Read the untranslated law here: http://parliament.gov.sy/arabic/index.php?node=201&nid=4504&RID=-1&Last=10058&First=0&CurrentPage=5&Vld=-1&Mode=&Service=-1&Loc1=&Key1=&SDate=&EDate=&Year=&Country=&Num=&Dep=-1&
Law 32 of 2010
On public policy for the electricity sector
Based on the provisions of the Constitution
And approved by the People's Assembly in its meeting held on 25/11/1431 H corresponding to 11/02/2010 AD
Issued the following:
Part I (definitions and objective)
Intended expressions below in the application of the provisions of this Act show the meanings set forth by each of them:
1- Law: Electricity Law.
2- Ministry: The Ministry of Electricity.
3- Minister: The Minister of Electricity.
4- administrative unit: is the province, city, town, village, rural unity and in accordance with the Local Administration Law issued by Legislative Decree No. 15 of 1971.
5. Generation Corporation: General Corporation for generation and transmission of electric power.
6- Distribution Corporation: General Corporation for the distribution of investment and electric power.
7. Transport Agency: PE for the transfer of electricity.
8. obstetrics company: General Company for electric power generation.
9- electricity to maintain the company: General Company for Electricity province.
10. electricity: electrical energy.
11. Sector: Electricity Sector.
Sector 12. Parties: All parties involved in the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity.
13. generation: the production of electricity from various sources.
14. Self-generation: in order to produce electricity consumed by its product.
15. power plant: A plant consisting of generating one or more groups, including land, buildings and structures, fixtures and equipment used for this purpose.
16. High Tension: nominal tension between the two phases, which more than 24 kV.
17. medium voltage: nominal tension between the two phases, which more than 4.0 kV to 24 kV.
18. Low tension ... nominal tension between the two phases up to 4.0 kV.
19. transport network: the electrical grid that run on high-tension, including switching and transmission lines, towers, cables and diseases and supplements stations.
20. Transportation: electricity transmission by the transport network.
21. distribution network: the electrical grid running on medium and low voltages, including distribution lines and transfer centers and towers, columns and diseases, cables and supplements.
22. Distribution: distribution of electricity by the distribution network. 23. electrical network: the system consisting of power plants and transmission network and distribution network and coordination centers.
24. The main common: natural or legal person who Astjer electricity on high-voltage direct carrier or across a network.
common: natural or legal person who Astjer electricity in the medium or low tension.
26. Project: a project for the generation or distribution.
27. electrical installations: power plants or transfer stations or the transmission network or distribution network, including equipment and devices.
28. Transfer station: the station in which they are converting electricity from high tension to high tension or another medium.
29. Conversion Center: The center, which is the transfer of electricity from average to low tension.
public switching centers: centers that electricity is distributed them to subscribers by distribution to low tension lines.
31- statement: permission granted by the ministry of self or backup generation, according to the provisions of this law.
32. license: the authorization given to the ministry for a special project in accordance with the provisions of this law.
33. licensee: natural or legal person licensed obstetric or distribution.
34- authorized distributor: Every natural or legal person authorized to conclude a purchase and sale operations or the provision of services in the field of electricity and for the account on behalf of the producers or distributors.
35. The transport network rules: the rules adopted by the ministry for the establishment and operation of the transport network and include all the technical requirements for linking with transport and operation of the network and use it or related to the operation of electrical systems required for the transport network.
36- renewable energies: energies of natural resources is exhaustible including solar and wind power, hydropower and bioenergy.
37. The auxiliary services: are the services provided by generation companies and licensed obstetrical to enhance electrical system's stability and reliability, including the energy needed to offset technical losses and regulate the voltage frequency and reserve the rotor and control the electric grid and the possibility of re-operating in an emergency.
38. The safety distance: less horizontal or vertical distance allowed between the electric vector carrying the electrical current Wi-origin soon.
39. The investment regime: Distribution and Investment electric power system in force.
40. Tariffs: sale of electricity energy and / or the prices unable to subscribers in accordance with the window-making at all tensions and related activities such as price conditions.
41- electricity prices: buying and selling of electricity between the parties sector rates.
Aim of the law:
This law aims to:
Shall provide electricity to meet the needs of the community and the national economy.
(B) to allow the public sector and joint sector and the national private sector and local, Arab and foreign investment in the areas of generation and distribution.
(C) support and encourage the use of renewable energies in various fields and localization industries.
Part II (the functions of the ministry)
Ministry holds in the application of this law Add specified in the Legislative Decree No. 94 of 1974, the functions and powers of the following tasks:
Shall prepare the general policy for the electricity sector, including market structure, according to the requirements of economic and social development and presented to the Cabinet for approval and further development.
B cooperation with other countries for the purpose of electrical connection, buying and selling electricity and conclude the necessary agreements and ratification of the competent authorities and follow up the implementation of commitments with those countries.
(C) the representation of the Syrian Arab Republic's other Arab countries, regional and international organizations concerned with electricity and renewable energies.
D take the necessary measures to secure additional sources to meet demand for electricity.
E energy efficiency and promote the use of renewable energies.
F license for those wishing to private-sector investment in generation and distribution areas and the granting of permits and self-generating up.
(G) the adoption of the foundations and the general rules that must be adhered to by the parties to the sector and to ensure that their interests and the interests of consumers.
H of electricity Investment Systems based on the Bretton transmission and distribution proposals.
(I) the issuance of tariffs sale of electricity on the different tensions for all uses based on the generation, transmission and distribution institutions suggestions.
J adoption of electricity exchange prices at the suggestion Transport Agency and to ensure the protection of the interests of all parties to the Gaza Strip.
(K) adoption of allowances for the use of transport and distribution networks and network conditions to be met in contracts related to the construction of the suggestion of my foundation of transport and distribution.
Part III (licenses and permits to conduct electricity activities)
Prohibit engage in any activity of the generation or electricity distribution activities without obtaining a license or permit from the ministry in accordance with the provisions of this Act and instructed the executive and published decisions issued by the ministry on licenses in the Official Gazette and one of the daily newspapers and widespread on the licensee's expense does not entail the granting of license any monopoly right in the geographical scope of any of the licensees.
Limited electricity transmission associated with the institution of the ministry of transport and transport are in accordance with the rules and principles and conditions issued by the ministry on the proposal this institution.
Allows the sectors mentioned in paragraph (b) of Article (2) invest in any of the conventional generating activities or which relies on renewable energies or any of its distribution activities, under licenses or permits issued by the ministry in accordance with the provisions of this Act and instructed the executive.
Issue a decree of the Council of Ministers on the ministry's proposal to grant temporary and permanent licenses and permits system This system includes in particular:
A- rules, conditions and procedures for the granting of licenses and permits.
(B) provisions of the cease licenses and Altsarikh, cancellation and grievance procedures, including the fate of ownership of the project after the termination of the license or expires.
C provisions abandon or waive the license.
(D) limits possible accepted obstetric license.
E identify the key performance indicators for the project generating acceptable for licensing.
F minimums to prepare participants for license distribution project.
G minimum capacity for self-generation that needs to be told.
H instructions and conditions of technical, legal and financial governing the work of licensed projects.
I methods of controlling and monitoring the performance and commitment of Licensee's license conditions and actions to be taken against him in case of violation.
J foundations determine the buying and selling of electricity between the parties of the sector and allowances for electricity transmission through the transmission and distribution networks prices.
K- basis for the determination of allowances and insurance resulting from the granting of licenses and permits allowances and the provision of services to the licensee or authorized.
Part IV (sector activities)
Generation, transmission and distribution is one of the main activities in the electricity sector and the parties engaged in these activities sector in accordance with the provisions of this Act and instructed the executive.
(A) The Ministry shall announce tenders to invite investors to implement projects to generate electricity in specific locations also have the right to build on a proposal obstetrics Foundation announced tenders to invite investors to implement rehabilitation projects and the development of any of the generation of existing stations and the management, operation and granted the ministry necessary license for the project after the conclusion of the agreements resulting from the RFP between generation enterprise or institution as the case of transport and investors stores them projects and ratified and committed to transport Foundation purchased electricity produced.
(B) shall be entitled to the Ministry of licensing for those interested investors in the independent generation projects without a commitment to buy the electricity and the Transport Agency to transfer electricity to subscribers principal or for the purpose of export and construction of the licensee requested as part of the technical possibilities and the limits of possible available to the transport network under an agreement concluded for this purpose compared to allowances for the use of the transport network.
(C) requires the licensee to practice obstetrics activity that the technical and financial capacity, legal competence specified by the Ministry available.
(D) The licensee shall the provisions of this law and the conditions specified in the license.
Shall be the fuel needed for the project generation licensed by the ministry or any of those associated locking in coordination with the Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources if obstetrics project entails according to the text of the announcement, according to Mataatdmenh agreement with the licensee.
Shall be entitled to the licensee obstetric secure its needs of fuel through external import substances permitted to import according to the conditions governing it, or through the Ministry of Oil and Mineral Resources of available materials has at world prices plus additional costs and profit margin and the use of the infrastructure available to them and the public bodies other bears licensee of all import duties and expenses resulting from the use of these structures, taking into account the requirements of the Ministry of Electricity in it.
Ratifying conventions related to generating projects that will be implemented by investors and conventions relating to rehabilitate, develop and manage operation of any of the existing power plants and power purchase agreements by the Council of Ministers.
Events are a public institution for the transfer of power of an economic nature decree issued during the period of its limit of three years from the date of entry into force of this law, specifying the name and status and purpose of its events, functions, powers and its capital and its constituent elements and hand linked.
Holds the Transport Agency following tasks:
Shall allow linking transport network of licensees to meet allowances proposed by the Transport Agency and approved by the ministry.
Shall take the necessary measures to meet the energy demand and possible to achieve the safe and stable operation of the electrical network in a transparent manner and non-discrimination, including measures:
1- schedule the operation of the various generation groups.
2- scheduling and coordinating the operation of transport lines stop generating sets programs.
3- loading optimal management of the transmission lines to avoid bottlenecks.
4- scheduling exchanges with neighboring countries networks.
(C) the purchase of electricity produced from the power plants belonging to public authorities and licensed obstetric and sold to major distribution organization and subscribers.
(D) to participate in the expansion of power generation and transmission to meet the electricity demand studies.
E electricity transmission across the transportation network to meet allowances determined pursuant to the provisions of this law.
F regulate the purchase and sale of electricity measures in accordance with the provisions of this law.
G implement electricity interconnection projects approved by the ministry and the exchange of electricity with other countries in accordance with the provisions of electrical interconnection agreement in force by Law No. 19 of 1993 and the agreements that are made in this regard.
H regulate the sale, purchase and exchange of electricity on the grid interconnections.
I do studies and research and development in the field of activity.
(J) the availability of information and statistics for the sector parties without discrimination.
K do or other activities linked to transport activity or complement it.
Institution is entitled to transport buy excess electricity need of unauthorized consumption of obstetric condition that is linked to his network transport network institution at its own expense and under the conditions and the prices specified by the Ministry and the requirement provides the technical possibility to the Transport Agency.
Foundation holds the transport sector in coordination with the parties to develop the transport network and the rules become effective after approval from the ministry and circulated to these rules include in particular follows:
A-technical requirements and limitations that apply to those wishing to link transport network includes, for example, measuring and counting and the details and requirements of power protection systems hardware specifications.
B emphasized that the technical conditions that apply to licensees who wish to link transport network verification of non-discrimination between licensees and subscribers among them.
C rules that help raise the efficiency and readiness and the use and development of the transport network is an economical way.
D instructions electrical network operation.
E required information and data necessary for the operation and planning of the electrical grid.
(F) evaluate the operation and performance of the electric grid standards.
Foundation holds the transport demand for ancillary services of the parties to the management of the sector and it may take the necessary measures in this regard, taking into account transparency and non-discrimination, and these measures are in accordance with the foundations of commercial postings from all sides in the sector.
Holds the Transport Agency:
Shall monitor and follow up the balance of demand for electricity generation and disposable and predict future electrical loads and power rating needed to meet demand in the medium and long term, and take measures to ensure the stability of the network and Oabeditha and put the necessary proposals to meet future demand.
Shall prepare an annual report on the reality of the power supply includes the production and consumption of various different kinds of its objectives and the current and future needs and how to secure them and raises this report to the ministry.
Transport Agency shall prepare an annual report on actions taken to ensure non-discrimination between licensees and maintaining the confidentiality of their business information obtained during the conduct of its business and the mechanism of control that and presented to the ministry.
Circulate transport sector institution on the other parties to the necessary information on its activity.
Pending the creation of transport Foundation holds obstetrics with respect to the transport network at voltages of 400 and 230 kV and distribution organization in relation to the transport network on 66 kV tension tasks in addition to their duties specified Ahaddathma Decree No. 14 of 1994.
Foundation Chapter III
A ministry awarded based on need and under requests for proposals or tenders in accordance with the provisions of this Act:
1- license to engage in distribution activity in a specific geographical area does not have a distribution network.
2- license to engage in distribution activity or some of his duties in a specific geographic area where there is a distribution network.
(B) requires the licensee to engage in distribution activity to the artistic and civil financial and legal efficiency specified by the Ministry available.
(C) The licensee shall distribute all laws and regulations in force relevant and most especially electricity tariffs and the system of investment and Law No. 26 of 2001 and Legislative Decree No. 60 of 2005 concerning Balastjerar illegal and the law of conservation of energy No. 3 of 2009 and the regulations and instructions and conditions issued by the Ministry for this purpose.
(D) The licensee shall the provisions of this law and the conditions specified in the license.
Devolve all electrical installations in the ownership of the license area subject of paragraph (a) of Article 21 of different kinds at the expiration or termination of the license period on a legal face to the institution or the company involved, according to the provisions of the agreement governing its beginning.
Licensee to distribute electricity to allow the use of the network is committed to the subject of the license by the institution or electricity distribution company to maintain or another Licensee indiscriminately to feed the subscribers needs them within the limits of the technical possibilities of this network in order to meet instead use approved by the Ministry.
May buy and sell electricity through the authorized distributor in accordance with the rules and conditions set by the ministry in the license granted license to others, and may direct the same activity in the same geographical scope taking into account the lack of overlap between the authorized distributors.
Ratify conventions on distribution projects to be carried out by investors or the management or operation of any of the existing distribution activities of a decision of the Council of Ministers.
Part V (electricity consumers)
Licensee shall feed subscribers distribution of electricity in the medium tension and low tension within the specified geographical scope of the license and in accordance with the provisions of this law and the contract with the electricity company and maintain a system of investment and tariffs and regulations in force.
Ministry determined based on a proposal of transport conditions to be met in the main joint enterprise.
Part VI (renewable energies)
May purchase electricity produced from renewable energies that can be linked to the distribution network if available technical potential of this and according to the rules, conditions and power rating set by the ministry at promotional prices proposed by the Ministry and issued by a decision of the Prime Minister in the following cases projects:
A surplus production of subscribers who consume depends mainly on electricity produced from renewable energies to generate their own sources.
(B) electricity produced from renewable energies licensed that can be linked to the distribution network projects.
Taking into account the tasks entrusted to the National Center for Energy Research updated by Law No. 8 of 2003 holds obstetrics Foundation following tasks:
A partnership with the National Centre for Energy Research in a technical, economic and environmental studies for projects to generate electricity using renewable energy sources in cooperation with the competent authorities inside and outside the country.
(B) do the implementation, operation and investment power generation projects using renewable energies.
(A) The Ministry shall announce tenders to invite investors to implement power plants based on renewable energy sources and the sale of electricity produced by the Foundation of Transport prices that are contracted out to the investor.
B investors may, after obtaining the necessary license implementation of power plants based on renewable energy sources and the sale of electricity to users or exported through major transport network in accordance with paragraph (b) of Article (9) of the Act.
C Transport Agency is committed to the purchase of electricity produced from renewable energy generating stations implemented according to item (a) of this article and may buy the electricity produced in accordance with paragraph (b) of this Article and prices agreed upon by the institution needed and interest.
Foundation is committed to transportation or electricity to maintain the company related to the linking stations or electricity generation systems from renewable energies its network, "according to the plant capacity or generation system" is based on the licensee to implement the connectivity requirements and carrying costs and the costs involved.
Title VII (the establishment of the electricity sector facilities)
Institutions and public companies in the sector are entitled to the extent required to achieve its goals:
A property for the public benefit in accordance with the provisions of the Expropriation Law in force.
(B) to take advantage of the following rights:
1- traffic in the non unorganized territory.
2- columns and towers put "including bearing wind turbines or measured" and diseases, cables and extension of electrical lines in the non unregulated and unlicensed devices Lands.
3- pass insulated aerial cables on the walls of the existing buildings.
4- cutting trees or branches that hinder their networks when necessary.
5. Temporary Works to the territory of others, for the period required by the project implementation.
6- create spending in non unregulated property.
C 1. residence "without compensation, fee or tax" public switching centers of various kinds in the public domain and property of the public bodies and in the squares and parks and sidewalks to the appropriate according to the technical conditions and requirements of the approved safety and provisions of the investment system.
2- columns and towers put "including towers bearing turbines wind devices measured" and diseases, cables and extension of electrical lines within the roads campus and the campus of the railway and the campus of rivers and lakes, valleys and waterways and at sea, and over and under roads, bridges, railways, rivers, lakes, valleys and waterways and create tunnels and traffic tunnels in the list with the exception of archaeological sites, without allowance, fee or tax.
D is committed to institutions and public companies and licensees of applying the provisions of this article to provide the required safety distances to transmission lines and distribution adopted.
Rights mentioned in paragraph occur (b) of Article 32 decision of the Prime Minister and define allowances acquisitions subject of paragraph (a) and compensation resulting from the use of rights the subject of paragraph (b) of Article 32 in accordance with the Expropriation Law in force.
Relevant institution to take, "generation distribution transport" in case of need the project to adopt a resolution acquisition or establishment of any of the rights in accordance with Article "32" actions necessary to adopt a resolution necessary acquisition or creation of such rights in its name and allows the licensee to use the land expropriated or take advantage of rights subject of the article / 32 / to enable it to engage in the business and practice of activity contained in the license and the Convention on the whole duration into force in order to meet the wage amount determined in the agreement to be concluded for this purpose.
A. If a star on the implementation of actions by the licensee damage to the licensee is obliged to compensate the victim for the damage caused and in agreement with him.
B. If failing to reach agreement between the licensee and the aggrieved / affected stakeholders on the amount of compensation could be either of them competent judicial review.
The licensee shall, in coordination with the concerned institution or public company for electricity to maintain the relevant agreement on the arrangements for the extension of the overhead lines or ground with the competent authorities and bear licensee cost to restore the situation to what it was.
Shall abide by the administrative units and real estate development companies and public institutions involved in the establishment of residential areas during the preparation of organizational charts and detailed coordination with the transport or electricity to maintain the company related to the Foundation to allocate places for transfer stations and transfer centers within allocated to the constructors spaces and public property and municipal property to feed those areas with electricity .
B committed administrative units and real estate development companies and public institutions on the Establishment of residential areas .. display engineering plans for buildings and facilities that provide them with the power to maintain the company related to the pre-licensing in order to determine how to provide the buildings with electricity and the need for the allocation of places for the center or more conversions without compensation .
C committed to buildings and facilities and large factories and land owners to build the stomach to allocate places where no allowance for transfer stations or centers for general conversion or shared or private as the case if needed, so according to the provisions in force investment system.
D abide Transport Agency and the Electricity Company to maintain and the Directorate of Technical Services in the province related to coordination with each other during the study paths of transmission and distribution lines to be the luck in the organizational charts.
Issued by a decision of the minister at the suggestion of institutions concerned with obstetric and transmission and distribution instructions for determining the safety distances to transmission lines and distribution and aerodynamic ground.
Section VIII (dispute settlement)
It issued a decision of the Council of Ministers a special system to resolve disputes that arise between the parties related to the sector and the functioning of the sector and regularity.
Minister decisions shall nominate whoever he wishes of workers in the ministry or its affiliates, who meet the competence, experience and integrity to investigate and adjust licensees violations of the provisions of this law and the terms of their licenses and have their recipe of the judicial police and they immediately prior to their businesses to perform a legal right in front of the primitive judge followed him their center.
Part IX (sanctions)
Taking into account
Provisions of Law No. 26 of 2001 for Balastjerar illegal electrical energy.
Legislative Decree No. 60 of 2005 amending Act 26 of 2001.
Law No. 18 of 2008 for energy efficiency standards for electric appliances.
Law No. 3 of 2009, the private energy conservation.
Without prejudice to any stricter penalties stipulated in the laws in force, anyone who commits any of the crimes set forth in the following materials to penalties set forth therein.
(A) Any person who engages in acts generate or transmit electricity distribution or operation of the transport network without obtaining a license to that end and in accordance with the provisions of this law by imprisonment from one year to three years or a fine of not less than one million Syrian pounds and not more than four million Syrian pounds, or both two penalties.
(B) the entity which has been condemned by committing any of the offenses set out in paragraph (a) of this Article shall be stopped from doing its activity is licensed and in case of failure to do so the Ministry is taking all necessary measures to stop this activity and prevent renewed and the parties official competent to provide supportive in this regard.
C may hand that condemnation has to apply for a license to the ministry in accordance with the provisions of this law, without preventing it from implementing the death penalty.
Taking into account the provisions of Article 209 of the Penal Code
A. Each of the oldest intentionally sabotaged or punished by demolition or disable any of the electrical installations or theft of any of the components of the penalties prescribed by the laws in force.
(B) Any person who caused the destruction of an error or negligence or disable any of the electrical installations up to six months imprisonment or a fine of not less than ten thousand pounds and not more than twenty-five thousand Syrian pounds, or both penalties.
(C) Each licensee or colludes with the infringement of the electric grid, "directly or through one of his employees" in order to pay the public body concerned in the electricity sector to grant him a license to invest instead in the area where he infringement punishable by imprisonment for a period of not less for three years and not more than ten years, or a fine of not less than one million but not more than four million Syrian pounds, or both, in addition to compensation for the value of the damage caused by the infringement and refrain entirely license "licensee who trespass" to invest in the area where he infringement.
Punishable by a fine three-fold instead of granting the license in addition to the cancellation of the license both assign his license granted without obtaining the approval of the Ministry.
Taking into account the provisions of the Environment Act No. 50 of 2002, punishable by a fine of not less than five hundred thousand Syrian pounds and not more than four million Syrian pounds each licensee does not adhere to the regulations and standards for health and environmental safety in the license granted to him and still objectionable, their causes and are removal knowing violator within the period specified by the ministry and in the case of failing to remove the offending works ministry in coordination with the concerned parties or pledged to him to be removed in all cases be the removal expense of the violator.
Punishable by a fine of not less than one hundred thousand Syrian pounds and not more than four million Syrian pounds each licensed violates professional quality controls or standard measures of quality of performance of the various services and licensed by instructions.
(A) Subject to the provisions of Article 209 of the Penal Code is a legal person licensee responsible criminally if he commits any of the acts punishable in this by his law or for its own account or using electrical his establishment and that was a result of the act or gross negligence or approval or cover-up chairman or board member or manager or other officer continued to that legal person or who act in this capacity.
Shall be punished with a fine legal person assessments for those acts in accordance with the provisions of this law.
C punished by the worker or the legal person the employee to the same penalty for acts committed in violation of the provisions of this law as the natural person responsible for the actual management of the legal person with the same scheduled for acts committed in violation of the provisions of this law sanctions punished if it is proved he knew it was a breach the duties imposed upon the administration has contributed to the occurrence of the offense by the legal person shall be jointly liable with the natural person to fulfill what governs the financial penalties and compensation.
Issue a decree of the Council of Ministers upon the proposal of the Ministry of Finance system of fines is contained in articles 42 and up to 46 and that ensue licensees for violating the provisions of this law includes most notably follows:
A- types of irregularities.
B ways to prove positive for the offense to a fine.
(C) The minimum and maximum fine for each type of irregularities.
D ways calculating fines irregularities and measures collected.
E cases of exemption from fines.
F refund by the licensee collects unlawfully procedures.
ways and procedures for communication of warning to the violator and specify the time limit for removing the violation.
H remove objectionable measures on the violator's expense if not removed within the specified time limit.
Chapter X (General Provisions)
Issue a decree of the Council of Ministers on the recommendation of the Minister a special system to conclude the purchase, sale and distribution of electricity agreements.
A- generation enterprise companies obstetrics and Mncota generation in Swedish and Tim and the institution of distribution companies and the provincial electricity and the National Energy Research Center in the performance of its functions continue to exercise its powers set out in the instruments of its events in accordance with the laws and regulations in force and as stated in this law concerning any of them.
B considered stations and generating sets belonging to public entities licensed in accordance with the provisions of this law.
Issued executive instructions to the provisions of this law, the decision of the Prime Minister.
Finished all the work is contrary to the text of the provisions of this law.
This law shall be published in the Official Gazette and shall come into force after six months from the date of publication.
Damascus on 12/8/1431 AH corresponding 14-11-2010 AD's.
Egyptian lawyer Nahel
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