Pursuant to the law on organization of the Government of 25 December 2001;
Considering the recommendation of the Minister of planning and investment, the DECISION: article 1. Issued strategic direction for sustainable development in Vietnam (Vietnam's 21st agenda) aimed at the sustainable development of the country on the basis of closely matched, and harmony between economic development, social development and environmental protection (text attached).
Strategic direction for sustainable development in Vietnam is a strategic framework, including the great direction make the legal basis to ministries, sectors, localities, organizations and individuals concerned implementing, at the same time expressing the commitment of Vietnam with international.
Article 2. Minister of planning and investment is responsible to organize and guide the implementation of strategic direction for sustainable development in Vietnam.
The Ministers, heads of ministerial agencies, heads of government agencies, the Chairman of people's Committee of the province, central cities, based on the strategic orientation of sustainable development in Vietnam, building and implementing the strategic direction for sustainable development of the industry, and local.
Article 3. This decision takes effect 15 days from the date The report.
The Ministers, heads of ministerial agencies, heads of government agencies, the Chairman of people's Committee of the central cities, is responsible for the implementation of this decision.
STRATEGIC ORIENTATION of SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT (AGENDA 21 of VIETNAM) (attached to decision No. 153/2004/QD-TTg dated 17 August 2004 from the Prime Minister's) PREAMBLE the concept of "sustainable development" in the environmental protection movement from the early years of the seventies of the 20th century. In 1987, in the report "our common future" by the World Council on environment and development (WCED) of the UN, "sustainable development" is defined as "development that meets the requirements of the present, but not causing obstacles to meeting the needs of tomorrow's generation".
The Earth Summit on environment and development held in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in 1992 and the World Summit on sustainable development held in Johannesburg (South Africa) in 2002 has defined "sustainable development" is the development process incorporates , and harmony between the 3 sides of development, including: economic development (especially for economic growth), social development (especially made progress, social justice; poverty reduction and job creation) and environmental protection (for handling, recovery, pollution and improve environmental quality; fires and deforestation and mining; use the save natural resources). The criteria for assessing the sustainability of economic growth is stable; made good progress and social justice; rational exploitation, use save natural resources, protecting and enhancing the quality of living environment.
Sustainable development is the urgent needs and trend in the development process of human society, so were the Nations of the world agreed to build the agenda for each period of development in history. At the Earth Summit on environment and development held in 1992 in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), 179 participating countries the Conference adopted the Rio de Janeiro Declaration on environment and development includes 27 basic principles and Agenda 21 (Agenda 21) of the solution for sustainable development for the whole world in the 21st century. The Conference recommends that each country based on the conditions and specific characteristics for the construction of Agenda 21 at the national level, industry and local level. Ten years later, at the World Summit on sustainable development held in 2002 in Johannesburg (Republic of South Africa), 166 countries participating the Conference adopted the Johannesburg Declaration and the plan of implementation for sustainable development. The Conference has affirmed the principles already set out previously and continued commitment to the full implementation of Agenda 21 on sustainable development.
Since the Earth Summit on environment and development held in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in 1992 to the present there have been 113 countries around the world to build and implement Agenda 21 on sustainable development national and 6,416 Agenda 21 local level at the same time, the countries have established independent agencies to implement this program. The countries in the region such as China, Thailand, Singapore, Malaysia ... all have built and implemented the Agenda 21 on sustainable development.
The Government of Vietnam has sent senior delegations to join the meeting and commitment to sustainable development; issued and actively implement the "national plan on environment and sustainable development between 1991-2000" (decision No. 187-CT on June 12, 1991), created for the sustainable development process in Vietnam. The perspective of sustainable development was confirmed in Directive No. 36-CT/TW on 25 June 1998 by the Politburo on strengthening environmental protection in the period of industrialization and modernization of the country, which emphasizes: "environmental protection is a basic content are inseparable in the way , advocates and economic-development plan of all social levels and sectors, is an important basis of ensuring sustainable development, implement the industrialization and modernization of the country ". The perspective of sustainable development were reaffirmed in the documents of the National Congress of the Communist Party's ninth Vietnam and in strategies of social-economic development 2001-2010 is: "developing fast, effective and sustainable economic growth, coupled with the progressive implementation of , social justice and environmental protection "and" socio-economic development to protect and improve the environment, ensuring harmony between the artificial environment with the natural environment, conserve biological diversity ". Sustainable development has become the way, the views of the party and State's policy. To make the goal of sustainable development, many other resolutions, directives of the party, many of the legal text of the State has enacted and implemented; many programs, research on this field has been conducted and the results obtained; many of the basic content of sustainable development has come to life and gradually become the trend in the development of the country.
Over the years, the social-economic development in our country is still based heavily on the exploitation of natural resources; labor productivity is still low; production technology, consumer models use more energy, raw materials and emit more waste. The population increased rapidly, the proportion of poor households remains high; the basic services of health and education there is still inadequate, the kind of social ills not yet thoroughly prevent ... are these are pressing issues. Many natural resources are being depleted, mining waste and use less effective. The natural environment in many places serious vandalism, pollution and degraded to the level of alarm. The system of policies and legal instruments not yet in sync to be able to combine an efficient manner between the 3 sides of development: economic, social and environmental protection. In the overall planning, strategy and plans of social-economic development of the country as well as of the local industry and, 3 important face on here of the development is also not yet actually been combine and integrate closely with each other.
To implement the sustainable development objectives of the country such as the resolution of the National Party Congress proposed ninth and made international commitments, the Government of Vietnam released "strategic direction for sustainable development in Vietnam" (Agenda 21 of Vietnam).
Strategic direction for sustainable development in Vietnam is a strategic framework, including the great direction make the legal basis to ministries, sectors, localities, organizations and individuals concerned implemented and coordinated action to ensure sustainable development of the country in the 21st century. Strategic orientation of sustainable development in Vietnam raised the challenges facing Vietnam, draw out the guidelines, policies, legal instruments and the areas of priority activities that need to be made to sustainable development in the 21st century. The direction of sustainable development strategy in Vietnam do not replace the strategic master plan, and the plan we have, which is to concretize the strategy for socio-economic development 2001-2010, the environmental protection strategy in the country by 2010 and towards 2020, the 5-year plan 2006-2010 , as well as building strategies, master plan and the development plan of the local branches, to match closely, and harmony between economic development, make progress, social justice and environmental protection, to ensure the sustainable development of the country. In the process of development, implementation, strategic direction for sustainable development in Vietnam will often be considered to supplement and adjust to suit each stage of development, updating the knowledge and awareness to improve even further on the path to sustainable development in Vietnam. On the basis of the existing planning system, oriented to sustainable development strategy in Vietnam focus on these priority activities should be chosen and implemented in 10 years.
The direction of sustainable development strategy in Vietnam consists of five parts: part 1: sustainable development-the way of Vietnam.
Part 2: economical sectors priority to sustainable development.
Part 3: The social sector should aim at sustainable development priorities.
Part 4: The field of use of natural resources, environmental protection and pollution control in priority to sustainable development.
Part 5: implementation of sustainable development.
Part 1 SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT-the WAY of VIETNAM i. status of sustainable development in the past years, Vietnam: 1. Achievements: Through eighteen years of renovation, Vietnam has achieved tremendous results in socio-economic development and environmental protection.
a. about the economy: the economy of Vietnam has gradually transformed from a centralized planned economy to a market economy under the Socialist orientation. The economy growth with high speeds and relatively stable. In the years of the 1990s (20th century), the General domestic product (GDP) increased by an average of 7.5%/year, GDP in 2000 was more than twice than in 1990. In 2003 the GDP increase of 7.24%, the average 3 years 2001-2003, economic growth increased on 7.1% per year.
In the agricultural sector, food production from 19.9 million tons (paddy rules) in 1990 had increased to over 37 million tons in 2003; food per capita grain increased from 303 kg in 1990 to 462 kg in 2003, not only ensure food security for the country but also put Vietnam on the list of the top rice exporting countries of the world. Thanks to ensure food security, agricultural crops and livestock goods are growing conditions. Rice, coffee, rubber, cashew nuts, tea, peanuts, vegetables, pork, seafood has become the important export products of Vietnam.
The industry has been restructuring and gradually increase stability. The average annual growth in the past ten years reached 13.6%; in which the State sector increased 11.4%, 11.4% and increase the State sector invested abroad increased 22.5%. Calculated according to the value of production, the scale of industrial production in 2000 was 3.6 times folded in 1990. In 2001-2003 industry continues to grow, the value of production increased 15%, in which industrial increase 12.1%/year, State industry increased 19.8% per year and the foreign-invested enterprises rose 15.6%.
The service sector has been wide open and service quality has been raised, to meet the demands of economic growth and serve the residential life. Production value of the service sector by an average of 10 years (1990-2000) increased 8.2%, an average of 3 years (2001-2003) rise above 7%. The domestic market was more open to the participation of the various economic sectors. The value of goods sold on the domestic market in 2000 reached fold 12.3 times that of 1990. In 3 years (2001-2003) domestic markets become more vibrant, total shipping of goods on the market increased on average every year on 12%.
Infrastructure transportation grows fast, pretty good response for requests for socio-economic development. Value transportation services, warehouse contact information increased 1.8 times.
Tourism has developed quite the tourist center, many are upgrading, improvement, restoration, the development of tourism, especially in recent years has advanced extraction in human values and ethnic culture identity in the online travel, make travel more and more abundant attractive, and foreign tourists.
Postal services are rapidly developing telecommunications, telecommunications network in the country was modernizing basically. Many modern media which reach international standards have been developed, initially to meet the needs of information, commercial transactions and international economic integration of the country. Form the insurance services market with the participation of enterprises in the economic sectors within and outside the country. Financial service, the Bank has important innovations. Other services such as legal advice, science and technology, education and training, health ... has begun to develop.
Due to the production development and implementation of financial regulatory policy, effective monetary, macro-economic environment has been stable, create conditions for attracting investment and improving living standards of the people.
b. About society:
Vietnam has achieved many important achievements of social development. The State's investment for the social sector, now accounts for over 25% of the capital budget, in that particular investment priority for poverty alleviation, job creation, education, vocational training, health, wellness, prevention of social evils, science-technology environmental protection, as well as other basic social services.
A system of law that was enacted to meet the demands of practicality and better suited to the demand of the country in the new situation as the civil code; The labor code; The law protects people's health; The law on protection, care and education of children; The law on environmental protection; The law on education; The law on Science and technology; Having incentives Ordinance, Ordinance on disabled people, insurance law ...
Many of the national target program on social development was being implemented and achieve the high social efficiency. Seven national target programmes the period 1998-2000 to: poverty reduction; job creation; population and family planning; HIV/AIDS; payment of some social diseases and dangerous diseases; clean water and sanitation of rural environment; build the force of talented athletes and the Sports Centre; Prevention of crime as well as a number of other programs: the social-economic development of the town particularly difficult mountainous and remote areas; expanding vaccinations for children; literacy and universal primary education; Prevention of social evils ... has been implemented and achieved good social effect. The National Fund on poverty reduction, support for job creation, the gratitude Fund, Fund, Fund to support poor children ... have been established and operate effectively. The period 2001-2005 has 6 national target programmes: poverty reduction and employment; clean water and sanitation of rural environment; population and family planning; Prevention of some social disease, dangerous diseases and HIV/AIDS; culture; education and training have been approved, are actively implemented and achieved initial results in terms of encouraging society.
People's lives in both urban and rural areas has improved markedly. The poverty reduction to achieve the accomplishments were domestic and world public opinion. Household poverty rate in the country by the national poverty line fell from 30% in 1992 to 10% in 2000 (according to the old standard), the average per year decreased nearly 300 thousand households. According to the new standard, the poverty rate in 2003 to around 11%. By poverty can international comparisons of population census in 1993 and 1998, the poverty rate fell from 58% overall in 1993 down to 37% in 1998 and the rate of poverty reduction and food from 25% to 15%. From 1991 to 2000, the number of people employed increased from 30.9 million up 40.6 million, an average increase of about 2.9% per year. Each year there are about 1.2 million new job is created.
As of 2000, the country's national standards of literacy and universal primary education, over 90 percent of the population have access to medical services, 60% of households have clean water, the waves were covered 85% of television, Radio covered 95% of the land area of the country.
Social norms are much improved. The human development index (HDI) of Vietnam rose from 0.611 1992 up 0.682 in 1999. HDI ranking of 162 countries, Vietnam ranks 120, 1992; 101 things in 1999 and 109 on 175 countries in 2003. In comparison with some countries have total domestic product-GDP per capita equivalent, then Vietnam's HUMAN DEVELOPMENT INDEX significantly higher. On the gender development index (GDI), the 2003 Vietnam is ranked 89 out of 144 countries. Women make up 26% of the total number of Deputies, is one of the 15 countries with the highest proportion of women in the organs of power of the State.
c. about the use of natural resources and environmental protection: Vietnam has had several attempts to overcome the environmental consequences caused by the war to return. Many important policy of management, use of natural resources and environmental protection were formulated and implemented in recent years. The system of State management of environmental protection has been formed in the Central and local levels. Environmental management, education and awareness in environmental responsibility for every organization, the individual is increasingly expanding and improving quality. Education and communication on the environment are to be promoted. The content of environmental protection has been put into teaching at all school levels in the national education system.
The implementation of the above policy has contributed to enhancing the management, exploitation and use of natural resources saving; prevention, prevent pollution, and environmental degradation; recovery and markedly improved the quality of ecological environment in some regions.
2. These exist primarily: Besides the aforementioned achievements, in socio-economic development plan of the country's society, and local industry, the sustainability of the development has not been interested in properly and still some exist mainly on the following: a. about perception: the perspective of sustainable development have not yet been able to present a distinct and consistent way through policy and system the regulatory tool of the State. The social-economic policy is also on the fast growth of economy and social stability, which is not yet full, proper attention to sustainability when the extraction and use of natural resources and environmental protection. On the other hand, the environmental protection policy again focuses on solving environmental problems, restore the recession and improve environmental quality, which has long-term development orientation to meet the future needs of society. Planning process and plan for socio-economic development and the process of building environmental protection policies are closely matched, integrating logical together. Management and monitoring of sustainable development has not been clearly established and effective.
b. Economics: still low development resources should the requirements of sustainable development are eligible for execution. The investment was the main focus for these works bring direct benefits, did very little to invest in renewable natural resources and environmental protection.
Vietnam's current debt compared to other countries not yet in the kind of high and not to limit the dangers, but it is growing rapidly and will risk threatening the sustainability of development in the future, especially if the loan has not been used effectively. The level of processing, manipulating materials in the economy of Vietnam is still very low and the level of costs, course materials, for a unit of product value; consumer products in the country as well as the export of raw products mostly; economic growth is mainly according to the width ... Meanwhile the only natural resources are limited and have been exploited to the point of tipping.
The discount trend in crude products on the world market caused many difficulties for the agricultural growth in Vietnam. With current production structures, to reach a value as income from old world market, Vietnam had to sell off a number of goods and objects more than before.
The development of the industries that use natural resources also contradict each other and are not yet incorporated a way to satisfactorily. The authorities at both the Central and local levels have not managed effectively using natural resources and protect the environment.
c. About society:
The pressure of the population continued to grow, the shortage of jobs on a pressing, the rate of poor households remains high is still the major obstacles to sustainable development. The quality of human resources is still low. The number and quality of technical workers (on the structure of industries, skill, level) do not meet the requirements of the labour market.
Poverty and social stratification tends to increase rapidly in the market economy. The population's consumption patterns are traditionally happenings of the developed nations, consume more energy, raw materials and emit more waste and toxic substances. This consumer model has been and will continue to make the natural environment is overloaded by the amount of waste and the exploitation.
A number of social ills like addiction, prostitution, HIV/AIDS century disease, corruption is prevented effectively, causing losses and costly sources of wealth, creating the risk of social instability and disrupt the ecological balance.
d. about the use of natural resources and environmental protection: by focusing on economic development, especially GDP growth, less attentive to the natural system, the phenomenon of indiscriminate mining and using the waste of natural resources, caused environmental degradation and loss of balance the ecosystem going. Some manufacturing facilities, business services, service, hospital ... cause serious environmental pollution. Increased urbanization process quickly pulling under the excessive exploitation of groundwater, surface water source pollution, stagnant air and solid waste. In particular, areas rich in biodiversity, forests, marine and coastal environment have not been protected, is suffering from excessive exploitation.
However, the activities of environmental protection has made significant strides, but the level of pollution, degradation and deterioration of environmental quality continues to increase. This demonstrates the capacity and effectiveness of the environmental protection do not meet the requirements of sustainable development.
Protecting the environment is highly interdisciplinary, interregional, global and national, need to be conducted from the base level, Ward County District. We also lack the method of integrated management of the environment at the regional level, the region and, whilst there is an overlap of functions and tasks between ministries in environmental protection. The governance of the new environment be implemented at the central level, industry, province, or district level there's very little the district and ward level yet. Some planning socio-economic development of the region has been built, but not yet have the required mechanisms and local branches involved when building and implementing this plan.
II. The goals, views, main principles and priority activities to sustainable development in Vietnam: 1. objectives: the overall goal of the strategy of socio-economic development 2001-2010 National Congress of the Communist Party of Vietnam is the ninth: "Bringing the country out of the underdeveloped status; markedly enhanced material life, the culture, the spirit of the people; create the platform to the 2020 base Vietnam become an industrial country. Human resources, scientific and technological capacity, infrastructure, economy, defense, security is enhanced; institutions of the market economy of Socialist orientation is formed basically; the country's position on the international arena are improving ". Development perspective in strategies on confirmed: "developing fast, effective and sustainable economic growth, coupled with the progressive implementation of social justice and environmental protection"; "Social-economic development to protect and improve the environment, ensuring harmony between the artificial environment with the natural environment, conserve biological diversity".
The general objective of sustainable development is to achieve the fullest physical, spiritual wealth and culture, the equality of citizens and the consensus of society, harmony between man and nature; development must closely match, and harmony are the three face is economic development, social development and environmental protection.
The goal of sustainable economic development is to achieve a stable growth with a reasonable economic structure, meet the requirements of the people's life enhancement, avoided the recession or stagnated in the future, avoid leaving large debt burden for the world.
The goal of sustainable development of society is to achieve higher results in implementation progress and social justice, ensuring quality and nutrition health people increasingly advanced, everyone has the opportunity to study and work, reducing poverty status and limit disparities between social groups and classes , reduce the social evils, raise the level of fairness about the rights and obligations between the members and between the generations in a society, maintain and promote diversity and the cultural identity of peoples, constantly raise the level of civilization of the physical and spiritual life.
The goal of environmental sustainability is reasonable, use the Save and effectively natural resources; prevent, prevent, treat and control the environmental pollution effectively, good protection of habitats; protection of national parks, nature reserves, biosphere reserves and the conservation of biological diversity; overcome the recession and improve environmental quality.
2. The main principle: To achieve the above objectives, during the development process we need to implement the following major principles: first, the human being is central to sustainable development. Meet more than physical and mental needs of all strata, build rich country strong, fair, democratic society and civilization is the principle holds consistent in all stages of development.
Secondly, economic development is the central task of the coming stage of development, ensuring food security, energy and sustainable development, to ensure hygiene and safe food for people; incorporate reasonable and harmonious, with social development; tap rationality, using savings and efficiency of natural resources within the limits permitted in terms of ecology and environmental protection. Step by step implementation of the principle of "all aspects: economy, society and the environment are mutually beneficial".
Third, protect and improve the quality of the environment must be seen as an integral element of the development process. Positive and proactive prevention, prevent the adverse impact on the environment due to human activities cause. Need widely applied the principle of "people who cause damage to natural resources and the environment, the right of reimbursement". Building of the legal system and the effect of the work on environmental protection; Active mount and have sanctions required integrating environmental protection requirements in the planning, plan, Chu ơng process and economic development projects, socio-environmental protection requirements is an important criterion in the evaluation of sustainable development.
Fourth, the development process must ensure that meet equitably the needs of present generations and do not prohibit the lives of future generations. Creation of conditions for every person and every community in society have equal opportunities to develop, get access to the general resources and be fair distribution of public benefits, creating the physical platform, knowledge and culture of Nice for the generations of tomorrow , use save these resources can not be reconstructed, preserve and improve the living environment, clean production systems development and environment-friendly; build healthy lifestyles, harmony, intimacy and love of nature.
On Thursday, the science and technology is the Foundation and impetus for industrialization, modernization, promoting fast, strong and sustainable country. Modern technology, clean and friendly to the environment need to be widely used in the manufacturing industry, the front should be promoted for use in these industries and the manufacturing sector has a strong viral effect, capable of promoting the development of various industries and other manufacturing sectors.
Friday, sustainable development is the cause of the whole party, the authorities, ministries, sectors and localities; of the agencies and enterprises, mass society, the community and the people. To mobilize the maximum participation of the people involved in the selection of the decisions of the economic and social development and environmental protection at local and on the scale of the country. Ensure people have access to information and enhance the role of the strata, particularly of women, youth, ethnic fellow little people in contributing to the process of decision about the big investment and development projects, the country's long term.
Saturday, fastened the construction of independent economy with proactive international economic integration to sustainable development of the country. The development of bilateral and multilateral relations, the implementation of international and regional commitments; absorb selectively these scientific and technological advances, strengthening international cooperation for sustainable development. Attach importance to exert the advantage, improve the quality, efficiency, competitiveness. Proactively prevent, prevent the adverse impact on the environment caused by the process of globalization and international economic integration.
Eighth, closely match between economic development, social development and environmental protection to ensure the security, defense and social security order.
3. The priority areas of activity: a. economic sector: to maintain fast economic growth and stability on the basis of constantly improving the effectiveness, of the science-technology and the use of saving natural resources and improve the environment.
Change the model and manufacturing technology, consumer patterns towards cleaner and friendlier to the environment, based on the use of saving non-renewable resources, minimize waste and toxic decomposition, maintain the lifestyle of the individual and social harmony and closeness to nature.
Make the process of "industrialization", i.e. right from planning to early industrial development with the structure of industries, technology, equipment, ensure environmental friendly principles; actively prevent and treat industrial pollution, build background "green industry".
Agriculture and rural development sustainable. During the development of the production of more and more commodities according to the requirements of the market, to ensure food safety, hygiene, conservation and development of resources: land, water, air, forests and biodiversity.
Sustainable development of the region and building local community sustainable development.
b. the social field: focus efforts to poverty, alleviate poverty, create more jobs; to create equal opportunities for people to be involved in social activities, culture, politics, economic development and environmental protection.
Continue to lower the population growth rate, reduce the pressure of the increase in population for the areas of job creation, health and people's health care, education and vocational training, protection of the ecological environment.
The orientation process of urbanization and migration to sustainable development of the municipality; rational distribution of population and labour force by region, ensure the development of economic, environmental and social sustainability in the local.
Improving the quality of education in order to raise the professional level, consistent with the requirements of the career development of the country.
Grow in number and improve the quality of medical services and health care, improve labor conditions and environmental hygiene.
c. about the domains resources-environment: immunization, sustainable and efficient use of land resources.
Water environment protection and sustainable use of water resources.
Reasonable exploitation and utilization of saving, sustainable mineral resources.
Protection of marine environment, coasts, Islands and marine resource development.
Protection and development of forests.
Reducing air pollution in urban and industrial areas.
Effective management of solid waste and hazardous waste.
The conservation of biological diversity.
Climate change mitigation and limit the harmful effects of climate change, contributing to the prevention of natural disasters.
Part 2 the ECONOMIC SECTOR SHOULD AIM at SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES i. maintain fast economic growth and sustainability: in the first ten years of the 21st century, the economic-development strategy 2001-2010 society outlined the perspective is to fast economic development, efficiency and sustainability, GDP in 2010 is to double the year 2000.
To be able to maintain a long-term economic growth is relatively fast, stable and sustainable, we need to make some major orientations: 1. Continue to promote economic reform in order to shape and improve the mechanism of the market economy under the Socialist orientation , including: continuing to improve a number of macro policy aims to create equal business environment, effectively, promote competition and create confidence to businesses and people quit the capital to produce. Encourage collective and private economic development long term. Continue to innovate, develop and improve the production efficiency of State enterprises. Actively attracting foreign investment.
Maintain the stability of the macro-economic environment by improving financial policies, balanced budgets, stable currency, controlled inflation.
Speeding up the process of proactive international economic integration and trade liberalization.
Promote administrative reform aimed at gradually forming administrative background effect, clean, has full capacity to meet the needs of sustainable development. Promote democracy, uphold the discipline, discipline, strengthen the legislation. Building staff, public servants have the ability and good morals.
2. switch the economy from primarily growth according to the width to grow mainly in depth on the basis of the effective use of scientific achievements and technological advances to increase labor productivity and improve the competitiveness of the products goods and services, improving the efficiency of the economy in General and the efficiency of capital in particular.
3. switch the economy from mining and use of resources in the form of crude to more sophisticated processing, enhanced value from each unit of resource is being exploited. Turning to international market participation by the crude into products of processed products and services. Focus on enhancing the scientific and technological content of products, goods and services.
4. Thoroughly save resources in development, effective use of scarce resources and limited consumption on the part of the world.
5. Build the system of environmental-economic accounting. Research to bring more environmental and social aspects in the framework of the national accounts accounting (SNA). Economic accounting system, society and the best environment will include at least one extra accounting system of natural resources.
II. Changing production and consumption patterns towards environment-friendly: in recent years, thanks to economic growth with high speed and due to the policy of opening up the economy, the consumer sector of the people has improved markedly. However, in the consumer field, while some tend to negatively affect the prospects of sustainable development: 1. the consumer model of a population, firstly in the municipality still heavy on traditional consumer, using unprocessed raw materials, many of which are not beneficial to the saving of resources and sustainable development. Consumer flaunt, waste is increasingly common in some middle-class residents are dealing with the savings lifestyle, intimacy and harmony with the nature of the moral values of traditional societies.
Exploitation status exhaustion of species of rare plants, and non-renewable natural resources left still pretty popular. Chemicals, foods, stimulants increase weight, GMO products are used more and more.
Energy consumption for living and transportation rise leads to the consumption of more coal and oil than before increase the level of environmental pollution. Meanwhile, the clean form of energy has great potential in Vietnam and can be used in the family such as solar, wind, small hydro, biogas is also less research, application and universal. Lack of policies to encourage the development of different types of transport, means of transport of small capacity and use of clean energy, friendly to the environment.
2. In the production and consumption of goods, reciprocal use of waste resources for some unreasonable demand has begun. The amount of wine, beer, tobacco production, import and consumption increases with speed with low survival rates and the ability of the income. Alcoholism, drug addiction is not diminished. The types of materials that are not recyclable and hard decomposition (such as metal, PVC) discharged more and more.
3. Don't yet have specific policies and measures to guide the consumer reasonable method, as the policies, financial measures to encourage environmentally-friendly consumption.
4. A population still live below the poverty line, have yet to meet the basic needs of food, dress, in, education, about the consumer goods and essential services. Poverty is one of the causes of the extraction status should indiscriminately, using logical and not wasting natural resources. It also impedes the implementation of consumer ways effectively to contribute to more sustainable development.
The priority activities aimed at changing consumer patterns include: a. Active restructuring of production and consumer service: To change consumer patterns, first take the method and technique of production towards the formation of a production system products with technology consumes less energy and raw materials at the same time emit little waste, especially hazardous waste.
With regard to existing production systems, the need to review and adjust the the engineering standards and upgraded technology aims to improve the efficiency of environmental products, encourage invention new product types have features that save energy and raw materials, and create less waste.
Encourage the application of cleaner production technologies and environment-friendly technology, recycling and reuse of waste, scrap.
Formation mechanism of reasonable consumer products in order to meet the basic needs of food, dress, in, travel, learning, healing, recreation of the strata. Focus on product innovation, constantly improve the quality, price and service products, focus on environment-friendly standards to enhance consumer quality and effective use of natural resources.
Develop and enhance the level of intensive farming of the manufacturing and General Service features to protect and improve the environment such as plantation, aquaculture, tourism. Limiting the production of wine, beer, cigarettes, food and consumer goods that contain substances that are harmful to human health.
b. implementation of the necessary measures for a reasonable consumer oriented: advocacy, education for the formation of healthy lifestyle and reasonable consumption method in the strata, particularly in adolescents. Building the civilized consumer culture, Oriental ethnic identity, harmony and nature-friendly.
Launching consumer savings, combating waste. Promote the active role of the unions and of all strata in the propaganda, education, implementation, and monitoring the implementation of the whole movement of population consumer savings.
Apply some economic instruments, such as the consumer tax to regulate the consumer behavior is not rational.
For those particularly difficult region, continues to implement these policies support the cells meet the basic needs of life.
III. implementation of the process of "industrialization": speeding industrialization was the Vietnam's central task during the next 10 years. Implement a strategy of "industrialization" is from the original to the planning of industrial development with the structure of industries, technology, equipment, ensure environmental friendly principles; actively prevent and treat industrial pollution, build background "green industry". Environmental standards need to be put on the list of essential criteria to choose the trades encouraged investment, production and product technology, planning of industrial parks, export processing zones and building plans to prevent, prevent, treat and control pollution.
The priority activities aimed at making the process of "industrialization" consists of: 1. About the law: reviewing the overall planning of social-economic development of the region, development of the economic sector, especially the strong impact to the environment, in order to ensure sustainable industrial development sure, use the save natural resources, pollution control and waste management in an efficient manner.
Institutionalize the take environmental factors into the planning process, the plan for socio-economic development every year, 5 years, and the country's long-term, the ministries and local, from the central level to grassroots level. Improve the process of environmental impact assessment and closely monitor the implementation of the content of environmental impact assessment; strict implementation of the provisions to the environmental impact assessment before the investment license for business.
Construction of the legal text and the policy mechanism to promote the process of replacing the outdated production technologies, consuming energy, raw materials with advanced technology, modern and friendly to the environment.
Encourage clean production; advocacy, education and awareness of the business community about the importance and benefits of cleaner production in the process of sustainable development.
Construction of the standards and guidelines for the production of clean, consistent with the level of economic development. Research and development of technology and equipment for clean production, enhance coordination between production facilities and researchers of clean production technologies, while promoting the application in production.
The study, issued some sanctions forced the enterprises, large and medium scale business to set the automatic system monitoring, environmental monitoring to provide information on waste and pollution levels due to the operation of the business. The study, issued the norms of the maximum permitted pollution levels in the industrial zone. Quickly formed a force of officers trained on environmental management of industrial areas.
2. Economics: in the process of restructuring the industry, to prioritize the development of the industry clean, friendly to the environment. Develop and promote the use of technology, environmental protection equipment, advanced and appropriate; set up the project with full justification, details on measures to control pollution and protect the environment.
Establishment of new and high technology development zones. Issued the standards of safety and environmental protection in the industry, particularly the industrial extraction and processing of oil, electrical industry, electronic industry and the production of cars, mopeds, motorcycles.
Step by step gradually lifting the rate of investment in clean technology development.
Form a reasonable economic structure, ensuring the proportion growing clean technology.
3. Technical and technology: prevention of pollution caused by the creation of new industrial base, including the completion of process evaluation of the environmental impact assessment, especially given the requirements of the environmental impact assessment must be conducted before the investment license.
Reduce pollution caused by the production, trading and service of the existing facilities. Conduct thorough processing of the base cause serious environmental pollution, forcing the base to install the equipment for the control and treatment of pollution, upgrade or renovate production technology, relocating whole or each section out of the crowded residential area and at the highest level is the suspension of production activities , business, the services of the facility. Every year, statistics, conduct reviews of the base cause serious environmental pollution within the country, advance to control pollution.
Implementation of the environmental impact assessment for large-and medium-scale mines in the country and report on the status of environmental management in the mining industry and the processing industry concerned. These mines cause the most serious pollution will be forced to invest to reduce the levels of contamination to a permit or shut down. The specialized agencies of the provincial people's Committee, the city of centrally implemented environmental impact assessment for the operation of small scale mining and processing activities within the province. All new mining projects must be considered, careful screening and to make environmental impact assessment information, especially considering the, reviews the technology of mining and processing, using and disposing of chemicals, maintenance work the waste dumps and the construction of infrastructure.
4. Sustainable development of some sectoral impact especially to the environment: some economic sectors have strong impact to the environment such as energy, mining, construction, transportation, travel to soon build action programs to ensure sustainable development, which is particularly focused on the application of the mining technology and advanced processing allows saving natural resources, reducing pollution and emissions, encourage the use of renewable forms of energy, improving the ecological environment in mining area resource.
a. energy sector: energy is a key sector of the economy, is also one of the most powerful industry to the environment caused by coal mining activity in the mining, oil and gas exploration on the continental shelf, the production and use of fuels, energy caused much waste.
To sustainable development, should make the following priority activities: strengthening the legal base for production and business operations, energy consumption and environmental protection. Perfecting the system of energy industry administration, capacity building planning and energy development plan.
The choice of production technology and optimal use of the types of energy; choice of policy tools, build the programs developed to implement the strategic direction for sustainable development.
Supporting research, development, transfer and application of energy system does not harm the environment, including new sources of energy and energy resources are capable of regeneration. Encourage the use of less energy-consuming technologies and actively implemented energy saving programs. Priority for the development of energy sources capable of regeneration through the financial incentive and other policy mechanisms in the development strategies of national energy.
Need specific solutions to technology and management organization for each subdivision of the energy to implement the program, the project reduces the negative impact on the environment in the production, trading and use of energy.
Participate actively in the activities of international exchange and cooperation related to The Framework Convention on climate change of the United Nations in 1992 that Vietnam has signed to join on November 16, 1994 and is a member of this Convention. Import and apply the advanced technologies of foreign countries in the field of mining, coal washing and processing. Take capital and applying advanced technologies of foreign countries to renovate and upgrade technology for the coal industry.
b. Mining Sector: mining is kind of non-renewable resources. The country currently has a total of over 1,000 active mines and mined over 50 different mineral types. Currently, due to the longer loose management, indiscriminate exploitation condition relatively common, especially in small mines dispersed, scattered in the local. Besides doing wasting resources by not taking advantage of obtaining useful mineral content, the exploitation by backward technology also induces the loss of forests, soil erosion, sedimentation and pollution, coastal rivers and streams.
To sustainable development, should make the following priority activities: using the tools of Economics, administration and enforcement of laws aimed at making more effective and resolute mineral Law.
Perfecting the management system of mineral resources in the Central and the local levels. Building the unified planning of use of mineral resources and protect the environment.
Technological innovation of extraction and processing, in order to take advantage of mineral resources and protect the environment. Study on technology of using low concentrations of ore had to thoroughly use the minerals in the mine, at the same time reducing the volume of waste ground, narrow area of waste dumps. Search recovery solutions useful substances from the waste ore dump to clean the environment and avoid wasting resources.
The mining sequence organization in a logical manner, avoiding the easiest mines status before the hard beak, then abandoned, do affect the monitoring, evaluation and planning of mining. Limited and soon progress to prohibit mining condition in a spontaneous manner, indiscriminately.
With regard to mineral resources beneath the riverbed, need circled the area of extraction, avoid doing avalanche and flow changes.
Increased investment for recovery, stitching and improve ecological environment in mining areas.
c. Transport Sector: structural system technical infrastructure road traffic, railways, waterways, and air all have and are being expanded and perfected, made conditions conducive to rapid transport services growth, meeting the needs of business, production and circulation of the social , of the industrialization and the life of the people. The focus on building more infrastructure construction of transportation in the coming time will do for the environment, better scenery, better traffic conditions, positive contribution to the cause of industrialization and modernization of the country and improve people's lives. Song on the other hand, the field of transportation also poses some challenges for sustainable development: A population will have to relocate due to the clearance to the project and relocation do the life disturbance; a division of land are cultivated will be lost.
The risk of pollution emissions, dust, noise, sea river pollution will increase.
Build the infrastructures of transportation will attract a large number of capital investment, which is largely outside loan debt burden of tomorrow generation will increase.
To sustainable development, should make the following priority activities: building systems of synchronous policy aimed at sustainable development of the transport sector, including land use policies, development of infrastructure, building a network of public transportation, and encouraging the private sector to join the transportation development , using the means of transport has low energy consumption and reduce polluting emissions.
Planning transportation networks in sync with the master plan of the Department of ecology, nature conservation area, in order to ensure the development of the technical infrastructure and increasing services in harmonious relationship with economic development in the region and protect the natural environment.
Focus on developing public transport network in the municipality. Using the economic and administrative tool in encouraging the habit of using public transport services. Limited development of personal transportation fuel consuming, wasteful use of natural resources and polluting the environment, at the same time encourage the invention and popular means of environmental-friendly transport.
The rapid development of rural transport network to serve the socio-economic development and people's life, especially in the mountainous countryside, remote areas.
Advocacy, education, common law regarding traffic and traffic safety aims to reduce traffic accidents.
d. trade: in the course of economic renovation, commercial sector has increased rapidly. Besides the positive effects in terms of social-economic, international economic integration and trade liberalization, trade also increases the risk of breaking the sustainability of development: Vietnam now exports mainly raw goods and processing, although there was initially the more positive in the structure items in the direction of increasing the processing product. Boost exports meant increased exploitation of resources. If not protected, renewable, and gradually move to deeper processing, refined over the sources of raw materials, the natural resources will soon be exhausted, and environmental degradation.
The import of goods containing the toxic substance, difficult decomposition also increases the volume of the waste.
The import of materials, old equipment and backward is not only causes environmental pollution but also impede improving labor productivity and production efficiency, business, harmful to public health.
To sustainable development, should make the following priority activities: construction market strategy, which aims to ensure the needs of the domestic market, promote the creation of rational consumption model.
Perfecting the legal basis and the management of the State apparatus on trade and markets in order to grow the domestic market and expanding trade relations with foreign countries.
Build long-term plans and restructure export items in the direction of increasing the level of processing and added value in goods and services exports, declining export of raw resources and preliminary processing.
Closely monitor the import and export of goods, technology and equipment to ensure that minimize waste arise, at the same time encourage the import of technology, environment-friendly equipment.
e. Tourism: tourism potential of Vietnam are very abundant. Tourism development has created more jobs and income, restore many cultural traditions, embellished some of the landscape and historical sites, culture. Song on the other hand, it also affect sustainable development.
Hotels, tourism and catering work entertaining "burst out" lack of careful planning, many cases undermining the historic and natural landscape.
Some sensitive ecosystems, has high biodiversity such as national parks, natural sanctuaries, coastal regions ... been compromised and cause strong change.
The amount of waste pollutes the environment in major tourist areas, focus, especially in some of the coastal tourist area is increasing.
Socio-cultural environment impact of exotic lifestyles also have the bad change. Prostitution, addiction to smoking, social diseases, HIV/AIDS is the direct consequence of the development of tourism.
To sustainable development, should make the following priority activities: planning cultural, social development, environmental protection with development planning and business travel. Entire event management for tourism, including integrating sustainable development requirements on State management in tourism.
Implementation of the environmental impact assessment for all development projects and business travel.
Encourage the development of eco-tourism. Support the community participation in the management of local tourism work of more local economic benefits, and participation monitoring, ensuring reduced to the lowest level of the negative effects and risks of travel on the environment, traditional culture and living conditions of local people.
Enhance investment, promote advocacy, awareness raising education to everyone to preserve the natural heritage, history and ethnic culture. Mobilize broad participation of the authorities, business and residential community in the development of cultural and eco-tourism, heritage and environmental protection.
IV. Agriculture and rural development sustainability: agriculture, forestry, fishing is the most important economic sector of Vietnam, currently produce close to 1/3 of the GDP. In the 1990s, Vietnam's agricultural and rural development, has made significant progress. Production of food, especially rice, the continuous increase of cultivated area and productivity, has secured national food security and putting Vietnam become one of the top rice exporter in the world. Intensive farming became the dominant trend in agriculture with the application of scientific achievements of new technologies, processes and processing of farming products. The structure of agriculture and the rural economy has shifted in the direction of diversification and market-oriented. However, while no less challenge for sustainable development in agriculture and rural areas, which are:
Land in rural areas was divided into small, fragmented, inconsistent with the requirements of the production of the goods, the major focus.
The process of mechanization of agriculture and the application of the technical processes of advanced manufacturing also takes place slowly. Most of the production in the agricultural area, are handmade, lead to the agricultural labor productivity was very low.
The industry also impact heavily on agriculture, forestry, fishery, particularly the processing industry of agricultural products.
Agricultural markets unstable, the price change trend disadvantages for farmers.
Gene diversity declining status in plant breeding, pets do trend replacing traditional varieties with new varieties are making the prevention of pests harder. The use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides and growth stimulant in an arbitrary way there have been signs that exceed the limits of eco-environment, lead to degeneration of land, water pollution and harm to human health.
Small industrial, handicraft and village development in many rural areas, attracting about 2 million workers have created more jobs and increase the income of the population. Song production technology remains backward, poor, lacking competitive market the product as the causes hindering stable development of this area. Besides having the positive effects, however due to the lack of development planning and the lack of adequate investment to protect resources and the environment, this small production area are polluting the environment of rural communities, especially in some villages, where the production and mixing together in a crowded residential area.
Exploitation status of land resources and soil, forests, fauna in the countryside are also doing wasting more precious resource could not be renewable.
The priority activities for the development of sustainable agriculture: 1. About the law: improve law systems, synchronous policy on agricultural development; the system of management and protection of land resources, water resources, seed, livestock, other natural resources use in agriculture, forestry, fisheries; the advanced farming methods and environmental protection issues of agriculture, rural.
Strengthen the coordination between the bodies managing the industry, agricultural sector, rural, environmental and other regulatory bodies. Continue to improve management at Central and local levels aimed at strengthening the management team for the development of sustainable agriculture.
The master plan for rural development, encourage rural urbanization in a logical manner through financial policies, technology development and population policy, aimed at creating sustainable development in both rural and urban, which created the reasonable relationship of assigned employees, and promote mutual exchanges between rural and urban , make material life in the countryside is increasingly full of comfort and spiritual cultural life increasingly civilized progress.
2. About the economy: promote agrarian transitions in the agrarian region fragmented, dispersed, cornered fill changes the plots to create conditions suitable for the cultivation of large, modern methods.
Build and execute the program to enhance the productivity of land, water resources rational use in the locality. apply the production system combining agriculture, agriculture-forestry-fisheries consistent with ecological conditions of each region to use synthetic and effective types of resources soil, water and climate.
Expand production and market agricultural products clean, focused test stitching quality of products aimed at giving consumers confidence in the level of hygiene and, safety of agricultural products, food.
Development of processing industry of animal husbandry, aquatic products, cooking oil, sugar, vegetables, fruits to increase type, scale and efficiency of food production, food. Improve the environmental quality of processing industry. Perfecting the system of stored, preservation, processing and distribution of food at every level, particularly with regard to the national food reserves.
Promoting the process of economic restructuring, plant breeding livestock and rural labor resources use. Diversified production structure in order to create more jobs, improve income, assigned back to rural workers and create conditions for a stable settlement, alleviate pressure on migrants from the countryside.
Strengthen and perfect technical service system available for the fields of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry and fisheries. Set up a system to guide the production and consumption of agricultural products.
Construction of rural infrastructure, irrigation development in order to increase the area to be irrigated. Solve the problem of providing clean water for people and livestock in the poorer regions.
Development of the profession and non-agricultural enterprises in rural areas must go hand in hand with the construction and expansion of the industrial-focused, have sufficient infrastructure guarantee limit the ability to pollute. Research to form a network of institutions working on consulting, training, and technical support in order to grow, the craft industry in rural areas, the development of traditional villages. Proactive planning and construction of village clusters, industrial, handicraft focus in rural areas to economic development, and reduce the environmental pollution caused by this profession.
3. About the techniques and technologies: research and applications of biotechnology in the development of crop varieties and livestock productivity, and overall quality of pestilent height, not degenerative, not damage to biodiversity. Establishment of the Centre for the production of high-quality varieties, imported selectively and carefully appraise the seed, pet of foreign countries.
Production of organic fertilizer, biological fertilizers, fertilizers resolution slow service for the development of ecological agriculture.
Expand the application of organic agricultural production, implement universal process of synthetic pesticide (IPM).
Seed genetic resources conservation, local pets.
Promoting research and the application of advanced technology to the preservation and processing of agricultural, forestry and aquatic products.
V. sustainable development of the region and local: Vietnam has 64 provinces and cities under central, was split up into eight economic geographic region. The provinces in the country have formulated a long-term development plan to the year 2010. Territory Planning Department have also been built. However, between the provinces and the Planning Department does not yet have the combination. The region is not granted State management, so haven't had the development planning, monitoring and evaluating the impact of development in the territory. Meanwhile, the issue of sustainable development often cover large territory scale and requires coordination between the various provinces and cities with each other.
The development strategy on the one hand to develop priority ahead of the key economic region, likely in action up front, but on the other hand must pay attention to supporting the least developed regions and more difficult conditions, in order to create a certain balance in space development , gradually narrowing the gap on society and progress to reduce economic disparity in later years. The key economic development zone will play a leading role, was embroiled the mountainous, remote areas have conditions more difficult.
In order to ensure the process of planning, planning and directing the implementation of regional development to bring sustainability, innovation needed management system:
1. Strengthening the capacity, awareness and responsibility for sustainable development for local authorities. Local government directed economic development projects-social and use natural resources to serve local interests, understanding the environmental impact of the project on socio-economic development in the area and so is the most appropriate level for the planning and the planning of sustainable development in their local.
2. The Department, regions are promoting the advantages to develop its strengths, according to open economic structure, tied to the needs of the domestic and foreign markets. The State continues to promote the key economic region to promote the role of fast growth, at the same time facilitate and appropriate investment for the region more difficult. Unified development planning in the country, between regions, provinces, cities, create the link directly on production, trade, investment, technical assistance and human resources. Improve recreation and training of human resources to meet the requirements of socio-economic development of the region and the area.
3. widely attracted mass organizations and the people on the selection process and the implementation of local development projects according to the principle "people know, people, people, people do check".
4. Strengthen the coordination between the bodies of State administration in order to ensure interdisciplinary and interregional, territory.
5. To ensure the sustainable development of the region and the local, need to build the sustainable development of the region and local. On the basis of the analysis of the natural potential, human resources, the comparative advantage and the difficulties with respect to the development, situation analysis of economic, social development, environmental protection, sustainable development program will identify the objectives, direction, content industry development territories, in view of sustainable development; draw out the system of measures to implement the goals, content and direction of social-economic development, including policy solutions related to the sustainable use of natural resources and environmental protection.
Part 3 the SOCIAL SECTOR SHOULD AIM at SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES i. focused efforts to reduce poverty, hunger, promote implementation of progress and social justice: in the past 10 years, Vietnam has achieved great achievements in poverty reduction. Step into the new millennium, Vietnam is still a significant percentage of the poor. According to the current national poverty, the poverty rate in early 2001 about on 17%, with 2.8 million poor households across the country (if international standard poverty rate is 32%). Besides, a majority of the population still living approximately poverty. Poor people are also less likely to have access to basic social services and vulnerable before the risks in life such as natural disasters, crop failures, sickness ... The ability to recreate the high poverty, making poverty reduction achievements lacking sustainability. There is still over 2300 in an exceptionally difficult, amounting to about 22% of the total number of communes in the country. The disparity in the standard of living of the social groups, while not high, but tends to increase. Possible resource mobilization for poverty reduction in comparison with the demand was still too limited.
In the coming decades, the implementation of social justice and progress in Vietnam should focus on the following key: poverty reduction.
Shorten the distance on the level of socio-economic development between rural and urban, between mountains and narrow.
Fellow support the minorities in the activities of social-economic development, protect natural resources and the environment.
Improving the status of women in the activities of social-economic development and environmental protection.
Create conditions for the vulnerable social groups to integrate with the community.
The priority activities that need to be taken to achieve these objectives are: 1. Take the work of poverty reduction is central to the strategy of socio-economic development, which focuses on the operational support, enabling the poor, poor households have the material and means of production , service, ensure food security at the household level, raise revenue to overcome poverty; create opportunities for poor people access to basic social services, especially access educational services, health care, clean water; minimize risk due to natural disasters, hurricanes and the negative impact of the economic reform process, ensure sustainable poverty reduction. At the same time support the poor development of infrastructure, production, services, narrowing the gap disparity in development levels, the standard of living between regions, the residential class.
2. Focused help for poor local economic development through economic restructuring, plant, animals have high economic value, development of production of goods and labor structure in the direction of gradually increasing the proportion of workers in industry and services, decreasing the proportion of labour in agriculture.
3. Incorporate poverty reduction programs with programs, economic development planning, social protection and environmental improvement; the planning and construction of residential clusters; encourage legitimate and legal enrichment, coupled with speeding up poverty reduction, fast lifting people's living standards in the poor, the needy, diminishing the gap disparity between living standards in the region, the nation, the middle-class population and improve the quality of life.
4. In the coming period, the work of poverty reduction focusing on the most difficult (the town especially hard, the revolutionary base areas, border region, Islands, remote areas, minorities) and priority subjects are women and poor children.
5. Implementation of the social assistance policy, disaster prevention, risk reduction for weak groups, through the mechanism of socialization, the State and the people doing the same. Focus perfect the social security network suited to meet pressing needs and emergencies of the vulnerable groups, those with difficult circumstances, victims of war and natural disasters, to help them integrate into the community, prevent and limit bad re hungry and chronically poor. This is also an important condition ensuring the advancement, fair, stable and sustainable development of the society.
6. Encourage poor communities promote internal motivation, self managed to escape poverty, combined with the support of the State and other communities implement sustainable poverty reduction. Strengthen and diversify the resources to poverty alleviation, promoting the civil power is combining the effective use of resources for international cooperation to accelerate poverty reduction.
7. Have the policies, mechanisms and encourage the application of science and technology progress, appropriate technology transfer to the poor, the poor to social-economic development, create jobs and increase income for the poor.
II. Continue to reduce population growth rates and create more jobs for workers: Vietnam has a large population, abundant labor force, young, high dynamics in economic activity. In past decades, Vietnam has implemented the strategy of population, family planning with content mainly limited to natural population growth rates and achieve satisfactory achievements. Vietnam has basically control the speed of population increase, so the pressure of population size for the development began to be mitigated.
Despite the success in limiting the speed of population growth, the problems of scale, structure, quality of population and population distribution is still the major challenge for the sustainable development of Vietnam in several years: population growth is a leading cause of forest condition were narrow , natural resources are being depleted, mining the environment degraded.
The missing workers for jobs; the quality of human resources is still low.
The rapidly increasing population leads to insufficient supply situation in health and education, raises a series of issues such as: the rate of child malnutrition remains high; height, weight does not guarantee the resulting recession race; school dropout rate increase; losing equity in education will increase between the regions, ethnic groups; the quality of education improved surface difficult.
Need to perform the following priority activities to overcome the challenge from the population problem mentioned above: 1. Maintain a reduction trend firmly and raise the quality of the population physically, intellectually and spiritually: reduced results from now until 2010 has meaning decision to stabilise population size in high or low level. The scale of Vietnam's population will stabilize in the middle of the 21st century, if at a high level, which can reach over 122 million people, still at a low level the population will under 113 million people. To achieve this goal, the need to perform the following work: Conditions, strengthen and stabilize the system of organization and staff to do the work of the population at all levels, especially at the grassroots level to undertake the function of organization, management and implementation of population and development programs. Further strengthen the leadership of the party and the Government for the work of the population.
Strengthen communication, education aims to raise awareness and change the behaviour of the population, reproductive health, family planning. Focus on the geographical socio-economic conditions remain difficult and the many restrictions on object perception. Expand and enhance the quality of media forms, population education in and outside schools.
Improving the quality of reproductive health care and family planning work with the essential content, in line with the framework of health initially limited to the lowest level, the unintended pregnancy, abortion, contributing to rapid improvement of the quality of the population.
The capacity to collect, process and provide information, data about the population to meet the required reviews the results of strategies and programs of the population; ensuring the mainstreaming of population data on planning policy, the plan aims to adjustment of the social-economic development, population distribution consistent with the change of the population.
Advanced level, strengthening the role of families and made gender equality aims to contribute to improving the quality of the population physically, intellectually and spiritually.
Mobilizing the general power of the whole society to join the working population, create all favorable conditions to every individual, every family and the whole of the community voluntarily and actively participated in the work of the population. Building and perfecting the system of population and development policies, created a legal basis and motivation in order to promote the process of implementation.
Ensure funding and operational conditions for the population. Allocation and effective use of resources to serve the population.
2. Resolution: resolution is the deciding factor to promote the human factor, human resources in economic development, stable and healthy work culture society, pressing needs of the people.
The population of working age will rise from an estimated 45.4 million currently to approximately 60 million people in 2010. The target set for the job field is to create millions of new jobs every year, make good use of the labour force has not used up, especially on the occasion of the idle farm in rural and in the agricultural sector, and labour restructuring in accordance with the economic structure in the process of industrialization modernization. To achieve this goal, the need to perform the following tasks: perform the shift towards economic rapidly increasing proportion of the industrial area, construction and services, reduce the proportion of the agricultural sector in order to create an economy with the structure is likely to attract many workers and create more new jobs.
Improve and innovate the mechanism, use and management of private capital towards diversifying forms of capital mobilization, regular interest adjustment and simplifies the procedure of sending money, cash out of savings to mobilize more and more idle capital among the people. Accelerate the holdings, formed capital markets and operate this market type aimed at mobilizing and moving capital quickly, easily between the regions and economic sectors. Structural improvements using investment capital of the State, increase the medium-term and long-term capital, capital support for people, especially for farmers in the process of job creation and economic structure transformation.
Raise the level of processing of products to create more jobs and expanding labour market. Focus on technological innovation, improve labor skills, formation and development of agricultural processing capacity in order to increase the scale and proportion of the exports of the products has passed, reducing the export of raw materials. Find and expand the market, especially considered promoting labor and expert export is sewn. To do well the work of vocational training to get more laborers to work abroad.
Formation, development and regulate effectively in the domestic labor market. Good organization and construction of information system of the labour market. Encourage the development of active employment services transparent and effective market mechanisms.
Complete step by step legal corridors of labour and employment in order to develop healthy labour relations, protecting the legitimate and legal rights of the workers and the employers.
Development of the system of education and training, strengthening the link between the educational system and vocational training to the labour market, with employment promotion and services.
III. Orientation of the process of urbanization and migration to sustainable urban development, rational distribution of labour and population by region: since the early 1990s, the process of urbanization with rapid speed. In 1999, the total Census shows there are 17.9 million people are urban dwellers, accounting for 23.45 percent of the population. Throughout the country there are 623 municipalities (including 5 central cities, 82 cities, towns in the province and town of 537).
The process of urbanization is currently experiencing the following challenges: planning and investment in urban infrastructure in most of the municipalities of Vietnam are slower than the pace of socio-economic development of the municipality and have yet to meet the requirements of environmental protection, especially the poor and backward condition of water supply systems drainage, wastewater collection and disposal of solid waste, the transportation system.
Although the technical infrastructure of the town in the big city was interested in investments to renovate and upgrade, but overall still very weak, do not meet the standards of the modern municipality. Environmental pollution and disrupt the ecological balance of the town, the natural landscape is a public concern.
The planning of environmental protection in urban planning should just increase the urban environment issue just cause difficulty in overcoming its consequences. Manifest is the construction status alternating factories pollute the environment in crowded residential areas, a lack of infrastructure, and waste disposal services, causing serious environmental pollution.
Fast urbanization and the increase of population migration from countryside causing a growing pressure on housing and environmental sanitation of the town.
Priority activities should be conducted to sustainable urban development include: 1. Review the overall plan to ensure sustainable urban development.
In terms of promoting industrialization and modernization of the country, the municipality especially important role in the career development of economy, society, culture, security, defense and environmental protection.
The goal of the master plan of urban development is the construction of relatively complete systems of municipalities throughout the country, there are infrastructure, economy, society and modern techniques, urban environment clean, be reasonable development and distribution in the country, ensure that each municipality according to the position and its function to promote the strength to development, sustainable and stable.
Overall planning urban development must be review, particularly under the angle of the principle of sustainable development, to ensure the entire system of the municipality of the country in General and each municipality in particular must be sustainable development.
Overall planning urban development 1997-2020 period, Vietnam has been approved by the Prime Minister in decision No. 10/1998/QD-TTg dated 23 January 1998, under which the establishment and development of municipalities in our country in the coming time must comply with the following main views : fit the distribution and the level of development of productive forces;
Reasonable distribution of large municipalities, small and average on the combined territories promote rural urbanization and new countryside construction, creating a balanced development between the three areas of North-Central-South, gradually declining difference too big on the level of socio-economic development between the regions;
Have the sync infrastructure with appropriate qualifications or modern, depending on required the extraction and use of areas in the municipality;
Stable, sustainable development and on the basis of rational environmental organizations and environmental protection;
Combine new construction with improvements; attach importance to preserve cultural identity and ethnic traditions with the application of scientific advances, new technologies in the construction, renovation and modernization of the town line with Vietnam's practical conditions;
Associated closely with the assurance of security, defense and social security order.
Mobilize all sources of capital to renovate, urban construction, ensure the orderly development, discipline in accordance with the approved master plan and the provisions of the law.
2. Reduce to lowest level of urbanization impacts to the environment through the following activities: step by step to upgrade toilet standards system building environment in design, city planning and housing. the establishment and development of monitoring systems to ensure good environmental hygiene prevention in urban construction.
Promote the work of collecting and handling of solid wastes and industrial activities in the urban and industrial areas, where buried far from residential areas, or use technology to reuse or recycling processing as fertilizer.
Consolidate and strengthen the capacity of the agencies have a duty to manage and ensure the sanitation of the town.
Establishment of the interdisciplinary Committee to manage the urban environment sanitation with the head is the head of the respective levels of Government.
3. the immigrant flow orientation according to the territories and rural-urban migration: the role of re population distribution to enhance the effective use of the resources of labor, capital, resources ... The premise of the immigrants is due to the disparity in employment, standard of living and conditions of development between the regions, the territories. Migration dynamics mainly for economic reasons. In particular, there are also some ethnic groups less migrants due to cultivation model nomadically.
The goal of the orientation of the immigrant flow is distributed back to the labor and population, the best use of resources, to meet the requirements of the development process.
The priority activities in order to achieve the above purposes: a. implementation of economic development strategies, as the most sustainable means to successfully tune the stream of migration: rural development towards modernization goes hand in hand with protecting and preserving the beauty of the rural tradition; diversifying the trades are profitable; priorities for investment and development in the impoverished region, where many people go. Promote rural urbanization process as the basis for accelerating the process of transforming the economic structure and labour in the countryside. Encourage rural population self-employment right at home. State stimulus by supporting infrastructure development, loans for manufacturing, trading and service activities.
Rational urban development through encouraging the development of the city average and small scale.
Reduce the differences between regions, rural areas with urban areas, between the community and the creation of sustainable social integration.
Promote the use of proper, rational nature resources in place that serves well for the social-economic development of communities in the outlying areas.
Policies and management measures in accordance with the rules and the level of development of the country.
b. renovation and implementation of migration policies: for each type of migration, the local authorities need to make multiple synchronous policies and measures for economic, social, technical, management to a production development, increase job opportunities and income infrastructure development, and not exacerbate the social and environmental problems at the local immigrant population; on the other hand improved living and working conditions of migrants, organizing the implementation of the obligations of migrants with regard to immigrant communities, protection of the legitimate rights of employment, living conditions and the other rights of migrants in the labour market.
IV. improving the quality of education to enhance recreation and professional level, consistent with the requirements of the career development of the country: The education and training of Vietnam has made significant progress in recent years. Scope of education, training continued to be expanded at all levels, education, field of study to meet the needs of larger people. There are now nearly 94% of population from 15 years literate; all the provinces and cities in the country are the national standard of literacy and universal primary education; the average school year number of reaches 7.3; a trained workforce to have technical expertise about 8 million people, accounting for 18.3 percent of the total of 43.8 million workers throughout the country.
However, the education and training of Vietnam also revealed many shortcomings on the face such as: quality of education and training at all levels of learning, the school is still low. There is a lack of basic conditions to ensure the quality, such as: teachers lack the number of asynchronous structure, and low quality, obsolete education methods, teaching also means deprivation.
Effective education, training is also low. Labor rates through training low, yet effective solutions in human resource training in order to increase the competitiveness of the economy, to rural development, serving the economic restructuring and labor distribution. University training and professional education was not consistent with the labor needs of society.
Structured training on the level of regions and industries, rational yet. About distance education, development of training between the regions in the country have not been narrowed.
Some negative phenomena, lack of discipline in education, training has not been intercepted in time, causing bad consequences.
The Mission of the education, training in sustainable development strategies is to strive constantly to enhance recreation, create equal opportunities for access to education, constantly developing personal capacity and enhance the quality of human resources, the determinants of social-economic development in the next decade.
The priority activities aimed at implementing the above tasks are: 1. to renew the program, content and methods of education and training to improve the quality of education for the young generation, strengthening the practical, hands-on skills, capacity studies, social and human knowledge additional, the achievements of science and modern technology consistent with the ability of students to acquire and reach the level of general education in countries in the region and the world.
2. support the the difficulty in implementing universal target junior secondary in 2010 by supporting training of teachers to complement the missing 10 the difficulty; additional funding to support the construction of schools, construction of boarding schools and stores the equipment, teaching tools.
3. Training for rural farmers to equip the basic knowledge about the industries in rural areas, enabling farmers to diversify production activities, business to create jobs and increase income. This activity consists of the construction of vocational training network in the countryside, build vocational training programs and provide vocational teachers to farmers.
4. Formation and development of the training system, fostering human resources service for Labor export to currency exchange and create jobs.
5. Development firm education minority ethnic regions and the regions in difficulty, striving to reduce the disparity in educational development between the territories through measures such as building school network system to the appropriate class in ethnic and mountainous areas; the consolidation, renewal of the pedagogical school in order to improve the quality, effectiveness of training teachers, especially teachers for ethnic regions, mountain; allocation policy enforcement and reasonable financial support from the central State budget and local.
6. Mobilization of the whole society, the whole population contribute building education, diversifying the types of education and training, expanding financial resources, tapping all resources in society to develop education.
7. Implement education on environmental protection and sustainable development in the school; propaganda and popular knowledge about sustainable development to enhance recreation and raise awareness for the people on that basis, to mobilize the entire population participates in sustainable development.
V. grow in number and improve the quality of health care services, improve labor conditions and sanitary living environment: over the years, the work of caring for and protecting the people's health has achieved encouraging achievements. Network of healthcare facilities to be strengthened and developed. Therefore, the work of health initially was made good in many localities, including mountainous areas, remote areas and Islands. The prevention of disease and prevention initiative has been implemented. Many dangerous diseases have been controlled and pushed back as cholera, plague and malaria. The system of examination and be invested to upgrade and really new advances. Many of the techniques in the diagnosis and treatment has been successfully applied and popularized. Protecting the health of mothers and children and family planning are more positive shifts. Traditional medical system be strengthened and developed, has promoted positive effects in the treatment of common diseases and many different chronic diseases with low costs, in line with the poor and the people of the rural, mountainous.
On people's health situation as improving. Vietnam has achieved general norms about health, much better compared to countries that have the same per capita income levels, contributing to significant increases in the human development index of our country.
However, in the field of health also exists in the following challenges: the market economy makes the poor rich goods, while increasing the State budget for health is still limited the practice of equity in the field of health is difficult. The policy on health insurance, hospital charges and income for the poor was initially effective, but besides that also revealed a limited number.
The standard of living of the people increasingly improve the healthcare needs of growing and diverse. The investment to high-tech development in the form of private healthcare, venture or selling the initially deployed but the results are limited.
Present illness model has just brought the characteristic of developing countries, has brought to the nature of the industrialised countries. Natural disasters and the disaster is a risk of unexpected and when happens often cause more loss of people and of property, including the facilities of the medical industry.
On the subjective side, the medical profession still stand before a reality is the level of professional staff and management have yet to meet the requirements of industry development in the new situation; the equipment in the lack of health facilities and backward; the amount of the drug by the pharmaceutical facility in the country of origin have yet to meet consumer demand, high drug prices due to lack of medication management mechanisms of State leads to quality of care activities and protect people's health is still low and high efficient.
The goal of the strategy health care and protect the health of the people of the period 2001-2010 is: striving to sickness on a steady, increasing health, all people enjoy health care services; have access to and use of quality medical services. Everyone is living in the community, the environment clean, well developed physically and mentally. Reduce the incidence of disease, improve stamina, increase the longevity and development of race.
Priority activities should be conducted are: 1. To meet the basic needs of health for: consolidating and strengthening the health system according to the directions to diversify the types of serves and socialized joined forces, but the public health facilities are the dominant role. Set the system provides comprehensive health care to focus on the provision of basic health services and health care services. The State guarantees provided to the increasing budget for the development of the health system to meet the demand, especially for the poor, policy objects and subjects at high risk; investment priorities for production activities.
Improve, upgrade infrastructure, the working conditions of the communes, wards and clinics; training community health workers, medical technicians to ensure they have the capability to conduct the work of healing, wellness and preventive health activities.
Boost investment in upgrading the online examination system, the district.
Diversification of activities includes examination of State institutions, health departments, healthcare establishments are foreign-invested, and investors.
Gradual development of the hospitals into the centres provide preventive services, wellness and rehabilitation to improve the mainstreaming achieved benefits, high efficiency in the use of medical resources and health services.
Promote the incorporation of health with family planning services, and improving the quality of services in family planning and reproductive health.
Development and universal medical technologies consistent with rural areas in order to meet the basic needs of rural people for the work of healing and wellness.
Provide services to meet the basic health care, taking it as an important platform, based on three-level medical network for both prevention and cure. Promote disease prevention, healing, solving the problem of prominent health and rehabilitation work.
Strengthening the health system development, basis from district hospitals to clinics, rural health, and township to the household, the family physician development; training of appropriate medical personnel.
Consolidate and strengthen the quarantine, including border health quarantine. Encourage the people to participate actively in the prevention of social vices, drugs, prostitution.
2. development of preventive medicine, prevention of infectious diseases: surveillance planning, waste disposal and collection activities and hospital waste, especially hazardous waste. The implementation plan must be the environmental protection agency oversight.
Consolidate and strengthen the monitoring and prevention of infectious diseases. Consolidating and developing the system, infectious disease surveillance unit causing the epidemic hemorrhagic fever epidemic, such as Japanese encephalitis, malaria, cholera, ... developed the methods of monitoring the epidemic, ensure the preventive measures against the spread, and the work of quench room works effectively.
Strengthen the prevention of the disease is not infectious.
Maintain and strengthen the immunization expanded.
Strengthening HIV/AIDS prevention activities.
Prevention of intestinal infectious diseases and insect-transmitted diseases, parasites.
Control the risk from the environment related to infectious diseases.
Strengthen preventive medicine, health enhancement.
3. Reduce the harm caused by environmental pollution on the health of the people: promoting the formulation and promulgation of policies and legal texts on environmental hygiene, food hygiene and safety; the construction and enactment of environmental standards and national industry; consolidate, strengthen existing surveillance systems and the overall planning of environmental monitoring network in the country.
Set up the mechanisms to combine health with environmental protection.
Building the national orientation of environmental health.
Management, environmental monitoring, prevention of occupational diseases and diseases related to the profession due to the effects of the toxic elements in the environment, pollution, labor.
4. Protect high risk groups: Fortify maternity care, practice guidelines, additional dining iron tablets prevention of anemia in women. Good maternal health care, in collaboration with education prevention of malnutrition.
Doing well the work of implementing nutrition education, done in every family. Promoting socialization in order to mobilize all resources to deploy the malnutrition prevention programs for children. Ensure sufficient supply of Vitamin A for children from 6 to 36 months of age, especially those who are at high risk.
Maintain a high immunization rate for children with the disease can reserve by vaccines.
Part 4 the FIELD of USE of NATURAL RESOURCES, PROTECT the ENVIRONMENT and CONTROL pollution SHOULD AIM at SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PRIORITIES i. Against land degradation status, sustainable and efficient use of land resources: soil degradation are a popular trend for large parts in Vietnam , especially hilly region, home to more than 3/4 of land fund. The degenerative form of land mostly: erosion, wash, low fertility of land and imbalanced nutrition, soil acidity, salinity, alum, silver color, drought and desertification, flash floods, flood wetland, land slide and avalanche, contaminated soil.
Over 50% of the land (3.2 million hectares) in the Plains and over 60% of the land area (13 million hectares) in the hills are the issues related to land degradation. In the plain, the challenge of the land environment is attenuated, flood victims, alum, salinity, erosion and scoured the River, soil pollution, shorelines, squeeze fertility of the soil in order to collect short-term benefits. In mountainous areas, the cause of environmental degradation have more land, but mainly due to cultivation methods with the Lady is also primitive, backward of the mountain peoples; felling, firing indiscriminately. Environmental degradation of land lead to the recession, populations of plants and reduce the dimension of agricultural land area per capita to alarm level.
To combat the degeneration of land, sustainable and efficient use of land resources, Vietnam has implemented the policies, programs and projects as appropriate: the forest stock land for households, afforestation, agroforestry, perennial development on sloping land, the conservation and sustainable use of wetlands River basin management, and coastline. Some international action against degeneration of land have also been made, but the scale is still very small.
The priority activities to combat land degradation status, sustainable and efficient use of land resources: 1. On policy, law: Supplement, modify and improve the policies and laws on ownership, use and management of land. Building and using effective information systems on land resources.
The planning and management of land resources use for all land use objects.
Continue building and issued the policy, the rules on sloping land management, soil and river wetlands.
Better integrating national policies with the international action plan on the fight against degeneration and sustainable land use.
2. Economically: regulate the distribution of population and migration between regions, in order to reduce the pressure of the population with respect to land resources.
Reasonable solutions to ensure food security and the mountains, sedentary, forest, development and protection against soil erosion.
Build the program aims at fostering "rejuvenation" of agricultural land in the densely populated delta region.
Research and application of the system of production of agriculture-forestry-fisheries ecological regions in complete different in order to ensure the effectiveness of social-economic development and environmental protection.
3. About the technique: application of technical measures (agronomy, biology, chemistry, mechanics ...) and investment-intensive use of land according to depth.
Make organic circulation in the soil. Crops have economic value, but at least high trade must land disturbance-makers and made the system of agriculture-forestry-animal combination in the sloping land.
Basin management to protect land and water, irrigation development, keep the ecological balance and reconcile the mutual impact between the plain and the mountains.
Reproduce the coating plant with trees the forest or agriculture-forestry complex combine to protect the fertility of the soil and the sustainable use of sloping land.
4. About awareness: community awareness about fair use and save land resources.
Training and coaching to enhance people's knowledge about technology, techniques used and land management.
Advocacy organizations and launching mass movement to apply the advanced models of sustainable use of land resources.
II. Protection of water environment and sustainable use of water resources: Vietnam has surface and groundwater is relatively abundant, but precipitation is distributed between seasons and between regions in the country, causing floods of the rainy season and the dry season drought in many places. The terrain of the mountains create significant potential of hydroelectric power and water reserves, while also increasing the possibility of flooding and soil erosion. Groundwater resources can be harnessed to serve the requirements of living in large and medium scale in some areas. For the international water resource that Vietnam shared with the neighbouring countries, the necessary strengthening of coordination and international cooperation in the use and protection, in order to serve the interests of fair and reasonable between the parties.
Vietnam has been actively building policies, legislation, programs and projects of the protection and use of water resources. However, the management of water resources has the following weaknesses: not yet have long-term strategies on management of water resources at the national scale and in each region. Not really water management under the system of the basin.
The regulations on the protection, use and management of water resources is still lacking or patchwork. Yet there is enough of the proper management of the water quality standards; groundwater usage limit for each area; financial contribution obligations for the management of water resources ...
Capital investment for irrigation still low so the work incomplete. Irrigation fees not enough revenue to manage operating, maintaining, major works of serious degradation. Poor water management, and waste in the use of water resources. Since the move to the market mechanism, mobilizing the people built irrigation are no longer paying attention. The result is the efficiency of construction and use of irrigation low, cause the waste of water resources.
Not yet focused on the investment in the waste water treatment technology.
There is a lack of community education programs about fair use, saving and protecting water resources.
The management, use and protection of water sources makes not good are degraded, polluted places. The risk of water resources were exhausted, with distributed over time and space, are threatening water shortages for economic development and life in some areas. Surface water sources increasingly polluted due to the large amount of industrial and domestic waste. Groundwater in some municipalities there are tiny amounts of expression is contaminated by organic contaminants are difficult decomposition.
Priority activities should be carried out in this field: 1. On policy, law: Should continue to build the policies, laws, regulations and technical process of use, protection and management of water resources.
Enhance the capacity of government agencies to the local level and for the community in the management and supervision of use of water resources.
Mobilize broad participation of the beneficiary countries in the process of planning, operations and finance the basic infrastructure of the country.
Building policy, the law overall management of national water resources in order to consider the different needs of countries such as: the consumption of human activities, agricultural irrigation, farming seafood, hydropower, tourism and recreation to balance these needs with the benefits of natural water and ecosystem management criteria.
Research needs and the long-term use of water at the water source on a national scale and in each region. Special attention on the overall planning of water supply for the town of large, medium and industrial zones.
Construction of national environmental standards: ground water, surface water sources such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands.
Perfecting the organization system of State management on water resources. Review the water resource management functions of the different bodies in order to avoid overlapping and duplication, and to study the formation of organization management of water resources in the country to bring uniformity and interdisciplinary.
Build the database server for the management and protection of water resources.
Strengthening international cooperation in the use, management and protection of shared water resources between Vietnam and neighboring countries.
2. Economically: build and execute the program, the project integrated management of the river basin, watershed, water table.
Expand and upgrade irrigation levels, improve the efficiency of use and reuse of water.
To treat water as a commodity type. Construction of the unit price on the service fees under the principle of "user pays" and "must pay to pollute".
Restoration of rivers and upgrade irrigation systems suffered severe degradation.
Encourage the work of protecting natural forests and plant trees causing forest.
Integrating the implementation of disaster prevention program with the program of social-economic development appropriate to the specific conditions of the region.
3. Technology: promoting the application of waste water treatment technologies, encourage the use of clean technology in production to reduce waste, reuse of waste water.
4. About awareness: awareness to the community about fair use, saving and protecting water resources.
Encourage community participation in activities to protect the environment and save water resources.
III. reasonable exploitation and saving, sustainable use of mineral resources: rational exploitation and saving, sustainable use of natural resources in General and mineral resources in particular is the content of the program for sustainable development of the country, is a particular content should be a priority , including the activities of extraction and use, saving effective mineral resources, which uses the save is mainstream.
Compared to many countries of the world and in the region, Vietnam has the important advantage of mineral resources. If knowing the protection, exploitation and rational, sustainable use of resources, they will become an advantage in international competition both in the present and the future.
The mineral is kind of non-renewable resources are present, the country has more than 1,000 large and small mines are being exploited. Do not tight management should exploit status lack of planning, very small mines for disposal, have caused the loss of State mineral resources, destroying the environment soil, vegetation and cause more environmental problems like landslides, collapsed mining exploitation ... especially the small mines dispersed in the localities are not unified management organization should sync status, loss of resources and pollute the environment exacerbated. Besides doing wasting resources by not taking advantage of obtaining useful mineral content, the exploitation by backward technology also induces the loss of forests, soil erosion, sedimentation and pollution, coastal rivers and streams.
The natural resources are divided into renewable and non-renewable type, in which minerals is sort of non-renewable resources. Protecting and saving, sustainable use of natural resources should be noted with respect to both of the above types with those policies and appropriate management measures for each type, but the type of non-renewable resources are in need of special attention. The method of extraction, processing and use of natural resources, as well as consumer method they present many inadequacies, not to "friendly" with the environment should have had adverse impact on the environment in many parts of the country, threaten the sustainable development, directly impact to production and social life in the present and the future. So the protection and sustainable use of natural resources in General and mineral resources in particular must become an important target in all strategic, planning, planning as well as development projects in Vietnam.
To implement sustainable development goals, using savings and effective mineral resources, should perform the following priority activities: 1. On policy, law: using the tools of Economics, administration and enforcement of laws aimed at making more effective and resolute mineral Law.
Perfecting the system of governing mineral resources in the Central and the local levels.
2. Economics: construction planning system for use of the mineral resources and protect the environment.
The mining sequence organization in a logical manner, avoiding the easiest mines status before the hard beak, then abandoned, do affect the monitoring, evaluation and planning of mining. Limited and soon progress to prohibit mining condition in a spontaneous manner, indiscriminately.
With regard to mineral resources beneath the riverbed, need circled the area of extraction, avoid doing avalanche and flow changes.
Increased investment for recovery, stitching and improve ecological environment in mining areas.
3. Technology: technological innovation, ready to recruit and processing in order to take advantage of mineral resources and protect the environment.
application of advanced technology to use the low content of ore had thoroughly using minerals in the mine, at the same time reducing the volume of waste ground, narrow area of waste dumps.
Recovery of useful substances from the waste ore dump to clean the environment and avoid wasting resources.
Make reimbursement of the following resources exploitation as: complete, plant trees, restore the vegetation, ecosystem, reuse of waste in the region of the mine was mined.
4. About awareness: awareness to the community about fair use, saving and protection of mineral resources.
Encourage community participation in the protection of mining activities, especially with regard to the small mines, dispersed and the kinds of minerals have high economic sensitivity, easy to pollute the environment.
IV. Protection of marine environment, coasts, Islands and sea resource development: Vietnam has more than 3,300 km of coastline. Exclusive economic zone of Vietnam sea about 1 million km2, three times more territory on the Mainland. The coastal region is the concentration of economic and social activity, it focuses nearly 60% of the population, about 50% of the large and important municipality and most of the country's largest industrial zone.
Vietnam has implemented a number of policies and measures aimed at protecting the marine environment. The Petroleum Law, maritime law has been issued and the law is about to be issued are paying attention to the issue of long-term protection of marine resources, as well as the protection of the marine environment. Some coastal cities are and will make the process of sewage and garbage. Some of the project integrated management of coastal areas has been executed.
Even so, the obstacles to the protection of the marine environment still more: the biggest obstacle is the lack of capital for public infrastructure and operations to prevent the harmful effects of environmental pollution.
Fisheries is one of the important economic sector of Vietnam, attracted close to 9 million workers and is the second exporting foreign currency values. The potential development of the fisheries sector in Vietnam is still very big if is managed and operated under the direction of sustainable development. Aquaculture development has proved to be an effective and important direction for poverty alleviation, job creation, increased income for communities. The current dilemma in developing fisheries are also more limited on the management and rational use of resources and protect the environment, the level of application of science and technology, investment capital, production and business organizations.
The coast suffered many ill effects of natural disasters such as hurricanes, floods, erosion.
Population pressure and the speed of industrialization, rapid urbanization in coastal regions caused many bad consequences for coastal resources and the sea. The cities, industrial zones and coastal regions poured waste water amounts do not over handle and a solid waste section into the River, sea, causing water pollution. In particular, the travel center is located on the sea coast is also the major source of discharge of sewage and garbage into the sea. River ports, sea ports, oil and gas extraction industry; environmental incidents such as oil spills, shipwrecks ... and natural disasters often occur are polluting agents and degrade the marine environment.
The consequence is that the marine and coastal ecosystems suffer from serious depression. Biodiversity is threatened and a recession, a huge area of mangrove forest were mobs to shrimp, coastal coral reefs being exploited in a manner of destruction, put Vietnam on the list of the regions with the highest threat levels in the world. Many rare animals such as the beast of the sea, sea, sea birds, the coastal vegetation and underwater coral, seaweed was narrowing. The quality of the living environment in the impaired ecosystem, changed a bad trend; species diversity and endemic genetic resources suffer loss or degradation, where serious level.
Priority activities should be conducted in this area are: 1. On policy, law: strategy of marine economic development and resource management, marine environment sustainable development standpoint. This strategy includes content partitioning functionality marine and coastal integrated management of mining operations and coastal aquaculture, establish the system of coastal and marine protected areas, urban development planning and coastal populations, the development of diverse industries and improve life for the coastal population , to prevent and reduce the harmful effects of coastal disasters, first hurricane, flood, avalanche, the water surges, strengthen the management capacity of sea and coastal environment, preventing and responding to incidents of sea environment.
Form an interdisciplinary institution, the unified management of the sea and the coast. Innovation needed setting planning, management and development plan is primarily aimed at gaining local economic benefits of the industry to which little attention to the issue of protection of natural resources and the environment. Need sanctions forced integrating the issue of protection of natural resources and the environment into planning, planning of economic development of the industry. Ahead, the oil and gas extraction industry, marine transportation, fisheries, forestry, tourism needs coordinated program to harness, protect natural resources and the marine and coastal environment.
Towards security, the right to use the sea within the scope allowed for producers to create conditions promoting the profession of farming of seafood.
Participate in the planning and implementation of the agreement and the international action programme and the fishing sector, the protection and sustainable use of marine resources, the protection of marine biodiversity.
2. About the economy: promote off-shore fishery and coastal fisheries adjustment.
Pet industry thriving, growing fisheries in coastal saltwater, brackish water in the direction of harmonization with the environment, simultaneously with the development and post-harvest technology application in order to use logical, save its fisheries products, ensure food safety and increase foreign exchange earnings through exports.
The development of logistics services fishing including fishing port activities, shipbuilding and repair, fishing tools, grid, provide the services, preservation, processing and consumption of products, best to focus the work contact information, rescue, rescue the fishermen and fishing boats.
Developing and diversifying the trades to boost job creation, poverty reduction and improving the standard of living for fishermen in coastal communities, help for protecting natural resources and marine and coastal environments are better.
3. About the environment: establishment and effective management of marine and coastal protected areas.
Promote the application of environmental standards in the industry and the nation.
Promoting the study and application of marine environmental protection technology and coastal rescue technology, environmental incidents (oil spills, shipwrecks, mangrove ...).
V. protection and development of forests: forests in Vietnam have a basic characteristic of tropical forests, very rich strains of plants, animals, the value of biomass and biodiversity. In the last years of the 20th century, the policies and measures to protect forests and new planting has brought positive results. The percentage of forest cover has increased from 27% in 1991, up 33.2% in 2000.
However, Vietnam is still under great pressure: long war has destroyed much of the forest ecosystem.
Wood, firewood needs of the economy and for living, together with super profit turnover of unauthorized exploitation of the wood are leading to indiscriminate mining State, exhausted, do not comply with the principles of forestry students, causing damage to the jungle capital, especially in the areas of jungle, watershed forest.
The status of tourism, deforestation deal materialise, competitiveness of agricultural produce compared to maintaining the forest are making an area of shrinking forests, forest quality decline. In the coastal region, an area of mangrove forest lost to growing shrimp.
Accidental forest fires occur frequently, losing tens of thousands of hectares every year.
The technology of extraction and processing of timber outdated, low wood use efficiency. On the other hand, the processing technology of wood-alternative products do not meet the requirements of consumers. Thus, forests continue to be subject to overharvesting, tapping.
Therefore, while the forest area has increased, but did not reach the required protective environment.
The strategic goal is to stabilize the Fund with forest composition as follows: special-purpose forests reached 3 million ha of forest, and forest protective 6 million hectares produced 10 million ha.
The priority activities needed in this field are: 1. On the institutional, law: strengthen State management system to guide the sustainable use and protection of forest resources, combined with the active participation of communities.
Continue to promote the delivery of land lease forests for households and collective land law and the law on the protection and development of forests.
Construction, and implement policies, laws to attract investment for the continued development and forest protection.
2. Economics: people support planting and forest protection, effective use of forest land was given stock. Encourage improvements through sustainable use of forests and forest management according to the residential community group. Awarded the contract of forest protection for the individual, household, community groups to ensure the protection and proper management with the forests.
Building, and guidelines on land-use tax exemptions, loans with preferential interest rates for farm investment; issued the policy on the management of the buffer and the core region of the forest along the guidelines concerned. Deploy the policies consistent profit sharing in protecting forests to encourage local people to participate in the management and protection of forests.
Promoting agro-forestry, ecological type agricultural farm-forestry, while enhancing agricultural extension services.
Encourage the sustainable use of non-wood forest products. Develop the industry of manufacturing of wood replacement.
Powerful deployment tree planting projects.
3. Technical and technology: research and application of technical advances and new technology in forestry production.
Encourage planting of native tree species in all the activities and reforestation reforestation.
application of mining technology and modern wood processing, effective use of forest resources.
Encourage use of alternative fuels such as coal, wood and gas, small scale hydropower. Research reviews to choose the alternative fuel wood and recommending effective use of solar energy, wind power, natural gas or hydroelectric energy.
Study of application of technical solutions for the prevention and fight against forest fires and other environmental disasters involving the loss of forests.
VI. Reduction of air pollution in urban and industrial areas: Vietnam is underdeveloped countries for industry; the population in the municipality, especially in the large urban high yet. The environment the air in the countryside is basically. However, the phenomenon of air pollution in industrial concentration and the municipality has occurred with alarming levels.
The factors causing the current air pollution is dust and emissions from industrial manufacturing, transportation activities, construction activities and cooking serves people's activities. Some industries pollute the air as much as electric heat, production of cement, bricks, tile, limestone, metallurgical, chemical, mining. With production by technology is still backward and lacking the equipment dust and pollution emissions, the production base in the above industries are causing the ill effects to the surrounding environment.
Pollution of dust in the air in the industrial zones often exceeding standard allows from 1.5-3 times. The concentration of toxic gases (SO2, NO2, CO) in the majority of municipalities and industrial parks are smaller than standard, i.e. not have pollution by gases. Song in some plants and in a number of major intersections in the city, the concentration of toxic gases on the beyond the standard allows for many times. While the level of air pollution in the large areas not yet significant, then the air pollution in the internal production facilities (environmental pollution labor) issue is worrying. The recent observations showed that there were signs of acid rain in some areas in both the North and the South.
The priority activities needed in this field are: 1. On the institutional, law: implementation of environmental impact assessments mandatory for all the projects of socio-economic development in order to be able to prevent from the causes of air pollution. The work establishment and evaluation of the report reviews the environmental impact must be competent authorities check regularly and closely, too prescribed time limit must apply for renewal or license.
A thorough assessment and pollution control plans tight for the manufacturing industry, the means of transport and equipment used domestic fuel. Forcing the base causing serious environmental pollution should conduct thorough processing and pollution remediation.
2. Economically: improving the efficiency of energy use, electricity efficiency of thermal and electrical efficiency of electrical devices. Development of thermal power industry in the use of LPG fuel and light fuel oil instead of coal and heavy oil with sun-phua.
Encourage the use of clean energy sources. Universal use of rural biogas as fuel cooking.
Forest development, greening the barren soil, grow plant trees in towns and along roads.
Promote the development of public transport in medium and large municipalities.
apply the principle of "the polluter must pay" for enterprises that cause pollution to the air.
3. Science, technology: encourage the use of raw materials and clean technology in the production base.
Prohibit import of outdated technologies and fast descending scales operate older equipment causing serious environmental pollution.
4. raise awareness: advocacy, education and training to raise the level of awareness for the business owners, unions and employees on the protection of the environment in General and the labor market in particular.
VII. Management of solid waste and hazardous waste: In the countryside, the waste fluid of the agriculture, forestry and fishery traditions (such as the stem leaves, straw, cattle manure, husk ...) most used for cooking, as fertilizer or burying. Waste substances of industrial origin, such as plastics, metal, plastic, chemical residue is hard, but has not yet become the pressing issues, but tend to rise quickly. The garbage problem began to appear in the crowded population density.
In the urban and industrial areas, the collectors and the disposal of solid waste and hazardous waste, industrial are as urgent environmental problems. Solid waste collection capacity present in all municipalities and industrial parks in Vietnam reaches only about 20-40%, in large cities can be up to 50-80%. Not yet classified waste at the source, are collectors confused and transported to landfills. The gathering and sorting the waste substances can be recycled completely due to the poor live by garbage made by profession. Application of the technology of solid waste recycling to reuse is still very limited, have yet to be held and development planning. The waste recycling facility are small scale, backward technology, pollute the environment. There is only a small part of garbage (about 1.5-5% of the total volume of waste) was processed into fertilizer with humus substances and microbiological hygiene technology.
Solid waste disposal measures today mainly buried, but no solid waste landfill would reach technical standards of sanitation. The buried garbage causing pollution of land, water and air.
Solid waste of the old industrial zone is currently being collected and dealt with urban garbage. The amount of hazardous waste (including hospital waste) only be picked up at the rate of about 50-60%.
Solid waste management also many weak points: the assignment of responsibilities among sectoral waste management have not yet clear.
The mechanism of implementation services and waste management are still heavily subsidized properties.
The waste collectors mainly use manual labour. The participation of the community and of the private sector in the work of gathering and managing waste not yet extensively. There have been some successful models of the private and community organization collecting and processing the waste municipality; but due to their limited capital, the number and quality of new remote service meet the requirements of sustainable development.
The lack of adequate investment and long for the collectors, transporting, sorting, build proper landfills and waste disposal technologies.
Yet the modern media and technology as well as capital to waste recycling have been collected; There is a lack of funding as well as the appropriate technology to handle hazardous waste.
The awareness of the community on the protection of the environment and health safety in relation to the collection, processing and management of solid waste are still at low levels.
The priority activities needed in this field are: 1. On the institutional, law: building and issued a pollution control plan to the national level or local level, to actively prevent, prevent, handle, overcome and progress to the control of environmental pollution by solid waste gas, liquid, and hazardous wastes.
Implementing the content of the solid waste management strategies in the urban and industrial zone in Vietnam by 2020 and the regulation of hazardous waste management has to be signed by the Prime Minister.
Conduct research to determine the mechanism of enhanced reimbursement costs related to collecting, processing, solid waste and destruction of hazardous waste.
2. Economics: building waste landfills sanitary in large and medium cities.
Promote the application of technology to recycle waste for reuse. Encourage the classification of wastes from sources to serve recycling technology, contribute to reduce the area of landfills and waste the expensive treatment systems.
Encourage the private sector to establish joint-stock companies, private companies, cooperative ... to participate in the gathering and handling of solid waste.
Accelerating the pace of installation of waste incinerator systems in hospitals, first at the hospital treating the infectious diseases.
3. Technology: reduce the amount of solid waste discharged from the sources by encouraging application of the technology of clean production processes and environmental friendly.
Encourage the production facilities using the advanced technology, consume less resources, course material; reduce packaging materials products cause waste of resources; changing consumer habits of the people towards savings and less waste discharges into the environment.
Encouraged to apply the technology to recycle waste to do microbiological fertilizer humus substances, create production and reduce the area of buried waste.
4. raise awareness: developing educational programs and community awareness; encourage people to actively participate in the activities of gathering, processing and waste management in communities in the major cities, average contributed to prevent the spilling of garbage, hazardous waste is an indiscriminate way off the street.
Formation of the mass movement of sorting waste at home; take care of hygiene and living environment; use save resources and products.
VIII. Conservation of biodiversity: Vietnam is located in the tropics and is considered one of the 10 have Centre of high biodiversity in the world. Vietnam biodiversity is expressed at an abundance of species composition, number of endemic species is high, many new species for the world, including large animals have been discovered in recent times; in the diversity of genetic resources, are expressed in the diversity of landscape and the typical ecosystem.
Vietnam's Government has earlier proposed the policy of conserving biological diversity. There were over 60 laws enacted since 1958 to the present. On September 16, 1994, tháng11, President of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam signed the ratified conventions biodiversity, and Vietnam are currently members of this Convention. Even so, the biodiversity in Vietnam are still suffering from losses and significant decline by 4 fundamental cause: decline and loss of Habitat due to deforestation activity, conversion of land use methods of extraction have the nature of human destruction for animals and by other factors such as forest fires Hurricane, earthquake, flood, disease ...
The excessive exploitation of resources due to the pressure of population growth and hunger and poverty.
Environmental pollution is undermining some ecosystems on land, under water and in the ground.
Biological pollution due to enter the strange, exotic species control, bad influence to the native.
Plan of action to protect biodiversity of Vietnam was signed by the Prime Minister, issued on 22 December 1995 in decision No 845/TTg. Here is the text legally high and is the guideline for the conduct of Vietnam in protecting biodiversity in all levels , the local branches and associations from central to the base.
The long-term goals of the plan of action to protect biodiversity of Vietnam's protection of diversity, abundance and level of b. about Vietnam in the framework of sustainable development, included: the protection of particular ecosystems of Vietnam, sensitive ecosystems are threatened or destroyed by narrowing the economic development activities of human caused.
Protection of the components of biodiversity are threatened by excessive exploitation or were left forgotten.
Promote the value and use of components of biodiversity on the basis of fair use, mining, sustainable development and saving the value of natural resources, serving the objectives of socio-economic development of the country.
The priority activities needed in this field are: 1. Improve policy and legislation relevant to biodiversity conservation.
2. Regularly review, Supplement and adjust action plans national biodiversity to ensure the suitability of the plan with strategies and plans of social-economic development.
3. action plan for biological diversity for the region.
4. Strengthening the propaganda and education to raise the awareness of the people about the conservation of biodiversity.
5. Strengthening and expansion of the management system of national parks, nature reserves, and a strong hierarchy of management. Build the system of nature museum, from the national level to the grassroots level to serve scientific research activities, dissemination of knowledge, visit, study, propaganda, education about the natural history and conservation of biodiversity.
6. promote the work of biodiversity inventory, build a national database of resources, plant; construction, and popularized the Vietnam Red Book on the breed, species scarce to have strict conservation policies.
7. training for the conservation of biodiversity, for the management of forests and protected areas, the scientists and related objects.
8. Conducting scientific research and technological applications serve the exploitation and sustainable use values of biodiversity, particularly in the field of agriculture-forestry-fisheries and health. To encourage the study and application of indigenous knowledge in the use and conservation of biodiversity.
9. Build and test a number of eco-tourism projects.
10. Encourages the community to build and implement the General Convention that aims to protect local biodiversity.
11. Strengthening the international and regional cooperation in the field of biodiversity protection.
IX. implementation of measures to mitigate climate change and limit the harmful effects of climate change, and natural disaster prevention: climate change on a global scale and in areas of the world due to human activities and will negatively impact to many areas of economic development social, and environmental protection.
The priority activities needed in this field are: 1. Advocacy, education, dissemination and awareness of the people to implement effective national program on eliminating substances that degrade the cell floor-zôn national plan and implementation of the UN Framework Convention on climate change.
2. Strengthening and capacity building of meteorological hydrological activities, particularly in the field of basic investigations, observations and predictions to ensure full and accurate evaluation of climate resources and the related environmental issues.
3. Improving the quality of hydro-meteorological forecasts in order to meet the requirements of socio-economic development, environmental protection, first serving as effective for the prevention of natural disasters. Strengthen investment in research to get the long-term predictions with higher reliability.
Part 5 IMPLEMENTATION SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT i. improve the State's leadership role in the implementation of sustainable development: 1. institutional development: until now, Vietnam achieve some positive results on building the institutional framework, the law related to economic development social, and environmental protection, including: System State management bodies on economic development, social and environmental protection in Central and established local sync functions, duties, and clear organizational structure, are operating effectively.
Issued are the system of policies and legal documents regarding the work of the management and planning of development on the social, economic and environmental protection.
However, the system of State administration on the environment from the central to the provincial level has been established, but the capacity is still limited, especially at the provincial level, do not meet the need to solve the problem of local sustainable development. The coordination between these bodies relevant to the work of environmental protection has not really reasonable, slow information updated, yet satisfying the need to adjust the policy and planning of the environmental industry and the economic and social sectors. Lack of text under the law and enforcement guidelines. In particular there is a lack of measures and economic instruments to promote environmental protection as well as the handling of environmental violations. The strategy and action plan on the environment was built is also relatively independent of the economy, society, or the lack of involvement of the relevant partners as well as the residential community feasibility should be limited.
To ensure the successful implementation of the strategic orientations of the sustainable development in Vietnam, needs to be addressed three main issues: complete system of policy and legal texts on sustainable development through the adjustment, modification, supplement the existing text serves the institutional perfection of sustainable development in accordance with international law. Importance of institutions integrating environmental issues into economic development strategies-social; encourage the coordination of forces for building and implementing sustainable development plans throughout the country and the region; encourage scientific research serve sustainable development planning.
Sustainable development mechanisms operate to function as a bridge between the ministries, the local environmental issues associated with the economic, social problems when development decisions. This mechanism to promote effective need attention: assigned, radical divisions for lower levels in building, implementing and monitoring the implementation of the development plan; mobilizing the maximum involvement of the communities concerned.
The strategy, planning, environmental action plans must be mounted with the strategy, planning, planning of socio-economic development since the formation and throughout the implementation process, with the involvement of all the competent authorities in the State apparatus.
Sustainable development mechanisms implemented by applying the mandatory process of evaluating the environmental impact right from the design stage, the planning and construction of the economic-development plan of the country, social sectors and territories.
Establishment of the interdisciplinary Council on sustainable development direction by the Minister of planning and investment, President (there are permanent bodies set up at the Ministry of planning and investment) to help the Prime Minister directs the unified implementation of sustainable development within the country with the function main tasks: organizing, guiding and directing the process of implementation of the strategic direction for sustainable development in Vietnam. General implementation and periodically report the results yearly to deploy strategic direction for sustainable development in Vietnam with the Prime Minister.
Coordinating interdisciplinary activities, Department of planning, development plans; deploy programs, large projects, interdisciplinary in nature, the region is high. Support the ministries, local businesses, and relevant organizations to build strategic orientation, programmes and projects for sustainable development.
Steer the propaganda, education, awareness of the ministries and the people about sustainable development. Directing the training of human resources for the implementation of sustainable development strategies.
Establishment and operation of the system to provide information on the problems of sustainable development of the country.
The proposed new initiative and find resources for the implementation of these initiatives that aim to promote sustainable development.
The Steering Council for sustainable development and local level.
2. Strengthen the management capacity of sustainable development: comparison with state management system of social-economic management system, State of the environment and sustainable development in General was established and the capacity will not meet the requirements of sustainable development.
Strengthen the capacity of the State Agency on environment in all levels of management is one of the key work to implement strategic direction for sustainable development in Vietnam. This work includes the following major contents: training capacity, expertise and services to institutions and staff related to environmental management at all levels.
Establishment of environmental management in the ministries to implement the environmental management function of the industry.
Strengthen the capacity for research and environmental monitoring.
Strengthening information systems on the environment industry, national and local.
Construction of the system of environmental-economic accounting; the use of economic instruments to promote environmental protection.
3. Use the financial tools serve for sustainable development: the State budget investment for environmental protection focused primarily on development investment to construction to strengthen the capacity of environmental protection activities, implement the basic census project urgency about the environment , the master plan project environment; a part from the economic career resource, scientific career to allocate for the regular activities of environmental protection, scientific research, environment, implementation of the program, projects on reclamation, environmental protection, education, advocacy, environmental awareness to the community.
Encourage the financial institutions involved in providing financing for sustainable development of the country.
Mobilizing enterprises invested resources for the activities of environmental protection, landscape protection, historical culture, ecosystems and biodiversity in and around the area of operations; pay the fee of waste water, waste gas, fee collectors and solid waste treatment and other types of fees involved; funding contributions for the environmental protection fund levels.
Encourage organizations and individuals to contribute financial resources for investment in implementation of the regulation on the protection of the environment, prevention of pollution, and the creation of green living environment, clean and beautiful in the workplace and place of residence.
Encourage the investment of foreign direct investment in the environmental protection industry.
Call attention to official development assistance (ODA) for projects to protect the environment, poverty alleviation, job creation, building the social infrastructure of the rural, mountainous, remote areas and ethnic areas.
4. Build the system of indicators of sustainable development assessment: construction and accelerate the application of the system of indicators of sustainable development assessment. This system needs to be quickly formed, put into operation and will be adjusted, modified and supplemented in the course of use.
The system of norms and norm reviews technology and product quality of goods, import and export raw materials to bring consistency; mechanism of reviews to be fit, to avoid annoying the manufacturing, sales and service.
5. Strengthen education and awareness to all people about sustainable development: strengthening education and raising awareness about sustainable development for all people, communities, businesses, organizations and State bodies the level is one of the most important works. Need to focus on four types of objects: who advised policymakers: are the people who played a role in the decision to propose strategies, programs, plans and development projects. Their understanding of sustainable development issues have a direct impact and extremely strong to the prospects for sustainable development of the whole country and of each locality.
The professionals that work related to the investigation, assessment, provides information, drafting the plan and project development, protect natural resources and the environment. They need to be educated and frequently updated knowledge to have positive implications for the proposed sustainable development solutions.
About business operations, business, their services direct and strong impact to economic development, the environment and labor jobs.
The young generation, to force youths: who is the owner of the society in the future, they need to be fitted soon and keep the deep, wide knowledge about sustainable development.
6. Build strategic direction for sustainable development of the sector and local: Each local branches (province, central cities) should build strategic orientation on sustainable development aimed at asserting the specific activities of the local branches to progress to sustainable development on the basis of reference the major direction of the strategy of socio-economic development and towards war sustainable development in Vietnam.
II. Mobilization of the entire population to participate in sustainable development implementation: 1. public undertakings:
Sustainable development is the career of the entire population. The process of planning and implementation of development policy must be the whole population to participate according to the method of "people know, people, people do, and check".
The social-political organization, social-professional, the unions in our country are developing extensively, have held tight and more operational experience with the aim to unite and mobilize the participation of the people. Every social group has its organization, which through which the individual activities of members are combined and become the movement.
There are many forms of mobilizing the broad participation of the people in the implementation of sustainable development.
a. continuing legal, institutional innovation to promote further initiatives and spiritual master of people in social management and community. Enhance community participation in the review of the environmental impact assessment by the institutionalised role taking of the masses and coercive measures taken, first of all with regard to large projects, has profoundly affected the population. The social-political organization, social-professional, the mass public very important role in ensuring the sustainability of the economic and social development and environmental protection in each locality. Should enhance accountability and the capacity for organizations, unions on to exert this role effectively.
b. through the unions and community activities, advocacy organizations, education, people's awareness about sustainable development. The form of public education on the protection of natural resources and the environment through the construction of townships, the contest learn, joint activities with the movement needs to be further promoted.
c. launched the mass movement in each social group, in each locality and on the scale of the country with the sustainable development content. Continue to develop the mass movement and community activities in order to create more jobs, help each other, experience poverty, preserve the environment, protect the resources, the local environment and raise people's awareness on issues of sustainable development. Established the environmental protection groups and self-management, monitoring the use of the local resources.
d. Government need to coordinate, assist and facilitate in every way to the social-political organization, social-professional, unions and communities can accomplish the goals of the movement for sustainable development.
preferred building typical of the sustainable development of communities, self-governing systems on natural resources, protect the environment and replicate the typical.
2. the activities of the group main society aims to promote sustainable development: a. women: although it reached many achievements in promoting the advancement of women, Vietnam also must continue to perform more work in order to achieve gender equality, the improvement of living and working conditions raise the social and political status of women, remove thoroughly any action infringing the fundamental rights of women. Women still suffered disadvantage than men in the learning opportunities, career training and advanced level, job search, shouldering the family work.
Priority activities should be conducted to help women have more to contribute to sustainable development include: strengthening education, training and advocacy to raise awareness about all aspects, occupational qualifications and the capacity to manage the economy, society and environment protection for women.
Support women doing the economy, job creation and poverty reduction: capital mobilization and formation of credit fund to support poor women.
Forestry, agriculture, non-agricultural vocational training for women.
The establishment of international cooperation aimed at creating jobs for women and support each other in business.
Formation of the movement the choice of rational consumption patterns, combating waste resources and reduce environmental pollution.
Health care for women and children, improve the local living environment: implementation of family planning programs.
Build the movement against child malnutrition and improve nutritional diet for the family, protecting the health of mothers.
Make good parenting movement, building happy families.
Expand the movement to use clean water and rural sanitation, promote construction of the sanitary work in households.
Perform hygiene movement neighbor villages, streets, garbage sorting in the House.
Take the lead in performing the movement, against diseases and social evils such as prostitution, drugs.
Join build and monitor the implementation of the policy, the law on gender equality.
Join protect and develop natural resources in local: launching the movement to use fuel-saving energy and using clean energy sources in family activities.
Launching the women take the lead in implementing reasonable consumption pattern, save and fight waste.
Build the model of the free women in natural resources management and environmental protection in the community.
b. the youths: youths is the owner of the future generations, but also the shock force in the construction of the current country, a very important contribution to the success of sustainable development.
Youths we see the challenges as follows: due to population growth, the economy is still underdeveloped should seek employment opportunities consistent with the capacity are also limited.
With the General standard of living is also low, young households have very little capital accumulated. So, when life begins and the start up of the youth who hardly obtain the necessary resources for economic development.
Compared to the same age in other places, youths in communities living in the remote, rugged, secluded in geography; in some ethnic groups, were separated by language barriers and the poor family, being separated by social and economic possibilities, there are less opportunities than in learning, acquisition of information, exchanges and comprehensive human development.
Schools, State agencies and local governments are the direct force management, guidance and held to force youths to participate in social activities. Besides, the mass unions representing youths force has attracted youths crowd into shared activities, volunteering and direct them into public activities such as helping the poor, protecting order untreated residential security, the shock force disaster prevention civilized lifestyle, propagating, preserving green environment-clean-beautiful ... The activities that have great effect to society not only in terms of economic development, protect the environment, which is more important in terms of social, cultural, spiritual, it contributes to the education of the moral values, qualities and fine traditions of Vietnam people.
The State of the same mass, teens need to strengthen motivation, encouragement of spiritual, material support and well organized the movement to youths involved in sustainable development as: mobilizing youths to participate actively and positively in the process of planning the development of social-economic and environmental protection of our country , especially those policies directly relevant to the rights of youths and related to long-term future generations tomorrow.
Build more preferential policies to encourage the youth to work in the outlying regions are in need of knowledge and labor of their children.
To create more learning opportunities, career training, a comprehensive capacity development for the youths through the material support mechanisms for the education and training sector.
Support youth create more jobs by the preferential policies on land use rights for loan with preferential interest rates, tax exemptions, technical guidance, professional management, search market ... TIS experience and financial support to replicate over the youth movement young intellectuals, volunteered to go to build and help poor regions and particularly hard.
Replicate the typical business advanced youth, youth project, young entrepreneurs, in particular for those projects requiring long term cohesion benefits of those made for the results of work such as afforestation, exploring new lands, protect natural resources and the environment.
c. farmers: farmers accounted for over 70% of the population and labor force. Social-political organization representing farmers is the Vietnam farmers Association. The society has the grassroots organization in every locality, conducting advocacy work of farmers, launched the action movement in the countryside.
Compared to the requirements of the industrial modernization and sustainable development, the country's farmers are limited in many aspects.
Education level, professional level of farmers than before but more progress, but overall still low. Awareness of sustainable development and the knowledge economy, technique to implement sustainable development remains limited.
The level of production of the farmers is generally still low both in terms of scale, farming techniques, labor productivity, the quality of agricultural products and business efficiency. Between the production, processing and circulation of so much jam; precarious price, production is not stable. In many rural areas, frequently occurring natural disasters causing severe consequences for the economy and the lives of the people.
The farmer's life more difficult. The number of households in poverty currently concentrated mainly in rural areas.
In General, in most of the rural population, the development has not really sustainable. To overcome the limitations above, continue to promote the role of farmers in the renovation period, effective contribution to the cause of sustainable development of the country, the need to implement the following activities: raise the level of professional training, and guide the technical knowledge, social and economic conditions for farmers.
Implementation of the agrarian policy, comprehensive agricultural development, processing and consumption of agricultural commodities, production insurance and social insurance.
Exert the advantage of natural, social and economic conditions of each region, helping to make difficult areas the level of development and the standard of living of the people in the urban and rural disparities not too far, progress to narrow the disparity gap.
Population distribution by planning, promoting industry development, job creation, poverty, alleviate poverty, improve the living, building a new countryside.
Encourage farmers to participate actively in the activities of agricultural environment protection through the use of pesticides, chemical fertilizers in accordance with the regulations; preserving the environment aquaculture; application of the agricultural clean production techniques.
Build, common and widely used models of economic success of households according to the ecosystem garden-pond-barn (VAC), the garden-pond-the barn-the forest (VACR).
Launching the movement to build sustainable rural communities, help each other along the economic development and poverty reduction; promote the spirit of democracy, promoting cultural activities, social movement to self manage effectively natural resources and protect the environment.
d. the workers and unions: although in the current period, the country's industry is still small, the working class still accounted for a small proportion of the population and the labor force of society, but are holding large amounts of infrastructure and the most modern manufacturing facilities of society annual volume creation, industrial products accounted for 40% of total social product, ensuring that over 60% of the State budget.
Review from the perspective of the role of sustainable development, on the one hand, workers are the ones who bear the powerful impact of the process of rapid economic growth, forcing them to change jobs, accommodation, the level to adapt to the process of industrialization and modernization; enjoy the benefits of industrialization brings, like jobs, wages and better living standards. At the same time, they also suffered the ill effects of that process as polluted living environments, labor market, suffered the consequences of rapid urbanization as the difficult situation of houses, public services, transportation ... On the other hand, workers who are also produced, i.e. directly exploiting natural resources and produce pollution. They are the direct role in preserving or environmentally destructive. In that role, they were jointly responsible for the impact of the production for the natural environment. However, workers are not decisive role, because business owners and business managers decided to choose investment projects and production technology.
Who represents the interests of the workers and also the Organization, of the workers engaged in the activities for sustainable development is the Union Organization. Vietnam General Confederation of labor, official voice in deciding important policies on the development of the country. Union organizations level directly involved into the process of decision-making about development, particularly on matters related to employment, wages, labor conditions of workers in local and corporate scale.
With the role and function as such, workers and trade unions should have the following activities in order to promote sustainable development: contribute to the comments list to the country's development. Participate actively in the process of discussing and drafting the strategy, planning and economic development-social and environmental protection of the State propaganda, education to raise the awareness of employees on sustainable development. The workers of the same unions exert the role at the forefront of the application of the technology of producing clean and maintain sanitation workers.
Forced business owners to accept the strictly regulate sanitation and struggling with the breach.
Forced business owners to accept the strictly regulate labor contract, labor safety and hygiene, ensuring the health of workers and the business community, labor accidents, occupational diseases and avoid the trouble of labor environment.
Sync The home business: the growth and development of the national economy depends greatly on the growth of enterprise systems. By the application of the technology of producing clean, use less and save fuel, raw materials, in the production process, produce the kind of environment-friendly products, enterprises can contribute important to the cause of sustainable development.
The organization represents the interests of enterprises and attract the participation of entrepreneurs in the social, political and environmental protection is the business association. Business associations have a responsibility to guide enterprises to implement strictly the rule of law in which the law on the protection of the environment.
The priority activities aimed toward sustainable development that entrepreneurs need to perform include: applying clean production technology and environmental friendly.
Enhancing the accountability of enterprises in the use of natural resources saving and environmental protection, proactively prevent, prevention and remediation of environmental pollution.
Contribute resources into the management and use of natural resources saving and environmental protection, support for socio-economic development contributes to sustainable development in which business and in the social scale.
e. the fellow ethnic: Vietnam has 54 ethnic brothers. The ethnic policy consistency of Communist Party and Government of Vietnam is to strengthen solidarity and mutual assistance, focusing on poverty eradication, obsolete, delete the disparity in all aspects between the region, the nation, because the target population of rich, powerful countries, social justice, democracy, civilization.
Due to historical conditions, the development of peoples. The standard of living in many of the minorities is very low, poverty and backwardness still is the major challenge for the development process. Although the mountain land was used more for economic purposes, but not efficient. Nearly half of the 25 million hectares of sloping land is the Badlands, thin topsoil has been eroded and are seriously degraded. The population growth rate in the mountain region is very high due to immigration and high birth rate. population growth pressures on the environment are strong, manifest in deforestation is also popular and quality of the forest on a recession. The distance of the level of socio-economic development, standard of living, about the ability to meet the basic needs of the people, especially the public services such as health, education, culture of the mountains than plain is still very far away. In the mountain region of North-Western, North-Eastern and Central Highlands, the highest poverty rate, while the human development index (HDI) low for compared to other regions in the country. In the market mechanism, the gap tend to rise and the risk of causing social conflict in the future.
Towards sustainable development in mountainous areas and the compatriots of the minority, the need to conduct the following priority activities: enhancing investment for the infrastructure (electricity, roads, schools, clinics, irrigation etc.) service for production and improving the lives of fellow ethnic guaranteed, balanced, reasonable and narrow the gap in development between the regions, peoples.
Add investment for production with investments for processing and consumption of products through the service industry, processing industry, network information, the purchase of consumption oriented, organized to encourage production, income and life for the producers.
Attach importance to investment in education, training human resources and fostering talent, combined with recruitment, fair use layout after the training responds to the needs of workers and staffs are fellow children of the nation.
Associated with administrative reforms the organization integrating and improving the performance of the national target program, the project supports the mountainous and ethnic minority.
Preserve and develop the ethnic culture, build new cultural lifestyle.
Focus on mobilizing the ethnic compatriots participated in afforestation and forest protection; make the food supply policy and subsidies for those who receive stock care and protect forests.
g. intellectuals, scientists: Science and technology development is the national leading books, is the Foundation and motivation promote the industrialization, modernization of the country in the 21st century. So far, Vietnam has been scientific and potentials of significant technology, capable of providing the scientific argument for planning policy and guidelines development; acquire quickly the scientific achievements and technologies of the world, gradually rise to solve many problems of science and technology by the needs of country practices in place.
However, scientific and technological activities last time still more limited, do not meet the requirements of economic development, social and environmental protection in the period to promote industrialization, modernization of the country, not to actually play the role of motivation and background for developing , manifested in the following: surface potential in science and technology is still at a low level in comparison with the world and the region, do not meet the demands of development needs.
Economic management mechanisms currently haven't actually created the mount the activity of science and technology with the social-economic development, create real motivation and the abundant resources for science and technology development.
Mechanism of science and technology management are also slow to innovate and we still haven't been renewed fundamentally. Yet the between economic management mechanism and the mechanism of management of science and technology. Not yet ensure full physical rights and honoring deserving for the scientists and technology have great devotion.
The science and technology market is still less developed.
To science and technology really become the cornerstone and driving force for sustainable development, the need to focus to make some of the following priority activities: continue to promote advocacy, education, awareness of the whole people and the ministries about the role the Foundation and driving force of science and technology in the chemical industry modernization of the country. On that basis, construction and uncompromising enforcement of the programme of action of the ministries, which are about scientific and technological development.
Innovate more strongly economic management mechanism aimed at the creation of the social-economic environment in the direction of just facilitating, encouraging, just bind the businesses of all economic sectors to invest in research and technological innovation, adopt clean production technologies and environmental friendly innovation, and enhance the competitiveness of the products on the domestic market and abroad.
Implement strictly the law of science and technology has issued. Conduct of the scientific and technological activities through the years and replicate good models, how to do it or has been confirmed practices.
Remove the constraints and delays to enlargement, development and science and technology markets, considering it is the task of the utmost urgency, long-term and fundamental to promoting the role of the Foundation, the driving force of science and technology.
Focused and dedicated high priority to research and execute the policies of use and abuse of science and technology talents besides measures to take care of training of human resources in science and technology contributes to solve effectively the tasks of socio-economic development.
Strengthen the construction of infrastructure, science and technology to quickly integrate with the world and the region, especially the infrastructure of information science and technology, equipment and research for the national key lab.
III. International cooperation for sustainable development: proactively and actively engage in international activities regarding sustainable development. The goal of international cooperation for sustainable development is: to promote international cooperation for development and environmental protection. The full implementation of international conventions on sustainable development that Vietnam has signed to join.
Strengthen to attract the support of international engineering, technology and finance in poverty alleviation aimed towards sustainable development.
The priority activities in the field of international cooperation for sustainable development:
1. Continue to implement the policy of innovation, attracting the participation of individuals and international organizations in the implementation of the strategic direction for sustainable development in Vietnam.
2. international cooperation in the United Nations Commission on sustainable development.
3. Strengthening international cooperation in the field of international economic integration, education and training, science and technology, especially the transfer of cleaner production technologies and environment-friendly. Actively disseminating the experience and advanced technology has been successfully applied in Vietnam to the international community, especially to the developing countries.
4. Through dialogue and international exchange, identify mechanisms of effective international cooperation in order to ensure the maintenance of the existing development assistance, at the same time seeking new assistance to Vietnam to participate effectively in international activities to protect the global environment , offset the economic damage that Vietnam must suffer from the implementation of the obligation to protect the world's environment.
5. Participate actively in the activities of the global environment protection, extended links, cooperation with the international community, particularly on controlling emissions that cause the greenhouse effect, the use of substitutes for these substances may be harmful to the cell floor-zôn, limiting the pollution caused by chemicals and hazardous waste controlling the cross-border transport them, protect the marine environment and biological diversity.
6. Enhance Exchange with the international community with information about sustainable development and dissemination of advanced international experience in this field.
7. Strengthen cooperation with countries in the Asia-Pacific and South-East Asia on sustainable development and environmental protection. Attach importance to the cooperation aimed at sustainable development of Mekong basin.
8. Actively participate in the environmental monitoring system and international scientific research to gather information on the environment and sustainable development.
9. Seek international support for the research work, collecting and processing environmental data, deploy the project on disaster prevention and the protection of natural resources, environment.
10. In close cooperation with the donor countries, international organizations, aimed at the effective use of aid resources for the purpose of sustainable development.
11. Attach importance to encourage Vietnam community abroad, especially entrepreneurs and intellectuals involved contributed to the promotion and support to sustainable development in Vietnam. /.