Rs 0.451.1 Un Convention Of 17 June 1994 On Combating Desertification In Countries Seriously Affected By Drought And/or Desertification, Particularly In Africa (With Annexes)

Original Language Title: RS 0.451.1 Convention des Nations Unies du 17 juin 1994 sur la lutte contre la désertification dans les pays gravement touchés par la sécheresse et/ou la désertification, en particulier en Afrique (avec annexes)

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0.451.1 original text United Nations Convention to combat desertification in countries seriously affected by drought and/or desertification, particularly in Africa concluded in Paris on 17 June 1994, approved by the Federal Assembly on 27 September 1995, Instrument of ratification deposited by the Switzerland on 19 January 1996 entry into force for Switzerland on 26 December 1996 (report on 11 June 2015). the Parties to this Convention , affirming that human beings in affected or threatened areas are at the centre of concerns in combating desertification and mitigating effects of drought, echoing the concern there is in the international community, including States and international organizations, the harmful consequences of desertification and drought aware that arid and semi-arid lands areas dry taken together form an important part of the land area of the globe, as well as habitat and source of livelihood for a large part of the world population, recognizing that desertification and drought is a problem of global dimension because they affect all regions of the world, and that a joint international action is needed to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought , noting the high proportion of developing countries, including least developed countries, among those who are severely affected by drought and/or desertification, and the tragic especially of these phenomena in Africa, noting also that desertification is caused by complex interactions among physical, biological, political, social, cultural and economic factors, whereas the effects of the trade and some relevant aspects of international economic relations on the ability of the affected countries to fight for adequately against desertification, conscious that sustainable economic growth, social development and poverty eradication are priorities for the developing countries affected, particularly in Africa, and are essential to achieve the objectives of sustainability, bearing in mind that desertification and drought affect sustainable development because of the correlation between these phenomena and important social problems such as poverty , a bad health and nutritional status and food security, and those arising from migration, displacement of populations and population dynamics, appreciating the importance of the efforts of States and international organizations in the past to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, and the experience they have gained in this area , especially in the context of the implementation of the Plan of action to combat desertification which was adopted by the the United Nations Conference on desertification in 1977, aware that, despite efforts in the past, progress in combating desertification and mitigation of drought effects have been disappointing and that a new more effective approach is needed at all levels in the context of sustainable development Recognizing the validity and relevance of decisions adopted at the United Nations Conference on environment and development, and particularly of Agenda 21 and its chapter 12, which provide a basis for combating desertification, and in this context reaffirming the commitments of developed countries as they are formulated in the by. 13 of chapter 33 of Agenda 21, recalling resolution 47/188 of the General Assembly, and in particular the high priority it assigned to Africa, and all other resolutions, decisions and relevant programmes of the United Nations concerning desertification and drought, as well as relevant statements of African countries and those of the countries in other regions, reaffirming the Rio Declaration on environment and development which States in its principle 2, that under the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law, States have the sovereign right to exploit their own resources pursuant to their environmental and development policies and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or under their control cause no damage to the environment in other States or in areas beyond national jurisdiction Recognizing that national Governments play a critical role in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought and that progress in this regard depend on the implementation, in the affected areas, of programmes of action at the local level, recognizing also the importance and necessity of international cooperation and partnership in combating desertification and mitigation of the effects of drought grateful also that it is important to provide to developing countries affected, particularly in Africa, effective ways, including substantial financial resources, including new and additional funding, and access to technology, otherwise it will be difficult to fully discharge the obligations under the present Convention, concerned about the effects of desertification and drought on affected countries in Central Asia and Transcaucasia , emphasizing the important role played by women in regions affected by desertification and/or drought, particularly in rural areas of developing countries, and the importance of full participation of both men and women at all levels in programmes to combat desertification and mitigation of the effects of drought, emphasizing the special role played by NGOs and other organizations major groups in programmes to combat against the desertification and mitigation of the effects of the drought, bearing in mind the relationship between desertification and other environmental problems of global dimension facing the international and national communities are struggling, having also has in mind the contribution that combating desertification can offer to achieve the objectives of the framework Convention of the United Nations on climate change of 9 May 1992 of the agreement of 5 June 1992 on biological diversity and other conventions related to environment, believing that strategies to combat desertification and the mitigation of the effects of the drought will be most effective if they are based on a serious systematic observation and rigorous scientific knowledge, and if they are continuously re-evaluated, recognizing the urgent need to improve the effectiveness and coordination of international cooperation to facilitate the implementation of plans and national priorities, resolved to take appropriate measures to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, in the interest of present and future generations, have agreed to the following: first part Introduction art. 1 use of terms for the purposes of this Convention: a) "desertification" refers to the degradation of land in arid and semi-arid lands areas dry as a result of various factors, including climatic variations and human activities; b) her expression 'fight against desertification' means activities relating to developing integrated land in arid areas (((lands and semi-arid dry, for sustainable development and aimed at: i) prevent and/or reduce land degradation, ii) back in State partially degraded lands, III) restore land desertified;

(c) "drought" means the natural phenomenon that occurs when precipitation has been significantly below normal recorded levels and leading to serious hydrological imbalances adversely affect land resource production systems; d) "mitigation of the effects of drought" means activities related to the prediction of drought and intended to reduce the vulnerability of society and natural systems in the face of drought in the context of the fight against (the desertification; e) 'land' means land bioproductif system which includes the soil, plants, other beings living and ecological and hydrological phenomena that occur within this system; f) "land degradation" means reduction or loss, in arid and semi-arid lands areas dry, of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rain-fed cropland irrigated cropland, of course, pasture, forests or wooded areas as a result of the use of land or of one or several phenomena, including phenomena due to the activity of man and its modes of settlement, such as:


(i) soil erosion caused by wind and/or water, ii) deterioration of the physical, chemical and biological or economic properties of soil, III) the disappearance of natural vegetation long term;

((g) the expression "lands, arid and semi-arid areas dry" means areas, other than the Arctic and subarctic, areas in which the ratio of annual precipitation and evapotranspiration possible is located in a range from 0.05 to 0.65; h) "affected areas" means arid, semi-arid and/or lands areas dry affected or threatened by desertification; i) 'affected countries' means countries including all or part of the lands are affected; j) "Organization of economic integration. (regional"means an organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region, which has jurisdiction over the matters governed by this Convention and which has been duly authorized, according to its internal procedures, to sign, ratify, accept or approve the Convention or join; k) 'developed country Parties' means developed country Parties and organizations of regional economic integration made up of developed countries.

Art. 2 objective 1. This Convention is to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought in countries seriously affected by drought and/or desertification, particularly in Africa, through effective action at all levels, supported by international arrangements for cooperation and partnership, in the context of an integrated approach consistent with Agenda 21 aimed in order to contribute to the establishment of a sustainable development in the affected areas.
2. to achieve this goal, we apply integrated strategies long-term focus simultaneously, in affected areas, on improved productivity of land as well as on the rehabilitation, conservation and sustainable management of land and resources in water, and leading to the improvement of the living conditions, in particular at the level of communities.

Art. 3 principles to achieve the objectives of this Convention and to implement its provisions, the Parties are guided, among others, by the following principles: a) the Parties should ensure that decisions on the design and execution of programmes to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought are taken with the participation of populations and local communities ((, and that an enabling environment is created at higher levels to facilitate action at national and local levels; b) Parties should, in a spirit of solidarity and international partnership, improve cooperation and coordination at subregional, regional and international levels, and better focus financial, human, organizational and technical resources where they are needed; c) Parties should , in a spirit of partnership, cooperation between public authorities at all levels, communities, non-governmental organizations and farmers of the land to better understand, in the affected areas, the nature and value of the land and of the few water, and to promote a sustainable use of these resources; ETD) Parties should take full account the situation and needs of the Parties affected developing countries, especially the least developed among them.

Second part provisions general art. 4 General obligations 1. The Parties fulfil the obligations under this Convention, individually or jointly, through bilateral agreements and multilateral existing or future or through the combination of these different types of agreements, as appropriate, the emphasis on the need to coordinate efforts and develop a coherent at all levels, long-term strategy.
2. to achieve the objective of this Convention, the Parties: a) adopt an integrated approach to the physical, biological and socio-economic aspects of desertification and drought; b) pay due attention, within international and regional bodies relevant to the situation of the affected developing country Parties from the point of view of international trade, marketing and debt arrangements (((in order to create an enabling international economic environment, to promote sustainable development; c) integrate strategies for poverty eradication into efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought; d) encourage cooperation between the affected country Parties in the fields of the protection of the environment and the conservation of land and water resources that relate to desertification and drought; e) reinforce cooperation subregional, regional and international; f) cooperate in breast intergovernmental organizations competent; g) stop institutional mechanisms, if it is necessary, bearing in mind the need to avoid duplication of work; ETH) encourage the use of the mechanisms and multilateral financial arrangements and bilateral existing who mobilize and affect substantial financial resources to the developing countries affected Parties to help combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought.

3. the affected developing Parties eligible for assistance to implement the Convention.

Art. 5 obligations of affected country Parties in addition to the obligations imposed on them by art. 4, the affected countries Parties undertake: a) to give due priority to combating desertification and drought mitigation, and to devote sufficient resources in connection with their situation and their means; b) to establish strategies and priorities, the plans or sustainable development policies, to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought; c) to tackle the root causes of desertification and to pay special attention to the socio-economic factors that contribute to this phenomenon; d) to raise awareness of local populations, particularly women and youth, and to facilitate their participation, with the support of non-governmental organizations, in efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought; summer) to create an enabling environment by strengthening, as appropriate, the relevant legislation and, if there is not, by adopting new laws, and developing long-term policies and programs of action.

Art. 6 obligations of developed country Parties in addition to the General obligations under art. 4, developed country Parties undertake: a) to actively support, as agreed, individually or jointly, the efforts of the countries affected developing Parties, especially those who are in Africa and the least developed countries, to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought; b) provide substantial financial resources and other forms of support to assist affected developing Parties (, in particular those in Africa, to develop and apply effectively their own plans and strategies in the long term to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought; c) to promote the mobilization of new and additional funds under the by. 2 b) of art. (20, (d) to encourage the mobilization of funding from the private sector and other non-governmental sources, summer) to encourage and facilitate access of affected country Parties, in particular of the developing country Parties, to technology, knowledge and the know-how.

Art. 7 focus on Africa in the context of the implementation of this Convention, the Parties give priority to affected country Parties in Africa, account taken of the particular situation prevailing in this region, without neglecting to developing countries affected Parties in other regions.

Art. 8 links with other conventions 1. The Parties encourage the coordination activities under the Convention and, if they are Parties, under other relevant international agreements, including the framework Convention of the United Nations on climate change and the Convention on biological diversity, in order to draw maximum benefit from activities under each agreement while avoiding duplication of work. The Parties encourage the execution of joint programmes, especially in the areas of research, training, systematic observation, collection and exchange of information, insofar as such activities can help achieve the objectives of the agreements in question.
2. the provisions of this Convention do not affect to the rights and obligations of any party resulting from an agreement bilateral, regional or international by which it is bound before the entry into force of this Convention for that party.

Third party programs of action, scientific and technical cooperation and supporting measures Section 1 Action Programmes


Art. 9 General approach 1. To fulfil the obligations imposed on them by art. 5, the Parties affected developing countries and, in the context of the relevant annex concerning implementation at regional or in another frame, any other affected country party that has informed the permanent Secretariat in writing of its intention to develop a national programme of action to develop, make public, and run, as appropriate, of national action programmes, using or taking advantage as much as possible, ongoing programmes and plans that give good results, and the action programmes, subregional and regional, to make it the central element of the strategy to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. These programs will be updated, as part of an ongoing participatory process, taking into account the lessons learned from the action on the ground and the results of research. The preparation of national programmes will be done in close coordination with the other work of national sustainable development policies.
2. in the context of the various forms of assistance they provide in accordance with art. 6, developed country Parties give priority, as agreed, a support to national, subregional action programmes and regional Parties affected developing countries, in particular those who are in Africa, either directly or through relevant multilateral organizations, or both at once.
3. the Parties encourage organs, funds and programmes of the United Nations system and other competent intergovernmental organizations, educational institutions, the scientific community and non-governmental organizations in a position to cooperate, in accordance with their mandates and capabilities, to support the development, implementation and follow-up of action programmes.

Art. 10 national action programmes 1. National action programmes are designed to identify the factors that contribute to desertification and practical measures to be taken to combat poverty and mitigate the effects of drought.
2. the national programmes of action specify the returning role respectively to the State, local authorities and operators of land as well as the resources available and needed. They must, among other things: a) to define long-term strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, emphasize implementation and be integrated with national policies for sustainable development; b) can be modified according to the evolution of the situation and be sufficiently flexible at the local level to adapt to different socio-economic conditions (((, biological and geophysical; c) pay special attention to the application of preventive measures for lands that are not yet degraded or which are only slightly; d) strengthen national capacities climatological, meteorological and hydrological and the means to launch early warning of drought; e) promote policies and strengthen institutional frameworks specific to develop cooperation and coordination (in a spirit of partnership, between the donor community, Governments at all levels, local populations and community groups, and facilitate access of local people to information and to appropriate technology; f) provide for effective participation at local, national and regional levels of non-governmental organizations and local populations, and in particular the users of the resources including farmers and pastoralists and organizations representing them, by making a wide place to women than to men, in the planning of policies, the decision-making as well as to the implementation and review of national action programmes; ETG) foresee the obligation to review, on a regular basis, on the implementation of these programs and to prepare reports on the State of progress of the work.

3. national action programmes may include all or part of the measures below to prevent and mitigate the effects of drought: has) the creation of early warning systems, including local and national facilities and systems at the subregional and regional levels, as well as mechanisms to help those displaced for ecological reasons, and/or their reinforcement ((, as appropriate; b) the strengthening of systems of prevention and drought management, including contingency plans at the local, national, subregional and regional levels, taking into account both the seasonal climate forecasts and forecasts from one year to the other; c) creating and/or strengthening, as appropriate, of food security systems (, including facilities for storage and marketing, especially in rural areas; d) the development of projects to promote new ways of existence that could provide incomes in drought prone areas; summer) the development of sustainable irrigation programmes for crops and livestock.

4. given the situation of each affected country party and its own needs, national action programmes include, among other things, where appropriate, measures in all or part of the priority areas below, which relate to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought in affected areas and relate their populations : promotion of new livelihoods and improvement of the national economic environment to strengthen food security and poverty eradication programs, population dynamics, sustainable management of natural resources, environmentally sustainable agricultural practices, development and efficient use of various sources of energy, institutional and legal frameworks, capacity-building for assessment and systematic observation, including the creation of hydrological and meteorological services , and capacity-building, education and public awareness.

Art. 11 subregional and regional action programmes affected country Parties shall consult and cooperate to prepare, as appropriate, in accordance with the relevant annexes concerning the implementation at the regional level, action programmes subregional or regional to harmonize, complement and make more effective national programs. The provisions of art. 10 shall apply mutatis mutandis to subregional and regional programmes. This co-operation may also extend to enforcement arrested joint programs by mutual agreement for the sustainable management of natural resources-border, scientific and technical cooperation and the strengthening of relevant institutions.

Art. 12 international cooperation in collaboration with other Parties and the international community, the affected country Parties should cooperate to promote an enabling international environment for the purposes of the implementation of the Convention. This cooperation should extend to the transfer of technology, as well as scientific research and development, collection and dissemination of information and financial resources.

Art. 13 support in the development and implementation of action programmes 1. The measures to support the programmes of action in application of art. 9 include, among others: a) financial cooperation to ensure action programmes with predictability to enable the necessary long-term planning; b) the development and use of cooperation mechanisms offering better possibilities of support at the local level, including through non-governmental organizations, in order to encourage reproduction, is there place, successful carried out under pilot programs activities; c) greater flexibility in design financing and implementation of projects, in accordance with the experimental, iterative approach that fits with action at the level of local communities based on participation; ETD) as appropriate, administrative procedures and budget specific to strengthen the effectiveness of the cooperation and support programmes.

2. This support to the developing country Parties is granted priority to African country Parties and developed country Parties.

Art. 14 coordination in the stages of development and the implementation of action programmes 1. The Parties work closely, directly and through relevant intergovernmental organizations, to develop and implement the action programmes.

2. the Parties are developing, in particular at the national and local levels, operational mechanisms to ensure the further possible coordination among developed country Parties, the developing country Parties and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations concerned, in order to avoid duplication, harmonize interventions and approaches and to maximize the effect of the aid. In the developing country Parties, it will focus to coordinate activities relating to international cooperation in order to achieve maximum efficiency in the use of resources, to provide appropriate assistance and facilitate the implementation of national programmes and the respect of the priorities under the terms of this agreement.

Art. 15 annexes for the implementation at the regional level the elements to be included in action programmes are chosen and adapted according to the socio-economic, geographic and climate of the country Parties or regions affected, as well as their level of development. Guidelines for the development of programmes of action, specifying the orientation and content of these for different subregions and regions, are made in the annexes for the implementation at the regional level.

Section 2 scientific co-operation and technical art. 16 collection, analysis and exchange of information the Parties agree, according to their respective capabilities, to integrate and coordinate the collection, analysis and exchange of data and information on periods of short and long term to ensure the systematic observation of the degradation of land in the areas affected and better understand and evaluate the phenomena and effects of drought and desertification. This would contribute notably to the development of a system for early warning and advance planning for periods of adverse climatic variations in a form suitable for practical application by users at all levels, including by local people. To this end, the Parties, as appropriate: a) facilitate and strengthen the functioning to the global network of institutions and facilities for the collection, analysis and exchange of information as well as systematic observation at all levels, said network front: i) seeking to use standards and compatible systems, ii) include the data and appropriate stations, including in remote areas ((iii) use and disseminate modern technology for collection, transmission and assessment of data on land degradation, etiv) strengthen links between national, subregional and regional data and information centres and global information sources;

(b) ensure that the activities of collection, analysis and exchange of information meet the needs of local communities and those of decision-makers, to solve specific problems, and ensure that local communities participate; c) support and develop programs and bilateral and multilateral projects to define, undertake, assess and fund the collection, analysis and exchange of data and information (((, including, among other things, integrated physical, biological, social and economic indicators series d) take full advantage of the expertise of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations competent in particular to disseminate the information and the results of experiments relevant to target groups in different regions; e) give all due weight to the collection, analysis and exchange of socio-economic data, as well as their integration with physical and biological data; f) Exchange and communicate openly and promptly completeness of information from all public sources that relate to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought; ETG) subject to the provisions of their legislation and/or national policies, Exchange information on local and traditional knowledge ensuring duly protect and enjoy appropriate way the local populations concerned of the resulting benefits, equitably and according to mutually agreed terms.

Art. 17 research - development 1. The Parties undertake, according to their respective capabilities, to promote technical and scientific cooperation in the fields of combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought through relevant institutions at the national, subregional, regional and international levels. For this purpose, they support research activities that: a) help to better understand the processes leading to desertification and drought as well as the impact and the respective roles of the natural and human factors that cause, to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought and to achieve greater productivity as well as to use and sustainable resources management; b) meet targets well defined, are designed to meet the specific needs of local populations and to find and implement solutions to improve the living conditions of the populations of affected areas; c) back up, integrate and value the knowledge, know-how and practices traditional and local and confirm the validity by ensuring, in accordance with their legislation and/or their respective national policies that the holders of this knowledge directly benefit, equitably and according to the procedure fixed by mutual agreement, commercial use which could be made or any technological progress which could be; d) develop and strengthen national, subregional and regional research capabilities in developing countries affected Parties, particularly in Africa, including the development of local skills and the strengthening of appropriate capacities ((, especially in countries where the research infrastructure is weak, paying special attention to the socio-economic research, multidisciplinary and participatory; e) take into account, when there is place, the relationship between poverty, migration caused by environmental factors, and desertification; f) promote the implementation of research programs conducted jointly by national research organizations subregional, regional and international, both in the public sector into the private sector, to develop, with the participation of populations and local communities, technology best, inexpensive and available for the purpose of sustainable development; ETG) allow to increase the water resources in affected areas, by means of, particularly, the cloud seeding.

2 research priorities for the different regions and subregions, which vary depending on the local situation, should be included in action programmes. The Conference of the Parties shall periodically review these priorities, based on the opinion of the Committee of science and technology.

Art. 18 transfer, acquisition, adaptation and development of technology 1. The Parties undertake, as they agreed by mutual agreement and in accordance with their legislation and/or national policies to promote, finance and/or facilitate the financing of the transfer, acquisition, adaptation and development of environmentally sound, economically viable and socially acceptable technologies to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought in order to contribute to the establishment of a sustainable development in the affected areas. This cooperation is conducted at bilateral or multilateral level, as appropriate, the Parties making full use of the expertise of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. In particular, the Parties:

((a) to use fully the systems and information centres appropriate that exist both at national, subregional, regional and international for the dissemination of information on available technologies, their sources, the risks for the environment and the General conditions in which they may be acquired; b) facilitate access, in particular of developing countries affected Parties, on favourable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms ((as they are agreed by mutual agreement, taking into account the need to protect intellectual property rights, to technologies that best lend themselves to a practical application in response to the specific needs of local populations, paying special attention to the social, cultural and economic implications of these technologies and their impact on the environment; c) facilitate technology cooperation among affected country Parties through financial or other assistance appropriate; d) expand technological cooperation with developing countries affected Parties, including, where it is necessary, in the form of joint ventures, particularly in sectors that contribute to offer new livelihoods, summer) take the necessary steps to establish national markets conditions and incentive measures, tax or other likely to promote the development, transfer the acquisition and adaptation of technologies, knowledge, know-how and practices appropriate, including provisions to ensure adequate and effective intellectual property rights protection.

2. the Parties, according to their respective capabilities and in accordance with their legislation and/or national policies, protect, promote and use in particular technologies, knowledge, know-how and practices traditional and local. To this end, they undertake to: a) list these technologies, knowledge, know-how and practices and their potential uses, with the participation of local populations, and disseminate relevant information, where appropriate, in cooperation with intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations; b) ensure that such technology, knowledge, know-how and practices are adequately protected and that local populations benefit directly fairly and as agreed by mutual agreement, any commercial that could be made or any technological development that could result; c) encourage and actively support the improvement and dissemination of such technology, knowledge, know-how and practices or the development, from the latter, new technologies; ETD) facilitate, as appropriate, the adaptation of such technology, knowledge, know-how and practices, so that they can be widely used, and include, if necessary, to modern technology.

Section 3 measures to support art. 19 capacity-building, education and awareness of the public 1. The Parties acknowledge the importance of the capacity-building - that is, of the strengthening of the institutions, the training and development of local and national capacities relevant - to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. They seek to promote, as appropriate, the capacity building: a) through the full participation of the population at all levels, particularly at the local level, especially women and youth, with the cooperation of non-governmental and local organizations; b) in capacity building training and research at the national level in the field of desertification and drought; c) creating support and extension services (, and/or strengthening them, for a more effective dissemination of relevant methods and technologies, and by training extension agents and members of rural organizations in participatory methods of conservation and sustainable use of natural resources; d) by encouraging the use and dissemination of the knowledge, know-how and practices of local people in technical cooperation programmes ((, whenever this is possible; e) by adapting, if necessary, environmentally sound technology and traditional methods of agriculture and pastoralism relevant to the socio-economic conditions modern; f) by providing appropriate training in the use of sources of energy, in particular renewable sources of energy, and by providing the necessary technology so, in particular, to reduce dependence on firewood; g) through cooperation as they are agreed by mutual agreement, to strengthen the capacity of developing countries to affected Parties to develop and run programs in the field of collection, analysis and exchange of information, in application of art. (16; h) through innovative to promote new means of existence, including training for the acquisition of new qualifications; i) by training of decision makers, managers and personnel responsible for the collection and analysis of data, dissemination and utilization of information on Drought provided by early warning systems (, and food production; j) thanks to a better functioning of institutions and national legal frameworks existing and, if necessary, to the creation of new institutions and new frameworks as well as strengthening the planning of strategies and management; ETK) through exchange programs to staff to capacity-building in affected country Parties through an interactive process of learning and study on the long term.

2. the affected developing Parties shall, in cooperation with other Parties and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations competent, where appropriate, a multidisciplinary review of capacities and facilities available at the local and national levels, and opportunities to strengthen.
3. the Parties cooperate with each other and through competent intergovernmental organizations, as well as with non-governmental organizations, to undertake and support programs of awareness and education of the public in the affected country Parties and, where there is, in non-affected country Parties in order to better understand what are the causes and effects of desertification and drought and how important it is to achieve the objectives of this Convention. For this purpose, they: a) organize awareness campaigns aimed at the general public; b) work to promote, on a permanent basis, access by the public to relevant information, as well as a broad participation of the latter in education and awareness activities; c) encourage the creation of association who contribute to public awareness; d) put to develop and Exchange educational and public awareness material where possible in local languages, Exchange and second experts to train personnel of the affected developing country Parties in the implementation of education and awareness programs, and take full advantage of the educational material available in competent international bodies; e) assess educational needs in affected areas, develop appropriate curricula and develop , as needed, educational and adult literacy programmes and opportunities for all, particularly girls and women, for the identification, conservation and use and the management of the natural resources of affected areas; ETF) develop interdisciplinary participatory programs that integrate awareness of desertification and drought issues in education systems and in extracurricular education, adult education, distance learning and teaching programs.

4. the Conference of the Parties is and/or strengthen networks of regional education and training centres to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. These networks are coordinated by an institution created or designated for that purpose in order to train scientific, technical staff and management and strengthen the institutions responsible for education and training in affected country Parties, when it is necessary, with a view to the harmonization of programmes and organizing exchanges of experience between such institutions. These networks cooperate closely with intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to avoid duplication of work.

Art. 20 financial resources 1. Means of financing is of fundamental importance to the objective of the Convention, the Parties spared no effort, in the best of their ability, to ensure that adequate financial resources are made available for programmes to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought.

2A this connection, developed country Parties, while giving priority to affected African country Parties without neglecting provided developing countries affected Parties in other regions, in accordance with art. 7, undertake to: a) mobilize substantial financial resources, including grants and loans on concessional terms, to support the implementation of programmes to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought; (b) promote the mobilization of financial resources, adequate, predictable and timely, including funds new and additional provided by the Fund for the global environment facility to finance the agreed activities relating to additional costs the desertification that fall within its four main areas of action, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the instrument for the establishment of such fund; c) facilitate through international cooperation the transfer of technology, knowledge and know-how; ETD) study, in cooperation with the countries affected developing Parties, innovative methods and incentives possible to mobilize and direct resources, including those of foundations, non-governmental organizations and other private sector entities, particularly debt conversions, and other innovative ways that increase financing by reducing the burden of external debt of the countries affected developing Parties especially those who are in Africa.

3. the developing countries affected Parties, given their resources, undertake to mobilise adequate financial resources to implement their national action programmes.
4 when they mobilize financial resources, the Parties strive to make full use of and to continue to improve qualitatively all the national, bilateral and multilateral mechanisms and sources of financing using consortia, joint programmes and parallel financing, and seek the participation of mechanisms and sources of financing for the private sector, including non-governmental organizations. To this end, the Parties make full use the operational mechanisms developed pursuant to art. 14 5. To mobilize the financial resources to affected developing countries Parties need to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, the Parties: a) rationalize and strengthen the management of resources already allocated for combating desertification and mitigation of the effects of drought by using them more effectively and efficiently (, assessing their successes and their failures, by removing barriers to their effective use and, where this is necessary, reorienting programmes in light of the integrated long-term adopted under this Convention; b) grant the priority and attention necessary, within the governing bodies of financial institutions, devices and multilateral funds, including banks and regional development funds in support to the developing countries affected Parties, particularly those located in Africa, for activities that advance the implementation of the Convention, notably action programmes they undertake in the annexes for the implementation at the regional level; etc.) examine ways in which regional and subregional cooperation can be strengthened to support efforts at the national level.

6. the other Parties are encouraged to provide, on a voluntary basis, knowledge, know-how and techniques related to desertification and/or financial resources to affected developing Parties.
7. by completing the obligations that their obligations under the Convention, including in particular those relating to financial resources and transfer of technology, developed country Parties will help significantly affected Parties, particularly those in Africa, developing countries to fully meet their obligations under the Convention. In fulfilling their obligations, developed country Parties should take fully into account that economic and social development and eradication of poverty are the first priorities of the Parties affected developing countries, particularly those in Africa.

Art. 21 financial mechanisms 1. The Conference of the Parties encourages the availability of financial mechanisms and encourage these mechanisms to try to ensure that the affected developing country Parties, particularly those located in Africa, have the maximum of funds to implement the Convention. To this end, the Conference of the Parties is considering, among other things, for adoption, of the methods and policies for: a) to facilitate the provision of the necessary funds at the national, subregional, regional or global levels for activities pursuant to the relevant provisions of the Convention; b) to promote mechanisms and agreements based on several sources of financing, as well as their assessment approaches , pursuant to art. (20; c) regularly provide interested Parties and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations competent in order to facilitate coordination among them, information on available funding sources and modes of funding; d) facilitate, as appropriate, the establishment of mechanisms such as national funds related to desertification, including those involving the participation of non-governmental organizations to move quickly and efficiently financial resources at the local level in affected developing countries Parties; summer) strengthen funds and financial mechanisms at the subregional and regional levels, particularly in Africa, to support more effectively the implementation of the Convention.

2. the Conference of the Parties also encourages the provision, through various mechanisms of the system of the United Nations and the multilateral financial institutions, of support at the national, subregional and regional levels to activities that enable the developing country Parties to fulfil the obligations that their obligations under the Convention.
3. the affected developing Parties use and, if necessary, establish and/or strengthen national coordination mechanisms integrated into national development programmes and to ensure the rational use of all available financial resources. They also employ processes based on participation, involving NGOs, local groups and the private sector, to raise funds, to develop and implement programs and ensure the access of groups at the local level to finance. These actions can be enhanced by improved coordination and flexible programming on the part of those providing assistance.
4. in order to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of existing financial mechanisms, a global mechanism to encourage actions leading to the mobilization and delivery, for the benefit of the affected developing country Parties, of substantial financial resources, including for the transfer of technology, grant and/or concessional or other conditions is established by this Convention. This global mechanism works under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the Parties and is responsible to it.
5. the Conference of the Parties identify, at its first session, an organization to house the global mechanism. The Conference of the Parties and the organization it has identified agree to modalities of the global mechanism in order to ensure that it: a) identifies bilateral and multilateral cooperation programmes relevant which are available to implement the Convention and draws up an inventory; b) provide, to the Parties requesting it, advice on innovative methods of financing and sources of financial assistance (, as well as on improving the coordination of cooperation at the national level activities; c) to interested Parties and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to provide relevant information on available funding sources and modes of funding in order to facilitate coordination among them; ETD) report to the Conference of the Parties on its activities from the second regular session thereof.

6. the Conference of the Parties takes, at its first session, with the organization it has identified to install the global mechanism, provision for administrative latter operations, using, wherever possible, to the budgetary and human resources existing.
7. the Conference of the Parties reviews at its third regular session policies, operational modalities and activities of the global mechanism, which is responsible to it by virtue of the by. 4, taking into account the provisions of art. 7. on the basis of this review, she plans and takes the appropriate action.

Part IV Institutions art. 22 conference of Parties 1. It is created for a Conference of the Parties.

2. the Conference of the Parties is the supreme body of the Convention. It takes, within the limits of its mandate, the decisions necessary to promote the effective implementation. Specifically, it: a) reports regularly on the implementation of the Convention and the functioning of the institutional arrangements in the light of the experience gained at the national, subregional, regional and international levels and taking into account the evolution of scientific and technological knowledge; b) seeks to promote and facilitate the exchange of information on measures adopted by the Parties , and stop the mode of presentation of the information to be submitted pursuant to art. 26, set the schedule according to which they must be communicated, reviews the reports and makes recommendations thereon; c) establish such subsidiary bodies considered necessary for the purposes of the implementation of the Convention; d) review reports submitted by its subsidiary bodies, to which it provides guidelines; e) stop and adopt, by consensus, its rules of procedure and its financial rules as well as those of its subsidiary bodies; f) adopted the amendments to the Convention under art. 30 and 31; g) approved its programme of activities and budget, including those of its subsidiary bodies, and takes the necessary measures for their funding; h) seeking, depending on whether it should, the contest of bodies and competent bodies, be they national, international, intergovernmental or non-governmental, and uses their services and information they provide; i) is working to promote the establishment of relationships with other relevant conventions and to strengthen while avoiding duplication of work; YSS) exercise other functions as may be required to achieve the objective of the Convention.

3. at its first session, the Conference of the Parties shall adopt, by consensus, its rules of procedure, which defines the procedures of decision making applicable to the issues for which the Convention has already provided. Special majorities may be required for the adoption of certain decisions.
4. the first session of the Conference of the Parties shall be convened by the interim Secretariat referred to in art. 35 and stands at the latest one year after the entry into force of the Convention. Unless the Conference of the Parties decides otherwise, the second, third and fourth ordinary sessions will be held annually, and the subsequent regular sessions every two years.
5. the Conference of the Parties meets in special session to another time if she so decides in ordinary session or part therefor in writing, provided that this is supported by a third or more of the Parties, within three months following its communication to the Parties by the permanent Secretariat.
6. at each ordinary session, the Conference of the Parties shall elect a bureau. The structure and functions of the Office are defined in the rules of procedure. Due account is taken to refer to the Office, the need to ensure equitable geographical distribution and representation of affected country Parties, particularly those located in Africa.
7. the United Nations and specialized United Nations as well as any member of one of these organizations or institutions with the status of observer with one of these organizations, which is not a party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the Conference of the Parties as observers. Any body or agency, national or international, governmental or non-governmental, which is competent in the areas covered by the Convention and informed the Secretariat that it wished to be represented at a session of the Conference of the Parties as an observer, may be admitted as such, unless one third of the Parties present at least does objection. The admission and participation of observers is governed by the rules of procedure adopted by the Conference of the Parties.
8. the Conference of the Parties may request to national and international organizations competent who have relevant expertise to provide information on the by. (g) of art. 16, the by. 1 c) art. 17, and the by. 2 b) of art. 18 art. 23 permanent secretariat 1. It is created a permanent Secretariat.
2. the functions of the permanent Secretariat are the following: a) to organize the sessions of the Conference of the Parties and its subsidiary bodies established under the Convention and provide them with services as required; b) compile and submit reports that it receives; c) facilitate, at their request, the provision of help to the affected developing country Parties, particularly those located in Africa (((, for the purposes of the compilation and communication of information required under the Convention; d) coordinate its activities with the secretariats of other organizations and international conventions relevant; e) conclude, as directed by the Conference of the Parties, the administrative and contractual arrangements as may be required to enable it to carry out effectively its functions; f) prepare reports in which it reports on how it performs functions that are assigned under this Convention and present them to the Conference of the Parties, etg) perform the other secretariat functions that the Conference of the Parties may assign.

3. at its first session, the Conference of the Parties designate a permanent Secretariat and makes arrangements for its functioning.

Art. 24 Committee of the science and technology 1. It is created a Committee on science and technology as a subsidiary body of the Conference of the Parties in order to provide information and advice on technological issues related to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. The Committee meets on the occasion of the ordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties. It is a multidisciplinary body open to the participation of all Parties. It is composed of representatives of Governments that are authoritative in their field of competence. The Conference of the Parties end the mandate of the Committee at its first session.
2. the Conference of the Parties establishes and maintains a roster of independent experts with expertise and experience in the relevant areas. This file is based on the applications submitted in writing by the Parties, taking into account the need for a multidisciplinary approach and broad geographical representation.
3 the Conference of Parties may, as necessary, appoint special groups to provide information and advice, through the Committee on specific issues regarding the State of knowledge in the areas of science and technology related to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. These groups are composed of experts selected from those whose name appears in the file, taking into account the need for a multidisciplinary approach and broad geographical representation. These experts have scientific training and experience practice and will be appointed by the Conference of the Parties on the recommendation of the Committee. The Conference of the Parties stop the mandate and modalities of the functioning of these groups.

Art. 25 networking of institutions, agencies and bodies 1. The science and Technology Committee takes, under the control of the Conference of the Parties, arrangements for a census and an evaluation of networks, institutions, agencies and bodies willing to form the units of a network to be undertaken. This network contributes to the implementation of the Convention.
2. based on the results of the work of Census and assessment referred to the by. 1, the science and Technology Committee makes recommendations to the Conference of the Parties on the means to facilitate and strengthen the association of the devices on a network, especially at the local and national levels for execution tasks set out in art. 16 to 19.
3. in light of these recommendations, the Conference of the Parties: a) determines what are the national, subregional, regional and international units that best lend themselves to an association in network and makes recommendations about how to proceed and the timetable; ETB) determines what are the units the best placed to facilitate and strengthen the constitution of this network at all levels.

Part v Procedures art. 26 communication of information 1. Each Party shall communicate to the Conference of the Parties, through the permanent Secretariat, for consideration at its ordinary sessions, reports on the measures it has taken for the purposes of the implementation of the Convention. The Conference of the Parties sets the calendar according to which these reports must be submitted and to stop the presentation.
2. the affected country Parties provide a description of the strategies they have developed under art. 5 of the Convention, and shall communicate all relevant information on their implementation.

3. the affected country Parties which implement programmes of action under art. 9-15 provide a detailed description of these programs as well as their implementation.
4. any group of affected country Parties may make a joint communication on measures taken at the subregional and/or regional levels in the context of the programmes of action.
5. the developed country Parties report on measures they have taken to help in the development and implementation of action programmes, and especially provide information on financial resources they have provided, or they provide, to the title of the Convention.
6. the information provided in virtue of by. 1 to 4 are transmitted promptly by the permanent Secretariat to the Conference of the Parties and to any relevant subsidiary body.
7. the Conference of the Parties facilitates the provision, on request, to the affected developing country Parties, particularly in Africa, of technical and financial support to compile and communicate the information referred to in this section as well as to determine the technical needs and financial programs of action.

Art. 27 measures to address issues related to the implementation of the Convention the Conference considered and adopted procedures and institutional mechanisms to resolve issues that may arise about the implementation of the Convention.

Art. 28 settlement of disputes 1. The Parties settle any dispute arising between them about the interpretation or the implementation of the Convention through negotiation or other peaceful means of their choice.
2. when it ratifies, accepts or approves the Convention or adhere to or at any time thereafter, a party which is not a regional economic integration organization may declare in a written instrument submitted to the depositary, as for any dispute concerning the interpretation or the implementation of the Convention, it recognizes as compulsory, in relation to any Party accepting the same obligation ((, one of the two or both ways of settlement of disputes below: a) arbitration in accordance with the procedure adopted, as soon as possible, by the Conference of the Parties in an annex; b) submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice.

3. any regional economic integration organization party to the Convention can make a similar statement on arbitration, in accordance with the procedure in the by. 2 (a). 4. Any declaration made in virtue of by. 2. remains effective until the expiration of the period stipulated in this statement or until the expiration of a period of three months after the deposit with the depositary of the written notice of its revocation.
5. the expiry of a declaration, notification of the revocation of a declaration or filing a new declaration does not affect proceedings before an arbitral tribunal or the International Court of Justice, unless the Parties to the dispute agree otherwise.
6. If the Parties to a dispute have not accepted the same procedure or have accepted any of the procedures referred to the by. 2, and if they could not settle their dispute within 12 months following notification by one party to another part of the existence of a dispute between them, it is submitted to conciliation at the request of any Parties to the dispute, in accordance with the procedure adopted, as soon as possible, by the Conference of the Parties in an annex.

Art. 29 status of annexes 1. The annexes are an integral part of the Convention and, unless expressly provided otherwise, any reference to the Convention also refers to annexes.
2. the Parties interpret the provisions of the annexes in a manner consistent with the rights and obligations which they are responsible under the articles of this Convention.

Art. 30 amendments to the Convention 1. Any party may propose amendments to the Convention.
2. the amendments to the Convention at a regular session of the Conference of the Parties. The permanent Secretariat shall communicate to the Parties the text of any proposed amendment at least six months before the meeting at which the amendment is proposed for adoption. The permanent Secretariat shall also communicate proposed amendments to the signatories to the Convention.
3. the Parties make every effort to reach agreement by consensus on any amendment to the Convention. If their efforts in this direction have remained fruitless and no agreement, the amendment is adopted, as a last resort, by a vote by a majority of two thirds of the Parties present and voting. Once adopted, the amendment shall be communicated by the Secretariat to the depositary, which forwards it to all Parties for ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
4. the instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession for an amendment are deposited with the depositary. Any amendment adopted by virtue of the by. 3 enter into force for the Parties which have accepted it the ninetieth day following the date of receipt by the depositary of the instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession two-thirds at least of the Parties to the Convention that were Parties at the time of adoption of the amendment.
5. the amendment comes into force with respect to any other party the eighty-tenth day following the date of deposit by that party with the depositary of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession on the said amendment.
6. for the purposes of this article and art. 31, "Parties present and voting" means Parties present that issue an affirmative or negative vote.

Art. 31 adoption and amendments of annexes 1. Any new annex to the Convention and any amendment to an annex are proposed and adopted according to the procedure laid down in art. 30 for the amendments to the Convention, provided, however that any new annex concerning implementation at the regional level, or to be adopted, any amendment to an annex concerning implementation at the regional level must collect the majority of two-thirds of the votes of the Parties of the region concerned present and voting as provided for this article. The adoption or amendment of an annex shall be notified to all Parties by the depositary.
2. any annex, other that a new annex concerning implementation at the regional level, or an amendment to an annex, other than an amendment to an annex concerning implementation at the regional level, which was adopted in accordance with the by. 1, comes into force six months after the date on which the depositary has notified adoption parties, all parties to the Convention, except those which, in the meantime, have notified in writing to the depositary that they would not this annex or the amendment said. The annex or the amendment enter into force for Parties which withdraw their notification of non-acceptance on the ninetieth day following the date of receipt by the depositary of the notification of the withdrawal.
3. a new annex concerning the implementation at the regional level or any amendment to an annex concerning implementation at the regional level adopted in accordance with the by. 1 enter into force six months after the date on which the depositary has notified adoption for all Parties to the Convention, with the exception of: has) any party which, in this six-month interval, notified in writing to the depositary that it did not accept the new annex concerning implementation at the regional level or the amendment to the annex concerning implementation at the regional level and in these cases, this annex or amendment enter into force for Parties which withdraw their notification of non-acceptance on the ninetieth day following the date of receipt by the depositary of the notification of the withdrawal. ETB) any party which, in accordance with the by. 4 of art. 34, made a statement on the new schedules for the implementation at the regional level or the amendments to the annexes for the implementation at the regional level and, in this case, the annex or the amendment comes into force with respect to that part the ninetieth day following the date on which it filed its instrument of ratification with the depositary acceptance or approval of the said Annex or of the amendment said, or its instrument of accession, 4. If the adoption of an annex or an amendment to an annex involves an amendment to the Convention, that annex or amendment to an annex is effective only when the amendment to the Convention itself comes into force.

Art. 32 right to vote 1. Subject to the provisions of the by. 2, each party to the Convention has a voice.
2. in the areas within their competence, the regional economic integration organizations have to exercise their right to vote, to a number of votes equal to the number of their Member States that are Parties to the Convention. These organizations do not exercise their right to vote if any of their Member States exercised his, and vice versa.

Part VI provisions final art. 33 signature


This Convention is open for signature by States which are members of the Organization of the United Nations or one any of the specialized agencies of the United Nations, or which are Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, as well as organizations of economic integration in Paris, on 14 and 15 October 1994, then at the headquarters of the Organization of the United Nations , New York, until 13 October 1995.

Art. 34 ratification, acceptance, approval and accession 1. The Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance, approval or accession of the States and regional economic integration organizations. It is open to the membership the day after the day where it ceases to be open for signature. The instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession are deposited with the depositary.
2. any organization of regional economic integration which becomes party to the Convention without that none of its Member States being a party is bound by all the obligations arising from the Convention. If one or more of its Member States are also Parties to the Convention, the Organization and its Member States agree on their respective responsibilities for the purposes of the performance of the obligations imposed on them by the Convention. In such cases, the Organization and its Member States are not entitled to exercise the rights arising from the Convention concurrently.
3. in their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration organizations indicate the extent of their competence with respect to the matters governed by the Convention. In addition, these organizations shall inform without delay the depositary, which shall inform in turn the Parties, of any significant changes to the scope of their jurisdiction.
4. in its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, any party may indicate that a new annex concerning implementation at the regional level, or an amendment to a new annex concerning implementation at the regional level will take effect in its regard only after the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.

Art. 35 interim arrangements the secretariat functions referred to in art. 23 will be carried out, on a provisional basis by the secretariat established by the General Assembly of the United Nations, in its resolution 47/188 of 22 December 1992, until the end of the first session of the Conference of the Parties.

Art. 36 entry into force 1. The Convention comes into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
2 with respect to each State or regional economic integration organization which ratify, accept it, approves it or adhere after the deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Convention comes into force on the ninetieth day following the date of deposit by that State or that organization of regional economic integration, of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
3. for the purposes of by. 1 and 2, the instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization does not add to those deposited by States members of this organization.

Art. 37 reservations this Convention No reservations.

Art. 38 denunciation 1. At any time after the expiry of a period of three years from the date on which the Convention entered into force with respect to a party, that party may denounce the Convention by means of a written notification to the depositary.
2. the denunciation shall take effect on the expiry of a period of one year from the date of receipt of the notification by the depositary, or on any later date specified in the notification.

Art. 39 depositary the Secretary-General of the Organization of the United Nations is the depositary of the Convention.

Art. 40 texts being authentic the original of this Convention, of which the English, Arabic, Chinese, English, french and Russian texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the Organization of the United Nations.
In faith of what, the undersigned, duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Convention.
Done at Paris, on 17 June one thousand nine hundred and ninety-four.
(Follow signatures)

Annex I annex concerning implementation at the regional level for the Africa art. 1 scope this annex applies to Africa, in respect of each party and in accordance with the Convention, in particular to art. 7, for the purpose of combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought in arid and semi-arid lands areas dry in this region.

Art. 2 object this annex is intended, at the national, subregional and regional levels in Africa, and taking into account the peculiarities of this region of: a) define the measures and provisions to take, including the nature and terms of the assistance provided by developed country Parties, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention; b) to ensure that the Convention is applied taking into account the particularities of Africa; etc.) promote processes and activities relating to combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought in arid and semi-arid lands areas dry Africa.

Art. 3 characteristics of the African region to fulfil the obligations that their obligations under the Convention, the Parties, in the context of the implementation of this annex, adopt a basic approach that takes into account the particularities of Africa, namely: a) a large proportion of arid, semi-arid and Lands dry; b) a large number of countries and populations suffering desertification and frequent periods of drought back; c) (a large number of affected countries that are landlocked; d) poverty widespread in most of the affected countries, including many of the least developed, and the need for outside assistance is important, in grants and loans on concessional terms, to pursue their development objectives; e) socio-economic difficulties exacerbated by deteriorating and fluctuating terms of trade ((, external indebtedness and political instability, leading to internal, regional and international migrations; f) populations who, for their livelihoods, are heavily dependent on natural resources, which, compounded by the effects of trends and demographic factors, the weak technological base and unsustainable production practices, contributes to a worrying degradation of resources; g) shortcomings of the institutional and legal framework the weak infrastructure and the lack of means scientific, technical and educational, and, therefore, the huge need for capacity-building in the countries of the region; ETH) the central role of actions to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought in the national development priorities of affected African countries, Art. 4 commitments and obligations of the African country Parties 1. According to their respective capabilities, African country Parties undertake to: a) make to combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought the essential of a poverty eradication strategy; b) promote cooperation and regional integration, in a spirit of solidarity and partnership based on common interest, in programmes and activities to combat desertification and/or to mitigate the effects of drought; c) rationalize and strengthen the institutions concerned with desertification and drought and appeal to any other existing institutions, as appropriate, in order to increase efficiency and to ensure a more rational use of resources; d) promote the exchange of information among them on the technology, knowledge, know-how and practices appropriate; summer) to develop contingency plans for mitigating the effects of drought in areas degraded by desertification and/or drought.

2. pursuant to the General and specific obligations set out in art. 4 and 5 of the Convention, affected African country Parties are striving: a) to allocate budget funds according to the situation and means of the country and in view of the new priority that Africa has accorded to the phenomenon of desertification and/or drought; b) to continue and intensify the reforms in decentralization and improvement of the operating system resources , and to strengthen the participation of populations and local communities; etc.) to identify and mobilize new and additional national financial resources, and to develop, in priority, the means and mechanisms available at the national level to mobilize domestic financial resources.

Art. 5 commitments and obligations of the developed country Parties 1. To fulfil the obligations which they are responsible under art. 4, 6 and 7 of the Convention, the developed country Parties give priority to affected African country Parties and, in this context:

(a) help them to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought, among other things, providing them with financial or other resources, or by facilitating access to these resources, as well as by promoting and financing the transfer, adaptation and access to technology and ecologically appropriate know-how and/or facilitating financing (as decided by mutual agreement and in accordance with their national policies, taking into account their adoption of the eradication of poverty as a central strategy; b) continue to allocate significant resources and/or increase resources to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought; etc) help them to strengthen their capacities to enable them to improve their institutional framework, as well as their scientific and technical resources, collection and analysis of information and research and development in order to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought.

2. the other country Parties may provide, on a voluntary basis, technology, knowledge and know-how relating to desertification and/or financial resources to affected African country Parties. The transfer of such technologies, knowledge and know-how is facilitated by international cooperation.

Art. 6 strategic planning for sustainable development 1 framework. National action programmes are part of a larger process of national policy for the sustainable development of affected African country Parties and constitute an essential element.
2. a consultative and participatory process is committed with the participation of Governments at the appropriate levels, local populations, communities and non-governmental organizations, in order to give indications as to the strategy, according to a flexible planning to allow maximum participation from local populations and communities. Bilateral and multilateral aid agencies may be involved, as appropriate, to this process at the request of an affected African country party.

Art. 7 timetable for the development of programmes of action pending the entry into force of the Convention, African country Parties, in cooperation with other members of the international community, as appropriate, shall apply, to the extent possible, tentatively related to the development of national, subregional and regional action programmes.

Art. 8 content of national action programmes 1. In accordance with the provisions of art. 10 of the Convention, the General program of action strategy national is to focus on, to the affected areas, integrated programs of local development based on participatory mechanisms and on integration of strategies for poverty eradication into efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. The programs are designed to strengthen the capacity of local authorities and ensuring the active participation of populations, communities and local groups, emphasis on education and training, mobilization of non-governmental organizations who made the proof of their expertise and the strengthening of decentralized State structures.
((2. the national programmes of action have, as appropriate, the following general characteristics: a) exploitation, in the development and implementation of programmes of regional action, past experiences to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought, taking into account the social, economic and ecological conditions; b) identification of factors contributing to desertification and/or drought of the resources and capacities available and required as well as the development of policy and institutional measures and solutions and other necessary to combat those phenomena and/or mitigate the impact; etc) increase the participation of populations and local communities, including women, farmers and pastoralists, and delegation of greater authority to these groups management.

3. national action programmes include, as appropriate: has) measures to improve the environment economic for the purpose of the eradication of poverty and of to: i) increase revenues and create jobs, especially for the poorest, to: - developing markets for farm produce and livestock, - creating financial instruments suited to local needs, - encouraging diversification in agriculture and the creation of agricultural enterprises , and - developing economic activities of where or non-agricultural type;

(ii) improve the prospects for long-term rural economies by:-establishing supports for productive investment and ensuring access to the means of production, and - establishing a pricing policy and tax policy and business practices promoting growth;

(iii) defining and applying population and migration policies to reduce population pressure on land; iv) promote the use of crops resistant to drought and the use of system integrated of arido-culture in order to ensure food security;

(b) of the measures to conserve natural resources and consisting of: i) ensure an integrated and sustainable management of natural resources, including: - agricultural and pastoral land - vegetation cover and wildlife, - forests, water resources, and - biological diversity;

((ii) intensify environmental education and public awareness campaigns and provide training in this area, and disseminating knowledge of techniques relating to the sustainable management of natural resources; iii) ensure the development and the rational use of energy sources and promote alternative energy sources, especially solar energy, wind energy and biogas , and provide for specific arrangements for the transfer, acquisition and adaptation of relevant technology, that can alleviate the pressure on fragile natural resources;

(((c) measures to improve institutional organization and consisting of: i) the functions and the responsibilities of Central Government and local authorities as part of the planning policy, ii) encouraging a policy of active decentralization in order to transfer the responsibility of management and decision-making to encourage local communities to take initiatives and assume responsibilities to local authorities (, and facilitate the implementation of local structures, III) adapt, where appropriate, the institutional and regulatory framework in which fits the management of natural resources so that local people benefit from security of land tenure;

((d) measures to improve knowledge of the phenomenon of desertification and consisting of: i) promote research as well as the collection, processing and exchange of information on scientific, technical and socio-economic of desertification aspects, ii) improve national capacity for research and the collection, processing, Exchange and analysis of information, in order to better understand the phenomenon and to put into practice the results analysis (, III) encouraging the medium and long term study of: - the socio-economic and cultural development in the affected areas, - the evolution of the natural resources of the qualitative and quantitative points of view, and - the interaction between climate and desertification; (and (e) of the measures to monitor and evaluate the effects of the drought and consisting of: i) define strategies to evaluate the impacts of the natural variability of the climate on drought and desertification at the regional level and/or to use the preventions on seasonal and interannual climate variability in order to mitigate the effects of drought (, ii) strengthen early warning and response capacity, establish a more rational management of food aid and emergency relief, improve systems of storage and distribution of food, protection of livestock systems and public infrastructure, and promote new livelihoods in drought-prone areas, III) monitoring and assessing ecological degradation to provide timely, reliable information on the process of degradation of resources and the dynamics of this phenomenon in order to be able to develop better policies and control measures.

Art. 9 development of action programmes national and put point criteria evaluation and implementation each affected African country Party designates an appropriate coordinating body to play the role of catalyst in the development, implementation and evaluation of its national action programme. In light of art. 3, this coordinating body, as appropriate:

((a) undertakes to identify and study the actions, first through a process of consultation at the local level, with the participation of populations and local communities and with the cooperation of local administration, of the developed country Parties and intergovernmental and non-governmental, on the basis of initial consultations with stakeholders at the national level; b) identifies and analyzes the constraints (, needs and gaps affecting development and sustainable land use, recommend practical measures to avoid duplication in taking full advantage of ongoing efforts and encourages the implementation of the results; c) facilitates, designs and develops the project activities based on interactive approaches flexible to ensure active participation of the populations of affected areas (, to reduce the negative effects of such activities, and to determine and prioritize requirements for financial assistance and technical cooperation; d) establishes criteria pertinent, quantifiable and readily verifiable, to ensure the analysis and evaluation of national action programmes, including measures in the short, medium and long term, and their implementation; summer) is developing well-researched background reports on the status of the national action programmes.

Art. 10 organisational framework of subregional action programmes 1. In application of art. 4 of the Convention, African country Parties cooperate in the development and implementation of action programmes for Central Africa, East Africa, North Africa, Southern Africa and West Africa subregional and, in this regard, they may delegate the following responsibilities to relevant subregional intergovernmental organizations: a) to serve as focal points for preparatory activities and coordinating the implementation of subregional action programmes; b) to help develop and run the national programmes of action; c) facilitate the exchange of information, experiences and know-how and advise on the study of national legislation; ETD) any other responsibility related to the implementation of the subregional action programmes.

2. the subregional specialized institutions may, on request, provide support and/or be responsible to coordinate activities in their respective areas of competence.

Art. 11 content and preparation of subregional action programmes the subregional action programmes are focused on issues that are best dealt with at the subregional level. The subregional programmes of action may create when it is necessary, mechanisms for the management of shared natural resources. Such mechanisms allow to effectively address cross-border issues relating to desertification and/or drought and provide support to the smooth implementation of the national action programmes. Focus the subregional action programmes, as appropriate, on the following priority areas: a) joint programmes for the sustainable management of transboundary natural resources, through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms according to what it should be; b) coordination of programmes of development of alternative energy sources; c) cooperation in the management and control of the struggle against the pests and diseases of plants and animals; d) capacity-building activities (education and public awareness which are better carried out or supported at the subregional; e) scientific and technical cooperation, particularly in the climatological, meteorological and hydrological, areas including networking for collecting and evaluating data, pooling of information and oversight of the projects, the coordination of the activities of research and development and establishing an order of priority in this area; f) early warning systems and planning for the mitigation of the effects of the drought, including measures to deal with problems induced by migration due to ecological factors; g) seeking ways to share experiences, especially about the participation of populations and local communities, and creating an environment conducive to a better land management and the use of appropriate technology; h) strengthening of the capacity of subregional organizations to coordinate and provide technical services , as well as establishment, reorientation and strengthening of centres and subregional institutions; ETI) developing policy in areas which have an impact on areas and affected populations, such trade, and including policies for the coordination of regional marketing and implementation plans in place of common infrastructure.

Art. 12 organisational framework of the regional action programme 1. In application of art. 11 of the Convention, African country Parties to jointly stop the procedures for developing and implementing the regional action programme.
2. the Parties may provide adequate support to relevant African regional organizations and institutions to enable them to assist African country Parties to fulfil the responsibilities imposed on them by the Convention.

Art. 13 content of the regional action programme, the regional programme of action includes measures relating to combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought in the following priority areas: a) development of regional cooperation and coordination of the SRAPs to reach a regional consensus on the key areas of action, including through regular consultations with subregional organizations; b) promotion of capacity-building (, the activities that it is preferable to carry out at the regional level; c) research, with the international community, solutions to economic and social problems worldwide that have an impact on affected areas taking into account the by. 2 (b) of art. 4 of the Convention; d) promotion of the exchange of information and appropriate techniques, technical know-how and relevant experiences between the country Parties and subregions affected Africa as well as with other regions affected; promotion of the scientific and technical cooperation, particularly in the areas of climatological, meteorological, hydrological, development of water resources and alternative energy sources; coordination of subregional and regional research activities; and determination of regional priorities for research and development; e) network coordination of observation and systematic assessment and exchange of information, as well as their integration into worldwide networks; ETF) coordination and strengthening of subregional and regional systems for early warning and emergency drought plans.

Art. 14 financial resources 1. In application of art. 20 of the Convention and of the by. 2 of art. 4, affected African country Parties strive to ensure a macroeconomic framework to facilitate the mobilization of financial resources and design policies and implement procedures to allocate resources more effectively to local development programmes, including through non-governmental organizations, as appropriate.
2. in application of by. 4 and 5 of art. 21 of the Convention, the Parties agree to make an inventory of the sources of funding at the national, subregional, regional and international levels to ensure the rational use of existing resources and identify gaps to be filled in order to facilitate the implementation of the action programmes. This inventory is regularly reviewed and updated.
3. in accordance with the provisions of art. 7 of the Convention, the developed country Parties continue to allocate significant resources and/or increased resources to affected African country Parties as well as other forms of assistance on the basis of agreements and partnership mechanisms referred to in art. 18, duly paying attention to issues related to debt, international trade and marketing arrangements, according to the by. 2 b) of art. 4 of the Convention.

Art. 15 financial mechanisms 1. In accordance with the provisions of art. 7 of the Convention, which stresses that priority should be given in particular to the affected African country Parties, and in view of the special situation facing this region, the Parties specifically attach to apply in Africa and by. (1 d) and 1e) art. 21 of the Convention, including: has) by facilitating the establishment of mechanisms, such as national funds for combating desertification, to move financial resources at the local level; ETB) by strengthening the funds and financial mechanisms at the subregional and regional levels.


2. in accordance with the provisions of the art. 20 and 21 of the Convention, the Parties which are also members of the governing bodies of financial institutions, regional and subregional relevant, including the African Development Bank and of the African Development Fund, encouraging efforts to grant the degree of priority and attention that suits to the activities of those institutions that advance the implementation of this annex.
3. the Parties rationalize as much as possible, the terms of delivery of funds to affected African Parties, art. 16 technical assistance and cooperation the Parties undertake, according to their respective capabilities, to streamline technical assistance to African country Parties and the cooperation with the latter, in order to increase the effectiveness of projects and programmes, ensuring among other: has) to limit expenditures support and support, especially overhead costs; any State of cause, these costs represent only a small percentage of the total cost of the project to maximise the effects; b) to call instead of the services of competent national experts or, where necessary, of competent experts of the subregion and/or region, for the design, development and implementation of the projects and train local experts when it does not. etc) technical assistance to be provided to be well managed and coordinated and used effectively.

Art. 17 transfer, acquisition and adaptation of environmentally sound technologies and access to these technologies in the context of the application of art. 18 of the Convention, relating to the transfer, acquisition, adaptation and development of technologies, the Parties undertake to give priority to African country Parties and, if necessary, to develop with them new models of partnership and cooperation in order to increase the capacity building in the areas of research and development scientific as well as the collection and dissemination of information to allow them to implement their strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought.

Art. 18 coordination and partnership agreements 1. African country Parties coordinate the preparation, negotiation and implementation of national, subregional and regional action programmes. They can, where appropriate, involve other Parties and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations competent in this process.
2. This coordination has objectives to ensure that technical and financial cooperation is conducted in accordance with the Convention and to ensure the necessary continuity in the use and management of resources.
3. African country Parties organize consultative processes at the national, subregional and regional levels. These consultative processes can, among other things: has) serve as a framework to the negotiation and conclusion of partnership agreements based on national, subregional and regional action programmes; ETB) allow to specify the contributions of African country Parties and other members of the consultative groups to the programmes and identify priorities and identify agreements on implementation and evaluation criteria, as well as funding for the implementation mechanisms.

4. the permanent Secretariat may, at the request of African country Parties and under art. 23 of the Convention, facilitate the convocation of such consultative processes by: a) giving advice on the Organization of effective consultative arrangements, drawing on the teachings of other arrangements of this type; b) informing bilateral and multilateral agencies competent on the meetings or consultation process and encouraging them to participate actively; etc) providing other information that may be useful for establishing or improving consultative arrangements.

((5. the subregional and regional coordinating bodies include: a) to make recommendations on the adjustments need to be made to the partnership agreements; b) monitor and evaluate the implementation of subregional and regional programmes approved, and shall report thereon; etc) strive to ensure that African country Parties communicate and cooperate effectively with each other.

6. participation in advisory groups, as appropriate, is open to Governments, groups and interested donors, to organs, funds and programmes of the United Nations system, to subregional and regional organizations competent and representatives of relevant non-governmental organizations. The methods of management and operation of each Advisory Group shall be adopted by its participants.
7. in application of art. 14 of the Convention, developed country Parties are encouraged to establish between them, on their own initiative, an informal process of consultation and coordination at the national, subregional and regional levels and to participate, at the request of an affected African country party or of the subregional or regional organization competent in a national, subregional or regional consultative process intended to assess aid needs and respond in order to facilitate the implementation of the programme of action.

Art. 19 provisions on follow-up African country Parties respond to this annex, in accordance with the Convention, by means of: has) at the national level, of a mechanism which should be stopped by each affected African country party and which includes representatives of local communities and is the national coordinating body referred to in art. 9; b) at the subregional level, of a scientific and Technical Advisory Committee multidisciplinary, whose composition and operating procedures shall be adopted by the subregion concerned; etc) at the regional level, mechanisms defined in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Treaty establishing the African Economic Community and a scientific and Technical Advisory Committee African.

Annex II Annex concerning implementation at the regional level for the Asia art. 1 purpose this annex is to provide guidelines and to identify arrangements for effective implementation of the Convention in the affected country Parties in Asia given region peculiarities of the latter.

Art. 2 characteristics of the Asian region to fulfil the obligations that their obligations under the Convention, the Parties to take into account, as appropriate, the following features, which apply in varying degrees to the affected country Parties of the region: a) the high proportion of areas affected or likely to be affected, on the territory of these countries, and the great diversity of these areas with regard to climate (((, topography, land use and socio-economic systems; b) heavy pressure on natural resources for livelihoods; c) the existence of production systems directly related to widespread poverty, which cause degradation of land and deplete scarce resources in water; d) the important consequences of the situation of the world economy and social problems such as poverty (, poor health and nutrition, lack of food security, migration, displaced persons and the dynamic population; e) capacity growing but still insufficient in these countries to deal with the problems of desertification and drought at national level, as well as the institutional framework available to them; ETF) the need for international cooperation to pursue the objectives of sustainable development in relation to the fight against desertification and mitigation of the effects of the drought.

Art. 3 framework of national action programmes 1. National action programmes are part of the broader framework of national policies for sustainable development developed by the affected country Parties of the region.
2. affected country Parties shall, as appropriate, of national programmes of action under art. 9 to 11 of the Convention, paying special attention to the by. 2F) art. 10. If it is necessary, bilateral and multilateral cooperation agencies may be involved in this process at the request of the affected country Party concerned.

Art. 4 national action programmes 1. To develop and implement national action programmes, affected country Parties of the region can, among others, as appropriate and according to their own situation and their own policies:

((a) designate appropriate bodies responsible to develop, coordinate and to run their programs of action; b) involve affected populations, including local communities, in the development, coordination and implementation of their action programmes through a process of consultation carried out locally, with the cooperation of local authorities and organizations national and not government competent; c) study the State of the environment in the areas affected in order to analyze the causes and consequences of desertification and to determine priority areas for action; d) with the participation of affected populations assess previous and ongoing programs to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought in order to design a strategy to specify the activities to include in their programmes of action; e) technical and financial programmes based on the information obtained through the activities described in paras. ((((a) to d); f) to develop and implement procedures and benchmarks for evaluating implementation of their action programmes; g) promote the integrated management of watersheds, the protection of soil resources as well as the increase and the rational use of water resources; h) strengthen and/or establish information, evaluation, follow-up and early warning systems in regions prone to desertification and drought taking into account the factors climatological, meteorological, hydrological, biological and other relevant factors; ETI) to develop appropriate mechanisms to support their programmes of action, in a spirit of partnership, where international cooperation, including financial and technical resources is at stake.

2. in accordance with the provisions of art. 10 of the Convention, the overall strategy to be applied in the framework programmes national action is a large place to integrated programmes of development for affected areas based on participatory mechanisms and on integration of strategies for poverty eradication into efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. Sectoral measures in the action programmes are ranked by priority areas taking into account the great diversity of affected areas in the region referred to the by. (a) art. 2 art. 5 subregional and joint action programmes 1. In application of art. 11 of the Convention, the affected countries of Asia Parties may agree to a mutual agreement to hold consultations and to cooperate with other Parties, as appropriate, to develop and execute common or subregional action programmes, as appropriate, in order to complement the national programmes of action and make their implementation more effective. In each case, the Parties concerned may jointly agree to entrust subregional organizations, including bilateral or national, or specialized institutions subregional or national responsibility for the development, coordination and implementation programs. These organizations or institutions may also play a liaison role in the promotion and coordination of the activities in application of art being loaded. 16 to 18 of the Convention.
((2. to develop and implement subregional or joint action programmes, affected country Parties of the region must, among other things, where appropriate: a) to define, in cooperation with national institutions, priorities in the fight against desertification and mitigation of the effects of the drought that we would be better able to achieve with these programs, as well as relevant that these activities would carry out effectively; b) evaluate the means of action and the operational activities of the regional, subregional and national institutions competent; c) analyse existing programmes relating to desertification and drought and that combine all the countries of the subregion or region or a few of them as well as their relationship with national action programmes; ETD) to develop, in a spirit of partnership, where international cooperation, including financial and technical resources, is involved, appropriate bilateral and/or multilateral mechanisms to support programs.

3 subregional or joint action programmes may include joint programmes arrested for sustainable management of transboundary natural resources related with desertification, priorities for coordination and other activities in the area of capacity-building, scientific and technical cooperation, especially the early warning of drought and pooling of information mechanisms , as well as ways to strengthen subregional and other institutions or organizations.

Art. 6 regional activities regional activities to strengthen the subregional or joint action programmes may be provided, among other things, measures to strengthen institutions and mechanisms for coordination and cooperation at the national, subregional and regional levels and to support the implementation of art. 16 to 19 of the Convention. These activities may also include: a) promoting and strengthening technical cooperation networks; b) establish inventories of technologies, knowledge, know-how and practices as well as traditional and local knowledge and technologies and to encourage their dissemination and use; c) assess needs with respect to technology transfer and promoting the adaptation and the use of the latter; ETD) encouraging public awareness programmes and promoting capacity building at all levels through increased training and research and development activities and implementing systems to develop human resources.

Art. 7 resources and financial mechanisms 1. The Parties, in view of the importance of combating desertification and mitigation of the effects of drought in the Asian region, promote the mobilization of substantial financial resources and the availability of financial mechanisms, pursuant to the art. 20 and 21 of the Convention.
2. According to the Convention and on the basis of the coordinating mechanism provided for in art. 8 and in accordance with their national development policies, affected country Parties of the region, acting individually or collectively: a) adopt measures to rationalize and strengthen mechanisms for financing public and private investments to achieve concrete results in action to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought; b) determine the needs in the field of international cooperation especially in financial, technical and technological, to support the efforts made at the national level; etc.) promote the participation of bilateral and/or multilateral financial cooperation institutions in order to ensure the implementation of the Convention.

3. the Parties rationalize to the extent possible, procedures for the flow of funds to the affected country Parties of the region.

Art. 8 mechanisms of cooperation and coordination 1. Affected country Parties, through the appropriate bodies designated by virtue of the by. 1 (a) art. 4, and the other parts of the region, may, where appropriate, a mechanism whose ends would, among other things, the following: a) exchange of information, experience, knowledge and know-how; b) cooperation and coordination of actions, including bilateral and multilateral agreements, at the subregional and regional levels; c) promotion of scientific, technical, technological and financial cooperation pursuant to art. 5-7; d) determination of the needs of external cooperation; summer) follow-up and evaluation of the implementation of the action programmes.

2. the affected country Parties, through the appropriate bodies designated by virtue of the by. 1 (a) art. 4, and the other parts of the region may also, where appropriate, consultations and coordination on national, subregional and joint action programmes. They can associate with this process, as appropriate, other Parties and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations competent. This coordination aims, among other things, to reach the conclusion of an agreement on opportunities for international cooperation in accordance with the art. 20 and 21 of the Convention, to strengthen technical cooperation and to allocate resources in a way that they are used effectively.
3. the affected country Parties of the region organize periodic coordination meetings and the permanent Secretariat may, at their request, under art. 23 of the Convention, facilitate the convocation of such coordination meetings;

(a) giving advice on the Organization of coordination arrangements effective, leveraging the teachings of other arrangements of this type do this; b) informing bilateral and multilateral agencies competent on coordination meetings and encouraging them to participate actively; etc) providing other information that may be useful for establishing or improving coordination processes.

Annex III Annex concerning implementation at the regional level for the Latin America and Caribbean art. 1 purpose this annex is intended to give general guidance for the implementation of the Convention in the region of Latin America and the Caribbean in the light of the peculiarities of this last.

Art. 2 characteristics of the region of Latin America and the Caribbean the Parties, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, take into account the following peculiarities of the region: has) the existence of vast vulnerable and severely affected by desertification and/or drought which have heterogeneous characteristics depending on where to produce these phenomena; This cumulative more and more marked process has adverse social, cultural, economic and environmental negatives that are all the more serious in that, from the point of view of biological diversity, the resources of the region are among the largest in the world; b) the frequent use in affected areas to practices incompatible with sustainable development because of the interactions between the physical factors biological, political, social, cultural and economic, including international economic factors such as external indebtedness, the deterioration in the terms of trade and business practices that have an impact on the markets of products of agriculture, fishing and forestry; etc) a very significant reduction in the productivity of ecosystems which is the main consequence of desertification and drought and that translates into a decline in performance in agriculture, livestock and forestry, as well as the reduction of biological diversity; from the social point of view, the result is the phenomena of impoverishment, migration, internal displacement and deterioration of the quality of life; the region must, accordingly, desertification and drought issues in an integrated manner by encouraging sustainable development modes in accordance with each country's social, environmental and economic reality.

Art. 3 action programmes 1. In accordance with the Convention, in particular its art. 9 to 11, and their national development policies, affected country Parties of the region develop and run, as appropriate, of national action programmes to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought which are an integral part of their policy of sustainable development. Subregional and regional programmes can be developed and implemented according to the needs of the region.
2 during the development of their action programmes, the affected country Parties of the region give special attention to the by. 2F) art. 10 of the Convention.

Art. 4 content of national action programmes according to their respective situations, the affected country Parties of the region may, among other things, consider in the development of their national strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought in application of art. 5 of the Convention, the following areas of activities: a) the increased capacities, education and public awareness, the technical, scientific and technological cooperation, as well as resources and financial mechanisms; b) eradication of poverty and improving the quality of human life; c) the achievement of food security and development and management sustainable agricultural activities (((((, farming and forestry, as well as cross-cutting activities; d) sustainable management of natural resources, especially the rational exploitation of river basins; e) the sustainable management of natural resources in high-altitude areas; f) management and rational conservation of land resources and exploitation and efficient use of water resources; g) development and implementation of emergency plans to mitigate the effects of drought; h) strengthening and/or the implementation in the regions prone to desertification and drought information systems, evaluation and follow-up and early warning of climate factors, taken meteorological, hydrological, biological, soil, economic and social; i) the development, development and rational utilization of the various sources of energy, including the promotion of alternative energy; j) conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity (, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention on biological diversity; k) the taking into account of the demographic aspects related to desertification and drought; ETL) the establishment or strengthening of institutional and legal frameworks to implement the Convention and aimed, among other things, to decentralize the structures and administrative functions related to desertification and drought, with the participation of affected communities and society in general.

Art. 5 technical, scientific and technological cooperation in accordance with the Convention, in particular its art. 16 to 18, and as part of the coordinating mechanism provided for in art. 7 of this annex, affected country Parties of the region, acting individually or collectively: a) promote the strengthening of technical cooperation and information systems networks national, subregional and regional, as well as their integration, as appropriate, in worldwide sources of information; b) prepare an inventory of technologies and available knowledge and promote their dissemination and use; c) encourage the use of technology , knowledge, know-how and traditional practices, in application of the by. 2 b) of art. 18 of the Convention; d) determine the needs for technology transfer; summer) work for the development, adaptation, adoption and transfer of environmentally sound technologies.

Art. 6 resources and financial mechanisms in accordance with the Convention, in particular its art. 20 and 21, as part of the coordinating mechanism provided for in art. 7 in accordance with their political and national development, the affected country Parties of the region, acting individually or collectively: a) adopt measures to rationalize and strengthen mechanisms for financing to public and private investments to achieve concrete results in action to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought; b) determine the needs in the field of international cooperation to support the efforts at the national level; etc.) promote the participation of bilateral and/or multilateral financial cooperation institutions with a view to ensure the implementation of the Convention.

Art. 7 institutional framework 1. Order to give effect to this annex, affected country Parties region: has) create and/or strengthen national focal points responsible for coordinating actions to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought; ETB) put in place a mechanism for coordination of the national focal points with objectives: i) the exchange of information and experiences, ii) coordination of activities at the subregional and regional levels, iii) promotion of technical, scientific, technological and financial cooperation iv) the definition of the needs for external cooperation, etv) the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the action programmes.

2. the affected country Parties of the region organize periodic coordination meetings and the permanent Secretariat may, at their request, under art. 23 of the Convention, facilitate the convocation of such coordination meetings by: a) giving advice on the Organization of coordination arrangements effective, leveraging the teachings of other arrangements of this type do this; b) filling in bilateral and multilateral agencies competent on coordination meetings and encouraging them to participate actively; etc) providing other information that may be useful for establishing or improving coordination processes.

Annex IV Annex concerning implementation at the regional level for the Mediterranean Northern art. 1 purpose this annex is to provide guidelines and to identify arrangements for effective implementation of the Convention in affected country Parties of the Northern Mediterranean region in view of the particularities of this last.

Art. 2 peculiarity of the region of the Northern Mediterranean, the peculiarities of the region of the Northern Mediterranean referred to in art. 1 include the following:

((a) semi-arid climatic conditions affecting large areas, seasonal droughts, very high variability of rainfall and sudden and violent rains falls; b) soils poor and sensitive to erosion, prone to the formation of surface crusts; c) uneven relief with steep slopes and very varied landscapes; d) losses of forest cover due to forest fires repeated; e) a crisis in traditional agriculture (, marked by land abandonment and deterioration of soil and water protection structures; f) unsustainable exploitation of water resources leading to serious environmental damage, including chemical pollution, salinization and exhaustion of aquifers; ETG) a concentration of economic activity in coastal areas due to the development of urbanization, industrial activities, tourism and irrigated agriculture.

Art. 3 strategic planning for sustainable development 1 framework. National action programmes are an integral part of the framework of the strategic planning for the sustainable development of the affected country Parties of the Northern Mediterranean and are an essential part.
2. a consultative and participatory process involving Governments at the appropriate levels, local communities and non-governmental organizations, is committed to provide guidance on the strategy, according to a flexible planning, to allow maximum participation at the local level, in application of the by. 2F) art. 10 of the Convention.

Art. 4 obligation to draw up programmes of action national and schedule the affected country Parties of the Northern Mediterranean region will develop national action programmes and, as appropriate, subregional, regional action programmes or spouses. The development of these programs will be completed as soon as possible.

Art. 5 development and implementation of the national action programmes to develop and implement national programmes of action in application of art. 9 and 10 of the Convention, each affected country Party of the region shall, as appropriate: a) designate appropriate bodies to develop, coordinate and to run his program; b) involve affected populations, including local communities, in the elaboration, coordination and implementation of the program through a process of consultation carried out locally, with the cooperation of local authorities and relevant non-governmental organizations; c) study the State of the environment in the affected areas to analyze the causes and consequences of desertification and to determine priority areas for action; d) evaluate, with the participation of affected populations, the programs previous and ongoing in order to design a strategy and to develop the activities in the programme of action; e) establish technical and financial programs from the information collected through the activities listed in the by. (a) to d); ETF) to develop and apply procedures and benchmarks to monitor and evaluate the implementation of the program.

Art. 6 content of action programmes national the affected country Parties of the region may include in their national action programmes on measures: a) the areas legislative, institutional and administrative; b) patterns of land use, management of water resources, the soil conservation, forestry, agricultural activities and pasture and course management; c) the management and conservation of the fauna and flora and other forms of biological diversity; d) protection against wildfires; e) promotion of alternative livelihoods; ETF) research, training and public awareness.

Art. 7 subregional, regional and joint action programmes 1. Affected country Parties of the region may, in accordance with art. 11 of the Convention, prepare and implement a subregional and/or regional action programme intended to supplement national action programmes and make them more effective. Two parts of the subregion or more may similarly agree to prepare a joint action programme.
2. the provisions of the art. 5 and 6 shall apply mutatis mutandis to the development and implementation of subregional, regional and joint action programmes. These programs can also include activities of research and development of some ecosystems in the affected areas.
3. to develop and implement subregional, regional or joint action programmes, affected country Parties of the region must, where appropriate;
((a) to define, in collaboration with national institutions, national objectives in the fight against desertification which one would be better able to achieve with these programs, as well as the activities that they would carry out in an effective manner; b) assess the capacity and operations of regional and subregional institutions and national authorities; etc) analyse existing desertification programmes common to the Parties of the region and their relationship with national action programmes.

Art. 8 coordinating subregional, regional and joint action programmes, affected country Parties developing a subregional, regional or joint action programme can create a coordination committee composed of representatives of each affected country party to review progress in combating desertification, harmonize national action programmes, make recommendations at the various stages of the development and implementation of the subregional programmes regional or joint, and serve as a focal point for the coordination and promotion of technical cooperation in application of art. 16 to 19 of the Convention.

Art. 9 parties not entitled to financial assistance affected developed country Parties of the region do not have right to financial assistance for the purposes of the implementation of national, subregional, regional and joint programs in respect of this Convention.

Art. 10 coordination with other subregions and regions action programmes, subregional, regional and joint of the Northern Mediterranean region may be prepared and implemented in collaboration with those of other subregions or regions, particularly those of the subregion of Northern Africa.

Scope June 11, 2015, additional States parties Ratification, accession (A) entry into force Afghanistan 1 November 1995 has 26 December 1996 South Africa September 30, 1997 December 29, 1997 Albania April 27, 2000 A July 26, 2000 Algeria 22 May 1996 26 December 1996 Germany 10 July 1996 December 26, 1996 Andorra 15 July 2002 was October 13, 2002 Angola 30 June 1997 September 28, 1997 Antigua - and - Barbuda 6 June 1997 September 4, 1997 Saudi Arabia June 25

1997 September 23, 1997 Argentina January 6, 1997 to April 6, 1997 Armenia July 2, 1997 September 30, 1997 Australia 15 May 2000 13 Aug 2000 Austria June 2, 1997 A 31 August 1997 Azerbaijan August 10, 1998 8 November 1998 Bahamas 10 November 2000 has 8 February 2001 Bahrain 14 July 1997 October 12, 1997 Bangladesh 26 January 1996 to December 26, 1996 Barbados May 14, 1997 August 12, 1997 Belarus 29 August 2001 has 27 November

2001 Belgium 30 June 1997 to September 28, 1997 Belize 23 July 1998 has 21 October 1998 Benin 29 August 1996 December 26, 1996 August 20, 2003 Bhutan's November 18, 2003 Bolivia 1 August 1996 A 26 December 1996 Bosnia and Herzegovina August 26, 2002 November 24, 2002 Botswana September 11, 1996 December 26, 1996 Brazil June 25, 1997 September 23, 1997 Brunei 4 December 2002 March 4, 2003 Bulgaria February 21, 2001 has 22 May 2001 Burkina Faso 26 January 1996 26 December 1996 Burundi January 6, 1997 6 April 1997 Cambodia August 18, 1997 November 16, 1997 Cameroon may 29, 1997 August 27, 1997 Cap - Vert may 8, 1995 December 26, 1996 Chile November 11, 1997 March 9, 1998 China February 18, 1997 19 May 1997 Cyprus 29 March 2000 has 27 June 2000 Colombia 8 June 1999 6 September 1999 Comoros March 3, 1998 June 1, 1998 Congo (Brazzaville) July 12, 1999 10 October 1999 Congo) Kinshasa) September 12, 1997 December 11, 1997 (North) Korea, 29 December 2003 has March 28, 2004 (South) Korea August 17, 1999 November 15, 1999 Costa Rica January 5, 1998 April 5, 1998 Côte d'Ivoire 4 March 1997 June 2, 1997 Croatia October 6, 2000 4 January 2001 Cuba 13 March 1997 June 11, 1997 Denmark 22 December 1995 26 December 1996 Djibouti June 12, 1997 September 10, 1997 Dominique 8 December 1997 has 8 March 1998 Egypt July 7, 1995

26 December 1996 El El Salvador June 27, 1997 September 25, 1997 United Arab Emirates United 21 October 1998 has 19 January 1999 Ecuador September 6, 1995 26 December 1996 Eritrea August 14, 1996 December 26, 1996 Spain 30 January 1996 26 December 1996 Estonia * 8 February 2012 may 8, 2012 United States November 17, 2000 February 15, 2001 Ethiopia June 27, 1997 September 25, 1997 Fiji 26 August 1998 A November 24, 1998 Finland September 20, 1995 December 26


1996 France June 12, 1997 September 10, 1997 Gabon 6 September 1996 has 26 December 1996 Gambia 11 June 1996 26 December 1996 Georgia July 23, 1999 October 21, 1999 Ghana 27 December 1996 27 March 1997 Greece 5 May 1997 3 August 1997 Grenade 28 May 1997 has 26 August 1997 Guatemala September 10, 1998 A December 9, 1998 Guinea June 23, 1997 September 21, 1997 Guinea Equatorial June 27, 1997 September 25, 1997 Guinea - Bissau October 27, 1995 26 December 1996 Guyana June 26, 1997 has 24 September 1997 Haiti September 25, 1996 December 26, 1996 Honduras June 25, 1997 September 23, 1997 Hungary July 13, 1999 11 October 1999 Cook Islands 21 August 1998 has 19 November 1998 Marshall Islands 2 June 1998 August 31, 1998 India December 17, 1996 March 17, 1997 Iraq 28 May 2010 has 26 August 2010 Indonesia August 31, 1998 November 29, 1998 Iran 29 April 1997 July 28, 1997 Ireland

July 31, 1997 October 29, 1997 Iceland 3 June 1997 A September 1, 1997 Israel March 26, 1996 26 December 1996 Italy June 23, 1997 September 21, 1997 Jamaica 12 November 1997 A March 10, 1998 Japan September 11, 1998 December 10, 1998 Jordan October 21, 1996 January 19, 1997 July 9, 1997 Kazakhstan 7 October 1997 Kenya 24 June 1997 September 22, 1997 Kyrgyzstan, on 19 September 1997 has 18 December 1997 Kiribati 8 September 1998 was 7 December 1998

Kuwait 27 June 1997 September 25, 1997 Laos September 20, 1996 December 26, 1996 Lesotho September 12, 1995 26 December 1996 Latvia October 21, 2002 has January 19, 2003 Lebanon 16 May 1996 26 December 1996 Liberia 2 March 1998 to 31 May 1998 Libya 22 July 1996 December 26, 1996 Liechtenstein December 29, 1999 28 March 2000 Lithuania 25 July 2003 has 23 October 2003 Luxembourg 4 February 1997 5 May 1997 Macedonia 6 March 2002 has 4 June 2002 Madagascar 25 June 1997 23 September 1997 Malaysia June 25, 1997 23 September 1997 Malawi 13 June 1996 26 December 1996 Maldives 3 September 2002 A Mali 31 October 1995 26 December 1996 Malta January 30, 1998 April 30, 1998 Morocco 7 November 1996 February 5, 1997 Maurice 23 January 1996 26 December 1996 Mauritania August 7, 1996 December 26, 1996 Mexico April 3, 1995 26 December 1996 Micronesia March 25, 1996 26 December 1996 Moldova 10 March

1999 8 June 1999 Monaco 5 March 1999 has 3 June 1999 Mongolia 3 September 1996 26 December 1996 Montenegro 4 June 2007 has 2 September 2007 Mozambique 13 March 1997-11 June 1997 Myanmar 2 January 1997 to April 2, 1997 Namibia, on May 16, 1997 August 14, 1997 Nauru 22 September 1998 A December 21, 1998 Nepal October 15, 1996 January 13, 1997 Nicaragua 17 February 1998 May 18, 1998 Niger 19 January 1996 26 December 1996 Nigeria

July 8, 1997 October 6, 1997 Niue 14 August 1998 A November 12, 1998 Norway August 30, 1996 December 26, 1996 New Zealand September 7, 2000 Oman 23 July 1996 has 26 December 1996 Uganda 25 June 1997 September 23, 1997 October 31, 1995 Uzbekistan 26 December 1996 Pakistan 24 February 1997 may 25, 1997 Palau June 15, 1999 has 13 September 1999 Panama 4 April 1996 December 26, 1996 Papua New Guinea 6 December 2000 has Paraguay 15 6 March 2001 January 1997 15 April 1997 Netherlands 27 June 1995 December 26, 1996 Peru 9 November 1995 December 26, 1996 Philippines 10 February 2000 may 10, 2000 Poland 14 November 2001 was 12 February 2002 Portugal 1 April 1996 December 26, 1996 Qatar 15 March 1999 June 13, 1999 Central African Republic September 5, 1996 26 December 1996 Dominican Republic 26 June 1997 has 24 September 1997 Czech Republic January 25, 2000 has 24 April 2000 Romania August 19, 1998

November 17, 1998 United Kingdom October 18, 1996 January 16, 1997 British Virgin Islands 18 October 1996 January 16, 1997 Montserrat December 24, 1996 January 16, 1997 St. Helena (with Ascension) October 18, 1996, 16 January 1997 Russia 29 May 2003 has 27 August 2003 Rwanda October 22, 1998 20 January 1999 Sainte - Lucie 2 July 1997 was 30 September 1997 Saint - Kitts - and - Nevis 30 June 1997 September 28, 1997 San - Marino 23 July 1999 was October 21, 1999 Saint - Vincent and the Grenadines 16 March 1998 14 June 1998 Solomon, Islands 16 April 1999 July 15, 1999 Samoa 21 August 1998 has 19 November 1998 Sao Tome - and - principle 8 July 1998 October 6, 1998 Senegal July 26, 1995 26 December 1996 Serbia 18 December 2007 17 March 2008 Seychelles 26 June 1997 24 September 1997 Sierra Leone September 25, 1997 December 24, 1997 Singapore 26 April 1999 has July 25, 1999 Slovakia 7 January 2002 was April 7, 2002 Slovenia June 28, 2001 26 September

Somalia 24 July 2001 2002 October 22, 2002 Sudan 24 November 1995 has 26 December 1996 South Sudan 17 February 2014 may 18, 2014 Sri Lanka 9 December 1998 has 9 March 1999 Sweden 12 December 1995 December 26, 1996 Switzerland January 19, 1996 December 26, 1996 Suriname 1 June 2000 was 30 August 2000 Swaziland 7 October 1996 January 5, 1997 Syria June 10, 1997 September 8, 1997 Tajikistan 16 July 1997 A 14 October 1997 Tanzania

June 19, 1997 September 17, 1997 Chad 27 September 1996 26 December 1996 Thailand March 7, 2001 June 5, 2001 Timor - Leste August 20, 2003 A November 18, 2003 Togo 4 October 1995 December 26, 1996 Tonga 25 September 1998 has 24 December 1998 Trinidad and Tobago 8 June 2000 has 6 September 2000 Tunisia 11 October 1995 26 December 1996 Turkmenistan September 18, 1996 December 26, 1996 Turkey March 31, 1998 June 29, 1998 Tuvalu September 14, 1998 has 13 December

1998 Ukraine 27 August 2002 November 25, 2002 European Union March 26, 1998 June 24, 1998 Uruguay 17 February 1999 has 18 May 1999 Vanuatu August 10, 1999 November 8, 1999 29 June 1998 Venezuela has 27 September 1998 Viet Nam August 25, 1998 November 23, 1998 Yemen 14 January 1997 was 14 April 1997 Zambia 19 September 1996 26 December 1996 Zimbabwe 23 September 1997 December 22, 1997 * reservations and declarations. Reservations and declarations are not published to the RO. Texts in french and English can be found at the United Nations Internet site address: http://treaties.un.org/ or obtained in the Direction of public international law (FDFA), the international treaties Section, 3003 Bern.

The convention does not apply to Tokelau.

The convention applies to the Kingdom in Europe.

RO 2003 788; FF 1995 II 773 RO 2003 787 RS 0.120 RS 0.814.01 RS 0.451.43 RO 2003 843, 2008 623, 2011 695, 2015 2127. A version of the update scope is published on the web site of the FDFA (www.dfae.admin.ch/traites).

State on June 11, 2015

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