The process of construction of the European higher education area, started with the Bologna Declaration of 1999, includes among its objectives the adoption of a flexible system of qualifications, comprehensible and comparable, which promotes work opportunities for students a greater international European system of higher education competitiveness.
The Declaration sets a timeline for the full achievement of this space by the year 2010, and will provide for biennial phases of preparation, each of which ends with a Conference of Ministers responsible for higher education, in which reviews are what has been achieved and establish new guidelines for the future. To date have been conducted the Prague Conference in the year 2001 and the Berlin in 2003, and the celebration of the next Ministerial in Bergen, Norway, is provided for in the month of May 2005.
This new system of qualifications, as it has reaffirmed in the communication of the Berlin Conference, should be based on two levels clearly differentiated, called, respectively, undergraduate and postgraduate, which as a whole are structured at the same time in three cycles.
The first level or grade, comprises of undergraduate university education and aims to achieve the training of students to integrate directly into the European working environment with an appropriate professional qualification. The second level, comprehensive postgraduate teachings, integrates the second cycle of studies, dedicated to the formation of advanced and conducive to obtaining Master's degree, and the third cycle, leading to the degree of Doctor, which represents the highest level in higher education.
On the other hand, and by virtue of the competence attributed to the State by article 149.1.30. of the Spanish Constitution, on regulation of the conditions for obtaining academic and professional titles, and in accordance with provisions in the end third provision of the organic law 6/2001, of 21 December, on universities, corresponds to the Government the establishment of the university degrees of official and valid throughout the national territory. For the exercise of that competence, the Organic Act, after having laid down in its article 37 structuring in university teaching cycles, has come to promote the integration of the University system in Spanish according to the lines emanated for the construction of the European area of higher education, which devotes its title XIII, and authorizes the Government, in its article 88.2 to proceed to the establishment, reform or adaptation of cyclical patterns of each teaching and the corresponding titles of official character and validity throughout the national territory.
This Royal Decree is intended to be one of the key policy pieces in the development of the objectives of the Act, since, on the one hand, it addresses the new structuring of the University teaching and, on the other hand, the regulation of the first cycle of those sets, the degree; the second level of postgraduate studies, comprehensive of the second and third cycles, refers to specific regulatory development.
With this regulation begins the transformation of official university education, in a process that will be developed progressively until the year 2010, with the temporary space for reflection necessary on the basis of studies that they intend to address and with the participation of all the academic and social agents involved. This new regulatory framework will allow design new titles with adequate flexibility, based on unique scientific and professional from each of them and in keeping with the trends in Europe.
The establishment of the new titles will not assume any decrease in consideration of those who replace and its implementation will be, in any case, fully respectful with the totality of the academic and professional rights that come enjoying graduates under previous management. Thus, the Government, throughout the process of creation of each of the new titles, will made in corresponding standard grade equivalencies which in each case may be applicable with respect to the previous.
The official teachings of the cycle of degree are regulated with a formative purpose clear, which is none other than the encourage the achievement by students in a university education that combines basic general knowledge and cross-cutting knowledge related to their integral formation, along with the knowledge and skills specific incorporation into the workplace-oriented. Also, this Royal Decree contains the requirements for the Government, after studying the proposals made within the University community and counting with the participation of official, as well as the trade unions and other social agents involved colleges and professional sectors, to establish specific university degrees with validity throughout the national territory and official character as well as the conditions that must conform to the universities for the development of the respective curricula. This will allow these diversify your offer and establish curricular free-elective itineraries.
This general standard responds to the reserve competition) in favor of the State contained in article 149.1.30. a of the Spanish Constitution, and he teaches use of the authorization granted to the Government by article 88.2 of the organic law 6/2001, of 21 December, on universities, and its production has issued report the Council of University coordination.
In his virtue, a proposal from the Minister of education and science, with the prior approval of the Minister of public administration, in accordance with the Council of State and after deliberation by the Council of Ministers at its meeting of January 21, 2005, D I S P O N G O: chapter I General provisions article 1. Object.
1. this Royal Decree aims to establish the structure of official university education Spanish, according to general lines emanating from the European space of higher education and pursuant to article 88.2 of the organic law 6/2001 of 21 December, from universities.
2. in addition, this Royal Decree regulates basic aspects of the management of first-cycle University studies leading to the obtaining of the corresponding official title.
Article 2. Definitions.
For the purposes of this Royal Decree, means: to) official title: issued by universities, supporting the complete overcoming of a curriculum of official character, with academic and professional validity throughout the national territory.
(b) own title: issued by universities, accredited for the overcoming of other teachings taught in use of its autonomy, devoid of the effects that legal provisions granted to the official titles.
(c) common general guidelines: those established by the Government and which are applicable to all plans of studies leading to a degree of official status, with academic and professional validity throughout the national territory.
(d) general directives: those established by the Government for each official university degree which must satisfy the universities in the preparation of the respective curricula, so that these may be homologated.
(e) curriculum: concrete with respect to a certain teaching curriculum design carried out by a University, subject to the common general guidelines and the corresponding general directives, whose overcoming entitles you to obtain a degree of grade of official character and validity throughout the national territory.
(f) common formative contents: set of knowledge, skills and skills necessary to achieve the learning objectives of the title. They will be established in the general directives and obligatory inclusion in all curricula leading to the obtaining of a same official university degree.
(g) credit: the unit of measure of academic have been regulated in the Real Decree 1125 / 2003 of 5 September, comprising theoretical teaching and practices, including other academic activities, as well as the hours of study and work that the student should devote to achieve the learning objectives of each of the corresponding curriculum materials which represents the amount of student work to meet the goals of the curriculum and that is obtained by passing each of the materials that make up the curricula of different teachings leading to obtaining university qualifications of an official nature and validity throughout the national territory.
Article 3. Expedition of the University titles.
1. the official University titles will be issued on behalf of the King by the rector of the University that studies giving the right to obtain, in accordance with the requirements with respect to its format, text and procedure for issuing prior report of the University Coordination Council are established by order by the Ministry of education and science, was completed.
Meanwhile there is the material issue of the official title, the interested party may request, from the moment in which to pay the corresponding rights, the issuance of a provisional extra certification which replaced him and will have identical value for the purposes of the exercise of inherent rights to it.
2 diplomas and titles will be issued by the rector on behalf of the University and both its name and the text and format that you create must not lead to confusion with officers. In such securities must be expressly that lack official status.
Article 4. Public University prices.
The studies leading to a degree of official status and validity in all the country and taught at public universities are subject to the regime of public prices that, in the scope of their powers, establish autonomous communities in accordance with article 81 of the organic law 6/2001, of 21 December, universities.
Article 5. School insurance.
Will students enrolled on courses leading to the obtaining of official university qualifications apply the school insurance scheme rules contained in the Act of 17 July 1953 and in the regulations issued in its development, in particular, the Royal Decree 270/1990, of 16 February, whereby students who pursue the third cycle of University studies leading to the PhD degree are included in student insurance scheme , without prejudice to the provisions contained in the Royal Decree 1326 / 2003 of 24 October, which approves the Statute of the fellow's research, on the Social security of the fellows.
Chapter II structure of university education article 6. General structure.
Leading university teaching a degree of official status and validity throughout the national territory shall include undergraduate and postgraduate studies and will be structured in cycles, pursuant to article 37 of the organic law 6/2001, of 21 December, on universities, and in this Royal Decree.
Article 7. Teachings of degree.
The first cycle of University studies will include teaching basic and general education, along with others aimed at preparation for the exercise of professional activities. The overcoming of the cycle will entitle to the obtaining of the corresponding title, with the denomination that, in each case, the Government agrees.
Article 8. Postgraduate teachings.
1. the second cycle of University studies will be dedicated to advanced training, specialized or multidisciplinary character, directed to an academic or professional specialisation or to promote initiation in research tasks. The overcoming of the cycle will give right to obtaining Master's degree.
2. the third cycle of University studies will aim students advanced training in research techniques, may include courses, seminars or other activities directed to the research training and will include the preparation and presentation of the corresponding doctoral thesis consisting of an original work of research. The overcoming of the cycle will give right to obtain the title of Doctor, which represents the highest level in higher education, credits the highest academic rank and faculty for teaching and research, in accordance with the legislation in force.
3. the regulation of the official University postgraduate studies will be subject to specific regulatory development.
Chapter III regulation of official university studies degree article 9. Establishment of the official university degree titles.
1 degrees degree that have official status and validity throughout the national territory, as well as the general directives of the curricula which must be placed to obtain, will be established by Royal Decree of the Council of Ministers, either on own initiative, following a report of the University Coordination Council, well to this Council's proposal, pursuant to article 34 of the organic law 6/2001 , of 21 December, on universities.
2. the university degrees will have full academic effects and enabled, where appropriate, for professional activities, in accordance with the regulations.
3 for the establishment of an official Bachelor's degree, the report of the Council of University coordination shall contain express reference, at least the following aspects: to) specific name of the title, number of credits, common training contents and minimum number of credits allocated to each of them.
(b) specification of the objectives of the title, as well as the knowledge, skills and skills that need to acquire to obtain with reference to the realization of these common formative contents.
(c) the professional profile associated with the title.
(d) relevance of the title the development of knowledge and for the Spanish and European labour market.
(e) the justification for its incorporation to the catalogue of official university qualifications that must be particularly considering their suitability with emanating general lines of the European area of higher education.
4. do not shall establish a college degree degree officer whose formative contents coincide substantially with another official title. In cases where the establishment of a title involves the extinction of already existing university degrees, it must be expressly stated.
5. the Royal Decree by which establishes a college degree degree officer shall be adopted in accordance with the common general guidelines provided for in Royal Decree and will include the appropriate general directives.
6. the establishment of a college degree degree officer will involve their inclusion in the catalogue of official university qualifications and, where appropriate, the removal of the inscription in the mentioned catalog of titles or previous titles where appropriate. For these purposes, the Government shall determine, in establishment of securities rules, conditions for the approval of the previous to the new titles, as well as to adapt the teachings to those determined.
Article 10. Common general guidelines.
1. the total number of credits of teaching and academic activities leading to the obtaining of the official undergraduate degrees will be between 180 and 240.
2 may be excluded from this computation the appropriations corresponding to the realization of the project of end of career and practices protected when these arise from rules, decisions or common practices laid down in the European Union or, where appropriate, in accordance with the regulations, constitute a prerequisite for the exercise of professional activities regulated, as well as the corresponding knowledge of foreign languages. The general directives for each title shall establish the conditions for the realization of these works.
3. in the cases when this shall come demanded compliance with rules of Community law, the Government, following a report of the University Coordination Council, shall assign a different number of credits to certain teachings.
4. all plans of studies leading to the obtaining of a same official degree must have the same number of credits.
5. the general directives of these titles may not include official recognition of specialties and guide to the acquisition of professional qualifications with significance in the world of work, which, where appropriate, and in accordance with the regulations, make possible the access to the exercise of professional activities within a specific field, without prejudice to other possible requirements demanded by current legislation regarding regulated professions.
Article 11. General directives.
1. the general directives corresponding to each specific bachelor's degree will determine the number of credits of curricula which must be overcome for the obtaining of the corresponding official title.
2. the General guidelines of each undergraduate degree to specify common formative contents, a brief description of its materials and the number of credits that they must be assigned at their respective curricula.
3. the number of credits specified by the general directives for the whole of the training content common of plans of studies leading to the award of a Bachelor's degree will be a minimum of 50 percent and a maximum of 75 per cent of the total number of credits corresponding to that degree.
4. the general directives specify effects academic and, where appropriate, and in accordance with the regulations, professional skills inherent to obtain the degree, notwithstanding that, where appropriate, establish specific rules for access to regulated professions.
Article 12. Elaboration and approval of curricula.
1. the plans of studies leading to the obtaining of official university degree titles will be prepared and approved by the universities, in the way that determine its statutes or rules of organization and operation, prior authorisation of its implementation by the competent body of the autonomous community. They must conform to common general directives provided for in Royal Decree and the general directives that the Government sets for each title, and they must be subject to the approval process, in accordance with the regulations in this regard.
2 studies concerned plans will have a minimum temporary period equivalent to the number of academic years in which to organize these teachings and their extinction will be governed by the provisions of article 14(3) and 4.
Article 13. Content of plans of studies leading to the obtaining of official university degree titles.
1 the contents of curricula of studies leading to the obtaining of official university degree titles are sorted by distinguishing between: a) common formative contents laid down in the general directives for each title.
(b) specific training content at its discretion determined by the University.
2. with regard to each of the materials that make up the curriculum, universities must specify objectives, knowledge, aptitudes and skills that should be acquired, the description of content and the number of credits assigned to each of them.
3. universities may rating credit internships in companies or institutions, professional work academically addressed and integrated into the curriculum, as well as recognition of studies or training activities carried out within the framework of University or inter-university, national or international programmes.
4. the curricula specify also the academic structure of his teachings and his temporary ordination, with special attention to the goal of facilitating the mobility of students.
Article 14. Modification and extinction of curricula.
1 curriculum changes will be approved by the universities, in the form in which determine its statutes or rules of organization and operation and subject to the procedure laid down in the regulations.
2 curriculum modifications, whether total or partial, character shall comply with the provisions of article 6 of the Royal Decree 49/2004, of 19 January, concerning approval of curricula and degrees of official and valid throughout the national territory.
3 the extinction of a curriculum leading to the obtaining of an official Bachelor's degree may occur for the following reasons: to) implementation of a new curriculum corresponding to the same official title at the same University.
(b) cessation of delivery of teachings agreed by the autonomous community, which must be communicated, at least three months in advance at the beginning of the academic year the University Coordination Council.
4. the curricula shall lapse course by course. Once extinguished each course and subject to tenure rules that apply, universities must ensure procedures enabling the overcoming of this course for students in the two following academic years.
Article 15. Plans of joint studies.
1. Spanish universities can, through agreement, organize plans of joint studies leading to the award of a single official Bachelor's degree and whose teachings are taught at two or more universities. To this end, a joint application for approval of the plan of studies, accompanied by the corresponding Convention which specify which University will be responsible for the processing of student records, as well as particularities concerning the issuance and registration of the title will be presented to the University Coordination Council.
2. the universities may conclude agreements with foreign universities for the teaching of joint curriculum leading to a single or a double degree. The Ministry of education and science will regulate particularities that may apply to the approval of these plans and titles.
3. in the event of modification and extinction of joint curricula be governed, in addition to the provisions of this Royal Decree and in the specific regulations for the approval of curricula, what is established in the agreement between the universities, provided it does not contravene the provisions of the above-mentioned standards.
First additional provision. Registration of new titles in the catalogue of official university qualifications.
1. the catalogue of official university qualifications exists and is governed by the criteria set out in the Royal Decree 1954 / 1994 of 30 September, on recognition of qualifications to the catalogue of official University titles, created by Royal Decree 1497 / 1987, of 27 November.
2 new official degrees established pursuant to the provisions of this Royal Decree shall be entered in the catalogue of official university qualifications.
3. the current titles of the catalogue will be gradually replaced by new official titles that are established pursuant to the Royal Decree. The process of renewal of the catalogue of official university qualifications must be completed by October 1, 2007.
Second additional provision. Temporal development of implantation.
The temporal development of the implementation of the new curricula will be depending on the economic availability of institutions responsible for university education.
First transitional provision. Elaboration and approval of new curricula.
1. within a maximum period of three years from the adoption of the Royal Decree on establishment of a Bachelor's degree, universities that come imparting teachings leading to the suppressed official titles in the catalog in application of article 9.6 of this Royal Decree shall send for your approval to the University Coordination Council curriculum associated with the new official title.
2. in case of breach of the provisions of the preceding paragraph, the University Coordination Council will raise a report to the Ministry of education and science for the revocation of the approval of the title or titles abolished or agreement for the approval of the curriculum conducive to obtaining any of these.
3 starting from March 1, 2005, the University Coordination Council, without prejudice to continue the processing of records who previously have had input in it, not approve plans of studies leading to the obtaining of new qualifications, nor the Government approve the corresponding University official titles, that do not conform to the provisions of this Royal Decree.
Second transitional provision. General criteria of validation and adaptation of studies.
Until the University Coordination Council does not regulate, on the basis of the provisions of article 36 of the organic law 6/2001, of 21 December, on universities, the criteria General that they must conform to the universities in the field of validation and adaptation of studies at Spanish universities and foreign, continue application the outlined in paragraph one of the annex 1 to Royal Decree 1497 / 1987 , of 27 November, which lays down general common guidelines of the curricula of the University titles of official character and validity throughout the national territory.
Third transitional provision. Official university qualifications in force.
This Royal Decree and royal decrees by which establish new university degrees approved by the Government will not affect the academic or professional purposes of current titles.
Sole repeal provision. Repeal legislation.
1 repealed the Royal Decree 1496 / 1987, of 6 November, about obtaining, issuing and approval of university qualifications, without prejudice to their application to the previous teachings, until its final extinction as foreseen in this Royal Decree.
2 repealed the Royal Decree 1497 / 1987, of 27 November, which lays down general common guidelines of the curricula of the University titles of official character and validity throughout the national territory.
First final provision. Modification of Royal Decree 49/2004, of 19 January, concerning approval of plans of studies and degrees of official and valid throughout the national territory.
Article 6 of Royal Decree 49/2004, of 19 January, concerning approval of plans of studies and degrees of official and valid throughout the national territory, is worded as follows: «article 6. Approval in the event of modification of the curriculum.
1. the modification of curriculum affecting a number higher than 10 per cent of appropriations relating to common formative contents or materials stem from the current plans, included in the general directives, will mean the extinction of the curriculum in force and, accordingly, shall be considered as new curriculum that must be subjected to the type-approval procedure provided for in articles 4 and 5.
2. If the modification affects a number equal to or less than 10 per cent of appropriations to that referred to in the preceding paragraph, or only affects content established discretionary mind by the University, shall be notified to the University Coordination Council, prior to its publication in the «Official Gazette», for the purposes of which by the General Secretariat of the Council proceed with verification of its correspondence with the General guidelines common and own the corresponding title. The General Secretariat of the Council shall communicate such changes to the respective autonomous community, as well as to the competent body of the Ministry of education and science.
3. amendments to the curriculum must be necessary forecasts on the mechanisms for the recognition of credits for students who come to studying the above plan.'
Second final provision. Skill-related title.
This Royal Decree is issued under cover of the provisions of article 149.1.30. of the Spanish Constitution and in use of the authorisation granted to the Government by article 88.2 and the final third provision of the organic law 6/2001, of 21 December, on universities, and is applicable throughout the national territory.
Third final provision. Regulatory development.
It corresponds to the Minister of education and science and the universities, in the field of their respective competencies, to enact the provisions necessary for the implementation of this Royal Decree.
Fourth final provision. Entry into force.
This Royal Decree shall enter into force the day following its publication in the "Official Gazette".
Given in Madrid, on 21 January 2005.
JUAN CARLOS R.
The Minister of education and science, MARIA JESUS SAN second CADIÑANOS GOMEZ