Antigua and Barbuda Constitution Order

Link to law: http://laws.gov.ag/acts/chapters/cap-23.pdf
Published: 1981

The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution (CAP. 23 1
Order 1981

CHAPTER 23

T H E ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA CONSTITUTION
ORDER 1981

STATUTORY INSTRUMENTS

1981 No. 1106

Made .............. : .................... 31st July 1981
Corning into Operation ............. 31st October 1981

At the Court at Buckingham Palace, the 3 1 st day of July 198 1
Present,

The Queen's Most Excellent Majesty in Council

Whereas the status of association of Antigua with the United
Kingdom is to terminate on 1st November 1981 and it is
necessary to establish a new constitution for Antigua upon
its attainment of fully responsible status within the Com-
monwealth under the style of Antigua and Barbuda:

And whereas the Associated State of Antigua has, by
resolutions passed in the Senate thereof on 1st May 1981
and in the House of Representatives thereof on 23rd April
1981, requested and consented to the making of this Order
for that purpose:

Now, therefore, Her Majesty, by virtue and in exer-
cise of the powers vested in Her in that behalf by section 5(4)
of the West Indies Act 1967 (a), is pleased, by and with
the advice of Her Privy Council, to order, and it is hereby
ordered, as follows-

. (1) This Order may be cited as the Antigua and
Barbuda Constitution Order 198 1.

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(2) This Order shall come into operation on 31st
October 1981.

2. The Antigua Constitution Order 1967(b), The
Anticpa Constitution (Amendment) Order 1972(c), and the
Antigua Constitution (Amendment) Order 1975 (d), which
made provision for the constitution of the Associated State
of Antigua, are revoked.

3. The Constitution of Antigua and Barbuda set out
in Schedule 1 to this Order shall come into effect in Antigua
and Barbuda on 1st November 1981 subject to the transi-
tional provisions set out in Schedule 2 to this Order.

N. E. Leigh,
Clerk of the Privy Council.

(a) 1967 c. 4.
(c) S.I. 19721301.

@) S.I. 19671225.
(d) S.I. 197512160.

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SCHEDULE 1 T O THE ORDER

THE CONSTITUTION OF ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

Arrangement of Sections
Section

CHAPTER I

The State and the Constitution

1. The State and its territory.
2. Constitution is supreme law.

Protection of Fundamental Rights and
Freedoms of the Individual

Fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual.
Protection of right to life.
Protection of right to personal liberty.
Protection from slavery and forced labour.
Protection from inhuman treatment.
Protection from freedom of movement.
Protection from deprivation of property.
Protection of person or property from arbitrary search

or entry.
Protection of freedom of conscience.
Protection of freedom of expression including freedom

of the press.
Protection of freedom of assembly and association.
Protection from discrimination on grounds of race, sex

etc.
Provision to secure protection of the law.
Derogations from fundamental rights and freedoms

under emergency powers.
Protection of persons detained under emergency laws.
Enforcement of protective provisions.
Protection from derogations from fundamental rights

and freedoms generally.
Declaration of public emergency.
Interpretation and savings.

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The Governor-General
Section
22. Establishment of office.
23. Acting Governor-General
24. Oaths.
25. Deputy to Governor-General.
26. Public Seal.

Parliament

Establishment and composition of Parliament

27. Establishment of Parliament.

The Senate

28. Composition of the Senate.
29. Qualifications for appointment as Senators.
30. Disqualifications from appointment as Senators.
3 1. Tenure of office of Senators.
32. Appointment of temporary Senators.
33. President and Vice-President.
34. Attendance of Attorney-General at proceedings of

Senate.
35. Attendance at proceedings of Senate of Ministers who

are members of the House.

The House of Representatives

36. Composition of the House.
37. Attendance at proceedings of the House of Ministers

who are members of the Senate.
38. Qualifications for election as a member of the House.
39. Disqualifications from election as a member of the

House.
40. Election of members of the House.
41. Tenure of seats of members of the House.
42. Speaker and Deputy Speaker.
43. Clerks to Houses of Parliament and their staffs.
44. Determination of questions of membership.
45. Unqualified persons sitting or voting.

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PART 2

Powers and Procedure of Parliament

Section

46. Power to make laws.
47. Alteration of this Constitution and Supreme Court

Order.
48. Oath of allegiance by members of Parliament.
49. Presiding in Senate and House.
50. Quorum.
51. Voting.
52. Mode of exercising legislative power.
53. Restrictions with regard to certain financial measures.
54. Restrictions on powers of Senate as to money bills.
55. Restrictions on powers of Senate as to bills other than

money bills.
56. Provisions relating to sections 53, 54 and 55.
57. Regulation of procedure of Houses of Parliament.
58. Freedom of speech in proceedings of Parliament.

PART 3

Summoning, Prorogation and Dissolution of Parliament

59. Sessions of Parliament.
60. Prorogation and dissolution of Parliament.
61. General elections and appointment of Senators.

Delimitations of Constituencies

62. Constituencies.
63. Constituencies Boundaries Commission.
64. Report by Commission.
65. Procedure upon report.

The Ombudsman

66. Establishment, appointment, functions etc. of
Ombudsman.

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The Supervisor of Elections
Section

67. Appointment, functions and removal of Supervisor of
Elections.

Executive Powers

General

68. Executive authority.
69. Ministers of Government.
70. The Cabinet.
7 1. Allocation of portfolios.
72. Summoning of Cabinet.
73. Tenure of office of Ministers.
74. Performance of functions of Prime Minister during

absence, illness or suspension.
75. Parliamentary Secretaries.
76. Oaths to be taken by Ministers and Parliamentary

Secretaries.
77. Secretary to the Cabinet.
78. Permanent Secretaries.
79. Leader of the Opposition.
80. Exercise of Governor-General's functions.
8 1. Governor-General to be informed concerning Govern-

* ment matters.
82. Attorney-General.
83. Exercise of certain powers of Governor-General.
84. Power of pardon.
85. Advisory Committee on Prerogative of Mercy.
86. Functions of Advisory Committee.

Director of Public Prosecutions
87. Appointment and removal of Director of Public

Prosecutions.
88. Powers and functions of Director of Public Prosecutions.
89. Directions to Director of Public Prosecutions.

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Finance
Section

90. Consolidated Fund.
9 1. Withdrawals from Consolidated Fund or other public

funds.
92. Authorisation of expenditure from Consolidated Fund

by appropriation law.
93. Authorisation of expenditure in advance of

appropriation.
94. Contingencies Fund.
95. Remuneration of certain officers.
96. Public Debt.
97. Audit of public accounts, etc.
98. Public Accounts Committee.

CHAPTER VII

The Public Service

The Public Service Commission

99. Establishment and composition of Commission.
100. Appointment etc. of public officers.
101. Appointment etc. of permanent secretaries and certain

other officers.
102. The Director of Audit.
103. Appointment etc. of magistrates, registrars and Iegal

officers.

The Police Service Commission

104. Establishment and composition of Commission.
105. Appointment etc. of police officers.

The Public Service Board of Appeal

106. Constitution of Board, etc.
107. Appeals in disciplinary cases.
108. Powers and procedure of Board.

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Pensions
Section

109. Pensions laws and protection of pension rights.
110. Power to withhold pensions etc.

CHAPTER VIII

Citizenship

11 1. Belonger status.
112. Persons who automatically become citizens at com-

mencement of this Constitution.
113. Persons who automatically become citizens after com-

mencement of this Constitution.
114. Persons entitled to citizenship by registration after com-

mencement of this Constitution.
1 15. Dual citizenship.
116. Powers of Parliament.
117. Oath of allegiance.
1 18. Interpretation.

Judicial Prouisions

119. Original jurisdiction of High Court in constitutional
questions.

120. Reference of constitutional questions to High Court.
12 1. Appeals to Court of Appeal.
122. Appeals to Her Majesty in Council.

Miscellaneous

123. Local government.
124. Certain questions not to be enquired into in any court.

'

125. Resignations.
126. Re-appointments and concurrent appointments.
127. Interpretation.

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SCHEDULE 1 T O THE CONSTITUTION

PART I

The Provisions of the Constitution referred to in
section 4 7(5).

The provisions o f the Supreme Court Order referred to in
section 4 7(5).

SCHEDULE 2 T O THE CONSTITUTION

SCHEDULE 3 T O THE CONSTITUTION

Oath (or afiirmation) of allegiance and office.

SCHEDULE 2 T O THE ORDER

THE CONSTITUTION OF ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA

WHEREAS the People of Antigua and Barbuda-

( a ) proclaim that they are a sovereign nation
founded upon principles that acknowledge the
supremacy of God, the dignity and worth of the human
person, the entitlement of all persons to the fundamental
rights and freedoms of the individual, the position of
the family in a society of free men and women and free
institutions;

( b ) respect the principles of social justice and,
therefore, believe that the operation of their economic
system should result in the material resources of their
community being so distributed as to serve the common
good, that there should be adequate means of livelihood
for all, that labour should not be exploited or forced
by economic necessity to operate in inhumane condi-
tions but that there should be opportunity for advance-
ment on the basis of recognition of merit, ability and
integrity;

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(c) assert their conviction that their happiness and
prosperity can best be pursued in a democratic society
in which all persons may, to the extent of their cap-
acity, play some part in the national life;

(d) recognize that the law symbolises the public
conscience, that every citizen owes to it an undivided
allegiance not to be limited by any private views ofjustice
or expediency and that the State is subject to the law;

(e) desire to establish a framework of supreme law
within which to guarantee their inalienable human rights
and freedoms, among them, the rights to liberty, pro-
perty, security and legal redress of grievances, as well
as freedom of speech, of the press and of assembly, sub-
ject only to the public interest:

NOW, THEREFORE the following provisions shall have
effect as the Constitution of Antigua and Barbuda-

CHAPTER I

The State and the Constitution

The State and its 1. ( 1 ) Antigua and Barbuda shall be a unitary
territory. sovereign democratic State.

(2) The territory of Antigua and Barbuda shall com-
prise the islands of Antigua, Barbuda and Redonda and all
other areas that were comprised in Antigua on 3 1st October
1981 together with such other areas as may be declared by
Act of Parliament to form part of the territory of Antigua
and Barbuda.

Constitution is 2. This Constitution is the supreme law of Antigua
supreme law. and Barbuda and, subject to the provisions of this Constitu-

tion, if any other law is inconsistent with this Constitution,
this Constitution shall prevail and the other law shall, to the
extent of the inconsistency, be void.

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Protection of Fundamental Rights and Freedoms
of the Individual

3. Whereas every person in Antigua and Barbuda is Fundamental
nghts and

entitled to the fundamental rights and freedoms of the free^,,, ,,fthe
individual, that is to say, the right, regardless of race, place individual.
of origin, political opinions or affiliations, colour, creed or
sex, but subject to respect for the rights and freedoms of
others and for the public interest, to each and all of the follow-
ing, namely-

(a) life, liberty, security of the person, the enjoy-
ment of property and the protection of the law;

(b) freedom of conscience, of expression (including
freedom of the press) and of peaceful assembly and
association; and

(c) protection for his family life, his personal
privacy, the privacy of his home and other property and
from deprivation of property without fair compensation,

the provisions of this Chapter shall have effect for the
purpose of affording protection to the aforesaid rights
and freedoms, subject to such limitations of that pro-
tection as are contained in those provisions, being limita-
tions designed to ensure that the enjoyment of the said
rights and freedoms by any individual does not prejudice
the rights and freedoms of others or the public interest.

4. (1) No person shall be deprived of his life inten- zi;;T;f:f
tionally save in execution of the sentence of a court in respect
of a crime of treason or murder of which he has been
convicted.

(2) A person shall not be regarded as having been
deprived of his life in contravention of this section if he dies
as the result of the use, to such extent and such circumstances
as are permitted by law, of such force as is reasonably
justifiable-

(a) for the defence of any person from violence or
for the defence of property;

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(6) in order to effect a lawful arrest or to prevent
the escape of a person lawfully detained;

(c) for the purpose of suppressing a riot, insurrec-
tion or mutiny; or

(6) in order lawfully to prevent the commission by
that person of a criminal offence,

or if he dies as the result of a lawful act of war.

Protection of
right to personal

5 . (1) No person shall be deprived of his personal
liberty. liberty save as may be authorised by law in any of the follow-

ing cases, that is to say-

(a) in consequence of his unfitness to plead to a
criminal charge;

(6) in execution of the sentence or order of a court,
whether established for Antigua and Barbuda or some
other country, in respect of a criminal offence of which
he has been convicted;

(c) in execution of an order of the High Court or
of the Court of Appeal or such other court as may be
prescribed by Parliament on the grounds of his con-
tempt of any such court or of another court or tribunal;

(d) in execution of the order of a court made in
order to secure the fulfilment of any obligation imposed
on him by law;

( e ) for the purpose of bringing him before a court
in execution of the order of a court;

Cf) upon reasonable suspicion of his having com-
mitted or of being about to commit a criminal offence
under any law;

(g) under the order of a court or with the consent
of his parent or guardian, for his education or welfare
during any period ending not later than the date when i
he attains the age of eighteen years; j

1
C

(h ) for the purpose of preventing the spread of 2.n + e
infectious or contagious disease; 4

4 (9 in the case of a person who is, or is reasonably
suspected to be, of unsound mind, addicted to drugs a

i

i
i

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or alcohol, or a vagrant, for the purpose of his care or
treatment or the protection of the community;

@ for the purpose of preventing the unlawful entry
of that person into Antigua and Barbuda, or for the
purpose of effecting the expulsion, extradition or other
lawful removal of that person from Antigua and Barbuda
or for the purpose of restricting that person while he
is being conveyed through Antigua and Barbuda in the
course of his extradition or removal as a convicted
prisoner from one country to another; or

(k) to such extent as may be necessary in the
execution of a lawful order requiring that person to
remain within a specified area within Antigua and
Barbuda or prohibiting him from being within such an
area or to such extent as may be reasonably justifiable
for the taking of proceedings against that person relating
to the making of any such order or relating to such an
order after it has been made, or to such extent as may
be reasonably justifiable for restraining that person dur-
ing any visit that he is permitted to make to any part
of Antigua and Barbuda in which, in consequence of
any such order, his presence would otherwise be
unlawful.

(2) Any person who is arrested or detained shall be
informed orally and in writing as soon as reasonably practic-
able, in language that he understands, of the reason for his
arrest or detention.

(3) Any person who is arrested or detained shall have
the right, at any stage and at his own expense, to retain
and instruct without delay a legal practitioner of his own
choice, and to hold private communications with him, and
in the case of a minor he shall also be afforded a reasonable
opportunity for communication with his parent or guardian.

(4) When a person is arrested, excessive bail shall not
be required in those cases where bail is being granted.

(5) Any person who is arrested or detained-

( a ) for the purpose of bringing him before a court
in execution of the order of a court; or

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(b) upon reasonable suspicion of his having com-
mitted or being about to commit a criminal offence
under any law,

and who is not released shall be brought before the court
within forty-eight hours after his detention and, in computing
time for the purposes of this subsection, Sundays and public
holidays shall be excluded.

(6) If any person arrested or detained as mentioned in
subsection (5Xb) of this section is not tried within a reasonable
time, then, without prejudice to any further proceedings
which may be brought against him, he shall be released either
unconditionally or upon reasonable conditions, including in
particular such conditions as are reasonably necessary to
ensure that he appears at a later date for trial or for pro-
ceedings preliminary to trial and, subject to subsection ( 4 )
of this section, such conditions may include bail.

(7) Any person who is unlawfully arrested or detained
by any other person shall, subject to such defences as may
be provided by law, be entitled to compensation for such
unlawful arrest or detention from the person who made the
arrest or effected the detention, from any person or authori-
ty on whose behalf the person making the arrest or effecting
the detention was acting or from them both:

Provided that a judge, a magistrate or a justice of the '

peace or an officer of a court or a police officer acting in
pursuance of the order of a judge, a magistrate or a justice
of the peace shall not be under any personal liability to pay
compensation under this subsection in consequence of any
act performed by him in good faith in the discharge of the
functions of his office and any liability to pay any such com-
pensation in consequence of any such act shall be a liability
of the Crown.

(8) For the purposes of subsection ( l ) ( b ) of this section,
a person charged with a criminal offence in respect of whom
a special verdict has been returned that he was guilty of the
act or omission charged but was insane when he did the act

'

or made the omission shall be regarded as a person who has
been convicted of a criminal offence and the detention of
that person in consequence of such a verdict shall be regard-
ed as detention in execution of the order of a court.

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6. (1) No person shall be held in slavery or servitude. Protection from
slaverv and
forced' labour.

(2) No person shall be required to perform forced
labour.

(3) For the purposes of this section, the expression
"forced labour" does not include-

(a) any labour required in consequence of the
sentence or order of a court;

( 6 ) any labour required of any person while he is
lawfully detained that, though not required in conse-
quence of the sentence or order of a court, is reasonably
necessary in the interests of hygiene or for the
maintenance of the place at which he is detained;

(c) any labour required of a member of a
disciplined force in pursuance of his duties as such or,
in the case of a person who has conscientious objections
to service as a member of a naval, military or air force,
any labour that that person is required by law to per-
form in place of such service;

(4 any labour required during any period of public
emergency or, in the event of any other emergency or
calamity that threatens the life and well-being of the
community, to the extent that the requiring of such
labour is reasonably justifiable in the circumstances of
any situation arising or existing during that period or
as a result of that other emergency or calamity, for the
purpose of dealing with that situation.

7. (1) No person shall be subjected to torture or to !'':':z,"n from
inhuman or degrading punishment or other such treatment. treatment.

(2) Nothing contained in or done under the authority
of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in con-
travention of this section to the extent that the law in question
authorises the infliction of any description of punishment
that was lawful in Antigua on 31st October 1981.

8. (1) A person shall not be deprived of his freedom ~ ' ~ , " ~ ~ f o f
of movement, that is to say, the right to move freely mo,,m,,t.
throughout Antigua and Barbuda, the right to reside in any
part of Antigua and Barbuda, the right to enter Antigua

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and Barbuda, the right to leave Antigua and Barbuda and
immunity from expulsion from Antigua and Barbuda.

(2) Any restrictions on a person's fredom of movement
that is involved in his lawful detention shall not be held to
be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section.

(3) Nothing contained in or done under the authority
of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in con-
travention of this section to the extent that the law in question
makes provision-

(a ) for the imposition of restrictions on the
movements or residence within Antigua and Barbuda
of any person or on any person's right to leave Antigua
and Barbuda that are reasonably required in the interests
of defence, public safety or public order;

( b ) for the imposition of restrictions on the
movements or residence within Antigua and Barbuda
or on the right to leave Antigua and Barbuda of persons
generally or any class of persons in the interests of
defence, public safety, public order, public morality,
or public health or, in respect of the right to leave
Antigua and Barbuda, or securing compliance with any
international obligation of Antigua and Barbuda parti-
culars of which have been laid before the House and
except so far as that provision or, as the case may be,
the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not
to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society;

(c) for the imposition of restrictions, by order of
a court, on the movement or residence within Antigua
and Barbuda of any person or on any person's right
to leave Antigua and Barbuda either in consequence
of his having been found guilty of a criminal offence
under a law or for the purpose of ensuring that he
appears before a court at a later date for trial of such
a criminal offence or for proceedings relating to his
extradition or lawful removal from Antigua and
Barbuda;

(d) for the imposition of restrictions on the freedom
of movement of any person who is not a citizen;

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(e) for the imposition of restrictions on the acquisi-
tion or use by any person of land or other property in
Antigua and Barbuda;

V) for the imposition of restrictions upon the move-
ment or residence within Antigua and Barbuda or on
the right to leave Antigua and Barbuda of any public
officer that are reasonably required for the proper per-
formance of his functions;

(g) for the removal of a person from Antigua and
Barbuda to be tried or punished in some other country
for a criminal offence under the law of that other coun-
try or to undergo imprisonment in some other country
in execution of the szfitence ~f a court in respect of a
criminal offence under a law of which he has been con-
victed; or

( h ) for the imposition of restrictions on the right
of any person to leave Antigua and Barbuda that are
reasonably required in order to secure the fulfilment
of any obligations imposed on that person by law and
except so far as that provision or, as the case may be,
the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not
to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

(4) If any person whose freedom of movement has been
restricted by virtue of such a provision as is referred to in
subsection (3)(a) of this section so requests at any time during
the period of that restriction not earlier than two months
after the restriction was imposed or two months after he last
made such a request, as the case may be, his case shall be
reviewed by an independent and impartial tribunal consisting
of a president who shall be a legal practitioner of not less
than seven years standing appointed by the Chief Justice
and two other members appointed by the Governor-General
acting in his discretion.

(5) On any review by a tribunal in pursuance of subsec-
tion (4) of this section of the case of any person whose freedom
of movement has been restricted, the tribunal may make
recommendations concerning the necessity for or expediency
of the continuation of that restriction to the authority by
whom it was ordered and, unless it is otherwise provided
by law, that authority shall be obliged to act in accordance
with any such recommendations.

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Protection from
deprivation of

9. (1) No property of any description shall be com-
property. pulsorily taken possession of, and no interest in or right to

or over property of any description shall be compulsorily
acquired, except for public use and except in accordance with
the provisions of a law applicable to that taking of posses-
sion or acquisition and for the payment of fair compensa-
tion within a reasonable time.

(2) Every person having an interest in or right to or
over property which is compulsorily taken possession of or
whose interest in or right to or over any property is com-
pulsorily acquired shall have the right of access to the High
Court for-

(a) the determination of his interest or right, the
legality of the taking of possession or acquisition of the
property, interest or right and the amount of any com-
pensation to which he is entitled; and

( b ) the purpose of obtaining payment of that
compensation:
Provided that if Parliament so provides in relation to

any matter referred to in paragraph (a) of this subsection
the right of access shall be by way of appeal (exercisable as
of right at the instance of the person having the interest in
or right to or over the property) from a tribunal or authority,
other than the High Court, having jurisdiction under any
law to determine that matter.

(3) The Chief Justice may make rules with respect to
the practice and procedure of the High Court or any other
tribunal or authority in relation to the jurisdiction confer-
red on the High Court by subsection (2) of this section or
exercisable by the other tribunal or authority for the pur-
poses of that subsection (including rules with respect to the
time within which application or appeals to the High Court
or applications to the other tribunals or authority may be
brought).

(4) Nothing contained in or done under the authority
of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in con-
travention of subsection (1) of this section-

(a) to the extent that the law in question makes
provision for the taking of possession or acquisition of
any property, interest or right-

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(i) in satisfaction of any tax, rate or due;

(ii) by way of penalty for breach of the law or
forfeiture in consequence of breach of the law;

(iii) as an incident of a lease, tenancy, mortgage,
charge, bill of sale, pledge or contract;

(iv) in the execution of judgments or orders of
a court in proceedings for the determination
of civil rights or obligations;

(v) in circumstances where it is reasonably
necessary so to do because the property is in
a dangerous state or likely to be injurious to
the health of human beings, animals or plants;

(vi) in consequence of any law with respect to the
limitation of actions;

(vii) for so long as may be necessary for the pur-
poses of any examination, investigation, trial
or enquiry or, in the case of land, for the pur-
poses of the carrying out thereon of work of
soil conservation or the conservation of other
natural resources or work relating to
agricultural development or improvement
(being work relating to such development or
improvement that the owner or occupier of the
land has been required, and has without
reasonable excuse refused or failed, to carry
out),

and except so far as the provision or, as the
case may be, the thing done under the author-
ity thereof is shown not to be reasonably
justifiable in a democratic society;

(6) to the extent that the law in question makes
provision for the taking of possession or acquisition of
any of the following property (including any interest
in or right to or over property), that is to say-

(i) enemy property;

(ii) property of a deceased person, a person of
unsound mind or a person who had not at-
tained the age of eighteen years, for the pur-
pose of its administration for the benefit of the

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20 CAP. 23) The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution
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persons entitled to the beneficial interest
therein;

(iii) the property of a person adjudged bankrupt
or a body corporate in liquidation, for the pur-
pose of its administration for the benefit of the
creditors of the bankrupt or body corporate
and, subject thereto, for the benefit of other
persons entitled to the beneficial interest in the
property; or

(iv) property subject to a trust, for the purpose of
vesting the property in persons appointed as
trustees under the instrument creating the trust
or by a court or by order of a court for the
purposes of giving effect to the trust.

(5) Nothing contained in or done under the authority
of any law enacted by Parliament shall be held to be incon-
sistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent
that the law in question makes provision for the compulsory
taking of possession of any property, or the compulsory
acquisition of any interest in or right to or over property,
where that property, interest or right is held by a body cor-
porate established by law for public purposes in which no
monies have been invested other than monies provided by
Parliament or any legislature established for the former colony
or Associated State of Antigua.

(6) For the purposes of this section, "use" is "public"
if it is intended to result or results in a benefit or advantage
to the public and, without prejudice to its generality, includes
any use affecting the physical, economic, social or aesthetic
well-being of the public.

Protection of
person or

10. (1) Except with his own consent, no person shall
property fro,,, be subjected to the search of his person or his property or
arbitrary search the entry by others on his premises.
or entry.

(2) Nothing contained in or done under the authority
of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in con-
travention of this section to the extent that the law in ques-
tion makes provision-

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(a) that is reasonably required in the interests of
defence, public safety, public order, public morality,
public health, public revenue, town and country plan-
ning or the development and utilization of property in
such a manner as to promote the public benefit;

(b) that authorises an officer or agent of the
Government, a local government authority or a body
corporate established by law for public purposes to enter
on the premises of any person in order to inspect those
premises or anything thereon for the purpose of any
tax, rate or due in order to carry out work connected
with any property that is lawfully on those premises and
that belongs to the Government, or to that authority
or body corporate, as the case may be;

( 6 ) that is reasonably required for the purpose of
preventing or detecting crime;

(d) that is reasonably required for the purpose of
protecting the rights or freedoms of other persons; or

(e) that authorises, for the purpose of enforcing the
judgment or order of a court in any proceedings, the
search of any person or property by order of a court
or entry upon any premises by such order,

and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be,
anything done under the authority thereof is shown not to
be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

1 . (1) Except with his own consent, no person shall E:$,"z,"fof
be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of conscience, ,,ns,ience.
and for the purposes of this section the said freedom includes
freedom of thought and of religion, freedom to change his
religion or belief, and freedom, either along or in community
with others, and both in public and in private, to manifest
and propagate his religion or belief in worship, teaching,
practice and observance.

(2) Except with his own consent (or, if he is under the
age of eighteen years, the consent of his parent or guardian)
no person attending any place of education shall be required
to receive religious instruction or to take part in or attend

, any religious ceremony or observance if that instruction,
ceremony or observance relates to a religion other than his
own.

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2 2 CAP. 23) The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution
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(3) No person shall be compelled to take any oath which
is contrary to his religion or belief or to take any oath in
a manner which is contrary to his religion or belief.

(4) Nothing contained in or done under the authority
of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in
contravention of this section to the extent that the law in
question makes provision that is reasonably required-

(a) in the interests of defence, public safety, public
order, public morality or public health; or

(6) for the purpose of protecting the rights and
freedoms of other persons, including the right to observe
and practise any religion without the unsolicited
intervention of members of any other religion,

and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be,
the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to
be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

(5) Reference in this section to a religion shall be con-
strued as including references to a religious denomination,
and cognate expressions shall be construed accordingly.

Protection of 12. (1) Except with his own consent, no person shall
freedom of
expression be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of expression.
including
freedom of the
press. (2) For the purposes of this section the said freedom

includes the freedom to hold opinions without interference,
freedom to receive information and ideas without
interference, freedom to disseminate information and ideas
without interference (whether the dissemination be to the
public generally or td any person or class of person) and
freedom from interference with his correspondence or other
means of communication.

(3) For the purposes of this section expression may be
oral or written or by codes, signals, signs or symbols and
includes recordings, broadcasts (whether on radio or televi-
sion), printed publications, photographs (whether still or
moving), drawings, carvings and sculptures or any other
means of artistic expression.

(4) Nothing contained in or done under the authority
of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in

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The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution (CAP. 23 23
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contravention of' this section to the extent that the law in
question makes provision-

(a) that is reasonably required-

(i) in the interests of defence, public safety, public
order, public morality or public health; or

(ii) for the purpose of protecting the reputations,
rights and freedoms of other persons, or the
private lives of persons concerned in legal pro-
ceedings and proceedings before statutory
tribunals, preventing the disclosure of infor-
mation received in confidence, maintaining the
authority and independence of Parliament and
the courts, or regulating telephony, posts,
broadcasting or other means of communica-
tion, public entertainments, public shows; or

( b ) that imposes restrictions upon public officers
that are reasonably required for the proper perfor-
mance of their functions;

and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be,
the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to
be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

13. (1) Except with his own consent, no person shall pa::$:fof
be hindered in the enjoyment of his freedom of peaceful assembly and

I assembly and association, that is to say, his right peacefully association.
to assembly freely and associate with other persons and in
particular to form or belong to trade unions or other associa-
tions for the promotion and protection of his interests.

(2) Nothing contained in or done under the authority
of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in con-
travention of this section to the extent that the law in ques-
tion makes provision-

(a) that is reasonably required-

(i) in the interests of defence, public order, public
morality or public health; or

(ii) for the purpose of protecting the rights or
freedoms of other persons; or

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(6) that imposes restrictions upon public officers
that are reasonably required for the proper performance
of their functions,

and except so far as that provision or, as the case may be,
the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to
be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

Protection from
discrimination on

14. ( 1 ) Subject to the provisions of subsec-
the grounds of tions (4 ) , ( 5 ) and ( 7 ) of this section, no law shall make any
race, etc- provision that is discriminatory either of itself or in its effect.

(2) Subject to the provisions of subsections (6) , (7) and
(8) of this section, no person shall be treated in a
discriminatory manner by any person acting by virtue of
any law or in the performance of the functions of any public
office or any public authority.

( 3 ) In this section, the expression "discriminatory"
means affording different treatment to different persons
attributable wholly or mainly to their respective descriptions
by race, place of origin, political opinions or affiliations,
colour, creed, or sex whereby persons of one such descrip-
tion are subjected to disabilities or restrictions to which per-
sons of another such description are not made subject or are
accorded rivileges or advantages that are not accorded to
persons o !? another such description.

( 4 ) Subsection ( 1 ) of this section shall not apply to any
law so far as the law makes provision-

(a) for the appropriation of public revenues or other
public funds;

(6) with respect to persons who are not citizens; or

(c) whereby persons of any such description as is
mentioned in subsection ( 3 ) of this section may be sub-
jected to any disability or restriction or may be accord-
ed any privilege or advantage that, having regard to
its nature and to special circumstances pertaining to
those persons or to persons of any other such descrip-
tion, is reasonably justifiable in a democratic society.

( 5 ) Nothing contained in any law shall be held to be
inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection ( 1 ) of this
section to the extent that it makes provision with respect to

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qualifications (not being ualifications specifically relating Y to race, place of origin, po itical opinions or affiliations, col-
our, creed or sex) for service as a public officer or as a
member of a disciplined force or for the service of a local
government authority or a body corporate established by any
law for public purposes.

(6) Subsection (2) of this section shall not apply to
anything that is expressly or by necessary implication
authorised to be done by any such provision of law as is
referred to in subsection (4) or (5) of this section.

(7) Nothing contained in or done under the authority
of anv law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in con-
travention of this section to the extent that the law in question
makes provision whereby persons of any such description
as is mentioned in subsection (3) of this section may be sub-
jected to any restriction on ' the rights and keedoms
guaranteed by sections 8, 10, 11, 12 and 13 of this Con-
stitution, being such a restriction as is authorised by
paragraph (a) or (b) of subsection (3) of section 8, subsec-

of section 10, subsection of section 11, subsec-
of section 12 or of section 13, as the

case may be.

(8) Nothing in subsection (2) of this section shall affect
any discretion relating to the institution, conduct or dis-
continuance of civil or criminal proceedings in any court
that is vested in any person by or under this Constitution
or any other law.

15. (1) If any person is charged with a criminal Provision to
secure protection offence then, unless the charge is withdrawn, he shall be of the law.

afforded a fair hearing within a reasonable time by an
independent and impartial court established by law.

(2) Every person who is charged with a criminal
offence-

(a) shall .be presumed to be innocent until he is
proved or has pleaded guilty;

(b) shall be informed orally and in writing as soon
as reasonably racticable, in language that he

he is charged;
K understands, of t e nature of the offence with which

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2 6 CAP. 23) The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution
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( 6 ) shall be given adequate time and facilities for
the preparation of his defence;

(6) shall be permitted to defend himself before the
court in person or by a legal practitioner of his own
choice;

(e) shall be afforded facilities to examine in person
or by his legal representative the witnesses called by the
prosecution before the court and to obtain the attend-
ance and carry out the examination of witnesses to testify
on his behalf before the court on the same conditions
as those applying to witnesses called by the prosecution;
and

(f) shall be permitted to have without payment the
assistance of an interpreter if he cannot understand the
language used at the trial of the charge,

and except with his own consent the trial shall not take place
in his absence-

(i) except where, under the provisions of any law
entitling him thereto, he is given adequate
notice of the charge, the date, time and place
of the trial or continuance thereof and afford-
ed a reasonable opportunity of appearing
before the court:

Provided that where the foregoing con-
ditions have been complied with, and the court
is satisfied that owing to circumstances beyond
his control he cannot appear, the trial shall
not take place or continue in his absence; or

(ii) unless he so conducts himself as to render the
continuance of the proceedings !in his presence
impracticable and the court has ordered him
to be removed and the trial to proceed in his
absence.

(3 When a person is tried for any criminal offence the
accuse d person or any person authorised by him in that behalf
shall, if he so requires and subject to payment of such
reasonable fees as may be prescribed by law, be given within
a reasonable time after judgment a copy of any record of
the proceedings made by or on behalf of the court.

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The Antigua and Bar6uda Constitution (CAP. 23 27
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(4) No person shall be held to be guilt of a criminal
offence on account of any act or omission t iat did not, at
the time it took place, constitute such an offence, and no
penalty shall be imposed for any criminal offence that is more
severe in degree or description than the maximum penalty
that might have been imposed for that offence at the time
when it was committed.

(5) No person who shows that he has been tried by a
competent court for a criminal offence and either convicted
or acquitted shall again be tried for that offence or for any
criminal offence of which he could have been convicted at
the trial for the offence, save upon the order of a superior
court in the course of appeal or review proceedings relating
to the conviction or acquittal.

(6) No person shall be tried for a criminal offence if
he shows that he has been pardoned for that offence.

(7) No person who is tried for a criminal offence shall
be compelled to give evidence at the trial.

(8) Any court or other authority prescribed by law for
the determination of the existence or extent of any civil right
or obligation shall be established by law and shall be inde-
pendent and impartial; and where proceedings for such a
determination are instituted by any persons before such a
court or other authority, the case shall be given a fair hear-
ing within a reasonable time.

(9) Except with the agreement of all parties thereto, all
proceedings of every court and proceedings for the deter-
mination of the existence or extent of any civil right or obliga-
tion before any other authority, including the announcement
of the decision of the court or other authority, shall be held
in public.

(10) Nothing in subsection (9) of this section shall pre-
vent the court or other authority from excluding from the
proceedings persons other than the parties thereto and the
legal practitioners representing them to such an extent as
the court or other authority-

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28 CAP. 23) The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution
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(a) may by law be empowered to do and may con-
sider necessary or expedient in circumstances where
publicity would prejudice the interests of justice or in
interlocutory proceedings or in the interests of public
morality, the welfare of persons under the age of eighteen
years or the protection of the private lives of persons
concerned in the proceedings; or

(b) may by law be empowered or required to do
in the interests of defence, public safety, public order
or public morality.

(1 1) Nothing contained in or done under the authority
of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in con-
travention of-

(a) subsection (2)(a) of this section, to the extent
that the law in question imposes upon any person
charged with a criminal offence the burden of proving
particular facts;

(6) subsection (2)(e) of this section, to the extent
that the law in question imposes reasonable conditions
that must be satisfied if witnesses called to testify on
behalf of an accused person are to be paid their expenses
out of public funds; or

(c) subsection (5) of this section, to the extent that
the law in question authorises a court to try a member
of a disciplined force for a criminal offence notwithstand-
ing any trial and conviction or acquittal of that member
under the disciplinary law of that force so however, that
any court so trying such a member and convicting him
shall in sentencing him to any punishment take into
account any punishment awarded him under that
disciplinary law.

(12) In the case of any person who is held in lawful
detention, the provisions of subsection ( I ) , paragraphs (4
and ( e ) of subsection (Z), and subsection (3) of this section
shall not apply in relation to his trial for a criminal offence
under the law regulating the discipline of persons held in 1
such detention.

(13) Nothing contained in or done under the authority
of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in con-

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travention of subsection (2) of this section to the extent that
it authorises the trial of a defendant by a magistrate for a
summary offence to take place in the defendant's absence.

(14) In this section "criminal offence" means a criminal
offence under any law.

16. Nothing contained in or done under the authority from
of a law enacted by Parliament shall be held to be inconsis- rights and
tent with or in contravention of section 5 or section 14 of FgEc~der
this Constitution to the extent that the law authorises thea powers.
taking during any period of public emergency of measures
that are reasonably justifiable, for dealing with the situation
that exists in Antigua and Barbuda during that period.

17. (1) When a person is detained by virtue of any
such law as is referred to in section 16 of this Constitution emergency
the following provisions shall apply, that is to say- laws.

(a) he shall, with reasonable promptitude and in
any case not more than seven days after the commence-
ment of his detention, be informed in a language that
he understands and in detail of the grounds upon which
he is detained and furnished with a written statement
in English specifying those grounds in detail;

( b ) not more than fourteen days after the com-
mencement of his detention a notification shall be
published in the Official Gazette stating that he has been
detained and giving particulars of the provision of law
under which his detention is authorised;

( 6 ) not more than one month after the commence-
ment of his detention and thereafter during the deten-
tion at intervals of not more than six months, his case
shall be reviewed by an independent and impartial
tribunal established by law and presided over by a
suitably qualified legal practitioner of at least seven years
standing appointed by the Chief Justice;

(d) he shall be afforded reasonable facilities to con-
sult a legal representative of his own choice who shall
be permitted to make representations to the tribunal
appointed for the review of the case of the detained per-
son; and

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30 CAP. 23) The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution
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(e) at the hearing of his case by the tribunal
appointed for the review of his case he shall be permit-
ted to appear in person or by a legal practitioner of his
own choice.

(2) On any review by a tribunal in pursuance of this
section of the case of a detained person, the tribunal may
make recommendations concerning the necessity or expe-
diency of continuing his detention to the authority by which
it was ordered but, unless it is otherwise provided by law,
that authority shall not be obliged to act in accordance with
any such recommendations.

(3) Nothing contained in subsection (l)(6) or subsec-
tion (l)(e) of this section shall be construed as entitling a per-
son to legal representation at public expense.

Enforcement of
protective

18. (1) If any person alleges that any of the provi-
provisions. sions of sections 3 to 17 (inclusive) of this Constitution has

been, is being or is likely to be contravened in relation to
him (or, in the case of a person who is detained, if any other
person alleges such a contravention in relation to the detained
person), then, without prejudice to any other action with
respect to the same matter that is lawfully available, that
person (or that other person) may apply to the High Court
for redress.

(2) The High Court shall have original jurisdiction-

(a) to hear and determine any application made
by any person in pursuance of subsection (1) of this sec-
tion; and

(b) to determine any question arising, in the case
of any person that is referred to it in pursuance of subsec-
tion (3) of this section,

and may make such declaration and orders, issue such writs
and give such directions as it may consider appropriate for
the purpose of enforcing or securing the enforcement of any
of the provisions of sections 3 to 17 (inclusive) of this
Constitution: I

Provided that the High Court may decline to exercise
its powers under this subsection if it is satisfied that ade-
quate means of redress for the contravention alleged are or

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have been available to the person concerned under any other
law.

(3) If in any proceedings in any court (other than the
Court of Appeal, the High Court or a court-martial) any
question arises as to the contravention of any of the provi-
sions of sections 3 to 17 (inclusive) of this Constitution, the
person presiding in that court may, and shall if any party
to the proceedings so requests, refer the question to the High
Court unless, in his opinion, the raising of the question is
merely frivolous or vexatious.

(4) Where any question is referred to the High Court
in pursuance of subsection (3) of this section, the High Court
shall give its decision upon the question and the court in
which the question arose shall dispose of the case in accord-
ance with that decision or, if that decision is the subject of
an appeal to the Court of Appeal or to Her Majesty in Coun-
cil, in accordance with the decision of the C o u ~ t of Appeal
or, as the case may be, of Her Majesty in Council.

(5) There shall be such provision as may be made by
Parliament for conferring upon the High Court such powers
in addition to those conferred by this section as may appear
to be necessary or desirable for the purpose of enabling that
court more effectively to exercise the jurisdiction conferred
upon it by this section.

(6) The Chief Justice may make rules with respect to
the practice and procedure of the High Court in relation
to the jurisdiction and powers conferred on it by or under
this section (including rules with respect to the time within
which applications may be brought and references shall be
made to the High Court).

19. Except as is otherwise expressly provided in this ~ ~ , " ~ ~ , " n ~ , " ,
Constitution, no law may abrogate, abridge or infringe or fundamental
authorise the abrogation, abridgement or infringement of ; ~ ~ ~ ~ o ~ d
any of the fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual generally.
hereinbefore recognised and declared.

20. (1) The Governor-General may, by Proclama- F&$ytion
tion which shall be published in the Official Gazette, declare emergency.

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that a state of public emergency exists for the purposes of
this Chapter.

(2) Every declaration shall lapse-

(a) in the case of a declaration made when
Parliament is sitting, at the expiration of a period of
seven days beginning with the date of publication of
the declaration; and

(b) in any other case, at the expiration of a period
of twenty-one days beginning with the date of publica-
tion of the declaration, unless it has in the meantime
been approved by resolutions of both Houses of
Parliament.

(3) A declaration of public emergency may at any time
be revoked by the Governor-General by Proclamation which
shall be published in the Official Gazette.

(4) A declaration of public emergency that has been
approved of by resolutions of the Houses of Parliament in
pursuance of subsection (2) of this section shall, subject to
the provisions of subsection (3) of this section, remain in force
so long as the resolutions of those Houses remain in force
and no longer.

(5) A resolution of a House of Parliament passed for
the purposes of this section shall remain in force for three
months or such shorter period as may be specified therein:

Provided that any such resolution may be extended from
time to time by a further such resolution each extension not
exceeding three months from the date of the resolution
effecting the extension and any such resolution may be
revoked at any time by a resolution of that House.

(6) Any provision of this section that a declaration of
emergency shall lapse or cease to be in force at any par-
ticular time is without prejudice to the making of a further
such declaration whether before or after that time.

(7) A resolution of a House of Parliament for the pur-
poses of subsection (2) of this section and a resolution
extending any such resolution shall not be passed unless it

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is supported by the votes of a majority of all members of
that House.

(8) The Governor-General may summon the Houses
of Parliament to meet for the purpose of subsection (2) of
this section notwithstanding that Parliament stands dissolved,
and the persons who were members of the Senate and the
House immediately before the dissolution shall be deemed,
for those purposes, still to be members of those Houses, but,
subject to the provisions of sections 33 and 42 of this
Constitution (which relate to the election of the President,
Vice-President, the Speaker, and the Deputy Speaker) a
House of Parliament shall not, when summoned by virtue
of this subsection, transact any business other than debating
and voting upon a resolution for the purposes of subsec-
tion (2) of this section.

2 1. (1) In this Chapter, unless the context otherwise st~t$'~
requires-

" contravention", in relation to any requirement,
includes a failure to comply with that requirement,
and cognate expressions shall be construed
accordingly;

6 ' court'' means any court of law having jurisdiction in
Antigua and Barbuda other than a court established
by a disciplinary law, and includes Her Majesty
in Council and, in section 4 of this Constitution,
a court established by a disciplinary law;

"disciplinary law'' means a law regulating the discipline
of any disciplined force;

"disciplined force" means-

(a) a naval, military or air force;

(b) the Police Force; or

(c) a prison service;

"member", in relation to a disciplined force, includes
any person who, under the law regulating the
discipline of that force, is subject to that discipline;

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" legal practitioner" means a person entitled to prac-
tise as a barrister in Antigua and Barbuda or, except
in relation to proceedings before a court in which
a solicitor has no right of audience, entitled to prac-
tise as a solicitor in Antigua and Barbuda.

(2) In relation to any person who is a member of a
disciplined force raised under any law, nothing contained
in or done under the authority of the disciplinary law of that
force shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contraven-
tion of any of the provisions of this Chapter other than sec-
tions 4, 6 and 7 of this Constitution.

(3) In relation to any person who is a member of a
disciplined force raised otherwise than as aforesaid and lawful-
ly present in Antigua and Barbuda, nothing contained in
or done under the authority of the disciplinary law of that
force shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contraven-
tion of any of the provisions of this Chapter.

(4) In this Chapter "public emergency" means any
period during which-

(a) Her Majesty is at war; or

(b) there is in force a declaration of emergency
under section 20 of this Constitution, or there are in
force resolutions of both Houses of Parliament supported
by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all the members
of each House declaring that democratic institutions in
Antigua and Barbuda are threatened by subversion.

(5) A Proclamation made by the Governor-General shall
not be effective for the purposes of section 20 of this
Constitution unless it contains a declaration that the
Governor-General is satisfied-

(a) that a public emergency has arisen as a result
of the imminence of a state of war between Her Majesty
and a foreign State or as a result of the occurrence of
any earthquake, hurricane, flood, fire, outbreak of
pestilence, outbreak of infectious disease or other calami-
ty whether similar to the foregoing or not; or

(b) that action has been taken or is immediately
threatened by any person or body of persons of such

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a nature and on so extensive a scale as to be likely to
endanger the public safety or to deprive the communi-
ty, or any substantial portion of the community, of sup-
plies or services essential to life.

The Governor-General

22. There shall be a Governor-General of Antigua Establishment of
and Barbuda who shall be a citizen appointed by Her Majesty
and shall hold office during Her Majesty's pleasure and who
shall be Her Majesty's representative in Antigua and
Barbuda.

23. (1) During any period when the office of eh,","aG-
Governor-General is vacant or the holder of the office of
Governor-General is absent from Antigua and Barbuda or
is for any other reason unable to perform the functions of
his office those functions shall be performed by such person
as Her Majesty may appoint.

(2) Any such person as aforesaid shall not continue to
perform the functions of the office of Governor-General if
the holder of the office of Governor-General has notified him
that he is about to assume or resume those functions.

(3) The holder of the office of Governor-General shall
not for the purposes of this section, be regarded as absent
from Antigua and Barbuda or as unable to perform the func-
tions of this office-

(a) by reason that he is in passage from one part
of Antigua and Barbuda to another; or

(b) at any time when there is a subsisting appoint-
ment of a deputy under section 25 of this Constitution.

24. A person appointed to hold or act in the office Oaths.
of Governor-General shall, before entering upon the duties
of that office, take and subscribe the oath of allegiance and
the oath of office.

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Deputy to
Governor- 25. (1) When the Governor-General-
General.

(a) has occasion to be absent from the seat of
government but not from Antigua and Barbuda;

(b) has occasion to be absent from Antigua and
Barbuda for a period that he considers, in his discre-
tion, will be of short duration; or

(c) is suffering from an illness that he considers,
in his discretion, will be of short duration,

he may, acting in accordance with the advice of the Prime
Minister, appoint any person in Antigua and Barbuda to
be his deputy during such absence or illness and in that
capacity to perform on his behalf such of the functions of
the office of Governor-General as may be specified in the
instrument by which he is appointed.

(2) The power and authority of the Governor-General
shall not be abridged, altered or in any way affected by the
appointment of a deputy under this section, and subject to
the provisions of this Constitution, a deputy shall conform
to and observe all instructions that the Governor-General,
in his discretion, may from time to time address him:

Provided that the question whether or not a deputy has
conformed to and observed any such instructions shall not
be enquired into by any court of law.

(3) A person appointed as deputy under this section shall
hold that appointment for such period as may be specified
in the instrument by which he is appointed, and his appoint-
ment may be revoked at any time by the Governor-General,
acting in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister.

Public Seal. 26. The Governor-General shall keep and use the
Public Seal for sealing all things that shall pass under the
Public Seal.

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Parliament

Establishment and composition of Parliament

27. There shall be a Parliament in and for Antigua Establishment of
Parliament.

and Barbuda which shall consist of Her Majesty, a Senate
and a House of Representatives.

The Senate

28. (1) The Senate shall consist of seventeen persons r;msp,",":? of
who, being qualified for appointment as Senators in accor-
dance with the provisions of this Constitution, have been
so appointed in accordance with the provisions of this sec-
tion and such temporary members (if any) as may be
appointed in accordance with the provisions of section 32
of this Constitution.

(2) Ten Senators shall be appointed by the Governor-
General acting in accordance with the advice of the Prime
Minister.

(3) Four Senators shall be appointed by the Governor-
General acting in accordance with the advice of the Leader
of the Opposition.

(4) Subject to subsection (7) of this section, one Senator
shall be appointed by the Governor-General in his discre-
tion from outstanding persons or persons representing such
interests as the Governor-General considers ought to be
represented in the Senate.

(5) One Senator shall be appointed by the Governor-
General acting in accordance with the advice of the Barbuda
Council.

(6) One Senator, being an inhabitant of Barbuda, shall
be appointed by the Governor-General in accordance with
the advice of the Prime Minister.

(7) Before appointing any person representing interests
under subsection (4) of this section the Governor-General

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shall consult such persons as in his discretion he considers
can speak for the interests concerned and ought to be
consulted.

Qualifications for
appointment as

29. Subject to the provisions of section 30 of this Con-
Senators. stitution any person who at the age of his appointment-

(a) is a citizen of the age of twenty-one years or
upwards;

( b ) has resided in Antigua and Barbuda for a period
of twelve months immediately preceding the date of his
appointment; and

(c) is able to speak and, unless incapacitated by
blindness or other physical cause, to read the English
language with sufficient proficiency to enable him to
take an active part in the proceedings of the Senate.

shall be qualified to be appointed as a Senator.

Disqualifications
from

30. (1) No person shall be qualified to be appointed
appointment as as a Senator who-
Senators.

(a) is, by virtue of his own act, under any
acknowledgement or allegiance, obedience or adherence
to a foreign power or state;

(6) is a member of the House;

(c) is an undischarged bankrupt, having been
declared bankrupt under any law;

(6) is a person certified to be insane or otherwise
adjudged to be of unsound mind under any law;

(e) is under sentence of death imposed on him by
a court or has been sentenced to imprisonment (by
whatever name called) for a term of or exceeding twelve
months and has not either suffered the punishment to
which he was sentenced or such other punishment as
may by competent authority have been substituted
therefor, or received a free pardon;

(f) is disqualified for election to the House by or
under any law by reason of his connection with any
offence relating to elections;

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('g) holds or is acting in any public office or in the
offlce of judge of the Supreme Court or Ombudsman,
or is a member of the Constituencies Boundaries Com-
mission, the Judicial and Legal Services Commission,
the Public Service Commission or the Police Service
Commission;

(h) has, within the period of ten years immediately
preceding the proposed date of his appointment as a
Senator, been convicted on indictment by a court of
competent jurisdiction of theft, fraud or other such crime
involving dishonesty and who-

(i) has not appealed against that conviction; or

(ii) has appealed against that conviction and whose
appeal has not been allowed; and

(iii) has not received a free pardon in respect of
the offence; or

( i ) is a minister of religion.

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of subsec-
tion (l)@) of this section, Parliament may provide that a per-
son shall not be qualified for appointment as a Senator in
any of the following cases-

(a) if he holds or is acting in any office that is
specified by Parliament and the functions of which
involve responsibility for, or in connection with, the con-
duct of an election or the compilation or revision of any
register of electors for the purposes of an election;

(b) subject to any exceptions and limitations
prescribed by Parliament, if-

(i) he holds or is acting in any office or appoint-
ment prescribed by Parliament either
individually or by reference to a class of office
or appointment;

(ii) he belongs to any armed force of Antigua and
Barbuda or to any class of person that is com-
prised in any such force; or

(iii) he belongs to the Police Force or to any class
of person that is comprised in the Police Force.

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(3) For the purpose of subsection ( l ) (e ) of this section-

( a ) two or more sentences of imprisonment that
are required to be served consecutively shall be regarded
as separate sentences if none of those sentences exceeds
twelve months, but if any one of such sentences exceeds
that term they shall be regarded as one sentence; and

( 6 ) no account shall be taken of a sentence of
imprisonment imposed as an alternative to or in default
of the payment of a fine.

Tenure of office
of Senators.

31. ( 1 ) Every Senator shall vacate his seat in the
Senate-

( a ) at the next dissolution of Parliament after he
has been appointed;

( b ) if he is with his consent nominated as a can-
didate for election to the House;

(c) if he ceases to be a citizen;

(6) if he is absent from the sittings of the Senate
for such period or periods and in such circumstances
as may be prescribed by the rules of procedure of the
Senate;

(e) subject to the provisions of subsection (2) of this
section, if any circumstances arise that, if he were not
a Senator, would cause him to be disqualified for
appointment as such by virtue of subsection ( 1 ) of sec-
tion 30 of this Constitution or of any law enacted in
pursuance of subsection (2) of that section;

y> if the Governor-General, acting in accordance
with the advice of the Prime Minister in the case of a
Senator appointed in accordance with that advice, or in
accordance with the advice of the Leader of the
Opposition in the case of a Senator appointed in accor-
dance with that advice, or in accordance with the
advice of the Barbuda Council in the case of a Senator
appointed in accordance with that advice, or in his
discretion in the case of a Senator appointed by him in
his discretion, declares the seat of that Senator to be
vacant; or

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Cg) if, having been appointed under the provisions
of section 28(6) of this Consitution, he ceases to be an
inhabitant of Barbuda.

(2) (a) If circumstances such as are referred to in subsec-
tion (l)(e) of this section arise because a Senator is convicted
of a felony or of any other offence involving dishonesty,
sentenced to death or imprisonment, adjudged to be of
unsound mind, or declared bankrupt or is convicted of any
offence relating to elections in circumstances that disqualify
him for election to the House, and if it is open to the Senator
to appeal against the decision (either with the leave of a court
or other authority or without such leave), he shall forthwith
cease to perform his functions as a Senator but, subject to
the provisions of this subsection, he shall not vacate his seat
until the expiration of thirty days thereinafter:

Provided that the President may, at the request of the
Senator, from time to time ext~nd that period for further
periods of thirty days to enable the Senator to pursue an
appeal against the decision, so, however, that extensions of
time exceeding in the aggregate one hundred and fifty days
shall not be given without the approval, signified by resolu-
tion, of the Senate.

(6) If on the determination of an appeal, such cir-
cumstances continue to exist and no further appeal is
open to the Senator, or if, by reason of the expiration
of any period for entering an appeal or notice thereof
or the refusal of leave to appeal or for any other reason,
it ceases to be open to the Senator to appeal, he shall
forthwith vacate his seat.

(c) If at any time before the Senator vacates his
seat such circumstances as aforesaid cease to exist his
seat shall not become vacant on the expiration of the
period referred to in paragraph (a) of this subsection
and he may resume the performance of his functions
as a Senator.

32. (1) Whenever a Senator is incapable of perform- :',"P"::=''~
ing his functions as a Senator by reason of his absence from Senators.
~ n t i ~ u a and Barbuda or by reason of his suspension under
section 31(2) of this Constitution or by reason of illness, t h ~
Governor-General may appoint a person qualified for

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appointment as a Senator to be temporarily a member of
the Senate during such absence, suspension or illness.

(2 ) The provisions of section 3 1 of this Constitution shall
apply to a member of the Senate appointed under this sec-
tion as they apply to a Senator appointed under section 28
of this Constitution and an appointment made under this
section shall in any case cease to have effect if the person
appointed is notified by the Governor-General that the cir-
cumstances giving rise to his appointment have ceased to
exist.

( 3 ) In the exercise of the powers conferred upon him
by this section, the Governor-General shall act-

(a) in accordance with the advice of the Prime
Minister in relation to a Senator appointed in pursuance
of section 28(2) or 28(6) of this Constitution;

(b) in accordance with the advice of the Leader of
the Opposition in relation to a Senator appointed in
pursuance of section 28(3) of this Constitution;

(c) in his discretion in relation to a Senator
appointed by him pursuant to section 28(4) of this Con-
stitution; and

(6) in accordance with the advice of the Barbuda
Council in relation to a Senator appointed in pursuance
of section 28(5) of this Constitution.

President and 33. (1) When the Senate first meets after any general
Vice-President. election and before it proceeds to the despatch of any other

business, it shall elect a Senator to be President, and if the
office of President falls vacant at any time before the next
dissolution of Parliament, the Senate shall, as soon as prac-
ticable, elect another Senator to be President.

(2) When the Senate first meets after any general elec-
tion and before it proceeds to any other business except the
election of the President, it shall elect a Senator to be Vice-
President: and if the office of Vice-President falls vacant at
any time before the next dissolution of Parliament, the Senate
shall, as soon as practicable, elect another Senator to be
Vice-President.

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(3) The Senate shall not elect a Senator who is a
Minister or Parliamentary Secretary to be President or
Vice-President.

(4) No business (other than the election of a President)
shall be transacted in the Senate at any time when the office
of the President is vacant.

( 5 ) A person shall vacate the office of President or
Vice-President-

(a) if he ceases to be a Senator, except that the
President shall not vacate his office by reason only that
he has ceased to be a Senator on a dissolution of Parlia-
ment until the Senate first meets after that dissolution; or

(b) if he is appointed to be a Minister or Parliamen-
tary Secretary or;

(c) in the case of the Vice-President , if he is elected
to be President.

(6) (a) If, under section 3 l(2) of this Constitution, the
person who is President or Vice-President is suspended
from the performance of his functions as a Senator, he
shall also cease to perform his functions as President
or Vice-President, as the case may be, and those func-
tions shall, until he vacates his seat in the Senate or
resumes the performance of his functions as Senator,
be performed-

(i) in the case of the President, by the Vice-
President or if the office of Vice-President is
vacant or the person who is Vice-President is
suspended from the performance of his func-
tions as a Senator under section 31(2) of this
Constitution, by such Senator (not being a
Minister or a Parliamentary Secretary) as the
Senate may elect for the purpose; and

(ii) in the case of the Vice-President, by such
Senator (not being a Minister or Parliamen-
tary Secretary) as the Senate may elect for the
purpose.

(6) If the President or Vice-President resumes the
performance of his functions as a Senator in accordance

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with the provisions of section 31(2) of this Constitution,
he shall also resume the performance of his functions
as President or Vice-President, as the case may be.

Attendance of
Attorney-General

34. The President, Vice-President or other member
at proceedings of presiding in the Senate may request the Attorney-General
Senate. to attend any proceedings of the Senate if he considers that

the business before the Senate in those proceedings makes
the presence of the Attorney-General desirable; and where
he is so requested the Attorney-General may take part in
the proceedings of the Senate solely for the purpose of giv-
ing explanations concerning matters before the Senate in
those proceedings and he shall not vote in the Senate.

Attendance at 35. (1) The President, Vice-president or other
proceedings of
Senate of member presiding in the Senate may request a Minister who
Ministers who is a member of the House to attend any proceedings of the
are members of
the House. Senate if he considers that the business before the Senate

in those proceedings falls within the portfolio of the Minister
concerned and if he considers the presence of such Minister
desirable.

(2) A Minister who is so requested to attend any pro-
ceedings of the Senate may take part in the proceedings solely
for the purpose of giving explanations concerning matters
falling within his portfolio and he shall not vote in the Senate.

The House of Representatives
Composition of
the House.

36. (1) Subject to the provisions of this section, the
House shall consist of a number of elected members equal
to the number of constituencies from time to time establish-
ed by Order under Part 4 of this Chapter, who shall be elected
in such a manner as may, subject to the provisions of this
Constitution, be prescribed by or under any Act of
Parliament.

(2) If the person holding the office of Speaker is not
otherwise a member of the House, he shall be a member
of the House by virtue of holding that offlce.

(3) If the person holding or acting in the office of
Attorney-General is not otherwise a member of the House

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he shall be a member of the House by virtue of holding or
acting in that office but shall not vote in the House.

37. ( 1 ) The Speaker, Deputy Speaker or other Attendance proceedings at of
member presiding in the House may request a Minister who the House of
is a Senator to attend any proceedings of the House if he ~ ~ ~ e ; ~ o ; ~
considers that the business before the House in those pro-
ceedings falls within the portfolio of the Minister concerned
and if he considers the presence of such Minister desirable.

(2) A Minister who is so requested to attend any pro-
ceedings of the House may take part in the proceedings solely
for the purpose of giving explanations concerning matters
falling within his portfolio and he shall not vote in the House.

38. Subject to the provisions of section 39 of this Con- ~,"~~~fia~~,"s for
stitution, any person who at the date of his election- member of the

House.
( a ) is a citizen of the age of twenty-one years or

upwards;

(b ) has resided in Antigua and Barbuda for a period
of twelve months immediately preceding the date of his
election; and

(c) is able to speak and, unless incapacitated by
blindness or other physical cause, to read the English
language with sufficient proficiency to enable him to
take an -active part in the proceedings of the House,

shall be qualified to be elected as a member of the House.

39. ( 1 ) No person shall be qualified to be elected as ~ ~ ~ , " ~ ~ ~ ; $ " ~
a member of the House who- a member of the

House.
(a) is, by virtue of his own act, under any

acknowledgement of allegiance, obedience or adherence
to a foreign power or state;

(6) is a Senator or temporary member of the
Senate;

(c) is an undischarged bankrupt, having been
declared bankrupt under any law;

(d) is a person certified to be insane or otherwise
adjudged to be of unsound mind under any law;

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(e) is under sentence of death imposed on him by
a court or has been sentenced to imprisonment (by
whatever name called) for a term of or exceeding twelve
months and has not either suffered the punishment to
which he was sentenced or such other punishment as
may by competent authority have been substituted
therefor, or received a free pardon;

Cf) is disqualified for appointment to the House by
or under any law by reason of his connection with any
offence relating to elections;

@) holds or is acting in any public office or in the
office of judge of the Supreme Court or Ombudsman
or is a member of the Constituencies Boundaries Com-
mission, the Judicial and Legal Services Commission,
the Public Service Commission or the Police Service
Commission;

(h) has, within the period of ten years immediately
preceding the proposed date of his election as a member
of the House, been convicted on indictment by a court
of competent jurisdiction of theft, fraud, or other such
crime involving dishonesty and who-

(i) has not appealed against that conviction, or

(ii) has appealed against that conviction and whose
appeal has not been allowed; and

(iii) has not received a free pardon in respect of
the offence; or

( i ) is a minister of religion.

(2) Without prejudice to the provisions of subsec-
tion (1)Cg) of this section, Parliament may provide that a per-
son shall not be qualified for election as a member of the
House in any of the following cases-

(a) if he holds or is acting in any office that is
specified by Parliament and the functions of which
involve responsibility for, or in connection with, the con-
duct of an election or the compilation or revision of any
register of electors for the purposes of an election;

(6) subject to any exceptions and limitations
prescribed by Parliament, if-

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(i) he holds or is acting in any office or appoint-
ment prescribed by Parliament either
individually or by reference to a class of office
or appointment. or

(ii) he belongs to any armed force of Antigua and
Barbuda or to any class of person that is com-
prised in any such force.

(3) For the purpose of subsection (l)(e) of this section,

(a) two or more sentences of imprisonment that
are required to be served consecutively shall be regarded
as separate sentences if none of those sentences exceeds
twelve months but if any of such sentences exceeds that
term they shall be regarded as one sentence; and

(b) no account shall be taken of a sentence of
imprisonment imposed as an alternative to or in default
of the payment of a fine.

40. (1) Each of the constituencies established in E12Eso:f the
accordance with the provisions of section 62 of this Constitu- House.
tion shall return one member to the House who shall be
directly elected in such manner as may, subject to the pro-
visions of this Constitution, be prescribed by or under any
law.

(2) Every Commonwealth citizen of the age of eighteen
years or upwards who possesses such qualifications relating
to residence or domicile in Antigua and Barbuda as Parlia-
ment may prescribe shall, unless he is disqualified by any
law from registration as a voter for the purpose of electing
a member of the House, be entitled to be registered as such
a voter in accordance with the provisions of any law in that
behalf and no other person may be registered.

(3) Every person who is registered as a voter in pur-
suance of subsection (2) of this section in any constituency
shall, unless he is disqualified by any law from voting in
that constituency in any election of members of the House,
be entitled so to vote in accordance with the provisions of
any law in that behalf.

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(4) In any election of members of the House the votes
shall be exercised freely and shall be given by secret ballot
in such manner as Parliament may prescribe.

Tenure of seats
of members of

41. (1) Every member of the House shall vacate his
the House. seat in the House-

(a) at the next dissolution of Parliament after he
has been elected;

(6 ) if he ceases to be a citizen;

(c) if he is absent from the sittings of the House
for such period or periods and in such circumstances +

as may be prescribed in the rules of procedure of the
House;

(6) subject to the provisions of subsection (2) of this
section, if any circumstances arise that, if he were not
a member of the House, would cause him to be dis-
qualified from election as such by virtue of section 39(1)
of this Constitution; or

(e) if, having been elected to the House by virtue
of being a member of a political party, he resigns his
party whip and withdraws his allegiance from that party:
Provided that he shall not be required to vacate his seat ,
so long as he remains an independent member of the
House.

(2) (a) If circumstances such as are referred to in subsec-
tion (l)(d) of this section arise because a member of the House
is convicted of a felony or of any other offence involving
dishonesty, sentenced to death or imprisonment, adjudged
to be of unsound mind, or declared bankrupt, or is con-
victed of any offence relating to elections in circumstances
that disqualify him for election to the House, and if it is
open to the member to appeal against the decision (either
with the leave of a court or other authority or without such
leave), he shall forthwith cease to perform his functions as ,
a member of the House but, subject to the provision of this
section, he shall not vacate his seat until the expiration of
a period of thirty days thereafter:

Provided that the Speaker may, at the request of the
member from time to time, extend that period for further
periods of thirty days to enable the member to pursue an

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appeal against the deceision, so, however, that extensions
of time exceeding in the aggregate one hundred and fifty
days shall not be given without the approval, signified by
resolution, of the House.

(b) If on the determination of any appeal, such cir-
cumstances continue to exist and no further appeal is
open to the member, or if, by reason of the expiration
of any period for entering an appeal or notice thereof
or the refusal of leave to appeal or for any other reason,
it ceases to be open to the member to appeal, he shall
forthwith vacate his seat.

( 6 ) If at any time before the member of the House
vacates his seat such circumstances as aforesaid cease
to exist, his seat shall not become vacant on the expira-
tion of the period referred to in paragraph (a) of this
subsection and he may resume the performance of his
functions as a member of the House.

( 3 ) Where an elected member of the House vacates his
seat in the House pursuant to the provisions of paragraph
(6) to (e) of subsection ( 1 ) of this section or of subsection ( 2 )
of this section or where the seat of an elected member of
the House is vacant for any other reason except a dissolu-
tion of Parliament, there shall be a by-election to fill the
seat in the House vacated by that member and the by-election
shall be held not later than one hundred and twenty days
after the day on which the seat of the member of the House
became vacant unless Parliament is sooner dissolved.

42. (1 ) When the House first meets after any general :ygr ;;Lr.
election and before it proceeds to the despatch of any other
business, it shall elect a person to be the Speaker; and if
the office of Speaker falls vacant at any time before the next
dissolution of Parliament the House shall, as soon as prac-
ticable, elect another person to that office.

( 2 ) The Speaker may be elected either from among the
members of the House or from among persons who are not
members of the House but are qualified to be elected as such.

( 3 ) When the House first meets after any general elec-
tion, and before it proceeds to any other business except the
election of the Speaker, it shall elect a member of the House

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to be Deputy Speaker, and if the office of Deputy Speaker
falls vacant at any time before the next dissolution of Parlia-
ment the House shall, as soon as practicable, elect another
such member to that office.

(4) The House shall not elect a member who is a
Minister or Parliamentary Secretary to be a Speaker or Depu-
ty Speaker of the House.

(5) No business (other than the election of a Speaker)
shall be transacted in the House at any time when the office
of Speaker is vacant.

(6) A person shall vacate the office of Speaker-

(a) in the case of a Speaker elected from among
persons who are not members of the House-

(i) when the House first meets after any dissolu-
tion of Parliament; or

(ii) if he ceases to be a citizen;

(iii) if any circumstances arise that would cause him
to be disqualified for election as a member of
the House by virtue of any of the provisions
of section 39 of this Constitution; or

(b) in the case of a Speaker elected from among
the members of the House-

(i) if he ceases to be a member of the House except
that the Speaker shall not vacate his office by
reason only that he has ceased to be a member
of the House on a dissolution of Parliament
until the House first meets after the dissolu-
tion; or

(ii) if he is appointed to be a Minister or
Parliamentary Secretary.

(7) A person shall vacate the office of Deputy Speaker-

(a) if he ceases to be a member of the House;

( b ) if he is appointed to be a Minister or a
Parliamentary Secretary; or

( 6 ) if he is elected to be Speaker.

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(8) (a) If, by virtue of section 41(2) of this Con-
stitution, the Speaker or Deputy Speaker is required
to cease to perform his functions as a member of the
House, he shall also cease to perform his functions as
Speaker or Deputy Speaker, as the case may be, and
those functions shall, until he vacates his seat in the
House or resumes the performance of the functions of
his office, be performed-

(i) in the case of the Speaker, by the Deputy
Speaker or, if the office of Deputy Speaker is
vacant or the Deputy Speaker is required to
cease to perform his functions as a member
of the House by virtue of section 41(2) of this
Constitution, by such member of the House
(not being a Minister or Parliamentary
Secretary) as the House may elect for the pur-
pose; or

(ii) in the case of the Deputy Speaker, by such
member of the House (not being a Minister
or Parliamentary Secretary) as the House may
elect for the purpose.

(9) If the Speaker or Deputy Speaker resumes the per-
formance of his functions as a member of the House in
accordance with the provisions of section 41(2) of this Con-
stitution, he shall also resume the performance of his func-
tions as Speaker or Deputy Speaker, as the case may be.

General Provisions

43. (1) There shall be a Clerk to the Senate and a ~ ~ ; ~ ~ , ~ , " m ~ : ~ "
Clerk to the House but the two offices may be held by the .,d their staffs.
same person.

(2) Subject to the provisions of any law enacted by
Parliament, the office of Clerk of each House of Parliament
and the offices of the members of their staff shall be public
offices.

44. (1) The High Court shall have jurisdiction to hear :;$?
and determine any question whether- membership.

(a) any person has been validly elected as a member
of the House;

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(b) any person has been validly appointed as a
Senator or as a temporary member of the Senate;

(c) any person who has been elected as Speaker
from among persons who were not members of the
House was qualified to be so elected or has vacated the
office of Speaker; or

(4 any member of the House has vacated his seat
or is required under the provisions of section 41(2) of
this Constitution to cease to perform any of his func-
tions as a member of the House.

( 2 ) Any application to the High Court for the deter-
mination of any question under subsection ( l ) ( a ) of this sec-
tion may be made by any person entitled to vote in the elec-
tion to which the application relates or by any person who
was a candidate at that election or by the Attorney-General.

(3) An application to the High Court for the determina-
tion of any question under subsection ( l ) ( b ) or subsection
(l)(c) of this section may be made by any member of the
House or by the Attorney-General.

( 4 ) An application to the High Court for the determina-
tion of any question under subsection ( l ) (d ) of this section
may be made-

(a) by any member of the House or by the
Attorney-General; or

(b) in the case of the seat of a member of the House;
by any person registered in some constituency as a voter
for the purpose of electing members of the House.

(5) If any application is made by a person other than
the Attorney-General to the High Court for the determina-
tion of any question under this section, the Attorney-General
may intervene and may then appear or be represented in
the proceedings.

(6) An appeal shall lie as of right to the Court of Appeal
from any final decision of the High Court determining such
a question as is referred to in subsection ( 1 ) of this section.

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(7) The circumstances and manner in which and the
imposition of conditions upon which any application may
be made to the High Court for the determination of any
question under this section and the powers, practice and
procedure of the High Court and the Court of Appeal in
relation to any such application shall be regulated by such
provision as may be made by Parliament.

(8) No appeal shall lie from any decision of the Court
of Appeal in exercise of the jurisdiction conferred by subsec-
tion (6) of this section and no appeal shall lie from any deci-
sion of the High Court in proceedings under this section
other than a final decision determining such a question as
is referred to in subsection (1) of this section.

(9) In the exercise of his functions under this section
the Attorney-General shall not be subject to the direction
or control of any other person or authority.

45. (1) Any person who sits or votes in either House Unqualified
of Parliament knowing or having reasonable grounds for $:;' Or
knowing that he is not entitled to do so shall be guilty of
an offence and liable to a fine not exceeding five hundred
dollars, or such other sum as may be prescribed by Parlia-
ment, for each day on which he or she sits or votes in that
House.

(2) Any prosecution for an offence under this section
shall be instituted in the High Court and shall not be so
instituted except by the Director of Public Prosecutions.

Powers and Procedure of Parliament

46. Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, P,";: to make
Parliament may make laws for the peace, order and good
government of Antigua and Barbuda.

47. (1) Parliament may alter any of the provisions ~ ~ ; ; ; ~ ~ ~ ; ; f ~ ~
of this Constitution or of the Supreme Court Order in the ,qUDreme court
manner specified in the following provisions of this section. 0;der.

(2) A bill to alter this Constitution or the Supreme Court
Order shall not be regarded as being passed by the House

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unless on its final reading in the House the bill is supported
by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all the members
of the House.

(3) An amendment made by the Senate to such a bill
as is referred to in subsection (2) of this section that has been
passed by the House shall not be regarded as being agreed
to by the House for the purpose of section 55 of this Con-
stitution unless such agreement is signified by resolution sup-
ported by the votes of not less than two-thirds of all the
members of the House.

( 4 ) For the purposes of section 55(4) of this Constitu-
tion, an amendment of a bill to alter this Constitution or
the Supreme Court Order shall not be suggested to the Senate
by the House unless a resolution so to suggest the amend-
ment has been supported by the votes of not less than two-
thirds of all the members of the House.

(5) A bill to alter this section, schedule 1 to this Con-
stitution or any of the provisions of this Constitution specified
in Part I of that schedule or any of the provisions of the
Supreme Court Order specified in Part I1 of that schedule
shall not be submitted to the Governor-General for his assent
unless-

(a) there has been an interval of not less than ninety
days between the introduction of the bill in the House
and the beginning of the proceedings in the House on
the second reading of the bill in that House;

(6) after it has been passed by both Houses of
Parliament or, in the case of a bill to which section 55
of this Constitution applies, after its rejection by the
Senate for the second time; and

( 6 ) the bill has been approved on a referendum,
held in accordance with such provisions as may be made
in that behalf by Parliament, by not less than two-thirds
of all the votes validly cast on that referendum.

(6) Every person who, at the time when the referen-
dum is held, would be entitled to vote in elections of members
of the House shall be entitled to vote on a referendum held

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for the purposes of this section in accordance with such pro-
cedures as may be prescribed by Parliament for the pur-
poses of the referendum and no other person shall be entitl-
ed so to vote.

(7) The conduct of any referendum for the purposes
of subsection (5) of this section shall be under the general
supervision of the Supervisor of Elections and shall be in
accordance with such provisions as may be made in that
behalf by Parliament.

(8) (a) A bill to alter this Constitution or the Supreme
Court Order shall not be submitted to the Governor-
General for his assent unley it is accompanied by a
certificate under the hand of the Speaker (or, if the
Speaker is for any reason unable to exercise the
functions of his office, the Deputy Speaker) that the
provisions of subsection (21, (3) or (4), as the case may
be, of this section have been complied with and, where
a referendum has been held, by a certificate of the
Supervisor of Elections stating the results of the
referendum.

(6) The certificate of the Speaker or, as the case
may be, the Deputy Speaker under this subsection shall
be conclusive that the provisions of subsection (2), (3)
or (4) of this section have been complied with and shall
not be enquired into in any court of law.

48. (1) No member of either House of Parliament oath of
allegiance by

shall take part in the proceedings of that House (other than ,,f
proceedings necessary for the purpose of this section) until Parliament.
he has made and subscribed before that House the oath of
allegiance:

Provided that the election of a President or Vice-
President and the election of a Speaker and Deputy Speaker
may take place before the members of the Senate or the
House, as the case may be, have made and subscribed such
oath.

(2) References in this section to a member of a House
of Parliament include references to any person who is a
member of the House by virtue of holding the office of
Speaker or by virtue of holding or acting in the office of
Attorney-General.

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Presiding in
Senate and
House.

49. (1) The President or, in his absence, the Vice-
President or, if they are both absent, a Senator (not being
a Minister or a Parliamentary Secretary) elected by the Senate
for that sitting shall preside at any sitting of the Senate:

Provided that the President or Vice-President, as the
case may be, shall not preside when a motion for his removal
from office is before the Senate.

(2) The Speaker, or in his absence, the Deputy Speaker,
or if they are both absent, a member of the House (not being
a Minister or Parliamentary Secretary) elected by the House
for that sitting shall preside at any sitting of the House:

Provided that the Speaker or Deputy Speaker, as the
case may be, shall not preside when a motion for his removal
from office is before the House.

Quorum.

Voting.

50. (1) If at any sitting of either House of Parlia-
ment any member of that House who is present draws the
attention of the person presiding at the sitting to the absence
of a quorum and, after such interval as may be prescribed
in the rules of procedure of that House, the person presiding
at the sitting ascertains that a quorum of that House is still
not present, that House shall be adjourned.

(2) For the purpose of this section a quorum of the
Senate shall consist of six members, and a quorum of the
House shall consist of six members or such greater number
in each case as may be prescribed by Parliament and in
neither case shall the person presiding at the sitting be
included in reckoning whether there is a quorum present.

5 1. (1) Save as otherwise provided in this Constitu-
tion, any question proposed for decision in a House of Parlia-
ment shall be determined by a majority of the votes of the
members present and voting.

(2) The President or other member presiding in the
Senate and the Speaker or other member presiding in the
House shall not vote unless on any question the votes are
equally divided, in which case, except as otherwise provid-
ed in this section, he shall have and exercise a casting vote:

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Provided that in the case of the question of the final
reading of a bill as is referred to in section 47(2) of this Con-
stitution a Speaker or other member presiding in the House
who is an elected member of the House shall have an original
vote but no casting vote.

(3) A Speaker who is not an elected member of the
House shall have neither an original nor a casting vote and
if, upon any question before the House when such a Speaker
is presiding, the votes of the members are equally divided,
the motion shall be lost.

52. (1) The power of Parliament to make laws shall Mode of
exercising

be exercised by bills passed by the Senate and the House legslative power.
(or in the cases mentioned in sections 54 and 55 of this Con-
stitution by the House) and assented to by the Governor-
General on behalf of Her Majesty.

(2) When a bill is presented to the Governor-General
for assent in accordance with this Constitution, he shall signify
that he assents thereto.

(3) When the Governor-General assents to a bill that
has been submitted to him in accordance with the provi-
sions of this Constitution the bill shall become law and the
Clerk of the House shall thereupon cause it to be published
in the Official Gazette as law.

(4) No law made by Parliament shall come into opera-
tion until it has been published in the Official Gazette but
Parliament may postpone the coming into operation of any
such law.

53. (1) A bill other than a money bill may be ~ ; ~ $ ~ , " ~ ; ~ ~ ~
introduced in either House of Parliament; a money bill shall financial
not be introduced in the Senate. measures.

(2) Except on the proposal of a Minister authorised so
to do by the Cabinet, neither House shall-

( a ) proceed upon any bill (including any amend-
ment to a bill) that, in the opinion of the person
presiding, makes provision for any of the following
purposes: -

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(i) for the imposition of taxation or the altera-
tion of taxation otherwise than by reduction;

(ii) for the imposition of any charge upon the Con-
solidated Fund or any other public fund of
Antigua and Barbuda or the alteration of any
such charge otherwise than by reduction;

(iii) for the payment, issue or withdrawal from the
Consolidated Fund or any other public fund
of Antigua and Barbuda of any monies not
charged thereon or any increase in the amount
of such payment, issue or withdrawal; or

(iv) for the composition or remission of any debt
due to the Crown; or

(6) proceed upon any motion (including any
amendment to a motion) the effect of which, in the opi-
nion of the person presiding, would be to make provi-
sion for any of those purposes.

Restrictions on
powers of Senate

54. (1) If a money bill, having been passed by the
as to money House and sent to the Senate at least one month before the
bills. end of the session, is not passed by the Senate without amend-

ment within one month after it is sent to the Senate, the
bill shall, unless the House otherwise resolves, be presented
to the Governor-General for assent notwithstanding that the
Senate has not consented to the bill.

(2) There shall be endorsed on every money bill when
it is sent to the Senate the certificate of the Speaker signed
by him that it is a money bill; and there shall be endorsed
on any money bill that it is presented to the Governor-General
for assent in pursuance of subsection (1) of this section, the
certificate of the Speaker signed by him that it is a money
bill and that the provisions of that subsection have been com-
plied with.

Restrictions on 55. (1) This section applies to any bill other than a
powers of Senate
as to bills money bill that is passed by the House in two successive
than money bills. sessions (whether or not Parliament is dissolved between those

sessions) and, having been sent to the Senate in each of those
sessions at least one month before the end of the session,
is rejected by the Senate in each of those sessions.

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(2) A bill to which this section applies shall, on its re-
jection for the second time by the Senate, unless the House
otherwise resolves, be submitted to the Governor-General
for assent notwithstanding that the Senate has not consented
to the bill:

Provided that-

( a ) the foregoing provisions of this subsection shall
not have effect unless at least three months have elaps-
ed between the date on which the bill is passed by the
House in the first session and the date on which it is
passed by the House in the second session; and

( 6 ) a bill such as is referred to in subsection ( 5 )
of section 47 of this Constitution shall not be submitted
to the Governor-General for his assent unless the pro-
visions of that subsection have been complied with and
the power conferred on the House by this subsection
to resolve that a bill shall not be presented to the
Governor-General for assent shall not be exercised in
respect of such a bill.

(3) For the purposes of this section a bill that is sent
to the Senate from the House in any session shall be deem-
ed to be the same bill as a former bill sent to the Senate
in the preceding session if, when it is sent to the Senate,
it is identical with the former bill or contains only such altera-
tions as are certified by the Speaker to be necessary owing
to the time that has elapsed since the date of the former bill
or to represent any amendments which have been made by
the Senate in the former bill in the preceding session.

(4) The House may, if it thinks fit, on the passage
through the House of a bill that is deemed to be the same
bill as a former bill sent to the Senate in the preceding session,
suggest any amendments without inserting the amendments
in the bill, and any such amendments shall be considered
by the Senate and, if agreed to by the Senate, shall be treated
as amendments made by the Senate and agreed to by the
House; but the exercise of this power by the House shall
not affect the operation of this section in the event of the
rejection of the bill in the Senate.

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( 5 ) There shall be inserted in any bill that is submitted
to the Governor-General for assent in pursuance of this sec-
tion any amendments that are certified by the Speaker to
have been made in the bill by the Senate in the second ses-
sion and agreed to by the House.

(6) There shall be endorsed on any bill that is presented
to the Governor-General for assent in pursuance of this sec-
tion the certificate of the Speaker signed by him that the
provisions of this section have been complied with.

Provisions
relating to

56. (1) In sections 53, 5 4 and 55 of this Constitu-
sections 53, 54 tion, "money bill

7' means a public bill which, in the opinion
and 55. of the Speaker, contains only provisions dealing with all or

any of the following matters, namely, the imposition, repeal,
remission, alteration or regulation of taxation; the imposi-
tion for the payment of debt or other financial purposes,
of charges on public money, or the variation or repeal of
any such charges; the grant of money to the Crown or to
any authority or person, or the variation or revocation of
any such grant; the appropriation, receipt, custody, invest-
ment, issue or audit of accounts of public money; the rais-
ing or guarantee of any loan or the repayment thereof, or
the establishment, alteration, administration or abolition of
any sinking fund provided in connection with any such loan;
or subordinate matters incidental to any of the matters
aforesaid; and in this subsection the expressions "taxation",
"debt", "public money" and "loan" do not include any
taxation imposed, debt incurred or money provided or loan
raised by any local authority or body for local purposes.

(2) For the purposes of section 5 5 of this Constitution,
a bill shall be deemed to be rejected by the Senate if-

(a) it is not passed by the Senate without amend-
ment; or

( b ) it is passed by the Senate with any amendment
that is not agreed to by the House.

(3) Whenever the office of Speaker is vacant or the
Speaker is for any reason unable to perform any function
conferred on him by section 54 or 55 of this Constitution
or subsection (1) of this section, that function may be per-
formed by the Deputy Speaker.

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(4) Any certificate of the Speaker or Deputy Speaker
given under section 54 or 55 of this Constitution shall be
conclusive for all purposes and shall not be questioned in
any court of law.

57. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, tz%'t;;o~f*
each House of Parliament may regulate its own procedure Houses .f
and may in particular make rules for the orderly conduct
of its own proceedings.

(2) Each House of Parliament may act notwithstanding
any vacancy in its membership (including any vacancy not
filled when the House first meets after any general election)
and the presence or participation of any person not entitled
to be present at or to participate in the proceedings of the
House shall not invalidate those preceedings.

58. (1) Without prejudice to any provision made by :;z:2;ynof
Parliament relating to the powers, privileges and immunities proceedings
of Parliament arLd its committees, or the privileges and
immunities of the members and officers of either House of
Parliament and of other persons concerned in the business
of Parliament or its committees, no civil or criminal pro-
ceedings may be instituted against any member of either
House of Parliament for words spoken before, or written
in a report to, the House of Parliament of which he is a
member or a committee thereof or any joint committee of
the Senate and the House or by reason of any matter or
thing brought by him therein by petition, bill, resolution,
motion or otherwise.

(2) References in this section to a member of a House
of Parliament include references to any person who is a
member of the House by virtue of holding the office of
Speaker or by virtue of holding or acting in the office of
Attorney-General.

(3) Where the Attorney-General or a Minister takes part
in the proceedings of the Senate in accordance with a request
made under section 34 or, as the case may be, under sec-
tion 35 of this Constitution, and gives explanations in the
Senate pursuant to those sections, the provisions of subsec-
tion (1) of this section shall apply in relation to the Attorney-

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General or, as the case may be, to that Minister as they
apply in relation to a member of the Senate.

(4) Where a Minister takes part in the proceedings of
the House in accordance with a request under section 37
of this Constitution and gives explanations in the House pur-
suant to that section, the provisions of subsection (1) of this
section shall apply in relation to that Minister as they apply
in relation to a member of the House.

Summoninx, Prorogation and Dissolution of Parliament
Sessions of
Parliament.

59. (1) Each session of Parliament shall be held at
such place within Antigua and Barbuda and shall begin at
such time (not being later than six months from the end of
the preceding session if Parliament has been prorogued or
four months from the end of that session if Parliament has
been dissolved) as the Governor-General shall by Proclama-
tion appoint.

(2) Subject to the provisions of subsection (1) of this
section, not more than three months shall elapse between
sittings of Parliament during any session of Parliament and,
subject thereto, the sittings of Parliament shall be held at
such time and place as Parliament may, by its rules of pro-
cedure or otherwise, determine.

Prorogation and
dissolution of

60. (1) Subject to the provisions of subsection (5) of
Parliament. this section, the Governor-General, acting in accordance with

the advice of the Prime Minister, may at any time prorogue
or dissolve Parliament.

(2) Subject to the provisions of subsection (3) of this
section, Parliament, unless sooner dissolved, shall continue
for five years from the date of its first sitting after any dissolu-
tion, and shall then stand dissolved.

(3) At any time when Her Majesty is at war, Parlia-
ment may extend the period of five years specified in subsec-
tion (2) of this section for not more than twelve months at
a time so, however, that the life of Parliament shall not be
extended under this subsection for more than five years.

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(4) Where between a dissolution of Parliament and the
next ensuing general election of members to the House, an
emergency arises of such a nature that in the opinion of the
Prime Minister, it is necessary for the two Houses to be sum-
moned before the general election can be held, the Governor-
General, acting in accordance with the advice of the Prime
Minister, may summon the two Houses of the preceding
Parliament but the election of members of the House shall
proceed and the Parliament that has been summoned shall,
if not sooner dissolved, again stand dissolved on the day on
which the general election is held.

(5) The Governor-General in his discretion may dissolve
Parliament if the majority of all the members of the House
pass a resolution that they have no confidence in the Govern-
ment and the Prime Minister does not within seven days
of the passing of that resolution either resign from his office
or advise a dissolution of Parliament.

6 1. (1) A general election of members of the House :;?;tp:;~~
shall be held at such time within three months after every .f senators.
dissolution of Parliament as the Governor-General, acting
in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister, shall
appoint.

(2) As soon as practicable after every general election
the Governor-General shall proceed under section 28 of this
Constitution to the appointment of Senators.

Delimitations of Constituencies

62. (1) For the purpose of the election of members Constituencies.
of the House, Antigua and Barbuda shall be divided into
such number of constituencies, at least one of which shall
be within Barbuda, having such boundaries as may be pro-
vided for by an Order made by the Governor-General in
accordance with the provisions of section 65 of this
Constitution.

(2) Each constituency shall return one member to the
House.

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Constituencies
Boundaries

63. (1) There shall be a Constituencies Boundaries
Commission. Commission for Antigua and Barbuda which shall be

appointed from time to time to review the number, and the
boundaries, of the constituencies and report thereon to the
Speaker in accordance with the provisions of this Part and
which shall consist of-

( a ) a chairman who shall be appointed by the
Governor-General acting in accordance with the advice
of the Prime Minister given after the Prime Minister
has consulted with the Leader of the Opposition;

(6) two members appointed by the Governor-
General acting in accordance with the advice of the
Prime Minister; and

(c) one member appointed by the Governor-
General acting in accordance with the advice of the
Leader of the Opposition.

(2) A person shall not be qualified to be appointed as
a member of a Constituencies Boundaries Commission if he
is a Senator, a member of the House or a public officer.

(3) Subject to the provisions of this section, a member
of a Constituencies Boundaries Commission shall vacate his
office if any circumstances arise that, if he were not a member
of a Constituencies Boundaries Commission, would cause
him to be disqualified for appointment as such.

(4) All members of a Constituencies Boundaries Com-
mission shall vacate office and the Commission shall cease
to exist-

( a ) twelve months after the date when the report
of the Commission is submitted to the Speaker under
section 64 of this Constitution;

( 6 ) on the date when an Order consequent upon
the report of the Commission is made by the Governor-
General under section 65 of this Constitution; or

(c) at the dissolution of Parliament next after the
appointment of the Commission,

whichever is the earlier.

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(5) A member of a Constituencies Boundaries Com-
mission may be removed from office but only for inability
to discharge the functions thereof (whether arising from
infirmity of mind or body or any other cause) or for
misbehaviour, and he shall not be so removed except in ac-
cordance with the provisions of this section.

(6) A member of a Constituencies Boundaries Com-
mission shall be removed from office by the Governor-
General if the question of his removal from office has been
referred to a tribunal appointed under subsection (7) of this
section and the tribunal has recommended to the Governor-
General that he ought to be removed from office for inabili-
ty as aforesaid or for misbehaviour.

(7) If the Prime Minister or the Leader of the Opposi-
tion represents to the Governor-General that the question
of removal of a member of a Constituencies Boundaries Com-
mission from office for inability as aforesaid or for
misbehaviour ought to be investigated then-

(a) the Governor-General shall appoint a tribunal
which shall consist of a chairman and not less than two
other members selected by the Governor-General, acting
in accordance with the advice of the Chief Justice, from
among persons who hold or have held office as a judge
of a court having unlimited jurisdiction in civil and
criminal matters in some part of the Commonwealth
or a court having jurisdiction in appeals from any such
court; and

(b) the tribunal shall enquire into the matter and
report on the facts thereof to the Governor-General and
recommend to the Governor-General whether the
member of the Constituencies Boundaries Commission
ought to be removed from oflice for inability as aforesaid
or for misbehaviour.

(8) A Constituencies Boundaries Commission may
regulate its own procedure.

(9) A Constituencies Boundaries Commission may, with
the consent of the Prime Minister, confer powers and impose
duties on any public officer or on any authority of the Govern-
ment for the purpose of the discharge of its functions.

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(10) A Constituencies Boundaries Commission may,
subject to its rules of procedure, act notwithstanding any
vacancy in its membership and its proceeedings shall not
be invalidated by the presence or participation of any per-
son not entitled to be present or to participate in those
proceedings:

Provided that any decision of the Commission shall re-
quire the concurrence of a majority of all its members.

(1 1) In the exercise of its functions under this Constitu-
tion, a Constituencies Boundaries Commission shall not be
subject to the control or direction of any other person or
authority.

Report by
Commission.

64. (1) A Constituencies Boundaries Commission
shall on its appointment forthwith proceed to review the
number of constituencies into which Antigua and Barbuda
is divided and the boundaries thereof and shall submit a
report to the Speaker stating whether, and if so what, altera-
tions the Commission recommends should be made to the
number or the boundaries of those constituencies.

(2) A report by a Constituencies Boundaries Commis-
sion shall be submitted to the Speaker under this section not
less than two or more than five years after the date when
the last such report was submitted.

(3) In reviewing the number, and the boundaries, of
the constituencies and making its report thereon, a Consti-
tuencies Boundaries Commission shall be guided by such
general principles as may be prescribed by Parliament.

Procedure upon 65. (1) As soon as may be after a Constituencies
Report. Boundaries Commission has submitted a report under sec-

tion 64 of this Constitution, the Prime Minister shall lay
before the House for its approval the draft of an Order by
the Governor-General for giving effect, whether with or
without modifications, to the recommendations contained
in the report, and that draft Order may make provision for
any matters which appear to the Prime Minister to be in-
cidental to or consequential upon the other provisions of the
draft.

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(2) Where any draft Order submitted to the House
under this section gives effect to any such recommendations
with modifications, the Prime Minister shall lay before the
House together with the draft Order a statement of the
reasons for the modifications.

(3) If the motion for the approval of any draft Order
laid before the House under this section is rejected by the
House, or is withdrawn by leave of the House, the Prime
Minister shall amend the draft Order and lay the amended
draft before the House.

(4) If any draft Order laid before the House under this
section is approved by resolution of the House, the Prime
Minister shall submit it to the Governor-General who shall
make an Order in terms of the draft; and that Order shall
come into force upon the next dissolution of Parliament after
it is made.

(5) The question of the validity of any Order by the
Governor-General purporting to be made under this section
and reciting that a draft thereof had been approved by resolu-
tion of the House shall not be enquired into in any court
of law.

The Ombudsman

66. (1) There shall be an officer of Parliament who f;t$:;i:;ts9
shall be known as the Ombudsman who shall not hold any functions, .tc.
other office of emolument either in the public service or other- Ombudsman.
wise nor engage in any occupation for reward other than
the duties of his office.

(2) The Ombudsman shall be appointed by resolutions
of each House of Parliament for such term as may be
prescribed therein.

(3) The Ombudsman shall not enter upon the duties
of his office until he has taken and subscribed before the
Speaker the oath of allegiance and the oath of office.

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(4) Parliament may make provision for the functions,
powers and duties of the Ombudsman.

(5) The Ombudsman may be removed from office only
for inability to exercise the functions of his office (whether
arising from infirmity of body or mind or any other cause)
or for misbehaviour and shall not be so removed except in
accordance with the provisions of this section.

(6) The Ombudsman shall be removed from office by
resolutions of both Houses of Parliament if the question of
his removal from office has been referred to a tribunal
appointed under subsection (7) of this section and the tribunal
has recommended to Parliament that he ought to be removed
from office for inability as aforesaid or for misbehaviour.

(7) If by both Houses of Parliament it is resolved that
the question of removing the Ombudsman under this sec-
tion ought to be investigated, then-

(a) the Speaker shall appoint a tribunal which shall
consist of a chairman and not less than two other
members selected by the Chief Justice from among per-
sons who hold or have held office as a judge of a court
having unlimited jurisdiction in civil and criminal
matters in some part of the Commonwealth or a court
having jurisdiction in appeals from such a court; and

(6) the tribunal shall enquire into the matter and
report on the facts thereof to the Speaker and recom-
mend to Parliament through the Speaker whether the
Ombudsman ought to be removed under this section.

(8) If the question of removing the Ombudsman has
been referred to a tribunal under this section, both Houses
of Parliament may by resolution suspend the Ombudsman
from the functions of his office and any such suspension may
at any time be revoked by resolutions of both Houses of
Parliament, and shall in any case cease to have effect if the
tribunal recommends to Parliament through the Speaker that
the Ombudsman should not be removed.

(9) If at any time the Ombudsman is for any reason
unable to exercise the functions of his office, both Houses
of Parliament may by resolutions appoint a person to act

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as Ombudsman, and any person so appointed shall, subject
to the provisions of subsections (7) and (8) of this section,
continue to act until the Ombudsman has resumed his fun-
ctions or until the appointment to act has been revoked by
resolutions of both Houses of Parliament.

(10) The Ombudsman shall, in the exercise of his func-
tions under this Constitution, not be subject to the direction
or control of any other person or authority.

T h e Supervisor of Elections

67. (1) The Governor-General shall by notice ~ " , ~ j , " ~ ~ ~ ~
published in the Gazette appoint a Supervisor of Elections removal of
on resolutions to that effect of both Houses of Parliament $[z;:cr
specifying the person nominated for appointment.

(2) The Supervisor of Elections shall have and exercise
such functions, powers and duties as may be provided by law.

(3) The office of the Supervisor of Elections shall be
a public office.

(4) Subject to the provisions of subsection (6) of this
section, the Supervisor of Elections shall vacate his office
when he attains such age, or at the expiration of such term,
as may be prescribed by Parliament.

(5) A person holding the office of Supervisor of Elec-
tions may be removed from office only for inability to exer-
cise the functions of his office (whether arising from infirmity
of body or mind or any other cause) or for misbehaviour
and shall not be so removed except in accordance with the
provisions of this section.

(6) The Supervisor of Elections shall be removed from
office by the Governor-General if the question of his removal
from office has been referred to a tribunal appointed under
subsection (7) of this section and the tribunal has recom-
mended to the Governor-General that he ought to be removed
for inability as aforesaid or for misbehaviour.

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( 7 ) If resolutions of both Houses of Parliament are pass-
ed to the effect that the question of removing the Supervisor
of Elections under this section ought to be investigated then-

(a ) the Governor-General shall appoint a tribunal
which shall consist of a chairman and not less than two
other members, selected from among persons who hold
or have held office as a judge of a court having unlimited
jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters in some part
of the Commonwealth or a court having jurisdiction in
appeals from such a court; and

(b ) the tribunal shall enquire into the matter and
report on the facts thereof to the Governor-General and
recommend to him whether the Supervisor of Elections
ought to be removed under this section.

( 8 ) If the question of removing the Supervisor of Elec-
tions has been referred to a tribunal under this section, the
Governor-General, acting in accordance with the advice of
the Public Service Commission, may suspend the Supervisor
of Elections from the exercise of the functions of his office
and any such suspension may at any time be revoked by
the Governor-General acting in accordance with such advice
as aforesaid, and shall in any case cease to have effect if the
tribunal recommends to the Governor-General that the
Supervisor of Elections should not be removed.

(9) If at any time the Supervisor of Elections is for any
reason unable to exercise the function of his office, the
Governor-General shall by notice published in the Official
Gazette appoint a person to act as Supervisor of Elections
on resolutions to that effect of both Houses of Parliament
specifying the person nominated for appointment, and any
person so appointed shall, subject to the provisions of subsec-
tions (7) and ( 8 ) of this section, continue to act until the
Supervisor of Elections has resumed his functions or until
the appointment to act has been revoked by the Governor-
General on resolutions to that effect by both Houses of
Parliament.

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Executive Powers

General

68. (1) The executive authority of Antigua and Executive
authority.

Barbuda is vested in Her Majesty.

(2) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the
executive authority of Antigua and Barbuda may be exer-
cised on behalf of Her Majesty by the Governor-General
either directly or through officers subordinate to him.

(3) Nothing in this section shall prevent Parliament from
conferring functions on persons or authorities other than the
Governor-General.

69. (1) There shall be a Prime Minister of Antigua F:;:;ze;f.
and Barbuda who shall be appointed by the
Governor-General.

(2) Whenever there is occasion for the appointment of
a Prime Minister, the Governor-General shall appoint as
Prime Minister-

(a) a member of the House who is the leader in
the House of the political party that commands the sup-
port of the majority of members of the House; or

(6 ) where it appears to him that such party does
not have an undisputed leader in the House or that no
party commands the support of such a majority, the
member of the House who in his judgement is most
likely to command the support of the majority of
members of the House,

and is willing to accept the office of Prime Minister.

(3) Subject to the provision of section 82 of this Con-
stitution and subsection (4) of this section there shall be, in
addition to the office of Prime Minister, such other offices
of Minister (including Minister of State) of the Government

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as may be established by Parliament or, subject to the pro-
visions of any law enacted by Parliament, by the Governor-
General, acting in accordance with the advice of the Prime
Minister.

(4) The Ministers other than the Prime Minister shall
be such persons as the Governor-General, acting in accor-
dance with the advice of the Prime Minister, shall appoint
from among the members of the House and of the Senate.

(5) If occasion arises for making appointment to the
office of Prime Minister or any other Minister while Parlia-
ment is dissolved, then, notwithstanding any other provi-
sion of this section, a person who was a member of the House
immediately before the dissolution may be appointed as Prime
Minister or any other Minister and a person who was a
Senator immediately before the dissolution may be appointed
as any Minister other than Prime Minister.

(6) Appointments under this section shall be made by
instrument under the Public Seal.

T ~ C Cabinet. 70. (1) There shall be a Cabinet for Antigua and
Barbuda which shall have the general direction and control
of the Government and shall be collectively responsible
therefor to Parliament.

(2) The Cabinet shall consist of the Prime Minister and
such number of other Ministers (of whom one shall be the
Attorney-General), appointed in accordance with the provi-
sions of section 69 of this Constitution as the Prime Minister
may consider appropriate.

Allocation of
portfolios.

71. (1) The Governor-General, acting in accordance
with the advice of the Prime Minister, may, by directions
in writing, assign to the Prime Minister or any other Minister
responsibility for any business of the Government, including
the administration of any department of government.

(2) Where a Minister is incapable of performing his
functions by reason of his absence from Antigua and
Barbuda or by reason of illness, the Governor-General, act-
ing in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister,

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may appoint a member of the House or a Senator to act in
the office of such Minister during such absence or illness.

72. The Cabinet shall be summoned only by the :;,"ting
Prime Minister or, in his absence, by such Minister as the
Prime Minister shall appoint in that behalf.

73. (1) Where the House passes a resolution sup- Tenure of office
of Ministers. ported by the votes of a majority of all the members of the

House declaring that it has no confidence in the Prime
Minister and the Prime Minister does not within seven days
of the passing of that resolution either resign from his office
or advise the Governor-General to dissolve Parliament, the
Governor-General shall revoke the appointment of the Prime
Minister.

(2) The Prime Minister shall also vacate his office-

(a) when after any dissolution of Parliament he is
informed by the Governor-General that the Governor-
General is about to re-appoint him as Prime Minister
or to appoint another person as Prime Minister; or

(6) where for any reason other than a dissolution
of Parliament he ceases to be a member of the House.

(3) A Minister other than the Prime Minister shall
vacate his office-

(a) when any person is appointed or re-appointed
as Prime Minister;

(6) where for any reason other than a dissolution
of Parliament he ceases to be a member of the House
of Parliament from among the members of which he
was appointed; or

(c) where his appointment is revoked by the
Governor-General acting in accordance with the advice
of the Prime Minister.

(4) Where at any time the Prime Minister is required
under the provisions of section 41(2) of this Constitution to
cease to perform his functions as a member of the House,
he shall cease during such time to perform any of his func-
tions as Prime Minister.

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(5) Where at any time a Minister other than the Prime
Minister is required under section 3 l(2) or section 41 of this
Constitution to cease to perform his functions as a member
of the House to which he belongs, he shall cease during such
time to perform any of his functions as Minister.

Performance of
functions of

74. (1) Where the Prime Minister is absent from
Prime Minister Antigua and Barbuda or is unable by reason of illness or
during absence, of the provisions of section 73 (4) of this Constitution to per-
illness or
suspension. form the functions conferred on him by this Constitution,

the Governor-General may authorise some other member
of the Cabinet to perform those functions (other than the
functions conferred by subsection (2) of this section) and that
member may perform those functions until his authority is
revoked by the Governor-General.

(2) The powers of the Governor-General under this sec-
tion shall be exercised by him in accordance with the advice
of the Prime Minister, save that where the Governor-General
considers that it is impracticable to obtain the advice of the
Prime Minister owing to his absence or illness, or where
the Prime Minister is unable to tender the advice by reason
of the provisions of section 73(4) of this Constitution, the
Governor-General may exercise those powers in his
discretion.

Parliamentary 75. (1) The Govenor-General, acting in accordance
Secretaries. with the advice of the Prime Minister, may appoint

Parliamentary Secretaries from among members of the House
and of the Senate to assist Ministers in the performance of
their duties.

(2) Where occasion arises for making an appointment
under this section while Parliament is dissolved, a person
who was a Senator or a member of the House immediately
before the dissolution may be appointed as a Parliamentary
Secretary.

(3) The office of a Parliamentary Secretary shall become
vacant-

(a) where for any reason other than a dissolution
of Parliament he ceases to be a member of the House
of Parliament from among the members of which he
was appointed; or

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( 6 ) upon the appointment or re-appointment of
any person as Prime Minister; or

( 6 ) where the Governor-General, acting in accor-
dance with the advice of the Prime Minister, so directs.

76. The Prime Minister, every other Minister and 2:; $ be
every Parliamentary Secretary shall, before entering upon Ministers and
the duties of his office, make and subscribe the oath of :,"rzz,":.ar~
allegiance, the oath of office and the oath of secrecy.

77. (1) There shall be a Secretary to the Cabinet g;;:::y to the
whose office shall be a public office.

( 2 ) The Secretary to the Cabinet, who shall have charge
of the Cabinet office, shall be responsible in accordance with
such instructions as may be given him by the Prime Minister,
for arranging the business for, and keeping the minutes of,
the Cabinet and for conveying the decisions of the Cabinet
to the appropriate person or authority and shall have such
other functions as the Prime Minister may direct.

(3) The Secretary to the Cabinet shall, before entering
upon the duties of his office, make and subscribe the oath
of secrecy.

78. (1) Where any Minister has been assigned st.
responsibility for any department of government, he shall
exercise direction and control over that department; and,
subject to such direction and control, the department shall
be under the supervision of a Permanent Secretary whose
office shall be a public office.

( 2 ) For the purposes of this section-

( a ) two or more government departments may be
placed under the supervision of one Permanent
Secretary; and

( b ) two or more Permanent Secretaries may super-
vise any department of government assigned to a
Minister.

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Leader of the
Opposition.

79. (1) There shall (except at times when there are
no members of the House who do not support the Govern-
ment) be a Leader of the Opposition who shall be appointed
by the Governor-General.

(2) Whenever there is occasion for the appointment of
a Leader of the Opposition the Governor-General shall
appoint the member of the House who appears to him most
likely to command the support of a majority of the members
of the House who do not support the Government; or, if
no member of the House appears to him to command such
support, the member of the House who appears to him to
command the support of the largest single group of members
of the House who do not support the Government:

Provided that-

(a) if there are two or more members of the House
who do not support the Government but none of them
commands the support of the other or others, the
Governor-General may, acting in his discretion, appoint
any one of them as Leader of the Opposition, and

(6) in the exercise of his discretion the Governor-
General shall be guided by the seniority of each based
on his length of service as a member of the House, by
the number of votes cast in favour of each at the last
election of members of the House or by both such
seniority and such number of votes.

(3) If the occasion arises to appoint a Leader of the
Opposition during the period between a dissolution of Parlia-
ment and the day on which the ensuing election of members
of the House is held, an appointment may be made as if
Parliament had not been dissolved.

(4) The office of Leader of the Opposition shall become
vacant-

(a) if he ceases to be a member of the House other-
wise than by reason of a dissolution of Parliament:

(b) if, when the House first meets after a dissolu-
tion of Parliament, he is not then a member of the
House;

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( 6 ) if, under the provisions of section 41(2) of this
Constitution, he is required to cease to perform his func-
tions as a member of the House; or

(d) if he is removed from office by the Governor-
General under the provisions of subsection ( 5 ) of this
section.

( 5 ) If it appears to the Governor-General that the Leader
of the Opposition is no longer able to command the support
of a majority of the members of the House who do not sup-
port the Government or the support of the largest single group
of members of the House who do not support the Govern-
ment, he shall remove the Leader of the Opposition from
office.

(6) The powers of the Governor-General under this sec-
tion shall be exercised by him in his discretion.

( 7 ) Where the office of Leader of the Opposition is
vacant, whether because there is no member of the House
so qualified for appointment or because no one qualified for
appointment is willing to be appointed, or because the Leader
of the Opposition has resigned his office or for any other
reason, any provision in this Constitution requiring consulta-
tion with or the advice of the Leader of the Opposition shall,
in so far as it requires such consultation or advice, be of
no effect.

80. (1) In the exercise of his functions the Governor- :=:IS",:'
General shall act in accordance with the advice of the Cabinet General's
or a Minister acting under the general authority of the
Cabinet, except in cases where other provision is made by
this Constitution or any other law, and, without prejudice
to the generality of this exception, in cases where by this
Constitution or any other law he is required to act-

(a) in his discretion;

( b ) after consultation with any persons or authority
other than Cabinet; or

(c) in accordance with the advice of the Prime
Minister or any person or authority other than the
Cabinet.

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(2) Nothing in subsection (1) of this section shall apply
to the functions conferred upon the Governor-General by
the following provisions of this Constitution, that is to say,
sections 63(6), 67(6), 73(1), 87(8) and 99(5) (which require
the Governor-General to remove the holders of certain of-
fices from office in certain circumstances).

(3) Where in the exercise of his functions the Governor-
General is required to act in accordance with the advice of
the Cabinet or a Minister acting under the general authori-
ty of the Cabinet, and it has become impracticable for the
Governor-General to obtain such advice, he may exercise
those functions in his discretion.

(4) Where in the exercise of his functions the Governor-
General is required to act in accordance with the advice of,
or after consultation with, the Leader of the Opposition and
there is a vacancy in the office of the Leader of the Opposi-
tion or if the Governor-General considers that it is imprac-
ticable to obtain the advice of the Leader of the Opposition,
the Governor-General may exercise those functions in his
discretion.

(5) Where in the exercise of his functions the Governor-
General is required to act after consultation with any per-
son or authority he shall not be obliged to exercise that func-
tion in accordance with the advice of that person or authority.

(6) Any reference in this Constitution to the functions
of Governor-General shall be construed as a reference to his
powers and duties in the exercise of the executive authority
of Antigua and Barbuda and to any other powers and duties
conferred or imposed on him as Governor-General by or
under this Constitution or any other law.

Governor-General
to bc informed

81. The Prime Minister shall keep the Governor-
concerning General regularly and fully informed concerning the general
Government conduct of the Government and shall furnish the Governor-
matters.

General as soon as possible with such information as the
Governor-General, acting in his discretion, may request from
time to time with respect to any paticular matter relating
to the Government.

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82. (1) There shall be an Attorney-General of An- *ttorney-General.
tigua and Barbuda who shall be the principal legal adviser
to the Government and who shall be appointed by the
Governor-General.

(2) No person shall be qualified to hold or to act in
the office of Attorney-General unless he is a citizen entitled
to practise as a barrister in Antigua and Barbuda.

(3) If the Attorney-General is an elected member of the
House at the time of his appointment or subsequently
becomes such a member, he shall be a Minister by virtue
of holding the office of Attorney-General and the provisions
of subsections (3) to (6) of section 69 of this Constitution
shall apply to the office of Attorney-General.

(4) Where the person holding the office of Attorney-
General is a member of the House by virtue of holding that
office he may be appointed by the Governor-General to be
a Minister.

(5) If an Attorney-General appointed to be a Minister
under the preceding subsection vacates his office as Attorney-
General he shall also vacate his office as a Minister.

(6) If the Attorney-General is not a Minister he shall
vacate his office if he ceases to be a citizen or if his appoint-
ment is revoked by the Governor-General.

(7) If the office of the Attorney-General is vacant or
the holder of the office is for any reason unable to perform
the functions thereof the Governor-General may appoint a
suitably qualified person to act in the office, but the provi-
sions of subsections (3) and (4) of this section shall not app-
ly to a person so appointed.

(8) An appointment under the preceding subsection shall
cease to have effect when it is revoked by the Governor-
General.

83. The powers of the Governor-General under the ~ ~ : ~ P , " ~ e r s of
preceding section shall be exercised by him in accordance G ~ , ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ .
with the advice of the Prime Minister. General.

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Power of pardon. 84. (1) The Governor-General may, in Her Majes-
ty's name and on Her Majesty's behalf-

(a) grant to any person convicted of any offence
against any law a pardon, either free or subject to lawful
conditions;

(b) grant to any person a respite, either indefinite
or for a specified period, from the execution of any
punishment imposed on that person for such an offence;

(c) substitute a less severe form of punishment for
that imposed by any sentence for such an offence; or

(6) remit the whole or any part of any sentence
passed for such an offence or any penalty or forfeiture
otherwise due to Her Majesty on account of such an
offence.

(2) The powers of the Governor-General under subsec-
tion (1) of this section shall be exercised by him in accor-
dance with the advice of a Minister designated by him ac-
ting in accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister.

Advisory
Committee on

85. There shall be an Advisory Committee on the
prerogative of Prerogative of Mercy which shall consist of-
Mercy.

(a) th'e Minister referred to in subsection 84(2) of
this Constitution who shall be Chairman;

(b) the Attorney-General (if he is not the
Chairman);

(c) the Chief Medical Officer of the Government;

(6) not more than four other members appointed
by the Governor-General, after consultation with the
Prime Minister and the Leader of the Opposition.

Functions of
Advisory

86. (1) Where an offender has been sentenced to
committee. death by any court for an offence against any law, the

Minister shall cause a written report of the case from the
trial judge (or the Chief Justice, if a report from the trial
judge cannot be obtained) together with such other infor-
mation derived from the record of the case or elsewhere as
the Minister may require, to be taken into consideration at
a meeting of the Advisory Committee.

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(2) The Minister may consult with the Advisory Com-
mittee before tendering any advice to the Governor-General

I under section 84(2) of this Constitution in any case not fall-
ing within subsection (1) of this section.

(3) The Minister shall not be obliged in any case to
act in accordance with the advice of the Advisory Committee.

(4) The Advisory Committee may regulate its own
procedure.

(5) In this section "the Minister" means the Minister
referred to in section 84(2) of this Constitution.

Director of Public Prosecutions

87. (1) There shall be a Director of Public Prosecu- ~ ~ ~ ~ ; m o e f n t and
tions whose office shall be a public office. Director of

Public
Prosecutions.

(2) The Director of Public Prosecutions shall be ap-
pointed by the Governor-General, acting in accordance with
the advice of the Judicial and Legal Services Commission.

(3) If the office of Director of Public Prosecutions is
vacant or if the holder of the office is for any reason unable
to exercise the functions of his office, the Governor-General,
acting in accordance with the advice of the Judicial and Legal
Services Commission, may appoint a person to act as
Director.

(4) A person shall not be qualified to be appointed to
hold or act in the office of Director of Public Prosecutions
unless-

(a) he is qualified to practise as a barrister in a
court having unlimited jurisdiction in civil and criminal
matters in some part of the Commonwealth; and

( b ) he has practised for not less than seven years
as a barrister in such court.

(5) A person appointed to act in the office of Director
of Public Prosecutions shall, subject to the provisions of

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subsections (6), (S), (9) and (10) of this section, cease so to
act-

(a) when a person is appointed to hold that office
and has assumed the functions thereof or, as the case
may be, when the person in whose place he is acting
resumes the functions of that office; or

(b) at such earlier time as may be provided in the
terms of his appointment.

(6) Subject to the provisions of subsection ( 8 ) of this
section, the Director of Public Prosecutions shall vacate his
office when he attains the prescribed age.

(7) A person holding the office of Director of Public
Prosecutions may be removed from office only for inability
to exercise the functions of his office (whether arising from
infirmity of body or mind or any other cause) or for
misbehaviour and shall not be so removed except in accor-
dance with the provisions of this section.

( 8 ) The Director of Public Prosecutions shall be remov-
ed from office by the Governor-General if the question of
his removal from office has been referred to a tribunal a p
pointed under subsection ( 9 ) of this section and the tribunal
has recommended to the Governor-General that he ought
to be removed for inability as aforesaid or for misbehaviour.

( 9 ) If the chairman of the Judicial and Legal Services
Commission represents to the Governor-General that the
question of removing the Director of Public Prosecutions
under this section ought to be investigated, then-

(a) the Governor-General shall appoint a tribunal
which shall consist of a chairman and not less than two
other members, selected from among persons who hold '

or have held office as a judge of a court having unlimited
jurisdiction in civil and criminal matters in some part
of the Commonwealth or a court having jurisdiction in
appeals from such a court; and

(b) the tribunal shall enquire into the matter and
report on the facts thereof to the Governor-General and
recommend to him whether the Director of Public Pro-
secutions ought to be removed under this section.

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(10) If the question of removing the Director of Public
Prosecutions has been referred to a tribunal under this sec-
tion, the Governor-General, acting in accordance with the
advice of the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, may
suspend the Director from the exercise of the functions of
his office and any such suspension may at any time be revoked
by the Governor-General acting in accordance with such
advice as aforesaid, and shall in any case cease to have effect
if the tribunal recommends to the Governor-General that
the Director should not be removed.

(1 1) The prescribed age for the purposes of subsection
(6) of this section is the age of fifty-five years or such other
age as may be prescribed by Parliament.

88. (1) The Director of Public Prosecutions shall, E;;odf
subject to section 89 of this Constitution, fiave power in any Director of
case in which he considers it proper to do so-

Public rose utions.

(a) to institute and undertake criminal proceedings
against any person before any court (other than a court
martial) in respect of any offence against any law;

(b) to take over and continue any such criminal
proceedings that may have been instituted by any other
person or authority;

( c ) to discontinue at any stage before judgment
is delivered any such criminal proceedings instituted or
undertaken by himself or any other person or authority.

(2) Subject to section 89 of this Constitution, the powers
conferred on the Director of Public Prosecutions by paragraph
( b ) and (c) of subsection (1) of this section shall be vested
in him to the exclusion of any other person or authority:

Provided that, where any other person or authority has
instituted criminal proceedings, nothing in this subsection
shall prevent the withdrawal of those proceedings by or at
the instance of that person or authority and with the leave
of the court.

(3) For the purposes of this section a reference to
criminal proceedings includes an appeal from the determina-
tion of any court in criminal proceedings or a case stated
or a question of law reserved in respect of those proceedings.

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Directions to
Director of
Public
Prosecutions.

Consolidated
Fund.

Withdrawals
from
Consolidated
Fund or other
public funds.

CAP. 23) The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution
Order 1981

(4) The functions of the Director of Public Prosecutions
under subsection (1) of this section may be exercised by him
in person or through other persons acting under and in ac-
cordance with his general or special instructions.

(5) Subject to section 89 of this Constitution, in the
exercise of the functions vested in him by subsection (1) of
this section and by section 45 of this Constitution, the Direc-
tor of Public Prosecutions shall not be subject to the direc-
tion or control of any other person or authority.

89. (1) The Attorney-General may, in the case of any
offence to which this section applies, give general or special
directions to the Director of Public Prosecutions as to the
exercise of the powers conferred upon the Director of Public
Prosecutions by section 88 of this Constitution and the Direc-
tor of Public Prosecutions shall act in accordance with those
directions.

(2) This section applies to-

(a) offences against any law relating to-

(i) official secrets;
(ii) mutiny or incitement to mutiny; and

(b) any offence under any law relating to any right
or obligation of Antigua and Barbuda under interna-
tional law.

Finance

90. All revenues or other monies raised or received
by Antigua and Barbuda (not being revenues or other monies
that are payable, by or under any law for the time being
in force in Antigua and Barbuda, into some other fund
established for a specific purpose) shall be paid into and form
a Consolidated Fund.

91. (1) No monies shall be withdrawn from the Con-
solidated Fund except-

(a) to meet expenditure that is charged upon the
Fund by this Constitution or by any law enacted by
Parliament; or

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(b) where the issue of those monies has been
authorised by an appropriation law or by a law made
in pursuance of section 93 of this Constitution.

(2) Where any monies are charged by this Constitu-
tion or any law enacted by Parliament upon the Consolidated
Fund or any other public fund, they shall be paid out of
that fund by the Government to the person or authority to
whom payment is due.

(3) No monies shall be withdrawn from any public fund
other than the Consolidated Fund unless the issue of those
monies has been authorised by or under a law enacted by
Parliament.

(4) There shall be such provision as may be made by
Parliament prescribing the manner in which withdrawals may
be made from the Consolidated Fund or any other public
fund.

(5) The investment of monies forming part of the Con-
solidated Fund shall be made in such a manner as may be
prescribed by or under a law enacted by Parliament.

(6) Notwithstanding the provision of subsection (1) of
this section, provision may be made by or under a law enacted
by Parliament authorising withdrawals to be made from the
Consolidated Fund, in such circumstances and to such extent
as may be prescribed by or under a law enacted by Parlia-
ment, for the purpose of making repayable advances.

Minister for the time being responsible ~ ; ~ J ; ; ~ ~ f ; ~
ance shall cause to be prepared and laid before the ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ l i d ~ ~ ~ d
before, or not later than ninety days after, the com- Fund by

appropriation
of each financial year, estimates of the revenues I,,.

of Antigua and Barbuda for that financial
year.

When the estimates of expenditure (other than
charged upon the Consolidated Fund by this
or by any law enacted by Parliament) have been
the House, a bill to be known as an appropria-
be introduced in the House, providing for the

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86 CAP. 23) The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution
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issue from the Consolidated Fund of the sums necessary to
meet that expenditure and the appropriation of those sums,
under separate votes for the several services required, for
the purposes specified therein.

(3) If in respect of any financial year it is found-

(a) that the amount appropriated by the appropria-
tion law for any purpose is insufficient or that a need
has arisen for expenditure for a purpose to which no
amount has been appropriated by that law; or

(b ) that any monies have been expended for any
purpose in excess of the amount appropriated for that
purpose by the appropriation law or for a purpose to
which no amount has been appropriated by that law,

a supplementary estimate showing the sums required or spent
shall be laid before the House and, when the supplementary
estimate has been approved by the House, a supplementary
appropriation bill shall be introduced in the House providing
for the issue of such sums from the Consolidated Fund and
appropriating them to the purposes specified therein.

Authorisation of 93. There shall be such provision as may be made
expenditure in
advance of by Parliament under which, if the appropriate law in respect
appropriation. of any financial year has not come into operation by the

beginning of that financial year, the Minister for the time
being responsible for finance may authorise the withdrawal
of monies from the Consolidated Fund for the purpose of
meeting expenditure necessary to carry on the services of
the Government until the expiration of four months from
the beginning of that financial year or the coming into opera-
tion of the law, whichever is the earlier.

Contingencies
Fund.

94. (1) There shall be such provision as may be made
by Parliament for the establishment of a Contingencies Fund,
and for authorising the Minister for the time being respon-
sible for finance, if satisfied that there has arisen an urgent
and unforeseen need for expenditure for which no other p r o
visions exists, to make advances from that Fund to meet that
need.

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(2) Where any advance is made from the Contingences
Fund, a supplementary estimate shall as soon as possible
be laid before the House and when the supplementary
estimate has been approved by the House, a supplementary
appropriation bill shall be introduced as soon as possible in
the House for the purpose of replacing the amount so
advanced.

95. (1) There shall be paid to the holders of the offices ~ ~ ! ; f " ~ ~ s ~ f
to which this section applies such salaries and such allowances
as may be prescribed by or under any law enacted by
Parliament.

(2) The salaries and allowances prescribed in pursuance
of this section ir, respect of the holders of the offices to which
this section applies shall be a charge on the Consolidated
Fund.

(3) The salary prescribed in pursuance of this section
in respect of the holder of any office to which this section
applies and his other terms of service (other than allowances
that are not taken into account in computing, under any
law in that behalf, any pension payable in respect of his ser-
vice in that office) shall not be altered to his disadvantage
after his appointment.

(4) When a person's salary or other terms of service
depend upon his option, the salary or terms for which he
opts shall, for the purposes of subsection (3) of this section,
be deemed to be more advantageous to him than any other
for which he might have opted.

(5) This section applies to the offices of the Governor-
General, member of the Public Service Commission, member
of the Police Service Commission, member of the Public Ser-
vice Board of Appeal, the Director of Public Prosecutions,
the Director of Audit, the Ombudsman and the Supervisor
of Elections.

(6) Nothing in this section shall be construed as pre-
judicing the provisions of section 109 of this Constitution
(which protects pensions rights in respect of service as a public
officer).

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Public Debt. 96. (1) All debt charges for which Antigua and
Barbuda is liable shall be a charge on the Consolidated Fund.

(2) For the purposes of this section debt charges include
interest, sinking fund charges, the repayment or amortiza-
tion of debt and all expenditure in connection with the rais-
ing of loans on the security of the Consolidated Fund and
the service and redemption of the debt created thereby.

Audit of public
accounts, etc.

97. (1) There shall be a Director of Audit whose office
shall be a public office.

(2) The Director of Audit shall-

(a) satisfy himself that all monies that have been
appropriated by Parliament and disbursed have been
applied to the purposes to which they were so
appropriated and that the expenditure conforms to the
authority that governs it; and

(b ) at least once every year audit and report on
the public accounts of Antigua and Barbuda, the
accounts of all officers and authorities of the Govern-
ment, the accounts of all courts of law in Antigua and
Barbuda (including any accounts of the Supreme Court
maintained in Antigua and Barbuda), the accounts of '
every Commission established by this Constitution and
the accounts of the Clerk to the House and the Clerk
to the Senate.

(3) The Director of Audit shall have power to carry out
audits of the accounts, balance sheets and other financial
statements of all enterprises that are owned or controlled by
or on behalf of Antigua and Barbuda.

(4) The Director of Audit and any other officer
authorised by him shall have access to all books, records,
returns, reports and other documents which in his opinion
relate to any of the accounts referred to in subsections (2)
and (3) of this section.

(5) The Director of Audit shall submit every report
made by him in pursuance of this section to the Minister
for the time being responsible for finance who shall, after

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receiving such report, lay it before the House not later than
seven days after the House next meets.

(6) If the Minister fails to lay a report before the House
in accordance with the provisions of subsection (5) of this
section the Director of Audit shall transmit copies of that
repart to the Speaker who shall, as soon as practicable, pre-
sent them to the House.

(7) The Director of Audit shall exercise such other func-
tions in relation to the accounts of the Government, the ac-
counts of other authorities or bodies established by law for
public purposes or the accounts of enterprises that are own-
ed or controlled by or on behalf of Antigua and Barbuda
as may be prescribed by or under any law enacted by
Parliament.

(8) In the exercise of his functions under subsec-
tion (2), (3), (4), (5) and (6) of this section, the Director of
Audit shall not be subject to the direction or control of any
other person or authority.

98. The House shall, at the commencement of each ~ ~ ~ i ~ ; : ~ t ~
session, appoint a Public Accounts Committee from among
its members, one of whom shall be a member for Barbuda
in the House, whose duties shall be to consider the accounts
referred to in section 97(2) of this Constitution in conjunc-
tion with the report of the Director of Audit and in par-
ticular to report to the House-

(a) in the case of any excess or unauthorised
expenditure of public funds the reasons for such expen-
diture; and

(b) any measures it considers necessary in order
to ensure that public funds are properly spent,

and any other duties relating to public accounts as the House
may from time to time direct.

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CHAPTER VII

The Public Service

PART 1

The Public Service Commission

Establishment
and composition

99. (1) There shall be a Public Service Commission
of Commission. for Antigua and Barbuda (hereinafter in this section refer-

red to as the Commission) which shall consist of a chairman
and not less than two or more than six other members who
shall be appointed by the Governor-General, acting in
accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister:

Provided that the Prime Minister shall consult the
Leader of the Opposition before tendering any advice to the
Governor-General for the purposes of this subsection.

(2) A person shall not be qualified to be appointed as
a member of the Commission if-

(a) he is a public officer;

(b) he is a member of either House of Parliament;

(6) he is below the age of twenty-five years; or

(d) he is not resident in Antigua and Barbuda.

(3) (a) A member of the Commission shall be
appointed to hold office for a term of two years.

(b) Subject to the provisions of this section, the
office of a member of the Commission shall become
vacant at the expiration of the period for which he was
appointed or if any circumstances arise that, if he were
not a member of the Commission, would cause him to
be disqualified to be appointed as such under subsec-
tion (2) of this section.

(4) A member of the Commission may be removed from
office only for inability to exercise the functions of his office
(whether arising from infirmity of body or mind or any other
cause) or for misbehaviour and shall not be so removed ex-
cept in accordance with the provisions of this section.

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(5) A member of the Commission shall be removed from
office by the Governor-General if the question of his removal
from office has been referred to a tribunal appointed under
subsection (6) of this section and the tribunal has recom-
mended to the Governor-General that he ought to be removed
from office for inability as aforesaid or for misbehaviour.

(6) If the Prime Minister represents to the Governor-
General that the question of removing a member of the Com-
mission under this section ought to be investigated then-

(a) the Governor-General shall appoint a tribunal
which shall consist of a chairman and not less than two
other members, selected by the Chief Justice from among
persons who hold or have held office as a judge of a
court having unlimited jurisdiction in civil and criminal
matters in some part of the Commonwealth or a court
having jurisdiction in appeals from such a court; and

( b ) the tribunal shall enquire into the matter and
report on the facts thereof to the Governor-General and
recommend to him whether the member ought to be
removed under this section.

(7) If the question of removing a member of the Com-
mission has been referred to a tribunal under this section,
the Governor-General, acting in accordance with the advice
of the Prime Minister, may suspend that member from the
functions of his office and any such suspension may at any
time be revoked by the Governor-General, acting in accor-
dance with such advice as aforesaid, and shall in any case
cease to have effect if the tribunal recommends to the
Governor-General that the member should not be removed.

(8) If the office of chairman of the Commission is vacant
or if the person holding that office is for any reason unable
to exercise the functions of his office, then, until a person
has been appointed to and has assumed the functions of that
office or until the person holding that office has resumed
those functions, as the case may be, they shall be exercised
by such one of the other members of the Commission as
may for the time being be designated in that behalf by the
Governor-General, acting in accordance with the advice of
the Prime Minister.

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(9) If at any time any member of the Commission is
for any reason unable to exercise the functions of his office,
the Governor-General, acting in accordance with the advice
of the Prime Minister, may appoint a person who is qualified
to be appointed as a member of the Commission to act as
a member, and any person so appointed shall, subject to
the provisions of subsections (6) and (7) of this section, con-
tinue to act until the office in which he is acting has been
filled or, as the case may be, until the holder thereof has
resumed his functions or until his appointment to act has
been revoked by the Governor-General, acting in accordance
with the advice of the Prime Minister:

Provided that the Prime Minister shall consult the
Leader of the Opposition before tendering any advice to the
Governor-General for the purposes of this subsection and
of subsection (8) of this section.

(10) A member of the Commission shall not enter upon
the duties of his office until he has taken and subscribed the
oath of allegiance and the oath of office.

(1 1) The Commission shall, in the exercise of its func-
tions under this Constitution, not be subject to the direction
or control of any other person or authority.

(12) The Commission may, by regulation or other-
wise, regulate its own procedure.

(13) The Commission may, with the consent of the
Prime Minister, confer powers or impose duties on any public
officer or on any authority of the Government for the pur-
pose of the exercise of its functions.

(14) The Commission may, subject to its rules of pro-
cedure, act notwithstanding any vacancy in its membership
or the absence of any member and its proceedings shall not
be invalidated by the presence or participation of any per-
son not entitled to be present at or to participate in those
proceedings:

Provided that any decision of the Commission shall
require the concurrence of a majority of all its members.

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( 1 5 ) The Commission shall make an annual report on
its activities to the Governor-General, who shall cause copies
of the report to be laid before both Houses of Parliament.

100. ( 1 ) Subject to the provisions of this Constitu- Appointment,
etc. of public

tion, the power to appoint persons to hold or act in offices off;,,,,.
in the public service (including the power to make appoint-
ments on promotion and transfer and to confirm appoint-
ments), the power to exercise disciplinary control over persons
holding or acting in such offices and the power to remove
such persons from office shall vest in the Public Service
Commission.

(2) The Public Service Commission may with the
approval of the Prime Minister by directions in writing and
subject to such conditions as it thinks fit, delegate any of
its powers under subsection ( 1 ) of this section to any one
or more members of the Commission or to any public officer.

( 3 ) The provisions of this section shall not apply in rela-
tion to the following offices, that is to say-

(a) any office to which section 101 of this Constitu-
tion applies;

(6) the office of the Director of Public Prosecutions;

(c) the office of the Director of Audit;

(d) the office of the Attorney-General;
(e) the office of the Supervisor of Elections;

V) any office to which section 103 of this Constitu-
tion applies;

(g) any office in the Police Force.

(4) No person shall be appointed under this section to,
or to act in, any office of the Governor-General's personal
staff except with the concurrence of the Governor-General
acting in his discretion.

( 5 ) The Public Service Commission shall not remove
or inflict any punishment on a public officer on the grounds
of any act done or omitted to be done by that oficer in the

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exercise of a judicial function conferred upon him unless the
Judicial and Legal Services Commission concurs therein.

(6 ) In the performance of its functions the Public Ser-
vice Commission shall act in a manner consistent with the
general policy of the Government as conveyed to the Com-
mission by the Prime Minister in writing.

Appointment,
etc. of permanent

0 . (1) This section applies to the offices of
secretaries and Secretary to the Cabinet, Permanent Secretary, head of a
certain other department of government, deputy head of a department
officers. of government, any office for the time being designated by

the Public Service Commission as an office of a chief profes-
sional adviser to a department of government and any office
for the time being designated by the Commission, after con-
sultation with the Prime Minister, as an office the holders
of which are required to reside outside Antigua and Bar-
buda for the proper discharge of their functions or as an
office in Antigua and Barbuda whose functions relate to ex-
ternal affairs. ,".

(2) The power to appoint persons to hold or to act in
offices to which this section applies (including the power to
confirm appointments), and, subject to the provisions of sec-
tion 107 of this Constitution, the power to exercise
disciplinary control over persons holding or acting in such
offices and the power to remove such persons from office
shall vest in the Governor-General, acting in accordance with
the advice of the Public Service Commission:

Provided that-

(a) the power to appoint a person to hold or act
in an office of permanent secretary on transfer from
another such office carrying the same salary shall vest
in the Governor-General, acting in accordance with the
advice of the Prime Minister;

(6) before the Public Service Commission tenders
advice to the Governor-General with respect to the
appointment of any person to hold an office to which
this section applies (other than appointment to an of-
fice of permanent secretary on transfer from another
such office carrying the same salary) it shall consult with

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the Prime Minister and if the Prime Minister signifies
his objection to the appointment of any person to the
office, the Commission shall not advise the Governor-
General to appoint that person;

(6) in relation to any office of Ambassador, High
Commissioner or other principal representative of
Antigua and Barbuda in any other country or accredited
to any international organization the Governor-General
shall act in accordance with the advice of the Prime
Minister, who shall, before tendering any such advice
in respect of any person who holds any public office
to which appointments are made by the Governor-
General on the advice of or after consultation with some
other person or authority, consult that person or
authority.

(3) References in this section to a department of govern-
ment shall not include the office of the Governor-General,
the department of the Attorney-General, the department of
the Director of Public Prosecutions, the department of the
Director of Audit, the department of the Supervisor of Elec-
tions, the department of the Clerk of the Senate or of the
House or the Police Force.

102. (1) The Director of Audit shall be appointed It$iFirector of
by the Governor-General acting in accordance with the advice
of the Public Service Commission, tendered after the Com-
mission has consulted the Prime Minister and has obtained
the agreement of the Prime Minister to the appointment of
that person.

(2) If the office of Director of Audit is vacant or if the
holder of the office is for any reason unable to exercise the
functions of his office, the Governor-General, acting in
accordance with the advice of the Public Service Commis-
sion tendered after the Commission has consulted the Prime
Minister and has obtained the agreement of the Prime
Minister to the appointment, may appoint a person to act
as Director of Audit.

(3) The provisions of subsections (5) to (11) inclusive
of section 87 of this Constitution (which relates to the

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Appointment,
etc. of
magistrates,
registrars and
legal officers.

Establishment
and composition
of Commission.

CAP. 23) The Antigua and Barbuda Constitution
Order 1981

appointment and removal of the Director of Public Prosecu-
tions) shall apply in relation to the Director of Audit as they
apply in relation to the Director of Public Prosecutions so,
however, that in subsection (9) and (10) references to the
Judicial and Legal Services Commission shall be read as
references to the Public Service Commission.

103. (1) This section applies to the offices of
magistrates and registrars of the High Court and assistant
registrars of the High Court and to any public office in the
department of the Attorney-General (other than the public
office of Attorney-General) and the department of the Direc-
tor of Public Prosecutions (other than the office of Director)
for appointment to which-persis are required to be qualified
to practise as a barrister or solicitor in Antigua and Barbuda
and such other offices connected with the Court as Parlia-
ment may prescribe.

(2) The power to appoint persons to hold or act in offices
to which this section applies (including the power to con-
firm appointments) and, subject to the provisions of this Con-
stitution, the power to exercise disciplinary control over
persons holding or acting in such offices and the power to
remove such persons from office shall vest in the Governor-
General acting in accordance with the advice of the Judicial
and Legal Services Commission.

The Police Service Commission

104. (1) There shall be a Police Service Commission
for Antigua and Barbuda which shall consist of a Chairman
and not less than two nor more than six other members who
shall be appointed by the Governor-General acting in
accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister:

Provided that the Prime Minister shall consult the
Leader of the Opposition before tendering any advice to the
Governor-General for the purposes of this subsection.

(2) The provisions of subsections (2) to (15) inclusive
of section 99 of this Constitution shall apply in relation to
the Police Service Commission as they apply in relation to
the Public Service Commission.

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105. (1) Subject to the provision of this section, the ~$P$;;Z:
power to appoint persons to hold or act in offices in the Police off;,,,,.
Force (including appointments on promotion and transfer
and the confirmation of appointments) and to remove and
exercise disciplinary control over persons holding or acting
in such offices shall vest in the Police Service Commission:

Provided that the Commission may, with the approval
of the Prime Minister and subject to such conditions as it
may think fit, delegate any of its powers under this section
to any one or more of its members or to the Commissioner
of Police.

(2) Before the Police Service Commission, or any per-
son or authority to whom powers have been delegated under
this section, appoints to an office in the Police Force any
person who is holding or acting in an office power to make
appointments to which is vested by this Constitution in the
Public Service Commission, the Police Service Commission
or that person or authority shall consult with the Public Ser-
vice Commission.

(3) Before the Police Service Commission makes an
appointment to the office of Commissioner or Deputy
Commissioner or a like post however designated it shall con-
sult the Prime Minister, and a person shall not be appointed
to such an office if the Prime Minister signifies to the Police
Service Commission his objection to the appointment of that
person to the office in question.

(4) Before the Police Service Commission makes an
appointment to the office of Superintendent or a like post
however designated it shall consult the Prime Minister.

(5) The power to appoint persons to hold or act in offices
in the Police Force below the rank of Sergeant (including
the power to confirm appointments) and, subject to the pro-
visions of section 107 of this Constitution, the power to
exercise disciplinary control over persons holding or acting
in such offices and the power to remove such person from
office shall vest in the Commissioner of Police.

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(6) The Commissioner of Police may, by directions
given in such manner as he thinks fit and subject to such
conditions as he thinks fit, delegate any of his powers under
subsection (5) of this section, other than the power to remove
from office or reduce in rank, to any other member of the
Police Force.

(7) A police officer shall not be removed from office
or subjected to any other punishment under this section on
the grounds of any act done or omitted by him in the exer-
cise of any judicial function conferred on him unless the
Judicial and Legal Services Commission concurs therein.

(8) In this section references to the rank of Sergeant
shall, if the ranks within the Police Force are altered (whether
in consequence of the re-organisation or replacement of an
existing part of the Force or the creation of an additional
part), be construed as references to such rank or ranks as
may be specified by the Police Service Commission by Order
published in the Official Gazette, being a rank or ranks that
in the opinion of the Commissioner most nearly correspond
to the rank of Sergeant as it existed before the alteration.

The Public Service Board of Appeal
Constitution of
Board, etc.

106. (1) There shall be a Public Service Board of
Appeal for Antigua and Barbuda (in this Part referred to
as the Board) which shall consist of-

(a ) a chairman appointed by the Governor-General
acting in his discretion;

( b ) two members appointed by the Governor-
General acting in accordance with the advice of the
Prime Minister who shall, before tendering that advice
to the Governor-General, consult with the Leader of
the Opposition;

(c ) one member appointed by the Governor-
General after consultation with the appropriate bodies
representing the public service; and

(d) one member appointed by the Governor-
General after consultation with the appropriate body
representing members of the Police Force.

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(2) The provisions of subsections (2) to (8) inclusive of
section 99 of this Constitution shall apply in relation to the
Board as they apply in relation to the Public Service Com-
mission except that, in so applying subsection (8) of that sec-
tion, the provision whereby the Governor-General acts in
accordance with the advice of the Prime Minister shall be
read as a provision whereby the Governor-General acts in
his discretion.

(3) If at any time any member of the Board is for any
reason unable to exercise the functions of his office, the
Governor-General, acting in accordance with the advice of
the person upon whose advice that member was appointed
or, as the case may be, after consultation with the body that
he had consulted before appointing that member, may
appoint a person who is qualified to be appointed as a
member of the Board to act as a member, and any person
so appointed shall continue to act until the office in which
he is acting has been filled or, as the case may be, until the
holder thereof has resumed his functions or until his appoint-
ment to act has been revoked by the Governor-General acting
in accordance with such advice or, as the case may be, after
such consultation as above in this subsection:

Provided that the Prime Minister shall consult the
Leader of the Opposition before tendering any advice to the
Governor-General under this subsection in respect of the
appointment of any person to act for any member of the
commission appointed under paragraph ( b ) of subsection (1)
of this section.

(4) The Board shall, in the exercise of its functions under
this Constitution, not be subject to the direction or control
of any other person or authority.

(5) In this section-

"the appropriate bodies representing the public service"
means the Antigua and Barbuda Civil Service
Association or such other body representing the
interests of public officers as the Governor-General
may designate;

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Appeals in
disciplinary
cases.

"the appropriate body representing members of the
Police Force" means the Police Welfare Associa-
tion or such other body representing the interests
of members of the Police Force as the Governor-
General may designate.

107. (1) This section applies to-
(a) any decision of the Governor-General acting

in accordance with the advice of the Public Service Com-
mission, or any decision of the Public Service Commis-
sion, to remove a public officer from office or to exercise
disciplinary control over a public officer (including a
decision niade on appeal from or confirming a decision
of any person to whom powers are delegated under sec-
tion 100(2) of this Constitution);

( 6 ) any decision of any person to whom powers are
delegated under section 100(2) of this Constitution to
remove a public officer from office or to exercise
disciplinary control over a public officer (not being a
decision which is subject to appeal to or confirmation
by the Public Service Commission);

(c) any decision of the Public Service Commission
to give such concurrence as is required by section 1 lO(1)
or (2) of this Constitution in relation to the refusal,
withholding, reduction in amount or suspending of
any pensions benefits in respect of an officer's service
as a public officer;

(6) any decision of the Police Service Commission
to remove a member of the Police Force from office or
to exercise disciplinary control over such a member
under section 105(1) of this Constitution;

( e ) if it is so provided by Parliament, any decision
of the Commissioner of Police under subsection (5) of
section 105 of this Constitution, or of a person to whom
powers are delegated under subsection (6) of that sec-
tion, to remove a police officer from office or to exer-
cise disciplinary control over a police officer;

(f) such decisions with respect to the discipline of
any military, naval or air force of Antigua and Barbuda
as may be prescribed by Parliament.

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( 2 ) Subject to the provisions of this section an appeal
shall lie to the Board from any decision to which this section
applies at the instance of the public officer, police officer or
member of the naval, military or air force in respect of whom
the decision is made:

Provided that in the case of any such decision as is refer-
red to in subsection ( l ) ( e ) of this section, an appeal shall lie
in the first instance to the Police Service Commission if it
is so provided by Parliament, in which case the Commis-
sion shall have the like powers as are conferred on the Board
by subsection ( 1 ) of section 108 of this Constitution.

108. ( 1 ) Upon an appeal under section 107 of this ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ d f
Constitution or any law enacted in pursuance of that sec- Board.
tion, the Board may affirm or set aside the decision appeal-
ed against or make any other decision which the authority
or person from which the appeal lies could have made.

( 2 ) Every decision of the Board shall require the con-
currence of a majority of all the members of the Board entitled
to participate in the proceedings of the Board for the pur-
pose of making that decision.

(3) Subject to the provisions of subsection ( 2 ) of this
section, the Board may by regulation make provision for-

(a) the procedure of the Board;

(b) the procedure in appeals under this Part;

( 6 ) excepting from the provisions of section 107(1)
of this Constitution decisions in respect of public officers
holding offices whose emoluments do not exceed such
sums as may be prescribed by the regulations or such
decisions to exercise disciplinary control, other than deci-
sions to remove from office, as may be so prescribed.

(4) Regulations made under this section may, with the
consent of the Prime Minister, confer powers or impose duties
on any public officer or any authority of the Government
for the purpose of the exercise of the functions of the Board.

(5) The Board may, subject to the provisions of this
section and to its rules of procedure, act notwithstanding

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any vacancy in its membership or the absence of any
member.

Pensions

Pensions laws 109. (1) The law to be applied with respect to any
and protection of
pensions rights. pensions benefits that were granted to any person before 1st

November 1981 shall be the law that was in force at the date
on which those benefits were granted or any law in force
at a later date that is not less favourable to that person.

(2) The law to be applied with respect to any pensions
benefits (not being benefits to which subsection (1) of this
section applies) shall-

(a) in so far as those benefits are wholly in respect
of a period of service as a judge or officer of the Supreme
Court or a public officer that commenced before 1st
November 1981, be the law that was in force on that
date; and

(b) in so far as those benefits are wholly or partly
in respect of a period of service as a judge or officer
of the Supreme Court or a public office that commenced
after 3 1st October 1981, be the law in force on the date
on which that period of service commenced,

or any law in force at a later date that is not less favourable
to that person.

(3) Where a person is entitled to exercise an option as
to which of two or more laws shall apply in his case, the
law for which he opts shall for the purposes of this section,
be deemed to be more favourable to him than the other law
or laws.

(4) All f ens ions benefits shall (except to the extent that
they are by law charged upon and duly paid out of some
other fund) be a charge on the Consolidated Fund.

(5) In this section "pensions benefits" means any pen-
sions, compensations, gratuities or other like allowances for
persons in respect of their service as judges or officers of
the Supreme Court or public officers or for the widows,

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children, dependants or personal representatives of such per-
sons in respect of such service.

(6) References in this section to the law with respect
to pensions benefits include (without prejudice to their
generality) references to the law regulating the circumstances
in which such benefits may be granted or in which the grant
of such benefits may be refused, the law regulating the cir-
cumstances in which such benefits that have been granted
may be withheld, reduced in amount or suspended and the
law regulating the amount of any such benefits.

(7) In this section references to service as a judge are
references to service as a judge of the Supreme Court and
references to service as a public officer include service in
an office established under section 12 of the Supreme Court
Order.

0 . (1) Where under any law any person or to
withhold

authority has a discretion- pensions, etc.

(a) to decide whether or not any pensions benefits
shall be granted; or

(6) to withhold, reduce in amount or suspend any
such benefits that have been granted,

those benefits shall be granted and may not be withheld,
reduced in amount or suspended unless the Public Service
Commission concurs in .the refusal to grant the benefits or,
as the case may be, in the decision to withhold them, reduce
them in amount or suspend them.

(2) Where the amount of any pensions benefits that may
be granted to any person is not fixed by law, the amount
of the benefits to be granted to him shall be the greatest
amount for which he is eligible unless the Public Service Com-
mission concurs in his being granted benefits of a smaller
amount.

(3) The Public Service Commission shall not concur
under subsection (1) or subsection (2) of this section in any
action taken on the ground that any person who holds or
has held the office of a judge of the Supreme Court, Direc-
tor of Public Prosecutions or Director of Audit or Super-

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visor of Elections has been guilty of misbehaviour in that
office unless he has been removed from that office by reason
of such misbehaviour.

(4) Before the Public Service Commission concurs under
subsection (1) or subsection (2) of this section in any action
taken on the ground that any person (who holds or has held
any office to which, at the time of such action, section 103
of this Constitution applies) has been guilty of misbehaviour
in that office, the Public Service Commission shall consult
the Judicial and Legal Services Commission.

(5) In this section "pensions benefits" means any pen-
sions, compensations, gratuities or other like allowances for
persons in respect of their service as judges or officers of
the Supreme Court or public officers or for the widows,
children, dependants or personal representatives of such per-
sons in respect of such service.

(6) In this section references to service as a public officer
include service in an office established under section 12 of
the Supreme Court Order.

CHAPTER VIII

Belonger status. 1 . O n and after I st November 1981 a person shall,
for the purposes of any law, be regarded as belonging to
Antigua and Barbuda if, and only if, he is a citizen.

Persons who
automatically

2 . The following persons shall become citizens on
become citizens 1 st November 198 1 -
at commencment
of this (a) every person who, having been born in
Constitution.

Antigua, was on 31st October 1981, a citizen of the
United Kingdom and Colonies;

( 6 ) every person born outside Antigua if either of
his parents or any one of his grandparents was born
therein or was registered or naturalized while resident
in Antigua;

(c) every person who on 31st October 1981 was
a citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies-

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(i) having become such a citizen under the British
Nationality Act 1948 by virtue of his having
been naturalized while resident in Antigua as
a British subject before the Act came into force;
or

(ii) having while resident in Antigua become such
a citizen by virtue of his having been
naturalized or registered under that Act;

(a') every person who, having been born outside
Antigua was on 31 st October 198 1 a citizen of the United
Kingdom and Colonies and if his father or mother
becomes, or would but for his or her death or the renun-
ciation of his or her citizenship of the United Kingdom
and Colonies have become, a citizen by virtue of
paragraph (a), (b), or (c) of this section;

( e ) every woman who, having been married to a
person who becomes, or but for his death or the renun-
ciation of his citizenship of the United Kingdom and
Colonies, would have become a citizen by virtue of
paragraph (a), (b ) , ( c ) or (d) of this section, was a citizen
of the United Kingdom and Colonies on 31st October
1981;

Cf) every person who on 31st October 1981 was '
under the age of eighteen years and is the child, step-
child, or child adopted in a manner recognized by law, 1
of such a person as is mentioned in any of the preceding I
paragraphs of this section.

113. The following persons shall become citizens at f;;z;t;gy
the date of their birth on or after 1st November 1981- become citizens

after
(a) every person born in Antigua and Barbuda: commencment of

this Constitution.
Provided that a person shall not become a citizen by

virtue of this paragraph if at the time of his birth- 1

(i) neither of his parents is a citizen and either
of them possesses such immunity from suit
and legal process as is accorded to the envoy
of a foreign sovereign power accredited to
Antigua and Barbuda; or

(ii) either of his parents is a citizen of a country
with which Her Majesty is at war and the birth

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occurs in a place then under occupation by
that country;

(b) every person born outside Antigua and Barbuda
if at the date of his birth either of his parents is or would
have been but for that parent's death, a citizen by vir-
tue of section 112 of this Consititution or paragraph (a)
of this section;

(c) every person born outside Antigua and Barbuda
if at the date of his birth either of his parents is, or would
have been but for that parent's death, a citizen
employed in service under the Government or under
an authority of the Government that requires him or
her to reside outside Antigua and Barbuda for the pro-
per discharge of his or her functions.

Persons entitled
to citizenship by

114. (1) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (e)of
registration after section 1 12 and of section 1 17 of this Constitution, the follow-
commencefneyt of ing persons shall be entitled, upon making application, to
thls Constltutlon.

be registered on or after 1st November 1981-

(a) any person who, on 31st October 1981-

(i) was married to a person who becomes a citizen
by virtue of section 112 of this Constitution; or

(ii) was married to a person who, having died
before 1st November 1981, would have but
for his or her death, become a citizen by vir-
tue of that section:

Provided that such person is not, or was not at the time
of the death of the spouse, living apart from the spouse under
a decree of a competent court or a deed of separation;

(6) any person who-

(i) was married to a person who is or becomes
a citizen; or

(ii) was married to a person who was or, but for
his or her death, would have become a citizen:

Provided that no application shall be allowed from such
person before the marriage has subsisted for upwards of three
years and that such person is not, or was not at the time
of the death of the spouse, living apart from the spouse under
a decree of a competent court or a deed of separation;

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(G) (i) every person being a Commonwealth citizen
who on 31st October 1981 was domiciled in
Antigua and had been ordinarily resident
therein for a period of not less than seven years
preceding that day;

(ii) any person who being a Commonwealth
citizen is domiciled in Antigua and Barbuda
and has for a period of not less than seven years
immediately preceding his application been
lawfully ordinarily resident in Antigua and
Barbuda (whether or not that period comment-
ed before 1st November 1981);

(6) any person who, but for having renounced his
citizenship of the United Kingdom and Colonies in order
to qualify for the acquisition or retention of the citizen-
ship of another country, would have become a citizen
on 1st November 1981 ;

(e) any person who, having been a citizen, had to
renounce his citizenship in order to qualify for the ac-
quisition or retention of the citizenship of another
country;

(f) any person under the age of eighteen years who
is the child, stepchild or child adopted in a manner
recognised by law of a citizen or is the child, stepchild
or child so adopted of a person who is or would but
for his death have been entitled to be registered as a
citizen under this subsection.

(2) An application under this section shall be made in
such manner as may be prescribed as respects that applica-
tion by or under a law enacted by Parliament and, in the
case of a person to whom subsection (1) (f) of this section
applies, it shall be made on his behalf by his parent or
guardian:

Provided that if the person to whom subsection (1) (f)
of this section applies is or has been married, the applica-
tion may be made by that person.

115. (1) A person, who on 1st November 1981, is Dual citizenship.
a citizen or entitled to be registered as such and is also a
citizen of some other country or entitled to be registered as

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such shall not solely on the ground that he is or becomes
a citizen of that country, be-

(a) deprived of his citizenship;

( 6 ) refused registration as a citizen; or

(c) required to renounce his citizenship of that other
country, by or under any law.

(2) A person referred to in subsection ( 1 ) of this sec-
tion shall not-

(a) be refused a passport of Antigua and Barbuda
or have such a passport withdrawn, cancelled, or
impounded solely on the ground that he is in posses-
sion of a passport issued by some other country of which
he is a citizen; or

( 6 ) be required to surrender or be prohibited from
acquiring a passport issued by some other country of
which he is a citizen before being issued with a passport
of Antigua and Barbuda or as a condition of retaining
such a passport.

Powers of
Parliament.

1 1 ( 1 ) Without prejudice to and subject to the pro-
visions of sections 111 , 112 , 113 , 114 and 115 of this Con-
stitution, Parliament may, pursuant to the provisions of this
section, make provision for the acquisition of citizenship by
registration.

(2) An application for registration under this section
may be refused by the Minister responsible for the matter
in any case in which he is satisfied that there areareasonable
grounds for refusing the application in the interests' of defence,
public safety, public morality or public order.

( 3 ) There shall be such provision as may be made by
Parliament-

(a ) for the acquisition of citizenship of Antigua and
Barbuda by persons who are not eligible or who are
no longer eligible to become citizens under the provi-
sions of this Chapter;

( b ) for the renunciation by any person of his
citizenship;

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(c) for the certification of citizenship for persons
who had acquired that citizenship and who desire such
certification; and

(6) for depriving of his citizenship any person who
is a citizen by virtue of registration if such registration
as a citizen was obtained by false representation or fraud
or wilful concealment of material facts or if he is con-
victed in Antigua and Barbuda of an act of treason or
sedition:
Provided that any law enacted for the purposes of

paragraph (d) of this section shall include provisions under
which the person concerned shall have a right of appeal to
a court of competent jurisdiction or other independent
authority and shall be permitted to have legal representa-
tion of his own choice.

117. Any person not already owing allegiance to the oath of
allegiance.

Crown who applies for registration under section 114 of this
Constitution shall before such registration, take the oath of
allegiance.

118. (1) Any reference in this Chapter to the national Interpretation.
status of the father of a person at the time of that person's
birth shall, in relation to a person born after the death of his
father, be construed as a reference to the national status of
the father at the time of the father's death; and where that
death occurred before 1st November 1981 the national status
that the father would have had if he had died on that day
shall be deemed to be his national status at the time of his
death:

Provided that in the case of a child born out of wedlock
references to the mother shall be substituted for such
references to the father.

(2) In this Chapter-

"child" includes a child born out of wedlock and not
legitimated;

"father", in relation to a child born out of wedlock and
not legitimated, includes a person who
acknowledges and can show that he is the father

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of the child or has been found by a court of com-
petent jurisdiction to be the father of the child;

< ( parent" includes the mother of a child born out of
wedlock.

(3) For the purposes of this Chapter, a person born
aboard a registered ship or aircraft of the government of any
country, shall be deemed to have been born in the place in
which the ship or aircraft was registered or, as the case may
be, in that country.

Judicial Provisions

Original
jurisdiction of

119. (1)Subject to the provisions of sec-
~ i ~ h court in tions 25(2), 47(8) (b), 56(4), 65(5), 123(7) (b) and 124 of this
constitutional Constitution, any person who alleges that any provisions of
questions.

this Constitution (other than a provision of Chapter 11) has
been or is being contravened may, if he has a relevant
interest, apply to the High Court for a declaration and for
relief under this section.

(2) The High Court shall have jurisdiction on an
application made under this section to determine whether
any provision of this Constitution (other than a provision
of Chapter 11) has been or is being contravened and to make
a declaration accordingly.

(3) Where the High Court makes a declaration under
this section that a provision of this Constitution has been
or is being contravened and the person on whose applica-
tion the declaration is made has also applied for relief, the
High Court may grant to that person such remedy as it con-
siders appropriate, being a remedy available generally under
any law in proceedings in the High Court.

(4) The Chief Justice may make provision, or authorise
the making of provision, with respect to the practice and
procedure of the High Court in relation to the jurisdiction
and powers conferred on the court by or under this section,
including provision with respect to the time within which
any application under this section may be made.

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(5) A person shall be regarded as having a relevant
interest for the purpose of an application under this section
only if the contravention of this Constitution alleged by him
is such as to affect his interests.

(6) The rights conferred on a person by this section to
apply for a declaration and relief in respect of an alleged
contravention of this Constitution shall be in addition to any
other action in respect of the same matter that may be
available to that person under any other law or any rule of
law.

(7) Nothing in this section shall confer jurisdiction on
the High Court to hear or determine any such question as
is referred to in section 44 of this Constitution.

120. (1) Where any question as to the interpretation Reference of
constitutional

of this Constitution arises in any court of law established to
for Antigua and Barbuda (other than the Court of Appeal, High Court.
the High Court or a court-martial) and the court is of the
opinion that the question involves a substantial question of
law, the court may, and shall if any party to the proceedings
so requests, refer the question to the High Court.

(2) Where any question is referred to the High Court
in pursuance of this section, the High Court shall give its
decision upon the question and the court in which the ques-
tion arose shall dispose of the case in accordance with that
decision or, if the decision is the subject of an appeal to the
Court of Appeal or Her Majesty in Council, in accordance
with the decision of the Court of Appeal or, as the case may
be, Her Majesty in Council.

121. Subject to the provisions of section 44 of this ;!'ff;;:9 Court
Constitution, an appeal shall lie from decisions of the High
Court to the Court of Appeal as of right in the following
cases-

(a) final decisions in any civil or criminal pro-
ceedings on questions as to the interpretation of this
Constitution;

(6) final decisions given in exercise of the jurisdic-
tion conferred on the High Court by section 18 of this

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Constitution (which relates to the enforcement of the
fundamental rights and freedoms); and

(c) such other cases as may be prescribed by
Parliament-.

Appeals to Her
Majesty in

122. (1) An appeal shall lie from decisions of the
Council. Court of Appeal to Her Majesty in Council as of right in

the following cases-

(a) final decisions in any civil proceedings where
the matter in dispute on the appeal to Her Majesty in
Council is of the prescribed value or upwards or where
the appeal involves directly or indirectly a claim to or
question respecting property or a right of the prescribed
value or upwards;

(6) final decisions in proceedings for dissolution or
nullity of marriage;

(c) final decisions in any civil or criminal pro-
ceedings which involve a question as to the interpreta-
tion of this Constitution; and

(d) such other cases as may be prescribed by
Parliament.

(2) Subject to the provision of section 44(8) of this Con-
stitution, an appeal shall lie from decisions of the Court of
Appeal to Her Majesty in Council with the leave of the Court
of Appeal in the following cases-

(a) decisions in any civil proceedings where in the
opinion of the Court of Appeal the question involved
in the appeal is one that, by reason of its great general
or public importance or otherwise, ought to be submit-
ted to Her Majesty in Council; and

(b) such other cases as may be prescribed by
Parliament.

(3) An appeal shall lie to Her Majesty in Council with
the special leave of Her Majesty from any decision of the
Court of Appeal in any civil or criminal matter.

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(4) Reference in this section to decisions of the Court
of Appeal shall be construed as references to decisions of
the Court of Appeal in exercise of the jurisdiction conferred
upon that court by this Constitution or any other law for
the time being in force.

(5) In this section the prescribed value means the value
of fifteen hundred dollars or such other value as may be
prescribed by Parliament.

Miscellaneous

123. (1) There shall be a Council for Barbuda which k","e:nment.
shall be the principal organ of local government in that island.

(2) The Council shall have such membership and func-
tions as Parliament may prescribe.

(3) Parliament may alter any of the provisions of the
Barbuda Local Government Act, 1976, specified in schedule Cap- 44.
2 to this Constitution (which provisions are in this section
referred to as "the said provisions") in the manner specified
in the following provisions of this section and in no other
manner whatsoever.

(4) A bill to alter any of the said provisions shall not
be regarded as being passed by the House unless after its
final reading in that House the bill is referred to the Barbuda
Council by the Clerk of the House and the Barbuda Coun-
cil gives its consent to the bill by resolution of the Council,
notice of which shall forthwith be given by the Council to
the Clerk of the House.

(5) An amendment made by the Senate to such a bill
as is referred to in subsection (4) of this section which bill
has been passed by the House and consented to by the
Barbuda Council shall not be regarded as being agreed to
by the House for the purpose of section 55 of this Constitu-
tion unless the Barbuda Council signifies to the Clerk of the
House the consent by resolution of the Barbuda Council to
that amendment.

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(6) For the purpose of section 55(4) of this Constitu-
tion, an amendment of a bill to alter any of the said provi-
sions shall not be suggested to the Senate by the House unless
the Barbuda Council signifies to the Clerk of the House the
consent by resolution of the Barbuda Council for the House
so to suggest the amendment.

( 7 ) (a) A bill to alter any of the said provisions shall
not be submitted to the Governor-General for his assent
unless it is accompanied by a certificate under the hand
of the Speaker (or, if the Speaker is for any reason unable
to exercise the functions of his office, the Deputy
Speaker) that the provisions of subsection (4) , ( 5 ) or (6 ) ,
as the case may be, of this section have been complied
with.

( b ) The certificate of the Speaker or, as the case
may be, the Deputy Speaker, under this subsection shall
be conclusive that the provisions of subsection (4), ( 5 )
or ( 6 ) , as the case may be, of this section have been
complied with and shall not be enquired into in any
court of law.

Certain questions
not to bc

124. Where by this Constitution the Governor-
enquired into in General is required to perform any function in accordance
any court. with the advice of the Cabinet, the Prime Minister or any

other Minister or the Leader of the Opposition or any other
person, body or authority or after consultation with any per-
son, body or authority, the question whether the Governor-
General has received or acted in accordance with such advice,
or whether such consultation has taken place, shall not be
enquired into in any court of law.

Resignations. 125. (1) Any person who is appointed or elected to
any office established by this Constitution may resign from
that office by writing under his hand addressed to the per-
son or authority by whom he was appointed or elected:

Provided that-

(a) the resignation of a person from the office of
President or Vice-President or from the office of Speaker
or Deputy Speaker shall be addressed to the Senate or
the House, as the case may be, and

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( b ) the resignation of any person from member-
ship of the Senate or the House shall be addressed to
the President or the Speaker, as the case may be.

(2) The resignation of any person from any such office
as aforesaid shall take effect when the writing signifying the
resignation is received by the person or authority to whom
it is addressed or any person authorised by that person or
authority to receive it.

126. (1) Where any person has vacated any office Reappointments
and concurrent established by this Constitution or any office of Minister appointments.

established under this Constitution, he may, if qualified,
again be appointed or elected to that office in accordance
with the provisions of this Constitution.

(2) Where this Constitution vests in any person or
authority the power to make any appointment to any office,
a person may be appointed to that office, notwithstanding
that some other person may be holding that office, when
that other person is on leave of absence pending the relin-
quishment of that office; and where two or more persons
are holding the same offlce by reason of an appointment made
in pursuance of this subsection, then, for the purposes of
any function conferred upon the holder of that office, the
person last appointed shall be deemed to be the sole holder
of the office.

127. (1) In this Constitution, unless the context Interpretation.
otherwise requires-

"citizen" means a citizen of Antigua and Barbuda and
"citizenship" shall be construed accordingly;

"Commonwealth citizen" has such meaning as Parlia-
ment may by law prescribe;

"dollars" means dollars in the currency of Antigua and
Barbuda;

"financial year" means any period of twelve months
beginning on 1st January in any year or such other
date as Parliament may prescribe;

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"the Government" means the Government of Antigua
and Barbuda;

"the House7' means the House of Representatives;

"law" means any law in force in Antigua and Barbuda
or any part thereof, including any instrument
having the force of law and any unwritten rule of
law and "lawful" and "lawfully" shall be construed
accordingly;

"Minister" means a Minister of the Government;

"oath" includes affirmation;

"oath of allegiance7' means the oath of allegiance set
out in Schedule 3 to this Constitution;

"oath of office" means, in relation to any office, the
oath for the due execution of that office set out in
Schedule 3 to this Constitution;

"oath of secrecy" means the oath of secrecy set out in
Schedule 3 to this Constitution;

"Parliament" means the Parliament of Antigua and
Barbuda;

"the Police Force" means the Police Force established
by the Police Act(a) and includes any other police
force established by or under a law enacted by
Parliament to succeed to or to supplement the func-
tions of the Police Force;

"President7' and "Vice-President" means the respec-
tive persons holding office as President and Vice-
President of the Senate;

"public office7' means any office of emolument in the
public service and includes an office of emolument
in the Police Force;

(a) Laws of Antigua and Barbuda, Cap. 330.

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"public officer" means a person holding or acting in
any public office and includes an officer or member
of the Police Force;

"the public service" means, subject to the provisions
of this section, the service of the Crown in a civil
capacity in respect of the government of Antigua
and Barbuda;

"session" means the period beginning when the Senate
or the House first meets after any prorogation or
dissolution of Parliament and ending when Parlia-
ment is prorogued or is dissolved without having
been prorogued;

"sitting" means in relation to either House of Parlia-
ment the period during which the House is sitting
continuously without adjournment and includes any
period during which it is in committee;

"Speaker" and "Deputy Speaker" means the respec-
tive persons holding office as Speaker and Deputy
Speaker of the House.

(2) In this Constitution references to an office in the
public service shall not be construed as including-

(a) references to the office of President or Vice-
President, Speaker or Deputy Speaker, Prime Minister
or any other Minister, Parliamentary Secretary, member
of either House of Parliament or the Ombudsman;

(6) references to the office of a member of any
Commission established by this Constitution or a
member of the Advisory Committee on the Prerogative
of Mercy or a member of the Public Service Board of
Appeal;

( 6 ) references to the office of a judge or officer of
the Supreme Court;

(6) save in so far as may be provided by Parlia-
ment, references to the office of a member of any council,
board, panel, committee or other similar body (whether
incorporated or not) established by or under any law.

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(3) In this Constitution-

(a) references to this Constitution, the Supreme
Court Order, the British Nationality Act 1948 or the
Barbuda Local Government Act, 1976, or any provi-
sion thereof, include references to any law altering this
Constitution or that Order, Act or provision, as the case
may be;

(b) references to the Supreme Court, the Court of
Appeal, the High Court and the Judicial and Legal Ser-
vices Commission are references to the Supreme Court,
the Court of Appeal, the High Court and the Judicial
and Legal Services Commission established by the
Supreme Court Order;

(c) references to the Chief Justice have the same
meaning as in the Supreme Court Order;

(d) references to a judge of the Supreme Court are
references to a judge of the High Court or the Court
of Appeal and, unless the context otherwise requires,
include references to a judge of the former Supreme
Court of the Windward Islands and Leeward Islands;
and

(e) references to officers of the Supreme Court are
references to the Chief Registrar and other officers of
the Supreme Court appointed under the Supreme Court
Order.

(4) For the purpose of this Constitution, a person shall
not be regarded as holding an office by reason only of the
fact that he is in receipt of a pension or other like allowance
in respect of his former tenure of any office.

(5) In this Constitution, unless the context otherwise
requires, a reference to the holder of an office by the term
designating his office shall be construed as including, to the
extent of his authority, a reference to any person for the time
being authorised to exercise the functions of that office.

(6) Except in the case where this Constitution provides
for the holder of any office thereunder to be such person
holding or acting in any other office as may for the time
being be designated in that behalf by some other specified

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person or authority, no person may, without his consent,
be nominated for election to any such office or be appointed
to or to act therein or otherwise be selected therefor.

(7) References in this Constitution to the power to
remove a public officer from his office shall be construed
as including references to any power conferred by any law
to require or permit that officer to retire from the public
service:

Provided that-

(a) nothing in this subsection shall be construed
as conferring on any person or authority the power to
require the Director of Public Prosecutions, the Direc-
tor of Audit or the Supervisor of Elections to retire from
the public service; and

(b) any power conferred by any law to permit a
person to retire from the public service shall, in the case
of any public officer who may be removed from office
by some person or authority other than a Commission
established by this Constitution, vest in the Public Ser-
vice Commission.

(8) Any provision in this Constitution that vests in any
person or authority the power to remove any public officer
from his office shall be without prejudice to the power of
any person or authority to abolish any office or to any law
providing for the compulsory retirement of public officers
generally or any class of public officer on attaining an age
specified by or under that law.

( 9 ) Where this Constitution vests in any person or
authority the power to appoint any person to act in or to
exercise the functions of any office if the holder thereof is
himself unable to exercise those functions, no such appoint-
ment shall be called in question on the grounds that the holder
of the office was not unable to exercise those functions.

(10) No provision of this Constitution that any person
or authority shall not be subject to the direction or control
of any other person or authority in the exercise of any func-
tions under this Constitution shall be construed as precluding
a court of law from exercising jurisdiction in relation to any

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question whether that person or authority has exercised those
functions in accordance with this Constitution or any other
law.

(1 1) Without prejudice to the provisions of section 14
of the Interpretation Act 1978(a) (as applied by subsec-
tion (16) of this section), where any power is conferred by
this Constitution to make any order, regulation or rule or
give any direction or make any designation, the power shall
be construed as including the power, exercisable in like man-
ner and subject to the like conditions, if any, to amend or
revoke any such order, regulation, rule, direction, or
designation.

(12) Subject to the provisions of subsection 3(a) of this
section any reference in this Constitution to a law made before
1st November 1981 shall, unless the context otherwise
requires, be construed as a reference to that law as it had
effect on 31st October 1981.

(13) In this Constitution references to altering this Con-
stitution or any other law, or any provision thereof, include
references-

(a) to revoking it with or without re-enactment
thereof or the making of different provision in lieu
thereof;

( b ) to modifying it whether by omitting or amen-
ding any of its provisions or inserting additional provi-
sions in it or otherwise; and

( 6 ) to suspending its operation for any period or
terminating any such suspension.

(14) In this Constitution, any reference to a time when
Her Majesty is at war shall be construed as a reference to
a time when Antigua and Barbuda is engaged in hostilities
with another country.

(15) In relation to all matters previous to I st November
1981 references in this Constitution to Antigua or to Antigua
and Barbuda shall in relation to the periods specified include
(to such extent as the context may require) references as
follows-

(a ) 1978 c.30

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( a ) to the associated state of Antigua as respects
the period from 27th February 1967 to 31st October
1981;

( b ) to the colony of Antigua as respects the period
from 1st July 1956 to 26th February 1967; and

(c) to the presidency of Antigua comprised in the
colony of the Leeward Islands as respects the period
from 5th March 1872 to 30th June 1956.

(16) The Interpretation Act 1978 shall apply, with the
necessary adaptations, for the purpose of interpreting this
Constitution and otherwise in relation thereto as it applies
for the purpose of interpreting and in relation to Acts of
Parliament of the United Kingdom.

SCHEDULE 1 TO THE CONSTITUTION Section

47(5)

PART I

The Provisions of the Constitution Referred to in Section 47(5)

(i) Chapter 11;

(ii) Chapter VI;

(iii) sections 22, 23, 68 and 80;

(iv) sections 27, 28, 36, 40, 44, 46, 52, 54, 57, 58,
59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64 and 65.

(v) Chapter VII (except sections 106, 107 and 108);

(vi) Chapter VIII;

(vii) Chapter IX;

(viii) section 123;

(ix) section 127 in its application to any of the provi-
sions mentioned in the foregoing items of this part.

PART I1

The Provisions of the Supreme Court Order Refered to in Section 47(5)
Sections 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 18 and 19.

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Section 123(3) to (7)

Provisions of the Barbuda Local Government Act, 1976
Referred to in Section 123(3) to (7)

Sections 1 to 44 and the First Schedule

SCHEDULE 3 TO THE CONSTITUTION
Section 127(1)

Oath (or Affirmation) of Allegiance

1, , do swear (or solemnly affirm) that I will faithfully
bear true allegiance to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth the Second,
H e r Heirs and Successors, according to law.

So help me God. (To be omitted in affirmation).

Oath (or Affirmation) of Office

1, ,do swear (or solemnly affirm) that I will
honour, uphold and preserve the Constitution of Antigua and
Barbuda and the law, that I will conscientiously, impartially and
to the best of my ability discharge my duties as
and do right to all manner of people without fear or favour, affec-
tion or ill-will.

So help me God. (To be omitted in affirmation).

Oath (or Affirmation) of Secre~y

1, ,do swear (or solemnly affirm) that I will not on
any account, at any time whatsoever, disclose any counsel, ad-
vice, opinion or vote given by any Minister as a member of the
Cabinet and that I will not, except with the authority of the Cabinet
and to such extent as may be required for the proper conduct
of the government of Antigua and Barbuda, directly or indirectly
reveal the business or proceedings of the Cabinet or any matter
to my knowledge as a member of (or Secretary to) the Cabinet.

So help me God. (To be omitted in affirmation).

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Transitional provision^

Arrangement of Paragraphs

Paragraph
1. Discharge of Governor-General's functions.
2. Existing laws.
3. Parliament
4. Ministers and Parliamentary Secretaries.
5. Office of Attorney-General.
6. Existing public officers.
7. Supreme Court Order
8. Appeals Order
9. Protection from deprivation of property.

10. Commonwealth citizen.
11. Interpretation.

1. Until such time as a person has assumed office as Discharge of
Governor-General having been appointed as such in accordance EZ,V::~;:'
with section 22 of the Constitution, the person who on 31st Oc- functions.
tober 1981 held office as Governor of Antigua (or, if there is no
such person, the person who was then acting as Governor) shall
discharge the functions of the office of Governor-General.

2. (1) The existing laws shall, as from 1st November 1981, Existing laws.
be construed with such modifications, adaptations, qualifications,
and exceptions as may be necessary to bring them into conformi-
ty with the Constitution and the Supreme Court Order.

(2) Where any matter that falls to be prescribed or other-
wise provided for under the Constitution by Parliament or by any
other authority or person is prescribed or provided for by or under
an existing law (including any amendment to any such law made
under this paragraph), that prescription or provision shall, as from
1st November 1981, have effect (with such n~odifications, adapta-
tions, qualifications and exceptions as may be necessary to bring
it into conformity with the Constitution and the Supreme Court
Order) as if it has been made under the Constitution by Parlia-
ment or, as the case may require, by the other authority or person.

(3) The Governor-General may by order made at any time
before 1st November 1982 make such alterations to any existing
law as may appear to him to be necessary or expedient for bring-
ing that law into conformity with the provisions of the Constitu-
tion and the Supreme Court Order or otherwise.for giving effect
or enabling effect to be given to those provisions.

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(4) The provisions of this paragraph shall be without pre-
judice to any powers conferred by the Constitution or by any other
law upon any person or authority to make provision for any mat-
ter, including the alteration of any existing law.

(5) For the purposes of this paragraph the expression "ex-
isting law" means any Act, Ordinance, rule, regulation, .order
or other instrument made in pursuance of or continued in force
by or under the former Constitution and having effect as part
of the law of Antigua on 31st October 1981 and includes any Act
of Parliament of the United Gngdom or Order in Council or other
instrument made under any such Act (except this Order and the
Supreme Court Order) to the extent that it so had effect on that
date.

Parliament. 3. (1) Until their boundaries are altered in pursuance of
section 65 of the Constitution, the boundaries of the constituen-
cies shall, for the purpose of the election of members of the House,
be the same as those of the constituencies into which Antigua was
divided on 31st October 1981 for the purpose of the election of
members of the House of Representatives under the former Con-
stitution and those boundaries shall be deemed to have been
established under that section.

(2) The persons who, on 31st October 1981 were elected
members of the House of Representatives under the former Con-
stitution shall, as from 1st November 1981, be deemed to have
been elected in pursuance of the provisions of section 36 of the
Constitution in the respective constituencies corresponding to the
constituencies by which they were returned to the House and shall
hold their seats in the House in accordance with the provisions
of the Constitution.

(3) The persons who, on 31st October 1981 were members
of the Senate under the former Constitution, shall, as from 1st
November 1981, be deemed to have been appointed Senators in
pursuance of Section 28 of the Constitution and shall hold their
seats as Senators in accordance with the provisions of the
Constitution.

(4) The persons who, on 31st October 1981 were respective-
ly the President and Vice-President of the Senate, the Speaker
and Deputy Speaker of the House of Representatives and, the
Attorney-General shall be deemed as from the commencement
of the Constitution to have been elected as President and Vice-
President, Speaker and Deputy Speaker, or, as the case may be,
appointed as Attorney-General in accordance with the provisions

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of the Constitution and shall hold office in accordance with those
provisions.

(5) Until Parliament otherwise provides any person who holds
or acts in any office the holding of which would, immediately before
the commencement of the Constitution, have disqualified him for
membership of the Senate or of the House of Representatives under
the former Constitution shall be disqualified to be appointed as
a Senator or elected as a member of the House as though provi-
sions in that behalf had been made in pursuance of sections 30
and 39 respectively of the Constitution.

(6) The Standing Orders of the Senate or the House' of
Representatives under the former Constitution as in force on 31st
October 1981 shall, until it is otherwise provided under section
57(1) of the Constitution, be the rules of procedure of the Senate
or the House, as the case may be, but they shall be construed
with such modifications, adaptations, qualifications and excep-
tions as may be necessary to bring them into conformity with the
Constitution.

(7) For the purposes of section 60 of the Constitution, the
first sitting of Parliament shall be deemed to have taken place
(after a dissolution) on 8th May 1980 (that is to say, the date
on which the Parliament established by the former Constitution
first sat after its most recent dissolution).

(8) Any person who, by virtue of this paragraph, is deemed
as from 1st November 1981 to hold any seat or office in the Senate
or the House shall be deemed to have taken and subscribed any
necessary oath for these purposes under the Constitution.

(9) For the purposes of sections 63 and 64 of the Constitu-
tion, the Constituencies Boundaries Commission shall be deemed
to have carried out a reivew and to have submitted the relevant
report thereon on 1st October 1979 (that is to say, the date of
the last Order made by the Governor under section 59 of the former
Constitution giving effect to the last report of the Commission
submitted in accordance with the provisions of the former
Constitution).

4. (1) The person who, on 3 1st October 1981, held the Ministers and
ofice of Premier under the former Constitution shall, as from 1st ~ ~ f ! $ ~ ~ ~ . a r y
November 1981, hold office as Prime Minister as if he had been
appointed thereto under section 69 of the Constitution.

(2) The persons who, on 31st October 1981, held office as
Ministers (other than the Premier) or as Parliamentary Secretaries

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under the former Constitution shall, as from 1st November 1981,
hold the like offices as if they had been appointed thereto under
section 69 or, as the case may be, section 75 of the Constitution.

(3) Any person holding the office of Prime Minister or other
Minister by virtue of the provisions of sub-paragraphs (1) and
(2) of this paragraph who, on 31st October 1981, was charged
under the former Constitution with responsibility for any matter
or any department of Government, shall, as from 1st November,
1981, be deemed to have been assigned responsibility for the matter
or department under section 71 of the Constitution.

Office of 5. Until Parliament or, subject to the provisions of any law
Attorney-General. enacted by Parliament, the Governor-General, acting in accord-

ance with the advice of the Prime Minister, otherwise provides,
the office of Attorney-General shall be that of a Minister.

Existing public 6. Subject to the provisions of the Constitution, every person
officers. who immediately before the commencement of the Constitution

held or was acting in a public office under the former Constitu-
tion shall, as from the commencement of the Constitution, con-
tinue to hold or act in that office or the corresponding office
established by the Constitution as if he had been appointed thereto
in accordance with the provisions of the Constitution:

Provided that any person who under the former Constitu-
tion or any other law in force immediately before such commence-
ment would have been required to vacate his office at the expiration
of any period shall vacate his office at the expiration of that period.

Supreme Court 7. The West Indies Associated States Supreme Court Order
Order. 1967(a), in so far as it has effect as a law, may be cited as the

Supreme Court Order and for the purposes of the Order or any
other law-

(a) the Supreme Court established by the Order shall,
unless Parliament otherwise provides, be styled the Eastern
Caribbean Supreme Court; and

( 6 ) references in the Order to the Premier of Antigua
or to the Premier of any independent State shall be construed
as references to the Prime Minister of Antigua and Barbuda
or, as the case may be, to the Prime Minister of that other
State.

Appeals Order. 8. The West Indies Associated States (Appeals to Privy
Council) Order 1967(b) may, in its application to Antigua and

(a) S.I. 1967/223. (b) S.I. 19671224.

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Barbuda, be cited as the Antigua and Barbuda Appeals to Privy
Council Order and shall, to the extent that it has effect as a law,
have effect as if the expression "Courts Order" included any law
altering the Supreme Court Order and as if section 3 were revoked.

9. Nothing in section 9 of the Constitution shall effect the Protection from
operation of any law in force immediately before 27th February
1967 or any law made on or after that date that alters a law in
force immediately before that date and does not-

(a) add to the kinds of property that may be taken posses-
sion of or the rights over and interests in property that may
be acquired;

( b ) make the conditions governing entitlement to com-
pensation or the amount thereof less favourable to any person
owning or having an interest in the property; or

(c) deprive any person of such right as is mentioned in
subsection (2) of that section.

10. Until such time as Parliament otherwise prescribes, the Commonwealth
expression "Commonwealth citizen" shall have the meaning c'tizen'
assigned to it by the British Nationality Act 1948.

11. (1) In this schedule- Interpretation.
"the Constitution" means the Constitution set out in Schedule

1 to this Order;

"the former Constitution" means the Constitution of Antigua
as in force on 31st October 1981.

(2) The provisions of section 127 of the Constitution shall
apply for the purposes of interpreting this schedule and otherwise
in relation thereto as they apply for the purposes of interpreting
and in relation to the Constitution.

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EXPLANATORY NOTE

(This Note is not part o f the Order)

This Order, which is made at the request and with the con-
sent of the Associated State of Antigua under section 5(4) of the
West Indies Act 1967, provides a new constitution for Antigua
(which is to be styled Antigua and Barbuda) upon its attainment
of fully responsible government within the Commonwealth at the
termination of the status of association of Antigua with the United
Kingdom under the Act on 1st November 1981.
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