Law Education-General

Original Language Title: Ley General de Educación

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General Law on Education

EDUCATION GENERAL LAW

Published in the DOF on July 13, 1993

Latest reform published in the DOF on April 20, 2015

On the sidelines a seal with the National Shield, which reads: United Mexican States. -Presidency of the Republic.

CARLOS SALINAS DE GORTARI, Constitutional President of the United States Mexicans, to their inhabitants known:

That the H. Congress of the Union, has served to address the following

DECREE

" THE CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES OF MEXICO, D E C R E T A:

EDUCATION GENERAL LAW

CHAPTER I

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1o.- This Law regulates the education provided by the State-Federation, (a) the institutions and municipalities-their decentralised bodies and individuals with authorisation or with recognition of official validity of studies. It is of general observance throughout the Republic and the provisions it contains are of public order and social interest.

The educational social function of universities and other educational institutions "Superior" referred to in section VII of Article 3o.of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States shall be governed by the laws governing those institutions.

Article 2o.- Every individual has the right to receive quality education and, therefore, all inhabitants of the country have the same opportunities for access to the national education system, with only satisfying the requirements laid down by the applicable general provisions.

Education is a fundamental means of acquiring, transmitting and increasing culture; it is a permanent process that contributes to the development of the individual and the transformation of society, and is a determining factor for the acquisition of knowledge and for training women and men, so that they have a sense of social solidarity.

In the national education system, the active participation of all those involved in the process must be ensured educational, with a sense of social responsibility, giving priority to the participation of students, parents and teachers, in order to achieve the goals referred to in Article 7o.

Article 3o.- The State is obliged to provide quality education services that guarantee maximum achievement In the case of education, the whole population may be able to study preschool, primary, secondary and upper secondary education. These services will be provided in the framework of federalism and concurrency provided for in the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States and in accordance with the distribution of the educational social function established in this Law.

Article 4o.- All inhabitants of the country must take up preschool education, primary education, and secondary.

It is the obligation of Mexicans to make their daughters, children or children under age cure preschool education, the primary, the secondary and the upper half.

Article 5o.- The education that the State will deliver will be secular and therefore keep completely alien to any religious doctrine.

Article 6o.- The education that the State will provide will be free. Voluntary donations or quotas for such education shall in no case be construed as consideration of educational service. Education authorities in the field of their competence shall establish mechanisms for the regulation, destination, implementation, transparency and monitoring of voluntary donations or quotas.

Payment of any consideration that prevents or conditions the provision of the educational service to the Learners.

In no case will the registration, access to the school, the application of evaluations or examinations be conditioned, the delivery of documentation to the learners or to affect in any sense the equality in the treatment of the students, to the payment of consideration.

Article 7o.- The education that the State, its decentralized agencies and individuals with authorization or with recognition of official validity of studies shall, in addition to the purposes laid down in the second paragraph of Article 3o. of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, the following:

I.- Contribute to the integral development of the individual, to fully and responsibly exercise their capabilities human;

II.- Encourage the development of skills to acquire knowledge, as well as critical observation, analysis and reflection capacity;

III.- Strengthening the awareness of nationality and sovereignty, appreciation for the history, the patriotic symbols and the national institutions, as well as the appreciation of the cultural traditions and particularities of the various regions of the country;

IV.- Promote by teaching knowledge of the linguistic plurality of the Nation and respect for the linguistic rights of indigenous peoples.

Indigenous language speakers will have access to compulsory education in their own language and Spanish.

V.- To infuse the knowledge and practice of democracy as the form of governance and coexistence that allows everyone to participate in decision-making to the betterment of society;

VI.- Promote the value of justice, observance of the Law and the equality of individuals before is, to foster the culture of legality, of peace and non-violence in any form of its manifestations, as well as the knowledge of Human Rights and respect for them;

VII.- Foster attitudes that stimulate scientific and technological research and innovation, as well as their responsible understanding, application and use;

VIII.- Promote artistic creation and encourage the acquisition, enrichment and dissemination of the goods and values of the universal culture, especially those that constitute the cultural heritage of the Nation;

IX.- Foster nutrition education and stimulate physical education and practice sport;

X.- Develop supportive attitudes in individuals and raise awareness of health preservation, the exercise responsible for sexuality, family planning and responsible parenthood, without prejudice to freedom and absolute respect for human dignity, as well as to encourage rejection of vices and addictions, promoting knowledge of its causes, risks and consequences;

XI.- Inculcating the fundamental concepts and principles of environmental science, sustainable development, the prevention of climate change, as well as the assessment of the protection and conservation of the environment as essential elements for the harmonious and integral development of the individual and society. The basic elements of civil protection, mitigation and adaptation to the effects of climate change and other natural phenomena will also be provided;

XII.- Foster supportive and positive attitudes towards work, savings and general well-being.

XIII.- Encourage the values and principles of cooperativism.

XIV.- Foster the culture of transparency and accountability, as well as knowledge in the Educate them about their right to access government public information and best practices to exercise it.

XIV Bis.- Promote and encourage reading and book.

XV. Spread the rights and duties of children and adolescents and the forms of protection they count to exercise them.

XVI.- Carry out educational and preventive actions to prevent illegal actions against minors of eighteen years of age or of persons who do not have the capacity to understand the meaning of the event or to resist it.

Article 8o.- The criterion that will guide education that the State and its decentralized agencies -as well as all preschool, primary, secondary, upper secondary, normal, and other education for the training of basic education teachers that individuals will deliver-will be based on the results of scientific progress; against ignorance and its causes and effects, easements, the fanaticism, the prejudices, the formation of stereotypes, the discrimination and the violence especially the one that is exercised against the women and children, must implement public policies of State oriented to the mainstreaming of criteria in the three government orders.

I.- It will be democratic, considering democracy not only as a legal structure and a political regime, but as a system of life founded on the constant economic, social and cultural improvement of the people;

II.- It will be national, as soon as-without hostilities or exclusives-will address the understanding of our problems, the exploitation of our resources, the defense of our political independence, the assurance of our economic independence and the continuity and enhancement of our culture;

III.- It will contribute to the best human coexistence, both for the elements that it brings in order to strengthen in the educating, along with appreciation for the dignity of the person and the integrity of the family, the conviction of the general interest of society, how much care it puts in sustaining the ideals of fraternity and equal rights of all men, avoiding the privileges of races, religion, groups, sex or of individuals, and

IV.- It will be of quality, understanding the congruence between the objectives, results and processes of the educational system, according to the dimensions of effectiveness, efficiency, relevance and equity.

Article 9o.- In addition to teaching preschool, primary, secondary and upper secondary education, the State shall promote and address-directly, through its decentralised bodies, through financial support, or by any other means-all types and educational modalities, including initial, special and higher education, necessary for the development of the Nation, will support the investigation scientific and technological, and will encourage the strengthening and dissemination of national and universal culture.

Article 10.- Education that the State, its decentralized agencies, and individuals with authorization or with recognition of official validity of studies, is a public service.

Constitute the national education system:

I.- Educators, educators and parents;

II.- Educational authorities;

III.- The Teaching Professional Service;

IV.- Educational plans, programs, methods and materials;

V.- The educational institutions of the state and its decentralized agencies;

VI.- The institutions of the individuals with authorization or with recognition of official validity of studies;

VII.- Higher education institutions to which the law grants autonomy;

VIII. Educational assessment;

IX.- The Educational Information and Management System, and

X.- Educational infrastructure;

The institutions of the national education system will impart education so that It enables education to be incorporated into society and, in its opportunity, to develop a productive activity and to enable the worker to study.

For the purposes of this Law and other provisions governing the national education system, they shall be construed as synonyms the concepts of educator, teacher, teacher and teacher.

Article 11.- The enforcement and enforcement of this Law correspond to the educational authorities of the Federation, of the federal entities and of the municipalities, in the terms that the law itself establishes.

For the purposes of this Law,

following definitions shall apply:

I.- Federal Education Authority, or Secretariat, to the Secretariat of Public Education of the Administration Federal Public;

II.- Local educational authority to the executive of each of the states of the Federation, as well as to the entities which, where appropriate, establish for the exercise of the educational social function, and

III.- Municipal education authority to the municipality of each municipality.

IV.- Repeals.

V.- National Institute for the Evaluation of Education, the autonomous constitutional body to which you corresponds:

a.    Coordinate the National Educational Assessment System;

b.    Evaluate the quality, performance and results of the national education system in basic and higher education, and

c.     The other privileges established by the Constitution, its own law, the General Law of the Teaching Professional Service and other applicable provisions;

VI.   School authorities, personnel carrying out management or supervision functions in the sectors, areas or schools.

CHAPTER II

EDUCATIONAL FEDERALISM

Section 1.-From the distribution of educational social function

Article 12.- Corresponding exclusively to the federal educational authority following:

I.- Determine plans and programs for education for the entire Republic preschool, primary, secondary, normal and other for the training of teachers of basic education, to which the opinion of the local educational authorities and the various social sectors involved in education will be considered. the terms of Article 48;

For the updating and formulation of plans and study programs for normal and other education training of teachers of basic education, the Secretariat should also maintain them in line with the quality education framework provided for in the Teaching Professional Service, as well as the needs identified in the evaluations carried out by the components of the national education system;

II.- Set the applicable school calendar across the Republic for each cycle Preschool, primary, secondary, normal, and other education for the training of basic education teachers;

III.- Develop and maintain up-to-date free textbooks, through procedures that allow the participation of the various social sectors involved in education;

IV.- Authorize the use of textbooks for preschool, primary and education secondary;

V.- Set general guidelines for the use of educational material for education preschool, primary and secondary;

V Bis.- Issue, in schools of basic education, general guidelines for formulating the school management, which they will have as objectives: to improve the infrastructure; to purchase educational materials; to solve basic operating problems and to provide conditions for participation among the students, teachers and parents, under the director's leadership.

In schools that teach higher education, the Secretariat will establish the mechanisms of collaboration necessary for the school management programmes formulated by the educational authorities and the decentralised bodies, in the field of their privileges, to support the maintenance of common elements.

v.- Issue the general guidelines for the responsible and safe use of the technologies of the information and communication in the education system;

VI.- Regular a national system of training, updating, training and professional improvement teachers of basic education. Such a system shall be subject to the guidelines, measures, programmes, actions and other general provisions resulting from the application of the General Law of the Teaching Professional Service;

VII.- Repeals.

VIII.- Set the pedagogical requirements for initial education plans and programs which, where appropriate, formulaic individuals;

IX.- Regular a national system of credits, revalidation and equivalences, that facilitate the transit of learners of one type or educational modality to another;

IX Bis.- Coordinate a higher education system at national level that establishes a curriculum framework common to this type of education, with respect for federalism, university autonomy and educational diversity;

X.- Create, regulate, coordinate, operate and maintain the Education Information and Management System, the which will be integrated, inter alia, by the national register of issuance, validation and registration of academic documents; the occupational structures; the staff templates of the schools; the modules corresponding to the data on the training, career and career performance of staff, as well as the information, elements and mechanisms necessary for the operation of the national education system. This system should enable the Secretariat to communicate directly between school principals and educational authorities;

XI.- Set the general guidelines of a national nature to which the constitution and the functioning of the social participation councils referred to in Chapter VII of this Law are to be adjusted;

XII.- Perform global planning and programming of the national education system on the basis of guidelines issued by the National Institute for the Evaluation of Education and participate in the tasks of assessing its competence in accordance with the guidelines to be issued by that body;

XII Bis.- Set the general guidelines of a national nature to which the schools must conform public basic and upper secondary education for the exercise of their autonomy in school management, in the terms of Article 28 Bis;

XIII.- Foster, in coordination with the other competent authorities of the Federal Executive, relations of cultural order with other countries, and to intervene in the formulation of programs of international cooperation in educational, scientific, technological, artistic, cultural, physical education and sport, and

XIV.- The necessary ones to guarantee the national character of basic education, normal and other for the formation of teachers of basic education, as well as the others that with such character establish this Law and other provisions applicable.

Article 13.- Corresponding exclusively to local educational authorities, in their respective powers, the following powers:

I.- Provide initial, basic education services, including indigenous, special, as well as normal and other for teacher training,

II.- Propose to the Secretariat the regional contents to be included in the plans and study programmes for pre-school, primary, secondary, normal and other education for the training of basic education teachers;

III.- Adjust, where appropriate, the school calendar for each educational cycle of education preschool, primary, secondary, normal and other for the training of basic education teachers, with respect to the calendar set by the Secretariat;

IV.- Provide training, updating, training and professional improvement services for the basic education teachers, in accordance with the general provisions that the Secretariat determines, in accordance with the General Law of the Teaching Professional Service;

V.- Revalidate and grant equivalences of preschool education, primary education, secondary, normal and other for the training of basic education teachers, in accordance with the general guidelines that the Secretariat issues;

VI.- Grant, deny and revoke permission for individuals to teach preschool education, primary, secondary, normal and other for the training of basic education teachers;

VI Bis.- Participate in the integration and operation of a national higher education system than establish a common curriculum framework for this type of education, with respect for university autonomy and educational diversity;

VII.- Coordinate and operate a state register of students, teachers, institutions and schools; a State register of issuance, validation and registration of academic documents and establish a state system of educational information. For these purposes, the local educational authorities shall be coordinated within the framework of the Education Information and Management System, in accordance with the guidelines issued by the Secretariat and other applicable provisions.

Local education authorities will participate in the ongoing update and integration of the Information and Educational Management, which should also provide information to meet the operational needs of local education systems;

VIII.- Participate with the federal educational authority in the operation of the management mechanisms school, and

IX.- Other than with such a character to establish this Law and other applicable provisions.

Article 14.- In addition to the exclusive privileges referred to in Articles 12 and 13, corresponds to the federal and local educational authorities in a concurrent manner, the following privileges:

I.- Promote and provide educational services, other than those provided for in Article 13, fractions I and IV, in accordance with national, regional and state needs;

I Bis.- Participate in activities aimed at making assessments for income, promotion, recognition and permanence in the Teaching Professional Service, in accordance with the provisions of the General Law of the Service Teaching Professional;

II.- Determine and formulate curricula and study programmes, other than those provided for in Article 12 (I

;

II Bis.- Run programs for induction, updating, training and overcoming of teachers of higher average education, which must be subject, in the way, to the provisions of the General Law of the Professional Service Teacher;

III.- Revalidate and grant equivalences of studies, other than those mentioned in Article 13 (V), in accordance with the general guidelines that the Secretariat issues;

IV.- Grant, deny and withdraw recognition of official validity from different studies of pre-school, primary, secondary, normal and other for the training of basic education teachers to be provided by private individuals;

V.- Edit books and produce other teaching materials, other than those mentioned in section III of Article 12;

VI.- Provide library services through public libraries, in order to support the national education system, educational innovation and scientific, technological and humanistic research;

VII.- To permanently promote research that serves as the basis for educational innovation;

VIII. Promote research and development of science, technology and innovation, and encourage its teaching, dissemination in open access and its dissemination, when scientific and technological knowledge is funded by public resources or that public infrastructure has been used in its implementation, without prejudice to the provisions on patents, protection of intellectual or industrial property, national security and copyright, among others, as from that information which, by reason of its nature or decision of the author, is confidential or reserved;

IX.- Encourage and disseminate artistic, cultural and physical-sports activities in all its manifestations;

X.- Promote and promote in the field of its competence the activities and programs related to the promotion of reading and the book, according to the law of the matter;

X Bis.- Encourage the responsible and safe use of information and communication technologies in the education system, to support students' learning, to extend their life skills and to promote their integration into the knowledge society;

XI.- Monitoring compliance with this Law and its regulatory provisions;

XI bis.- To participate in the regular and systematic conduct of evaluation examinations of students, as well as to corroborate that the treatment of educators towards those concerned corresponds to the respect of the rights enshrined in the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, the International Treaties ratified by the Mexican State and other legislation applicable to children and young people;

XII.- Promote cooperative practices of saving, production and consumption, in accordance with the law of the subject and the Regulations of School Cooperatives, and

XII Bis.- Design and implement the evaluation instruments that they consider necessary to guarantee the educational quality in the field of their competence, taking into account the guidelines that the Institute gives to the Institute National for the Evaluation of Education;

XII Ter.- Coordinate and operate a system of counseling and support to public schools of basic and higher education, as support to the improvement of the professional practice, under the responsibility of the supervisors school;

XII Quater.- Promote transparency in public and private schools in which compulsory education is provided, monitoring that the community, after each school cycle, gives a report of its activities and accountability, in charge of the director of the staff;

XII Quintus.- Instrumentation a system accessible to citizens and teachers for the presentation and monitoring of complaints and suggestions regarding the educational public service, and

XIII.- Other than with such a character to establish this Law and other applicable provisions.

The Federal Executive and the government of each federal entity will be able to conclude agreements to coordinate or unify the educational activities referred to in this Law, with the exception of those which, on an exclusive basis, confer on them Articles 12 and 13.

Article 15.- The municipality of each municipality may, without prejudice to the concurrency of federal and local educational authorities, promote and provide educational services of any kind or modality. It may also carry out activities of those listed in Article 14 (V) to (VIII

.

For the entry, promotion, recognition and permanence of teaching staff or with managerial or managerial functions supervision in the basic and upper secondary education that they provide, they must observe the provisions of the General Law of the Teaching Professional Service.

The government of each federative entity will promote the direct participation of the city council to maintain and provide basic equipment to state and municipal public schools.

The government of each federative entity and the local councils will be able to conclude conventions for to coordinate or unify their educational activities and to better fulfil their responsibilities.

Article 16.- The privileges relating to initial, basic education-including indigenous-and special that Articles 11, 13, 14 and other points to the local educational authorities in their respective powers, shall correspond, in the Federal District to the government of that District and to the entities which, where appropriate, establish; must observe the provisions of the General Law of the Service Teaching Professional.

Normal and other education services for the education of teachers basic will be provided, in the Federal District, by the Secretariat.

Federal District government will compete in funding for educational services in the District itself, in terms of Articles 25 and 27.

Article 17.- Federal and local education authorities will meet periodically for the purpose of analyzing and exchanging opinions on the development of the national education system, making recommendations and agreeing actions to support the educational social function. These meetings shall be chaired by the Secretariat.

Section 2.-Of educational services

Article 18.- The establishment of educational institutions to hold power Federal Executive through other agencies of the Federal Public Administration, as well as the formulation of plans and study programs for these institutions, will be done in coordination with the Secretariat. Such offices shall issue constances, certificates, diplomas and certificates of validity corresponding to the studies carried out.

Article 19.- It will be the responsibility of the local educational authorities to perform a timely, comprehensive, comprehensive and efficient distribution of free textbooks and other complementary educational materials provided by the Secretariat.

Article 20.- The educational authorities, in their respective fields of competence, shall constitute the system national training, updating, training and professional improvement for teachers, which shall have the following purposes:

I.- Training, with bachelor's level, of initial, basic education teachers -including those for the attention of indigenous education-special education and physical education;

II.- Continuous training, updating of knowledge and teacher improvement of the teachers in service, cited in the previous fraction. Compliance with these purposes shall be subject, as appropriate, to the guidelines, measures and other actions resulting from the application of the General Law of the Teaching Professional Service;

III.- The realization of specialization, master's and doctoral programs, appropriate to the needs and educational resources of the entity, and

IV.- The development of pedagogical research and the dissemination of educational culture.

Local education authorities will be able to coordinate to carry out activities related to the purposes provided for in this Article, where the quality of the services or the nature of the needs make regional projects advisable. They will also be able to enter into collaboration agreements with national or foreign higher education institutions to extend training, updating and teaching options.

Article 21.- To exercise teaching in institutions established by the State, teachers must satisfy the requirements which, where appropriate, indicate the competent authorities and, for basic and higher education, must observe the provisions of the General Law of the Teaching Professional Service.

To ensure the quality of compulsory education provided by private individuals, education authorities, the scope of their privileges, they will evaluate the performance of the teachers who provide their services in these institutions. To this end, these authorities will have to apply performance evaluations, derived from the procedures analogous to those determined by the guidelines issued by the National Institute for the Evaluation of Education, to evaluate the performance of teachers in basic and higher education in public institutions. The educational authorities will grant certification to teachers who obtain satisfactory results and offer training courses and regularisation programs to those who have deficiencies, for which the institutions Individuals will grant the necessary facilities to their staff.

In the case of teachers of indigenous education who do not have a bachelor's degree as a minimum level of training, they must participate in the training programs that design the educational authority and certify their bilingualism in the indigenous language that corresponds to and the Spanish language.

The State will provide a decent professional salary, which will allow teachers of the state to be planted achieve a decent standard of living for them and their family; they can take root in the communities in which they work and enjoy decent housing; as well as having the time needed for the preparation of the classes they provide and to carry out activities for their personal and professional development.

The educational authorities, in accordance with the provisions of the General Law of the Teaching Professional Service, establish the permanence of teachers in relation to group, with the possibility for them to obtain better conditions and greater social recognition.

Educational authorities will award accolades, distinctions, stimuli and rewards to educators who are They stand out in the exercise of their profession and, in general, will carry out activities that encourage greater social appreciation for the work performed by the teachers. In addition, they will establish mechanisms to stimulate teaching work based on evaluation.

The award of the awards, distinctions, stimuli and rewards to the teaching staff in institutions established by the State in basic and higher education, shall be carried out in accordance with the provisions of the General Law of the Teaching Professional Service.

Article 22.- The educational authorities, in their respective competencies, will permanently review the provisions, procedures and procedures, in order to simplify them, to reduce the administrative burdens of teachers, to achieve more effective hours of class and, in general, to achieve the provision of the education service with greater relevance, quality and efficiency.

In the supervisory activities the educational authorities will give priority, in respect of the administrative, technical, didactic and other support for the proper performance of the teaching function. In addition, the management capacity of the school authorities and the participation of parents will be strengthened.

Article 23.- The negotiations or companies referred to in the XII of the Article 123 (A) of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States is obliged to establish and maintain schools when the number of students requiring them is greater than twenty. These plants will remain under the administrative leadership of the local educational authority.

Schools to be established in compliance with the obligation laid down in the paragraph prior to, they shall have a building, facilities and other elements necessary to perform their function, in terms of the applicable provisions.

The support of these schools includes the employer's obligation to provide the contributions for the remuneration of the staff and the benefits provided by the laws and regulations, which shall not be lower than those granted by the local educational authority under equal circumstances.

The local educational authority will be able to celebrate with the conventions for the compliance with the obligations referred to in this Article.

Article 24.- Those directly benefited by educational services should to provide social service, in cases and in terms of the relevant regulatory provisions. These will provide for the provision of social service as a prerequisite for obtaining an academic degree or degree.

Article 24 Bis.- The Secretariat, by means of general provisions to be published in the Journal Official of the Federation and without prejudice to the compliance with other applicable provisions, shall establish the guidelines to which the expendium and distribution of prepared and processed foods and beverages must be subject, within school, in which the criteria will be met The health department shall be determined by the Secretary of Health for this purpose.

These general provisions will cover regulations prohibiting food which does not favour the health of students and encourage those of a nutritional nature.

Section 3. -From funding to education

Article 25.- The Federal Executive and the government of each federal entity, subject to the corresponding revenue and public expenditure provisions that are applicable will be used for the financing of public education and educational services. The annual amount that the State-Federation, federal entities, and municipalities-will allocate to public education spending and educational services, will not be less than eight percent of the country's gross domestic product, destined for this amount. less than 1% of gross domestic product for scientific research and technological development in the institutions of higher education. In the allocation of the budget to each of the levels of education, the continuity and the concatenation between them must be given, so that the population reaches the maximum level of studies possible.

Federal resources received for that purpose by each federative entity shall not be transferable and shall be applied exclusively in the provision of services and other educational activities within the institution itself. The government of each federative entity shall publish in its respective official journal, the resources that the Federation transfers to it for this purpose, in a disaggregated form by level, educational program and school establishment.

The local government will provide all the facilities and collaboration so that, if necessary, the Federal Executive verify the correct application of these resources.

In the event that such resources are used for different purposes, you will be provided for in the applicable legislation on the administrative, civil and criminal responsibilities that they carry out.

Federal education authorities and federal authorities are required to include in the project budget to submit to the approval of the Chamber of Deputies and local legislatures sufficient resources to strengthen the autonomy of school management according to the provisions of Article 28 Bis of this Law.

Article 26.- The governance of each federative entity, in accordance with the provisions applicable, shall provide for the conduct of each city council to receive resources for the fulfilment of the responsibilities that the municipal authority is in charge of in accordance with Article 15.

Article 27.- In compliance with the provisions of the previous articles of this section, the Federal Executive and the government of each federal entity shall take into account the priority nature of public education for the purposes of national development.

At all times, they will try to strengthen sources of funding for the educational and allocate increasing budgetary resources, in real terms, for public education.

Article 28.- It is in the social interest investments that in educational matters carry out the State, its decentralised agencies and private individuals.

Article 28a.- Federal, local and municipal educational authorities, in the field of their privileges, must implement programmes and actions aimed at strengthening the autonomy of school management.

In schools of basic education, the Secretariat will issue guidelines to be followed by the authorities Local and municipal education programmes to develop school management programmes, which they will have as objectives:

I.- Use evaluation results as feedback for continuous improvement in each cycle school;

II.- Develop an annual planning of activities, with verifiable goals and knowledge of the authority and the school community, and

III.- Manage in a transparent and efficient way the resources you receive to improve your infrastructure, to purchase educational materials, solve basic operating problems, and provide conditions of participation for students, teachers and parents, under the leadership of the director, to be involved in solving the challenges that each school faces.

Section 4.-Evaluation of the national education system

Article 29.- Corresponds to the National Institute for Evaluation of Education:

I.- The assessment of the national education system in preschool, primary, secondary, and (a) a higher average, without prejudice to the participation of federal and local educational authorities, in accordance with the guidelines issued by that body, and with the Law of the National Institute for the Evaluation of Education.

II.- Fungir as an authority on educational evaluation, coordinate the national evaluation system education and to issue the guidelines to which the federal and local authorities will be subject to carry out the assessments that correspond to them in the framework of their attributions.

III.- Issue guidelines, based on the results of the evaluation of the national education system, that are relevant to contributing to decisions to improve the quality of education and its equity.

Regarding educational services other than those mentioned in section I of this article, the Secretariat and other competent authorities shall carry out the relevant assessment in accordance with the privileges established by this Act.

Both the assessment to be carried out by the National Institute for the Evaluation of Education, and assessments that, in the field of their privileges and within the framework of the National System of Educational Evaluation, are the responsibility of the educational authorities, they will be systematic and permanent. Their results will be taken as a basis for the educational authorities, in the field of their competence, to adopt the measures.

The assessment of the transit of students of one degree, level or educational type to another, on certification of graduates, on the allocation of stimuli or any other type of decisions on persons or institutions in the particular, will be the competence of the federal and local educational authorities, the decentralized agencies and the individuals that Provide education in accordance with its attributions.

Article 30.- The educational institutions established by the State, by its decentralized agencies and by individuals with authorization or with recognition of official validity of studies, as well as the School Authorities, will grant to the educational authorities and to the Institute all the facilities and collaboration for the evaluations section is concerned.

To do so, they will provide timely information on all the information required; effective collaboration of students, teachers, managers and other participants in the educational processes; they will provide the National Institute for the Evaluation of Education, the educational authorities, the certified evaluators and the applicators authorised for this purpose, carry out the activities which correspond to them in accordance with the applicable rules.

Without prejudice to the above paragraphs, the institutions referred to in this Article are to generate indicators on their progress in the application of methods to prevent and eliminate any form of discrimination and violence, with the aim of being subject to evaluation on the subject. Such indicators will be in the public domain and disseminated through the available means.

Article 31.- The National Institute for the Evaluation of Education and Education Authorities will give know the teachers, students, parents, and society in general, the results that can be used to measure the development and advances of national education and in each federal entity.

The National Institute for the Evaluation of Education will inform the educational authorities, the society and the Union Congress on the results of the evaluation of the national education system.

The provisions of this section also include the evaluations identified in the section XI Bis of the article 14 of this Law.

CHAPTER III

OF EQUITY IN EDUCATION

Article 32.- Educational authorities will take measures to establish conditions for the full exercise of the right to quality education for each individual, greater educational equity, as well as the achievement of effective equality in opportunities for access and permanence in educational services.

Such measures shall be directed, preferably, to the groups and regions with the greatest educational lag or face economic and social conditions of disadvantage in terms of the provisions of Articles 7o. and 8o. of this Law.

Article 33.- To comply with the provisions of the previous article, educational authorities in the field of their respective competences shall carry out the following activities:

I. Special attention will be given to schools in which, because they are in isolated localities, marginalized urban areas or indigenous communities, the possibility of arrears or desertions is considerably greater, through the allocation of better quality elements to address the educational problems of these localities;

II.- Will develop support programs for teachers to serve in isolated localities and marginalized urban areas, in order to encourage their communities and meet the school calendar;

III.- Promote child development centres, social integration centres, boarding schools, children's and children's shelters and others to support in a continuous and stable way the learning and exploitation of pupils;

IV.- Will provide educational services to deal with those who have left the regular system and are in a situation of educational lag for the completion of basic and higher education, granting access facilities, reentry, permanence, and egress to women;

IV Bis.- Strengthening special education and initial education, including people with disabilities;

V.- Grant pedagogical supports to groups with specific educational requirements, such as programs aimed at recovering delays in school utilization of students;

VI.- They will establish and strengthen distance learning systems;

VII.- They will carry out educational campaigns that tend to raise the cultural, social and welfare levels of the population, such as literacy and community education programs;

VIII.- Develop programs with a gender perspective, to grant scholarships and other economic supports, preferably to students who face economic and social conditions that prevent them from exercising their right to education;

IX.- Will promote programs and schools aimed at parents or guardians, which will allow them to give better attention to their children for which the installed school capacity will be used, in times and days when the children are not provided ordinary educational services;

X.- Give stimulus to civil society organizations and teachers' cooperatives that are dedicated to teaching;

XI. Promote greater participation of society in education, as well as the support of individuals to the financing and activities referred to in this chapter;

XII. Will grant awards and distinctions to those who contribute to the achievement of the purposes mentioned in the previous article;

XIII. They will provide educational materials in the indigenous languages that correspond to the schools where the majority of indigenous people attend;

XIV.- They will carry out the other activities that will improve the quality and expand the coverage of educational services, and achieve the purposes mentioned in the previous article;

XV.- Support and develop programs, courses and activities that strengthen the teaching of parents regarding the value of equality and solidarity between daughters and children, the prevention of school violence from the home and respect for their teachers;

XVI.- They will establish, in a gradual manner and in accordance with budgetary sufficiency, full-time schools, with days of 6 to 8 hours a day, to make better use of the time available for academic development, sports and culture, and

XVII.- They will promote efficient schemes for the supply of nutritious food for students, starting from local micro-enterprises, in those schools that need it, according to the poverty, marginalization and condition indices. food.

The State will also carry out assistance programs, food aid, salubity and other measures aimed at countering the social conditions that affect the effective equality of opportunities for access and permanence in educational services.

Article 34.- In addition to the activities listed in the previous article, the Federal Executive will carry out compensatory programs by virtue of which it supports with specific resources the governments of those federative entities with greater educational lags, prior to the conclusion of agreements in which they are conceived the proportions of financing and the actions specific to local educational authorities to reduce and overcome these lags.

The National Institute for the Evaluation of Education and Education Authorities in accordance with the Guidelines for the purpose of the Institute shall assess in the fields of their competence the results of the educational quality of the above-mentioned compensatory programmes.

Article 35.- In the exercise of its compensatory function, and only for activities that allow for greater educational equity, the Secretariat may temporarily impart basic and normal education in the federal entities in a concurrent manner.

Article 36.- The Federal Executive, the government of each federal entity and the (a) local authorities may conclude agreements to coordinate the activities referred to in this Chapter.

CHAPTER IV

OF THE EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

Section 1.-Of education types and modes

Article 37.- Basic type education is composed of the preschool level, the primary and secondary.

The average-upper rate includes the level of baccalaureate, the other levels equivalent to the baccalaureate, as well as the vocational education which does not require a baccalaureate or its equivalent. It will be organised, under the principle of respect for diversity, through a system that establishes a common curriculum framework at national level and the revalidation and recognition of studies among the options offered by this type of education.

The top type is the one given after the baccalaureate or its equivalents. He is composed of the bachelor's, specialty, master's and doctorate, as well as terminal options prior to the completion of the bachelor's degree. Understands normal education at all levels and specialties.

Article 38.- Basic education, at its three levels, will have the adaptations required to respond to the linguistic and cultural characteristics of each of the country's diverse indigenous groups, as well as the scattered rural population and migratory groups.

Article 39.- In the national education system, education is understood initial, special education and adult education.

According to the specific educational needs of the population, it may also education with particular programs or content to address these needs.

Article 40.- Initial education is intended to foster physical, cognitive, affective development and social of children under four years of age. Includes guidance to parents or guardians for the education of their daughters, children, or pupils.

Article 41.- Special education is intended for persons with disabilities, transient or permanent, as well as to those with outstanding skills. It will cater to learners in an appropriate manner, with inclusive and gender-based social equity.

Dealing with minors with disabilities, this education will encourage their integration into the education plants (a) to regulate, through the application of specific methods, techniques and materials. For those who do not achieve this integration, this education will seek the satisfaction of basic learning needs for the autonomous social and productive co-existence, for which the necessary teaching support programs and materials will be developed.

For the identification and educational care of students with outstanding skills and abilities, the authority Federal education, based on its faculties and budget availability, will establish guidelines for diagnostic evaluation, pedagogical models and the necessary accreditation and certification mechanisms in education levels. basic, normal education, as well as the higher average and in the field of its competence. The institutions that make up the national education system will be subject to these guidelines.

Autonomous higher education institutions may establish agreements with the educational authority in order to approve criteria for care, assessment, accreditation and certification, aimed at students with outstanding skills and abilities.

Special education includes guidance to parents or guardians, as well as teachers and staff of Regular basic and upper secondary education schools that integrate pupils with special needs for education.

Article 42.- In the education for minors, they will be taken measures to ensure by educating the protection and care necessary to preserve their physical, psychological and social integrity on the basis of respect for their dignity, and that the application of school discipline is compatible with their age.

Courses will be provided to teachers and staff working in the education plant, on the rights of teachers Students and the obligation they have when they are in charge of their custody, to protect them against all forms of abuse, harm, harm, aggression, abuse, trafficking or exploitation.

If the educators as well as the educational authorities have knowledge of the commission of some The offence of tort of the and the students, shall do so of the immediate knowledge of the authority concerned.

Article 43.- Adult education is intended for individuals aged 15 years and over who have not been enrolled or completed primary and secondary education. It is provided through literacy, primary and secondary education, as well as training for the work, with the appropriate particularities to that population. This education will be supported by participation and social solidarity.

Article 44.- Dealing with adult education the federal educational authority will be able to provide services which, in accordance with this Law, are to be provided exclusively to local educational authorities.

The beneficiaries of this education will be able to accredit the acquired knowledge through partial or in accordance with the procedures referred to in Articles 45 and 64. When presenting an assessment they do not credit the knowledge, skills, abilities and skills, they will receive a report indicating the subjects and learning units in which they need to go deeper and have the right to present assessments to achieve the respective accreditation.

The State and its entities will organize permanent adult education advocacy and counseling services the necessary facilities for their workers and their families to study and credit primary, secondary and higher education.

Who participate voluntarily by providing counseling on tasks related to this education have the right, where appropriate, to be accredited as a social service.

Article 45.- The training for the job will seek the acquisition of knowledge, skills or skills, enabling the recipient to develop a productive activity in demand on the market, through some occupation or qualified trade.

The Secretariat, together with the other competent federal authorities, shall establish a certification scheme, applicable throughout the Republic, relating to training for work, in accordance with which it is possible to establish knowledge, skills or skills-intermediate or terminal-in a partial and cumulative manner, regardless of the way they have been acquired.

The Secretariat, together with the other competent federal authorities, shall determine the general guidelines applicable throughout the Republic for the definition of those knowledge, skills or skills that are capable of certification, as well as of the related assessment procedures, without prejudice to the other provisions to be issued by local authorities Attention to particular requirements. Certificates, constances or diplomas shall be awarded by the public institutions and the individuals who indicate the aforementioned guidelines.

In the determination of the general guidelines mentioned above, as well as in the decision on the training services for the work to be offered, the competent authorities shall establish procedures to consider the needs, proposals and opinions of the various productive sectors, at national, local and regional level. even municipal.

Conventions may be concluded so that training for the work is carried out by the local authorities, local councils, private institutions, trade union organisations, employers and other individuals.

The training for the work that is provided in terms of this article will be additional and complementary to the training provided for in section XIII of Article 123 of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States.

Article 46.- The education referred to in this section shall be modalities of school, non-school and mixed.

Section 2.-Of study plans and programs

Article 47.- Education content will be defined in curricula and curricula.

Study plans should be established:

I.- The purposes of general training and, where appropriate, the acquisition of knowledge, skills, capabilities, and skills that correspond to each educational level;

II.- The fundamental content of study, organized in subjects or other learning units, which, at the very least, the education must prove to fulfill the purposes of each educational level;

III.- The indispensable sequences that must be respected between the subjects or units of learning that constitute an educational level, and

IV.- The evaluation and accreditation criteria and procedures to verify that the education meets the purposes of each educational level.

Specific learning purposes should be established in the study programmes of subjects or other learning units within a curriculum, as well as the criteria and procedures for assessing and crediting their compliance. They may include suggestions on methods and activities to achieve such purposes.

Article 48.- The Secretariat shall determine the plans and programs of study, applicable and compulsory throughout the Republic of Mexico, pre-school, primary, secondary, normal and other education for the training of teachers of basic education, in accordance with the principles and criteria laid down in Articles 7 and 8 of this Law.

For such purposes the Secretariat shall consider the views of the local educational authorities, and of the various social sectors involved in education, teachers and parents, expressed through the National Council for Social Participation in Education referred to in Article 72, as well as those that, if necessary, formulate the Institute National for the Evaluation of Education.

Local education authorities, after consultation with the relevant State Technical Board of Education, propose for consideration and, where appropriate, authorization of the Secretariat, regional contents which-without any national character of the plans and programmes mentioned-allow the students to acquire a better knowledge of the history, geography, customs, traditions, ecosystems and others own aspects of the respective entity and municipalities.

The Secretariat shall carry out systematic and continuous reviews and evaluations of the plans and programmes to which it refers the present article, in order to keep them permanently updated. In the case of normal and other education programmes for the training of basic education teachers, they shall be reviewed and evaluated at least every four years and shall be kept up to date in accordance with the parameters and profiles to which they relate. The General Law of the Teaching Professional Service.

The plans and programs that the Secretariat determines in compliance with this article, as well as its amendments, shall be published in the Official Journal of the Federation and in the official information body of each federative entity and, prior to its application, the teachers must be trained with respect to their content and methods.

Article 49.- The educational process will be based on the principles of freedom and responsibility that ensure the harmony of relations between learners and educators and will promote group work to ensure communication and dialogue between learners, educators, parents and public and private institutions. The use of all available technological and learning resources will also be encouraged.

In addition, it shall be subject to the purposes and criteria laid down in Articles 7 and 8 of this Regulation, training will be provided to the teaching staff so that they can pass on that information to the educated , as well as to the parents.

Article 50.- The evaluation of the learners will comprise the measurement in individual knowledge, skills, skills and, in general, the achievement of the goals set out in the curricula and curricula.

The institutions shall regularly inform the learners and, where appropriate, the parents or guardians, the results of the partial and final assessments, as well as, if any, those observations on the academic performance of the learners themselves, which will enable them to achieve better use.

Section 3. -From the school calendar

Article 51.- The federal educational authority will determine the school calendar applicable to the whole of the Republic, for each school year of pre-school, primary, secondary, normal and other for the training of basic education teachers, necessary to cover the applicable plans and programmes. The calendar must contain two hundred days of class for the learners.

The local educational authority may adjust the school calendar with respect to the by the Secretariat, where this is necessary in the light of specific requirements of the federal entity itself. Teachers will be duly remunerated if the modification to the school calendar involves more days of class for the students than those mentioned in the previous paragraph.

Article 52.- On school days, school work hours will be dedicated to the teaching practice and educational activities with learners, as provided for in the applicable curricula and curricula.

The activities not foreseen in the plans and programmes of study, or the suspension of classes, may only be authorised by the authority which has established or, where appropriate, adjusted the relevant school calendar. Such authorisations may be granted only in exceptional cases and if they do not involve non-compliance with the plans and programmes or, where appropriate, in the calendar indicated by the Secretariat.

To be interrupted by extraordinary case or force majeure, the authority education will take steps to recover lost days and hours.

Article 53.- The calendar that the Secretariat determines for each of the classes of Preschool, primary, secondary, normal, and other education for the training of basic education teachers will be published in the Official Journal of the Federation.

The applicable calendar for each federative entity must be published in the body official information of the entity itself.

CHAPTER V

OF EDUCATION TO BE TAUGHT BY PRIVATE INDIVIDUALS

Article 54.- Individuals will be able to impart education in all their types and modalities.

For preschool, primary, secondary, normal, and other education for the training of teachers of basic education, they must obtain in advance, in each case, the express authorization of the State, in the case of studies other than those mentioned above may obtain the recognition of official validity of studies.

Authorization and recognition will be specific to each curriculum. For the delivery of new studies, the respective authorisation or recognition shall be required.

Authorization and recognition incorporate the institutions that obtain them, with regard to the studies to which the authorization itself or the recognition refers, to the national education system.

Article 55.- The authorizations and acknowledgments of official validity of studies will be awarded when applicants have:

I.- With personnel certifying the appropriate preparation for imparting education and, where appropriate, satisfy the other requirements referred to in Article 21;

II.- With facilities that satisfy the hygienic, safety and pedagogical conditions that the granting authority determines. In order to establish a new staff, a new authorisation or new recognition will be required, as appropriate, and

III.- With plans and programs of study that the granting authority considers to be coming, in the case of education other than preschool, primary, secondary, normal, and other for the training of basic education teachers.

Article 56.- The educational authorities will publish, in the information body a list of the institutions to which they have granted authorisation or recognition of official validity of studies. They shall also publish, in a timely manner and in each case, the inclusion or deletion in that list of the institutions to which they grant, revoke or withdraw the respective authorisations or recognitions.

The names of educators who obtain sufficient results will also be indicated in this publication. once they apply the assessments, which fall within the scope of their privileges and in accordance with the provisions of this Law and other applicable provisions.

The educational authorities should provide the private schools with a report of the results they have obtained from their teachers and students in the relevant evaluations.

Individuals who provide studies with permission or with recognition must mention in the documentation they issue and in the advertising they do, a legend that indicates their quality of incorporation, the number and date of the respective agreement, as well as the authority that granted it.

Article 57.- Individuals who provide education with authorization or with recognition of official validity of studies shall:

I.- Meet the provisions of article 3o. of the Political Constitution of the United Mexican States, in this Law and other applicable provisions;

II.- Meet the plans and programs of study that the competent educational authorities have determined or considered to be coming;

III.- Provide a minimum of scholarships in the terms of the general guidelines the authority granting the authorisations or recognition has determined;

IV.- Meet the requirements set out in Article 55, and

V.- Facilitate and collaborate on assessment, inspection and surveillance activities the competent authorities to carry out or order.

Article 58.- The authorities granting authorizations and recognition of official validity of studies they shall inspect and monitor educational services for which they have granted such authorisations or recognitions. The authorities shall endeavour to carry out an inspection visit at least once a year.

For an inspection visit the corresponding order issued must be shown by the competent authority. The visit will take place at the place, date and on the specific issues mentioned in that order. The person in charge of the visit must be properly identified.

The visit will be drowned, the corresponding record will be subscribed by those who have intervened and for two witnesses. Where appropriate, the refusal of the visit to subscribe without such refusal shall be recorded in that record without affecting its validity. A copy of the minutes shall be made available to the visited.

Individuals may submit related documentation to the educational authorities with the visit within five working days of the date of the inspection.

The information contained in the corresponding record as well as the related documentation, which in your case present the individuals, the educational authorities may formulate corrective measures, which they will make of the knowledge of the individuals.

The education authorities will issue the relevant regulations to carry out the inspection tasks and surveillance.

Article 59.- Individuals providing services for which they are given studies without recognition of official validity, shall mention it in their relevant documentation and publicity.

In the case of initial education, you must also have staff who provide the appropriate preparation for provide education; facilities and other staff who satisfy the hygiene, safety and pedagogical conditions which the educational authority determines; meet the requirements referred to in Article 21; present the assessments which correspond, in accordance with the provisions of this Law and other corresponding provisions arising under the National Education Assessment System, and taking the measures referred to in Article 42, as well as facilitating the inspection and surveillance of the competent authorities.

CHAPTER VI

OF OFFICIAL VALIDITY OF STUDIES AND CERTIFICATION OF KNOWLEDGE

Article 60.- Studies conducted within the national education system will have validity throughout the Republic.

The institutions of the national education system shall issue certificates and grant constances, diplomas, degrees or academic degrees to persons who have completed studies in accordance with the requirements laid down in the relevant curricula and programmes. Such certificates, constances, diplomas, degrees and degrees shall be valid throughout the Republic.

The Secretariat will promote that the studies with official validity in the Republic will be recognised abroad.

Article 61.- Studies conducted outside the national education system may to acquire official validity, by revalidation, as long as they are comparable to studies carried out within that system.

The revalidation can be awarded by educational levels, by school grades, academic credits, by subjects or other learning units, as determined by the respective regulation.

Article 62.- Studies conducted within the national education system may, if appropriate, be declared equivalent to each other by educational levels, school grades, academic credits, subjects or other learning units, as determined by the respective regulation.

Article 63.- The Secretariat shall determine the general rules and criteria, applicable throughout the Republic, to which the revalidation is to be adjusted, as well as the declaration of equivalent studies.

The Secretariat may revalidate and grant equivalences of studies other than the referred to in Article 13 (V

.

Local education authorities will grant revalidations and equivalences only where they relate to plans and programmes of study which are provided in their respective competences.

The revalidation and equivalence granted in terms of this Article shall be validity throughout the Republic.

Article 64.- The Secretariat may, by agreement of its holder, establish procedures by means of which certificates, constances, diplomas or diplomas are issued to those who provide evidence of partial or terminal knowledge corresponding to a certain educational level or grade of school, acquired in a self-taught manner, from work experience or through other educational processes.

The respective secretarial arrangements shall indicate the specific requirements to be met for accreditation of the knowledge acquired.

CHAPTER VII

OF SOCIAL PARTICIPATION IN EDUCATION

Section 1.-Parents

Article 65.- They are the rights of those who exercise parental rights or guardianship:

I.- Get enrollment in public schools so that your daughters, children, or minors, who meet the applicable requirements, receive pre-school, primary, secondary and upper secondary education.

The minimum age to enter basic education at preschool level is 3 years, and for primary level 6 years, completed at 31 December of the year of start of the school year.

II.- Participate with the authorities of the school in which your children are enrolled or children age, in any problem related to the education of these, so that, as a whole, their solution is abended;

III.- Collaborate with the school authorities to overcome the learners and in the improvement of educational establishments;

IV.- Forming part of the parents ' associations and the social participation councils to be refers to this chapter;

V.- To view, in the cases of education that the individuals provide, in relation to the consideration the schools to fix;

VI.- Know the professional capacity of the teaching plant, as well as the results of the evaluations performed;

VII.- Know the official relationship of the teaching staff and employees assigned to the school in which they are registered their children or pupils, as provided by the school authority;

VIII.- To be observers in teacher and management evaluations, for which they must comply with the guidelines to be issued by the National Institute for the Evaluation of Education;

IX.- Know the criteria and results of the school evaluations to which your children attend or pupillos;

X.- View through the Participation Tips regarding the updates and revisions of the plans and study programs;

XI.- Know the budget allocated to each school, as well as its implementation and the results of its execution, and

XII.- Submit complaints to the relevant education authorities, in the terms set out in the Article 14, part XII Quintus, on the performance of teachers, directors, supervisors and technical advisors of their children or children and on the conditions of the school to which they attend.

Article 66.- It is obligations of those who exercise parental rights or guardianship:

I.- Make your daughters, children, or underage pupils receive preschool education, primary education, secondary and the upper half;

II.- Support the educational process of your daughters, children, or pupils;

III.- Collaborate with educational institutions in which their daughters, sons or pupils are enrolled, in the activities that these institutions perform;

IV.- Inform educational authorities for changes in the conduct and attitude of the In order to determine the possible causes which have led to such changes, it is necessary for the authorities to apply the relevant studies.

V.- Making knowledge of the educational authority of the team, the irregularities committed by the administrative or academic staff, causing harm, damage or emotional changes in the learners.

Article 67.- Parents ' associations will have as their object:

I.- Represent to the school authorities the interests that are common to the partners in educational matters;

II.- Collaborate for better integration of the school community, as well as in the improvement of the plants;

III.- Participate in the application of cooperations in numerary, goods, and services that, where appropriate, make the associations themselves to the school establishment. These operations shall be voluntary and, as provided for in Article 6o. of this Act shall in no case be construed as consideration of educational service;

IV.- Propose the measures they estimate to be conducive to achieving the objectives outlined in the previous fractions, and

V.- Inform the educational and school authorities about any irregularities of the learners.

Family parents ' associations will refrain from intervening in the aspects teaching and employment of educational establishments.

The organisation and functioning of the parents ' associations, in the concerning their relations with the authorities of the school establishments, they shall be subject to the provisions which the federal educational authority points out.

Section 2.-Social participation tips

Article 68.- Educational authorities will promote, in accordance with the guidelines to be established by the federal education authority, the participation of society in activities aimed at strengthening and raising the quality of public education, as well as expanding the coverage of educational services.

Article 69.- It will be the responsibility of the authority of each public school of Basic education to link it, actively and constantly, with the community. The city council and the local educational authority will give their full collaboration for such effects.

The school authority will do this to ensure that in every public school of basic education a school board operates of social participation, integrated with parents and representatives of their associations, teachers and representatives of their trade union organization, who will attend as representatives of the workers ' interests, managers of the school, alumni, as well as the other members of the community interested in the development of the school itself.

This tip:

a) Meet the school calendar, educational goals and advancement of activities school, with the aim of helping the teacher to perform better;

b) You will know and follow up on the actions that you and the educators do and educational authorities referred to in the second paragraph of Article 42 of this Law;

c) Conocera of educational and preventive actions by the authorities for learners to know and detect the possible commission of criminal acts that may harm the education;

d) Awareness of the community, through the dissemination of material that will prevent the Commission of the European Parliament and of the European Parliament. As well as elements that seek to defend the rights of victims of such crimes;

e) Take note of the results of the assessments performed by the authorities education;

f) Will own the collaboration of teachers and parents to safeguard the integrity and full education of the learners.

g) You can propose stimuli and social recognition to students, teachers, managers and employees of the school, to be considered by the recognition programs established by the General Law of the Teaching Professional Service and other programs to be determined by the Secretariat and the competent authorities;

h) You will know the names of the educators listed in the second paragraph of the Article 56 of this Act;

i) Estimate, promote and support after-school activities that complement and support the education of learners;

j) Carry out the necessary participation, coordination and dissemination actions for civil protection and the school emergency;

k) Will encourage family and community interest in the performance of educating;

l) Will take a stand on pedagogical issues and on issues that allow the safeguarding of the free the development of the personality, integrity and human rights of learners;

m) Will contribute to reducing adverse social conditions that influence the education; be empowered to hold calls for specific work on improving school facilities;

n) Will support the day-to-day work of the school, and

or) In general, you can perform activities for the benefit of your own school.

Similar councils should operate in the private schools of basic education.

Article 70.- In each municipality a municipal council of social participation will operate in integrated education by the municipal authorities, parents and representatives of their associations, distinguished teachers and school officials, representatives of the teachers ' union organization, who will attend as representatives of the interests workers ' employment, as well as representatives of civil society organisations whose social object is education and other stakeholders in the improvement of education.

This council will manage before the city council and the local educational authority:

a) The improvement of educational services, construction and expansion of public schools and other educational development projects in the municipality;

b) You will know of the results of the assessments performed by the authorities education;

c) Will carry out follow-up work on public school activities Basic education of the municipality itself;

d) Estimate, promote and support exchange, collaboration and involvement in cultural, civic, sporting and social aspects;

e) Will establish coordination of schools with authorities and welfare programs Community, particularly with those authorities that address issues related to the defense of the rights enshrined in the Law for the Protection of the Rights of Girls, Children and Adolescents;

f) will make contributions regarding the particularities of the municipality that contribute to the formulation of local content to be proposed for curricula and study programmes;

g) You can have an opinion on pedagogical issues;

h) Co-adjuvants at municipal level in civil protection and emergency activities school;

i) Will promote educational improvement in the municipal area by means of certamenes Collars;

j) Promote guidance, training and outreach activities aimed at parents Family and guardians, to be fully compliant with their educational obligations;

k) You can propose stimuli and social recognition to students, teachers, managers and school employees;

l) Will seek to obtain additional resources for physical maintenance and to provide basic equipment to each public school,

m) Proposing actions that encourage knowledge of economic activities Local preponderants and promote the integral development of the communities, and

n) In general, you will be able to do activities to support and strengthen education in the municipality.

It will be the responsibility of the municipal president that the council reach an effective social participation that contribute to raising the quality and coverage of education, as well as the dissemination of preventive programs of crimes that may be committed against girls, children and adolescents or those who have no capacity to understand the meaning of the done or to resist it.

In the Federal District councils will be constituted by each political delegation.

Article 71.- In each federative entity, a state social participation council will function in the education, as a consultation, guidance and support body. An analogue body will be established in the Federal District. The Council shall ensure the participation of parents and representatives of their associations, teachers and representatives of their trade union organisation, who shall be the representatives of the workers ' labour interests, training institutions for teachers, state and municipal education authorities, civil society organisations whose social object is education, as well as the social and productive sectors of the federative entity, particularly interested in education.

This council will promote and support non-school cultural, civic, and non-school entities, (a) state level in civil protection and school emergency activities; it shall systematize the elements and contributions relating to the particularities of the federative entity that contribute to the formulation of state content in the plans and programmes of study; you can have an opinion on pedagogical issues; you will know the demands and needs that emanate from the social participation in education through the school and municipal councils, conforming to the requirements at the state level to manage before the competent authorities shall have their resolution and support; they shall know the results of the evaluations carried out by the educational authorities and shall collaborate with them on activities that influence the improvement of the quality and coverage of education.

Article 72.- The Secretariat will promote the establishment and functioning of the National Council of Social participation in Education, as a national instance of consultation, collaboration, support and information, in which parents and their associations, teachers and their trade union organization are represented, who will attend representatives of the labour interests of workers, educational authorities, civil society organizations whose social object is education, as well as the social and productive sectors especially interested in education. Take note of the results of the evaluations carried out by the educational authorities, will know the development and evolution of the national education system, may have an opinion on pedagogical matters, plans and programs of study and will propose policies for raise the quality and coverage of education.

Article 73.- The social participation councils referred to in this section refrain from intervening in the labour aspects of educational establishments and should not participate in political or religious matters.

In case the council appreciates the probable commission of a crime in tort of the and the students, it will request as a preventive measure to the educational authorities of the staff, the temporary suspension of the activities of the teaching or administrative staff who are allegedly involved, until as long as it is clarified by the corresponding authority participation, after hearing the parties involved. Such suspension shall not affect the performance of the work.

Section 3.-Media

Article 74.- The mass media, in the development of their activities, shall contribute to the achievement of the purposes referred to in Article 7, in accordance with the criteria laid down in Article 8.

CHAPTER VIII

OF VIOLATIONS, SANCTIONS, AND ADMINISTRATIVE RESOURCE

Section 1.-Violations and penalties

Article 75.- These are violations of those who provide educational services:

I.- Failure to comply with any of the obligations provided for in Article 57;

II.- Suspend educational service without any justified motive, fortuitous case or force majeure;

III.- Suspend classes in days and hours not authorized by the applicable school calendar, without any justification, fortuitous case or force majeure;

IV.- Do not use the textbooks that the Secretariat authorizes and determines for primary and secondary education;

V.- Failure to comply with general guidelines for the use of educational material for the preschool, primary and secondary education;

VI.- Make known before application, examinations or any other instruments of admission, accreditation or evaluation, to whom they will present them;

VII.- Exorder certificates, constances, diplomas or degrees to those who do not meet the applicable requirements;

VIII.- Make or allow advertising to be carried out within the school school that encourages consumption, as well as to make or permit the marketing of goods or services that are not known to the educational process, other than food;

IX.- Carry out activities that put the health or safety of the students at risk;

X.- Hide the parents or guardians of the behavior of the students who are known to be of their knowledge;

XI.- Opposite assessment, inspection and surveillance activities, as well as not providing truthful and timely information;

XII.- Contrary to the provisions referred to in Article 7o, in Article 21, in the third paragraph of Article 42, for the purposes of the educational authorities and the second paragraph of Article 56;

XIII.- Failure to comply with any of the other provisions of this Law, as well as the provisions laid down in it.

XIV.- Administer to learners, without prior medical prescription and consent informed of parents or guardians, medicinal products containing psychotropic substances or narcotic drugs;

XV.- Promote the use of drugs in learners, by any means contain psychotropic or narcotic substances;

XVI.- Expelling or refusing to provide the educational service to people who present learning problems or condition your acceptance or stay in the team to undergo specific medical treatments, or, in any way, pressure parents or guardians to go to specific doctors or clinics for care. of learning problems for learners, and

XVII.- Failure to comply with corrective measures arising from visits to inspection.

Article 76.- The violations listed in the previous article will be sanctioned with:

I.- Multa up to the equivalent of five thousand times the daily general minimum wage in force in the geographical area and on the date the infringement is committed. The fines imposed may be doubled in case of recidivism, or

II.- Revocation of the authorisation or withdrawal of the official recognition of the relevant studies.

III.- In the event of violations established in the fractions XIII and XIV of the foregoing Article, the penalties laid down in Sections I and II of this Article shall apply, without prejudice to any criminal and other resulting penalties.

The imposition of the penalty set out in fraction II does not preclude the possibility that any fine is imposed.

Article 77.- In addition to those provided for in Article 75, they are also violations of this Act:

I.- Ostend as built-in staff without being;

II.- Incompliance with the provisions of Article 59, and

III.- Starting preschool, primary, secondary, normal, and other education for the training of teachers of basic education, without the corresponding authorisation.

In the cases provided for in this article, in addition to the application of the sanctions In accordance with Article 76 (1), the relevant staff may be closed.

Article 78.- When the educational authority responsible for the provision of the service, or which has granted the authorization or recognition of official validity of studies, considers that there are justified causes that merit the imposition of sanctions, it will do so of the knowledge of the alleged infringer so that, within a Fifteen calendar days ' time, manifest what your right to Please provide the required data and documents.

The authority will dictate resolution based on the data provided by the alleged infringer and the other constances on the file.

To determine the penalty will be considered the circumstances in which the infringement, damage and damage that have occurred or may occur to learners, the seriousness of the offence, the socio-economic conditions of the offender, the intentional or non-intentional nature of the offence and whether it is a repeat offence.

Article 79.- The refusal or revocation of the authorization granted to individuals produces the closing effects of the educational service concerned.

The withdrawal of recognition of official validity will refer to the studies that are given from the date on which the decision is made. Those carried out while the institution had the recognition, will maintain its official validity.

The authority issuing the decision shall take the necessary measures to prevent harm to learners.

In the case of authorisations, where the revocation is issued during a school year, the institution may continue to operate, in the judgment and under the supervision of the authority, until that authority concludes.

Section 2. -From the administrative resource

Article 80.- Against the resolutions of the education authorities subject to the provisions of this Law and other provisions arising therefrom, review appeal may be brought within 15 working days following the date of its notification.

The period referred to in the preceding paragraph has elapsed without the person concerned The resolution shall be final in nature.

The appeal may also be brought when the non-response authority within a period of time of 60 working days following the submission of applications for authorisation or recognition of official validity of studies.

Article 81.- The appeal shall be filed in writing with the immediate authority superior to the one that issued the appealed act or omitted to respond to the corresponding request.

The receiving authority of the resource must seal or sign it received and record the the date and time at which it is presented and the number of annexes accompanying it. The same act shall return a copy duly sealed or signed to the person concerned.

Article 82.- The resource must express the name and address of the Recurrent and aggrieved, accompanying the test elements deemed necessary, as well as the constances that accredit the personality of the promote.

In case of non-compliance with the above requirements, the educational authority may declare the resource inappropriate.

Article 83.- When the appeal is filed, all kinds of evidence may be offered, except the confessional, and accompany with the related documents. If evidence is provided which requires proof, a period of not less than five or more than 30 working days shall be opened for such purposes. The educational authority which is aware of the appeal may be able to provide the additional elements of conviction it deems necessary.

Article 84.- The educational authority will dictate resolution within thirty days The following business dates:

I.- Of the agreement of admission of the appeal, where no evidence has been offered or those offered do not require a special deadline for the application, and

II.- The conclusion of the proof of proof or, where applicable, when the time limit has elapsed, and shall not be drowned.

The decisions of the appeal shall be notified to the persons concerned, or to their representatives legal, personally or by registered mail with acknowledgement of receipt.

Article 85.- The interposition of the resource will suspend the execution of the resolution challenged as to the payment of fines.

For any other kind of administrative and sanctions resolutions not pecuniary, the suspension shall be granted only if the following requirements are met:

I.- That is requested by the appellant;

II.- That the resource has been supported;

III.- That of granting it does not imply the continuation or consummation of acts or omissions that result in violations of this Law, and

IV.- That they do not cause damages to the students or third parties in terms of this Law.

TRANSIENT

First.- This Law shall enter into force on the day following its publication in the Official Journal of the Federation.

Second.- The Federal Education Law, published in the Official Journal of the Federation on November 29, 1973; the School Savings Law, published in the Official Journal of the Federation on September 7, 1945; the Law that Establishes Normal Education for Teachers of Training Centers for Work, published in the Official Journal of the Federation on December 20, 1963, and the National Adult Education Act published in the Official Journal of the the Federation on December 31, 1975.

Other provisions which are contrary to this Law shall be repealed.

Third.- The regulatory provisions arising from the laws referred to in the previous second article shall continue to apply, in so far as they are not contrary to this Law, until the competent educational authorities issue the normativity to which they are refers to this Law.

Fourth.- The process for the Federal District government to take care of the provision of initial, basic education services, including indigenous-and special in the District itself, will be carried out on the terms and date agreed upon with the trade union organisation. From the entry into force of this Law and until the conclusion of the aforementioned process, the privileges relating to initial education, basic including the Indigenous-and special that Articles 11, 13, 14 and others point out for the Local educational authorities in their respective competencies will correspond, in the Federal District, to the Secretariat. The first paragraph of Article 16 of this Law shall enter into force at the conclusion of the aforementioned process.

Fifth.- The services for the training of teachers in charge of the local educational authorities will have, in addition to the purposes provided for in Article 20 of this Law, to regularize, with level of bachelor, to teachers in service that any circumstances have a level of studies other than that level.

Sixth.- The competent authorities are obliged to respect the rights of education workers in full and to recognize the ownership of the collective labour relations of their trade union organization in the terms of their current registration and agreement with the relevant legal provisions when issuing this Law.

Mexico, D. F., on July 9, 1993. Dip. Juan Ramiro Robledo Ruiz, President.-Sen. Mauricio Valdés Rodríguez, President.-Dip. Luis Moreno Bustamante, Secretary. -Sen. Ramon Serrano Ahumada, Secretary.-rubrics. "

In compliance with the provisions of section I of article 89 of the Constitution Policy of the United Mexican States and for its proper publication and observance, I request this Decree at the residence of the Federal Executive Branch, in Mexico City, Federal District, at the twelve days of July 1993.- Salinas de Gortari.-Heading.-The Secretary of Government, J ose Sponsorship Gonzalez Blanco Garrido. -Heading.