Concerning Counter-Terrorism

Original Language Title: О борьбе с терроризмом

Read the untranslated law here: http://pravo.gov.ru/proxy/ips/?doc_itself=&infostr=x&backlink=1&fulltext=1&nd=102054620

Lost force since January 1, 2007 year-federal law on 06.03.2006 N 35-FZ of the RUSSIAN FEDERATION FEDERAL LAW on combating terrorism adopted by the State Duma on July 3, 1998 the year approved by the Federation Council of the year July 9, 1998 (as amended by the federal laws of the 07.08.2000 N 122-FZ;
from 21.11.2002 N 144-FZ; 30.06.2003 N 86-FZ;
from 22/08/2004, no. 122-FZ; from 07.03.2005 N 15-FZ) this federal law defines the legal and organizational bases for combating terrorism in the Russian Federation, the procedure for coordination of activities engaged in counter-terrorism federal bodies of executive power, bodies of executive power of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation, public associations and organizations irrespective of their form of ownership, officers and individuals, as well as the rights, duties and guarantees of citizens in connection with the implementation of the fight against terrorism.
Chapter i. General provisions article 1. Legal framework of counter-terrorism legal framework to combat terrorism shall be the Constitution of the Russian Federation, the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, this federal law, other federal laws, generally recognized principles and norms of international law, international treaties of the Russian Federation, decrees and orders of the President of the Russian Federation, decisions and orders of the Government of the Russian Federation, as well as in accordance with the regulations of the Federal Government.
Article 2. The basic principles of the fight against terrorism, the fight against terrorism in the Russian Federation is based on the following principles: 1) the rule of law;
2) priority measures for preventing terrorism;
3) inevitability of punishment for carrying out terrorist activities;
4) combination of vowels and covert methods of combating terrorism;
5) integrated use of preventive legal, political, socio-economic and promotional measures;
6) priority the protection of the rights of persons are at risk as a result of a terrorist act;
7) minimum concessions to a terrorist;
8) unity of command in the leadership of the forces and resources engaged in counter-terrorism operations;
9) minimum publicity techniques and tactics conducting counter-terrorism operations, as well as the membership of these operations.
Article 3. Basic concepts for the purposes of this federal law applies the following concepts: terrorism, violence or the threat of its use against individuals or organizations, as well as the destruction (damage), or the threat of destruction (damage) of property and other material objects that create the danger of loss of life, cause significant property damage or occurrence of other socially dangerous consequences to violation of public security, intimidating the population or influencing the adoption authorities decisions beneficial to terrorists, or meet their unlawful property and (or) other interests; an attempt on the life of a State or public figure committed to ending its State or other political activities or in revenge for such activities; the attack on a representative of a foreign State or of an international organization enjoying international protection, as well as premises or vehicles of internationally protected persons, if the Act is committed with the aim of provoking war or complications of international relations;
terrorist activities-includes: 1) Organization, planning, preparation and execution of terrorist acts;
2) incitement of a terrorist act, violence against individuals or organizations, the destruction of property for terrorist purposes;
3) Organization of an illegal armed formation, criminal association (criminal organization), organized a group to commit terrorist acts, as well as participation in such promotions;
4) the recruitment, arming, training and use of terrorists;
5) knowingly financing a terrorist organization or terrorist group, or other assistance;
international terrorist activities and terrorist activities undertaken: 1) a terrorist or a terrorist organization on the territory of more than one State or prejudicial to the interests of more than one State;
2) citizens of one State against nationals of another State or in the territory of another State;
3) in the case when both the terrorist and the victim are citizens of the same State or of different States, but the crime was committed outside the territory of those States;

terrorist attack-a direct perpetration of terrorist offences in the form of an explosion, arson, the use or threat of use of nuclear explosive devices, radioactive, chemical, biological, explosive, toxic, noxious, virulent, poisonous substances; destruction, damage or seizure of vehicles or other objects; encroachment on life of a State or public figure, representative of the national, ethnic, religious or other groups of the population; the taking of hostages, kidnapping; create a risk of harm to the life, health or property of an indefinite number of persons by creating conditions for the accidents and disasters, man-made or a real threat to the establishment of such a danger; proliferation threats in any form or by any means; other acts that jeopardize human life, cause significant property damage or occurrence of other socially dangerous consequences;
terrorist offences-offences under articles 205-208, 277 and 360 of the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation. Crimes of a terrorist nature may be assigned and other crimes under the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation, if they are committed for terrorist purposes. Responsibility for such crimes comes in accordance with the Criminal Code of the Russian Federation;
a person involved in carrying out terrorist activities in any form;
a terrorist group-a group of people coming together in order to carry out terrorist activities;
terrorist organization-an organization created for the purpose of carrying out terrorist activities or recognizing the possibility of using terrorism in their activities. The organization is recognized as a terrorist if at least one of its structural units carries out terrorist activities with the knowledge of at least one of the governing bodies of the Organization;
the fight against terrorism-prevention, revealing, suppression, minimizing the effects of terrorist activities;
counter-terrorism operation-special events aimed at preventing terrorist acts, ensuring the security of individuals, neutralize terrorists, as well as to minimize the consequences of a terrorist act;
area where the counter-terrorism operation is being conducted-specific portions of the locality or area, vehicle, building, building, structure, premises and adjoining territory or area within which the specified operation is performed;
hostage-physical person seized and/or held in order to force a State, an organization or an individual to do or abstain from doing any act as conditions for the release of detained persons.
Article 4. International cooperation of the Russian Federation in the field of combating terrorism 1. The Russian Federation in accordance with international treaties, cooperates in the field of combating terrorism with foreign States, their law enforcement agencies and special services, as well as with international organizations engaged in combating terrorism.
2. the Russian Federation, in the interests of ensuring the security of individuals, society and the State, pursues on its territory persons involved in terrorist activity, including cases when terrorist acts were planned or conducted outside the Russian Federation, however, are detrimental to the Russian Federation, and in other cases stipulated by international treaties of the Russian Federation.
CHAPTER II. BASIS for the ORGANIZATION of the fight against terrorism Article 5. The objectives of the fight against terrorism, the fight against terrorism in the Russian Federation in order to: 1) the protection of individuals, society and the State from terrorism;
2) preventing, detecting and suppressing terrorist activities and minimizing their consequences;
3) identify and remedy the causes and conditions conducive to the implementation of terrorist activities.
Article 6. Actors engaged in combating terrorism 1. The main contributor to guide the fight against terrorism and providing it with the necessary forces, means and resources is the Government of the Russian Federation.
2. Federal bodies of executive power are engaged in combating terrorism within the limits of its competence, established by federal laws and other regulatory legal acts of the Russian Federation.
3. Entities directly engaged in combating terrorism within the limits of their competence, are: Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation;
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation;
Foreign intelligence service of the Russian Federation;
Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation;
Ministry of defence of the Russian Federation.
(Seventh paragraph excluded federal law 30.06.2003 N 86-FZ)

4. Actors involved in the prevention, identification and suppression of terrorist activities within its field of competence, are other federal bodies of executive power, the list of which is determined by the Government of the Russian Federation.
5. In case of liquidation, reorganization or renaming this article listed Federal Executive Government bodies their functions in combating terrorism are transferred to their successors.
6. To coordinate the activities of the entities in the fight against terrorism, in accordance with the decisions of the President of the Russian Federation or the decisions of the Government of the Russian Federation may be created anti-terrorism Commission at federal and regional level.
Federal anti-terrorist Commission solves the following main tasks: produce foundations of State policy in the field of combating terrorism in the Russian Federation and recommendations aimed at improving the efficiency of the work to identify and eliminate the causes and conditions that give rise to terrorism and implementation of terrorist activities;
collects and analyses information on status and trends of terrorism on the territory of the Russian Federation;
coordinates the activities of federal executive authorities engaged in counter-terrorism, in order to achieve the consistency of their actions to prevent, detect and suppress terrorist acts and also to identify and eliminate the causes and conditions that contribute to the preparation and execution of terrorist acts;
participates in the preparation of international treaties of the Russian Federation in the field of combating terrorism;
develops proposals on improvement of the legislation of the Russian Federation in the field of combating terrorism.
Article 7. The competence of the entities combating terrorism 1. Actors engaged in combating terrorism, are guided in their activities by this federal law, other federal laws, generally recognized principles and norms of international law, international treaties of the Russian Federation, as well as issued on their basis of normative legal acts (including interdepartmental) regulating this activity.
2. Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation and its territorial bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation carry out the fight against terrorism through the prevention, detection and suppression of terrorist offences, including crimes with political objectives, as well as through the prevention, detection and suppression of international terrorism, in accordance with the criminal procedure law are conducting preliminary investigation in criminal cases of such crimes.
Border authorities are combating terrorism by preventing, detecting and suppressing terrorists ' attempts to cross the State border of the Russian Federation, as well as the illegal movement across the State border of the Russian Federation, weapons, explosives, poisonous and radioactive substances and other items which can be used as a means of committing terrorist offences are involved in ensuring the safety of national maritime navigation within the territorial waters, the exclusive economic zone of the Russian Federation and in the conduct of counter-terrorist operations. (The paragraph is supplemented by federal law 30.06.2003 N 86-FZ; as amended by federal law from 07.03.2005 N 15-FZ)
3. the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation carries out the fight against terrorism through the prevention, detection and suppression of terrorist crimes in pursuit of selfish aims.
4. The foreign intelligence service of the Russian Federation and other bodies of the foreign intelligence service of the Russian Federation carry out the fight against terrorism through the security institutions of the Russian Federation outside the territory of the Russian Federation, their staff and family members of the officers, as well as to collect information on the activities of foreign and international terrorist organizations.
5. Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation to combat terrorism through the provision of security of the facilities of the State guard and protection of protected objects.
6. the Ministry of defence of the Russian Federation provides for the protection of armed with weapons of mass destruction, missile and small arms, ammunition and explosives, the protection of military facilities, as well as participates in ensuring national security of maritime navigation, the airspace of the Russian Federation, in the conduct of counter-terrorist operations.
7. (repealed-federal law 30.06.2003 N 86-FZ) Article 8. The main functions of the actors involved in the fight against terrorism

Federal Executive authorities enumerated in article 6 hereof, and their territorial bodies of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation are involved in combating terrorism within the limits of their competence through the development and implementation of prevention, sensitive, institutional, educational and other measures to prevent, detect and suppress terrorist activity; create and maintain the necessary readiness of departmental systems of counteraction to commit crimes of a terrorist nature occur; the provision of logistical and financial resources, information, transportation and communications, medical equipment and medicines, as well as other forms of support based on the needs in the field of combating terrorism. The procedure for the provision of logistical and financial resources, information, transportation and communications, medical equipment and medicines shall be established by the Government of the Russian Federation.
Article 9. Assistance to authorities involved in combating terrorism 1. The executive bodies of the subjects of the Russian Federation, bodies of local self-government, public associations and organizations irrespective of their form of ownership, officials must provide assistance to authorities involved in combating terrorism.
2. citizens of the law enforcement authorities Message brought to them information about terrorist activities and any other circumstances which could contribute to the prevention, detection and suppression of terrorist activities and minimizing their consequences, is the civic duty of everyone.
CHAPTER III. CONDUCTING COUNTER-TERRORISM OPERATIONS Article 10. Manage counter-terrorism operation 1. For direct control of a counter-terrorism operation in accordance with the decision of the Government of the Russian Federation created operational headquarters, headed by a representative of the Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation or of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, depending on what jurisdiction the federal body of executive power will be predominant in the conduct of specific counter-terrorist operations.
2. In the constituent entities of the Russian Federation and regions of the Russian Federation could be established operational headquarters, the amount and composition of which depend on the specific local conditions and the nature of possible terrorist acts in the territories of subjects (regions) of the Russian Federation.
3. Operational Headquarters to manage counter-terrorism operations in the subject (region) of the Russian Federation is chaired by the head of the territorial authority (units) of the agencies whose competence is preponderant in the conduct of specific counter-terrorist operations. In the event of a change in the nature of terrorism, the head of the counter-terrorist operation may be replaced in accordance with the decision of the Chairman of the relevant interdepartmental anti-terrorist Commission.
4. procedure of activity of the operational staff to manage counter-terrorism operation is defined by the regulation approved by the Chairman of the relevant interdepartmental anti-terrorist Commission. Regulations on management of the counter-terrorist operational headquarters operation is developed on the basis of the model provisions approved by the federal anti-terrorist Commission.
Article 11. Capabilities to conduct counter-terrorist operations to conduct counter-terrorist operations operational headquarters to manage the counter-terrorist operation has the right to attract the necessary forces and means those of federal executive authorities involved in combating terrorism in accordance with article 6 of this federal law. Federal Executive authorities and executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation provide the necessary for the conduct of a counter-terrorist operation weapons and special means, vehicles and communications equipment and other logistical support.
Article 12. Counter-terrorism operation Guide 1. All the soldiers, officers and specialists involved in the conduct of the counter-terrorist operation, since the beginning of the specified operation subject to the head of the operational headquarters to manage the counter-terrorist operation.
2. Depending on the scale and degree of public danger from the expected negative effects of terrorist acts by the head of the anti-terrorist operation may be appointed as representative of the federal anti-terrorist Commission. In accordance with the decision of the President of the Russian Federation, the head of the operational headquarters of the counter-terrorist operation management may be appointed by the head of federal body of executive power.
3. the head of the operational headquarters of the counter-terrorist operation management defines the boundaries of the counter-terrorist operation, decides to use for the operation.

Interference by any other person regardless of the position in the operational manual of the counter-terrorist operation is not allowed.
Article 13. The legal regime in the area where the counter-terrorism operation 1. In the area where the persons conducting the counter-terrorist operation specified operation, have the right to: 1) take measures where required to temporarily restrict or ban the movement of vehicles and pedestrians on the streets and roads to prevent vehicles, including vehicles of diplomatic missions and consular posts, and citizens to separate terrain and objects or to remove citizens from individual sites and facilities as well as for towing vehicles;
2) check citizens and officials have documents proving their identity and, in the absence of such documents to detain those persons for identification;
3) to detain and deliver the bodies of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation, perpetrators or perpetrators of offences or other acts aimed at obstructing the legitimate demands of those conducting the counter-terrorist operation, as well as actions relating to unauthorized intrusion or attempted intrusion into the area where the counter-terrorism operation is being conducted;
4) enter (penetrate) in residential and other buildings and citizens owned their land in the territory and premises of the organizations irrespective of their form of ownership, in vehicles with the Suppression of terrorist acts, in the pursuit of persons suspected of committing a terrorist act, if the delay may create a real threat to the lives and health of people;
5) produce when passing through the (travel) in the area where the counter-terrorism operation is being conducted and at the exit (exit) of the specified zone personal examination, inspection of citizens in these things, inspecting vehicles and transported to them things, including using technical means;
6) use for official purposes, including communications, owned by citizens and organizations irrespective of their form of ownership;
7) use for official purposes vehicles belonging to organizations regardless of form of ownership, with the exception of vehicles of diplomatic, consular and other representative offices of foreign States and international organisations, and in urgent cases, and citizens, to prevent terrorist acts, prosecuting and detaining perpetrators of terrorist action or to provide those in need of urgent medical treatment in a medical facility, as well as to travel to the scene.
2. In the area where the counter-terrorism operation is being conducted the activities of media professionals is governed by the head of the operational headquarters of the counter-terrorist operation management, unless otherwise stipulated in the Federal law.
Article 14. Negotiating with terrorists 1. When conducting counter-terrorism operations in order to preserve the life and health of people, wealth, as well as exploring the possibility of suppressing terrorist acts without the use of force is allowed to conduct negotiations with terrorists.
To negotiate with the terrorists allowed only persons specially authorized by the head of the operational staff to manage the counter-terrorist operation.
2. When negotiating with terrorists as a condition for ending their terrorist acts should not be given for the extradition of terrorists any persons, transfer of funds and weapons and other items, which could pose a threat to human life or health, as well as a review of the implementation of the political demands of terrorists.
3. Negotiate with terrorists cannot serve as a basis or condition for their release from responsibility for the acts committed.
Article 15. Informing the public about terrorist acts 1. When the conduct of a counter-terrorist operation informing the public about terrorist acts carried out in the forms of and to the extent determined by the head of the operational headquarters for the Office of counterterrorism operation or the representative specified staff responsible for liaison with the public.
2. it is not allowed to disseminate information: 1) discloser of special techniques and tactics of the counter-terrorism operations;
2) able to impede the conduct of counter-terrorist operations and pose a threat to the life and health of people caught in the area where the counter-terrorism operation is being conducted or outside a specified zone;
3) serving propaganda or justifying terrorism and extremism;
4) on staff members of the special units, the operational staff to manage the counter-terrorist operation, as well as on persons assisting in carrying out the operation.
Article 16. The end of the counter-terrorist operation

1. Counter-terrorism operation is considered complete when the terrorist attack foiled (discontinued) and eliminated the threat to life and health of people living in the area where the counter-terrorism operation is being conducted.
2. the decision declaring a counterterrorist operation takes over the head of the operational headquarters to manage the counter-terrorist operation. Article 16-1. Burial of terrorists who died during the Suppression of terrorism the burial of terrorists who died as a result of the Suppression of terrorist acts, shall be made in the manner prescribed by the Russian Government. While their bodies for burial are not issued and the place of their burial is not disclosed.
(Article supplemented by federal law from 21.11.2002 N 144-FZ), chap. IV. REPARATION for injury suffered as a result of a TERRORIST ACT, and the SOCIAL REHABILITATION of PERSONS affected by a TERRORIST ACT, article 17. Reparation for injury suffered as a result of a terrorist act 1. Reparation for injury suffered as a result of a terrorist act, shall be borne by the budget of the Russian Federation on the territory of which committed this terrorist act, with the subsequent recovering of this compensation amounts to the tortfeasor in the manner prescribed by the civil procedure law.
2. compensation for injury suffered as a result of a terrorist act committed in the territories of several subjects of the Russian Federation, as well as compensation for damage caused to one subject of the Russian Federation and exceeding the possibilities of compensation from the budget of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation shall be at the expense of the federal budget, with the subsequent recovering of this compensation amounts to the tortfeasor in the manner prescribed by the civil procedure law.
3. Reparation for the injury caused by foreign nationals as a result of the terrorist acts committed on the territory of the Russian Federation shall be at the expense of the federal budget, with the subsequent recovering of this compensation amounts with the tortfeasor.
4. Reparation for the injury caused by the Organization as a result of a terrorist act, shall be made in the manner prescribed by the Civil Code of the Russian Federation.
Article 18. Social rehabilitation of persons affected by a terrorist act 1. Social rehabilitation of persons affected by a terrorist act is carried out with a view to their return to normal life, includes legal assistance to these persons, their psychological, medical, vocational rehabilitation, employment until reinstatement in employment, provide them with housing.
2. Social rehabilitation of persons affected by a terrorist act, as well as the types of individuals referred to in article 19 of this federal law, shall be effected at the expense of the federal budget and the budget of the Russian Federation on the territory of which committed this terrorist act.
3. (repealed-Federal Act of 22/08/2004, no. 122-FZ) Chapter v: legal and social protection of persons participating in combating terrorism, Article 19. Persons participating in combating terrorism, to be legal and social protection 1. Persons participating in combating terrorism, are under State protection. Legal and social protection: 1) soldiers, officials and specialists of the federal executive authorities and executive authorities of the constituent entities of the Russian Federation directly involved (involved) in the fight against terrorism;
2) promote, on a permanent or temporary basis of public authorities involved in the fight against crime, in preventing, detecting, suppressing terrorist activities and minimizing their consequences;
3) family members of persons listed in subparagraphs 1 and 2 of paragraph 1 of this article, if the need for their protection caused by the participation of the listed individuals in the fight against terrorism.
2. the social protection of persons involved in the fight against terrorism, is based on the legal status of such persons, which shall be fixed by the federal laws and other regulatory legal acts, in accordance with the procedure established by the Government of the Russian Federation.
Article 20. Redress for persons participating in combating terrorism 1. The harm caused to health or property of persons listed in article 19 of this federal law, in connection with their participation in combating terrorism shall be compensated in accordance with the procedure determined by legislation of the Russian Federation.
2. In the event of the death of the person who participated in the fight against terrorism, while conducting counter-terrorist operations to family members of the deceased and persons dependent on him shall be paid one-time allowance in the amount of 100 000000 rubles, a pension for loss of the breadwinner, as well as preserved benefits for housing, housing and communal services, if such benefits are available to the victim. (As amended by the federal laws of the 07.08.2000 N 122-FZ; from 22/08/2004, no. 122-FZ)

3. If a person participating in combating terrorism, while conducting counter-terrorist operations received bodily injury, causing the onset of disability, that person shall be paid one-time allowance in the amount of 50000 roubles and a pension in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation. (As amended by the Federal law dated 07.08.2000 N 122-FZ)
4. If a person participating in combating terrorism, while conducting counter-terrorist operations received injury not resulting in the onset of disability, that person shall be paid one-time allowance in the amount of 10000 rubles. (As amended by the Federal law dated 07.08.2000 N 122-FZ)
5. While in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation several grounds for a specified lump sum payment is made on one ground for choosing recipient. (Para supplemented by federal law from 22/08/2004, no. 122-FZ), Article 21. Exemption from liability for damage resulting from the conduct of a counter-terrorist operation on the basis and within the limits established by law, permitted involuntary infliction of harm to life, health and property of terrorists and other legally protected interests. While the military, experts and other persons participating in combating terrorism shall be exempt from liability for harm caused during the conduct of a counter-terrorist operation, in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation.
Article 22. Preferential calculation of seniority servicemen and employees of federal executive authorities being (held) service units directly involved in (carrying out) the fight against terrorism, in seniority for pension is counted one day of service for a day and a half, and during their participation in the conduct of a counter-terrorist operation-one day of service for three days (if the legislation of the Russian Federation provides for a more favourable calculation of seniority).
CHAPTER VI. RESPONSIBILITY for participation in terrorist activities Article 23. Responsibility for participation in terrorist activity persons guilty of terrorist activities bear responsibility stipulated by the legislation of the Russian Federation.
Article 24. Features of the criminal and civil prosecution of terrorist activity offences of a terrorist nature, as well as cases of compensation for harm suffered as a result of a terrorist act, by a court decision can be considered in closed court sessions with the observance of all the rules of legal procedure.
Article 25. The Organization's responsibility for terrorist activities 1. The organization is recognized as a terrorist and is subject to liquidation on the basis of a court decision.
When an organization recognized as terrorist, property belonging to it is confiscated in favor of the State.
2. in the event that a Court of the Russian Federation, an international organization (its branches, branch, Representative Office) registered outside the Russian Federation, the terrorist activity of the Organization shall be prohibited on the territory of the Russian Federation, its Russian branch (branch, Representative Office) is liquidated, and its assets and property of the international organization in the territory of the Russian Federation shall be confiscated and shall be treated in the State.
3. Statement about bringing the organization responsible for terrorist activities is sent to the Court by the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation or his subordinates.
CHAPTER VII. Control and SUPERVISION of the LEGALITY of IMPLEMENTATION of counter-terrorism Article 26. Monitoring of the implementation of the fight against terrorism the monitoring of the implementation of the fight against terrorism in the Russian Federation is exercised by the President of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Russian Federation.
Article 27. Supervision of the legality of the implementation of the fight against terrorism 1. Oversee compliance with laws in implementing combat terrorism exercised by the Prosecutor General of the Russian Federation and the prosecutors subordinate to him.
2. the Office of the Procurator of the Russian Federation, within the limits of their competence also undertakes activities for the prevention of terrorist activities in accordance with the criminal procedure legislation of the Russian Federation is conducting a preliminary investigation, supervises the investigation of criminal cases involving terrorist activities, supports the accusation before the courts in such cases and adopt other measures in accordance with the legislation of the Russian Federation.
CHAPTER VIII. FINAL PROVISIONS Article 28. Bringing of normative legal acts in accordance with this federal law federal laws and other regulatory legal acts are subject to adjustment in accordance with this federal law within a period of three months from the date of its entry into force.
Article 29. The entry into force of this federal law this federal law shall enter into force on the day of its official publication.

The President of the Russian Federation, b. Yeltsin, Kremlin, Moscow, N July 25, 1998 130-FZ