issued by a company and Cancellat~on
purchased, redeemedor otherwise acquired by the company shall of shares.
be cancelled, or, if the articles of the company limit the number
of authorised shares, the shares or fractions may be restored to the
status of authorised, but unissued, shares.

47. For the purposes of sections 45 and 46, a company holding Presumption re own
shares in itself as permitted by section 38 is deemed not to have shares.
purchased, redeemed or otherwise acquired those shares.

48. (1) Shares issued by a company and converted or changed Changlng share
under section 21 3,236 or 241 into shares of another class or series ~ 1 ~ s .
become issued shares of the class or series of shares into which
the shares have been converted or changed.

(2) Where its articles limit the number of authorised shares of
a class or series of shares of a company and issued shares of that
class or series have become, pursuant to subsection (I), issued
shares of another class or series, the number of unissued sharesof
the first-mentioned class or series shall, unless the articles of
amendment or reorganisation otherwise provide, be increased by
the number of shares that, pursuant to subsection (I), became
shares of another class or series.

ANTIGUA 20 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
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Effect of purchase 49. (1) A contract with a company providing for the purchase
contract. of shares of the company is specifically enforceable against the

company except to the extent that the company cannot perform
the contract without thereby being in breach of section 39 or 40.

(2) In any action brought on a contract referred to in subsecuon
(I), the company has the burden of proving that performance of
the contract is prevented by section 39 or 40.

(3) Until the company has fully performed a contract referred
to in subsection (I), the other party retains the status of aclaimant
who is entitled

(a) to be paid as soon as the company is lawfully able to
do so, or

(b) to be ranked in a winding up subordinate to the rights
of creditors but in priority to the shareholders.

Commission for SO. The directors of a company acting honestly and in good
Shae~hlZChase- faith with a view to the best interests of the company may

authorise the company to pay a commission to any person in
consideration of his purchasing or agreeing to purchase shares of
the company from the company or from any other person, or
procuring or agreeing to procure purchasers for any such shares.

F'rohibiteddividend. 51. A company shall not declare or pay a dividend if there are
reasonable grounds for believing that.

(a) the company is unable, or would, after the payment, be
unable, to pay its liabilities as they become due, or

(b) the realisable value of the company's assets would
thereby be less than the aggregate of its liabilities and
stated capital of all classes

Payment of ~ v i - 52. Subject to subsection (2) a company may pay a dividend
dend. in money, in property, or by issuing fully paid shares of the

company.

(2) A company shall not pay adividend in money or in property
out of unrealised profits.

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(3) If shares of acompany are issued in payment of a dividend,
the value of the dividend stated as an amount in money shall be
added to the stated capital account maintained or to be maintained
for the shares of the class or series issued in payment of the
dividend.

53. (1) When circumstances prejudicial to the company exist, Illicit loans by com-
the company or any company with which it is affiliated shall not, pany.
except as permitted by section 54, directly or indirectly, give
financial assistance by means of a loan, guarantee or otherwise,

(a) to a shareholder, director, officer or employee of the
company or affiliated company, or to an associate of
any such person for any purpose, or

(b) to any person for the purpose of, or in connection
with, a purchase of a share issued or to be issued by
the company or acompany with which it is affiliated.

(2) Circmstances prejudicial to the company exist in respect
of financial assistancementionedin subsection (1) when there are
reasonable grounds for believing that

(a) the company is unable or would, after giving the
financial assistance, be unable to pay its liabilities as
they become due, or

(b) the realisable value of the company's assets, exclud-
ing the amount of any financial assistance in the form
of a loan and in the form of assets pledged or
encumbered to secure a guarantee, would, after
giving the financial assistance, be less than the
aggregate of the company's liabilities and stated
capital of all classes.

54. Notwithstanding section 53, a conlpmy my give fmmd Prrimtted loans.
assistance to any person by means of a loan, psmmntee or otherwise

(a) in the ordinary course of business, if the lending of
money is part of the ordinary business of the com-
pany;

(b) on account of expenditures incurred or to be i n c d
on behalf of the company;

ANTIGUA
AND

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Enforcement of
illicit loans.

Immunity of share-
holders.

Lien on shares.

Duty of directors
. to managecompany.

22 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

(c) to a holding body corporate if the company is a
wholly-owned subsidiary of the holding body corpo-
rate;

(d) to a subsidiary body corporate of the company;

(e) to shareholders, or employees of the company or any
of its affiliates;

(i) to enable or assist them to purchase or erect
living a+ommodation for their own occupa-
tion,

(ii) in accordance with a plan for the purchase of
shares of the company or any of its affiliates to
be held by a trustee, or

(iii) to enable or assist them to improve their edu-
cation or skills, or to meet reasonable medical
expenses.

55. A contract made by a company contrary to section 53 may
be enforced by the company or by a lender for value in good faith
without notice of the contravention.

56. The shareholders of a company are not, as shareholders,
liable for any liability, act or default of the company except under
subsection (5) of section 44 or subsection (2) of section 135.

57. (1) Subject to this Act, the articles of a company may
provide that the company has a lien on a share registered in the
name of a shareholder or his legal representative for adebt of that
shareholder to the company including an amount unpaid in
respectofa share issuedby acompany on the date it was continued
under this Act.

(2) A company may enforce a lien referred to in subsection (1)
in accordance with its by-laws.

DIVISION D

MANAGEMENT OF COMPANIES

58. Subject to any unanimous shareholder agreement, the
directors of a company shall

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 23 W G U A
AND

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(a) exercise the powers of the company directly or
indirectly through the employees and agents of the
company, and

(b) direct the management of the business and affairs of
the company.

59. (1) Every company shall haveasecretary andmay have one Secretary.
or more assistant secretaries, who, or each of whom

(a) shall be appointed by the director or directors, or if
provision is made in the by-law s of a company for the
appointment, in accordance with that provision; and

(b) may be an individu J, a corporation or a fm.

(2) If a company carries on business for more than one month
without complying with subsection (1) the company and every
officer of the company who is in default is guilty of an offence.

60. (1) Anything required or authorised to be done by or in ~ c t s of Secretary,
relation to the secretary, may, if the office is vacant, or if for any etc.
other reason the secretary is not capable of acting, be done by or
in relation to any assistant secretary or, if there is no assistant or
deputy secretary capable of acting, by or in relation to any officer
of the company authorisedgenerally or specially in that behalf by
the director or directors of the company.

(2) A provision requiring or authorising a thing to be done by
or in relation to a director and the secretary is not satisfied by its
being done by or in relation to the same person acting both as
director and as, or in the place of, the secretary.

61.(1) The directors of a public company shall take all Secretary of public
reasonable steps to ensure that each secretary and assistant company.
secretary of the company is a person who appears to the directors
to have the requisite knowledge and expedence to discharge the
functions of a secretary of a public company.

(2) For the purpose of this section a person

(a) who, on the commencement date, held the office of
secretary, assistant secretary or deputy secretary of a
public company,

ANTIGUA 24 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(b) who, for at least 3 years of the 5 years immediately
preceding his appointment as secretary, held the
office of secretary of a public company,

(c) who is a member in good standing of the Institute of
Chartered Accountants of Antigua and Barbuda, the
Institute of Chartered Secretariesand Administra@rs
or the Chartered Institute of Public Finance and
Accountancy.

(d) who is an attorney-at-law, or

(e) who, by virtue of his holding or having held any other
position or having been amember of any other body,
appears to be capable of discharging the functions of
a secretary of a public company,

may be assumed by a director of a public company to have the
requisite knowledge and experience to discharge the functions of
a secretary or assistant secretary of a public company, if the
director does not know otherwise.

Number of direc- 62. (1) A company must have at least one director but apublic
tors. company shall have no. fewer than three directors, at least 2 of

whom are not officers or employees of the company or any of its
affiliates.

(2) Only an individual may be a director of a public company.

Restricted powers. 63. If the powers of the directors of a company to manage the
business and affairs of the company are in whole or in part
restricted by the articles of the company, the directors have all the
rights, powers and duties of the duectors to the extent that the
articles do not restrict those powers; but the diectors are thereby
relieved of their duties and liabilities to the extent that the articles
restrict their powers.

B Y - L ~ W powers. 64. (1) Unless the articles, by-laws, or unanimous shareholder
agreement otherwise provides, the directors of acompany may by
resolution make, amend, or repeal any by -laws for the regulation
of the business or affairs of the company.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 25 ANTIGUA
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(2) The d i i to r s of a company shall submit a by-law, or any
amendmentorrepeal of aby-law made under subsection (1) to the
shareholders of the company at the next meeting of shareholders
after the making, amendment or repeal of the by-law; and the
shareholders may, by ordinary resolution, confirm, amend or
reject the by-law, amendment or repeal.

(3) A by-law, or any amendment or repeal of a by-law, is
effective from the date of the resolution of the directors making,
amending or repealing the by-law until

(a) the by-law, amendment or repeal is confirmed,
amended or rejected by the shareholders pursuant to
subsection (2), or

(b) the by-law, amendment or repeal ceases to be effec-
tive pursuant to subsection (4);

and, if the by-law, amendment orrepeal is confirmed or amended
by the shareholders, it continues in effect in the form in which it
was confmed or amended.

(4) When a by-law, or an amendment or repeal of a by-law is
not submitted to the shareholders as required by subsection (2),
or is rejected by the shareholders, the by-law, amendment or
repeal ceases to be effective; and no subsequent resolution of the
d i i to r s to make, amend or repeal a by-law having substantially
the same purpose or effect is effective until the resolution is
confmed, with or without amendment, by the shareholders.

(5) A shareholder who is entitled to vote at an annual meeting
of shareholders may, in accordance with sections 114 to 122,
make a proposal to make, amend or repeal a by-law.

65. (1) After the issue of a cerlificate of incorporation of a organisational
company, ameeting of the directors of the company shall be held meeting.
at which the directors may

(a) make by-laws;

(b) adopt forms of sharece~tatesandcorporate r cords;

(c) authorise the issue of shares;

(d) appoint officers;

ANTIGUA 26 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(e) appoint an auditor to hold office until the first annual
meeting of shareholders;

(fl make banking arrangemen&; and

(g) transact any other business.

(2) An incorporator or a director may call a meeting of
directors referred to in subsection (1) by giving by post not less
than 7 clear days' notice of the meeting to each director and stating
in the notice the time and place of the meeting.

(3) Subsection (1) does not apply to a company to which a
certificate of amalgamation has been issued under section 225.

Z

Disqualified 66. (1) An individual who is prohibited by subsection (2) of
directors. section 4 from forming or joining in the formation of a company

may not be a director of any company.

(2) When an individual is disqualified under section 67 from
being adirector of acompany, that individual may not, during that
period of disqualification, be a director of any company.

cow disqualified 67. (1) When, on the application of the Registrar, it is made to
directors. appear to the court that an individual is unfit to be concemed in

the management of a public company, the court may order that,
without the prior leave of the court, he may not be a director of
the company, or, in any way, directly or indirectly, be concemed
with the management of the company for such period.

(a) beginning

(i) with the date of the order, or

(ii) if the individual is undergoing, or is to undergo
a term of imprisonment and the court so di-
rects, with the date on which he completes that
term of imprisonment or is otherwise released
from prison, and

(b) not exceeding 5 years,

as may be specified in the order.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 27 ANTIGUA
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(2) In determining whether or not to make an order under
subsection (I), the court shall have regard to all the circumstances
that it considers relevant, including any previous convictions of
the individual in Antiguaand Barbudaor elsewhere for an offence
involving fraud or dishonesty or in connection with the promo-
tion, formation or management of any body corporate.

(3) Before making an application under this section in relation
to any individual, the Registrar shall give that individual not less
than 10 days' notice of the Registrar's intention to make the
application.

(4) On the hearing of an application made by the Registrar under
this section or an application for leave under this section to be
concerned with the management of a public company, the Registrar
and any individual concerned with the application may appear and
call attention to any matters that are relevant, and may give evidence,
call witnesses and be represented by an attorney-at-law.

68. Unless the articles of a company otherwise provide, a NO qualification
director of the company need not hold shares issued by the required.
company.

69. (1) At the time of sending articles of inCOTp0ration of a Notice of directors.
company to the Registrar, the incorporators shall send him, in the
prescribed form, a notice of the names of the directors of the
company; and the Registrar shall file the notice.

(2) Each director named in the notice referred to in subsection
(1) holds office as a director of the company from the issue of the
certificateof incorporation of the company until the first meeting
of the shareholders of the company.

(3) Subject to paragraph (b) of section 71, the shareholders of
a company, shall by ordinary resolution at the first meeting of the
company and at each following annual meeting at which an
election of directors is required, elect directors to hold office for
a term expiring not later than the close of the third annual meeting
of the shareholders of the company following the election.

(4) It is not necessary that all the directors of acompany elected
at a meeting of shareholders hold office for the same term.

(5) A director who is not elected for an expressly stated term
ceases to hold office at the close of the first annual meeting of
shareholders following his election.

ANTIGUA 28 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(6) Notwithstanding subsections (2), (3) and (3, if directors
are not elected at a meeting of shareholders, the incumbent
directors continue in office until their successors are elected.

('I) If a neeting of shareholders fails, by reason of the
disqualification, incapacity or death of any candidates, to elect
the number or the minimum number of directors required by the
articles of the company, the directors elected at that meeting may
exercise all the powers of the directors as if the number of
directors so elected constituted a quorum.

(8) The articles of a company or an unanimous shareholder
agreement may, for terms expiring not later than the close of the
third annual meeting of the shareholders following the election,
provide for the election or appoi&nent of d i i t o r s by the
creditors or employees of the company or by any classes of these
creditors or employees.

Alternate directors. 70. (1) A meeting of the shareholders of a company may, by
ordinary resolution, elect a person to act as a director in the
alternative to a director of the company, or may authorise the
directors to appoint such alternative d i i to r s as are necessary for
the proper discharge of the affairs of the company.

(2) An alternate director shall have all the rights and powers
of the director for whom he is elected or appointed in the
alternative, except that he shall not be entitled to attend and vote
at any meeting of the directors otherwise than in the absence of
that other director.

cumulative voting. 71. Where the articles of a company provide for cumulative
voting, the following rules apply:

(a) the articles shall require a fixed number, and not a
minimum and maximum number of directors;

(b) each shareholder who is entitled to vote at an election
of directors has the right to cast a number of votes
equal to the number of votes attached to the shares
held by him, multiplied by the number of directors to
be elected, and he may cast all his votes in favour of
one candidate, or distribute them among the candi-
dates in any manner;

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 29 ANTIGUA
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(c) a separate vote of shareholders shall be taken with
respect to each candidate nominated for director
unless aresolution is passed unanimously permitting
two or more persons to be elected by a single
resolution;

(d) if a shareholder votes for more than one candidate
without specifying the distribution ofhis votesamong
the candidates, he distributes his votes equaU y among
the candidates for whom he votes:

re) if the aaun~ber of candidates nominated for director
exceeds the number of positions to be filled, the
candidates who receive the least number of votes
shall be eliminated until the number of candidates
remaining equals the number of positions to be filled;

(f) each director ceases to hold office at the close of the
first annual meeting of shareholders following his
election;

) adirector may not be removed fromoffice if the votes
cast against his removal would be sufficient to elect
him and those votes could be voted cumulatively at
the election at which the same total number of votes
were cast and the number of directors required by the
articles were then being elected; and

(h) the number of directors required by the articles may
not be decreased if the votes cast against the motion
to decrease would be sufficient to elect adirector and
those votes could be voted cumulatively at an elec-
tionat which the same total number of votes werecast
and the number of directors required by the articles
were then being elected.

72. (1) A director of a company ceases to hold office when Termination of of-
fice.

(a) he dies or resigns,

(b ) he is removed in accordance with section 73,

(c) he becomes disqualified under section 66 or 67.

ANTIGUA 30 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(2) The resignation of a director of a company becomes
effective at the time his written resignation is sent to the company
or at the time specified in the resignation, whichever is later.

Removal of direc- 73. (1) Subject to paragraph (g) of section 71, the shareholders
tors. of a company may

(a) by ordinary resolution at a special meeting, remove
any director from office.

(b) where a director was elected for a term exceeding one
year and is not up for re-election at an annual
meeting, remove such director by ordinary resolu-
tion at that meeting.

(2) Where the holders of any class or series of sharesof acompany
have an exclusive right to elect one or more directors, a director so
elected may only be removed by an ordmaq resolution at a meeting
of the shareholders of that class or series of shares.

(3) Subject to paragraph (b) to (e) of section 71, a vacancy
created by the removal of a director may be filled at the meeting
of the shareholders at which the director is removed, or, if the
vacancy is not so filled, it may be filled pursuant to section 75.

Right to notice. 74. (1) A director of a company is entitled to receive notice of,
and to attend and be heard at, every meeting of shareholders.

(2) A director

a) who resigns,

(b) who receives a notice or otherwise learns of a meet-
ing of shareholders called for the purpose of remov-
ing him from office, or

(c) who receives a notice or otherwise learns of a meet-
ing of directors or shareholders at which another
person is to be appointed or elected to fill the office
of director, whether because of his resignation or
removal, or because his term of office has expired or
is about to expire,

may submit to the company a written statement giving the reasons
for his resignation or the reasons why he opposes any proposed
action or resolution.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 31 ANTIGUA
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(3) The company shall forthwith send acopy of the statement
referred to in subsection (2) to the Registrar and to every
shareholder entitled to receive notice of any meeting referred to
in subsection (1).

(4) No company or person acting on its behalf incurs any
liability by reason only of circulating a director's statement in
compliance with subsection (3).

75. (1) Subject to subsections (3) and (4), aquorum of directors Filling vacancy.
of a company m y fill a vacancy among the directors of the
company, except a vacancy resulting from an increase in the
number or minimum number of directors, or from a failure toelect
the number or minimum number of directors required by the
articles of the company.

(2) If there is no quorum of directors, or if there has been a
failure to elect the number or minimum number of directors
required by the articles, the directors then in office shall forthwith
call a special meeting of shareholders to fill the vacancy; and, if
they fail to callameeting, or if there are no directors then in office,
the meeting may be called by any shareholder.

(3) Where the holders of any class or series of shares of a
company have an exclusive right to elect one or more directors
and a vacancy occurs among those directors,

(a) then, subject to subsection (4), the remaining direc-
tors elected by that class or series may fill the vacancy
except a vacancy resulting from an increase in the
number or minimum number of directors for that
class or series, or from a failure to elect the number
or minimum number of directors for that class or
series, or

(b) if there are no such remaining directors, any holder
of shares of that class or series may call a meeting of
the holders thereof for the purpose of filling the
vacancy.

(4) The articles of a company may provide that a vacancy
among the directors be filled only

(a) by a vote of the shareholders, or

.
ANTIGUA 32 The C o w n i e s Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

AND
BAFU3UDA ,

(b) by a vote of the holders of any class or series of shares
having an exclusive right to elect one or more
directors, if the vacancy occurs among the directors
elected by that class or series.

(5) A director appointed or elected to fill avacancy holds office
for the unexpired term of his predecessor.

Numbers changed. 76. The shareholders of a company may amend the articles of
the company to increase or, subject to paragraph (h) of section 7 1
to decrease, the number of directors, or the minimum or maxi-
mum number of directors; but no decrease shortens the term of the
incumbent &rector.

Notice of change. 77 (1) Within 15 days after a change is made among its
directors, a company shall send to the Registrar a notice in the
prescribed fom setting out the change; and the Registrar shall file
the notice.

(2) Any interested person, or the Registrar, may apply to the court
for an order to require a company to comply with subsection (1 ); and
the court may so order and make any further order it thinks fit.

Diredors'meetings. 78. (1) Unless the articles or by-laws of a company otherwise
provide, the directors of a company may meet at any place, and
upon such notice as the by-laws require.

(2) Subject to the articles or by-laws, amajority of the number
of directors or minimum number of directors required by the
articles constitutes a quorum at any meeting of directors; and
notwithstanding any vacancy among the directors, a quorum of
directors may exercise all the powers of the directors.

Notice and waiver. 79. (1) Anoticeof ameeting of the directors of acompany shall
specify any matter referred to in subsection (2) of section 83 that
is to be dealt with at the meeting; but, unless the by-laws of the
company otherwise provide, the notice need not specify the
purpose of or the business to be transacted at the meeting.

(2) A director may, in any manner, waive anotice of ameeting of
directors; and attendance of a hector at a meeting of directors is a
waiver ofnotice of themeeting by the director except when he attends
the meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of
any business on the grounds that the meeting is not lawfully called.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 33 ANTIGUA
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80. Notice of an adjourned meeting of directors need not be Adjournedmeeting.
given if the lime and place of the adjournedmeeting is announced
at the original meeting.

81. (1) Subject to the by-laws of a company, a director may, Telephone
if all the directors of the company consent, participate in a Wicipation.
meeting of directors of the company or of a committee of the
directors by means of such telephone or other communication
facilities as permit all persons participating in the meeting to hear
each other.

(2) A director who participates in a meeting of directors by
such means as are described in subsection (1), is, for the purposes
of this Act, present at the meeting.

82. (1) Directors of acompany may appoint from their number Delegation of pow-
a managing director or a committee of directors and delegate to ers.
the managing director or committee any of the powers of the
directors.

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (I), no managing director and
no committee of directors of a company may.

(a) submit to the shareholders any question or matter
requiring the approval of the shareholders;

(b) fill a vacancy among the directors or in the office of
auditor;

(c) issue shares except in the manner and on the terms
authorised by the directors;

(d) declare dividends;

(e) purchase, redeem or otherwise acquire shares issued
by the company;

fl pay a commission referred to in section 50;

(g) approve a management proxy circular referred to in
Division F;

(h) approve any fmancial statements referred to in sec-
tion 149; or

ANTIGUA
AND

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34 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

Validity of acts.

Resolution in writ-
ing.

Liability for share
issue.

Liability for other
acts.

( i ) adopt, amend or repeal by-laws.

$3. An act of a director or officer is valid notwithstanding any
irregularity in his election or appok~&~entt CT any defect in his
qualification.

84. (1) When a resolution in writing is signed by all the
directors entitled to vote on that resolution at a meeting of
directors or committee of directors,

(a) the resolution is as valid as if it had been passed at a
meeting of directors or a committee of directors, and

(b) the resolution satisfies all the requirements of this
Act relating to meetings of di i tors or committees
of directors.

(2) A copy of every resolution referred toin subsection (1) shall
be kept with the minutes of the proceedings of the directors or
committee of directors.

Liabilities of Directors

85. Directors of a company who vote for or consent to a
resolution authorising the issue of a share under section 29 for a
consideration other than money are jointly and severally liable to
the company to make good any amount by which the consider-
ation received is less than the fair equivalent of the money that the
company would have received if the share had been issued for
money on the date of the resolution.

86. Directors of a company who vote for, or consent to, a
resolution authorising

(a) a purchase, redemption or other acquisition of shares
contrary to section 39,40 or 41;

(b) a commission contrary to section 50;

(c) apayment of a dividend contrary to section 51 or 52;

(d) financial assistance contrary to section 53;

(e) a payment of an indemnity contrary to any of the
provisions of sections 226 to 235 or 241,

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 35 ANTIGUA
AND

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are jointly and severally liable to restore to the company any
amounts so distributed or paid and not otherwise recovered by the
company.

87. A director who has satisfied a judgment founded on a Contribution for
liability under section 85 or 86 is entitled to contribution from the judgment.
other directors who voted for or consented to the unlawful act
upon which the judgment was founded.

88. (1) A director whois liable under section 86 may apply to Recovery by action.
the court for an order compelling a shareholder or other recipient
to pay or deliver to the director any money or property that was
paid or distributed to the shareholder or other recipient contrary
to section 39,40,41,50,51,52,53 or 54.

(2) In connection with an application under subsection (I), the
court may, if it is satisfied that it is just and equitable to do so,

(a) order a shareholder or other recipient to pay or deliver
to a director any money or property that was paid or
distributed to the shareholder or other -recipient
contrary to any of the provisions of section 39,40,41,
50,51,52,53,54,99 to 103,226 to 235 or 241,

(b) order a company to return or issue shares to a person
from whom the company has purchased, redeemed
or otherwise acquired shares, or

(c) make any further order it thinks fit.

89. A Director of a company is not liable under section 85 if he Defence to
did not know and couldnot reasonably have known that the share liability.
was issued for a consideration less than the fair equivalent of the
money that the company would have received if the share had
been issued for money.

90. An action to enforce a liability imposed under section 85 or Time limit
86 may not be commenced after 2 years from the date of the On
resolution authorising the action complained of.

Contractual Interest

91. (1) A director or officer of a company Interests in
contracts.

ANTIGUA 36 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(a) who is a party to a material contract or proposed
material contract with the company, or

(b) who is a director or an officer of any body, or has a
materid interest in any body, that is a party to a
material contract or proposed material contract with
the company,

shall disclose in writing to the company or request to have entered
in theminutes of meetings of directors thenature and extent of his
interest.

(2) The disclosure required by subsection (1) shall be made, in
the case of a director of a company,

(a) at the meeting at which a proposed contract is first
con sidered;

(b) if the director was not then interested in a proposed
contract, at the first meeting after he becomes so
interested;

(c) if the director becomes interested after a contract is
made, at the first meeting after he becomes so
interested; or

(d) if a person who is interested in a contract later
becomes a director of the company, at the first
meeting after he becomes a director.

(3) The disclosure required by subsection (1) shall be made, in
the case of an officer of a company who is not a director,

(a) forthwith after he becomes aware that the contract
or proposed contract is to be considered, or has
been considered, at a meeting of directors of the
company;

(b) if the officer becomes interested after a contract is
made, forthwith after he becomes so interested; or

(c) if a person who is interested in a contract later
becomes an officer of the company, forthwith after
he becomes an officer.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 37 ANTIGUA
AND

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(4) If amaterial contract or aproposedmaterial contract is one that,
in the or- cowse of the company's busiiess, would not require
approval by the directors or shareholders of the company, a director
or officer of the company shall disclose in writing to the company, or
request to have entered in the minutes of meetings of directon, the
nature and extent of his interest forthwith after the director or officer
becomes aware of the contract or proposed contract.

(5) A director of a company who is regfled to in subsection (1)
may vote on my ~solufion to approve a mntract that he has an
interest in, Il" be coniracf

(a) is an arrangement by way of security for money
loaned to, or obligations undertaken by him, for the
benefit of the company or an affiliate of the company;

(b) is a contract thatrelates primarily to his remuneration
as a director, officer, employee or agent of the
company or an affiliate of the company;

(c) is a contract for indemnity or insurance under sec-
tions 99 to 103;

(d) is a contract with an affiliate of the company; or

(e) is a contract other than one referred to in paragraphs
(a) to (d);

but, in the case of a contract described in paragraph (e), no
resolution is valid unless notice of the nature and extent of the
director's interest in the contract is declared and disclosed in
reasonable detail to the shareholders of the company and the
resolution is approved by not less than two-thirds of the votes.

92. For the purposes of section 91, a general notice to the rnterest declaration.
directors of a company by a director or an officer of the company
declaring that he is a director or officer of, or has a material
interest in, another body, and is to be regarded as interested in any
contract with that body is a sufficient declaration of interest in
relation to any such contract

93. A Inaterial Contract between a company and one or mole of Avo~dance of
its directors or officers, or between a company and another body nullity.
of which a director or officer of the company is a director or
officer, or in which he has a material interest, is neither void nor
voidable

ANTIGUA 38 The Companies Act, 1935, No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(a) by reason only of that relationship, or

(b) by reason only that a director with an interest in the
contract is present at, or is counted to determine the
presence of a quorum at, a meeting of directors or a
committee of directors that authorised the contract

if the director or officer disclosed his interest in accordance with
subsection (2), (3) or (4) of section 91 or section 92, as the case
may be, and the contract was approved by the directors or the
shareholders and was reasonable and fair to the company at the
time it was approved.

Setting aside con- 94. When a director or officer of a company fails to disclose,
tract. in accordance with section 91 or 92, his interest in a material

contract made by the company, the court may, upon the applica-
lion of the company or a shareholder of the company set aside the
contract on such terms as the court thinks fit.

Officers of the Company

Designation of of- 95. Subject to this Act and to the articles or by-laws of a
fices, etc. company or any unanimous shareholder agreement,

(a) the directors of the company may designate the
offices of thecompany, appoint as officers persons of
full capacity, specify their duties and delegate to
them powers tomanage the business andaffairs of the
company, except powers to do anything referred to in
subsection (2) of seclion 82;

(b) a director may be appointed to any office of the
company; and

(c) 2 or more offices of the company may be held by the
same person.

Borrowing Powers of Directors

Borrowing powers. 96. (1) Unless the articles or by-laws of, or any unanimous
shareholder agreement relating to, the company otherwise pro-
vide, the directors of the company may, without authorisation of
the shareholders,

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 39 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

(a) borrow money upon the credit of the company;

(b) issw,re-issue,sellorpledge~~ofthecompany;

(c) subject to section 53, givea guaranteeonbehalf of the
company to secure performance of an obligation of
any person; and

(d) mortgage, charge, pledge, otherwise create to
secure any obligation of the mmpany or my other
person a security interest in all or any property of the
company that is owned or subsequently acquired by
the company.

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (2) of section 82 and paragraph
(a) of section 95, unless the articles or by-laws of,,or any
unanimous shareholder agreement relating to, a company other-
wise provide, the directors of the company may by resolution
delegate the powers mentioned in subsection (1) to a director, a
committee of directors or any officer of the company.

Duty of Directors and Omcers

97. (1) Every director and officer of acompany in exercising his ~ u t y of care.
powers and discharging his duties shall

(a) act honestly and in good faith with a view to the best
interests of the company; and

(b) exercise the care, diligence and slull that a reason-
ably prudent person would exercise in comparable
circumstances.

(2) In determining what are the best interests of a company, a
director shall have regard to the interests of the company's
employees in general as well as to the interests of its shareholders.

(3) 'l3e duty imposed by subsection (2) on the directors of a
company is owed by them to the campy alone; and the duty is
enforceable in the same way as anydther fiduciary duty owed to
a company by its directors.

(4) No information about the business or affairs of a company
shall be disclosed by a director or officer of the company except

ANTIGUA 40 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(a) for the purposes of the exercise or performance of his
functions as a director or officer;

(b) for the purposes of any legal proceedings;

(c) pursuant to the requirements of any enactment, or

(d) when authorised by the company.

(5) Every director and officer of a company shall comply with
this Act and the regulations, and with the articles and by-laws of
the company, and any unanimous shareholder agreement relating
to the company .

(6) Subject to subsection (2) of section 135, no provision in a
contract, the articles of acompany, its by-laws or any resolution,
relieves a director or officer of the company from the duty to act
in accordance with this Act or the regulations, or relieves him
from liability for a breach of this Act or the regulations.

Dissenting to reso- 98. (1) A director who is present at a meeting of the directors
lutions. or of a committee of directors consents to any resolution passed

or action taken at that meeting, unless

(a) he requests that his dissent be or his dissent is entered
in the minutes of the meeting,

(b) he sends his written dissent to the secretary of the
meeting before the meeting is adjourned, or

(c) he sends his dissent by registered post or delivers it
to the registered office of the company immediately
after the meeting is adjourned. s

(2) A director who votes for, or consents to, a resolution may not
dissent under subsection (1).

(3) A director who was not present at a meeting at which a
resolution was passed or action taken is presumed to have
consented thereto unless, within 7 days after he becomes aware
of the resolution, he

(a) causes his dissent to be placed with the minutes of the
meeting, or

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 41 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

(b) sends his dissent by registeredpostordelivers it to the
registered o f f ~ e of the company.

(4) A director is not liable under section 85,86 or 97 if he relies
in good faith upon

(a) financial statements of the company represented to
him by an officer of the company, or

(b) areport of an attorney-at-law, accountant, engineer,
appraiser or other person whose profession lends
credibility to a statement made by him.

Indemnities

99. (1) Except in respect of an action by or on behalf of a Indemnifying
company or body corporate to obtain a judgment in its favour, a etc.
company may indemnify

(a) a director or officer of the company,

(b) a former d i i t o r or officer of the company, or

(c) a person who acts or acted at the company's request
as a director or officer of a body corporate of which
the company is or was a shareholder or creditor,

and his legal representatives, against all costs, charges and
expenses (including an amount paid to settle an action or satisfy
a judgment) reasonably incurred by him in respect of any civil,
criminal or administrative action or proceeding to which he is
made a party by reason of being, or having been, a director or
officer of that company or body corporate.

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply unless the director or officer
to be so indemnified

(a) acted honestly and in good faith with a view to the
best interests of the company, and

(b) in the case of a criminal or administrative action or
proceeding that is enforced by a monetary penalty,
had reasonable grounds for believing that his conduct
was lawful.

ANTIGUA 42 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

For derivative 100. A company may with the approval of the court indemnify
action. a person referred to in section 99 in respect of an action

(a) by or on behalf of the company or body corporate to
a'utain a judgment in its favour, and

(b) to which he is made a party by reason of being or
having been a director or an officer of the company
or body corporate,

against all costs, charges and expenses reasonably incurred by
hi in connection with the action, if he fulfils the conditions set
out in subsection (2) of section 99.

Right to indemnity. 101. Notwithstanding anything in section 99 or 100, a person
described in section 99 is entitled to indemnity from the company
in respect of all costs, charges and expenses reasonably incurred
by him in connection with the defence of any civil, criminal or
administrative action or proceeding to which he is made a party
by reason of being, or having been, a director or officer of the
company or body corporate, if the person seeking indemnity

(a) was substantially successful on the merits in his
defence of the action or proceeding,

(b) qualified in accordance with the standards set out in
section 99 or 100, and

(c) is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity.

Insurance of 102. A company may purchase andmaintain insurance for the
directors, etc. benefit of any person referred to in section 99 against any liability

incurred by him under paragraph (b) of subsection (1) of section
97 in his capacity as a director or officer of the company.

court approval of 103. (1) A company or person referred to in section 99 may
indemnity. apply to the court for an or&r approving an indemnity under

segtion 100 or 101; and the court may so order and make any
further order it thinks fit.

(2) An applicant under subsection (1) shall give the Regism
notice of the application; and the Registrar may appear and be
heard in person or by an attorney-at-law.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 43 ANTIGUA
,
I AND

BARBUDA

(3) Upon an application under subsection (I), the court may
order notice to be given to any interested person; and that person
may appear and be heard in person or by an attorney-at-law.

104. Subject to its articles or by-laws, or any unanimous Remuneration.
shareholder agreement, the directors of a company may fix the
remuneration of the directors, officers and employees of the
company.

DMSION E

SHAREHOLDERS OF COMPANIES

105. (1) The following persons are shareholders in a company, Shareholders and
namely - their meetings.

(a) a person who is a member of the company under
subsection (3) of section 371;

(b) the personal representative of a deceased shareholder
and the trustee in bankruptcy of a bankrupt share-
holder;

(c) aperson in whose favour atransferof shares hasbeen
executed but whose name has not been entered in the
register of members of the company or, if two or more
such transfers have been executed, the person in
whose favour themostrecent transfer has been made.

(2) In this Act any reference to holders of shares is a reference
to persons who are shareholders in respect of the shares and any
reference to holding shares shall be construed accordingly.

(3) For the purposes of this Act shares shall be considered as
having been issued if any person is a shareholder in respect of
them.

(4) Meetings of shareholders of a company shall be held at the
place within Antigua and Barbuda provided in the by-laws, or, in
the absence of any such provision, at the place within Antiguaand
Barbuda that the directors determine.

(5) Notwithstanding subsection (4), a meeting of shareholders
of acompany may be held outside Antigua and Barbuda if all the
shareholders entitled to vote at the meeting so agree.

ANTIGUA 44 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(6) A shareholder who attends a meeting of shareholders held
outside Antiguaand Barbuda agrees to its beiig so held unless he
attends the meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the
transaction of any business on the grounds hat the meeting is not
lawfully held.

Meeting outside. 106. Notwithstanding section 105, if the articles of a company
so provide, meetings of shareholders of the company may be held
outside Antigua and Barbuda at one or more places specified in
the articles.

Calling meetings. 107. The directors of a company

(a) ' 'shall call an annual meeting of shareholders not later
than 18 months after the company comes into exist-
ence, and subsequently not later than 15 months after
holding the last preceding annual meeting; and

(b) may at any time call a special meeting of shareholders.

Record date of 108. (1) For the purpose of
shareholders

(a) determining the shareholders of the company who
are

(i) entitled to receive payment of a dividend, or

(ii) entitled to participate in a winding -up distribu-
tion, or

(b) determining the shareholders of the company for any
other purpose except the right to receive notice of, or
to vote at, a meeting,

the directors may fix in advance a date as the record date for the
determination of shareholders; but that record date shall not
precede by more than 30 days the particular action to be taken.

(2) For the purpose of determining shareholders who are
entitled to receive notice of a meeting of shareholders of the
company, the directors of the company may fix in advance adate
as the record date for the determination of shareholders; but the
record date shall not precede by more than 30 days or by less than
7 days the date on which the meeting is to be held.

Statutory
date.

109. If no record date is fixed,

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 45 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

(a) the record date for deterinining the shareholders who
are entitled to'receive a notice of a meeting of the
shareholders is

(i) the close of business on the date immediately
precdng the day on which the notice is given, or

(ii) if no notice is given, the day on which the
meeting is hela and

(b) the record date for the determination of shareholders
for any purpose other than the purpose specified in
paragraph (a) is the close of business on the day on
which the directors pass the resolution relating to that
Purpose.

110. If a record date is fixed under section 108 notice thereof Notice of record
shall, in the case of a public company, be given by advertisement date.
in a newspaper published in Antigua and Barbuda not less than 7
days before the date so f a d .

111. (1) Notice of the time and place of a meeting of sharehold- Notice of meeting.
ers shall be sent not less than 7 days nor more than 30 days before
the meeting

(a) to each shareholder entitled to vote at the meeting;

(b) to each director; and

(c) to the auditor of the company.

(2) A notice of a meeting of shareholders of a company is not
required to be sent to shareholders of the company who were not
registered on the records of the company or its transfer agent on
the record date determined under section 108 or 109, as the case
may k, but failure to receive notice does not deprive a share-
holder of the right to vote at the meeting.

(3) If a meeting of shareholders is adjourned for less than 30
days, it is not necessary, unless the by-laws otherwise provide, to
give notice of the adjourned meeting, other than by announce-
ment at the earliest meeting that is adjourned.

ANTIGUA 46 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(4) If a meeting of shareholders is adjourned by one or more
adjournments foi an aggregate of 30 days or more, notice of the
adjourned meeting shall be given as for an original meeting; but,
unless the meeting is adjourned by one or more adjournments for
an aggregate of more than 90 days, subsection (1) of section 141
does not apply.

Special business. 112. (1) All business transacted at a special meeting of share-
holders, and all business transacted at an annual meeting of
shareholders, is special business, except

(a) the consideration of the financial statements,

(b) the directors' report, if any

(c) the auditor's report, if any

(d) the sanction of dividends,

(e) the election of directors, and

@ the re-appointment of the incumbent auditor.

(2) Notice of a meeting of shareholders at which special
business is to be transacted shall state:

(a) the nature of that business in sufficient detail to
permit the shareholder to form a reasoned judgment
thereon; and

(b) the text of any special resolution to be submitted to
the meeting.

Shareholder 113. (1) A shareholder and any other person who is entitled to
meetings; waiver attendameeting of shareholders may in any manner waive notice
of notice and
telephone of the meeting; and the attendance of any person at a meeting of
participation. shareholders is a waiver of notice of the meeting by that person,

unless he attends the meeting for the express purpose of ~bjecting
to the transaction of any business on the grounds that the meeting
is not lawfully called.

(2) Subject to the by-laws of a company, a shareholder may, if
all the shareholders of the .company consent, participate in a
meeting of shareholders of the company by means of such
telephone or other communication facilities as permit all persons
participating in the meeting to hear each other.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 47 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

(3) A shareholder who participates in ameeting of shareholders
by such means as are described ln subsection (2) is, for the
purposes of this Act, present at the meeting.

Proposals and Proxies

114. A shareholder of a company who is entitled to vote at an uPtoposalsM
annual meeting of the shareholders may of share-

holders.

(a) submit to the company notice of any matter that he
preposes ta raise at the meeting, in this Division
referred to as a 6 " p r o ~ s , and

(b) discuss at the meeting any matter in respect of which
he would have been entitled to submit a proposal.

115. (1) A company that solicits proxies shall set the proposal R O X ~ circular.
out in the management proxy circular required by section 141 or
attach the proposal to that circular.

(2) If so requested by a shareholder who submits a proposal to
a company, the company shall include in the management proxy
circular, or attach to it, a statement by the shareholder of not more
than 200 words in support of the proposal, and the name and
address of the shareholder.

116. A proposal may include nominations for the election of Nomination
directors if the proposal is signed by one or more holders of shares in ~ J ~ O P O S ~ ' .
who represent in the aggregate not less than

(a) 5 percent of the shares of the company, or

(b) 5 percent of the shares of a class of shares of the
company,

entitled to vote at a meeting to which the proposal is to be
presented; but this subsection does not preclude nominations
made at a meeting of shareholders of a company that is not
required to solicit proxies under section 141.

117. A ~ 0 m p k ~ is not required to comply with subsection (2) Non-compliance
of section 1 15 if with proxy

solicitation.

(a) the proposal is not submitted to the company at least
90 days before the anniversary date of the previous
annual meeting of shareholders of the company;

ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

Publishing immu-
nity.

Refusal notice.

Restraining
meeting.

48 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

(b) it clearly appears that the proposal is submitledby the
shareholder primarily for the purpose of enforcing a
personal claim or redressing a personal grievance
against the company or its directors, officers, share-
holders or debenture holders or primarily for the
purpose of promoting general economic, political,
racial, religious, social or similar causes;

(c) the company, at the shareholder's request, included
a proposal in a management proxy circular relating
to a meeting of shareholders held within 2 years
preceding the receipt of that request and the share-
holder failed to present the proposal, in person or by
proxy, at the meehg;

(d) substantially the same proposal was submitted to
shareholders in a management proxy circular or a
dissident's proxy circular relating to a meeting of
shareholders held within 2 years preceding the re-
ceipt of the shareholder's request and the proposal
was defeated; or

(e) the rights conferred by that subsection are being
abused to secure publicity.

118. No company, or person acting on its behalf, incurs any
liability by reason only of circulating a proposal or statement in
compliance with this Act.

119. When a company refuses to include a proposal in a
management proxy circular, the company shall, within 10 days
after receiving the proposal, notify the shareholder submitting the
proposal of its intention to omit the proposal from the manage-
ment proxy circular; and the company shall send him a statement
of the reasons for its refusal.

120. Upon application to the court by a shareholder of a
company who is claiming to be aggrieved by the company's
refusal under section 119 to include a proposal in a management
proxy circular, the court may restrain the holding of the meeting
to which the proposal is sought to be presented and make any
further order it thinks fit

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 49 ANTIGUA
AND

B.4RBuDA

121. A company or any person claiming to be aggrieved by a Right to onit pro-
proposal submitted to the company may apply to the court for an POSa1.
order permitting the company to omit the proposal from its
management proxy circular; and the court may, if it is satisfied
that section 117 applies, make such order as it thinks fit.

122. An applicant under section 120 or 121 shall give the Regiswar's
Registrar notice of the application, k d the ~ e ~ i s t r a r may appear notice.
and be heard in person or by an attomey-at-law.

Shareholder Lists

123. (1) A company shall List of
shareholders.

(a) not later than 10 days after the record date is fmed
under subsection (2) of section 108, if a record date
is so f ~ e d , or

(b) if no record date is fixed,

(i) at the close of business on the date immediately
preceding the day on which the notice is g i v w

(ii) if no notice is given, as of the day on which the
meeting is held,

prepare a list of its shareholders who are entitled to receive notice
of a meeting, arranged in alphabetical order and showing the
number of shares held by each shareholder.

(2) When a company fixes a record date under subsection (2) of
section 108, aperson named in the list prepared under paragraph (a)
of subsection (1) is, subject to subsection (3) entitled, at the meeting
to which the list relates to vote the shares shown opposite his name.

(3) Where a person has transferred the ownership of any of his
shares in a company after the record date fixed by the company,
if the transferee of those shares

(a) produces properly endorsed share cerlificates to the
company or otherwise establishes to the company
that he owns the shares, and

(b) demands, not later than 1Odaysbeforethemeetingof the
shareholders of the company, that his namebe included
m the list of shareholden before the meeting,

ANTIGUA 50 The Companies Act, 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

No. 18 of 1995.

the transferee may vote his shares at the meeting.

(4) When a company does not fix a record date under subsection
(2) of section 108, a person named in a list of shareholders prepared
under pamgraph (b) of subsection (1) may, at the meeting to which
the list relates, vote the shares shown opposite his name.

Examination of list. 124. A shareholder of a company may examine the list of Its
shareholders

(a) during usual business hours at the registeredoffice of
the company or at the place where its register of
shareholders is maintained, and

(b) at the meeting of shareholders for which the list was
prepared.

Quorum

Quorum at meet- 125. (1) Unless the by-laws otherwise provide, a quorum of
ings. shareholders is present at ameeting of shareholders if the holders

of a majority of the shares entitled to vote at the meeting are
present in person or represented by proxy.

(2) If a quorum is present at the opening of a meeting of
shareholders, the shareholders present may, unless the by-laws
otherwise provide, proceed with thebusinessof themeeting, notwith-
standing that a quorum is not present throughout the meeting.

(3) If a quorum is not present within 30 minutes of the time
appointed for a meeting of shareholders, the meeting stands
adjourned to the same day 2 weeks thereafter, at the same time and
place; and, if at the adjourned meeting, a quorum is not present
w i t h 30 minutes of the appointed time, the shareholders present
constitute a quorum.

(4) When a company has only one shareholder, or has only one
shareholder of any class or series of shares, that shareholder
present in person or by proxy constitutes a meeting.

Voting the Shares

Right to vote share 126. Unless the articles bf the company otherwise provide, on
a show of hands a shareholder or proxy holder has one vote; and
ilpon a poll a shareholder or proxy holder has one vote for every
share held.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 51 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

127. (1) When a body corporate or association is a shareholder Representative of
of a company, the company shall recognise any individual
authorised by a resolution of the diictors or governing body of
the body corporate or association to represent it at meetings of
shareholders of the company.

(2) An individual who is authorisedas described in subsection
(1) may exercise, on behalf of the body corporate or association
that he represents, all the powers it could exercise if it were an
individual shareholder.

128. Unless the by-laws otherwise provide, if 2 or more ~ointshare-holders.
persons hold shares jointly, one of those holders present at a
meeting of shareholders may, in the absence of the other, vote the
shares; but if 2 or more of those persons who are present, in person
or by proxy, vote, they shall vote as one on the shares jointly held
by them.

129. (1) Unless the by-laws otherwise provide, voting at a Voting method at
meeting of shareholders shall be by a show of hands, except when meetings.
a poll is demanded by a shareholder or proxy holder entitled to
vote at the meeting.

(2) A shareholder or proxy holder may demand a poll either
before or after any vote by show of hands.

130. (1) Except where a written statement is submitted by a Resolution in writ-
diiector under section 74 or an auditor under section 170, ing.

(a) a resolution in writing signed by all the shareholders
entitled to vote on that resolution at a meeting of
shareholders is as valid as if it had been passed at a
meeting of the shareholders, and

(b) a resolution in writing dealing with all matters re-
quired by this Act to be dealt with at a meeting of
shareholders, and signed by all the shareholders
entilled to vote at that meeting, satisfies all the
requirements of this Act relating to meetings of
shareholders.

(2) A copy of every resolu tion referred to in subsection ( 1) shall
be kept with the minutes of the meetings of shareholders but
failure so to keep such copy does notrender void any action taken
by the company.

AN'iIGUA 52 Tk Compmies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
Am

BARBUDA

CompuIsory Meeting

Requisitionedshare- 131. (1) The holders of not less than 5 percent of the issued
meeting. shares of a compy that carry the right to vote atameeting sought

to be held by them may requisition the directors to call a meeting
of shareholders for the purposes stated in the requisition.

(2) The requisition referred to in subsection (I), which may
consist of several documents of like form, each signed by one or
more shareholders of the company, shall state the business to be
transacted at the meeting and shall be sent to each director and to
the registered office of the company.

(3) Upon receiving a requisition referred to in subsection (I),
the directors shall call a meeting of shareholders to transact the
business stated in the requisition, unless

(a) a record date has been fixed under subsection (2) of
section 108 and notice thereof has been given under
section 110;

(b) the directors have called a meeting of shareholders
and have given notice thereof under section 1 1 1 ; or

(c) the business of themeeting as stated in the requisition
includes matters described in paragraphs (b) to (e) of
section 117.

(4) If, after receiving a requisition referred to in subsection (I),
the directors do not call a meeting of shareholders within 21 days
after receiving the requisition, any shareholder who signed the
requisition may call the meeting.

(5) A meeting called under this section shall be called as nearly
as possible in the manner in which meetings are to be called
pursw~t o the by-laws, this Division and Division F.

(6) Unless the shareholders otherwise resolve at a meeting called
u1lder subsection (4), the company shall reimburse the shareholders
who requisitioned the meeting the expenses reasonably incurred by
them in requisitioning, calling and holding the meeting.

court callad meet- 132. (1) Upon the application to the court by adirector of acompany
ing or a &ateholder of the company who is entitled to vote at a meeting

of the s ~ o l d e r s , or by the Regism, the court may,

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 53 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

(a) when for any reason it is impracticable

(i) to call ameeting of shareholders in the manner in
which meetings ofshareholdm can be called, or

(ii) to conduct the meeting in the manner pre-
scribed by the by-laws and this Act, or

(b) when the directors fail to call a meeting of the
shareholders in contravention of section 13 1, or

(c) for any other reason thought fit by the court,

order a meeting of shareholders to be called, held and conducted
in such manner as the court may direct.

(2) Without restricting the generality of subsection (I), the
court may order that the quonun required by the by-laws or this
Act be varied or dispensed with at a meeting called, held and
conducted pursuant to this section.

(3) A meeting of the shareholders of a company called, held and
conducted pursuant to this section is for all puposes a meeting of
shareholders of the company duly called, held and conducted.

Controverted Affairs

133. (1) A company or a shareholder or director thereof may COW review
apply to the court to determine any controversy with respect to an controversy.
election or appointment of a director or auditor of the company.

(2) Upon an application made under this section, the court
may make any order it thinks fit including,

(a) an order restraining a director or auditor whose
election or appointment is challenged from acting,
pending determination of the dispute;

(b) an order declaring the result of the disputed election
or appointment;

(c) an order requiring anew election or appointment, and
including in the order directions for the management
of the business andaffairs of the company until anew
election is held, or appointment made; and

ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

Poling agreement.

Unanimous share-
holder agreement.

Extraordinary
transaction.

54 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

(d) an order determining the voting rights of sharehold-
ers and of persons claiming to own shares.

Shareholder Agreements

134. A written agreement between two or more shareholders of
acompany may provide that in exercising voting rights the shares
held by them will be voted as provided in the agreement.

135. (1) An otherwise lawful written agreement among all the
shareholders of a company, or among all the shareholders and a
person who is not a shareholder, that restricts, in whole or in part,
the powers of the directors of the company tomanage the business
and affairs of the company is valid.

(2) A shareholder who is aparty to any unanimous shareholder
agreement has all the rights, powers and duties, and incurs all the
liabilities of a director of the company to which the agreement
relates, to the extent that the agreement restricts the discretion or
powers of the directors to manage the business and affairs of the
company; and the directors are thereby relievedof their duties and
liabilities to the same extent.

(3) If a penon who is the beneficial owner of all the issued
shares of a company makes a written declaration that restricts in
whole or in part the powers of the directors tomanage the business
and affairs of the company, the declaration constitutes a unani-
mous shareholder agreement.

(4) Where any unanimous shareholder agreement is ex-
ecutedor terminated, written notice of that fact, together with the
dateof theexecution ortermination thereof, shallbe filed with the
Registrar within 15 days after the execution or termination.

Shareholder Approvals

136. (1) A sale, lease or exchange of all, or substantially all,
the property of a company other than in the ordinary course of
business of the company requires the approval of the shareholders
in accordance with this section.

(2) A notice of a meeting of shareholders complying with
section 1 11 shall be sent in accordance with that section to each
shareholder and shall

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 55 ANTIGUA
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(a) include or be accompanied by a copy or summary of
the agreement of sale, lease or exchange, and

(b) state that a dissenting shareholder is entitled to be
paid the fair value of his shares in accordance with
section 226;

but failure to make the statement referred to in paqraph (b) does not
invalidate a sale, lease or exchange referred to in subsection (1).

(3) At the meeting referred to in subsection (2) the shareholders
may authorise the sale, lease or exchange of the property, and may
fm or authorise the directors to fix any of the terms and conditions
of the sale, lease or exchange.

(4) Each share of the company carries the right to vote in
respect of a sale, lease or exchange referred to in subsection (I),
whether or not it otherwise carries the right to vote.

(5) The shareholders of a class or series of shares of the
company are entitled to vote separately as a class or series in
respect of a sale, lease or exchange referred to in subsection (1)
only if the class or series is affected by the sale, lease or exchange
in a manner different from the shares of another class or series.

(6) A sale, lease or exchange referred to in subsection (1) is
adopted when the shareholders of each class or series of shares
who are entitled to vote thereon have, by special resolution,
approved of the sale, lease or exchange.

(7) The directors of a company, ifauthorised by the sharehold-
ers approving a proposed sale, lease or exchange, may, subject to
the rights of thud parties, abandon the sale, lease or exchange
without any further approval of the shareholders.

DIVISION F

PROXIES

137. (1) In this Part, Definitions.

"form of proxy" means a written or printed form hat
upon completion and signature by or on behalf of a
shareholder, becomes a proxy;

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AND

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"pxy"rn~sacomp1etedandsignedformof~xybymean~
of which a shareholder appoints a proxy holder to attend and
act on his behalf at a meeting of h t e h o ~ ,

"registrant" means a broker or dealer required to be regis-
tered to trade or deal in shares or debentures under the law
of any jurisdiction;

"solicit" or "solicitation" includes, subject to subsection (2),

(a) a reQuest for a proxy, whether or not accompanied
with or included in a form of proxy;

(b) a request to execute or not to execute a form of proxy
or to revoke a proxy; and

(c) the sending of a form of proxy or other communi-
cation to a shareholder under circumstances rea-
sonably calculated to result in the procurement,
withholding or revocation of a proxy;

"solicitation by or on behalf of the management of a
company" means a solicitation by any person pursuant to
a resolution or instructions of, or with the acquiescence of,
the directors or a committee of directors of the company
concerned.

(2) The term "solicit" or "solicitation" does not include

(a) the sending of a form of proxy in response to an
unsolicited request made by or on behalf of a share-
holder;

(b) the performance of administrative acts or professional
services on behalf of a person soliciting a proxy;

(c) the sending by aregistrant of the documents referred
to in section 146; or

(d) asolicitation by aperson in respect of shares of which
he is the beneficial owner.

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Proxy Holders

138 (1) A shareholder who is entitled to vote at a meeting of proxy appoint-
shareholders may by means of a proxy appoint a proxy holder, or ment.
one or more alternate proxy holders, none of whom need be
shareholders, to attend and act at the meeting in the manner and
to the extent authorised by the proxy and with the authority
conferred by the proxy.

(2) A proxy shall be executed in writing by the shareholder or
his attorney authorised in writing. .

(3) A proxy is valid only at the meeting in respect of which it
is given or any adjournment of that-meeting.

139. A shareholder of a company may revoke a proxy Revocation of
Proxy

(a) by depositing an instrument in writing executed by
h i or by his attorney authorised in writing,

(i) at the registered office of the company at any
time, up to and including the last business day
preceding the day of the meeting, or any
adjournment of that meeting. at which the
proxy is to be used, or

(ii) with the chairman of the meeting on the day of
the meeting or any adjournment of that meet-
ing, or

(b) in any other manner permitted by law.

140. (1) The directors of a company may specify in a notice D ~ ~ O S I ~ of proxy.
calling a meeting of the shareholders of the company a t i e not
exceeding 48 hours preceding the meeting or an adjournment of
the meeting before which time proxies to be used at the meeting
shall be deposited with the company or its agent.

(2) In hec calculation of time for the purposesof subsection (1 ),
Saturdays and holidays are to be excluded.

141. (1) Subject to subsection (2), the management of a Mandatory
company shall, concurrently with the giving of notice of a s0l~~ltat10n0f
meeting of shareholders, send a form of proxy in the prescribed

proxy.

form to each shareholder who is entitled to receive notice of the
meeting.

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AND

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(2) Where a company h e fewer than 15 shareholders, 2 or
more joint shareholders being counted as one, themanagement of
the company need not send a form of proxy under subsection (1).

Prohibited 142. A person shall not solicit proxies unless there is sent to the
solicitation. auditor of the company, to each shareholder whose proxy is

solicited and to the company if the solicitation is not by or on
behalf of the management of the company,

(a) amanagement proxy circular in the prescribed form,
either as an appendix to, or as a separate document
accompanying the notice of the meeting, when the
solicitation is by or on behalf of the management of
the company; or

(b) a dissident's proxy solicitation, in the prescribed
form stating the purpose of the solicitation, when the
solicitation is not by or on behalf of the management
of the company.

Documents for Reg- 143. A person required to send a management proxy circular
istrar. or dissident's proxy circular shall concurrently send a copy

thereof to the Registrar, together with a copy of the notice of the
meeting, form of proxy and any other documents for use in
connection with the meeting.

Exemption by 144. Upon the application of an interested person, the Regis-
Registrar. trar may, on such terms as he thinks fit, exempt that person from

any of the requirements of section 141 or 142, and the exemption
may be given retroactive effect by the Registrar.

Proxy attending 145. (1) A person who solicits aproxy and is appointed proxy
meeting. holder shall

(a) attend in person, or cause an alternate proxy holder
to attend, the meeting in respect of which the proxy
is given, and

(b) comply with the directions of the shareholder who
appointed him.

(2) A proxy holder or an altemte proxy holder has the same
rights as the shareholder who appointed him

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(a) to speak at the meeting of shareholders in respect of
any matter,

(b) to vote by way of ballot at the meeting, and

(c) except when a proxy holder or an alternate proxy
holder has conflicting instructions from more than
one shareholder, to vote at the meeting in respect of
any matter by way of any show of hands.

Share Registrants

146. (1) Shares of a company that are registered in the name Registrant's duty.
of a registrant or his nominee and not beneficially owned by the
registrant may not be voted unless the registrant forthwith after
the receipt thereof sends to the beneficial owner

(a) a copy of the notice of the meeting, financial state-
ments, management proxy circular, dissident' sproxy
circular and any other documents sent to sharehold-
ers by oron behalf of any person for use in connection
with the meeting, other than the form of proxy, and

(b) except where the registrant has received written
voting instructions from the beneficial owner, a
written request for voting instructions.

(2) A registrant may not vote or appoint a proxy holder to vote
shares registered in his name or in the name of his nominee that
he does not beneficially own unless he receives voting instruc-
tions from the beneficial owner of the shares.

(3) A person by or on behalf of whom a solicitation is made
shall, at the request of a registrant, forthwith furnish to the
registrant at that person'sexpense the necessary number of copies
of the documents referred to in paragraph (a) of subsection (1).

(4) A registrant shall vote or appoint a proxy holder to vote any
sharesreferred to in subsection (1) in accordance with any written
voting instructions received from the beneficial own&.

(5) If requested by a beneficial owner of shares of a company, the
registrant of those shares shall appoint the beneficial owner or a
nominee of the beneficial owner as proxy holder for those shares.

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AM)

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(6) The failure of a registrant to comply with this section does
not render void any meeting of shareholders or any action taken
at the meeting.

Governing 147. Nothing in section 146 gives aregistrant the right to vote
prohibition. shares that he is otherwise prohibited from voting.

Remedial Powers

~tscra; ning 148 (1) If a form of proxy, management proxy circular or
C T ~ L dissident's proxy circular

(a) contains an untrue statement of a material fact, or

(b) omits to state a material fact required therein or
necessary to make a statement contained therein not
misleading in the light of the circumstances in which
it was made,

an interested person or the Registrar may apply to the court for a
restraining order.

(2) On an application under this section the court may make
any order it thinks fit, including any or all of the following
orders:

(a) an order restraining the solicitalion or the holding
of the meeting or restraining any person from
implementing or acting upon any resolulion passed
at the meeting to which the form of proxy, manage-
ment proxy circular or dissident's proxy circular
relates;

(b) an order requiring correction of any form of proxy or
proxy circular and a further solicitation; or

(c) an order adjourning the meeting.

(3) An applicant under this section other than the Registrar
shall give the Registrar notice of the application; and the
Registrar may appear and be heard in person or by an attorney-
at-law.

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DIVISION G

FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE

Comparative Financial Statements

149. (1) Subject to this section and to section 150, the directors Annual financial
of a company shall place before the shareholders at e v e j annual returns.
meeting of the shareholders of the company:

(a) comparative financial statements, as prescribed, re-
lating separately to

(i) the period that began on the date the company
came into existence and ended not more than
12 months after that date, or, if the company
has completed a financial year, the period that
began immediately after the end of the last
period for which fmancial statements were
prepared and ended not more than 12 months
after the beginning of that period, and

(ii) the immediately preceding financial year:

(b) the report of the auditor, if any; and

(c) any further information respecting the financial po-
sition of the company and the results of its operations
required by the articles of the company, its by-laws,
or any unanimous shareholder agreement.

(2) The financial Stabments required by sub-paragraph (ii) of
paragraph (a) of subsection (1) may be omitted if the reason for
the omission is set out in the financial statements, or in a note
thereto, to be placed before the shareholders at an annual mee ting.

(3) The Registrar may in any particular case adjust the period
relating t which comparable financial statements are to be
placed before the shareholders at any annual meeting.

1%. Ujmn the application of a company for authorisation to Exrtnptionfcr i h r -
omit from its financial statements any prescribed item, or to mat'on.
dispense with the publication of any particular prescribed finan-
cial statement, the Registrar may, if he rca'ionably believes that

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Consoli- dated
financial returns.

Approval of
directors.

Copies of
documents
to be sent
to shareholders.

62 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

disclosure of the information therein contained would be detri-
mental to the company, pennit its omission on such reasonable
conditions as he thinks fit.

151. (1) A company shall keep at its registered office a copy of
the financial statements of each of its subsidiary bodies corporate
the accounts of which are consolidated in the financial statements
of the company.

(2) Shareholders of a company and their agents and legal
representatives may, upon request therefor, examine the state-
ments referred to in subsection (1) during the usual business hours
of the company, and may make extracts from those statements,
free of charge.

(3) A company may, within 15 days of a request to examine
statements under subsection (2), apply to the court for an order
barring the right of any person to examine those statements; and
the court may, if it is satisfied that the examination would be
detrimental toithe company or a subsidiary body corporate, bar
that right and make any further order the court thinks fit.

(4) A company shall give the Registrar and the person asking
to examine statements under subsection (2) notice of any appli-
cation under subsection (3); and the Regisuar and that person may
appear and be heard in person or by an attorney-at-law.

152. (1) The directors of a company shall approve the financial
statements referred to in section 149, and the approval shall be
evidenced by the signature of one or more directors.

(2) A company shall not issue, publish or circulate copies of the
financial statements referred to in section 149 unless the financial
statements are

(a) approved and signed in accordance with subsection
(I), and

(b) accompanied by a report of the auditor of the com-
pany, if any.

153. (1) Not less than 21 days before each annual meeting of the
shareholders of a company or before the signing of a resolution
under para-graph (b) of subsection (1) of section 130 in lieu of its

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annual meeting, the company shall send a copy of the documents
referred to in section 149 to each shareholder, except a share-
holder who has informed the company in writing that he does not
want a copy of those documents.

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (I), a public company whose
shares, or any class of whose shares, are listed need not, in such
cases as may be prescribed and provided any prescribed condi-
tions are complied with, send copies of the documents referred to
in section 149 to shareholders of the company, but may instead
send them a summary financial statement.

(3) The summary financial statement shall be derived from the
company's annual accounts and the directors' report and shall be
in the prescribed form and contain the prescribed information.

(4) Every summary financial statement shall

(a) state that it is only a summary of information in the
company's annual accounts and . . the directors' report;

(b) contain a statement of the compan y's auditors of their
opinion as to whether the summary financial state-
ment is consistent with thoseaccountsand that report
and complies with the requirements of this section
and the regulations;

(c) state whether the auditors' report on the annual
accounts was unqualified or qualified, and if it was
qualified set out the report in full together with any
further material needed to understand the qualifica-
tion:

(d) state whether the auditors' report on the annual
accounts contained a statement as to

(i) the inadequacy of the ~cc~unting records or
returns;

(ii) the accounts not agreeing with the records or
retums, or

(iii) the failure to obtain necessary information
or e x p W o n s ,

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AND

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(5) In subsection (2) "listed" means admitted to the official list
of the Antigua and Barbuda Stock Exchange or any other stock
exchange by Order published in the Gazette.

Registrar's coples.

154. (1) A company

(a) that is a public company, or

(b) the gross revenue of which, as shown in the most
recent financial statements referred to in section 149,
exceed $4 000 000 or the assets of which as shown in
those financial statements exceed $2000 000, or such
greater amounts as may be prescribed

shall send a copy of the documents referred to in section 149 to
the Registrar, not less than 21 days before each annual meeting
of the shareholders or forthwith after the signing of a resolution
under paragraph (6) of subsection ( 1 ) of section 130 in lieu of the
annual meeting, and in any event not later than 15 months after
the last date when the last preceding annual meeting should have
been held or a resolution in lieu of the meeting should have been
signed.

(2) For the purposes of paragraph (b) of subsection (I), the gross
revenues and assets of a company include the gross revenues and
assets of its affiliates.

(3) Upon the application of a company, the Registrar may
exempt the company from the application of subsection (1) in the
prescribed circumstances.

(4) If a company referred to in subsection (1)

(a) sends interim financial statements or related docu-
ments to its shareholders, or

(b) is required to file interim financial statements or
related documents with, or to send them to, a public
authority or a recognised stock exchange,

the company shall forthwith send copies thereof to the Registrar.

(5) A subsidiary company is not required to comply with this
section if

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995 65 ANTIGUA
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(a) the financial statements of its holding company are
in consolidated or combined form and include the
accounts of the subsidiary, and

(b) the consolidated or combined financial statements of
the holding company are included in the documents
sent to the Registrar by the holding company in
compliance with this section.

155. (1) Subject to this section, a company that is not pursuant Declaration of
to subsection (1) of section 154 required to send to the Registrar S O I V ~ ~ ~ Y .
a copy of the documents referred to in section 149, shall within
the period specified in the said subsection send to the Registrar

(a) a certificate of solvency signed by at least one
director on behalf of the board and by the auditor, if
any, containing the statements and opinions required
by subsection (2) made with reference to the
company's assets and liabilities at the date on which
the financial statements of the company laid before
the annual general meeting or, as the case may be, of
the signing of a resolution under paragraph (b) of
subsection (1) of section 130 in lieu of the annual
meeting, and

(b) a certificate signed by at least one director on behalf
of the board and by the auditor, if any, that the
certificate referred to in paragraph (a) agrees with the
balance sheet and profit and loss account which form
part of the financial statements.

(2) A certificate of solvency shall state

(a) the amounts shown in the company's balance sheet as
the total values respectively of the company's fixed
assets, current assets investments and other asset$;

(b) the amount shown in the company's balance sheet as
the total amount of the company's debt and liabili-
ties, accrued due at, or accruing due within one year
after, the date as at which the balance sheet is made
out and the amount so shown as the total amount of
the company's other debts and liabilities; and

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(c) whether, in the opinion of the auditor, or if there is no
auditor, of eachdirector, the company was at the date
at which the balance sheet was made out able or
unable to pay its debts and liabilities as they fell due.

(3) If the auditor of a company refuses to give or sign either of
the certificates mentioned in subsection (2), a note of his refusal
shall be endorsed on the certificate.

(4) A director or auditor of a company who signs or sends to the
Registrar or concurs in the sending to the Registrar of a certificate
required by this section which contains a statement that is false,
misleading or deceptive or an opinion that he has no reasonable
ground to believe to be accurate, is guilty of an offence.

(5) It is a sufficient defence if the person charged with an
offence under this section proves that up to the time of the sending
to the Registrar of the certificate he believed on reasonable
grounds that this section had been complied with.

(6) A company that is not required to comply with section 154
by virtue of subsection (5) of that section, is not required to
comply with this section.

Audit Committee

Audit Committee. 156. (1) Subject to subsection (2) a public company shall, and
any other company may, have an audit committee composed of
not less than three directors of the company, a majority of whom
are not officers or employees of the company or any of its
affiliates.

(2) company may apply to theRegistrar for an order authorising
the ci3mpany to dispense with an audit committee, and the
Regisrrar may, if he is satisfied that the shareholders will not be
prejudiced by such an order, permit the company to dispense with
an audit committee on such reasonable conditions as he thinks fir.

(3) An audit committee shall review the financial statements
of the company before such financial statements are approved
under section 152.

(4) The auditor of a company is entitled to receive notice of
every meeting of the audit committee and, at the expense of the

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995 67 ANTIGUA
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company, to attend and be heard thereat; and, if so requested by
a member of the audit committee, shall attend every meeting of
the committee held during the term of office of the auditor.

(5) The auditor of a company or a member of the audit
committee may call a meeting of the committee.

Company Auditor

157. The main purposes of sections 158 to 161 are to secure that Purposes of sections
only persons who are properly supervised and appropriately
qualified are appointed auditors of companies, and that audits by
persons so appointed are carried out properly and with integrity
and with a proper degree of independence.

158. (1) A person is eligible for appointment as auditor of a Eligibility for ap-
company only if he pointment.

(a) is a practising member of a recognised supervisory
body, and

(b) is eligible for the appointment under the rules of that
body.

(2) An individual or a fm may be appointed as auditor of a
company

(3) In this section "recognised supervisory body" means the
Institute of Chartered Accountants of Antigua and Barbuda and
any other body recognised as such by order of the Minister
responsible for legal Affairs published in the Gazette.

159. (1) The following provisions apply to the appointment as ~ f f ~ c t of appoint-
auditor of a company of a partnership constituted under the law mentof partnership.
of Antigua and Barbuda or un&r the law of any other country or
territory in which a partnership is not a legal person.

(2) The appointment is, unless a contrary intention appears,
an appointment of the partnership as such and not of the
partners.

(3) Where the partnership ceases, the appointment shall be
treated as extending to

ANTIGUA 1 68 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

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(a) any partnership which succeeds to the practice of that
parmersh'ip and is eligible for the appointment, and

(b) any person who succeeds to that practice having
previously carried it on in partnership and is eligible
for the appointment.

(4) For this purpose a pameaship shall be regarded as succeed-
ing to the practice of another partnership only if the members of
the successorpartn&p are substantially the same as those of the
fonner pamenhip; and a pamership or other person shall be
regarded as sueoeehing to the practice of a partnership only if it
or he succeeds to the whole or substantially the whole of the
business of the former partnership.

(5) Where the partnership ceases andno person succeeds to the
appointment under subsection (3), the appointment may with the
consent of the company be treated as extending to a partnership
or 0 t h person eligible for the appointment who succeeds to the
bminess of the former partnership or to such part of it as is agreed
by the company.

Iuetigibility 160. (1) A person is ineligible for appointment as auditor of a
mgn~ndoflakof campy if he
independence.

(a) an officer or employee of the company, or

(b) a parmer or employee of such a person, or a partner-
ship of wbich such a person is a partner,

or if he is ineligible by virtue of paragraph (a) or (b) for
as auditor of any associated undertaking of the

~ ~ W Y .

(2) A person is also ineligible for appointment as auditor of a
company if there exists between him and any associate of his and
the company or any associated undertaking a connection of any
such description as may be specified by regulations ma& under
section 527.

(3) In this section bbassociated undertaking" in relation to a
-wY m-

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995 69 ANTIGUA
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(a) a parent un-g or subsidiary underraking of the
company, or

(b) a subsidiary undertaking of any p e n t undertaking
of the company.

161. (1) No person shall act as auditor of a company if he is Effect of
ineligible for appointment to the office. ineligibility.

(2) If during his term of office an auditor of acompany becomes
ineligible for appointment to the office, he shall thereupon vacate
office and shall forthwith give notice in writing to the company
concerned that he has vacated it by reason of ineligibility.

(3) A person who acts as auditor of a company in contravention
of subsection (1) or fails to give notice of vacating his office as
required by subsection (2) is guilty of an offence.

(4) In proceedings against a person for an offence under this
section it is a defence for him to show that he did not know and
had no reason to believe that he was or had become ineligible for
appointment.

162. (1) Subject to section 163, the shareholders of a company Appointment of au-
shall, by ordinary resolution, at the first annual meeting of ditor.
shareholders and at each succeeding annual meeting, appoint an
auditor to hold office until the close of the next annual meeting.

(2) An auditor appointed under section 65(l)(e) is eligible for
appointment under subsection (1).

(3) Notwithstanding subsection (I), if an auditor is not ap-
pointed at a meeting of shareholders, the incumbent auditor
continues in office until his successor is appointed.

(4) The remuneration of an auditor may be fixed by ordinary
resdutisn of the shareholders, or if not so fixed, it may be fixed
by the directors.

163, (I) The shareholders qf acompany other than a company Disreesing
mentioned in subsection (1) of section 154 may resolve not to ~ i ~ ~ ~ f ~ .
=kt. an au&tor.

(21 A resolution under subsection (1) is valid only until the
next sumeedhg aranual meeting of shmeholders.

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Cessation of office.

Removal of auditor.

Filling auditor va-
cancy.

Court appointed
auditor.

70 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

(3) A resolution under subsection (1) is not valid unless it is
consented to by all the shareholders, including shareholders not
otherwise entitled to vote.

164. (1) An auditor of a company ceases to hold office when

(a) when he dies or resigns, or

(b) he is removed pursuant to section 165.

(2) A resignation of an auditor becomes effective at the time a
written resignation is sent tothe company, or at the time specified
in the mignation, whichever is the later date.

165. (1) The shareholders of a company may by ordinary
resolution at a special meeting remove an auditor other than an
auditor appointed by a court order under section 167.

(2) A vacancy created by the removalof an auditor may be filled
at any meeting at which the auditor is removed, or, if the vacancy
is not so filled, it may be filled under section 166.

166. (1) Subject to subsection (3), the directors shall forthwith
fill a vacancy in the office of auditor.

(2) If there is not a quorum of directors, the directors then in
office shall, within 21 days after avacancy in the office of auditor
occurs, call a special meeting of shareholders to fill the vacancy;
and if they fail to call a meeting, or if there are no diuectors, the
meeting may be called by any shareholder.

(3) The articles of a company may provide that a vacancy in the
office of auditor be filled only by vote of the shareholders.

(4) An auditor appointed to fill a vacancy holds office for the
unexpired term of his predecessor.

167. (1) If a company does not have an auditor, the court may,
upon the application of a shareholder or the Registrar, appoint and
fw the remuneralion of an auditor, and the auditor holds office
until an auditor is appointed by the sharehol&rs.

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply if the shareholders have
resolved under section 163 not to appoint an auditor.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995 71 ANTIGUA
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168. The auditor of a company is entitled to receive notice of Au$tOr to
every meeting of the shareholders of the company, and, at the notlce.

expense of the company, to attend and be heard at the meeting on
matters relating to his duties as auditor.

169. (1) If a shareholder of a company, whether or not he is Required atten-
entitled to vote at the meeting, or a director of a company gives

dance.

written notice to the auditor of the company, not less than 10 days
beforeameeting of the shareholders of the company, to attend the
meeting, the auditor shall attend the meeting at the expense of the
company and answer questions relating to his duties as auditor or
former auditor of the company.

(2) A shareholder or d i i i o r who sends a notice referred to in
subsection (l).shall, concurrently, send a copy of the notice to the
company.

(3) Subsection (I) applies mutatis mutandis to any former
auditor of the company.

Right to comment.

170. (1) An auditor who

(a) resigns,

(b) receives a notice or otherwise learns of a meeting of
shareholders called for the purpose of removing him
from office,

(c) receives a notice or otherwise learns of a meeting of
directors or shareholders at which another person is
to be appointed to fill the office of auditor, whether
because of the resignation or removal of the incum-
bent auditor or because his term of office has expired
or is about to expire, or

(d) receives a notice or otherwise learns of a meeting of
shareholders at which a reso2u:io~ referred to in
section 163 is to be proposed.

m y submit to thecompany a written statement giving the reasons
f a his resignation or the reasons why he opposes any proposed
act xi^ or resolution.

(2) When it receives a statement referred to in subsection (I),
&e company sMl forthwith send acqy of the statement to every

ANTIGUA 72 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

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shareholder entitled to receive notice of any meeting referred to
in section 168 and to the Registrar, unless the statement is
included in, or attached to, a management proxy circular required
by section 142.

Examination by 171. (1) An auditor of a company shall make the examination
auditor. that is in his opinion necessary to enable him to report in the

prescribed manner on the financial statements required by this
Act to be placed before the shareholders, except such financial
statements or parts thereof that relate to the immediately preced-
ing financial year referred to in subparagraph (ii) of paragraph (a)
of subsstion (1) of section 149.

(2) Notwithstanding section 172, an auditor of acompany may
reasonably rely upon the report of an auditor of a body corporate
or an unincorporated business the accounts of which are included
in whole or in part in the financial statements of the company.

(3) For the purpose of subsection (2) reasonableness is a
question of fact. '

(4) Subsection (2) applies whether or not the financlal state-
ments of the holding company reported upon by the auditor are
in consolidated form.

Right to inspect. 172. (1) Upon the demand of an auditor of a company, the
present or former directors, officers, employees or agents of the
company shall furnish to the auditor

(a) such information and explanations, and

(b) such access t o m & , documents, books, accounts and
vouchers of the company or any of its subsidiaries,

as are, in the opinion of the auditor, necessary to enable him to
make the examination and report required under section 171 and
that the hectors, officers, employees or agents are reasonably
able to furnish.

(2) Upon the demand of an auditor of a company, the directors
of the company shall

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995 73 ANTIGUA
AND

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(a) obtain from the present or former directors, officers,
employees or agents of any subsidiary of the com-
pany the information andexplanations that the direc-
tors, officers, employees and agents are reasonably
able to furnish, and that are, in the opinion of the
auditor, necessary to enable him to make the exami-
nation and report required under section 171, and

(b) furnish the information andexplanations so obtained
to the auditor.

173. (1) A director or an officer of a company shall forthwith Detected error.
notify the audit committee and the auditor of any error or mis-
statement of which he becomes aware in a financial statementthat
the auditor or a former auditor of the company has reported upon.

(2) When the auditor or a former auditor of a company is
notified or becomes aware of an error or mis-statement in a
financial statement upon which he has reported to the company
and in his opinion, the error or mis-statement is material, he shall
inform each director of the company accordingly.

(3) When under subsection (2) the auditor or a former auditor
of a company informs the directors of an error or mis-statement
in a financial statement of the company, the directors shall

(a) prepare and issue revised financial statements, or

(b) otherwise inform the shareholders of the error or
misstatement,

and, if the company is one that is required to comply with section
154, inform theRegisWar of theerror or mis-statement in the same
manner as the directors inform the shareholders of the error or
mis-statement.

174. An auditor is not liable to any person in an action for Privilege of
defamation based on any act done or not done, or any statement auditor.
made by him in good faith in connection with any matter he is
authorised or required to do under this Act.

ANTIGUA 74 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

DIVISION H

CORPORATE RECORDS

Registered Office of Company

Registered office. 175. (1) A company shdl at all times have a registered office
in Antigua and Barbuda.

(2) The directors of the company may change the address of the
registered office.

isl:xice sf address. 176. (1) At the time of sending articles of incorporation, the
incorporators shall send to the Registrar, in the prescribed form,
notice of the address of the registered offlce of the company and
the Registrar shall file the notice.

(2) Acompany 'shall within 15 days of any change of the address
of its registered office, send to the Registrar a notice in the
prescribed form of the change, which the Registrar shall file.

Company Registers and Records

Records of 177. (1) A company shall prepare and maintain at its registered
company. office records containing

(a) the articles and the by-laws, and all amendments
thereto, and a copy of any unanimous shareholder
agreement and amendments thereto;

(b) minutes of meetings and resolutions of shareholders;
and

(c) copies of allnotices requiredby section 69,77 or 176.

42) A company shall prepare and maintain a register of mem-
bers showing

(a) the name and the latest known address of each person
who is a member;

(b) a statement of the shares held by each member;

(c) the date on which each person was entered on tbe
register as a member, and the date on which any
person ceased to be a member.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995 75 ANTIGUA
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(3) A company shall prepare and maintain a register of its
directors and secretaries and a register of its directors' holdings
in accordance with sections 178 to 180.

(4) A public company shall prepare and maintain a register of
substantial shareholding in the company in accordance with
sections 181 to 185.

(5) A company that issues debentures shall prepare and main-
tain a register of debenture holders showing

(a) the name and the latest known address of each
debenture holder;

(b) the principal of the debentures held by each holder;

(c) the amount or the highest amount of any premium
payable on redemption of the debentures;

(d) the issue price of the debentures and the amount paid
up on the issue price;

(e) the date on which the name of each person was
entered on the register as a debenture holder; and

If) the date on which each person ceased tobe debenture
holder.

(6) A company that grants conversion privileges, options, or
rights to acquire shares of the company shall maintain a register
showing the name and latest known address of each person to
whom the privileges, options or rights have been granted, and
such other particulars in respect thereof as are prescribed.

(7) A company may appoint an agent to prepare and maintain
the registers required by this section to be prepared and
maintained by the company; and the registers may be kept at
the registered office of the company or at some other place in
Antigua and Barbuda designated by the directors of the
company.

Register of Directors and Secretaries

178. (1) The register of directors and secretaries kept by a
company pursuant to subsection (3) of section 177 shall contain
with respect to each director

ANTIGUA 76 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(a) astatement of his present forename and surname, any
former forename or surname, his usual residential
address and his business occupation (if any);

(b) particulars of other directorships held by him; and

(c) who is, or who is to perform the function of, a
managing director, a statement to that effect.

(2) The register kept by a particular company need not contain,
pursuant to subsection ( I) (b), particulars of directorships held by
a director in any company of which the particular company is a
wholly owned subsidiary.

(3) The register shall contain with respect to the secretary and
each assistant secretary

(a) in the case of an individual, a statement of his present
forename and surname, any former forename or
surname, and his usual residential address;

(b) in the case of a corporation, a statement of its
corporate name and registered or principal office;
and

(c) in the case of a firm, a statement of the name and
principal office of the firm.

(4) A company shall lodge with the Registrar

(a) within one month after aperson ceases to be a director
or, except in the case of a person becoming a director
pursuant to section 69, areturn in the prescribed form
notifying the Registrar of the change andcontaining,
with respect to each person who is then a director of
the company, the particulars required to be specified
in the register in relation to him;

(b) within one month after a person becomes the secre-
tary or an assistant secretary, a return in the pre-
scribed form notifying the Registrar of that fact and
containing with respect to the person, the particulars
required to be specified in the register in relatlon to
such a person; and

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995 77 ANTIGUA
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(c) within one month after a person ceases to be the
secretary or an assistant secretary, a return in the
prescribed form notifying the Registrar of that fact.

(5) A director in respect of whom an entry is required to be made
in the register shall notify the company in writing within seven
days after the matter occasioning the requirement of the entry
occurs or arises, and shall include in the notification the particu-
lars which the company is required to enter in the register in
respect of that matter.

(6) A director is guilty of an offence

(a) if he fails to comply with subsection (5); or

(b) if he gives false, misleading or incomplete informa-
tion to any company with a view to it making an entry
in its register.

179. (1) A public company shall keep a register showing the Register of
required particulars with respect to any interest in shares in, or directors'
debentures of, the company or of any affiliate or associate of the
company, which is vested in a d i i to r .

(2) For the purposes of this section, an interest in shares or
debentures is vested in a director if

(a) the shares or debentures are registered in the diiector' s
name, or the names of the diiector and other persons
jointly, or in the name of a nominee for him, or for
him and them;

(b) the diiector has a derivative interest in the shares or
debentures, or arightor power to acquireaderivative
interest in them;

(c) the director has a right to subsc5k for the shares er
debentures, or another person bas aright to subscribe
for them and the director has a right to acquire them
after they have been allotted;

(d) the shares or debentures are the subject of a voting
mangement in favour of a director, that is to say, an
arrangement (whether legally enforceable or not) by

ANTIGUA 78 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 19%.
AND

BARBUDA

which the director may require the holder of the
shares or debentures to vote, or not to vote, or to vote
in a particular manner, at any general meeting of
shareholders or at any meeting of a class of share-
holders or debenture holders, or by which the deben-
ture may require the holder of the shares or deben-
tures to appoint the director or any other person to be
his proxy with power to vote in respect of the shares
or debentures at any such meeting.

(3) For the purposes of subsection (I), the required particulars
with respect to an interest in shares or debentures vested in a
director are

(a) the number and classes of the shares and the number,
classes and the amount of the principal and premiums
payable to the holder of the debentures;

(b) the nature of the interest and its duration (if it is
limited in duration);

(c) the date of the acquisition of the interest and the
consideration (if any) given by the director or any
other person for the acquisition; and

(d) the date of the disposal of the interest by the director
or the date of its cessation (whichever first occurs)
and the consideration (if any) received by him or any
other person for such disposal or cessation.

(4) A director in respect of whom any entry is required to be
made in the register shall notify the company in writing within
seven days after the matter occasioning the requirement of the
entry occurs or arises, and shall include in the notification the
particulars which the company is required to enter in the register
in respect of that matter.

(5) This section extends to interest in shares and debentures
vested in a director at the time when he becomes a director, and
subsection (4) applies in that case with the substitution of a period
of seven days after the director becomes a director for the period
of seven days after the matter occasioning the requirement of an
entry occurs or arises.

No. 18 of 1995. The C~mpanles Acb, 1995 79 ANTIGUA
AND

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(6) The register shall be so made up that entries in it against the
several names recorded in the register appear in chronological
order.

(7) The entries which are required by this section to be made in
the register shall not be removed from the register, notwithstand-
ing the fact that the person in respect of whom they are required
to be made ceases to be a director, but it shall not be necessary to
make an entry in the register in respect of a matter which occurs
or arises after he ceases to be a director.

(8) This section does not apply to an interest of adirector which
is created by the articles of incorporation of a company if the
interest is one which is conferred on all the shareholders of the
company or on all the shareholders of the class concerned, on the
same terms andconditions, ason thedirector, that is to say, strictly
in proportion to the shares, or shares of that class, held by them
respectively.

(9) A company and every director of a company who is in
default is guilty of an offence

(a) if the company fails to make an entry required by this
section to be made in the register within three days
after written notification of the matter required to be
registered is given to it or any of its directors (other
than a person in respect of whom an entry is required
to be made) acquires knowledge of the matter in
relation to which an entry is required to be made
(whichever is the earlier); or

(b) if the company makes a false, misleading or incom-
plete entry in relation to amatter which is required to
be entered in the register.

(10) A d i i t o r of a company is guilty of an offence if he fails
aQ give a written notice of any matter in compliance with
submtion (4) or (3, within the time thereby limited, to every
company which is required to make an entry in relation to the
patter in the register, or if he gives false, misleading or incom-
pbte information to any such company with a view to it making
an entry in its register.

1W. (1) For the purposes of seetion 173 Extension of
sedion to
associates of
directors.

ANTIGUA 80 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(a) an interest of an associate of a director of a company
(not being himself a director thereof) in shares or
debentures shall be treated as being the director's
interest; and

(b) a contract, assignment or right of subscription en-
tered into, exercised or made by, or grant made to, an
associate of a director of a company (not being
himself a director thereof) shall be treated as having
been enteredinto, exercised or made by, or as the case
may be, as having been made to, the director.

(2) A director of a company shall be under obligation to notify
the company in writing of the occurrence, while he is director, of
either of the following events, namely

(a) the grant by the company to an associate of his of a
right to subscribe for shares in, or debentures of, the
company; and

(b) the exercise by an associate of his of such a right as
aforesaid granted by the company.

stating, in the case of the grant of a right, the like information as is
required by section 179 to be stated by the director on the grant to him
by another compan yofarightto subscribe for shares in, ordebentures
of, that other company and, in the case of the exercise of a right, the
hke information as is required by that section to be stated by the
director on the exercise of a right granted to him by another company
to subscribe for shares in, or debentures of, that other company; and
anobligationimposedby this subsectiononadirectorshall be fulfilled
by him before the expiration of the p o d of five days beginning with
the day next following that on which the occurrence of the event that
gives rise to it comes to his knowledge.

(3) A person is guilty of an offence if he fails to give a written
notice of any matter in compliance with subsection (3, within the
time thereby limited, to the company concerned, or if he gives
false, misleading or incomplete information to the company.

Substantial Shareholders Register

Substantial 181. (1) For the purposes of sections 182 to 185 a person has a
shareholder. substantial shareholding in a company if he holds, by himself or

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995 81 ANTIGUA
AND

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by his nominee, shares in the company which entitle him to
exercise at least ten per centum of the unrestricted voting rights
at any genemi meeting of sbeho1ders.

(2) For the purposes of the said sections, a person who has a
substantial shareholding in acompany is a substantial shareholder
of tbe company.

182. (1) Aperson who is a substantial share-holder in acompany Substantial
shall give notice in writing to the company stating his name and shareholder to give
address and giving full p ~ i c u ~ of the shares held by him or his to con'panY.
nominee (naming the nominee) by virtue of which he is a
substaRtial shareholder.

(2) A person required to give notice under subsection (1) shall
do so within fourteen days after that person becomes aware that
he is a substantial skeholder.

(3) Thenotice shallbe sogiven notwithstanding thatthe person
has ceased tobe a s u b s W d shareholder before the expiration of
the period referred to in subsection (2).

183. (1) A person who ceases to be a substantial shareholder in Prrsoncraslngtobr
a company shall give notice in writing to the company stating his a substantla1
name and the date on which he ceased to be a substantial lo

t ~ f y cotnpany.
shareholder and giving full paaiculats of the circumstances by
reason of which he ceased to be a substantial shareholder.

(2) A person required to give notice under subsection (1) shall
do so within fourteen days after he becomes aware that he has
ceased to be a substantial shareholder.

184. (1) A company shall keep a register in which it shall enter ('omi>any to
keep register
of substant~al

(a) in alphabetical order the names of persons from sharrholdery.
whom it has received anotice under section 182; and

(b) against each name so entered, the information given
in the notice and, where it receives a notice under
section 183, the information given in that notice.

ANTIGUA 82 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(2) The Regist~ar may at any time in writing require the
company to furnish him with a copy of the register or any part of
the register and the company shall furnish the copy within
fourteen days after the day on which the requirement is received
by the company.

(3) If default is made in complying with this section, the
company and every officer of the company who is in default is
guilty of an offence.

(4) A company isnot, by reasonof anything done under sections
1 82 to 184

(a) to be taken for any purpose to have notice of; or

(b) put upon inquiry as to,

a right of a person to or in relation to a share in the company.

Offence. 185. A person who fails to comply with section 182 or 183 is
guilty of an offence.

Records of Trusts

Trust notices. 186. (1) Except as provided in this section, notice of a trust,
express, implied or constructive, shall not be

(a) entered by a company in any of the registers main-
tained by it pursuant to section 177, or

(b) be received by the Registrar.

(2) No liabilities are affected by anything done
in pursuance of subsection (3), (4) or (5); and the company
concerned is not affected with notice of any trust by reason of
anything so done.

(3) A personal representative of the estate of a deceased
individual who was registered in a register of a company as a
member or debenture holder may become registered as the holder
of that share or debenture as personal representative of that estate.

(4) A personal representative of the estate of a deceased
individual who was beneficially endtled to a share or debenture
of the company that is registered in aregister of the colnpany may,
with the consent of the company and of the registered member or

No. 18 of 1995. The Cornpnnies Act, 1995 83 ANTIGUA
AND

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debenture holder, become the registered member or debenture
holder as the personal representative of the estate.

( 5 ) When a personal representative of an estate of a deceased
individual is registered pur~uaillt o subsection (3) as a holder of
a share or debenture of a company, the personal representative is,
in respect of that share or debenture. subject to the same liabilities,
andno more, that he would be subject to hadthe shareor debenture
remained registered in the name of the deceased individual.

Accounts, Minutes and Other Records

187. (1) In addition to the records described in section 177, a other records.
company shall prepare andmaintain adequate accounting records
and records containing minutes of meetings and resolutions of the
duectors and any committees of the directors.

( 2 ) Therecordsrequired under subsection (1) shall be kept at the
registered office of the compan y or at some other place in Antigua
and Barbuda desienated by the directors; and those records shall
at all reasonable times be available for inspection by the directors
and shareholders.

(3) When any accounting records of a company are kept at a
place outside Antigua and Barbuda accounung records that are
adequate to enable the directors to ascertain the financial position
of the company with reasonable accuracy on a quarterly basis
shall be kept by the company at the registered office of the
colnpany or at some other place in Antigua and Barbuda desig-
nated by the directors.

(4) For the purposes of paragraph (b) of subsection (1 )of secuon
177 and of this section, when a former-Act company is continued
under this Act, "records" includes similar registers and other
records required by law to be maintained by the cotnpany before
it was continued under this Act.

Form of Records

188. All record4 required by this Act to be prepared and K ~ L O T ~ C f0r111
ma~ntained

ANTIGUA
AND

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Duty of care for
records.

Access to records.

Basic list of
shareholders.

84 'The Companies Acr, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

(a) may be in a bound or loose-leaf form or in a photo-
graphic film form, or

(b) may be entered or recorded

(i) by any system of mechanical or electronic data
processing, or

(ii) by any other ingomation storage device that is
capable of reproducing any required informa-
tion in intelligible written form within a rea-
sonable time.

Care oi Records

189. A company and its agents shall take reasonable precau-
tions

(a) to prevent loss or destruction of,

(6) to prevent falsification of entries in, and

(c) to facilitate detection and correction of inaccuracies
in.

the records required by this Act to be prepared and maintained
in respect of the company.

Access to Records

190. (1) The directors and shareholders of a company, and their
agents and legal representatives, may, during the usual business
hours of the company, examine the records of the company
referred to in section 177 and may take extracts therefrom free of
charge.

(2) A shareholder of a company is, upon request and without
charge, entitled to one copy of the articles and by-laws of the
company and any unanimous shareholder agreement, and to one
copy of any amendments to any of those documents.

Shareholders' Lists

191. (1) Upon payment of a reasonable fee and sending to a
public company or its transfer agent the affidavit referred to in
subsection (4), any person may upon application require the
company or its transfer agent LO furnish him, within 15 days from

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995 85 A W G U A
AND

BARBUDA

the receipt of the affidavit, a list of members of the company, in
this section referred to as the "basic list", made up to a date not
more that 30 days before the date of receipt of the affidavit, which
shall set out

(a) the names of the members of the company,

(b) the number of shares held by each member, and

(c) the address of each member as shown on the records
of the company.

(2) When a person requiring a basic list from a public company
states in the affidavit referred to in subsection (4) that he requires
supplemental lists from the company, he may, upon payment of
a reasonable fee, require the company or its transfer agent to
furnish him with suppkmenkd lists of the members, which shall
set out any changes from the basic list

(a) in the names or addresses of the members, and

(6) in the number of shares held by each member

for each business day following the date to which the basic list is
made up.

(3) When a supplemental Sist has been required from a public
company under subsection (2) by any person, the company, or its
transfer agent, shall furnish that person with a supplemental list

(a) on the date the basic list is furnished, if the informa-
tion relates to changes that took place before that
date, and

(6) on the business day following the day to which the
supplemental list relates if the information relates to
changes that take place on or after the date the basic
list is furnished.

(4) The affidavit required under subsection (1) shall state

(a) the name and address of the applicant;

41,) the name and address for service of the body corpo-
rate, if the applicant is a body corporate; and

ANTIGUA 86 The Conlpcmies Act, 199.5.
AND

BARBUDA

No. 18 of 1995.

(c) that the bas~c list and any supphnenld list obta~ned
pursuant to subsection (2) w~ll not be used except as
permrtted under sectlon 197.

(5) If the applicant is a body corporate, the affidavit shall be
made by a director or officer of the body corporate.

Oplions list.

Restricted
use of lists.

192. A penal requiring under section 19 1 that a canpany \upply
a basic list or a suppleme~ital list m a y also require the company to
include in any such list the name and address of any known holder of
an option or right to acquire sharer of the company.

193. A list of members obtained under section 19 1 from acompxiy
shall not be used by any person except in c'omiectlon with

(a) aneffort toinfluencc the vot i l~~ot \h;uc.Iioldc~ \of the
company;

(b) an offer to acquire shares in the company;

(c) any other matter relating to the affairs of the com-
pany.

Annual returns. 194. ( 1 ) A company shall, not later than the fist day of Apr~l
in each year after its incorporation or co~~rinuaice under thl\ Act.
send to the Registrar areturn in the prescribed fonn containing h e
prescribed information made up to the preceding thirty-fist day
of December and accompanied wit11 the prescribed fee\.

(2) A director or oflicer of the company shall ccn~ty rhc
contents of every return made under t h~s \ection.

(3) If default is made m comply~ng w~th I ~ I \ wtlon. the colnpaiy
and every director andoff~icer wl~o n in default I \ gullry ot a11 01 tc~uc

TRANSFER OF SHARES AND 1)EBF:NTI 'RFS

Transferring 195. ( I ) The sham or dehcnturc~s I 1 1 .I COII I~ I ; I I I ) I!I.I!
of shares. trar~skrred by a written irlsl~~llrlc~lr 01' lsir~i~l'er \i?llccl 1 : ~ I I C

transferor and namins the ~r;ulsleree.

Nu. 18 of 1995. ??it? Companies Act, 1995 X? .ZYTIGUA
AND

BAKU1 ,'DA

(2) Where an 1n3trunient of transfer~hpre\cnbed m the hq -law\
of a companq, that Instrument $hall be wed to trawfer the \hare.
or debenture\ of the company.

(31 Subject to\ubsectlon (2) and toany enactment, noparucula)
fonn of words are neceswy to transfer share\ or debenture\, it
word\ are wed that \how w~th reasonable certanty that the per\on
signlng the transfer mtends lo vest the utle to the \ h i~e \ 01
dehentures in the transferee.

(4) Subject lo subsection ( 5 ) and to ally enactment. d ~ c hcncfl-
clal ownership of the shares or debentures of'a cornpanp p;~\\c\
10 the transferee

( [ I ) on the delivery t o him of the instrument of tran\l21
signed by the tr&sferor and of the transferor'\ \hare
certificate or debenture, as the case may be, or

(h) on the delivery to hirn of an instrument of transkr
signed by the transferor that has been certified by or
on behalf of the company, or by or on behalf of the
Antigua and Barhuda Stock Exchange or a sttxk
exchange approved by the Minister by Ordcr puh-
lished in the Gazrtre.

( 5 ) If the transferor concerned 1,s not registered with the com-
pany in respect of the shares, or, as the case miry be. h e
dehentures, subsection (4) has effect as if references to ihe trriiiskr
signed by the uansferor included a reference to transfers \~gncd
by the person so registered and all holders of the shares or
debentures intermediate between the person so registered 31d thc
transferor.

(6) Notwltt~\tanding \ub\ecuon (4) or (5). a company, and, In
the ca\e of debentures, the tru\lee of the covenlip uu\t tlced, 14 not
bound or enutted to treat the tr:ui\tercc (11 \hare\ or debenture4 a\
the owoerot'then~ until the u;in\!r.i 1t1 I I I I I I IIM heen rcglstered or
urirll the court order4 thc regl\tratlon ol the tr,msler to hlm, ;uid
untll the tramfer I\ pre~ented to dtc company Lorre9r\tratlon, Lhc
cornpinv I\ not to he rreatcd A\ ha\ 1 1 1 ~ I ~ O I I C ~ 01 111c tr:in\Icr~~'\
ar~erc\t hcrcundcr or ol ;trc fact Ihnl thc tran\lcr ha\ hccn matle.

ANTIGUA 88 The Companies Act. 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

Restrictions 1%. (1) No restriction or condition in a trust deed covering a
on transfers. debentureofacompany, or in the debenture, limits the right ofany

person to transfer the debenture held by him.

(2) A transfer of the shares or debentures of a shareholder or
debenture holder of a company made by

(a) his personal representative,

(b) a mstee in bankruptcy,

(c) a receiver appointed by or for the benefit of deben-
ture holders,

(d) a receiver or other person appointed by the court to
administer the estate of a person of unsound m~nd,

(e) the guardian of a minor, or

(fj a person appointed by the court to execute the
transfer,

is, although the person execuhng thc transfer 1s not hi~n\ell
registered with the company as the holder of the \hare\ or
debentures, as the case may be, as valld as II he had been \o
registered at the tlme of the execution of the In\trument ot
transfer.

(3) This section applies in respect of a company notwlthstand-
ing anything contained in the articles or by-laws of the company,
and notwithstanding anything contained m any tnist decd or
debentures, or any contract or instrument relating to thc \hare\ or
debentures of the company.

~ u t y to ~ssue. 197. (1) A company shall issue a certilicatlon 01 the u;ul\fer ot
a share or debenture on the presentation to the cornpany ol a
transfer that is signed by the holder of the \hare or dehcnturc and
accompanied by delivery to the company of the \hare or deben-
ture.

(2) Acertificalionconsistsofa statement ugnedon hehalf ot'the
company and written or endorsed on the transfer to the effect that
the share certificate or debenture, as the case may be, has been
delivered to, or lodged with, the company.

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(3) The certification by a company of any transfer of a share or
debenture of the company is a representat~on by the company to
any person acting on the faith of the ceruficat~on that there have
been produced to the company such documents as on the face of
them show a prima facie ~itle to the share or debenture in the
transferor named in the transfer; but isnot arepresentation that the
transferor has any title to the share or debenture.

(4) Where any person acts on the faith of a false certification by
a company made fraudulently or negligently, the company is
liable to compensate him for any loss he incurs in consequence
of his so acting.

(5) A company that has issued a certification of a transfer of a
share or debenture of the company is liable to compensate any
person for loss that he incurs in consequence of the company
subsequently releasing, otherwise than on surrender of the cerb-
ficationof the transfer of the share or debenture, possession of the
share certificate or debenture in respect of which the cert~ficatlon
was issued.

(6) For the purposes of this section,

(a) the certification of a transfer is deemed to he ~nade-by
a company if

(1) the person issuing the cerhficauon IS a pcrson
authonsed to issue ceruficamns of tran\fer\
on the company's behalf, and

(ii) the ceruficauon IS signed by aperson authonseci
to issue certifications of transfers on the
company's behalf, or by any other officer or
employee, either of the company or of a hod)
corporate so authorised; and

(6) a certification is deemed to be signed hy a person if
it purports to be authenticated by his signature or
initials, whether handwritten or not, unless the signa-
tureor initials were placedon the certification neither
by that person nor any person authorised to use the
signature or inilials for the purpose 01' issuir~g certi-
fications of transfers on the company's behalf.

ANTIGUA 90 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

Transfer 198. (1) A company shall, within 5 weeks after the allotment of
certificate. any of its shares or debentures, and within 2 months after the date

on which a m s f e r of any of its shares or debentures is presented
to the company for registration, complete and have ready for
delivery to the allottee or transferee a proper certificate or
debenture for any share or debenture allotted or transferred to
him.

(2) When a company on which a notice is served requiring the
company to make good any default in complying with subsection
(1) fails to make good the default within 7 days after the service
of the notice, the court may, on the application of the person
entitled to have a certificate or debenture delivered to him, make
an order directing the company and any offxer of the company
to make good the default within such time as may be specified in
the order; and the order may provide that all costs incidental to the
application be bcn-rte by the company and any officer of the
company responsible for the default.

(3) For the purposes of this section "transfer" means a transfer
in proper form duly signed by the transferor and otherwise valid,
and does not include a transfer that the company is for any reason
entitled to refuse to register and does not register.

Registration. 199. (1) Notwithstanding anything in the articles or by-laws of
a company or in any debenture, trust deed or other contract or
instrument, the company shall not register a transfer of any share
or debenture of the company unless a transfer in proper form and
duly signed by the transferor has been delivered to the company;
but nothing in this section affects any duty of the company to
register as a member or debenture holder of the company any
person to whom the ownership of any share or debenture of the
company has been transmitted by operation of law.

(2) On the application of the transferor of any share or debenture
of a company, the company shall enter in its register of members
or debenture holders, as the case requires, the name of the
transferee in the same manner and subject to the same conditions
as if the applicabon for theentry had been made by the transferee.

(3) Notwithstanding anything in the articles or by-laws of a
company or in any debenture, trust deed or other contract cr
instrument, a company shall register the trustee in bankruptcy or
the personal representative of a shareholder or debenture holder

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995 91 ANTIGUA
AND

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as amember in respect of the shares, or as holder of the debentures
of the bankrupt or as the case may be, the deceased person, in its
register of members or debenture holders, as the case may be,
within 7 days after he produces to the company satisfactory
evidence of his title and requests it to register him as a member
or debenture holder.

200. (1) A certificate issued by a company and signed on its Effect of
behalf stating that any shares or debentures of the company are edification
held by any person is prima facie proof of the title of that person
to the shares or debentures.

(2) Theregistration of aperson as amember or debenture holder
of a company, or the issue of a share certificate or debenture,
constitutes a representation by the company that the person so
registered, or the person named in the share certificate or deben-
ture as entitled to the shares or debentures mentioned therein, is
entitled to the shares or debentures mentioned in the register or in
the share certificate or debenture; and the company may not deny
the truth of that representation as against a person who believes
it to be true and contracts to acquire the shares or debentures or
any interest therein in good faith and for money or money's worth.

(3) It is no defence for a company to show for the purposes of
subsection (2) that a registration or the issue of a share certiiicate
or other document was procured by fraud or by the presentation
to it of a forged document.

(4) Subsections (2) and(3)donot apply inrespect ofcertificates
issued by a former-Act company before the commencement date.

DIVISION J

TAKEOVER BIDS

201. In this Division, Definitions.

(a) "dissenting offeree", if atake-overbid is made for all
the shares of a class of shares,

(i) means a shareholder of that class of share who
does not accept the take-over bid, and

ANTIGUA 92 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 1'8 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(ii) includes a subsequent holder of that share who
acquires it from the person mentioned in sub-
paragraph (9;

(b) "offer" includes an invitation to make an offer;

(c) "offeree" means a person to whom a take-over bid is
made;

(d) "offeree company" means a company whose shares
are the object of a take-over bid;

(e) "offeror" in'cludes a person who makes a take-over
bid otherwise than as an agent, and 2 or more persons
who, directly or Cndirectly,

a .

(i) make take-over bids jointly or in concert; or

(ii) intend to exercise, jointlyorin concert, voting
rights attached to shares for which a take-over
bid is made;

If) "share" includes a share with or without voting
rights, and

(i) a debenture currently convertible into such a
share,

(ii) currently exercisable options and rights to
acquire a share or such a convertible deben-
ture;

fg) "take-over bid" means an offer made by an offeror to
shareholders of an offeree company to acquire all the
shares of any class of issued shares of the offeree
company, and every offer by an issuer to repurchase
its own shares.

Offeror rights. 202. If, within 120 days after the date of a take-over bid, the bid is
acceptedtedby rhe @1dersofnaless than9Opercentofrhe shares of any
~Iassof shares to which betake-overbidrelates, other than shares held
at the date of the take-over bid by or on behalf of the offeror or an
a f f i he or associate af rheoffemr, the offeror may, upon complying
with this Division, acquire the h e s held by h e dissenting offer&.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995 93 ANTIGUA
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203. An offeror may acquire shares held by a dissenting offere Notice to
by sending, by registered post, within 60 days after the'date of ~ ~ ~ ~ $ ~ e r S S
termination of the take-over bid, and in any event within 180days
after the date of the take-over bid an offeror's notice to each
dissenting offeree and to the Regismar stating

(a) that offerees who are holding 90 percent or moreof
the shares towhich the bid relates accepted the take-
over bid;

(b) that the offeror is bound to take up and pay for or has
taken up and paid for the shares of the offerees who
accepted the take-over bid;

(c) that a dissenting offeree is required to elect

(i) to rransfer his shares tofhe offeror on the terms
on whichh offeror acquired the shares of
offerees who accepted the take-over bid; or

(ii) to demand papnent of the fair value of his
shares in accordance with sections 209 to 212
by notifying the offeror within 20 days after b e
dissenting offeree receives the offeror's no-
tice;

(d) that a disseqting offeree who does not notify the
offeror in acaordance with subparagraph (ii) of para-
graph (c) is presumed to have elected to transfer his
shares to the offeror on the same terns as the offeror
acquired the shares from the offefiees who accepted
tbe take-over bids; and

(e) that adissenting offereeshall ge@those shares of his
to which the &-over bid-relates to the offeree-
company within 20 days aftdrhe receives the offeror's
notice.

204. C o n m t l y with sending the off& s notice under section Adverse claims.
203, theofferor shall send to the offem-company anotice of adverse
claran with respect to each share held by a dissenting offeree.

285. A dissentj,ng offwee to whom an offeror's notice is sent Delivery of
under sztion B3 Wl, within 20 days &er he receives that certificates.

ANTIGUA
ANR

BARBUDA

Payment for
shares.

Money in trust.

Dlty of
offeree-company.

94 The Companies Act, 199.5. No. 18 of 1995.

notice, send the share certificate of his for the class of shares to
whieh the take-over bid relates to the offeree-company.

206. Within 20 days after the offeror sends an offeror's notice
under section 203, the offeror shall pay octransfer to the offeree-
company the amount of money or other consideration that the
offeror would have had to pay or transfer to a dissenting offeree
if the dissenting offeree had elected, under subparagraph (i) of
paragraph (c) of section 203, to accept the take-over bid.

207. The offeree-company holds in trust f a the dissenting
shareholders the money or other consideration it receives under
section 2Of4 and the offeree-company shdl deposit the money in
a separate account in a bank and shall place the other consider-
ation in the custody of a bank.

208. Within 30 days after the offeror sends an offeror's notice
under section 203, the offeree-company shall

(a) issue the offeror a share certificate in respect of the
shares that were held by dissenting offerees;

(b) give to each dissentingofferee who,

(i) under subparagraph (i) of paragraph (c) of
section 203, elects to accept the take-over bid,
and

(ii) sends his share certificates as required under
section 205,

the money or other consideration to which he is entitled, disre-
garding fractiondshares, which may be paid for in money; and

(c) send to each dissenting shareholder who has not sent
his share certificates as required under section 205 a
notice stating that

(i) his shares have been cancelled;

(ii) the oflereecompany or some designated person
holds in tmst for him the money or other consid-
eration to which he is entitled as payment for or
in exchange for his shares; and

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995 95 ANTIGUA
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(iii) the offeree-company will, subject to sections
209 to 21 1, send that money or other consider-
ation to him forthwith afterreceiving his shares.

209. (1) If a dissenting offeree has, under subparagraph (ii) of Appllcatlon tocourt
paragraph (c) of section 203, elected to demand payment of the
fair value of his shares, the offerormay, within 20-days after it has
paid the money or transferred the other consideration under
section 206, apply to the court to fix the fair value of the shares
of that dissenting offeree.

(2) If an offeror fails to apply to the court under subsection (I),
adissenling offeree may, within a further periodof 20 days, apply
to the court to fix the fair value of the shares of the dissenting
shareholder.

(3) If no application is made to the court under subsection
(2) within the time provided therefor in that subsection, a
dissenting offeree thereby elects to transfer his shares to the
offeror on the same terms as the offeror acquired the shares from
the offerees who accepted the take-over bid.

210. Upon an application under section 209 Joined parties.

(a) alldissenting offerees referred to in subparagraph (ii)
of paragraph (c) of section 203 whose shares have not
been acquired by theofferor are to bejoined as parties
and are bound by the decision of the court; and

(b) the offeror shall notify each affected dissenting
offeree of the date, place and consequences of the
application and of the offeree' s right to appear and be
heard in person or by an attorney-at-law.

211. (1) Upon an application to the court under section 209, the Powers and
court may determine whether any other person is a dissenting order of coufl.
offeree who should be joined as a party; and the court shall then
fix a fair value for the shares of all dissenting offerees.

(2) The court may appoint one or more appraisers to ass~st the
court to fix a fair value for the shares of a dissenting offeree.

(3) The final order of the court shall be made in favour of each
dissenting offeree against the offeror and be for the amount of the
offeree's shares as fixed by the court.

ANTIGUA
AND

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Additional orders.

Fundamental
amendment
to articles.

96 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

212. In connection with proceedings under this Division, the
court may make any order it thinks fit, and, in.particular, it may

(a) fix the amount of money or other consideration that
is required to be held in trust under section 207;

(b) order that the money or other consideration be held
in trust by a person other than the offeree-company;

(c) allow to each dissenting offeree, from the date he
sends or delivers his share certificates under section
205 until the date of payment, a reasonable rate of
interest on the amount payable to hirn; or

(d) order that any money payable to a shareholder who
cannot be found be paid into court and subsection (2)
of section 479 applies in respect of that payment.

DIVISION K

FUNDAMENTAL COMPANY CHANGES

Altering Articles

213. (1) Subject to sections 215 and 216, the articles of a
company may, by special resolution, be amended:

(a) to change its name;

(b) to add, change or remove any restriction upon the
business that the company can carry on;

(c) to change any maximum number of shares that he
company is authorised to issue;

(d) to create ne.w classes of shares;

(e) to change the designation of all or any of its \hares,
and add, change or remove any rights, pr~v~legcs,
restrictions and conditions, including rights to ac-
crued dividends, in respect of all or any of its shares,
whether issued or unissued;

(f) to change the shares of any class or series, whether
issued or unissued, into a different number of shares
of the same class or series, or into the wne or a
different number of shares of other cl&se\ or series;

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995 97 ANTIGUA
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(g) to divide a c h s of shares, whether issuedor unissued,
into a seriesof shares and fix the number of shares in
each series, and the rights, privileges, restrictions and
conditions attached thereto;

(h) to authorise the directors to divide any class of unissued
shares into series of shares and fur the number of shares
in each series, and the rights, privileges, restrictions and
conditions attached thereto;

(i) to authorise the directors to change the rights, privi-
leges, restrictions and conditions attached to unissued
shares of any series;

(j) to revoke, diminish or enlarge any authority con-
ferred under paragraphs (h) to (i);

(k) to increase or decrease the number of directors or the
minimum or maximum number of directors, subject
to sections 7 1 and 76;

(I) to add, change or remove restrictions on the transfer
of shares; or

(m) to add, change or remove any other provisiori that is
permitted by this Act to be set out in the articles.

(2) The di i tors of a company may, if authorised by the
shareholders in the special resolution effecting an amendment
under this section, revoke the resolution before it is acted upon,
without further approval of the shareholders.

(3) A provision in the articles of a company that restricts in
whole or in partthe powersof the directors tomanagethe business
and affairs of the company may not be amended except with the
consent of all the shareholders.

214. (1) Sub~ect to subsection (2), adirector or a shareholder of ~roposal to
a company who is entitled to vote at an annual meeting of amend

shareholders may, in accordance with section 114, make a
proposal to amend the articles of the company.

(2) Notice of a meeting of shareholders at which a proposal to
amend the articles is to be considered shall set out the proposed

ANTIGUA 98 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

amendment, and, where applicable, shall state that a dissenting
shareholder is entitled to be paid the fair value of his shares in
accordance with section 226; but failure to make that statement
does not invalidate an amendment.

Class vote on pro- 215. (1) The holders of shares of aclass, or, subject to subsection
posa~. (2), of a series, are, unless the articles otherwise provide in the

case of an amendment described in paragraph (a) or (b), entitled
to vote separately, as a class or series, upon a proposal to amend
the articles

(a) to increase or decrease any maximum number of
authorised shares of that class, or increase any maxi-
mum number of authorised shares of a class having
rights or privileges equal or superior to the shares of
that class;

(b) to effect an exchange, reclassification or cancella-
tion of all or part of the shares of that class;

(c) to add, change or remove the rights, privileges,
restrictions or conditions attached to the shares of
that class and, in particular,

(i) to remove or change prejudicially rights to
accrued dividends or to cumulative dividends,

(ii) to add, remove or change redemption rights
prejudicially ,

(iii) to reduce or remove a dividend preference or
a winding-up preference, or

(iv) to add, remove or change preju&cdly conversion
privileges, opt~ons, voting transfer or preemptive
rights, or rights to acquire shares or debentures of a
company, or s d m g fund provisions;

(d) to increase the rights or privileges crf any class of
shares having rights or privileges equal or superior to
the shares of that class;

(e) to create a new class of shares equal or superior to
the shares of that class;

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@ to make any class of shares having rights or privileges
inferior to the shares of that class equal or superior to
the shares of that class;

(g) to effect an exchange or to create aright of exchange
of all or part of the shares of another class into the
shares of that class; or

(h) to constrain the issue or transfer of the shares of that
class, or extend or remove the constraint.

(2) The holders of a series of shares of a class are entitled to vote
separately as a series under subsection (1) only if the series is
affected by an amendment in amanner different from other shares
of the same class.

(3) Subsection (1) applies whether or not shares of a class or
series otherwise carry the right to vote.

(4) A proposed amendment to the articles referred to in subsec-
tion (1) is adopted when the holders of the shares of each class or
series entitled to vote separately thereon as a class or series have
approved the amendment by a special resolution.

216. (1) Subject toany revocation under subsection (2) of section 213, Delivery of articles.
after an amendment has been adopted under section213 or215, articles
of amendment in the prescribed form shall be sent to the Registrar.

(2) If an amendment effects or requires a reduction of stated
capital, subsections (3) and (4) of section 44 apply.

217. (1) Upon receipt of articles of amendment from a corn- Ceaificate
pany, the Registrar shall issue to the company a certificate of of amendment.
amendment in accordance with section 503.

(2) An amendment to the articles of a company becomes
effective on the date shown in the certificate issued by the
Registrar in respect of that company; and the articles of the
company are amended accordingly.

(3) No amendment to the articles affects

(a) an existing cause of action or claim or liability to
prosecution in favour of or against the company or its
directors or officers, or

ANTIGUA
AND

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Re-stated
articles.

Amalgamation.

Agreement for
amalgamation.

100 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

(b) any civil, criminal or a

dmi

nistrative action or pro-
ceeding to which acompany or any of its directors or
officers is a party.

218. (1) The directors of a company may at any time, and shall,
when reasonably so directed by the Registrar, restate the articles
of incorporation of the company as amended.

(2) Re-stated articles of incorporation in the prescribed form
shall be sent to the Registrar.

(3) Upon ~eceipt of re-stated articles of incorporation, the
Registrar shall Gsue a re-stated certificate of incorporation in
accordance with section 503.

(4) Re-stated articles of incorporation are effective on the date
shown in the re-stated certificate of incorporation, and supersede
the original articles of incorporation and all amendments thereto.

Amalgamations

' 219. Two or more companies, including holding and subsidiary
companies, may amalgamate and continue as one company.

I

220. (1) Each company proposing to amalgam9 shall enter
into an agreement setting out the terms andmeans of effecting the,
amalgamation, and in particular, setting out

(a) the prov

isi

ons that are required to be included in
articles of incorporation under section 5;

(b) the name and address of each proposed director of the
amalgamated company;

(c) thenianner in which the shares of each amalgamating
company are to be converted into shares or deben-
tures of the amalgamated company;

(d) if any shares of an amalgamating company are not to
be converted into shares or debentures of the amal-
gamated company, the amount of money or shares or
debentures of any body corporate that the holders of
those shares are to receive instead of shares or
debentures of the amalgamated company;

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(e) the manner of payment of money instead of the issue
of fractional shares of the amalgamated company or
of any other body corpmte the shares or debentures
of which are to be received in the amalgamation;

(jj whether the by-laws of the amalgamated company
are to be those of one of the amalgamating compa-
nies, and, if not, a copy of the proposed by-laws, and

(g) &tails of any arrangements necessary to perfect the
mdgamatio~i an8 b pupvide for the subsequent man-
agement and operation of the amalgamated company.

(2) If shares of one of the amalgamating companies are held by
or on behalf of another of the amalgamating companies, the
amalgamation agreement shall provide for the cancellation of
those shares when the amalgamation becomes effective, without
any repayment of capital in respect thereof; and no provision may
be made in the agreement for the conversion of those shares into
shares of the amalgamated company.

221. (1) The directors of each amalgamating company shall Approval by
submit the amalgamation agreement for approval to ameeting of shareholdem.
the shareholders of the amalgamating company of which they are
directors, and, subject to subsection (4), to the holders of each
class or series of shares of that amalgamating company.

(2) A notice of a meeting of shareholders complying with
yxtion 11 1 shall be sent in accordance with that section to each
shareholder of each amalgamating company; and the notice

(a) shall include or be accompanied with a copy or
summary of the amalgamation agreement; and

(b) shall state that a dissenting shareholder is entitled to
be paid the fair value of his shares in accordance with
section 226;

make the statement referred to in paragraph (b) does
an amalgamation.

(3) Each hare of an amalgamating company carries the right to
vote in res ct of an amalgamation, whether or not the share
otherwise E 'es the right to vote.

ANTIGUA 102 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

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(4) The holders of shares of a class or series of shares of an
amalgamating company are entitled to vote separately as a class
or series in respect of an amalgamation when the amalgamation
agreement contains a provision that, if contained in a proposed
amendment to the articles, would entitle those holders to vote as
a class or series under section 215.

(5) An amalgamation agreement is adapted when the share-
holders of each amalgamating company have approved of the
amalgamation by special resolution of each class or series of the
shareholders entitled to vote on the amalgamation.

(6) An amalgamation agreement may provide that at any time
before the issue of a certificate of amalgamation the agreement
can be terminated by the directors of an amalgamating company,
notwithstanding approval of the agreement by the shareholders of
all or any of the amalgamating companies.

Vertical 222. A holding company and one or more of its wholly-owned
short-form subsidiary companies may amalgamate and continue as one
amalgamation. company without complying with sections 220 and 221, if

(a) the amalgamation is approved by a resolution of the
directors of each amalgamating company; and

(b) the resolutions provide that

(i) the shares of each amalgamating subsidiary
company will be cancelled without any repay-
ment of capital in respect of the cancellation;

(ii) the articles of amalgamation will be the same
as the articles of incorporation of the amalgam-
ating holding company; and

(iii)no shares or debentures will be issued by the
amalgamated company in connection with the
amalgamation.

Horizontal short- 223. Two or more wholly-owned subsidiary companies of the
formamalgamation. same holding body corporate may amalgamate and continue as

one company without complying with sections 220 and 221 if

(a) the amalgamation is approved by a resolution ofthe
directors of each amalgamating company; and

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(b) the resolutions provide that

(i) the shares of all but one of the amalgamating
subsidiary companies will be cancelled with-
out any repayment of capital in respect of the
cancellation;

(ii) the articles of amalgamation will be the same
as the articles of incorporation of the amalgam-
ating subsidiary company whose shares are not
cancelled; and

(iii) the stated capital of the amalgamating subsid-
iary companies whose shares are cancelled
will be added to the stated capital of the
amalgamating subsidiary company whose
shares are not cancelled.

224. (1) Subject to subsection (6) of section 221, after an Artlcles of
amalgamation has been adopted under section 221 or approved amalgamation.
under section 222 or 223, articles of amalgamation in the
prescribed form shall be sent to the Registrar together with the
documents required by sections 69 and 176.

(2) There shall be attached to the articles of amalgamation a
statutory declaration of a director or an officer of each amalgam-
ating company that establishes to the satisfaction of the Registrar

(a) that there are reasonable grounds for believing that

(i) each amalgamating company is and the amal-
gamated company will be able to pay its
liabilities as they become due; and

(ii) the milsable value of theamalgamatedcompany ' 5
assets will not be less than the aggregate of its
liabilities and stated capital of all classes; and

(b) that there are reasonable grounds for believing that

(i) no crdtor will be prejudiced by the amalgam-
ation, or

(ii) adequate notice has been given to all known
creditors of the amalgamating companies, and
no creditor objects to the amalgamation other-
wise than on grounds that are frivolous or
vexatious.

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(3) For the purposes of subsection (2). adequate notice is given
to creditors by a company, if

(a) a notice in writing is sent to each known creditor
having a claim against the company that exceeds
$1000;

(b) a notice is published once in a newspaper published
or distributed in Antigua and Barbuda; and

(c) each notice states that the company intends to amal-
gamate with one or more specitied companies in
accordance with this Act, and that a creditor of the
company can object to the amalgamation within 30
days from the date of the notice.

Certificate of 225. (1) Upon receipt of articles of amalgamation, the Registrar
amalgamation. shall issue a certificate of amalgamation in accordance with

section 503.

(2) On the date shown in a cer

tifi

cate of amalgamation, in
respect of an amalgamated company,

(a) the amalgamation of the amalgamating companies
and their continuance as one company becomes
effective;

(b) the property of each amalgamating company becomes
the property of theamalgamatedcompany and is vested
in that company without further assurance;

(c) the amalgamated company becomes liable for the
obligations of each amalgamating company;

(d) any existing cause of action, claim or liability to
prosecution is unaffected;

(e) a civil, criminal or adminisbative action or pmcdmg
pending by or against an amalgamating company may
be continued by or against the amalgamated company;

fl a conviction against, or ruling, order or judgment in
favour of or against, an amalgamating company may be
enforced by or against the amalgamated company; and

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(g) the articles of amalgamation are the articles of
incorporation of the amalgamated company, and,
except for the purposes of subsection (1) of section
65, the certificate of amalgamation is the certificate
of incorporation of the amalgamated company.

Dissenters' Rights and Obligations

226. (1) Subject to sections 236 and 241, a shareholder of any Dissent by
class of shares of a company may dissent if the company resolves

(a) to amend its articles under section 213 to add, change
or remove any provisions restricting the issue or
transfer of shares of that class;

(b) to amend its articles under section 213 to add, change
orremoveany restriction upon the businesses that the
company can carry on;

(c) to amalgamate with another company, otherwise
than under section 222 or 223; or

(d) to sell, lease or exchange all or substantially all its
property under section 136.

(2) Subject to sections 236 and 241, a shareholder of any class of
shares of acompany may dissent if the company is subject to an order
of the court under section 237 permitting the shareholders to dissent.

(3) The articles of a company that is not a public company may
provide that a shareholder of any class or series of shares who is
entitled to vote under section 215 may dissent if the company
resolves to amend its articles inamannerdescribed in that section.

(4) In addition to any other right he has, but subject to section 235,
a shareholder who complies with this section is entitled, when the
action approved by the resolution from which he dissents or an order
madeunder section 237 becomes effective, to be paid by thecompany
the fair value of the shares held by h i in respectof which hedissents;
and the fair value is to be determined as of the close of business on the
day before the resolution was adopted or the order made.

(5) A dissenting shareholder may not claim under this section
except only with respect to all the shares of a class or series

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(a) held by him on behalf of any one beneficial owner,
and

(b) registered in the name sf dje dbssnting shareholder.

(6) A dissenting shareholder shall send to the company, at or
before any meeting of shareholders of the company at which a
resolution referred to in subsection (1) or (3) is to be voted on, a
written dissent from the resolution, unless the company did not
give notice to the shareholder of the purpose of the meeting and
of his right to dissent.

(7) when a shkeholder of acompany has di~sented~ursuant to
subsection (6) to a resolution referred to in subsection (1) or (3),
the company shall, within 10 days after the shareholders of the
company adopt the resolution, send to the shareholder notice that
the resolution has been adopted; but the notice need not be sent
to the shareholder if he has voted far the resolution or has
withdrawn his dissent.

Demand for
payment.

227. (1) A dissenting shareholder shall within 20 days after he
receives anotice under subsection (7) of section 226, or, if he does
not receive that notice, within 20 days after he learns that a
resolution under that subsection has been adopted, send to the
company a written notice containing

(a) his name and address;

(b) the number and class or series of shares in respect of
which he dissents; and

(c) ademand for payment of the fair value of the shares.

(2) A dissenting shareholder shall within 30 days after sending
a notice under subsection (I), send the certificates representing
the shares in reswt of which he dissents to the company or its
transfer agent.

(3) A dissenting shareholder who fails to comply with subsec-
tion (2) has no right to make a claim under this section.

(4) A company or its transfer agent shall endorse on any share
certificate received by it under subsection (2) a notice that the
holder of the share is a dissenting shareholder under this section,
and forthwith return the share certificate to the dissenting share-
holder.

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228. After sending a notice under section 227, a dissenting suspension of
shareholder ceases to have any rights as a shareholder, other than
the right to be paid the fair value of his sharesas determined under
this section, unless

(a) the dissenting shareholder withdraws his notice be-
fore the company makes an offer under section 229;

(b) the company fails to make an offer in accordance
with section 229 and the dissenting shareholder
withdraws his notice; or

(c) the directors,

(i) under subsection (2) of section 213 revoke a
resolution to amend the articles of the com-
pany;

(ii) under subsection (6) of section 221, terminate
an amalgamation agreement; or

(iii) under subsection (7) of section 136, abandon a
sale, lease or exchange of property,

in which case his rights as a shareholder are re-instated as of the
date the notice mentioned in section 227 was sent.

229. (1) A company shall, not later than 7 days after the day on Offer to pay for
which theactionapproved by theresolution is effective, or the day Shme.
the company received the notice referred to in section 227,
whichever is the later date, send to each dissenting shareholder
who has sent such a notice

(a) awrittenoffertopay forhis shaminanamountc0nsiM
by the directars of the company tobe the fair value of those
sham, which shall be &companied with a statement
showing how the fair value was deterrmned; or

(b) if section 235 applies, a notification that it is unable
lawfully to pay dissenting shareholders for their
shares.

(2) Every offer made under subsection (1) for shares of the same
class or series shall be on the same terms.

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(3) Subject to section 235, a company shall pay for the shares
of a dissenting shareholder within 10 days after an offer made
under subsection (1) h d been accepted; but the offer lapses if the
company does not receive an acceptance of the offer within 30
days after it has been made.

Application tocourt. 230. (1) If a company fails to make an offer under subsection (1) of
section229,orifadissenting shareholder f-
by the company, the company may, within 50 days after the action
appmved by the resolution is effective, apply to the court to ~ I X a fair
value for the shares of any dissenting shareholders.

(2) If acompany fails to apply to the court in the circumstances
described in subskction (I), a dissenting shareholder may, within
a further period of 20 days, apply to the court to fix a fair value
for the shares of any dissenting shareholders.

Joined parties. 231. Upon an application to the court under section 230,

(a) all dissenting shareholders whose shares have not
been purchased by the company are to be joined as
parties and are boundby the decision of the court; and

(b) the company shall notify each affected dissenting
shareholder of the date, place and consequences of
the application and of his right to appear and be heard
in person or by an attorney-at-law.

court powers. 232. (1) Upon an application to the court under section 230, the
court may determine whether any other person is a dissenting
shareholder who should be joined as a party; and the court shall
then fix a fair value for the shares of the dissenting shareholders.

(2) The court may appointoneor more appraisers to assist the court
to fix a fair value for the shares of the dissenting shareholders.

(3) Thefdorde ro f the~~bemadeaga ins t the~~mpany in
favourofeachdisenting shareholder of thecompany and fortheamount
of the shares of the dissenting shareholder as fxed by the court.

Interest. 233. The court may allow a reasonable rate of interest on the
amount payable to each dissenting shareholder, from the date the
action approved by the resolution is effective until the date of
payment by the company.

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234. (1) If section 235 applies, the company shall within ten Recourse
days after the making of an order under subsection (3) of section ~~~~~~~e~~
232, notify each dissenting shareholder that it is unable lawfully
to pay dissenting shareholders for their shares.

(2) If section 235 applies, a dissenting shareholder, by written
notice delivered to the company within thirty days after receiving
a notice under subsection (I),

(a) rnay withdraw his notice of dissent, in which case the
company consents to the withdrawal and the share-
holder is re-instated to his full rights as a shareholder;
or

(b) may retain a status asaclaimantagainst thecompany
entitled to be paid as soop as the company is lawfully
able to do so, or, in a winding-up, to be ranked
subordinate to the rights of creditors of the company,
but in priority to the company's shareholders.

235. A company shall not make a payment to a dissenting Prohibition of
shareholder under sectiofi 229 if there are reasonable grounds for Payment-
believing

(a) the company is or would, after the payment, be
unable to pay its liabilities as they become due; or

(b) the realisable value of the company's assets would
thereby be less than the aggregate of its liabilities.

236. (1) In this section, "re-organisation" means

(a) a court order made under section 241;

(b) a court order approving a proposal under the Balk-
ruptcy Ordinance; or

(c) a court order that is made under any other enactment
and that affects the rights among the company, its
shareholders and creditors.

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(2) If a company is subject to an order referred to in subsection
(I), its articles may be amended by the order to effect any change
that might lawfully be made by an amendment under section 213.

(3) If the court makes an order referred to in subsection (I), the
court may also

(a) authorise the issue of debentures of the company,
whether or not convertible into shares of any class or
series, or having attached any rights or options to
acquire shares of any class or series, and fm the terms
thereof; and

(b) appoint directors in place of, or in addition to, all or
any of the directors then in office.

(4) After an order referred to in subsection (1) has been made,
articles of re-organisation in the prescribed form shall be sent by
the company to, the Registrar, together with the documents
required by sections 69 and 176, if applicable.

(5) Upon receipt of articles of re-organisation for a company,
the Registrar shall issue acertificate of amendment in accordance
with section 503.

(6) A re-organisation of a company becomes effective on the
date shown in the certificate of amendment, and its articles of
incorporation are amended accordingly.

(7) A shareholder of a company is not entitled to dissent under
section 226 if an amendment to the articles of incorporation of the
company is effected under this section.

Arrangements

Arrangements. 237. (1) In this section, "arrangements" includes

(a) an amendment of the articles of a company;

(b) an amalgamation of two or more companies;

(c) adivision of the businesses carried on by acompany;

(d) a transfer of all or substantially all the property of a
company to another body corporate in exchange for
property, money or shares or debentures of the body
corporate;

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(e) an exchange of shares or debentures held by share-
holders or debenture holders of a company for prop-
erty, money or other shares or debentures of the
company, or property, money or shares or debentures
of another body corporate if it is not a take-over bid
within the meaning of Division J;

If) a winding up and dissolution of a company; and

(g) any combination of the activities described in para-
grdphs (a) to (0.

(2) For the purposes of this section, a company is insolvent
when

(a) it is unable to pay its liabilities as they become due, or

(b) the realisable value of the assets of the company are
less than the aggregate of its liabilities and stated
capital of all classes.

(3) Where it is notpracticable for acompany that is solvent to effect
a fundamentalchangein thenatureofananangement under any other
provision of this Act, the company may apply to the court for an
approval of an mgement proposed by the company.

(4) In connection with an application under this section, the
court may make any interim or final order it thinks fit,

(a) an order determining the notice to be given to any
interested person or dispensing with notice to any
person other than the Registrar;

(b) an order requiring a company, in such manner as the
court directs, to call, hold and conduct a meeting of
shareholders or debenture holders, or holders of
options or rights to acquire shares in the company:

(c) an order permitting a shareholder to dissent under
section 226: or

(d) an order approving an arrangement as proposed by
the company or as amended in such manner as the
court may direct.

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(5 ) An applicant under this section shall give the Registrar
notice of the application; and the Registrar may appear and be
heard in person or by an attorney-at-law.

(6) After an order referred to in paragraph (d) of subsection
(4) has been made, articles of arrangement in the prescribed form
shall be sent tothe Registrar together with thedocumentsrequired
by sections 77 and 176, if applicable.

(7) Upon receipt of articles of arrangement, the Regism shall
issue a certificate of amendment in accordance with section 503.

(8) An arrangement becomes effective on the date shown in
the certificate of amendment.

DIVISION L

CIVIL REMEDIES

Definitions. 238. In this Part,

(a) "action" means an action under this Act;

(b) "complainant" means

(i) a shareholder or debenture holder, or a former
holder of a share or debenture of a company or
any of its affiliates;

(ii) a director or an officer or former director or
officer of a company or any of its affiliates;

(iii) the Registrar; or

(iv) any other person who, in the discretion of the
court, is a proper person tomake an application
under this Part.

Derivative Actions

Derivativeactions. 239. (1) Subject to subsection (2), a complainant may, for the
purpose of prosecuting, defending or discontinuing an action on
behalf of acompany, apply to the court for leave to bring an action
in the name and on behalf of the company or any of its subsidiar-
ies, or intervene in an action to which such company or any of its
subsidiaries is a party.

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(2) No action may be brought, and no intervention in an action
may be made, under subsection (1) unless the court is satisfied

(a) that the complainant has given reasonable notice to
the directors of the company or its subsidiary of his
intention to apply to the court under subsection (I) if
the directors of the company or its subsidiary do not
bring, diligently prosecute or defend, or discontinue,
the action;

(b) that the complainant is acting in good faith; and

(c) that it appears to be in the interests of the company
or its subsidiary that the action be brought, pros-
ecuted, defended or discontinued.

COW powers. 240. In connection with an action brought or intervened in
under sectison 239, the court may at any time make any order it
thinks fit, including,

(a) an order authorising the complainant, the Registrar
or any other person to control the conduct or the
action;

(b) an order giving directions for the conduct of the
action:

(c) an order directing that any amount adjudged payable
by a defendant in the action be paid, in whole or in
part, directly to former and present shareholders or
debenture holders of the company or its subsidiary,
instead of to the company or its subsidiary; or

(d) an order requFing the company or its subsidiary to
pay reasonable legal fees incurred by the complain-
ant in connection with the action.

Restraining Oppression

Oppression 241. (1) A complainant may apply to the court for an order
restrained. under this section.

(2) If, upon an application under subsection (I), the court is
satisfied that in respect of a company or any of its affiliates,

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(a) any act or omission of the company or any of its
, affiliates effects a ~-esult,

(b) the business or affairs of the company or any of its
afliliates are or have been carried on or conducted in
a manner, or

(c) the powers of the directors of the company or any of
its aPFiates are or have been exercised in a manner,

that is oppressive or unfairly prejudicial to, or that unfairly
disregards the interests of, any shareholder or debenture
holder, creditor, director or officer of the company, the
court may make an order to rectify the matters complained
of.

(3) In connection with an application under this section, the
court may make any interim or find order it thinks fit, including,

(a) an order restraining the conduct complained of;

(b) an order appointing a receiver or receiver-manager;

(c) an order to regulate a company's affairs by amending
its articles or by-laws, or creating or amending a
unanimous shareholder agreement;

(d) an order directing an issue or exchange of shares or
debentures;

(e) an order appointing directors in place of, or in
addition to, all or any of the di i tors then in office;

(fl an order directing a company, subject to subsection
(6), or any other person, to purchase shares or
debentures of a holder thereof;

(g) an order directing a company, subject to subsection
(6), er any other person, to pay to a shareholder or
debenture holder any part of the moneys paid by him
for his shares of debentures;

(h) an order varying or setting aside a transaction or
contract to which a company is a party, and compen-
sating the company or any other party to the transac-
tion or contract;

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I"

(i) an order requiring acompany, within a time speczed
by the Court, to produce to the court or an interested
peison fiwcial statements in the form required by
section 149 oran accounting in such other form as the
court may determine;

0) an order compensating an aggrieved person;

(k) an order directing rectification of the registers or
other records of a company under section 244,

( I ) an order winding up and dissolving the company;

(m) an order directing an investigation under Division B
of Part V to be made; or

(n) an order requiring the trial of any issue.

(4) If an order ma& under this section directs the amendment
of the articles or by-laws of a company,

(a) the directors shall forthwith comply with subsection
(4) of section 236; and

(b) no other amendment to thearticles or by-laws may be
made without the consent of the court, until the court
otherwise orders.

(5) A shareholder is not entitled under section 226 to dissent if
an amendment to the articles is effected under this section.

(6) Acompany shall not make a payment to a shareholder under
paragraph (n or (g) of subsection (3) if there are reasonable
grounds for believing that

(a) the company is unable or would, after $e payment,
be unable to pay its liabilities as
they become due, or

(b) the realisable value of the company's assets would
thereby be less than the aggregate of its liabilities.

(7) An applicant under this section may apply in the alternative
for an order under section 377.

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Staying action. 242. (1) An app1ication"made or @ action brought or inter-
vened in under this Part may not be stayed or dismissed by reason
only that it is shown that an alleged breach of aright or duty owed
to the company or its subsidiary has been or might be approved
by the shareholders of the company or its subsidmy; but evidence
of approval by the shareholders may be taken into account by the
coun in making an order under section 240,241 or 377.

(2) An application made or an action brought or intervened in
under this P k may not be stayed, discontinued, settled or
dismissed for want of prosecution without the approval of the
court given upon such terms as the court thinks fit; and if the court
determines that the interestsof any complainant could be substan-
tially affected by the stay, discontinuance, settlement or dis-
missal, the court may order any party to the application or action
to give notice to the complainant.

Interm costs. 243. In an application made or an action brought or intervened
in under this Part, the court niay at any time order the company
or its subsidiary to pay to the complainant interim costs, including
legal fees and disbursements; but the complainant may be held
accountable for those interim costs upon the final disposition of
the application or action.

Rectification of 244. (1) K the name of a person is alleged to be or to have been
records. wrongly entered or retained in, or wrongly deleted or omitted

from, the registers or other records of a company, the company,
a shareholder or debenture holder of the company, or any
aggrieved person, may apply to the court for an order that the
registers or records of the company be rectified.

(2) An applicant under this section shall give the Registrar
noti~e of the application; and the Registrar is entitled to appear
and k heard in person or by an attorney-at-law.

(3) In connection with an application under this section, the
court may make any or&r it thinks fit including,

(a) an order requiring the registers or other records of the
company to be rectified;

(b) an order restraining the company from calling or
holding a meeting of shareholders, or paying a
dividend before that rectification;

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(c) an order determining the right of a party to the
proceedings to haye his name entered or retained in,
or deleted or omitted from, the registers or records of
the company, whether the issue arises between 2 or
more shareholders or debenture holders or alleged
shareholders or alleged debenture holders, or be-
tween the company and any shareholders or deben-
ture holders, or alleged shareholders or alleged de-
benture holders; and

(d) an order compensating a party who has incurred a
loss.

Other R e d i l Actions

245. The Registrar may apply to the court 'for directions in Directions for
respect of any matter concerning his duties under this Act; and on Registrar.
the application the court may give such directions and make such
further order as it thinks fit.

246. (1) When the Registrar refuses to fde any anidles or other Refusal by
document required by this Act to be filed by him before the Registrar.
articles or other document become effective, the Registrar shall

(a) within 60 days after the receipt thereof by him, or 60
days after he receives any approval required under
any other Act, whichever is the later date, and,

(b) after giving the person who sent the articles or
document an opportunity to be heard

give written notice of the refusal to that person; together with the
reasems for the refusal.

(2) If the Registrar does not file or give written notice of his
refud to file any articles or document within the time limited
therefor in subsection (1). then, for the purposes of section 247,
the Registrar has refused to file the articles or document.

24'7. A person who feels aggrieved by the decision of the Appeal from
Reg&m Registrar.

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(a) to refuse to file in the form submitted to h i any
articles or other document required by this Act to be
filed by him,

(b) to give a name, to change or revoke a name, or to
refuse to reserve, accept, change or revoke a name
under sections 11 to 14;

(c) to refuse to grant an exemption under subsection (2)
of section 10, section 144, section 150 or subsection
(3) of section 154 and any regulations thereunder; or

(d) torefuse under subsection (2) of section 366 to permit
a continued reference to shares having a nominal or
p a value

may apply to the court for an order requiring the Registrar to
change his decision; and upon the application the court may so
order, and ma& any further order it thinks fit.

Restraining
order,etc.

Summary
application.

248. If a company or any di i tor , officer, employee, agent,
auditor, trustee, receiver, receiver-manager or liquidator of a
company does not comply with this Act, the regulations, articles,
by-laws, or any unanimous shareholder agreement of the com-
pany, a complainant or creditor of the company may, in addition
to any other right he has, apply to the court for an order diuecting
any such person to comply with, or restmining any such person
from acting in breach of, any provisions of this Act, the regula-
tions, articles, by-laws or unanimous shareholder agreement, as
the case may be.

249. Subject to this Act, where itis provided that aperson may
apply to the court, the application may be made in a summary
manner by originating summons, originating notice of motion, or
otherwise as the rules of the court provide, but subject to any order
respecting notice to interested parties or costs, or any other order
the court thinks fit.

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PART I1

PROTECTION OF CREDlTORS AND INVESTORS

DIVISION A

REGISTRATION OF CHARGES

Charges

250. (1) Subject to this Division, where a charge to which this Registration
section applies is created by acompany, the company shall within with Repiarm.
28 days after the creation of the charge, lodge with the Registrar
a statement of the charge and

(a) any instrument by which the charge is created or
evidenced; or

b ) a copy of the instrument together with a statutory
declaration verifying the execution of the charge and
also verifying copy as being a true copy of the
instrument,

and if this provision is not complied with in relation to the charge,
the charge is void so far as any security interest it thereby
purported to create.

(2) Nothing in~ubsection (1) affects any contract or obligation
for repayment of the money secured by acharge that is void under
that subsection; and the money received under the charge be-
comes immediitely pay able.

(3) This section applies to all charges created by a company
except

(a) any pledge of, or possessory lien on, goods, and

(b) any charge by way of pledge, deposit or trust receipt,
or bills of lading, dock w-ts or ctther .&uments
of title to goods, or of bills of exchange, promissory
notes, or other negotiable securities for money.

251. (1) Subject to subsections (2) and (3), the statement Contents of charge
referred to in section 250 shall contain the following particulars; -me&.

ANTIGUA 120 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
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(a) the date of the creation of the charge;

(b) the nature of the charge;

(c) the amount secured by the charge, or the maximum
sum deemed to be secured by the charge in accor-
dance with section 255;

(d) short particulars of the property charged,

(e) the persons entitled to the charge; and

If) in the case of a floating charge, the nature of any
restriction on the power of the company to grant
further charges ranking in priority to, or equally with,
the charge thereby created.

(2) Where a company creates a series of debentures containing
or giving by reference to any other iysmment any charge to the
benefit of which the debenture holders of that series are entitled
equally, it is sufficient if there is lodged with the Registrar for
registration, within 28 days after the execution of the instrument
containing the charges, or, if there is no such instrument, after the
execution of the first debenture of the series, a statement contain-
ing the following:

(a) the total amount secured by the whole series;

(b) the dates of the resolutions authorising the issue of the
series and the date of any covering instrument by
which the security interest is created or defined;

(c) the name of any trustee for the debenture holders; and

(d) the particulars specified in paragraphs (b), (d) and (n
of subsection (1).

(3) The statement referred to in subsection (2) shall be accom-
panied by the instrument containing the charge or a copy of that
instrument and a statutory declaration verifying the execution of
the inshument .and verifying the copy to be a true copy; but, if
there is no such instrument, the statement shall be accompanied
by a copy of one of the debentures of the series and a statutory
declaration verifying the copy to be a true copy.

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252. For the purposes of subsection (1) of 'section 250 and c*rtlfied copy
subsection (3) of section 25 1, a certified copy of an insvument or "* lnStmn"nt.
debenture is a copy of the instrument or debenture that has
endorsed on it a certificate

(a) that states that the instrument or debenture is a true
and complete copy of the original, and

(b) that is under seal of the co'mpany or under the hand
of some person interested in the instrument or deben-
ture otherwise than on behalf of the company.

253. When a charge requiring registration under sections 250 Later charges.
to 252

(a) is created before the lapse of 30days after the creation
of a prior unregistered charge that comprises all or
any part of the property comprised in the prior
charge, and

(b) is given as security for the same debr that 1s secured
by the prior charge or any part of that debt,

then, to the extent to which the subsequent charge is a security for
the same debt or part thereof and so far as respects the property
comprised in the prior charge, the subsequent charge does not
operate nor is it valid unless it was given in good faith for the
purpose of correcting some material error in the prior charge or
under other proper circumstances and not for the purpose of
avoiding or evading the provisions of this Division.

254. Sections 250 to 253 do not affect any other endcunent ~ f f e c t on
relating to the regisvation of charges. enactments.

255. (1) When a charge the particulars of which requlre 1-~u~tudttng
registration under section 250 is expressed to secure all sums due ch'3rgs.
or to become due or some other fluctuating amount, the particu-
lars required under paragraph (c) of subsection ( I ) of sechon 225 1
shall state the maximum sum that is deemed to be secured by the
charge, which shall be the maximum covered by the stamp duty
paid thereon; and the charge is, subject to subsection (2, void, so
far as any security interest is created by the charge, as respects any
excess over the stated maximum.

ANTIGUA 122 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
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(2) Where, in respect of a charge on the property of a company
of a kind referred to in subsection (1)

( a my additional stamp duty is later paid on the charge,
and

(b) at any time after that, but before the commencement
of the winding-up of the company, amended particu-
lars of the charge stating the increased maximum
sum deemed to be secured by the charge, together
with the original instrument by which the charge was
created or evidenced, are lodged with the Registrar
for registration,

then, as from the date on which it is lodged, the charge, if
otherwise valid, is effective to the extent of the increased
maximum sum, except as regards any person who, before thedate
on which the charge was so lodged, had acquired any proprietary
rights in, or a fixed or floating charge on, the property that is
subject to the charge.

Charge on 256. (1) Where acompany acquires any property that is subject
awluisition of to a charge of any kind that would, if it had been created by the
prope*~. company after the acquisition of the property, have been required

to be registered under this Division, the company shall within 28
days after the date on which the acquisition is completed, lodge
with the Registrar for registration

(a) a statement of the particulars required by section 25 1
and of the date of the acquisition of the property, and

(b) the instrument by which the charge was created or is
evidenced or a copy thereof,

accompanied by a statutory declaration as required by
section 250 and certified as provided in section 252.

(2) Failure to comply with subsection (1) does not affect the
validity of the charge concerned.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 123 ANTIGUA
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Registration of, Cbarges

257. (1) DoCuments and particub required to be lodged for Duty to Register.
registration may,

(a) in the case of a requirement under section 250, be
lodged by the company concerned or by any person
interested in the documents, and

(b) in the case of a requirement under section 256, be
lodged by the company concerned.

(2) A person not being the company concerned who lodges
documents or particulars for registration pursuant to paragraph
(a) of subsection (1) may recover from the company concerned
the amount of any fees properly payable on the registration if he
meets the requirements ofsections 250 to 253.

258. (1) The Registrar shall keep a register crf all the charges Register of charges.
lodged forregistration under this Division and enter in the register
with respect to those charges the faflowing particulars

(a) in any case to which subsection (2) of section 251
applies, such particulars as are required to be con-
tained in a statement lodged under that subsection;

(b) in any case to which section 256 applies, such
particulars as are required to be contained in a
statement lodged under paragraph (a) of subsection
(1) of that section; and

(c) in any other case, such particulars as are required by
section 251 to be contained in a statement lodged
under that section.

(2) The Registrar shall issue a certificate of every registration,
stating, if applicable, the amount secured by the charge, or, in a
case referred to in section 255, the maximum amount secured by
the charge, and the certificate is conclusive proof that the
requirements as to registration have been complied with.

259. (1) A company shall endorse on every debenture issued by Endorsement
it on debenture.

ANTIGUA 124 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
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(a) a copy of the certificate of registration of any charge
related to the debenture; or

(b) a statement that the registration of a charge related to
the debenture has been effected and the date of the

.registration.

(2) Subsection (1) does not apply to a debenture issued by a
company before the charge was created in relation to the deben-
ture.

\ a t ~ d a c t ~ o n 260. (1) Where, with respect to any registered charge,
and payment

(a) the debt for which the charge was given has been paid
or satisfied in whole or in part, or

r

(b) the property or undertaking charged, or any part
thereof, has been released from the charge, or has
ceased to form part of the company's property or
undertaking,

the company may lodge with the Registrar in the prescribed form
amemorandurn of satisfaction, in whole or in part, oramemoran-
durn of the fact that the property or undertaking, or any part
thereof, has been released from the charge or has ceased to form
part of the company's property or undertaking, as the case may
be, and the Registrar shall enter particulars of that memorandum
in the register.

(2) The memorandum shall be supportedby evidence sufficient
to satisfy the Registrar of the payment, satisfaction, release or
cessation referred to in subsection (1).

Kectif~cation of 261. On being satisfied that the omission to register a charge
error within the time required, or that the omission or mis-statement of

any particular with respect to any such charge or in a memoran-
dum

(a) was accidental or due to inadvertence or to some
other sufficient cause,

(b) is not of a nature toaffect adversely the position of
creditors or shareholders, or

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 125 ANTIGUA
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(c) that, on other grounds, it is just and equitable togrant
relief,

the court may, on the application of the company or any person
interested, and on such terms and conditions as seem to the court
to be just and expedient, order that the time for registration be
extended or that the omission or mis-statement be rectified.

262. (1) A company shall retain, at the registered office of the Retention of copy.
company, a ccpy sf every instrument crating any charge that
requuesregistration underthisDivision; but, in the caseofaseries
of debentures, the retention of a copy of one debenture of the
series is sufficient for the purposes of this subsection.

(2) A company shall record all charges specifically affecting
property of the company, and all floating charges on the under-
taking or any property of the company, giving in each case a short
description of the property charged, the amount of the charge and
the names of the persons entitled thereto.

263. The copies of instruments retained by the company Inspectionofcopies.
pursuant to section 262 shall be kept open for the inspection of
creditors and shareholders of the company, free of charge.

264. (1) Where any person Registration
of receiver.

(a) obtains an order for the gpoinrment of a receiver of
any of the property of a company, or

(b) appoints a receiver of any of the property of a
company or enters into possession of any property of
a company under any powers contained in any
charge,

he shall give, within 10 days from-the date of the order, appoint-
ment or entry into possession, notice thereof to the Registrar, who
shall enter the fact in the register of the particulars+of charges
relating to the company.

(2) When

(a) a person who-has been appointed a receiver of the
property of a company ceases to act as receiver, or

ANTIGUA 126 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

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(b) a person who had entered into possession of any
property of a company goes out of possession of that
P~perty,

he shall, within 10 days of his having done so, give notice of his
so doing in the prescribed form to the Registrar, who shall enter
the notice in the register of the particulars of charges relating to
the company.

Application of Division

External 265. This Division applies to charges created or acquired after
company. the commencement of this Division, by an external company, on

property in Antigua and Barbuda in llke manner and with like
consequences as if the external company were a company as
defined in section 543 whether or not the extemal company is
registered under this Act pursuant to Division B of Part 111.

DIVISION B

TRUST DEEDS AND DEBENTURES

Definitions.
266. In this Division

(a) "event of default" means an event specified in a trust
deed on the occurrence of which

(i) a security interest constituted by the trust deed
becomes enforceable, or

(ii) the principal, interest and other moneys pay-
able thereunder become, or can be declared to
be, payable before maturity;

but the event is not an event of default until all conditions
prescribed in the trust deed in connection with that event for the
giving of notice or the lapse of time or otherwise have been
satisfied:

(b) "trustee" means any person appointed as trustee
under the terms of a trust deed to which a company
is a party, and includes any successor trustee;

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(c) "trust deed means any deed, indenture or other
instrument, including any supplement or amendment
thereto, made by acompany after its incorporation or
continuance under this Act, under which the com-
pany issues debentures and in which a person is
appointed as trustee for the holders of the debentures
issued thereunder.

267. This Division applies to a trust deed if the debentures Application of
issued or to be issued under the trust deed are part of adistribution Division.
to the public.

Trustees

268. (1) No person may be appointed as trustee if there is a Confl~ct of ~nterest.
material conflict of interest between his role as trustee and his role
in any other
capacity.

(2) There is a material conflict of interest for the purpose of
subsection (1) where a person is an officer or employee, or a
shareholder of the company issuing the debentures.

(3) Within 90 days after a trustee becomes aware that amaterial
conflict of interest exists in his case, the trustee shall

(a) eliminate the conflict of interest, or

(b) resign from office.

(4) A trust deed, any debentures issued thereunder and a
security interest effected thereby are valid notwithstanding a
material conflict of interest of the trustee.

(5) If the trustee is appointed contrary to subsection (1) or
continues as a trustee contrary to subsection (3), any interested
person may apply to the court for an order that the trustee be
replaced; and the court may make an order on such terms as it
thinks fit.

269. (1) A holder of debentures issued under a trust deed may, List of debenture
upon payment to the trustee of areasonable fee, require the trustee holders.
to furnish, within 15 days after delivering to the trustee the
statutory declaration referred toin subsection (4), alist setting out

ANTIGUA 128 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

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(a) the names and addresses of the registered holders of
the outstandmg debentures of the issuer;

(0) the principalamountofoutsmldlng debenturesowned
by each such holder; and

(c) the aggregate principal arnount of debentures out-
standing,

as shown in the records maintained by the trustee on the day
that the statutory declaration is delivered to him.

(2) Upon the demand of a trustee, the Issuer of debenture\ shall
fum~sh the trustee with $e lnformatlon required to enable the
trustee to cornply wlth iubsecuon (1).

(3) If the person requiring the trustee to furn14 a list under
subiecuon (1) is a body corporate, the statutory declaration
requued under that subsect~on shall be made by a d~rccttu or
officer of the body corporate.

(4) The statutory declarauon requ~red under wbsectlon ( I )
shall state:

(a) the name and address of the pcrson requiring the
trustee to furnish the list, and, if the person is a body
corporate, its address for service; and

(b) that the hst will not be usedexcept i ~ \ penn~ttcd under
subsection (5).

( 5 ) A 1151 obtained under this sectlon shall not be useil by lulq
person except in connection with

( ( I ) ill1 effort to influence the voting ol' h e duben~ure
holders;

(b) an offer to acquire debentures; or

(c) any other matter relaline to dle dcbcnturcs or the
affairs of the issuer or guarantor Lhcrc~xlnp~u~y 111 the event of its being wound up;

(ill :UI> st1111 due from the company to a member or past
member. in his character of member, by way of
dl\ dend or odien\ Ise. shall not be set-offagamst the
amounts for nh~ch he is l~able to conutbute In
accordance u ~ t h thls sectlon. but any such sum shall
be d e n ~n to account for the purposes of tinal
iidlusunent of the n ~ h t s of the members and p a t
members amongst themsel\~es.

(3) "blember" In relation to acolnpany means an incorporator
of the company and an? other person who agrees to become a
mernkr of the company and whose name IS entered in the
company's reglster of members; and for the purposes of subsec-
uons (1) and ( 2 ) "past member" includes the estate of a deceased
member and, where any person dies after becoming l~able as a
member or past member. the liability is enforceable against his
estate.

(4) Except as provided in subsechons (1) to (3), a member or
past member of acompany is not liable as such for any of the debts
or habllities of the company.

( 5 ) In the event of a company being wound up any part of the
issue pr~ce of a share remaining to be paid shall, with effect from
the commencement of the winding up, be treated as an amount
unpad on the share whether or not the due date for the payment
has occurred.

372. Nothing m this Act shall invalidate any provision con- Saving.
mned In any pollcy of insurance or other contract whereby the
liability of individual member3 on the policy or contract is
resmcted, or whereby the funds of the company are alone made
liable in respect of the policy or contract.

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Definition of
contributory.

Nature of
liability of
contributory.

Contributories
in case of death
of member.

Contributories
in case of
bankruptcy of
members.

186 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.

373. The term "contributory" means every person liable to
contribute tothe assets of acompany in the eventof it being wound
up, and for the purposes of all proceedings for determining, and
all proceedings prior to the final determination of, the persons
who are to be deemedcontributories, includes any person alleged
to be a contributory.

374. The liability of a conuibutory creates a debt in the
nature of a specialty accruing due from the contributory at the
time when his liability commenced, but payable at the times
when calls are made for enforcing the liability.

375. (1) If a contributory dies either before or after he has
been placed on the list of contributories, his personal represen-
tatives are liable in a due course of administration to conuib-
ute to the assets of the company in discharge of his liability
and shall be contributories accordingly.

(2) If the personal representatives make default in paying any
money ordered to be paid by them, proceedings may be taken for
administering the estate of the deceased contributory, and for
compelling payment thereout of the money due.

376. If a contributory becomes bankrupt, either before or after
he has been placed on the list of contributories-

(a) his trustee in bankruptcy shall represent him for all
the purposes of the winding up, and shall be a
contributory accordingly, and may be called on to
admit proof against the estate of the bankrupt, or
otherwise to allow to be paid out of his assets in due
course of law, any money due from the bankrupt in
respect of his liability to contribute to the assets of the
company; and

(b) there may be proved against the estateof the bankrupt
the estimated value of his liability to future: calls as
well as calls already made.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 187 ANTIGUA
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DIVISION B

WINDING UP BY THE COURT

377. A company may be wound up by the Court if- Circumstances
in which company

(a) the company has by special resolution resolved that may be
the company be wound up by the Court; up by court.

(b) the company does not commence its business within
a year from its incorporation, or suspends its business
for a whole year;

(c) the company is unable to pay its debts;

(d) an inspector appointed under Division B of Part V has
reported that he is of the opinion-

(i) that the company cannot pay its debts and
should be wound up; or

(ii) that it is in the interests of the public or of the
shareholders or of the creditors that the com-
pany should be wound up; or

(e) the Court is of the opinion that it is just and equitable
that the company should be wound up.

378. (1) A company is deemed to be unable to pay its debts Definition of
if- inability

to pay debts.

(a) a creditor, by assignment or otherwise, to whom the
company is indebted in a sum exceeding five thou-
sand dollars then due, has served on the company, by
leaving it at the registered office of the company, a
demand under his handor under the hand of his agent
lawfully authorisedrequiring the company to pay the
sum so due, and the company has for three weeks
thereafter neglected to pay the sum, or to secure or
compound for it to the reasonable satisfaction of the
creditor;

(b) execution or other process issued on a judgment
decree or order of any court in favour of a creditor of

ANTIGUA 188 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of1995.
AND

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the company is returned unsatisfied in whole or in
part; or

(c) it is proved to the satisfaction of the court that the
company is unable to pay its debts as they become
due.

(2) A company is also deemed unable to pay its debts if it is
proved to the satisfaction of the court that the value of the
company's assets is less than the amount of its liabilities, taking
into account its contingent and prospective liabilities.

(3) The money sum for the time being specified in subsection
(1) (a) is subject to increase or reduction by regulation under
section 527.

Petition for 379. (1) An application to the court for the winding up of a
winding up. company shall be by petition presented, subject to the provi-

sions of the section, either by

(a) the company;

(b) a creditor, including a contingent or prospective
creditor, of the company;

(c) a contributory; or

(d) the trustee in bankruptcy to, or personal representa-
tive of, a creditor or contributory;

or any two or more of those parties.

(2) Notwithstanding anything in subsection (1) -

(a) a contributory is not entitled to present a winding-up
petition unless the shares in respect of which he is a
contributory, or some of them, either were originally
allotted to him or have been held by him, and
registered in his name, for at least six months during
the eighteen months before the commencement of
the winding up, or have devolved on him through the
death of a fonner holder; and

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 189 ANTIGUA
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(b) the court shall not hear a winding-up petition pre-
sented by a contingent or prospective creditor until
such security for costs has been given a5 the court
thinks reasonable and until a prima facie caw for
winding up ha5 been established to the satisfaction of
the court.

(3) Where a company is being wound up voluntarily, a
winding-up petition may be presented by the Official Receiver as
well as by any other person authorised in that behalf under the
other provisions of this section, but the court shall not make a
winding-up order on the petition unless it is satisfied that the
voluntary winding up cannot be continued with due regard to the
interests of the creditors or contrihutories.

(4) A contributory is entitled to present a winding-up petition
notwithstanding that there may not be asset5 available on the
winding up for distribution to conuibutories.

380. (1) On hearing a winding-up petition the court may powers
dismiss it, or adjourn the hearing conditionally or uncondition- on hearln?
ally, or make any interim order, or any other order that it thinks
fit, but the court shall not refuse to make a winding-up order on
the ground only that the assets of the company have been
mortgaged to an amount equal to or in excess of those assets, or
that the company has no assets.

(2) Where the petition is presented by members of the com-
pany as contributories on the ground that it is just and equitable
that the company should be wound up, the court, if it is of the
opinion-

(a) that the petitioners are entitled to relief either by
winding up the company or by some other means; and

(b) that in the absence of any other remedy it would be
just andequitable that the company should be wound
UP*

shall make a winding-up order, unless it is also of the opinion that
some other remedy is available to the petitioners and that they are
acting unreasonably in seeking to have the company wound up
isstead of pursuing that other remedy.

ANTIGUA 190 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.
AND

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Power to stay 381. At any time after the presentation of a winding-up
or restrain petition, and before a winding-up order has been made, the
proceedings
against company. company, or any creditor or contributory, may, where any action

or pmeeding is pending against the company, apply to the court
to stay or restrain further proceedings, and the court may stay or
restrain the proceedings accordingly on such terms as it thinks fit.

Avoidance of 382. In a winding up by the court, any disposition of the property
dis~ositiOm O* of the company, including things in action, and any transfer of
property, etc.
after commence- shares, or alteration in the status of the members of the company,
ment of made after the commencement of the winding-up, is, unless the
winding up. court otherwise orders, void.

Avoidance of 383. Where any company is being wound up by the court, any
attachmenup etc. attachment, sequestration, distress, or execution put in force

against the estate or effects of the company after the commence-
ment of the winding up is void.

commencement of 384. (1) Where before the presentation of a petition for the
winding up by winding upof acompany by the court aresolution hasbeen passed
the court. by the company for voluntary winding up, the winding up of the

company is deemed to have commenced at the time of the passing
of the resolution, and unless the court, on proof of fraud or
mistake, thinks fit otherwise to direct, all proceedings taken in the
voluntary winding up are deemed to have been v

ali

dly taken.

(2) In any other case, the winding up of acompany by the court
is deemed to commence at the time of the presentation of the
petition for winding up.

Copy of order 385. (1) On the making of a winding up order, a copy of the
to be forwarded order shall forthwith be lodged by the company, or otherwise as
to Registrar.

may be prescribed, with the Registrar, who shall make an entry
thereof in his records relating to the company.

(2) If default is made in lodging a copy of a winding-up order
with the Regisrrar as required by subsection (I), every officer of
the company or other person who knowingly authorises or permits
the default is guilty of an offence.

Actions stayed 386. When a winding-uporder has beenmade, ora provisional
On winding-up liquidator has been appointed, no action or proceeding shall be
order. proceeded with or commenced against the company except by

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 191 ANTIGUA
AND

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leave of the court, and subject to such terms as the court may
impose.

387. An order for winding up acompany shall operate in favour Effect of
of all the creditors and of all the contributories of the company, winding up order.
as if made on the joint petition of a creditor andof acontributory.

Ofncial Receiver

388. For the purpose of this Act, "Official Receiver" means the Meaning of
Official Receiver attached to the court for bankruptcy purposes, official
and any Assistant Official Receiver. Receiver.

W. (1) Where the count has made a winding-up order or statement of
appointed a provisional liquidator, there shall, unless the court company's affairs.
otherwise orders, be made out and submitted to the Official
Receiver a statenient as to the affairs of the company in the
prescribed form, verified by affidavit, and showing the particulars
of its assets, debts and liabilities, the names, residences, and
occupation of its creditors, the securities held by them respec-
tively, the dates when the securities were respectively given, and
such further or other information as may be prescribed or as the
Official Receiver may require.

(2) The statement shall be submitted and verified by one or
more of the persons who are at the relevant date the directors and
by the person who is at that date the secretary of the company, or
by such of the persons hereinafter in this subsection mentioned as
the Official Receiver, subject to the direction of the court, may
require to submit and verify the statement, that is to say, per-
sons -

(a) who are or have been officers, other than employees,
of the company;

(b) who have taken part in the formation of the company
at any time within one year before the relevant date;

(c) whc are in the employment of the company, or have
been in the employment ofthe company within that
year, and are in the opinion of the m~ial Receiver
capable of giving the information requM, and

ANTIGUA 192 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(d) who are or have been within that year officers of or
in the employment of acompany, which is, or within
that year was, an officer of the company to which the
statement relates.

(3) The statement shall be submitted within fourteen days from
the relevant date, or within such extended time as the Official
Receiver or the court may for special reasons allow.

(4) Any person making or concurring in making the statement
and affidavit required by this section shall be allowed, and shall
be paid by the Official Receiver or provisional liquidator, as the
case may be, out of the assets of the company, such costs and
expenses incurred in and about the preparation andmaking of the
statement and affidavit as the Official Receiver considers reason-
able, subject to an appeal to the court.

(5) Any person who, withoutreasonable excuse, makes default
in complying with the requirements of this section is guilty of an
offence.

(6) Any person stating himself in writing to be a creditor or
contributory of the company is entitled by himself or by his agent
at all reasonable times, on payment of the prescribed fee, to
inspect the statement submitted in pursuance of this section, and
to a copy thereof or extract therefrom.

(7) Any person untruthfully so stating himself to be a creditor
or contributory is guilty of a contempt of court and shall, on the
application of the liquidator or of the Official Receiver, be
punishable accordingly.

(8) In this section, "the relevant date" means in a case where
a provisional liquidator is appointed, the date of his appointment
and, in a case where no such appointment is made, the date of the
winding-up order.

Re~ofl by Official 390. (1) Inacase where awinding-up orderismadetheOfficial
Receiver. Receiver shall, as soonas practicable afterreceipt of the statement

to be submitted under section 389, or, in a case where the court
orders that no statement shall be submitted, as soon as practicable
after the date of the order, submit apreliminary report tothe court-

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 193 ANTIGUA
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(a) as to the amount of capital issued, and subscribed,
and the estimated amount of assets and liabilities:

(b) if the company has failed, as to the causes of the
failure; and

(c) whether in his opinion further inquiry is desirable as
to any matter relating to the promotion, formation or
failure of the company, or the conduct of the business
thereof.

(2) The Official Receiver may also, if he thinks fit, make a
further report, or further reports, stating the manner in which the
company was formed and whether in his opinion any fraud has
been committed by any person in its promotion or formation, or
by any officer of the company in relation to the company since the
formation thereof, and any other matters which in his opinion it
is desirable to bring to the notice of the court.

Liquidators

391. For the purposes of conducting the proceedings in winding power of COW
up a company and petforming such duties in reference thereto as to appoint
the court may impose, the court may appoint a liquidator or liquidators.
liquidators.

392. (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, the court may Appointment and
appoint a liquidator provisionally at any time after the presenta- powe" of
tion of a winding-up petition, and either the Official Receiver or ~~7::'~
any other fit person may be appointed.

(2) Where aliquidator is previously appointed by the court, the
court may limit and restrict his powers by the order appointing
him.

393. Subject to subsection (2) of section 392 the foqwing Appointment,
provisions with respect to liquidators have effect on a winding- sty1e* etc. Of

liquidators.
up order being made, namely -

(a) the Official Receiver shall by virtue of his office
become the provisional liquidator and shall conlinue
to act as such until he or another person becomes
liquidator and is capable of acting as such;

ANTIGUA 194 l7w Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(b) the Official Receiver shall summon separate meet-
ings of the creditors and contributories of the com-
pany for the purposes of determining whether or not
.an application is to be made to the Court for appoint-
ing a liquidator in the place of the Official Receiver;

(c) the court may make any appointment and order
required to give effect to any such determination,
and, if there is a difference between the determina-
tionsof themeetings of thecreditors and contributories
in respect of any such matter, the court shall decide
the difference and make such order thereon as the
court may think fit;

(d) in a case where a liquidator is not appointed by the
court, the Official Receiver shall be the liquidator of
the company;

(e) the Official Receiver shall by virtue of his office be
the liquidator during any vacancy; and

fl a liquidator shall be described, where a person other
than the Official Receiver is liquidator, by the style
of "the liquidator" and, where the Official Receiver
is liquidator, by the style of "the Official Receiver
and liquidator", of the particular company in respect
of which he is appointed, and not by his individual
name.

Provisions where 394. (1) Where in the winding-up of a company by the court
person than a person other than the Official Receiver is appointed liquidator,
W ~ c i a l Receiver is
appointed that person -

(a) shall notbe capable of acting as liquidator until hehas
notified his appointment to the Registrar and given
security in such manner as the court may direct; and

(b) shall give the OfficlalReceiver such information and
such access to and facilities for inspecting the books
and documents of the company and generally such
aid as may be requisite for enabling the Official
Receiver to perform his duties under this Act.

No. 18of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 195 ANTIGUA
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(2) If a liquidator contravenes paragraph (b) of subsection (1)
he is guilty of an offence.

385. (1) A liquidator appointed by the court may resign or, on General
cause shown be removed by the court. provisions as

to liquidators.

(2) Where a person other than the Official Receiver is ap-
pointed liquidator, he shall receive suchsalary or remuneration
by way of percentage or otherwise as the court may d i i t and, if
more persons than one are appointed liquidators, their remunera-
tion shall be distributed among them in such proportions as the
court directs.

(3) A vacancy in the office of a liquidator appointed by the
court shall be filled by the court.

(4) If more than one liquidator is appointed by the court, the
court shall declare whether any act by this Act required or
authorised to be done by the liquidator is to be done by all or any
one or more of the persons appointed.

(5) Subject to this Act, the acts of a liquidator are valid
notwithstanding any defects that may afterwards be discovered in
his appointment or qualification.

3%. Where a winding-up order has been made or a provisional custody of
liquidator has been appointed, the liquidator, or the provisional company's
liquidator, as the case may be, shall take into his custody, or under pope*Y.
his control, all the property and things in action to which the
company is or appears to be entitled.

397. Where a company is being wound up by the court, the Vesting of
court may on the application of the liquidator by order direct that proPe*Y of
all orany part of the property of whatmverdescription belong@ cig~fo
to the company or held by uustees on its behalf shall vest in the
liquidator by his official name, and thereupon the property to
which the order relates shall vest accordingly, and the liquidator
may, after giving such indemnity, if any, as the court may direct,
bring or &fend in his official name any action or other legal
proceeding which relates to that property or which it is necessary
to bring or defend for the purpose of effectually winding up the
company and recovering its assets.

W W A 196 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
m

BARBUDA

Powers of 398. (1) The liquidator in a winding up by the court may with
liquidator. the sanction either of the court or of the committee of inspection-

(a) bring or defend any action or other legal proceeding
in the name and on behalf of the company;

(b) carry on the business of the company, so far as may
be necessary, for the beneficial winding up thereof;

(c) appoint an attorney-at-law or other agent to assist
him in the performance of his duties;

(d) pay any classes of creditors in full if the assets of the
company remaining in his hands will suffice to pay
in full the debts and liabilities of the company which
rank for payment before, or equally with, the debts or
claims of the first mentioned creditors;

(e) make any compromise or arrangement with creditors
or persons claiming to be creditors, or having or
alleging themselves to have any claim, present or
future, certain or contingent, ascertained or sounding
only in damages against the company, or whereby the
company may be rendered liable;

(fl compromise any calls and liabilities to calls, debts
and liabilities capable or resulting in debts, and all
claims,presentorfuture,certain orcontingent, ascer-
tained or sounding only in damages, subsisting or
supposed to subsist between the company and a
contributory, orallegedcontributory, or other debtor
or person apprehending liability to the company, and
all questions in any way relating to or affecting the
assets or the winding up of the company, on such
terms as are agreed, and take any security for the
discharge of any such call, debt, liability or claim,
and give a complete discharge in respect thereof.

(2) The liquidator in a winding up by the court may

(a) sell the real and personal property and things in action
of the company by public auction or private contract,
with powerto transfer the whole thereof to any person
or to sell the same in parcels;

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 197 ANTIGUA
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(b) do all acts and execute, in the name and on behalf of
the company, all deeds, receipts, and other docu-
ments, and for that purpose to use, when necessary,
the company's seal,

(c) prove, rank, and claim in the bankruptcy, insolvency,
or sequestration of any contributory, for any balance
against his estate, and receive dividends in the bank-
ruptcy, insolvency, or sequestration in respect of that
balance as a separate debt due from the bankpt or
insolvent, a ~ d meably with the other separate credi-
tors;

(d) draw, accept, make and endorse any bill of exchange
or promissory note in the name and on behalf of the
company, with the same effect with respect to the
liability of the company as if the bill or note had been
drawn, accepted, made or endorsed by or on behalf
of the company in the course of its business;

(e) raise on the security of the assets of the company any
money requisite;

take out in his official name letters of administration
to any deceased contributory, and do in his official
name any other act necessary for obtaining payment
of any money due from a contributory or his estate
which cannot be conveniently done in the name of the
company, and in all such cases the money due is, for
the purpose of enabling the liquidator to take out the
letters of administration orrecover themoney, deemed
to be due to the liquidator himself.

(g) appoint an agent to do any business which the
liquidator is unable to do himself; and

(h) do all such other things as may be necessary for
winding up the affairs of the company and distribut-
ing its assets.

(3) The exercise by the liquidator in a winding up by the court
of the powers conferred by this section shall be subject to the
control of the court, and any creditor or coniributory may apply
to the court with respect to any exercise or proposed exercise of
any of those powers.

ANTIGUA 198 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 1.8of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

Exercise and 399. (1) Subject to this Part, the liquidator of a company which
control of is being wound up by the court shall, in the administration of the
liquidator's powers.

assets of the company and in the distribution thereof among its
creditors, have regard to any directions that may be given by
resolution of the creditors or contributories at any general meet-
ing, orby the committeeofinspection, andany directions sogiven
by the creditors or contributories shall in case of conflict be
deemed to override any directions given by the committee of
inspection.

(2) The liquidator may summon general meetings of the
creditors or conuibutories for the purpose of ascertaining their
wishes, and he shall summon meetings at such times as the
creditors or contributories, by resolution, either at the meeting
appointing the liquidator or otherwise, direct, or whenever
requested in writing to do so by not less than one-tenth in value
of the creditors or contributories.

(3) The liquidator may apply to the court in the prescribed
manner for directions in relation to any particular matter arising
under the winding up.

(4) Subject to this Part, the liquidator shall use his own
discretion in the management of the estate and its distribution
among the creditors.

(5) If any person is aggrieved by any act or decision of the
liquidator, that person may apply to the court, and the court may
confirm, reverse, or modify the actor decision complained of, and
make such order as it thinks fit.

BOO~S to be 400. (1) Every liquidator of a company which is being wound
kept by
liquidator.

up by the court shall keep, in the prescribed manner, proper books
in which he shall cause to be made entries or, minutes of
proceedings at meetings, and of such other matters as may be
prescribed, and any creditor or contributory may, subject to the
control of the court, personally or by his agent inspect any such
books and make copies thereof or extracts therefrom.

(2) If a liquidator fails to keep proper books as required by
subsection (1) or refuses to allow any inspection permitted
thereby, he is guilty of an offence.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 199 ANTIGUA
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401. (1) Every liquidator of a company which is being Payments of
wound up by the court shall pay the money received by him liquidator into
into such bank as the court may direct. bank.

(2) If any such liquidator at any time retains for more than ten
days a sum exceeding two hundred dollars, or such other amourSt
as the court in any particular case authorises him to retain, then,
unless he explains the retention to the satisfaction of the court, he
shall pay interest on the amount so rehineb in excess at the rate
of twenty per entum per annum and shall be liable to disallow-
ance of all or s ~ & partof his ~mtmeratiora s the court may think
just, and b~ be removed from his office by the court, and shall be
liable to pay any expenses occasioned by reason of his default.

(3) A liquidator of a company which is being wound up by the
court shall not pay any sums received by him as liquidator into his
private banking account.

(4) A liquidator who contravenes the provisions of subsection
(3) is guilty of an offence.

402. (1) Every liquidator of a company which is being wound Audit of
up by the court shall, at such times as may be prescribed but not
less than twice in each year during his tenure of office, send to the accounts.

Registrar an account of his receipts and payments as liquidator.

(2) The account shall be in a prescribed form, shall be made
in duplicate, and shall be verified by an affidavit or a statutory
declaration in the prescribed form.

(3) The Regisuar shall cause the account to be audited by an
auditor eligible for appointment as auditor of a company under
section 158 and for the purpose of the audit the liquidator shall
furnish the auditor with such vouchers and information as the
auditor may require, and the auditor may at any time require the
production of and inspect any b k s or accounts kept by the
liquidator.

(4) When the account has been audited, one copy thereof shall
be filed and kept by the Registrar and the other copy shall be
delivered to the court for filing, and each copy shall be open to the
inspection of any creditor or any person interested.

ANTIGUA
AM)

BARBUDA

The Companies Act, 1995. No, 18of 1995.

Control of
Registrar over
liquidators.

Release of
liquidator.

(5) If a liquidator fails to comply with any of the duties imposed
on him by this section he is guilty of an offence.

403. (1) The Registrar shall take cognizance of the conduct of
liquidators of companies which are being wound up by the court,
and, if a liquidator does not faithfully perform his duties and duly
observe all the requirements imposed on him by statute, rules, or
otherwise with respect to the performance of his duties, or if any
complaint is made to the Registrar by any creditor or contributory
in regard thereto, the Registrar shall inquire into the matter, and
take such action thereon as he may think expedient.

(2) The Registrar may at any time require any liquidator of a
company which is being wound up by the court to answer any
inquiry in relation to any winding up in which he is engaged and
may, if the Registrar thinks fit, apply to the court to examine hi
or any other'person on oath concerning the winding up.

(3) The Registrar may also direct an investigation to be made
of the books and vouchers of the liquidator.

404. (1) When the liquidator of a company which is being
wound up by the court has realised all the assets of the company,
or so much thereof as can, in his opinion be realised without
needlessly protracting the liquidation, and has distributed a final
dividend, if any, to the creditors, and adjusted the rights of the
contributories among themselves, and made a final return, if any,
to the contributories, or has resigned, or has been removed from
his office, the Registrar shall, on his application, cause areport on
his accounts to be prepared, and, on his complying with all the
requirements of the Registrar, shall take into consideration the
report, and any objection which may be urged by any creditor or
contributory or person interested against the release of the
liquidator, and shall either grant or withhold the release accord-
ingly, subject nevertheless to an appeal to the court.

(2) Where therelease of aliquidator is withheld, the court may,
on application of any creditor or contributory, or person inter-
ested, make such order as it thinks just, charging the liquidator
with the consequences of any act or default which he may have
done or made contrary to his duty.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 201 ANTIGUA
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(3) An order of the Registrar releasing the liquidator shall
discharge him from all liability in respect of any act done or
default made by him in the administration of the affairs of the
company, or otherwise in relation to his conduct as liquidator, but
any such order may be revoked on proof that it was obtained by
fraud or by suppression or concealment of any material fact.

Committees of Inspection

405. (1) When a winding-up order has been made by the court,
it shall be the business of the separate meetings of creditors and
contributories summoned for the purpose of determining whether
or not an application should be made to the court for appointing
a liquidator other than the O f f i d Receiver, to determine further
whether or not an applieation is to be made to the court for the
appointment of acommittee of inspection to act with the liquida-
tor and who are to be members of the committee if appointed.

Meetings of
creditors and
contributories
to determine
whether committee
of inspection
shall be
appointed.

(2) The court may make any appoinbnent and order required
to give effect to any such determination, and if there is adifference
between the determination of the meetings of the creditors and
conbibutories thecourt shall decide thedifference andmake such
order as the court thinks fit.

406. (1) A committee of inspection appointed in pursuance of constitution
this Act shall consist of creditors and contributories of the and proceedings

of committee of company or persons holding general powers of attorney from inspection.
creditors or conhibutories in such proportions as is agreed on by
the meetings of the creditors and contributories, or as, in the case
of a difference, may be determined by tbe court.

(2) The committee shall meet at such time as they may from
time to time appoint, and, failing such appointment, at least once
a month and the liquidator or any member of the committee may
also call a meeting of the committee as and when he thinks
necessary.

(3) The committee may act by a majority of their members
present at a meeting, but shall not act unless a majority of the
committee is present.

(4) A member of the committeemay resign by notice in writing
signed by him and delivered to the liquidator.

ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

Powers of
court where
no committee of
inspection.

Power to siay
winding-up, etc.

202 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.

(5) If a member of the committee becomes barlkrupt, or
compounds or arranges witb his creditors, or is absent from five
consecutive meetings of the committee without the leave of those
members who together with h s d f Pzpresena the creditors or
mnuiburariec, as the case may be, his office shall hereupon
become vacant.

(6) A member of the committee may be removed by an
ordinary resolution at a meeting of creditors, if he represents
creditors, or of contributories, if he represents contributories of
which seven days' notice has been given, stating the object of the
meeting.

(7) On a vacancy occuning in the committee the liquidator
shall forthwith summon ameeting of creditas or of contributories,
as the case may require, to fill the vacancy, and the meeting may,
by resolution, re-appoint the same or appoint another creditor or
conhbutory to fill the vacancy; but if the liquidator, having
regard to the position in the windiig up, is of the opinion that it
is unnecessary for the vacancy to be filled he may apply to the
court and the court may make an order that the vacancy shall not
be filled, or shall not be filled except in suchcircumstances asmay
be specified in the order.

(8) The continuing members of the committee, if not less than
two, may act notwithstanding any vacancy in the committee.

407. Where in the case of a windiig up there is no committee
of inspection, the court may on the application of the liquidator,
do any act or thing or give any direction or permission which is
by this Act authorised or required to be done or given by the
committee.

General Powers of Court

408. (1) The court may at any time after an order for winding
up, on the application either of the liquidator, or the Official
Receiver, or any creditor or contributory, and on proof to the
satisfaction of the court that all proceedings in relation to the
winding up ought to be stayed, make an order staying the
proceedings, either altogether or for a limited time, on such terms
and conditions as the court thinks fit.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 203 ANTIGUA
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(2) The court may, at any time after an order for winding up,
on the application either of the liquidator or a creditor, and after
having regard to the wishes of the aeditors and contributories,
make an order directing that the winding up, ordered by the court,
shall be conducted as a creditors' voluntary winding up; and, if
the court does so the winding up shall be so conducted.

(3) On any application under subsection (1) the court may,
before making an order, require the Official Receiver to furnish
to the court areport with respect to any facts or matters which are
in his opinion relevant to the application.

(4) A copy of every order made under this section shall
forthwith be lodged by the company, or otherwise as may be
prescribed, with the Registrar, who shall make an entry of the
order in his records relating to the company.

(5) If default is made in lodging a copy of an order made under
this section with the Regismas required by subsection (4), every
officer of the company or other person who knowingly authorises
or permits the default is guilty of an offence.

409. (1) As soon as may be after making a winding-up order, SettIement of
the court shall settle a list of contributories, and may rectify the list ofcontribu-
register of members in all cases where rectification is required in
pursuance of this Act, and shall cause the assets of the company of ,,.
to be collected and applied in discharge of its liabilities.

(2) Notwithstanding subsection (I), where it appears to the
court that it will not be necessary tb make calls on or adjust the
rights of contributories, the court may dispense with the settle-
ment of alist of contributories.

(3) In settling the list of contributories, the court shall distin-
guish between persons who are contributories in their own right
and persons who are conmbutories as being representatives of or
liable for the debts of others.

(4) The list of contributories when settled shall be prima facie
evidence of the liabilities of the persons named therein as
contributories.

ANTIGUA 204 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

Delivery of 410. The court may, at any time after making a winding-up
property to order, require any contributory for the time being on the list of
liquidator. contributories, and any bustee, receiver, banker, agent or officer

of the company to pay, deliver, convey, smnder or transfer
forthwit&, or within such time as the courtdirects, to the liquidator
any assets or books and papers in his hands to which the company
is prima facie entitled.

Payment of debts 411. (1) The court may, at any time after making a windig-
due by contribu- up order, make an order directing any contributory for the time
tory to company
and extent to being on the list of contributories to pay, in the manner directed
which set-off by the order, any money due from him or from the estate of the
allowed. person whom he represents to the company, exclusive of any

money payable by him or the estate by virtue of any call in
pursuance of this Act.

(2) In the case of any company, when all the creditors are paid
in full, any money due on account whatever to acontributory from
thecompany may be allowed to him by way of set-off against any
subsequent call.

Power of court 412. (1) The court may, at any time after making a winding
to make calls. up order, and either before or after it has ascertained the suffi-

ciency of the assets of the company, make calls on all or any of
the contributories for the time being settled on the list of the
contributories to the extent of their liability, for payment of any
money which the court considers necessary to satisfy the debts
and liabilities of the company, and the costs, charges, and
expenses of winding up, and for the adjustment of the rights of the
contributories, among themselves, and make an order for pay-
ment of any calls so made.

(2) In making a call the court may take into consideration the
probability that some of the contributories may partly or wholly
fail to pay the call.

Payment into 413. (1) The court may order any contributory, purchaser or
bank of moneys other person from whom money is due to the company to pay the
due to company. amount due into a bank to the account of the liquidator instead of

to the liquidator, and any such order may be enforced in the same
manner as if it had directed payment to the liquidator.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 205 ANTIGUA
AND

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(2) All moneys and securities paid or delivered into such bank
in the event of a winding up by the court shall be subject in all
respects to the orders of the court.

414. An order made by the court on a contributory is, subject Order on
to any right of appeal, conclusive evidence that themoney, if any, conhbutor~ is
thereby appearing to be due or ordered to be paid is due, and all 2:
other pertinent matters stated in the order shall be taken to be truly
stated as against all persons and in all procee8ings.

415. (1) Where in any proceedings the Official Receiver Appointment of
becomes the liquidator of a company, whether provisionally or vecia' manager
otherwise, he may, if satisfied that the nature of the estate or
business of the company, or the interests of the creditors or
contributories generally, require the appointment of a special
manager of the estate or business of the company other than
himself, apply to the court, and the court may on the application
appoint a special manager of the estate or business to act during
such time as the court directs, with such powers, including any of
the powers of a receiver or manager, as are entrusted to h i by the
court.

(2) The special manager shall give such security and account
in such manner as the court directs.

(3) The special manager shall receive such remuneration as
may be fixed by the court.

416. The court may fix a time or times within which creditors Power to
are to prove their debts or claims or after which they will be exclude
excluded from the benefit of any distribution made befae those ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ m e .
debts are proved.

417. The court shall adjust the rights of the contributories Adjustment of
among themselves, anddistribute any surplus among the persons rights of
entitled thereto. contributories.

418. (1) The court may, at any time after making a winding- Inspection of
up order, make such order for inspection of the books and papers boob by

creditors or of the company by creditors andconvibutories as h e court thinks con.butories.
just, and any books and papers in the possession of the company
may be inspected by creditors and contributories accordingly, but
not further or otherwise.

ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

Power to ader
costs of wind-
ing up to be paid
out of assets.

Power to summon
persons sus-
pected of having
property of
c"mpanY.

Power to ader
public examina-
tion of promoters
directors, etc.

206 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.

(2) Nothing in this section shall be taken as excluding or
restricting any statutory rights of a Government Department or a
person under the authority of a Govemment Department or the
Minister.

419. Thecourtmay, in theevent of theassetsbeing insufficient
to satisfy the liabilities, make an order as to the payment out of
the assets of the costs, charges, and expenses incurred in the
winding up in such order of priority as the court thinks fit.

420. (1) The court may, at any time after the appointment of
a provisional liquidator or the making of a winding-up order,
summon before it any officer of the company or person &own or
suspected to have in his possession any property of the company,
or supposed to be indebted to the company, or any person whom
the court deems capable of giving information concerning the
promotion, formation, trade, dealings, affaks, or property of the
company.

(2) The court may examine him on oath concerning the matters
mentionedin subsection (I), either by wordof mouth or on written
intemgatories, andmay reduce his answers to writing andrequire
h i to sign them, and any writing so signed may be used in
evidence in any legal proceedings against h i .

(3) Thecourt may require h i to produce any books and papers
in his custody or power relating to the company, but where he
claims any lien on books or papers produced by him, the
production shall be without prejudice to that lien, and the court
shall have jurisdiction in the winding up todetermine all questions
relating to that lien.

(4) If any person so summoned, after being ten&red a
reasonable sum for his expenses, refuses to come before the court
at the time appointed, not having a lawful impediment (made
known to thecourt at the time of its sitting, and allowed by it), the
court may cause him to be apprehended and brought before the
court for examination.

421. (1) Where an order has been made for winding up a
company by the court, and the Official Receiver has ma& a
further report under this Act stating that in his opinion a fraud or
improper conduct has been committed, or engaged in, by any
person in the promotion or formation of the company, or by any

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 207 ANTIGUA
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officer of the company in relation to the company since its
formation, the court may, after consideration of the report, direct
that the person or officer or any other person who was previously
an officer of the company, including any banker, attorney-at-law
or auditor, or who ishown or suspected to have in his possession
any property of the company or is supposed to be indebted to the
company or any person who the court deems capable of giving
information concerning the promotion, formation, trade deal-
ings, affairs or property of the company, &all attend before tole
wurt on a day appointed by the court for &at purpose, and be
publicly eerrwmed as to ?he pre~motion or formation or the
conduct of the business of tht: company, or in the case of an officer
or former officer as to his conduct and dealings as officer thereof.

(2) The Official Receiver shall take part in the examination,
and for that purpose may, if specially authorised by the court in
that behalf, employ an attorney-at-law.

(3) The liquidator, where the Official Receiver is not the
liquidator, and any creditor or contributory, may also take part in
the examination either personally or by attorney-at-law.

(4) The court may put such questions to the person examined
as the court thinks fit.

(5) The person examined shall be examined on oath and is not
excused from answering any questions put to him on the ground
that the answer might tend to incriminate him but, where he
claims before answering the question, that the answer might tend
to incriminate him, neither the question nor the answer is
admissible in evidence against him in criminal proceedings other
than proaxdings under subsection (10) or in relation to a charge
of perjury in respect of the answer.

(6) A person ordered to be examined shall at his own cost,
before his examination, be furnished with a copy of the Official
Receiver's report, and may at his own cost employ an attorney-
at-law who shall be at liberty to put to h i such questions as the
court may deem just for the purpose of enabling him to explain
or qualify any answers given by h i .

ANTIGUA
AMD

BARBUDA

Power to mest
absconding
conkibutory.

Powers of
court
cumulative.

208 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.

(7) When a person directed to attend before the court under
subsection (1) applies to the court to be exculpated from any
charges made or suggested against him, the Official Receiver
shall appear on the hearing of the application and call the attention
of the court to any matters which appear to the Official Receiver
to be relevant, and if the court, after hearing any evidence given
or witnesses called by the Official Receiver, grants the applica-
tion, the court may allow the applicant such costs as in its
discretion it may think fit.

(8) Notesof the examination shall be takendown in writing and
shall be read over to or by, and signed by, the person examined,
and may thereafter be used in evidence against him, and shall be
open to the inspection of any creditor or contributory at all
reasonable times.

(9) fiecourt may, if it thinks fit, adjourn theexamination from
time to time.

(10) Any personbeing examined under this section who makes
a statement that is false or misleading in a material particular is
guilty of an offence.

(11) For the purposes of this section, conduct is improper if it
is of such a nature as to render a person unfit to be concerned in
the management of a company.

422. The court, at any time either before or after making a
winding-up order, on proof of probable cause for believing that
a contributory is about to quit Antigua and Barbuda or otherwise
to abscond or to remove or conceal any of his property for the
purpose of evading payment of calls, or of avoiding examination
respecting the affairs of the company, may cause thecontributory
to be arrested, and his books and papers and movable personal
property to be seized, and him and them tobe safely kept until such
time as the court may order.

423. Any powers by this Act conferred on the court shall be
in addition to and not in restriction of any existing powers of
instituting proceedings against any contributory or debtor of
the company, or the estate of any contributory or debtor, for
the recovery of any call or other sums.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 209 ANTIGUA
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424. Provision may be made by rules made under section 486 Delegation to
f a enabling or requiring all or any of the powers and duties ~~x~~~~
conferred and imposed on the court by this Act in respect of the of -.
following matters -

(a) the holding and conducting of meetings to ascertain
the wishes of crediton and contributories;

(b) the settling of listsof contributories and the rectifying
of the register of members where required, and the
mllecting and applying of the assets;

(c) the paying, delivering, conveyance, surrender or
transfer of any money, property, books or papers to
the liquidator,

(d) the making of calls and the adjusting of the rights of
contributories; and

(e) the fixing of the time within which debts and claims
shall be proved,

to be exercised or performed by the liquidator as an officer of the
court, and subject to the controlof thecourt but the liquidator shall
not, without the special leave of the court, rectify the register of
members, and shall not make any call without either the special
leave of the court or the sanction of the committee of inspection.

425. (1) When the affairs of a company have been completely Dissolution of
wound up, the court, if the liquidator makes an application in that company.
behalf, shall make an order that the company be dissolved from
the date of the order, and the company shall be dissolved
accordingly.

(2) Acopy of the order shall within fourteen days from the date
thereof be lodged by the liquidator with the Registrar who shall
enter in his records a minute of the dissolution of the company.

(3) If the liquidator makes &fault in complying with the
requirements of this section, he is guilty of an offence.

426. (1) Orders made by the court under t h i ~ Act may be Powerto enforce
enfodinthesamemmneras-orders&inanyactionpending ordersand app als from
therein. orders.

ANTIGUA
AND

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Notice of
resolution
to wild up
voluntarily.

Commence
mnt of
vduPbcuy
winding up.

Effect of
vduntary
winding up
on business
apdstatus

ofoompen~.

210 The Compmies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.

(2) Subject to rulesa6f court, an appeal from any order or
decision made or'given in the winding up of a company by the
court under this Act shall lie in the same manner and subject to
the same conditions as an appeal from any order ordecision of the
court.

DMSION C

VOLUNTARY WINDING UP

427. (1) A company shall be wound up voluntarily if -

(a) a general meeting so resolves by special resolution;
or ,

(b) a general meeting so resolves by an ordinary resolu-
tion which states tharrhe company is unable to pay
its debts.

(2) In this Act, "a resolution for voluntary winding up" means
a resolution passed under subsection (1).

428. (1) When a company has passed a resolution for voluntary
winding up, it shall within fourteen days after the passing of the
resolution, give notice of the resolution by advertisement in the
Gazette and in writing to the Registrar.

(2) If default is made in complying with this section, the
company and every officet of the company in default is guilty of
an offence.

429, A voluntary winding up is deemed to commence at the
time of passing of the resolution for voluntary winding up.

430. In case of a voluntary winding up, the company shall, from
the commencement of the winding up cease to carry on its
business except so far as is in the opinion of the liquidator required
for the beneficial winding up thereof but the corporate state and
corporatepowers of thecompany shall, notwithstandiig anything
to the conmy in its articles of huxporation, contirlue until it rs
dissolved.

No. 18 of 1995. rite Companies Act, 1995. 211 ANTIGUA
AND

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431. Any transfer of shares not being a transfer made to or with Avoidance of
the sanction of the liquidator, and any alteration in the status of tCansferS9 after

commencement of the members of the company, made after the commencement of volun,,
a voluntary winding up, is void. winding up.

432. (1) Where it is proposed to wind up a company voluntar- statutory
ily, a director or, in the case of a company having more than two declaration of
dbxtors, the majority of the hetors , may, at a meeting of the
directors make a statutory declaration to the effect that they have winding up
made a full enquiry into the affairs of the company, and that, voluntarily.
having so done, they have formed the opinion that the company
will be able to pay its debts in full within such period not
exceeding twelve months from the commencement of the wind-
ing up as may be specified in the declaration.

(2) A declaration made under subsection (1) shall have no
effect for the purposes of this Act unless-

(a) it is made within the five weeks imm-ly preced-
ing the date of the passing of the =solution for
winding up the company and is lodged with the
Registrar for registration before that date; and

(b) it embodies a statement of the company's assets and
liabilities as at the latest practicable date before the
making of the declaration.

(3) Any director of a company who makes a declaration under
this section without having reasonable grounds for the opinion
that the company will be able to pay its debts in full within the
period specified in the declaration is guilty of an offence.

(4) If the company is wound up in pursuance of a resolution
passed within the period of five weeks after the making of the
declaration, but its debts arenot paid or provided for in full within
the period stated in the declaration, it shall be presumed until the
contrary is shown that the director did not have reasonable
grounds for hi @ion.

(5) A winding up in the case of which a declaration has been
made and delivered in accordance with this section is in this Act
referred to as "amember's voluntary winding up", anda winding

ANTIGUA 212 Tke Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

up in the cased which a declaration has not been so made and
delivered is in this Act neferred to as "a creditors' voluntary
winding up".

Provisions Appiicable Only
To Members' Vduntary Winding Up

Power of company 433. (1) The company m general meeting shall appoint one, or
to appoint and fix more than one, liquidator for the purpose of winding up the affairs
remuneration of
liquidators. and distributing the assets of the company, and may fix the

remuneration to be paid to h i or them.

(2) Subject to subsestions (3) k d (4), the company may by
special resolution remove a liquidator and appoint another liqui-
dator, but the removal or appointment does not have effect -

(a) until after the expiion of the period of fourteen days
a€ter the date on which the resolution is passed, or

(b) if, within that period an application is made to the court
under subsection (4), unless the Court dismisses the
application or the application is withdrawn.

(3) In addition to the other requirements of this Act with
respect to the giving of notice of meetings, the company shall give
to all creditors and contributories of the company notice of any
meeting at which a resolution under subsection (2) will be
proposed, giving in the notice particulars of the proposals.

(4) A creditor or contributory of the company may, within the
period of fourteen days after the date on which a resolution under
subsection (2) is passed, apply to the Court for an order cancelling
the resolution and the Court may, if 'it is satisfied that it is fair and
reasonable to do so, allow the application, but if not so satisfied
shall d i d = the application.

(5) On the appointment of a liquidator all the powers of the
directors shall cease, except so far as the company in general
meeting or the liquidator, sanctions the continuance thereof.

Power to fill 434. (1) If a vacancy occurs by death, resignation or otherwise
-cy in in the officeof liquidator appointed by the company, thecompany
of liquidator. in general meeting may, subject to any arrangement with its

creditors, fill the vacandy.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 213 ANTIGUA
AND

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(2) Forthat purpose ageneral meeting may be convened by any
contributory or, if there were more liquidators than one, by the
continuing liquidators.

(3) The meeting shall be held in the manner provided by this
Act or by the by-laws or in such manner as may, on application
by any contributory or by the continuing liquidators, be deter-
mined by the Court.

435. (1) Where acompany is proposed to be, or is in the course Power of liquidator
of being, wound up altogether voluntarily, and the whole or part to accept shares,
of its business or property is proposed to be transferred or sold to ;:;
a corporation, (in this section called "the transferee company") poperty of
the liquidator of the first-rzentioned company (in this section company.
called "the transferor company") may, with the sanction of a
special resolution of that company, confemng either a general
authority on the liquidator or an authority in respect of any
particular arrangement, receive in compensation for the transfer
or sale, shares, policies, or other like interests in the transferee
company, for distribution among the members of the transferor
company, or may enter into any other arrangement whereby the
members of the transferor company may, in lieu of receiving cash,
shares, policies, or other like interests, or in addition thereto,
participate in the profits of or receive any other benefit from the
tran~feree company.

(2) Any sale or arrangement in pursuance of this section
shall be binding on the members of the transferor company, and
where the whole or part of the compensation or benefit
accruing to the members of the transferor company in respect
of my such sale or m2angement consists of fully paid shares in
the transferee compalirgi each such member is deemed to have
agreed with the transferee company for the acceptance of the
fully paid shares to which he is entitled under the distribution
refefred to in subsection (1).

(3) If any member of the transferor compmy who did not vote
in favour of the special resolution expresses his dissent therefrom
in writing addressed to the liquidator and left at the registered
offrce of the company within seven days after the passing of the
resolotiorm, he may require the liquidator either to abstain from
c~nyiag the resolution into effect or to purchase his interest at a
price to be determined by agreement or by arbitration in manner
p v i M by the Arbitration Act.

ANTIGUA 214 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(4) If the liquidator elects to purchase the member's interest,
the purchase money shall be paid before the company is dis-
solved, and be raised by the liquidator in such manner as may be
determined by special resolution.

(5) A special resolution shall not be invalid for the purposes of
this section by reason that it is passedbefore or concwrently with
a resolution for voluntary winding up or for appointing liquida-
tors, but, if an order is made within a year for winding up the
company by the Court, the special resolution is not valid unless
sanctioned by the Court.

my of liquidator 4%. (1) If, in the case of a winding up commenced after the
to call creditors' m e n c e m e n t of this Act, the liquidator is at any time of the
meeting in case of
insolvency.

opinion that the company will not be able to pay its debts in full
within the period stated in the declaration under section 432, he
shall forthwith summon a meeting of the creditors, and shall lay
before the meeting a statement of the assets and liabilities of q e
company.

(2) Unless the meeting of creditors resolve that the winding up
shall continue as a members' voluntary winding up, the winding
up shall as from the date when the liquidator calls the meeting of
creditors b m e a creditors' voluntary winding up, and the
meeting of creditors shall have the same powers as a meeting of
creditors held under section 442.

(3) If the liquidator fails to comply with subsection (1) he is
guilty of an offence.

Duty of liquidator 437. (1) Subject to section 439, in the event of the winding up
to general continuing for more than one year, the liquidator shall summon
meeting at end of
each year. a general meeting of the company at the end of the first year from

the commencement of the winding up and of each succeeding
year, or at the fmt convenient date within three months (or such
longer period as the court may allow) from the end of the year, and
shall lay before the meeting an account of his acts and dealings
and of the conduct of the winding up during the preceding year.

(2) If the liquidator fails to comply with subsection (1) he is
guilty of an offence.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 215 ANTIGUA
AND

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438. (1) Subject to section 439, as soon as the affairs of the Final meet- ing and
company are fully wound up, the liquidator shall make up an dissolution

account of the winding up, showing how the winding up has been
conducted and the property of the company has been disposed of,
and shall cause the account to be audited and when that has been
done shall call a general meeting of the company for the purpose
of laying before it the audited account and giving any necessary
explanation thereof.

(2) The meeting shallbe called by advertisement in the Gazette
and in one daily newspaper printed and circulating in Antigua and
Barbuda, specifying the time, p h and object thereof, and
published one month at least before the meeting.

" (3) Within one week after the ~eeting, the liquidator shall
lodge with the Registrar a copy of the audited account, and shall
make a return to him of the holding of the meeting and of its date,
and if the copy is not sent or the return is not made in accordance
with this subsection the liquidator is guilty of an offence.

(4) Notwithstanding anything in subsection (3), if aquorum is
not present at the meeting, the liquidator shall, in lieu of the return
referred to in subsection (3), make a return that the meeting was
duly summoned and that no quorum was present at the meeting,
and upon such a retum being made the provisions of this
subsection as to the making of the return are deemed to have been
complied with.

(5) The Registrar on receiving the account and either of the
returns mentioned in subsection (3) or (4) shall forthwith register
them, and on the expiration of three months from the registration
of the return the company shall be deemed to be dissolved but the
C m may, on applicabon of the liquidator or of any other person
whoappears to thecourt to be interested, make an order deferring
the date at which the dissolution of the company is to take effect
for such time as the Court thinks fit.

(6)Thepersononwhoseappkatianan
this section is made shall, within seven days after the making of the
orrler,lodge with theRegistmacopy of theorder forregistmion, and
if that person fails to do so he is guilty of an offence.

(7) If tbe liquidatw fa& to call a general meeting of the
compmy as required by this section, he is guilty of an offence.

ANTIGUA 216 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.
AM)

BARBUDA

Alternative 439. Where section 436 has effect, sections 446 and 447 shall
provisions as to apply to the winding up to the exclusion of sections 437 and 438
annual and final
meetings in case of as if the winding up were a creditors' voluntary winding up and
insolvency. not a members' voluntary winding up, but the liquidator shall not

be required to summon a meeting of creditors under section 446
at the end of the fust year from the commencement of the winding
up, unless the meeting held under section 436 is held more than
three months before the end of that year.

Provisions Applicable To A
Creditors' Voluntary Winding Up

Meeting of 440. (1) The company shall cause a meeting of the creditors of
creditors. the company to be summoned for the day, or the day next

following the day, on which there is to be held the meeting at
which the resolution for voluntary winding up is to be proposed,
and shall cause the notices of the meeting of creditors to be sent
by post to the creditors simultaneously with the sending of the
notices of the meeting of the company.

(2) The company shall cause notice of the meeting of the
creditors to be advertised once in the Gazette and once at least in
one daily newspaper printed and circulating in Antigua and
Barbuda.

(3) The directors of the company shall -

(a) cause a full statement of the position of the company's
affairs together with a list of the creditors of the
company and the estimated amount of their claims to
be laid before the meeting of creditors; and

(b) appoint one of their number to preside at the meeting.

(4) The director appointed topreside at the meeting of creditors
shall attend and preside at the meeting.

(5) If the meeting of the company at which the resolution for
voluntary winding up is to be proposed is adjourned and the
resolution is passed at an adjourned meeting, any resolution
passed at the meeting of the creditors held in pursuance of
subsection (1) has effect as if it had been passed immediately after
the passing of the resolution for winding up the company.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 217 ANTIGUA
AND

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(6) If default is made -

(a) by the company in complying with subsection (1) or
(2);

(b) by the directors of the company in complying with
subsection (3); or

(c) by any director of the company in complying with
subsection (4)

the company or, as the case may be, each of the directors
is guilty of an offence, and, in the case of default by the
company, every officer of the company who is in default is
guilty of an offence.

441. (1) The creditors and the company at their respective
meetings mentioned in section 440 may nominate a person tube Apppointment of
liquidator for the purpose of winding up the affairs and distribut- liquidator.
ing the assets of the company, and if the creditors and the company
nominate different persons, the person nominatedby thecreditors
shall be liquidator, and if no person is nominated by the creditors
the person, if any, nominated by the company shall be liquidator.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (I), when
different persons arenominatedany director, member, or creditor
of the company may, within seven days after the date on which
the nomination was made by the creditors, apply to the Court for
an order either directing that the person nominated as liquidator
by the company shall be liquidator instead of or jointly with the
person nominated by the creditors, or appointing some other
person to be liquidator instead of the person appointed by the
creditors.

442. (1) The creditors at the meeting to be held in pursuance
of section 440 or at any subsequent meeting, niay, if they think fit, Appointment of
appointacomrnittee of inspection consisting of not more than five committee in-

persons, and if such a committee is appointed the company may, spection.

either at the meeting at which the resolution for voluntary winding
up is passed or at any time subsequently in general meeting,
appoint suchnumber of persons as they think fit to act as members
of the committee not exceeding five in number.

(2) Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (I), the credi-
tors may, if they think fit, resolve that all or any of the persons so

ANTIGUA 21 8 The Companies Act, 199.5. No. 18of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

appointed by the company ought not to be members of the
committee of inspection, and, if the creditors so resolve, the
persons mentioned in the resolution shall not, urdess the Court
otherwise directs, be qualified to act as members of the commit-
tee, and on my application to the Court under this provision the
Court may, if it thinks fit, appoint other persons to act as such
members in place of the persons mentioned in the resolution.

(3) Subject to the provisions of this section and to rules made
under section 486, the provisions of section 406 (except subsec-
tion (1)) apply with respect to a committee of inspection ap-
pointed under this section as they apply with respect to a
committee of inspection appointed in a winding up by the Court.

Fixing of liquida- 443. (1) The committee of inspection, or if there is no such
tors' ~emuneration committee, the creditors, may fix the remuneration to be paid to
and cesser of direc-
tors' powers.

the liquidator or liquidators.

(2) On the appointment of a liquidator, all the powers of the
directors shall cease except so far as the committee of inspection,
or if there is no such committee, the creditors, sanction the
continuance thereof.

Power to fill va- 444. If a vacancy occurs, by death, resignation or otherwise,
CancY in office of in the office of a liquidator, other than a liquidator appointed by,
liquidator. or by the direction of, the Court, the creditors may fill the vacancy.

Application of sec- 445. The provisions of section 435 apply in the case of a
tion 435 to a creditors' voluntary winding up as in the case of the members'
creditors' winding voluntary winding up, with the modification that the powersof the
UP- liquidator under that section shall not be exercised except with the

sanction either of the Court or of the committee of inspection.

~ u t y of liquidator 446. (1) In the event of the winding up continuing for more
to call meetings of than one year, the liquidator shall summon a general meeting
company and of
ue- &tors as

of the company and a meeting of creditors at the end of the first
end of each yeE. year from the commencement of the winding up, and of each

succeeding year or at the f ist convenient date within three
monrhs (or such longer period as the court may allow) from the
end of the year, and shall lay before the meeting an account of
his acts and dealings and of the conduct of the winding up
during the preceding year.

(2) If the liquidator fails to comply with subsection (1) he is
guilty of an offence.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 219 ANTIGUA
AND

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447. (1) As soon as the affairs of the company are fully wound Final meet- ing and
up, the liquidator shall make up ari account of the winding up, diSsO1ution.
showing how the winding up has been conducted and the property
of the company has been disposed of, and thereupon shall call a
general meeting of the company and a meeting of the creditors,
for the purpose of laying the account before the meetings, and
giving any explanation thereof.

(2) Each such meeting shall be called by advertisement in the
Gazette and in one daily newspaper printed and circulating in
Antigua and Barbuda specifying the time, place and object
thereof, and published one month at least before the meeting.

(3) Within one week after the date of the meetings, or, if the
meetings are not held on the same date, after the date of the later
meeting, the liquidator shall send to the Registrar a copy of the
account, and shall make a return to him of the holding of the
meetings and of their dates, and if@e copy is not sent or the return
is not made in accordance with this subsection the liquidator is
guilty of an offence.

(4) Notwithstanding anything in subsection (3), if aquorum is
not present at either such meeting, the liquidator shall, in lieu of
the return referred to in subsection (3), make a return that the
meeting was duly summoned and that no quorum was present at
the meeting, and upon such a return being made the provisions of
this subsection as to the making of the return are, in respect of that
meeting, deemed to have been complied with.

(5) The Registrar on receiving the account and in respect of
each such meeting either of the returns mentioned in subsection
(3) or (4) shall forthwith register them, and on the expiration of
three months from the registration thereof the company is deemed
to be dissolved, but the Court may, on the application of the
liquidator or of any other person who appears to the Court to be
interested, make an order deferring the date at which the dissolu-
tion of the company is to take effect for such time as the Court
thinks fit.

(6) The person on whose application an order of the Court
under this section is made, shall, within seven days after the
making of the order, lodge with the Registrar a copy of the order
for registration, and if that person fails to do so he is guilty of an
offence.

ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

Distribution of
property of
company.

Powers and dutiesof
liquidator in volun-
tary winding up.

220 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.

(7) If the liquidator fails to call a general meeting of the
company or ameeting of the creditors as required by this section,
he is guilty of an offence.

Provisions Applicable To Every
Voluntary Winding Up

448. Subject to the provisions of this Act as to preferential
payments, the property of a company shall, on its winding up, be
applied in satisfaction of its liabilities equally, and subject to that
application, shall, unless the articles of the company otherwise
provide, be distributed among the members according to their
rights and interests in the company.

449. (1) The liquidator may -

(a) in the case of a members' voluntary winding up, with
the sanction of a special resolution of the company
and, in the case of acreditors' voluntary winding up,
with the sanction of either the court or the committee
of inspection, exercise any of the powers given by
paragraphs (d), (e) and I f ) of section 398 (1) to a
liquidator in a winding up by the Court;

(b) exercise any of the other powers by this Act given to
the liquidator in a winding up by the Court;

(c) exercise the power of the Court under this Act of
settling a list of contributories, and the list of
contributories shall be prima facie evidence of the
liability of the persons named therein to be
contributories:

(d) exercise the power of the Court of making calls; and

(e) summon general meetings of the company for the
purpose of obtaining the sanction of the company by
special resolution or for any other purpose he may
think fit.

(2) The liquidator shall pay the debts of the company and shall
adjust the rights of the contributories among themselves.

(3) When several liquidators are appointed, any power given
by this Act may be exercised by such one or more of than as may
be determined at the time of their appointment, or, in default o f
such determination, by any number not less than two.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 22 1 ANTIGUA
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(4) Unless the committee of inspection determines, or, as the
case may be, the members otherwise determine, section 402
applies in the case of a liquidator in a voluntary winding up as it
applies in the case of a liquidator of a company being wound up
by the Court.

450. (1) If from any cause whatever there is no liyuidator Power of court
acting, the court may appoint a liquidator. to appvint and

remove liquidator
In voluntary

(2) The court may, on cause shown, remove a liquidator and wlndlng up.
appoint another liquidator.

451. (1) The liquidator shall, within twenty-one days after h ~ s ~ o t t c ? by
appointment, publish in the Gazette and in one daily newspaper liquidator of
printedandcirculating in Antiguaand Barbuda, and deliver to the h ~ \ Appnlntmcnr

Registrar for registration a notice of his appointment in the
prescribed form.

(2) If the liquidator fails to comply with the requirements ol'
subsection (1) he is guilty of an offence.

452. (1) Any aITangement entered into between a company Al~ansernent
about to be, or in the course of being, wound up and its creditori " h ~ " bllldlne
shall, subject to the right of appeal under this section, be binding "" """i"'"S

on the company if sanctioned by a special resolution, and on the
creditors if acceded to by three-fourths in number and value of the
creditors.

(2) Any creditor or contributory may, within three weeks from
the completion of the arrangement appeal to die court against it
and the court may thereupon, as it thinks just, amend, vary, or
confirm the arrangement.

453. The l~quldator or any contributory or credltor may apply Ilowel t o apply
to the court to determine any question ansing 111 the winding up to ~ o u r t to habe
of a company, or to exercae as respects the enforcing of calls. or ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ c ~ " ~ ~ ~ ~ ; q
any other matter, all or any of the powers which the court might ,,,,,t,,d
exercise ~f the company were being wound up by the court.

(2) The court. ~f sabsfied that the determination of the questlon
or the requ~red exercise of the power w~ll be lust and beneficial.
Inaj accede wholly or partially to the applicatlon on iuch tenni
and condition, as lr lhlnks fit, or may make wch other order on
the applicatlon as 11 th1nk4 fit.

ANTIGUA 222 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(3) A copy of an order made by virtue of this section staying
the proceedings in the winding up shall forthwith be lodgedby the
company, or otherwise as may be prescribed, with the Registrar,
who shall enter a minute of the order in his records relating to the
company.

costs of 454. All costs, charges and expenses properly incurred in the
voluntary
winding up.

winding up, including the remuneration of the liquidator, shall be
payable out of the assets of the company in priority to all other
claims.

Saving for 455. The windmg upof acompany shall notbar the right of any
of creditors creditor or contributory to have it wound up by the court, but in

and contributories.
the case of an application by a contributory the court must be
satisfied that the Aghts of the contributories will be prejudiced by
a voluntary winding up.

DIVISION D

PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO EVERY MODE OF
WINDING UP

Proof and Ranking of Claims

&bvr of all 456. (1) In every winding up, subject in the case of insolvent
companies to the application in accordance with the provisions of

be proved. this Act of the law of bankruptcy, all debts payable on a
contingency, and d l claims against the company, present or
future, certain or contingent, ascertained or sounding only in
damages, shall be admissible to proof against the company, a just
estimate being made, so far as possible, of the value of such debts
or claims as are subject to any contingency or sound only in
dan-ihges or for some other reason do not bear a certain value.

(2) Subject to section 457, in the winding up of an insolvent
company the same rules shall prevail andbe observed'with regard
to the respective rights of secured and unsecured creditors and to
debts provable and to the valuation of annuities and future and
contingent liabilities as are in force for the time being under the
law of bnkmptcy with respect to the estates of persons adjudged
bankrupt, and all persons who in any such case would be entitled to
prove for and receive dividends out of the assets of the company may
come in under the winding up, and make such clams against the
company as they respectively are entitled to by virtue of this section.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 223 ANTIGUA
AND

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457. (1) In a winding up of a company there shall be paid in Referential
priority to all other debts- payments.

(a) all rates, charges, taxes, assessments or impositions,
whether imposed or made by the Government or by
any public authority under the provisions of any Act,
and having become due and payable within twelve
months next before the relevant date;

(b) all wages or salary (whether 01- not earned wholly or
kn part by way of coxi_Pnission or for t h e or piece
work) of any employee, not being a director, in
respect of services rendered to the company during
four months next before the relevant date; or

(c) all severance benefits, not exceeding the equivalent
of forty five days basic wages or salary, due or
accruing toanemployee, notbeing adirector, whether
retrenched by an employer, areceiver, aliquidator or
some other person.

(2) Where any payment on account of wages, salary or
severance benefits has been made to any employee of a company
out of money advanced by some person for that purpose, that
person shall in a winding up have aright of priority in respect of
the money so advanced and paid up to the amount by which the
sum in respect of which that employee would have been en~itled
to priority in the winding up has been diminished by reason of the
payment having been made.

(3) The debts and claims to which priority is given by
subsection (1) shall-

(a) rank equally among themselves and be paid in full,
unless the assets are insufficient to meet them, in
which case they shall abate in equal proportions, and

(b) so far as the assets of the company available for
payment of general creditors are insufficient to meet
them, have priority over the claims of holders ~f
debentures under any floating charge created by the
company, and paid accordingly out of any property
comprised in or subject to that charge.

ANTIGUA 224 The Cotnpanies Act, 1995. No. 180f 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(4) Subject to the retention of such sums as are necessary for
the costs and expenses of the winding up, the debts and claims to
which priority is given by subsection (1) shall be discharged
fc~thw~th so far as the assets are sufficient to meet them.

(5) In the event of a landlord or other perscm distraining or
having distrained on any goods or effects of the company within
three months next before the date of a winding-uporder, the debts
to which priority is given by subsection (1) shall be a first charge
on the goods or effects so distrained on, or the proceeds of the sale
thereof, but i11 respect of any money paid under any such charge,
the landlord or other person shall have the same rights of priority
as the person to whom the payment is made.

(6) In this section, "the relevant date" means -

(a) in the case of a company ordered to be wound up
compulsorily which had not previously commenced
to be wound up voluntarily, the date of the winding
up order; and

(h) in any other case, the date of the commencement of
the winding up.

Effect of Winding Up on Antecedent
and Other Transactions

Fraudulent 458. (1) Any conveyance, mortgage, delivery of goods, pay-
preference. ment, execution, or other act relating to property which would, if

made or done by or against an individual, be deemed in his
bankruptcy a fraudulent preference, or a fraudulent conveyance,
assignment, transfer, sale or disposition, shall, if made or done by
or against a company, be deemed in the event of its being wound
up, a fraudulent preference of its creditors, or a fraudulent
conveyance, assignment, transfer, sale or disposition, as the case
may be, and be invalid accordingly.

(2) For the purposes of this section, the commencement of the
winding up is deemed to correspond with the presentation of the
bankruptcy petition in the case of an individual.

(3) Any conveyance or assignment by a company of all its
property to trustees for the benefit of all its creditors is void.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 225 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

459. (1) Where, in the case of acompany wound up in Antigua Llabllitiesandrights
and Barbuda, anything made or done after the commencement of ~ n ~ ~ ~ , " ~ f " e ~ ' ~ ;
this Act is void under section 458 as a fraudulent preference of a so,,
person interested in property mortgaged or charged to secure the
company'sdebt, then (withoutprejudice toany rights or liabilities
arising apart from this provision) the person preferred is subject
to the same liabilities, and has the same rights, as if he had
undertaken to be personally liable as surety for the debt to the
extent of the charge on the property or the value of his interest,
whichever is the less.

(2) The value of the interest of a person referred to in
subsection (1) shall be determined as at the date of the transaction
constituting the fraudulent preference, and shall be determinedas
if the interest were free of all incumbrances other than those to
which the charge for the company's debt was then subject.

(3) On any application made to the court with respect to any
payment on the ground that the payment was a fraudulent
preference of a surety or guarantor, the court shall have jurisdic-
tion todetermineany questions with respect to whom the payment
was made and the surety or guarantor and to grantrelief in respect
thereof, notwithstanding that it is not necessary so to do for the
purposes of the winding up, and for that purpose may give leave
to bring in the surety or guarantor as a third party as in the case
of an action for the recovery of the sum paid.

(4) Subsection (3) applies, with the necessary modifications,
in relation to transactions other than the payment of money as it
applies in relation to payments.

460. Where a company is being wound up, a floating charge on Effect of
the undertaking or property of the company created within twelve floating charge.
months of the commencement of the winding up is, unless it is
proved that the company immediately after the creation of the
charge was solvent, invalid, except to the amount of any cash paid to
the company at the time of or subsequently to the creation of, and in
consideration for, thecharge, together with interest on that amount at
the rate of six per centum per annum or such other rate as may for the
time being be prescribed by regulation under section 527.

461. (1) Where any part of the property of a company which is Disclaimer of
being wound up consists of land of any tenure burdened with onerous property.
onerous covenants, of shares or stock in corporations, or unprof-

ANTIGUA 226 17te'Companies Act, 1995. No. l8of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

itable contracts, or of any other property that is unsaleable, or not
readily saleable, by reason of its binding the possessor thereof to
the performance of any onerous act, or to the payment of any sum
of money, the liquidator of the c o m p y , notwithstanding that he
has endeavoured to sell or has taken possession of the property,
or exercised any act of ownership in relation thereto, may, with
the leave of the court and subject to the provisions of this section,
by writing signed by him, at any time within twelve months after
the commencement of the winding up or such extended period as
may be allowed by the court, disclaim the property; but where any
such property has not come to the knowledge of the liquidator
within one month a£ter the commencement of the winding up, the
power under this section of disclaiming the property may be
exercised at any time within twelve months after he has become
aware thereof or such extended period as may be allowed by the
Corn

(2) The disclaimer shall operate to determine, as from the date
of disclaimer, the rights, interest, and liabilities of the company,
and the property of the company, in or in respect of the property
disclaimed, but shall not, except so far as is necessary for the
purpose of releasing the company and the property of the
company from liability, affect the rights or liabilities of any other
person.

(3) The court, before or on granting leave to disclaim, may
require such notices to be given to persons interested, and impose
such terms as a condition of granting leave, and make such other
order in the matter as the court thinks just.

(4) The liquidator shall not be entitled to disclaun any property
under this section in any case where an application in writing has
been made to him by any person interested in the property
requiring him to decide whether he will or will not disclaim, and
the liquidator has not, within a period of twenty-eight days after
the receipt of the application or such further perid as may be
allowed by the court, given notice to the applicant that he intends
to apply to the court for leave to disclaim, and, in the cak of a
contract, if the liquidator, after such an application, does not
within the said period or further period disclaim the contract, the
company shall be deemed to have adopted it.

(5) The court, may, on theapplication of any person who is,
as against the liquidator, entitled to the benefit or subject to the

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 227 ANTIGUA
AND

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burden of a contract made with a company, make an order
rescinding the contract on such terms as to payment by or to either
party of damages for the non-performance of the contract, or
otherwise as the court thinks j ust, and any damages payable under
the order to any such person may be proved by him as a debt in
the winding up.

(6) The court may, on an application by any person who either
claims any interest in any disclaimed property or is under any
liability not discharged by this Act in respect of any disclaimed
property and on hearing any such person as it thinks fit, make an
order for the vesting of the property in or the delivery of the
property to any persons entitled thereto, or to whom it may seem
just that the property should be delivered by way of compensation
for such liability, or a trustee for him, and on such terms as the
court thinks just, and on any such vesting order being made, the
property comprised therein shall vest accordingly in the person
therein named in that behalf without any conveyance or assign-
ment for the purpose.

(7) Notwithstanding anythlng in subsection (6), where the
property disclaimed is of a leasehold nature, the court shall not
make a vesting order in favour of any person claiming under the
company, whether as under-lessee or as mortgagee by demise,
except upon terms of making that person-

(a) subject to the same liabilities and obligations as those
to which the company was subject under the lease in
respect of the property at the commencement of the
winding up; or

(b). if the court thinks fit, subject only to the same
liabilities and obligations as if the lease had been
assigned to that person at that date,

and in either event, if the case so requires, as if the lease had
comprised only the property comprised in the vesting order, and
any mortgagee or under-lessee declining to accept a vesting order
upon such terms shall be excluded fiom all interest in and security
upon the property, and, if there is no person claiming under the
company who is willing to accept an order upon such terms, the
court may vest the estate and interest of the company in the
property in any person liable personally or in a representative
character, and either alone orjointly with the company to perform

ANTIGUA
Am

BARBUDA

Interpretation.

Restriction of
rights of creditor
as to execution or
attachment.

228 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

the lessee's w~enants in the lease, @epd and discharged from all
estates, incqnbxanoes and interests created therein by the company.

(8) Any prson injured by the operation of 8 disclaimer under
this section is deemed to be a creditor of the company to the
amount of the injury, and may accordingly prove the amount as
a debt in the winding up.

462. Zn sectians 463 and 464

"bailiff' includes any officer charged with the execution of a writ
or other process;

''goods" includes all cbamls personal.

463. (1) Where a creditor has issued execution against the
goods or lands of a company or has attached any debt due to the
company, and the company is subsequently wound up, he shall
not be entitled to retain the benefit of the e'xecution or attachment
against the liquidator in the winding up of the company unless he
hascompletedtheexecution or attachment before thecommence-
ment of the winding up but-

(a) where any creditor has had notice of a meeting
having been called at which a resolution for volun-
tary winding up is to be proposed, the date on which
the creditor so hadnotice shall for the purposes of the
foregoing provision be substituted for the date of the
commencement of the winding up;

(b) a prson who purchases in good faith under a sale by
a bailiff any goods of a company on which an
execution has been levied shall in allcases acquire a
g o d title to (hem against the liquidator; and

(c) (he rights conferred by this subsection on the liquida-
tor may be set aside by the court in favour of the
creditor to suchextent and subject to such t e a s as the
court may think fit.

(2) For the purposes of this sectim-

(a) an execution against goods shall be taken to be
completed by seizure and sale;

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 229 ANTIGUA
AND

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(b) an attachme-nt of adebt is deeqed to be completed by
rweipt of the debt; and

fc) an execulion against h d is deemed to be completed
from the date sf the order for sale or by seizure as the
case may be, and, in the case of an equitable interest,
by the appoi~tment of a receiver.

464. (1) Subject to subsection (3), where any goods of a Duties of bailiff
company are @en in execution and, before the sde thereof or the as to goods
completion of me execution by the receipt or recovery of the full ~ x ~ u ~ ~ n .
amount of the levy, notice is sewedon the bailiff that aprovisional
liquidator has been appointed or that a winding-up order has been
made or that a resolution for voluntary winding-up has been
passed, the bailiff shall, on being so required, deliver the goods
and any money seized or received in part satisfaction of the
execution to the liquidator, but the costs of the execution shall be
a first charge on the goads or money so delivered and the
liquidator may sell the goods, or a sufficient part thereof, for the
purpose of satisfying that charge.

(2) Subject to subsection (3), where under an execution in
respect of a judgment for a sum exceeding one hundred dollars the
goods of a company are sold or money is paid in order to avoid
sale, the bailiff shall deduct the costs of the execution from the
proceeds of the sale or the money paid and retain the balance for
fourteen days, and if within that time notice is served on him of
a petition for the winding up of the company having been
presented or of a meeting having been called at which there is to
be proposed a resolutiap for the voluntary winding up of the
company and an order is made or aresolulion is passed, as the case
may be, for the winding up of the company, the bailiff shall pay
the balance to the liquidator, who shall be entitled to retain it as
against the execution creditor.

(3) The rights conferred by this section on the liquidator may
be set aside by the court in favour of the creditor to such extent
and subject to such terms as the court thinks fit.

Offences

465. (1) Any person who, being a past or present officer of a Offencesby officers
company which at the time of the commission of the alleged of companies
offence is beipg w o ~ ~ d up, whether by the court or volunmly, in l'quidatiOn.

ANTIGUA 230 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

or is subsequently ordered to be wound up by the court or
subsequently passes a resolution for voluntary winding up -

(a) doesnot to the best of his knowledge and belief fully
and truly discover to the liquidator all the property,
real and personal, of the company, and how and to
whom and for what consideration and when the
company disposed of any part thereof, except such
part as has been disposed of in the ordinary way of the
business of the company;

(b) does not deliver up to the liquidator, or as he directs,
all such part of the real and personal property of the
company as is in hiscustody or under his control, and
which he is required by law to deliver up;

(c) does not deliver up to the liquidator, or as he directs,
all books and papers in his custody or under his
control belonging to the company and which he is
required by law to deliver up;

(d) within twelve months next before the commence-
ment of the winding up or at any time thereafter
conceals any part of the property of the company to
the value of five hundred dollars or upwards, or
conceals any debt due to or from the company;

(e) within twelve months next before the commence-
ment of the winding up or at any time thereafter
fraudulently removes any part of the property of the
company to the value of five hundred dollars or
upwards;

(fl makes any material omission in any statement relat-
ing to the affairs of the company;

(g) knowing or believing that a false debt has been
proved by any person under the windng up, fails for
the period of one month to inform the liquidator
thereof;

(h) after the commencement of the winding up prevents
the production of any book or paper affecting or
relating to the property or affairs of the company;

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 23 1 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

(i) within twelve months ,next before the commence-
ment of the winding up or at any time thereafter,
conceals, destroys, mutilates or falsifies, or is privy
to the concealment, destruction, mutilation, or falsi-
fication of, any book or paper affecting or relating to
the property or affairs of the company;

0) within twelve months next before the commence-
ment of the winding up or at any time thereafter
makes OF is privy to the making of any false entry in
my book or paper affecting orrelating tothe property
or affairs of the company;

(k) within twelve months next before the commence-
ment of the winding up or at any time thereafter
fraudulently parts with, alters or makes any omission
in, or is privy to the fraudulent parting with, altering
or making any omission in, any document affecting
or relating to the property or affairs of the company;

( I ) after the commencement of the winding up or at any
meeting of the creditors of the company within
twelve months next before the commencement of the
winding up attempts to account for any part of the
property of the company by fictitious losses or
expenses;

(m) has within twelve months next before the com-
mencement of the winding up or at any time thereaf-
ter, by any false representation or other fraud, ob-
tained any property for or on behalf of the company
on credit which the company does not subsequently
pay for;

(n) within twelve months next before the commence-
ment of the winding up or at any time thereafter,
under the false pretence that the company is carrying
on its business, obtains on credit, for or on behalf of
the company, any property which the company does
not subsequently pay for;

(0) within twelve months next before the commence-
ment of the winding up or at any time thereafter
pawns, pledges or disposes of any property of the

ANTIGUA 232 The Compnnim Acr, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
IWD

BAFtBUDA

company which has been obtained on credit and has
not been paid for, unless such pawning, pledging or
disposing is in the ordinary way of the business of the
company,; or

(p) is guilty of any false representation or other fraud for
the purpose of obtaining the consent of the creditors
of the company or any of them to an agreement with
reference to the affairs of the company or to the
winding up,

is guilty of an offence.

(2) It is a sufficient defence in proceedings for an offence under
pafagraph (a), (b), (c), (d), 0, (n), or (0) of subsection (1) if the
accused proves that he had no intent to defraud, and in proceed-
ings for an offence under paragraph (h), (i) or 0) of subsection (1)
if he proves that he had no intent to conceal the state of affairs of
the company or to defeat the law.

(3) Where any person pawns, pledges or disposes of any
property in circumstances which amount to an offence under
paragraph (0) of subsection (I), every person who takes in pawn
or pledge or otherwise receives the property knowing it to be
pawned, pledged or disposed of in those circumstances is guilty
of an offence.

(4) For the purposes of this section, "officer" includes any
person in accordance with whose directions or instructions the
directors of a company have been accustomed to act.

Penalty for 466. Any officer or contributory of a company being wound
falsification of up who destroys, mutilates, alters or falsifies any books, papers,
books. or securities, or makes or is privy to the making of any false or

fraudulent entry in any register, book of account or document
belonging to the company with intent to defraud or deceive any
person, is guilty of an offence.

Frauds by 467. Any person who, being at the time of the commission of
officers of the alleged offence an officer of a company which is subsequently
companies which
have gone into

ordered to be wound up by the court or subsequently passes a
liquidation. resolution for voluntary winding up -

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 233 ANTIG~A
AFJD

BARBUDA

(a) has by false pretenses or by means of any other fraud
induced any person to give credit to the company;

(b) with intent to defraud creditors of the company, has
made or caused to be made any gift or transfer of or
charge on, or has caused or connived at the levying
of any execution agaiist, the property of the com-
pany; or

(c) with intent to defraud creditors of the company, has
concealed or removed any part of the property of the
company since, or within twomonths before, the date
of any unsatisfied judgment or or&r for payment of
money obtained against the company,

is guilty of an offence.

468. (1) If whereacompany is wound upit is shown that proper Liability where
books of account were not kept by the company throughout the pro~eraccounts
period of two years immediately preceding the commencement kept.
of the winding up, or the period between the incorporation of the
company and the commencement of the winding up, whichever
is the shorter, every officer of the company who was knowingly
aparty tothedefault of thecompany, unless he shows thathe acted
honestly and that in the circumstances in which the business of the
company was carried on the fault was excusable, is guilty of an
offence.

(2) For the purposes of this section, proper books of account
are deemed not to have been kept in the case of any company if
there have not been kept such books or accounts as are necessary
to exhibit and explain the transactions and financial position of
the trade or business of the company, including books containing
entries from day to day in sufficient detail of all cash receivedand
cash paid, and, where the trade or business has involved dealing
in goods, statements of the annual stocktakings and (except in the
case of goods soldby way of ordinary retail trade) of all goods sold
and purchased, showing the gmds and the buyers and sellers
thereof in sufficient &tail to enable those goods and those buyers
and sellers to be identified.

469. (1) If in the course of the winding up of a company it Fraudulent
appears that any business of the company has been carried on-

ANTIGUA 234 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(a) with intent to defraud creditors of the company or the
creditors of any other person or for any fraudulent
purpose:

{b) with reckless disregard of the company's obligation
to pay its debts and liabilities; or

(c) with reckless disregard of the insufficiency of the
company's assets to satisfy its debts and liabilities;

the court, on the application of the Official Receiver or the
liquidator or any creditor or contributory of the company may, if
it t h i s proper to do so, declare that any of the officers whether
past or present, of the company or any other persons who were
knowingly parties to the carrying on of the business in thatmanner
are personally responsible, without any limitation of liability, for
all or any of the debts or other liabilities of the company, as far
as the court may direct.

(2) Where the court makes any declaration referred to in
subsection (1) it may give such further directions as it thinks
proper for the purpose of giving effect to that declaration, and in
particular may make any provision for making the liability of a
person under the declaration a charge on any debt or obligation
due from the company to him, or on any mortgage or charge or
any interest in any mortgage or charge, on any assets of the
company held by or vested in him, or any company or persons on
his behalf or any person claiming as assignee from or through the
person liable to any person acting on his behalf, and may from
time to time make such further order as may be necessary for the
purpose of enfoxing any charge imposed under this subsection.

(3) For the purposes of subsection (2), "assignee" includes any
person to whom or in whose favour, by the directions of the person
liable, the debt, obligation, mortgage or charge was created,
issued or transferred or the interest created, but does not include
an assignee for valuable consideration (not including consider-
ation by way of marriage) given in good faith and without notice
of any of the matters on the ground of which the declaration is made.

(4) Where any business of a company is carried on with such
intent or for such purpose as is mentioned in subsection (I), every
person who was knowingly a party to the carrying on of the
business in that manner is guilty of an offence.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 235 ANTIGUA
AND

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(5) The provisions of this section have effect notwithstanding
that the person concerned may be criminally liable in respect of
the matters on the ground of which the declaration is to be made,
and where the declaration under subsection (1) ismade in the case
of a winding up, the declaration is deemed to be a final judgment
within the meaning of paragraph (g) of subsection (I) of section
3 of the Bankruptcy Ordinance.

470. (1) If in the course of winding up a company it appears Power of court
that any person who has taken part in the formation or promotion to assess damages
of the company, or any past or present officer or liquidator of the zFEE:-
company, has misapplidorretainedor become liable or account- ,, etc.
able for any money or property of the company or been guilty of
any misfeasance or breach of trust in relation to the company, the
court may, on the application of the Official Receiver or of the
liquidator, or of any creditor or contributory, examine into the
conduct of the promoter, liquidator or officer, and compel him to
repay or restore the money or property or any part thereof
respectively with interest at such rate as the court thinks just, or
to conmbute such sum to the assets of the company by way of
compensation in respect of the misapplication, retainer, misfea-
sance or breach of trust as the court thinks just.

(2) The provisions of this section have effect notwithstanding
that the offence is one for which the offender may be criminally
liable.

(3) Where in the case of a winding up an order for payment of
money is made under this section, the order is deemed to be a final
judgment within the meaning of paragraph (g) of subsection (1)
of section 3 of the Bar~kruptcy Ordinance.

471. (1) If it appears to the court in the course of a winding up Prosecution of
by the court, that any past or present officer, or any member, of delinquent
the company has been guilty of an offence in relation to the zg,"r,",",a
company for which he is criminally liable the court may, either company.
on the application of any person interested in the winding up or
on its own motion, direct the liquidator to refer the matter to the
Director of Public Prosecutions.

(2) If it appears to the liquidator in the course of a voluntary
winding up that any past or present officer, or any member, of a
company hasbeen guilty of any offence in relation to the company
for which he is criminally liable, he shall forthwith report the

ANTIGUA 236 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.
m

B-WA

matter to the Director of Public Rusecutions and shall furnish to
the Director such infannation and give to hi such access to and
facilities for inspectiQg and taking copies of any documents,
being information or documehts in the possession or under the
control of the liquidatof and relating to the matter in question, as
the Direcmr may require.

(3) If it appears to thecourt in the courseof avolunmy winding
up that any past or present officer, or any member, of the company
has been guilty of any offence in relation to the company for
which he is criminally liable, and that no report with respect to the
muer has been made by the liquidator to the Director of Public
Prosecutions under subsection (2), the court may, on the applica-
tion of any person interested in the winding up or of its own motion
direct the liquidator to make such a report, and on a report being
made accordingly the provisions of this section have effect as
though the report had been made in pursuance of subsection (2).

(4) If, where any matter is reported or referred to the Director
of Public Prosecutions under this section, he considers that the
case is one in which a prosecution ought to be instituted, the
liquidator and every officer and agent of the company past and
present (other than the defendant in the proceedings) shall give
him all assistance in connection with the prosecution which he is
reasonably able to give.

(5) For the purpose of subsection (4), "agent", in relation to a
company, is deemed to include any banker or attorney-at-law of
the company and any person employed by the company as
auditor, whether Wt person is or is not an officer of the company.

(6) If any person faib or neglects to give assistance in manner
required by subsection (4), the court may, on the application of
the Director of Public Prosecutions, direct that person to comply
with the ~quirements of that subsection, and where any such
application is made with respect to a liquidator the court may,
unless it appears that thefailure w neglect to comply was due to
the liquidator not having in his hands sufficient assets of the
company to etrable hini so to do, direct that the costs of the
application shall be bortie by the liquidator persunally.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 237 ANTIGUA
AND

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Gupplementary Provisions As To Winding Up

472. A corporation or an undischarged bankrupt is not quali- Disqualification
fied for appointment as liquidator of a company, whether in a for appointment
winding up by the court or in a voluntary winding up, and liquida'Or.

(a) any appointment made in contravention of this pro-
vision is void; and

(b) any corporation which or an undischarged bankrupt
who, acts as liquidator of a company is guilty of an
offence.

473. Where a company is being wound up, whether by the court Notification
or voluntarily, every invoice, order for goods or business letter that a company
issued by or on behalf of the company or a liquidator of the lS tion.
company, or a receiver or manager of the property of the
company, being a document on or in which the name of the
company appears, shall contain a statement that the company is
being wound up.

474. If default is made in complying with section 473, the Failure to
company and every officer of the company and every liquidator comply with
of the company and every receiver or manager, who knowingly 473.

authorises or permits the default, is guilty of an offence.

475. (1) In the case of a winding up by the court, or of a Exemption of
creditors' voluntary winding up, of a company - certain

documents from
stamp duty on

(a) every assurance relating solely to freeholdor leasehold up of
property, or to any mortgage, charge or other companies.
incumbrance on, or any estate, right or interest in, any
real or personal property, which forms part of the
assetsof the company and which, after the execution
of the assurance, either at law or in equity, is or
remains part of the assets of the company; and

(b) every power of attorney, proxy, writ, order, certifi-
cate, affidavit, bond or other instrument or writing
relating sdely @theproperty of any company which
is being so wound up or to any proceeding under any
such winding up,

ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

Books of company
to be evidence.

Disposal of
books and papers
of companies.

238 The.Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.

is exempt from duties chargeable under the enactment relating to
stamp duties.

(2) In subsection (I), "assurance" includes deed, conveyance,
assignment, transfer and surrender.

476. Where acompany is being wound up, all books and papers
of the company and of the liquidators shall, as between the
contributories of the company, be prima facie evidence of the
n t h of all matters purporting to be recorded therein.

477. (1) When a company has been wound up and is about to
be dissolved, the books and papers of the company and of the
liquidaton may be disposed of as follows, namely-

(a) in the case of a winding up by the court in such
manner as the court d i i t s ;

(b) in the case of a members' voluntary winding up, in
such way as a general meeting of the company by
ordinary resolution directs, and in the case of a
creditors' voluntary winding up, in such manner as
the committee of inspection or, if there is no such
committee, as a meeting of the creditors of the
company, by resolution directs.

(2) After five years from the dissolution of the company no
responsibility rests on the company, the liquidators or any person
to whom the custody of the books and papers has been committed,
by reason of any book or paper not being forthcoming to any
person claiming to be interested therein.

(3) Provision may be made by rules made under section 486
for enabling the court to prevent, for such period (not exceeding
five years from the dissolution of the company) as thecourt thinks
proper, the destruction of the books and papers of a company
which has been wound up, and for enabling any creditor or
contributory of the company to make representations to the court.

(4) If any person acts in contravention of any rules made under
section 486 for the purposes of this section or of any direction of
the court thereunder, he is guilty of an offence.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 239 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

478. (1) If where acompany is being wound up the winding up In fomion 3s
is not concluded within one year after its commencement, the to pending

liquidations.
liquidator shall, at such intervals as may be prescribed, until the
winding up is concluded, send to the Registrar a statement in the
prescribed form and containing the prescribed particulars with
respect to the proceedings in the winding up and the position of
the liquidator.

(2) Any person stating himself in writing to be a creditor or
contributory of the company shall be entitled, by himself or by his
agent, at dl reasonable times, on payment of the prescribed fee,
to inspect the statement, and to receive a copy thereof or extract
therefrom.

(3) If a liquidator fails to comply with this section, he is guilty
of an offence and any person untruthfully stating himself as
providedin subsection (2) tobe acreditor or contributory is guilty
of acontempt of court, and is, on the application of the liquidator
or of the Official Receiver, punishable accordingly.

479. (1) If it appears either from any statement sent to the Unclaimed assets.
Registrar under section 478 or otherwise that a liquidator has in
his hands or under his control any money representing unclaimed
or undistributed assets of the company which have remained
unclaimed or undistributed for six months after the date of their
receipt or any money held by the company in trust in respect of
dividends or other sums due to any person as a member of the
company, the liquidator shall forthwith pay that money into court,
and shall be entitled to the prescribed certificate of receipt for the
money so paid, and that certificate shall be an effectual discharge
to him in respect thereof.

(2) Any person claiming to be entitled to any money paid into
court in pursuance of this section may apply to the court for
payment thereof, and the court may, on a certificate by the
liquidam; that the person claiming is entitled, make an order for
the payment to that person of the sum due.

Supplementary Powers of Court

480. The court may, as to all matters relating to the winding Meetings to
up of a company, have regard to the wishes of the creditors or asceaainwishes
contributories of the company, as proved to it by any sufficient znz:taies,
evidence, and may, if it thirks fit, for the purpose of ascertaining

ANTIGUA
m

BARBUDA

Affidavits, etc.

Power of court
to declare
dissolution of
company void.

Registrar may
strike defunct
company off
register.

The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.

those wishes, direct meetings of the creditors or contributories to
be called, held and conducted in such manner as the court directs,
and may appoint aperson to act as chairman of any such meeting
and to report the result thereof to the court.

481. (1) Any affidavit required to be sworn under the provi-
sions or for the purposes of this Part may be sworn in Antigua and
Barbuda or elsewhere before any court, judge, magistrate, or
person lawfully authorised to take and receive affidavits.

(2) All courts, judges, magistrates, justices, commissioners and
persons acting judicially shall take judicial notice of the seal or
stamp or signature, as the case may be, of any such court, judge,
magistrate or person attached, appended, or subscribed to any
such affidavit, or to any other document to be used for the
purposes of this Part.

Provisions As To Dissolution

482. (1) Where a company has been dissolved (otherwise than
pursuant to section 483) the court may at any time within two
years of the date of the dissolution, on an application being made
for the purpose by the liquidator of the company or by any other
person who appears to the court to be interested, make an order,
upon such terms as the court thinks fit, declaring the dissolution
to have been void, and thereupon such proceedings may be taken
as might have been taken if the company had not been dissolved.

(2) The person on whose application the order was made shall,
within seven days after the making of the order, or such further
time as the court allows, lodge with the Registrar a copy of the
order, and if that person fails so to do he is guilty of an offence.

483. (1) Where the Registrar has reasonable cause to believe
that a company is not carrying on business or in operation, he may
send to the Company by post a letter inquiring whether the
company is carrying on business or in operation.

(2) If the Registrar does not within one month of sending the
letter receive any answer thereto, he shall within fourteen days
after the expiration of the month send to the company by post a
registered letter referring to the first letter, and stating that no
answer thereto has been received, and that if an answer is not
received to the second letter within one month from the date

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 24 1 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

thereof, a notice will be published in the Gazette with a view to
striking the name of the company off the register.

(3) If the Registrar either receives an answer to the effect that
the company is not carrying on business or in operation, or does
not within one month after sending the second letter receive any
answer, he may publish in the Gazette, and send to the company
by post, a notice that at the expiration of three months from the
date of that notice the name of the company mentioned therein
will, unless cause is shown to the contrary, be struck off the
register and the company will be dissolved.

(4) If, in any case where a company is being wound up, the
Registrar has reasonable cause to believe either that no liquidator
is acting, or that the affairs of the company are fully wound up,
and thereauns required tobemadeby the liquidator havenot been
made for a period of six consecutive months, the Registrar shall
publish in the Gazette and send to the company or the liquidator,
if any, a like notice as is provided in subsection (3).

(5) At the expiration of the time mentioned in the notice the
Registrar may, unless cause to the contrary is previously shown
by the company, strike its name off the register, and shall publish
notice thereof in the Gazette, andon the publication in the Gazette
of this notice the company shall be dissolved, but-

(a) the liability, if any, of every director, managing
officer, and member of the company continues and
may be enforced as if the company had not been
dissolved; and

(b) nothing in this subsection affects the power of the
court to wind up a company the name of which has
been struck off the register.

(6) If the company or any member or creditor thereof feels
aggrieved by the company having been struck off the register, the
court on.an application made by the company or member or
creditor before the expiration of twenty years from the publica-
tion in the Gazette of the notice may, if satisfied that the company
was at the time of the striking off carrying on business or in
operation or otherwise that it is just that the company should be
restored to the register, order the name of the company to be
restored to the register, and upon a copy of the order being

ANTIGUA
AND

BARB W A

Outstanding asse
of defunct
company to
vest in
off~ciai
Receiver.

The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.

delivered to the Registrar for registration the company is deemed
to have continued in existence as if its name had not been struck
off; and the court may by the order give such dictions and make
such provisions as seem just for placing the company and all other
persons in the same position as nearly as may be as if the name
of the company had not been struck off.

(7) A notice to be sent under this section to a liquidator may
be addressed to the liquidator at his last known place of business,
and a letter or notice to be sent under this section to a company
may be addressed to the company at its registered office, or, if no
office has been registered, to the care of some director or other
officer of the company or if there is no director or other officer of
the company whose name and address are known to the Registrar,
may be sent to each of the persons who subscribed the articles of
incorporation, addressed to him at the address mentioned in the
articles of incorporation.

:ts 484. (1) Where, after a company has been dissolved, there
remains any outstanding property, real or personal, including
things in action and whether within or outside Antigua and
Barbuda which was vested in the company or to which it was
entitled, or over which it had a disposing power at the lime it was
dissolved, but which has not been realised or otherwise disposed
of or dealt with by the company or its liquidator, such property
shall, for the putposes of this section and section 485 and
notwithstanding any enactment or rule of law to the contrary, by
the operation of this section be and become vested in the Official
Receiver for all the estate and interest therein legal or equitable
of the company or its liquidator at the date the company was
dissolved, together with all claims, rights and remedies which the
company or its liquidator then had in respect thereof.

(2) Were any claim, right or remedy of the liquidator may
under this Act be made, exercised or availed of only with the
approval or concurrence of the court or some other person, the
Official Receiver may for the purposes of this section make,
exercise or avail itself of that claim, right or remedy without such
approval or concurrence.

(3) Property vested in the OfficialReceiverby operation of this
section is liable and subject to all charges, claims and liabilities
imposed thereon or affecting such property by reason of any
statutory provision as to rates, taxes, charges or any other matter

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 243 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

or thing to which such property would have been liable or subject
had such property conhued in the possession, ownership or
occripation of the company; but there shall not be imposed on the
Official Receiver or the Crown (State) any duty, obligation or
liability whatsoever todo or suffer any act or thing requiredby any
such statutory provision to be done or suffered by the owner or
occupier other than the satisfaction or payment of any such
charges, claims, or liabilities out of ,the assets of the company so
far as they are in the opinion of the Official Receiver properly
available for and applicable to such payment.

485. (1) Upon p m f to the satisfaction of the Official Receiver Disposal of
that there is vested in the OfficialReceiver by operation of section moneys.
484 or of an enactment of a proclaimed state containing provi-
sions similar to the provisions of section491, any estate or interest
in property, whether solely or together with any other person, of
a beneficial nature and not merely held in trust, the Official
Receiver may get in, sell or otherwise dispose of or deal with the
estate or 'interest or any part thereof as he sees fit.

(2) The Official Receiver may sell or otherwise dispose of or
deal with any such property either solely or in concurrence with
any other person in such manner for such consideration, by public
auction, public tender or private contract upon such terms and
conditions as the Official Receiver thinks fit, with power to
rescindany contract and resell or otherwise dispose of or deal with
any such property as he thinks expedient, and may make, execute
and give such contracts, instruments and documents as he thirks
necessary.

(3) The Official Receiver shall be remunerated by such
commission, whether by way of percentage or otherwise as is
prescribed in respect of the exercise of powers conferred by
subsection (1).

(4) The moneys received by the Official Receiver in the
exercise of any of the powers conferred on him by this section
shall be applied in defraying all costs, expenses, commission and
fees incidental thereto and thereafter to any payment authorised
by section 484 or this section and the surplus, if any, shall be paid
into such account as is prescribed, and the same shall, subject to
the rules made under section 486, be dealt with according to
orders of the court.

ANTIGUA 244 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(5) Any claim, suit, or action for or in respect of any moneys
paid into the prescribed acdount shall "be presented, made, or
instituted within twenty years next after the dissolution of the
company, after the expiration of which period of time all moneys
then or at any time thereafter standing to the credit of the
prescribed account shall, if there be no such claim, suit, or action
pending, or any order of the court to the contrary, be paid into the
Consolidated Fund.

Rules

486. Rules for carrying this Part into effect as far as relates to
procedure, winding upand feesandcosts in connection therewith,
may be made in like manner as rules may be made under and for
the purposes of the Judicature Act.

WINDING UP OF UNREGISTERED COMPANIES

Unregistered 487. (1) For the purposes of this Division, "unregistered
company. company" includes-

(a) an external company;

(b) any partnership, whether limited or not, or associa-
tion consisting of more than seven members; or

(c) any body corporate not incorporated or continued
under this Act, and any unincorporated body;

but does not include-

(d) a company incorporated or continued under this Act;
or

(e) any society or association established under any
enactment designated by the Attorney General by
order published in the Gazette.

(2) The provisions of this Division are in addition to and not
in restriction of any provisions contained in this Act with respect
to the winding up of companies by the court and the court or
liquidator may exercise any powers or do any act in the case of

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 245 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

unregistered companies which might be exercised or done by it
or him in the winding up of companies.

(3) The Attorney General may, from time to time, make an
order for'the purposes of paragraph (e) of subsection (1).

488. (1) Subject to this Division, any unregistered company Winding up of
may be wound up under this Part, which Part shall apply to an unregistered
unregistered company with the following adaptations- companies.

(a) the principal place of business of the company in
Antigua and Barbuda is for all the purposes of the
winding up the registered office of the company;

(b) no such company shall be wound up voluntarily;

(c) the circumstances in which the company may be
wound up are-

(i) if the company is dissolved or has ceased to
have a place of business in Antigua and Bar-
buda or has a place of business only for the
purpose of winding up its affairs or has ceased
to carry on business;

(ii) if the company is unable to pay its debts;

(iii) if the court is of the opinion that it is just and
equitable that the company should be wound
up; or

(iv) in the case of an external company, in such a
case as is referred to in paragraph (d) of section
377.

(2) An unregistered company is deemed to Be umhle to pay its
debts if-

(a) a creditor to whom the company h indebted in a sum
exceeding five thousand dollars then due has served
on the company, by leaving at its principal place of
business or by delivering to the secretary or some
director, manager or principal-off~cer of the com-
pany, or on a person authorised by an external

ANTIGUA 246 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

company to accept service of process, or by other-
wise serving in such manner as the court approves or
directs, a written demand requiring the company to
pay the sum so due and the company has for three
weeks after the service of the demand neglected to
pay the sum or to secure or compound for it to the
satisfaction of the creditor;

(b) any action or other proceeding has been instituted
against any member for debt or demand due or
claimed to be due from the company or from him in
his character of member, and, notice in writing of the
institution of the action or proceding having been
served on the company by leaving it at its principal
place of business or by delivering it to the secretary
or some director, manager or principal officer of the
company, or on a person authorised by an external
company to accept service of process, or by other-
wise serving it in such manner as the court approves
or directs, the company has not within three weeks
after service of the notice paid, secured or com-
pounded for the debt or demand or procured the
action or proceeding to be stayed or indemn

ifi

ed the
defendant to his reasonable satisfaction against the
action or proceeding and against all costs, damages
and expenses tobe incurred by him by reason thereof;

(c) execution or other process issued on a judgment,
decree or order obtained in any court in favour of a
creditor against a company or any metr~ber thereof as
such or any person authorised to be sued as nominal
defendant on @half of the company is returned
unsatisfied;

(d) it is otherwise proved to the satisfaction bf the court
that the company is unable to pay its debts as they fall
due.

(3) An unregistered company is also deemed unable to pay its
debts if it is proved to the satisfaction oRhe court that the value
of the company's assets is less than the amount of its liabilities,
taking into account its contingent and prospective liabilities.

No, 18 of 1995. The Compinies Act, 1995. 247 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

(4) A company incorporated outside Antigua and Barbuda
may be wound up as an unregistered company under this Division
notwithstanding that it is being wound up or has been dissolved
or had otherwise ceased to exist as a company under or by virtue
of the laws of the place under which it was incorporated.

(5) The money sum for the time being specified in subsection
(2) is sub~ect to increase or reduction by regulation under section
527; but no increase in the sum so specified affects any case in
which the winding up petition was presented before the coming
into force of the increase.

489. (1) On an unregistered company being wound up every Contributories
person is a contributory- in winding up of

unregistered
company.

(a) who is liable to pay or contribute to the payment of-

(i) any debt or liability of the company;

(ii) any sum for the adjustment of the rights of the
members among themselves; or

(iii) the costs and expenses of winding up; or

(b) where the company has been dissolved in the place
in which it is formed or incorporated, who immedi-
ately before the dissolution was so liable,

and every conmbutory is liable to contribute to the assets
of the company all sums due &om him in respect of any such
liability.

(2) On the death or bankruptcy of any contributory the
provisions of this Act with respect to the personal representatives
of deceased contributories and the trustees of bankrupt
contributories respectively apply.

490. (1) The provisions of this Act with respect to staying and p~h-er of court
restraining actions and proceedings against a company at my Or
time after the presentation of apetition for winding up andbefore r Z k n p .
the making of a winding up ordex shall, in the case of an
megktered company where the application to stay or restrain is
by a d i t o r , extend to actions and proceedings against any
wnaibutory of the company.

ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

Outstanding
assets of defunct
unregistered
company.

Responsibility.

248 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

(2) Where an order has beenmade for winding up an unregistered
company no action or proceeding shall be proceeded with or
commenced against any contributory of the company in respect
of any debt of the company except by leave of the court and
subject to such terms as the court imposes.

491. (1) Where an unregistered company, the place of incor-
poration or origin of which is in a proclaimed State, has been
dissolved and there remains in Antigua and Barbuda any out-
standing property which was vested in the company or to which
it was entitled or over which it had a disposing power at the time
it was dissolved, but which was not got in, realised, or otherwise
disposed of or dealt with, by the company or its liquidator before
the dissolution, the property shall, by the operation of this section
be and become vested for all the estate and interest therein legal
or equitable of the company or its liquidator at the date the
company was dissolved, in such person as is entitled thereto
according to the law of the place of incorporation or origin of the
company.

(2) Where the place of origin of an unregistered company is
Antigua and Barbuda, the provisions of sections 484 and 485
apply with such adaptations as may be necessary in respect of that
company.

(3) Where it appears to the Minister that an enacunent in force
in any Member State of the Caribbean Community contains
provisions similar to the provisions of this section, he may, by
order published in the Gazette, declare that State to be a pro-
claimed State for the purposes of this section.

PART V

Administration And General

DIVISION A

FUNCTIONS OF THE REGISTRAR

Registrar of Companies

492. (1) The Registrar of Companies is, under the general
supervision of the Minister, responsible for the administration of
this Act.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 249 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

(2) A seal may be prescribed by the Minister for use by the
Registrar in the performance of hi duties.

493. A document may be served upon the Regisuar by leaving service upon
it at the office of the Registrar or by sending it by telex, or telefax fie Registrar.
or by prepaid post or cable addressed to the Registrar at his office.

Register of Companies

494. The Registrar shall maintain a Register of C~mpanie~ in Register of
which to keep the name of every body corporate Companies.

(a) that is

(i) incorporated under this Act;

(ii) continued as a company under this Act;

(iii) registered under this Act; or

(iv) restored to the register pursuant to this Act,
and

(b) that hasnotbeen subsequently srruckoff thatregister.

495. (1) A person who has paid the prescribed fee is entitled, Inspection of
during normal business hours, to examine, and to make copies of register.
or extracts from, a document required by this Act or the regula-
tions, to be sent to the Registrar, except areport sent to him under
subsection (2) of section 519.

(2) The Registrar shall upon request and payment of the
prescribed fee, furnish any person with a copy or certified copy
of any document received by the Registm under this Act, except
areport received by him pursuant to subsection (2) of section 519.

(3) If the records maintained by the Registrar are prepared and
maintained in other than a written form,

(a) the Registrar shall fwnish any copy required to be
furnished under this Act in an intelligible written
form; and

ANTIGUA
AND

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Notice to
diredors etc.

Resumption
of receipt.

Undelivered
documents.

Notice waiver.

250 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

(b) a report reproduced from those records, if it is
certified by the Registrar, is admissible in evidence
to the same extent as the original written records
would be.

Notices and Documents

4%. (1) A notice or document requited by this Act, the
regulations, articles or the by-laws to be sent to a shareholder or
d i i to r of acompany may be sent by telex or telefax or by prepaid
post or cable, addressed to, or may be delivered personally to,

(a) the shareholder at his latest address as shown in the
records of the company or its transfer agent; and

(b) the director at his latest address as shown in the
records of the company or in the latest notice filed
under section 69 or 77.

(2) A director named in a notice sent by a company to the
Registrar under section 69 or 77 and filed by the Registrar is, for
the purposes of this Act, a director of the company referred to in
the notice.

497. A notice or document sent in accordance with section 4%
to ashareholder or director of acompany is, for the purpose of this
Act, presumed to be received by h i at the time it would be
delivered in the ordinary course of mail.

498. If a company sends a notice or document to a shareholder
in accordance with section 496 and the notice or document is
retuned on 3 consecutive occasions because the shareholder
cannot be found, the company need not send any further notices
or documents to the shareholder until he informs the company in
writing of his new address.

4 9 . Where a notice or document is required to be sent pursuant
to this Act, the sending of the notice or document may be waived,
or the time for the notice or document may be waived or abridged
at any time with the consent in writing ofthe person entitled to ihe
notice or document.

No. 18 of 1995. The CDmpmlies Act, 1995. 25 1

500. A certificate issued on behalf of a company stating any
fact that is set out in the articles, the by-laws, any unanimous
shareholder agreement, the minutes of the meetings of the
directors, a committeeof directors or the shareholders, or in a trust
deed orsther contract to which the company is a party, may be
signed by a director, an officer or a transfer agent of the company.

501. When introduced as evidence in any civil, criminal or
administrative action or proceeding,

(a) a fact stated in a certificate referred to in section 500,

(b) a certified extract from a register of members or
debenture holders of a company; or

(c) a certified copy of minutes or extracts from minutes
of a meeting of shareholders, directors or a commit-
tee of directors of a company,

is, in the absence of evidence to the contrary, proof of the fact so
certified without proof of the signature or official character of the
person appearing to have signed the certificate.

502. Where a notice or document is required by this Act to be
sent to the Registrar, he may accept a photostatic or photographic
copy of the notice or document or a copy by telefax or other
device.

503. (1) Where this Act requires that articles relating to a
company be sent to the Regism, unless otherwise specifically
provided,

(a) two copies, in this section called "duplicate origi-
nals", of the articles shall be signed by a director or
an officer of the company, or, in the case of articles
of incorporation, by the incorporator; and

(b) upon receiving duplicate originals of any articles that
conform to law, and any other required documents
and the prescribed fees, the Registrar shall

ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

Certificate by
company.

Evidentmry
value.

Copies.

Filed articles.

(i) endorse on each of the duplicate originals the
word "registered" and the date of the registra-
tion;

ANTIGUA 252 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(ii) issue in duplicate the appropriate ce

rtifi

cate
and attach to each certificate one of the dupli-
cate originals of the articles;

(iii) fiie a copy of the certificate and attached
articles; and

(iv) send to the company or its representative the
original certificate and attached articles.

(2) A certificate referred to in subsection (1) and issued by lthe
Registrar may be dated as of the day he receives the articles, or
court order pursuant to which the certificate is issued, or as of my
later day specified by thecourt or person who signed the articles.

(3) A signature required on a certificate referred to in subsec-
tion (I) may be printed or otherwiy mechanically reproduced on
the certificate.

Alteration of 504. The Registrar may alter a notice or document, other than
documents. an affidavit or statutory declaration, if so authorisedby the person

who sent him the notice or document, or by the representative of
that person.

Correction of 505. (1) If a certificate that contains an error is issued to a
documents. company by the Registrar, the directors or shareholders of the

company shall upon the request of the Registrar, pass the
resolutions and send to the Registrar the documents required to
comply with this Act, and take such other steps as the Registrar
may reasonably require; and the Registrar may demand the
surrender of the certificate and issue a corrected certificate.

(2) A cenificate corrected under subsection (1) shall bear the
date of the cerWicate it replaces.

proof of 506. (1) The Regism may require that a document or a fact
documents. stated in a document required or sent to him pursuant to this Act

be ve

rifi

ed in accordance with subsection (2).

(2) A document or factrequired by this Act or by the Registrar
to be ve

rifi

ed may be verified by affidavit or affmation.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 253 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

(3)The Registrar may require of a body corporate the authen-
tication of a document, and the authentication may be signed by
the secretary, or any directm or aubrised person or by the
attorney-at-law for the body corporate.

507. The Registrar need not produce any document of a Retentionof
prescribed class after six years frorh the date he received it.

5B. (1) The Registrar may, on payment of t-he prescribed fee, Registrar's
furnish any person with a certificate stating certificate.

(a) that a body corporate fnas or has not sent to the
Registrar a document required to be sent to him
pursuant to this Act;

(b) that a name, whether that of a company or not, is or
is not on the register; or

(c) that a name, whether that of a company or not, was
or was not on the register on a stated date.

(2) Where this Act requires or authorises the Registrar to issue
a certificate or to certify any facf the certificate or the certifica-
tion shall be signed by the Regism or by his deputy.

(3) A certificate or certification mentioned in subsection (2)
that is introduced as evidence in any civil, criminal or adminis-
trative action or proceeding, is sufficient proof of the facts so
catifid withoutproof of the signatureor official character of the
person appearing to have signed it,

509. (1) The Registrar may refuse to receive, file or register a Refusal power.
document submitted to him, if he is of the opinion that the
document

(a) contains matter contrary to the law;

(b) by reason of any omission or error in description, has
not been duly completed;

(c) does not comply. with the requirements of this Act;

(d) contains an error, alteration or erasure;

ANTIGUA 254 The Companies Act, 199.5.
AND

BARBUDA

No. 18 of 1995.

(e) is not sufficiently legible; or

fl is not sufficiently permanent for his records.

(2) The Registrar may request that a document refused under
subsection (1) be amended or completed and re-submitted, or that
a new document be submitted in its place.

(3) If a document that is submitted to the Registrar is accompanied
with a statutory deckmaion by an attorney-at-law that the document
contains no m r contrary to law and has been duly completed in
accordance with the requirements of this Act, the Registrar may
accept the declarationas sufficientpf of the facts therein declared.

Filing form. 510. Every document sent to the Registrar shall be in typed or
printed form.

Removal from Register

Striking off 511. (1) TheRegistrar may strike off the Register a company or
register. other body corporate, if

(a) the company or other body corporate fails to send any
return, notice, document or prescribed fee to the
Registrar as required pursuant to this Act;

(b) the company is dissolved;

(c) the company or other body corporate is amalgamated
with one or more other companies or bodies corporate;

(d) the company does not carry out an undertaking given
under subparagraph (i) of paragraph (a) of section
515; or

(e) the registration of the body corporate is revoked
pursuant to this Act.

(2) Where the Registrar is of the opinion that a company or other
body corporate is in default under paragraph (a) of subsection (I),
he shall send it a notice advising it of the default and stating that,
unless the default is remedied within 30 days after the date of the
notice, the company or other body corporate will be struckoff the
register.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 255 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

(3) Section 513 applies mutatis mutandis to the notice
mentioned in subsection (2).

(4) After the expiration of the time mentioned in the notice, the
Registrar may strike the company or other body corporate off the
register and publish a notice thereof in the Gazette.

(5) Where a company or other body corporate is sauck off the
register, the Registrar may, upon receipt of an application in the
prescribed form and upon payment of the prescribed fee, restore
it to the register and issue a certificate in a form adapted to the
circumstances.

512. Where a body corporate is struck off the register, the Liability
liability of the body corporate and of every director, officer or continues.
shareholder of the body corporate continues andmay be enforced
as if it had not been struck off the register.

513. A notice or document may be served on a company service on
company.

(a) by leaving it at, or sending it by telex or telefax or by
prepaid post or cable addressed to, tb registered
office of the company; or

(b) by personally serving any director, officer, receiver,
receiver-manager or liquidator of the company.

Company Names

514. The Registrar may, upon request and upon payment of the Reservation
prescribed fee, reserve for 90 days a name for an intended of name.
company or for a company about to change its name.

515. The name of a company Rohibited
name.

(a) shall not be the same as or similar to the name or
business name of any other person or of any
association, partnership or firm, if the use of that
name would be likely to confuse or mislead, unless
the person, association, partnership or firm con-
sents in writing to the use of that name in whole or
in part, and

ANTIGUA 256 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(i) if required by the Registrar in the case of any
person, undertakes to dissolve or change his or
its name to a dissimilar name within 6 months
after the filing of the articles by which the name
is acquired, or

(ii) if required by the Registrar in the case of an
association, partnership or fm, undertakes to
cease to carry on its business or activities, or
undertakes to change its name to a dissimilar
name, within 6 months after the filing of the
articles by which the name is acquired;

{b) shall not be identical to the name of a body corporate
incorporated under the laws of Antigua and Barbuda
before the commencement date;

(c) shall not suggest or imply a connection with the
Crown or theGovernment or of any M

ini

stry, depart-
ment, branch, bureau, service, agency or activity of
the Government, unless consent in writing to the
proposed name is duly obtained from the appropriate
Minister;

{d) shall not suggest or imply a connection with a
political party or a leader of a political party;

h

(e) shall not suggest or imply a connection with a
university or a professional association recognised
by the laws of Antigua and Barbuda unless the
university or professional association concerned con-
sents in writing to the use of the proposed name; and

(f) shall not be a name that is prohibited by the regula-
tions.

Refusal of articles. 516. The Regislrar may refuse to accept P c k s of incorpora-
tion or continuation for acompany or to register articles amending
the name of a company if

(a) the name is not distinctive because

(i) it is too general;

No. 18 of 1995. Companies Act, 1995. 257 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

(ii) it is descriptive only of the quality, function or
other characteristic of the goods or services in
which the company deals or intends to deal; or

(iii) primarily it is only a geographic name used
alone

unless the applicant establishes that the name has through use
acquired and continues to have a secondary meaning;

(b) the' name is defectively inaccurate in describing

(i) the business, goods or services in association
with which it is proposed to be used;

(ii) the conditions under which the goods or ser-
vices will be produced or supplied;

(iii) the persons to be employed in the production
or supply of those goods or services; or

(iv) the place of origin of those goods and services;

(c) it is likely to be confusing with that of a company that
was dissolved,

(d) it contains the word or words "credit union", "co-
operative", or "co-op" when it connotes a co-opera-
live venture; or

(e) it is, in the opinion of the Registrar, on any reason-
able, objectionable.

517. If two or more companies amalgamate, the amalgamated Amalgamated
company may have company.

(a) the name of one of the amalgamating companies;

(b) a distinctive combination that is not confusing of the
amalgamating companies; or

(c) a distinctive new name that is not confusing.

ANTIGUA 258
AND

BARBUDA

The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

DIVISION B

INVESTIGATION OF COMPANIES

Investigation 518. (1) A shareholder or debenture holder of a company, or the
order. Regism, may apply, exparte or upon such notice as the court

may require, to the court for an order directing that an investiga-
tion be ma& of the company and any of its affiliated companies.

(2) If, upon an application un&r subsection (1) in respect of a
company, it appears zo the court that

(a) the business of the company or any of its affiliates is
or has_ been &ed on with intent to &fraud any
person;

(b) the business or affairs of the company or any of its
a l ia tes are or have been carried on in a manner, or
the powers of the directors are or have been exercised
in ammer, that is oppressive or unfairly prejudicial
to, or that unfairly disregards, the interest of a
shareholder or &bentme bow,

(c) the qnpany or any of its affiliites was fonned for a
frauduient or unlawful purpose, or is to be dissolved
for a fraudulent or unlawful purpose;

(d) persons concerned with the formation, business or
affairs of the company or any of its affdiates have in
connection therewith acted fraudulently or dishon-
estly, or

(e) in any case it is in the public interest that an investi-
gation of the company be made,

the court may order that an investigation be made of the company
and any of its affiiliated companies.

(3)If a h h o I d e r or debenture holder makes an application
under subsection (1) he shall give the Registrarreasonable notice
&ereof; and tbe Regism is entitled to appear and be heard in
person or by an astr#eey-at-law.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 259 ANTIGUA
AND

B W U D A

(4)An exparte application under this section shall be heard in
camera.

(5)No person shall publish anything relating to an ex parte
proceeding except with the authorisation of the court or the
written consent of the company that is being, or to be, investi-
gated.

519. (1) In connection with an investigation under this Divi-
sion in respect of a company, the court may make any order it C O m ~ w f l s .
thinks fit, including

(a) an order to investigate;

(b) an order appointing an inspector, who may be the
Registrar, and fixing the remuneration of the inspec-
tor and replacing the inspector.

(c) an order determining the notice to be given to any
interested person, or dispensing with notice to any
perm;

(d) an order authorising an inspector to enter any pre-
mises in which the court is satisfied there might be
relevant information, and to examine anything, and
to make copies of any documents or records, found
on the premises;

(e) an order requiring any person to produce documents
or records to the inspector;

fJl an order authorising an inspector to conduct a hear-
ing, administer oaths and examine any person upon
oath, and prescribing rules for the conduct of the
hearing;

(8) an order requiring any person to attend a hearing
conducted by an inspector and to give evidence upon
oath;

(h) an order giving directions to an inspector or any inter-
ested person on any matter arising in the investigation;

(i) an order requiring an inspector to make an interim or
f d report to the court;

ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

Inspector's
powers.

In camera hearing.

Incriminating
evidence.

Cap. 324.

Frivilege absolute.

260 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

(j) an order determining whether a report of an inspector
shouldbe published, and, if so, ordering theRegistrar
to publish the report in whole or in part, or to send
copies to any person the court designates;

(k) an order requiring an inspector to discontinue an
investigation; or

(1) an order requiring the company to pay the costs of the
investigation.

(2)An inspector shall send to the Registrar a copy of every
report made by the inspector under this Division.

520. (1) An inspector under this Division has the powers set out
in the order appointing him.

(2) An inspector shall upon request produce to an interested
person a copy of any order made under subsection (1) of section
519.

521. (1) An interested person may apply to the court for an
order that a hearing conducted by an inspector under this Division
be heard in camera and for directions on any matter arising in the
investigation.

(2)A person whose conduct is being investigated or who is
being exarninedat a hearing conducted by an inspector under this
Division may appear and be heard in person or by an attorney-at-
law.

522. No person is excused from attending and giving evidence
and producing documents and records to an inspector under this
Division by reason only that the evidence tends to incriminate that
person or subject him to any proceediig or penalty; but the
evidence may not be used or received against him in any
pmeeding thereafter instituted against him, other than aprosecu-
tion for perjury in giving the evidence, or a prosecution under
section 3 of the Perjury Act in respect of the evidence.

523. An oral or written statement or report made by an inspector
or any other person in an investigation under this Division has
absolute privilege.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 261 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBUDA

Inquiries

524. (1) If the Registrar is satisfied that, for the purposes of Ownership
Division F of Part I or Division E of Part 11, there is reason to interest.
enquire into the ownership or control of a share or debenture of
a company or any of its affiliates, the Registrar may require any
person that he reasonably believes has or has had interest in the
share or debenture, or acts or has acted on behalf of a person with
such an interest, to furnish to the Registrar, or to any person the
Registrar appoints,

(a) information bat the person has or can reasonably be
expected to obtain as to present and past interests in
the share or debenture; and

(b) the names and addresses of the persons so interested
and of any person who acts or has acted in relation to
the share or debenture on behalf of the persons so
interested.

(2)For the purposes of subsection (I), a person has an interest
in a share or debenture, if

(a) he has a right to vote or to acquire or dispose of the
share or debenture or any interest therein;

b) his consent is necessary for the exercise of the rights
or privileges of any other person interested in the
share or debenture; or

(c) any other person interested in the share or debenture
can be required, or is accustomed, to exercise rights
or privileges attached to the share or debenture in
amdance with his instructions.

525. Nothing in this Division affects the privileges that exist in Client
respect of an attorney-at-law and hi client. privileges.

526. The Registrar may make of any person any inquiries that Inquiries.
relate to compliance with this Act by any persons.

ANTIGUA 262 The Companies Act, 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

No. 18 of 1995.

DIVISION C

REGULATIONS

Regulations. 527. (1) The Minister may make such regulations as are
required for the better Ministration of this Act, and, in parlicu-
lar, the Minister may make regulations

(a) prescribing any matter required or authorised by this
Act to be prescribed;

(b) requiring the payment of a fee in respect of the filing,
examination or copying of any documents or in
respect of any action that the Registrar is required or
authorised to take under this Act, and prescribing the
amount thereof;

(c) prescribing the format and contents of returns, no-
tices or other documents required to be sent to the
Registrar or to be issued by him,

(d) prescribing the rules with respect to exemptions
permitted by this Act;

(e) respecting thenamesof companies or classes thereof;

01 respectmg the authorised capital of companies;

(g) respecting the preferences, rights, conditions, re-
strictions, limitations or prohibitions attaching to
shares or classes or series of shares of companies;

(h) respecting the designation of classes of shares; and

(i) respecting any other matter required for the efficient
administration of this Act.

(2)Regulationsmade under this section are subject to negative
resolution.

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 263 ANTIGUA
AND

BARBrnA

DIVISION D

OFFENCES AND PENALTIES

528. Subject to subsection (2) of section 10, a company that N- offence.
contravenes section 10 is guilty of an offence and liable on
summary conviction to a fine of $5,000.

529. Each of the individuals who carries on business under a Abuse of
name part of which is "limited", " i n c o r p o ~ or "corporation" corporate status.
or the abbreviations "ltd", "inc" or "corp" is guilty of an offence
and liable on summary conviction to a fine of $5,000.

530. (1) A person who makes or assists in making a report, Reports.
return, notice or other document

(a) that is required by rhis Actor theregulations to be sent
to the Registrar or to any other person, and

(b) that

(i) contains an untrue statement of a- fact, or

(ii) omits to state a material fact required in the
report, return, notice or other document, or
necessarytomakeastatement~tained~n
not misleading in the light of the circumstances
in which it was made,

is guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine
of $5,000. or to imprisonment for a tum of 2 years, or to both.

(2)A person is not guilty of an offence under subsection (1) if
the making of the unme s@tementor&he omissionofthe material
fact was unknown to him and with the exercise of reasonable
diligence could not have been known to him.

(3)When an offence under subsection (1) is committed by a
body corporate and a dir- or officer of &at body m p m t e
knowingly authofised, permitted or acquiesced in the commis-
sion of the offence, the director or officer is also guilty of the
offence and d l e on summary conviction to a fme of $5,000. or
to imprisonment for a tum of 2 years, or to both.

531. (1) A p e t is of anoffence and liable onsummary spcd6e m-.
conviction to a e of $5,000. and to imprisment for a term of
2 years, or to both

ANTIGUA 264 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

(a) who without reasonable cause contravenes section
189;

(b) who without reasonable cause contravenes section
193;.

(c) who wilfully contravenes section 304,311, or 313.

(d) who without reasonable cause contravenes subsec-
tion (5) of section 269;

(e) who wilfully contravenes section 142 or 143;

Cf9 who without reasonable cause fails to comply with a
requirement of the Registrar under section 524 to
report to the Registrar any information or any names
or addresses of persons sought by theRegistrar under
that section;

(g) who,beingaproxyholderoraltemateproxyholder,fails
withoutreasonable cause to comply with the directions
of a shareholder undea s u b d o n (1) of section 145;

(h) who, being a registrant within the meaning of this
Act, knowingly contravenes section 146;

(i) who,, being an auditor or former auditor of a com-
pany, contravenes subsection (1) of section 169
without reasonable cause; or

0) who, being a director or officer of acompany know-
ingly contravenes section 173.

(2)Where the person who is guilty of an offence under
subsection (1) is a body corporate, then, whether the body
corporate has been prosecuted or convicted, any director or
officer of the body corporate who knowingly authorised, permit-
ted or acquiesced in the act or omission that constituted the
offence is also guilty of an offence and liable on summary
conviction to a fine of $5,000 or to imprisonment for a term of 2
years, or to both.

Company offences. 532. A company is guilty of an offence and liable on summary
conviction to a fine of $10,000, if

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 265 ANTIGI 1.1
AND

BARBUDA

(aj the company contravenes section 18 (I), 18 (2), 3 15,
316,317 or 319;

(b) the management of the company without reasonable
cause fails to comply with subsection (I) of section
141; or

(c) the company without reasonable cause contravenes
section 153 or 155;

(2) When a company is guilty of an offence under this
section, any director or officer of the company who knowingly
authorised, acquiesced in or permitted the contravention is also
guilty of an offence and liable on summary conviction to a fine
of $10,000. or to imprisonment for a term of 6 months, or to
both.

533. Every person who is guilty of an offence under this Act or General offence.
the regulations is if no punishment is elsewhere in this Act
provided for that offence, liable on summary conviction to a fine
of $5,000.

534. In a prosecution for an offence under this Act arising out Defence re
of an untrue statement or wilful non-disclosure in a prospectus, Prospectuses.
it is a defence for the person charged to prove that the statement
or non-disclosure was immaterial, or that he had reasonable
grounds to believe, and did, up to the time of the issue of the
prospectus, believe that the statement was true or the non-
disclosure was immaterial.

535. When a person is convicted of an offence under this Act Order t~
or the regulations, the court, or a court of summary jurisdiction in comply.
which proceedings in respect of the offence are taken, may, in
addition to any punishment it may impose, order that person to
comply with the provision of this Act or the regulations for the
contravention of which he has been convicted.

536. A prosecution for an offence under his Act or the Limitation.
regulations may be instituted at any time within 2 years from the
time when the subject-matter of the prosecution arose.

537. No civil remedy for any act or omission is affected by Civil remedies
reason that the act or omission is an offence under this Act. unaffe"ed.

ANTIGUA 266 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

BARBUDA

DIVISION E

CONSTRUCTION AND INTERF'RETATION
OF ACT

Corporate Relationships

Affiliated
corporations.

538. For the purposes of this 'Act,

(a) one body corporate is affiliated with another corpo-
rate if one of them is the subsidiary of the other, or
both are subsidiaries of the same body corporate, or
each of them is controlled by the same person; and

(b) if two bodies corporate are affiliated with the same
body corporate at the same time, they are affiliited
with each other.

bbControP'. 539. For the purposes of this Act, a body corporate is controlled
by a person if any shares of the body corporate carrying voting
rights sufficient to elect a majority of the directors of the body
corporate are, except by way of security only, held, directly or
indirectly, by or on behalf of that person.

"Holding" and 540. For the purposes of this Act,
"subsidiary".

(a) a body corporate is the holding body corporate of
another if that other body corporate is its subsidiary;
and

(b) a body corporate is a subsidiary of another body capo-
rate if it is controlled by that other body corporate.

Public Distribution of Corporate Securities

"Distribution"
to public.

541. (1) For the purposes of this Act,

(a) a share or debenture of a body corporate is part of a
distribution to the public, when, in respect of the
share or debenture,

(i) there has been, under the laws of Antigua and Barbuda or
any other jurisdiction, a filing of a prospectus, statement in lieu
of prospectus, registration statement, stock exchange take-over
bid circular or s imi i in strum en^ or

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 267 ANTIGUA '
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(ii) the share or debenture is listed for trading on
any stock exchange wherever situated; and

(b) ashareordebenmofabodycorporateisdeemedtobe
part of a distribution to the public wheresthe share or
debenm has been issued and a filing referred to in
subpaqpph (i) of pamgmph (a) would be required if
the share or debenture were being issued cummtly.

(2)For the purposes of this Act, the shares or debentures of a
company that are issued upon a conversion of other shares or
debentures of a company, or in exchange for other shares or
debentures, are part of a'distribution to the public if any of those
others were part of a distribution to the public.

(3)For the purposes of this Act,

(a) a statement is included in a prospecbs or in a statement
in lieu of a prospectus if it is included in any repolt or
memomdmappmingcmthefacethereoforby
refemce in- rhe~in or issued therewith;

(b) a statement included in a prospectus or statement in
lieu of prospectus is deemed to be untrue if it is
misleading in the form and context in which it is
included; and

(c) a reference to an offer or offering of shares or
debentures for subscription or purchase is deemed to
include an offer of shares or debentures by way of
barter or otherwise.

542. (1) Any ref- in this Act to offering shares or debentures "Offerw to
to the public includes, unless the conw intention appears, a the public.
ref- to offering them to any section of the public, whether
selededas~~oftfiepersonissuingthe~morinany other
m, and references in this Act or in the articles of a company to
invitations to the public to subscribe for shes or debenms shall,
unless the amhay intention appears, be similarly amstrued

(2) Subsection (1) does not require that any offer or invitation
be treated as beiag made to the public if the offer or invitation can
pmperly be regprded, in all the circumstances, as not being
calculated to result, directly or indirectb, in the shares or

ANTIGUA 268 The Companies Act, 199.5. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

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debentures becoming available for subscription or purchase by
persons other than those receiving the offer or invitation, or other-
wise as being a domestic concm of the persons making and
receiving the offer or invitation.

(3)A provision in the articles or by-laws of a company that
prohibits invitations to the public to subscribe for s h a q or
debentures does not prohibit the making of an invitation to the
shareholders, debenture holders or employees of the company.

Corporate and Other Expressions

Definition of 543. (1) In this Act, unless the context otherwise requires
technical words.

"affairs" means, in relation to any company or other
body corporate, the relationship among the company
or body corporate, its affdiates and the shareholders,
directors and officers thereof, but does not include
any businesses carried on by the companies or other
bodies corporate;

"affiliate" means an affiliated company or affiliated
body corporate within the meaning of section 538;

"articles" means, unless qualified,

(a) the original or restated articles of incorporation,
articles of amendment, articles of amalgamation,
articles of continuation, articles of re-organisation,
articles of dissolution, and articles of revival, and

(b) any statute, letters patent, memorandum of associa-
tion, certificate of incorporation, or other corporate
instrument evidencing the existence of abody corpo-
rate continued as a company under this Act;

"associate" when used to indicate arelationship with
any person means

(a) a company or body corporate of which that person
beneficially owns or controls, directly or indirectly,
shares or debentures convertible into shares, that
carry more than 20 percent of the voting rights

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 269 ANTIGUA
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(i) under all circumstances,

(ii) by reason of the occurrence of an event that has
occurred and is continuing, or

(iii) by reason of a currently exercisable option or
right to purchase those shares or those convert-
ible debentures:

(b) a partner of that person acting on behalf of the
partnership of which they are partners;

(c) a trust or estate in which thatperson has a substantial
beneficial interest or in respect of which he serves as
a trustee or in a similar capacity;

(d) a spouse of that person within the meaning of subsec-
tions (2) and (3);

(e) achildbom out of wedlock or within wedlock, a step-
child or an adopted child of that person; and

fl arelative of that person or of his spouse if that relative
has the same residence as that person;

"auditor" includes a partnership of auditors;

"beneficial interest" or "beneficial ownership" in-
cludes ownership through a trustee, legal representa-
tive, agent or other intermediary;

"body corporate" includes a company within the
meaning of this section or other body corporate
wherever or however incorporated, other than a
corporation sole;

"commencement date" means the date on which this
Act comes into operation;

"company" means a body corporate that is incorpo-
rated or continued under this Act;

"court" means the High Court;

ANTIGUA 270 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

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"corporate instruments" includes any statute, letters
patent, memorandum of association, articles of asso-
ciation, certificate of incorporation, certificate of
continuance, by-laws, regulations or other instru-
ment by which a body corporate is incorporated or
continued or that governs or regulates the affairs of
a body corporate;

"debenture7' includes debenture s w k and any bond
or other instrument evidencing an obligation or
guarantee, whether secured or not;

"director" in relation to a body corporate, means a
person occupying therein the position of adirectorby
whatever title he is called.

"external company" means any firm or other body of
persons, whether incorporated or unincorporated,
that is formed under the laws of a country other than
Antigua and Barbuda;

"former Act" means the Companies Act;

"former Act company" means a company incorpo-
rated or registered under the former Act or any Act
replaced by that Act;

"incorporator" means, in relation to a company, a
person who signs the articles of incorporation of the
company;

"legal representative" in relation to a company,
shareholder, debenture holder or other person, means
a person who stands in place of and represents the
company, shareholder, debenture holder or person,
and without limiting the generality of the foregoing,
means also, as the circumstances require, a trustee,
executor, administrator, assignee, or receiver of the
company, shareholder, debenture holder or person;

"liability7' includes, in relation to a company, any
debt of the company that arises under

(a) section 49,

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 27 1 ANTIGUA
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(b) subsection (2) of section 234, or

(c) paragraph (f) or (g) of subsection (3) of section 241;

"Minister" means the Minister responsible for legal affairs.

"officer" in relation to a body corporate means

(a) the chairman, deputy chairman, president or vice-
president of the board of directors;

(b) the managing director, general manager, comptrol-
ler, secretary or treasurer; or

(c) any other person who performs for the body corpo-
rate functions similar to thosenormally performedby
the holder of any office specified in paragraph (a) or
(b) and who is appbiited by the board of directors to
perform such functions;

"ordinary reso1ution"means aresolution passed by a
majority of the votes cast by the shareholders who
voted in respect of that resolution;

"public company" means a company any of whose
issued shares or debentures are or were part of a
distribution to the public within the meaning of
section 541;

''record" includes any register, book or other record
that is required to be kept by acompany or other body
corporate;

"redeemable share" means a share issued by a company

(a) that the company can purchase or redeem upon
demand of the company, or

(b) that the company is required by its articles to pur-
chase or redeem at a specified time or upon the
demand of a shareholder;

"Registrar" refers to the Registrar of Companies
under this Act;

ANTIGUA 272
AND

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The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.

"security interest" means any interest in or charge upon
any property of a company, by way of mortgage, bond,
lien, pledge or other means, that is created or taken to
secure the payment of an obligation of the company;

"send" includes deliver:

"series" in relation to shares, means a division of a
class of shares;

"share" includes stock;

"shareholder" in relation to a company, includes

a member of a company described in Division A of
Part 111, except where inconsistent with aprovision of
that Division;

the personal representative of a deceased share-
holder;

the trustee in banluuptcy of a bankrupt shareholder, and

aperson in whose favour a transfer of shares has been
executed but whose name has not been entered in the
register of members, or, if two or more transfers of
those shares have been executed, the person in whose
favour the most recent transfer has been made;

"special resolution" means a resolution of which at
least 21 days' notice is given which is

passed by amajority of not less than 75 percent of the
votes cast by the shareholders who voted in respect
of the resolution; or

signed by al l the shareholders entitled to vote on the
resolution.

"stock exchange7'means any market where shares or
bonds are traded;

"unanimous shareholder agreement9'means an agree-
ment described in section 135.

No. %of 1435. The Cannpanies Act, 1995. 273 ANTIGUA
AND

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(2)For the purposes af this Act reference t~ a spouse includes
a single woman who wqs living together with a single man as his
wife for aperiodof not less than 5 years and asingleman who was
living together with a single woman for a like period.

(3)For the purposes of subsection (2) a reference to a single
woman or a single man includes a reference to a widow or
widower or to a woman or man who is divorced.

DIVISION F

INCIDENTAL AP+D CQNSEQUENTIAL MATIERS

544. (1) The former Act is repealed. Repeal.

(2)Notwithstanding subsection (1) the provisionsof @ former
Act continue to,apply so far as is necessary to enable a former- Act
company lawfully to f ~ c t i o n until it is continued under this Act
or w~und up.

545. (1) 10 this section and section 546

(a) "enactment" means an Act or regulation or any
pmvision of an Act or regulatioo: and

(b) "regulation" includes an order, regulation, order in
council, order prescribing regulations, rule, rule of
court, form, tariff of costs or fees, letters patent,
commission, warrant, ;\nd any instrpment issued,
made or established

(i) in the execution of a power conferred by or
under an Act other than the former Act, or

(ii) by or under fie authority of the Attorney
General.

(2)A reference in an unrepealed enactment to the former Act
is, as regards a transaction, matter or things subsequent to the
commencement date to be construed and applied, unless the
context otherwise requires, as areference to the provisions of this
Act that relate to the same subject-matter as the provisions of the
former Act; but if there are no provisions in this Act that relate to
the same subject-matter, the former Act is to be construed and

References to
Companies Act.

ANTIGUA 274 The Companies Act, 1995. No. 18 of 1995.
AND

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applied as unrepeded so far as is necessary to do so to maintain
or give effect to the unrepealed provision.

Transitions!. 546. (1) Where in any enactment the*expression "registered
under the Companies Act" occurs, the expression, unless the
context otherwise requires, refers to incorporation, continualion
or registration under this Act in respect of all transactions, matters
or things subsequent to the commencement date.

(2)Where in any enactment the expression "memorandum of
association" or "articles of association" occur, those expressions,
unless the context otherwise requires, refer respectively to ar-
ticles of incorporation and by-laws within the meaning of this Act.

(3) Where in any enactment areference is made to winding-up
under, or to the winding-up provisions of, the former Act, then,
unless the context otherwise requires, it refers, in respect of all
transactions, matters or things subsequent to the commencement
date, to winding up or dissolution under this Act.

Repeal effect. 547. (1) Notwithstanding subsection (1) of section 544. if on
the commencement date any proceedings under the former Act
are pending in respect of the winding-up of any body under that
Act, those proceedings may be continued under that Act as if this
Act had not been enacted.

(2)When, on the commencement date an amalgamation agree-
ment entered under the former Act and approved by the court
under that Act is in the course of being filed with the Registrar
General or is in his hands, the amalgamation may be continued
and effected under that Act as if this Act had not been enacted,
unless the parties to the amalgamation withdraw the amalgam-
ation agreement by notice in writing.

Security for costs 548. Where a company is plaintiff in any action or other legal
proceeding any judge having jurisdiction in the matter may, if it
appears by credible testimony that there is reason to believe that
the company will be unable to pay the costs of the defendant if
successful in his defence, require sufficient secunty to be given for
those costs and may stay all proceedings untd the secunty is given.

Power of court to 549. (1) If tn any proceeding for negligence, default, breach of
grant rr l~ef In duty or breach of trustlagainst person to whom this section applies
certain cases it appears to the court hearing the case that that person is or may

No. 18 of 1995. The Companies Act, 1995. 275 ANTIGUA
AND i

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be liable in respect of the negligence, default, breach of duty or
breach of trust, but that he has aced honestly and reasonably, and
that, having regard to all the circumstances of the case, including
those connected with his appointment, he ought fairly to be
excused for the negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of
trust, that court may relieve him, either wholly orpartly, from his
liability on such terms as the court may think fit.

(2)Where any person to whom this section applies has reason
to apprehend that any claim will or might be made against him in
respect of any negligence, default, breach of duty or breach of
trust, hemay apply tothecourt forrelief, and the court on any such
application shall have the same power to relieve him as under this
section it would have had if it had been a court before which
proceedings against that person fornegligence, default, breach of
duty or breach of trust had been brought.

(3)Where any case to which subsection (1) applies is being
tried by a judge with a jury, the judge, after hearing the evidence,
may, if he is satisfied that the defendant ought in pursuance of that
subsection to be relieved either in whole or in part from the
liability sought to be enforced against him, withdraw the case in
whole or in part from the jury and forthwith direct judgment to be
entered for the defendant on such terms as to costs or otherwise
as the judge may think proper.

(4)The persons to whom this section applies are the following -

(a) directors, managers or officers of a company;

(b) persons employed by a company as auditors.

550. Where proceedings are instituted under this Act against Saving for
any person, nothing in this Act shall be taken to require any person privileged

communications who has actedas attorney-at-law forthe defendant to disclose any
privileged communication made to him in that capacity.

APJTIGUA 275 ~ h q C o w i e ~ Act, 1995. NQ. 18 ~$1995.
A W

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Passed the House of Representatives this Passed the Senate this
20th day of February, 1996. 26th day of February, 19%.

B. Harris,
Speaker. B L. Smith,

Vice-President.
S. Walker,

Clerk to the House of Representatives. S. ~ d k e r ,
Clerk to the Senate.

Printed at the Government Printing Office, Antigua aid Barbuda,
by Rupert Charity, Government Printcr

-By Authority, 1996.
$00-3.96 1 Price $ 1 0 7 5 1
Read Entire Law on laws.gov.ag