The United Nations Convention To Combat Desertification/land Degradation In Countries Experiencing Significant Drought And/or Desertification, Particularly In Africa

Original Language Title: Par Apvienoto Nāciju Organizācijas Konvenciju par cīņu pret pārtuksnešošanos/ zemes degradāciju valstīs, kurās novērojami ievērojami sausuma periodi un/vai pārtuksnešošanās, jo īpaši Āfrikā

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The Saeima has adopted and the President promulgated the following laws: The United Nations Convention to combat desertification/land degradation in countries experiencing significant drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa article 1. United Nations Convention to combat desertification/land degradation in countries experiencing significant drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa (hereinafter referred to as the Convention) with this law is accepted and approved. 2. article. The law shall enter into force on the date of its promulgation. With the law put the Convention in English and its translation into Latvian language. 3. article. The Convention shall enter into force on its article 36, and for the period specified in the order, and the Ministry of Foreign Affairs shall notify the newspaper "journal". 4. article. Fulfilment of the obligations provided for in the Convention to coordinate the protection of the environment and regional development Ministry. The law adopted by the Parliament in 2002 on September 26. State v. President Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga in Riga 2002 October 9, United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in countries Experiencing Serious Desertification and/or to Drough, Particularly in Africa, the parties to this Convention, Affirming that the human being is affected or threatened areas in the center of concern at the to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough, Reflecting the urgent concern of the international community , including States and international organizations, about the adverse impacts of desertification and drough, aware that arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas together account for a significant proportion of the Earth's land area and are the Habitat and source of livelihood for a large segment of its population, Acknowledging that desertification and drough with problems of global dimension in that they all eras of affec the world and that joint action of the international community is needed to combat desertification and/ or the effects of mitigat drough, Noting the high concentration of developing countries, notably the least developed countries, among those experiencing serious desertification and/or to drough, and the particularly tragic consequences of these phenomen in Africa, Noting also that desertification is caused by complex interactions among physical, biological, political, social, cultural and economic factors, Considering the impact of trade and relevant aspects of international economic relations on the ability of affected countries to combat desertification adequately , Conscious that sustainable economic growth, the social development and poverty eradication are the allocation to affected developing countries, particularly of in Africa, and with the objective of meeting sustainability, Essentials, Mindful that desertification and the sustainable development of the drough affec through their interrelationship with important social problems such as poverty, poor health and nutrition, lack of food security, and those arising from migration, displacement of persons and demographic dynamics , Appreciating the significanc of the past efforts and experience of States and international organizations in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of the drough, particularly in implementing the Plan of Action to Combat Desertification which was adopted at the United Nations Conference on Desertification in 1977, Realizing that, despite efforts in the past, progress in combating desertification and mitigating the in the effects of the drough has not met expectations and that a new and more effective approach is needed at all levels within the framework of sustainable development, Recognizing the validity and relevance of decisions adopted at the United Nations of the Conference on environment and development, particularly of Agenda 21 and its chapter 12, which provide a basis for combating desertification, Reaffirming in this light the commitment of developed countries as in paragraph 13 of chapter led 33 of Agenda 21, Recalling General Assembly resolution 47/188 , particularly the priority in it prescribed for Africa, and all other relevant United Nations resolutions, decisions and programmes on desertification and drough, as well as relevant declarations by African countries and those from other regions, Reaffirming the Rio Declaration on environment and development which States, in its Principle 2, that States have, in accordanc with the Charter of the United Nations and the principles of international law , the sovereign right to exploit their own resources to their own environmental and pursuan developmental policies, and the responsibility to ensur that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, Recognizing that national Governments play a critical role in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of a drough and that progress in that respect depend on local implementation of action programmes in affected areas , Recognizing also the importanc and not of international cooperation and partnership in cessity combating desertification and mitigating the effects of a drough, Recognizing further the importanc of the provision to affected developing countries, particularly in Africa, of effective means, inter alia substantial financial resources, including new and additional funding, and access to technology, without which it will be difficult for them to fully their commitment to implementations that under this Convention , Expressing concern over the impact of desertification and drough on affected countries in Central Asia and the Transcaucas, Stressing the important role played by women in regions affected by desertification and/or drough, particularly in rural areas of developing countries, and the importanc of ensuring the full participation of both men and women at all levels in programmes to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough a , Emphasizing the special role of non-governmental organizations and other major groups in programmes to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough, Bearing in mind the relationship between desertification and the other environmental problems of global dimension facing the international and national communities, Bearing in mind also the contribution that combating desertification can make to achieving the objective of the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change Convention on Biological Diversity, the and others related environmental convention, Believing that strategies to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough will be most effective if they are based on sound systematic observation and rigorous scientific knowledge and if they are continuously re-evaluated, Recognizing the urgent need to improve the effectiveness and coordination of international cooperation to the implementation of national facilitat plant and digia to , Determined to take appropriate action in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of the drough for the benefit of present and future generations, have agreed as follows: part I INTRODUCTION article 1 use of terms For the purpose of this Convention: (a) "desertification" means land degradation in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variation and human activities; (b) "combating desertification" includes activities which are part of the integrated development of land in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas for sustainable development which are aimed at: (i) prevention and/or reduction of land degradation; (ii) rehabilitation of partly degraded land; and (iii) reclamation of desertified land; (c) "drough" means the naturally occurring phenomenon that exists when precipitation has been significantly below normal recorded levels, causing serious hydrological adversely affec calculated that of the land resource production systems; (d) "mitigating the effects of the drough" means activities related to the prediction of drough and intended to reduce the vulnerability of society and natural systems to relate to drough as in combating desertification; (e) "land" means the terrestrial bio-productive system that the soil, vegetation, other compris biota, and the ecological and hydrological processes that operate within the system of; (f) "land degradation" means reduction or loss, in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas, of the biological or economic productivity and complexity of rainfed cropland, irrigated cropland, or range, pastur, forest and woodlands resulting from land use or from a process or combination of processes, including processes arising from human activities and habitation patterns, such as: (i) soil erosion caused by wind and/or water; (ii) deterioration of the physical, chemical and biological or economic properties of soil; and (iii) the long-term loss of natural vegetation; (g) "arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas" means areas, other than polar and sub-polar region, in which the ratio of annual precipitation to potential evapotranspiration falls within the range from 0.05 to 0.65; (h) "affected areas" means arid, semi-arid and/or dry sub-humid areas affected or threatened by desertification; (i) "affected countries" means countries whose lands include, in whole or in part, affected areas; (j) "regional economic integration organization" means an organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region which has competence in respect of matters governed by this Convention and has been duly authorized, in accordanc with its internal procedures, to sign, accept, approve, ratify.â or accede to this Convention; (k) "developed country Parties" means developed country Parties and regional economic integration organizations constituted by developed countries. Article 2 objective 1. The objective of this Convention is to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough in countries experiencing serious desertification and/or to drough, particularly in Africa, through effective action at all levels, supported by international cooperation and partnership arrangements, in the framework of an integrated approach which is consistent with Agenda 21, with a view to contributing to the achievement of sustainable development in affected areas. 2. Achieving this objective will involv long-term integrated strategies that focus simultaneously, in affected areas, on improved productivity of land, and the rehabilitation, conservation and sustainable management of land and water resources, leading to improved living conditions, in particular at the community level. Article 3 principles In order to achieve the objective of this Convention and to its provision of implementations, the Parties shall be guided, inter alia, by the following: (a) the parties should ensur that decisions on the design and implementation of programmes to combat desertification and/or the effects of mitigat drough with taken with the participation of the population and local communities and that an enabling environment is created at higher levels to facilitat action at national and local level; (b) the parties should, in a spirit of international solidarity and partnership, improve cooperation and coordination at subregional, regional and international levels, and better focus financial, human, organizational and technical resources where they are needed; (c) the parties should develop, in a spirit of partnership, cooperation among all levels of Government, communities, non-governmental organizations and landholders to establish a better understanding of the nature and value of land and water resources in scarc affected areas and to work towards their sustainable use; and (d) the parties should take into full considerations the special needs of affected developing country circumstanc and parties, particularly the least developed among them. Part II GENERAL PROVISION of article 4 General obligations 1. The Parties shall implementations that their obligation under this Convention, individually or jointly, either through existing or prospective bilateral and multilaterals by subject or a combination thereof, as appropriate, emphasizing the need to develop a line of efforts and a long-term strategy coheren at all levels. 2. In pursuing the objective of this Convention, the Parties shall: (a) an integrated approach addressing adop the physical, biological and socio-economic aspects of the processes of desertification and drough; (b) give due attention, within the relevant international and regional bodies, to the situation of affected developing country Parties with regard to international trade, marketing arrangements and debt with a view to establishing an enabling international economic environment conduciv to the promotion of sustainable development; (c) integrate strategies for poverty eradication into efforts to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough; (d) promote cooperation among affected country Parties in the fields of environmental protection and the conservation of land and water resources, as they relate to desertification and drough; (e) strengthen subregional, regional and international cooperation; (f) cooperate within relevant intergovernmental organizations of; (g) if the institutional mechanisms, determin appropriate, keeping in mind the need to avoid duplication; and (h) promote the use of existing bilateral and multilaterals, financial mechanisms and arrangements that mobilise and channel substantial financial resources to affected developing country Parties in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of the drough. 3. Affected developing country Parties are eligible for assistance in the implementation of the Convention. Article 5 Obligations of affected country Parties In addition to their obligation to their article 4, pursuan affected country Parties undertak to: (a) give due priority to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of a drough, and allocate resources in accordanc adequat with circumstanc and their capabilities; (b) establish strategies and allocation, within the framework of sustainable development plans and/or policies, to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough; (c) address the underlying causes of desertification and pay special attention to the socio-economic factors contributing to desertification processes; (d) promote awareness and participation of the local facilitat population, particularly women and youth, with the support of the non-governmental organizations, in the efforts to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough; and (e) provide an enabling environment by strengthening, as appropriate, relevant existing legislation and, where they do not exist, enacting new laws and establishing long-term policies and action programmes. Article 6 Obligations of developed country Parties In addition to their general obligation in article 4, the pursuan developed country Parties undertak to: (a) actively support, as agreed, individually or jointly, the efforts of affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, and the least developed countries, to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough; (b) provide substantial financial resources and other forms of support to assist affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, effectively to develop and their own implementations that long-term plans and strategies to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough; (c) promote the mobilizations of new and additional funding to their article 20, pursuan paragraph 2 (b); (d) encourag the mobilizations of funding from the private sector and other non-governmental sources; and (e) promote and facilitat access by affected country Parties, particularly affected developing country Parties, to appropriate technology, knowledge and know-how. Article 7 Priority for Africa In implementing this Convention, the Parties shall give priority to affected African country Parties, in the light of the particular situation prevailing in that region, while not affected developing country Parties in glecting others eras. Article 8 Relationship with other convention 1. The Parties shall encourag the coordination of activities carried out under this Convention and, if they are parties to them, under other relevant international agreements, particularly the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change and the Convention on Biological Diversity, in order to benefit from the maximum deriv activities under each agreement while «avoiding duplication of effort. The Parties shall encourag the conduct of joint programmes, particularly in the fields of research, training, systematic observation and information collection and Exchange, to the exten to that such activities may contribute to achieving the objective of the agreements concerned. 2. The provision of this Convention shall not be affec the rights and obligations of any Party deriving from a bilateral, regional or international agreement into which it has entered prior to the entry into force of this Convention for it. For the ACTION PROGRAMME III, SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION AND SUPPORTING the "Section 1: Action Programme article 9 of the Basic approach 1. In carrying out their obligations to their article 5, pursuan affected developing country Parties and any other affected country Party in the framework of its regional implementation annex or, otherwise, that has notified the Permanent Secretariat in writing of its intention to prepare a national action programme, shall, as appropriate, prepare, make public and national action program, implementations utilizing and building, to the exten the possible , on existing relevant successful plans and programmes, and subregional and regional action programmes, as the central element of the strategy to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough. Such programmes shall be updated through a continuing participatory process on the basis of lessons from field action, as well as the results of research. The preparation of national action programmes shall be closely interlinked with other efforts in their national policies for sustainable formulat development. 2. In the provision by developed country Parties of different forms of assistance under the terms of article 6, priority shall be given to supporting, as agreed, national, subregional and regional action programmes of affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, either directly or through relevant organizations or multilaterals both. 3. The Parties shall fund the organ, encourag and programmes of the United Nations system and other relevant intergovernmental organizations, academic institutions, the scientific community and non-governmental organizations in a position to cooperate, in accordanc with their mandate and capabilities, to support the elaborations, implementation and follow-up of action programmes. Article 10 National action programmes 1. The purpose of national action programmes is to identify the factors contributing to desertification and practical measure to combat desertification not mitigat cessary and the effects of the drough. 2. National action programmes shall specify the roles of Government in respectiv, local communities and land users and the resources available and needed. They shall, inter alia: (a) long term incorporat-strategies to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough, emphasiz-implementation and be integrated with national policies for sustainable development; (b) allow for modifications to be made in response to changing circumstanc and be sufficiently flexible at the local level to cope with different socio-economic, biological and geo-physical conditions; (c) give particular attention to the implementation of the preventive measure for lands that are not yet degraded or with only slightly degraded; which. (d) enhance national climatological, hydrological support and capabilities and the means to provide for early warning to drough; (e) promote policies and strengthen institutional frameworks which develop cooperation and coordination, in a spirit of partnership, between the donor community, Governments at all levels, local population and community groups, and by the local population facilitat access to appropriate information and technology; (f) provide for effective participation at the local, national and regional levels of non-governmental organizations and the local population, both women and men, particularly resource users, including farmers and pastoralist and their representative organizations, in policy planning, decision-making, and implementation and review of national action programmes; and (g) require regular review of, and progress reports on, their implementation. 3. National action programmes may include, inter alia, some or all of the following measure to prepare for and the effects of mitigat drough: (a) establishment and/or strengthening, as appropriate, of early warning systems, including local and national facilities and joint systems at the subregional and regional levels, and mechanisms for assisting environmentally displaced persons; (b) strengthening of the drough preparedness and management, including contingency plans to drough at the local, national, subregional and regional levels, which take into considerations the seasonals to interannual climate prediction; (c) establishment and/or strengthening, as appropriate, of food security systems, including storage and marketing facilities, particularly in rural areas; (d) establishment of alternative livelihood projects that could provide income in the area of the drough pron; and (e) development of sustainable irrigation programmes for both the crop and livestock. 4. Taking into account the specific requirements and the circumstanc each affected country Party, national action programmes include, as appropriate, inter alia, to measure in some or all of the following priority fields as they relate to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of the drough in areas affected and to their population: promotion of alternative livelihood and improvement of national economic environments with a view to strengthening programmes aimed at the eradication of poverty and at ensuring food security; demographic dynamics; sustainable management of natural resources; the sustainable agricultural practices; development and efficient use of various energy sources; institutional and legal framework; strengthening of capabilities for assessment and systematic observation, including hydrological and support services, and capacity building, education and public awareness. Article 11 Subregional and regional action programmes of Affected country Parties shall consult and cooperate to prepare, as appropriate, in accordanc with relevant regional implementation annex, the subregional action programme and/or regional to harmonize, and complemen increase the efficiency of national programmes. The provision of article 10 shall apply mutatis mutandis to subregional and regional programmes. Such cooperation may include agreed joint programmes for the sustainable management of transboundary natural resources, scientific and technical cooperation, and strengthening of relevant institutions. Article 12 International cooperation Affected country Parties, in collaboration with other parties and the international community, should cooperate to ensur the promotion of an enabling international environment in the implementation of the Convention. Such cooperation should also cover the fields of technology transfer as well as scientific research and development, information collection and dissemination and financial resources. Article 13 support for the elaborations and implementation of action programmes 1. Measure to support the action of the programme to their article 9 pursuan include, inter alia: (a) financial cooperation to provide predictability for action programmes, allowing for long-term planning cessary not; (b) the elaborations and use of cooperation mechanisms which better enable support at the local level, including action through non-governmental organizations, in order to promote the replicability of successful pilot programme activities where relevant; (c) increased flexibility in project design, funding and implementation in keeping with the experimental, the approach indicated for participatory action iterativ at the local community level; and (d) as appropriate, administrative and industry procedures that increase the efficiency of cooperation and of support programmes. 2. In providing such support to affected developing country Parties, priority shall be given to African country Parties and to least developed country Parties. Article 14 Coordination in the implementation of the programme of action for the elaborations and 1. The Parties shall work closely together, directly and through relevant intergovernmental organizations, in the implementation of the programme of action and elaborations. 2. The Parties shall develop operational mechanisms, particularly at the national and field levels, to the fulles ensur a possible coordination among developed country Parties, developing country Parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, in order to avoid duplication, harmonize interventions and approaches, and maximize the impact of assistance. In affected developing country Parties, priority will be given to coordinating activities related to international cooperation in order to maximize the efficient use of resources, it is of assistance to ensur responsiv and to the implementation of national facilitat action program and the allocation under this Convention. Article 15 Regional implementation annex item for incorporation in action programmes shall be selected and adapted to the socio-economic, climatic location and factors applicable to affected country Parties of the region, as well as the or to their level of development. Guidelines for the preparation of action programmes and their exact focus and content for particular subregion and with the regions set out in the regional implementation annex. Section 2: Scientific and technical cooperation article 16 Information collection, analysis and Exchange, the parties agree, according to their capabilities, to integrate the respectiv and line the collection, analysis and exchange of relevant short term and long term data and information on systematic observation of land by ensur it degradation in affected areas and to understand better and assess the processes and effects of drough and desertification. This would help accomplish, inter alia, early warning and advance planning for periods of adverse climatic variation in a form suited for practical application by users at all levels, including especially local population. To this end, they shall, as appropriate: (a) strengthen the functioning and facilitat of the global network of institutions and facilities for the collection, analysis and exchange of information, as well as for systematic observation at all levels, which shall, inter alia: (i) aim to use compatible standards and systems; (ii) encompass relevant data and stations, including in remote areas; (iii) the use of modern technology and disseminat for data collection, transmission and assessment on land degradation; and (iv) link national, subregional and regional data and information centres more closely with global information sources; (b) ensur that the collection, analysis and exchange of information address the needs of local communities and those of decision makers, with a view to resolving specific problems, and that local communities are involved in these activities; (c) support and further develop bilateral and multilaterals program and projects aimed at defining, conducting, assessing and financing the collection, analysis and exchange of data and information, including, inter alia, integrated sets of physical, biological, social and economic indicators; (d) make full use of the expertise of competent intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to, particularly the disseminat relevant information and experience among the target groups in different regions; (e) give full weight to the collection, analysis and exchange of socio-economic data, and their integration with physical and biological data; (f) Exchange and make fully, openly and promptly available information from all publicly available sources relevant to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of the drough; and (g) subject to their respectiv national legislation and/or policies, Exchange information on local and traditional knowledge, ensuring protection for it and providing adequat appropriate return from the benefits derived from it, on an equitable basis and on mutually agreed terms, to the local population is concerned. Article 17 Research and development 1. The parties, according to their respectiv undertak-capabilities, to promote technical and scientific cooperation in the fields of combating desertification and mitigating the effects of the drough through appropriate national, subregional, regional and international institutions. To this end, they shall support research activities that: (a) contribute to increased knowledge of the processes leading to desertification and drough and the impact of, and distinction between, causal factors, both natural and human, with a view to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of, and achieving improved productivity drough as well as sustainable use and management of resources; (b) responds to well defined objective, address the specific needs of the local population and lead to the identification and implementation of solutions that improve the living standards of people in affected areas; (c) protect, integrate, enhance and validate traditional and local knowledge, know-how and practices, ensuring, subject to their respectiv national legislation and/or policies, that the owners of that knowledge will directly benefit on an equitable basis and on mutually agreed terms from any commercial utilization of it or from any technological development derived from that knowledge; (d) develop and strengthen national, subregional and regional research capabilities in affected developing country Parties, particularly in Africa, including the development of local skills and the strengthening of appropriate capacities, especially in countries with a weak research base, giving particular attention to multidisciplinary and the socio-economic research participativ; (e) take into account, where relevant, the relationship between poverty, migration caused by environmental factors, and desertification; (f) promote the conduct of joint research programmes between national, subregional, regional and international research organizations, in both the public and private sector, for the development of improved, affordable and accessible technologies for sustainable development through effective participation of local population and communities; and (g) enhance the availability of water resources in affected areas, by means of, inter alia, cloud-seeding. 2. Research allocation for particular region and subregion, reflecting different local conditions, should be included in action programmes. The Conference of the Parties shall review research allocation to periodically on the advice of the Committee on Science and Technology. Article 18 Transfer, acquisition, adaptation and development of technology 1. The parties mutually agreed and, as undertak in accordanc with their respectiv national legislation and/or policies, to promote, finance and/or facilitat the financing of the transfer, acquisition, adaptation and development of environmentally sound, economically and socially acceptabl viabl technologies relevant to combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of the drough, with a view to contributing to the achievement of sustainable development in affected areas. Such cooperation shall be conducted bilaterally or multilaterally, as appropriate, making full use of the expertise of intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. The Parties shall, in particular: (a) fully utilizes existing national relevant subregional, regional and international, information systems and clearing-house for the dissemination of information on available technologies, their sources, their environmental risks and the broad terms under which they may be acquired; (b) in particular, facilitat access by affected developing country Parties, on terms, including a favourabl on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, taking into account the need to protect intellectual property rights, to technologies most practical applications for specific suitabl to needs of the local population, paying special attention to the social, cultural, economic and environmental impact of such technology; (c) the technology cooperation among affected country facilitat parties through financial assistance or other appropriate means; (d) extend technology cooperation with affected developing country Parties, including, where relevant, joint ventures, especially to sectors which foster alternative of livelihood; and (e) take appropriate measure to create domestic market conditions and incentives, fiscal or otherwise, conduciv it to the development, transfer, acquisition and adaptation of the technology, knowledge, suitabl know-how and practices, including the measure to ensur is adequat and effective protection of intellectual property rights. 2. The Parties shall, according to their respectiv capabilities, and is subject to their respectiv national legislation and/or policies, protect, promote and use in particular relevant traditional and local technology, knowledge, know-how and practices and, to that end, they undertak to: (a) make such technology, the inventor of knowledge, know-how and practices and their potential use with the participation of the local population in the , and such information, where the disseminat appropriate, in cooperation with relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations; (b) that such ensur technology, knowledge, know-how and practices are adequately protected and that local population will benefit directly, on an equitable basis and as mutually agreed, from any commercial utilization of them or from any technological development derived therefrom; (c) actively support and encourag the improvement and dissemination of such technology, knowledge, know-how and practices or of the development of new technology based on them; and (d) as appropriate, facilitat, the adaptation of such technology, knowledge, know-how and practices to wide use and integrate them with modern technology, as appropriate. Section 3: Supporting measure of article 19 Capacity building, education and public awareness 1. The parties recognize the significanc of capacity building-that is to say, institution building, training and development of relevant local and national capacities, in efforts to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough. They shall promote, as appropriate, capacity-building: (a) through the full participation at all levels of local people, particularly at the local level, especially women and youth, with the cooperation of the non-governmental and local organizations; (b) by strengthening training and research capacity at the national level in the field of desertification and drough; (c) by establishing and/or strengthening support and extension services to disseminat relevant technology methods and techniques more effectively, and by training field agents and members of rural organizations in participatory approaches for the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources; (d) by fostering the use and dissemination of the knowledge, know-how and practices of local people in technical cooperation programmes, wherever possible; (e) by adapting, where not cessary, relevant environmentally sound technology and traditional methods of agriculture and pastoralism to modern socio-economic conditions; (f) by providing appropriate training and technology in the use of alternative energy sources, particularly renewable energy resources, aimed particularly at reducing dependenc on wood for fuel; (g) through cooperation, as mutually agreed, to strengthen the capacity of affected developing country Parties to develop and program implementations in the field of collection, analysis and exchange of information the article 16 pursuan; (h) through innovative ways of promoting alternative livelihood, including training in new skills; (i) by training of decision makers, managers, and personnel who are responsible for the collection and analysis of data for the dissemination and use of early warning information on the condition and drough for food production; (j) through more effective operation of existing national institutions and legal frameworks and, where not, creation of new cessary ones, along with strengthening of strategic planning and management; and (k) by means of exchange visitor programmes to enhance capacity building in affected country Parties through a long-term, interactive process of term of learning and study. 2. Affected developing country Parties shall conduct, in cooperation with other parties and competent intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to, as appropriate, an interdisciplinary review of available capacity and facilities at the local and national levels, and the potential for strengthening them. 3. The Parties shall cooperate with each other and through competent intergovernmental organizations will be, as well as with non-governmental organizations, in undertaking and supporting public awareness and educational programmes in both affected and, where relevant, unaffected country Parties to promote understanding of the causes and effects of desertification and drough and of the importanc of meeting the objective of this Convention. To that end, they shall: (a) organize awareness campaigns for the general public; (b) promote, on a permanent basis, access by the public to relevant information, and wide public participation in education and awareness activities; (c) the establishment of encourag associations that contribute to public awareness; (d) develop and Exchange educational and public awareness material, where possible in local languages, Exchange and second experts to train personnel of affected developing country Parties in carrying out relevant education and awareness programmes, and fully utilizes relevant educational material available in competent international bodies; (e) assess educational needs in affected areas, elaborat appropriate school curricula and expand, as needed, educational and adult literacy programmes and opportunities for all, in particular for girls and women, on the identification, conservation and sustainable use and management of the natural resources of affected areas; and (f) develop programmes integrating desertification participatory and interdisciplinary drough the awareness into educational systems and in non-formal, adult, distance and practical educational programmes. 4. The Conference of the Parties shall establish and/or strengthen networks of regional education and training centres to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough. These networks shall be coordinated by an institution created or designated for that purpose, in order to train scientific, technical and management personnel and to strengthen existing institutions responsible for education and training in affected country Parties, where appropriate, with a view to harmonizing programmes and to organizing exchanges of experience among them. These networks shall cooperate closely with the relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations to avoid duplication of effort. Article 20 Financial resources 1. Given the central importanc of financing to the achievement of the objective of the Convention, the parties, taking into account their capabilities, shall make every effort to ensur that adequat financial resources available for the programme to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough. 2. In this connection, developed country Parties, while giving priority to affected African country parties without not affected developing country Parties in glecting other eras, in accordanc with article 7, undertak to: (a) the development of substantial financial resources, including grants and concessional loans, in order to support the implementation of the programme to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough; (b) promote the mobilizations of adequat, timely and predictabl financial resources, including new and additional funding from the Global Environment Facility of the agreed incremental costs of those activities concerning desertification that relate to its four focal areas, in conformity with the relevant provision of the instrument establishing the Global Environment Facility; (c) international cooperation the facilitat through transfer of technology, knowledge and know-how; and (d) explore, in cooperation with affected developing country Parties, innovative methods and incentives for mobilizing and channelling resources, including those of foundations, non-governmental organizations and other private sector entities, particularly debt swaps and other innovative means which increase financing by reducing the external debt burden of affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa. 3. Affected developing country Parties, taking into account their capabilities, it mobilized an adequat undertak financial resources for the implementation of their national action programme. 4. In mobilizing financial resources, the Parties shall seek full use and continued improvement of all qualitativ national, bilateral and multilaterals funding sources and mechanisms, using consorti, joint programmes and parallel financing, and shall seek their private sector funding involv sources and mechanisms, including those of non-governmental organizations. To this end, the Parties shall fully utilizes the operational mechanisms developed pursuan to article 14 5. In order to mobilise the financial resources for affected developing country Parties not cessary to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough, the Parties shall: (a) strengthen the rationaliz and management of resources already allocated for combating desertification and mitigating the effects of the drough by using them more effectively and efficiently, assessing their successs are and shortcomings, removing hindranc to their effective use and , where not, reorienting programmes in light of the cessary of the integrated long-term approach adopted to the Convention by pursuan; (b) give due priority and attention within the bodies of multilaterals, financial institutions each, facilities and funds, including regional development banks and funds, to supporting affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, in activities which advance implementation of the Convention, notably action programmes they undertak in the framework of regional implementation annex; and (c) examin ways in which regional and subregional cooperation can be strengthened to support efforts undertaken at the national level. 6. Other parties are encouraged to provide, on a voluntary basis, knowledge, know-how and techniques related to desertification and/or financial resources to affected developing country Parties. 7. The full implementation by affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, of their obligations under the Convention will be greatly assisted by the developed country Parties by fulfilmen of their obligation under the Convention, including in particular those regarding financial resources and transfer of technology. In fulfilling their obligations, developed country Parties should take fully into account that economic and social development and poverty eradication with the first allocation to affected developing country Parties of, particularly those in Africa. Article 21 Financial mechanisms 1. The Conference of the Parties shall promote the availability of financial mechanisms and shall seek such mechanisms in their encourag them maximize the availability of funding for affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, their implementations that the Convention. To this end, the Conference of the Parties shall consider for adoption inter alia approaches and policies that: (a) the provision of not facilitat cessary funding at the national, subregional, regional and global levels for activities in the relevant provision pursuan of the Convention; (b) promote multiple-source funding approaches, mechanisms and arrangements and their assessment, consistent with article 20; (c) provide on a regular basis, to interested parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, information on available sources of funds and on funding patterns in order to facilitat of coordination among them; (d) the establishment facilitat, as appropriate, of mechanisms, such as national desertification funds, including those involving the participation of non-governmental organizations, to channel financial resources rapidly and efficiently to the local level in affected developing country Parties; and (e) strengthen existing funds and financial mechanisms at the subregional and regional levels, particularly in Africa, to support more effectively the implementation of the Convention. 2. The Conference of the Parties shall also encourag the provision, through various mechanisms within the United Nations system and through multilaterals, financial institutions, of support at the national, subregional and regional levels to activities that enable developing country Parties to meet their obligations under the Convention. 3. Affected developing country Parties shall utilizes, and where not, establish and/or strengthen cessary, national coordinating mechanisms, integrated in national development programmes, that would ensur the efficient use of all available financial resources. They shall also utilizes a participatory processes involving non-governmental organizations, local groups and the private sector, in raising funds, in elaborating as well as implementing programmes and in assuring access to funding by groups at the local level. These actions can be enhanced by improved coordination and flexible programming on the part of those providing assistance. 4. In order to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of existing financial mechanisms, a Global Mechanism to promote actions leading to the mobilizations and channelling of substantial financial resources, including for the transfer of technology, on a grant basis, and/or on concessional or other terms, to affected developing country Parties, is hereby established. This Global Mechanism shall function under the authority and guidance of the Conference of the parties and be accountabl to it. The Conference of the Parties shall identify, at its first ordinary session, an organization to house the Global Mechanism for the. The Conference of the parties and the organization it has identified shall agree upon for this Global Mechanism to modalit to ensur inter alia that such Mechanism: (a) identify and draw up an inventory of relevant bilateral and multilaterals, the cooperation programmes are available to implementations that the Convention; (b) provides advice, on request, to parties on innovative methods of financing and sources of financial assistance and on improving the coordination of cooperation activities at the national level; (c) provides interested parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations with information on available sources of funds and on funding patterns in order to facilitat of coordination among them; and (d) reports to the Conference of the parties, beginning at its second ordinary session, on its activities. 6. The Conference of the Parties shall, at its first session, make appropriate arrangements with the organization it has identified to house the Global Mechanism for the administrative operations of such Mechanism, drawing to the exten to possible on existing industry and human resources. 7. The Conference of the Parties shall, at its third ordinary session, review the policies, operational modalit and activities of the Global Mechanism pursuan accountabl to it to paragraph 4, taking into account the provision of article 7 On the basis of this review, it shall consider and take appropriate action. For the institutions IV article 22 Conference of the parties 1. (A) the Conference of the parties is hereby established. 2. The Conference of the parties is the supreme body of the Convention. It shall make, within its mandate, the decision not to promote its cessary effective implementation. In particular, it shall: (a) regularly review the implementation of the Convention and the functioning of its institutional arrangements in the light of the experience gained at the national, subregional, regional and international levels and on the basis of the evolution of scientific and technological knowledge; (b) promote and facilitat exchange of the information on the measure adopted by the parties, and the form and determin timetabl for transmitting the information to be submitted to article 26, pursuan to review the reports and make recommendations on them; (c) establish such subsidiary bodies as are deemed not cessary for the implementation of the Convention; (d) review reports submitted by its subsidiary bodies and provide guidance to them; (e) agree upon and adop, by consensus, rules of procedure and financial rules for itself and any subsidiary bodies; (f) the amendments to the adop Convention pursuan to articles 30 and 31; (g) approve a programme and budget for its activities, including those of its subsidiary bodies, and the arrangements for undertak cessary not their financing; (h) as appropriate, seek the cooperation of, and utilizes the services of and information provided by, competent bodies or agencies, the whethers national or international, intergovernmental or non-governmental; (i) promote and strengthen the relationship with other relevant convention of «avoiding duplication of effort for a while; and (j) exercise such other functions as may be not cessary for the achievement of the objective of the Convention. 3. The Conference of the Parties shall, at its first session, it will own adop rules of procedure, by consensus, which shall include decision-making procedures for matters not already covered by the decision-making procedures stipulated in the Convention. Such procedures may include specified majorit to required for the adoption of particular decisions. 4. The first session of the Conference of the Parties shall be convened by the interim secretariat referred to in article 35 and shall take place not later than one year after the date of entry into force of the Convention. Unless otherwise decided by the by the Conference of the parties, the second, third and fourth ordinary sessions shall be held yearly, and thereafter, ordinary sessions shall be held every two years. 5. Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties shall be held at such other times as may be decided either by the Conference of the parties in ordinary session or at the written request of any Party, provided that, within three months of the request being communicated to the parties by the Permanent Secretariat, it is supported by at least one third of the parties. 6. At each ordinary session, the Conference of the Parties shall elect a Bureau. The structure and function of the Bureau shall be determined in the rules of procedure. In appointing the Bureau, due regard shall be paid to the need to ensur the equitable distribution and location of affected country representation of adequat parties, particularly those in Africa. 7. The United Nations, its specialized agencies and any State member thereof or the observer is to the theret note Party Convention, may be represented at sessions of the Conference of the parties as an observer. Any body or agency, national or international, governmental or whethers non-governmental, which is qualified in matters covered by the Convention, and which has informed the Permanent Secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of the Conference of the parties as an observer, may be so admitted unless at least one third of the Parties present object. The participation of the observer in the admissions and shall be subject to the rules of procedure adopted by the Conference of the parties. 8. The Conference of the parties may request competent national and international organizations which have relevant expertise to provide it with information relevant to article 16, paragraph (g), article 17, paragraph 1 (c) and article 18, paragraph 2 (b). Article 23 permanent secretariat 1. A permanent secretariat is hereby established. 2. The functions of the Permanent Secretariat shall be: (a) to make arrangements for sessions of the Conference of the parties and its subsidiary bodies established under the Convention and to provide them with services as required; (b) to compile and transmit reports submitted to it; (c) the assistance to affected developing facilitat country Parties, on request, particularly those in Africa, in the compilation and communication of information required under the Convention; (d) the line it with the secretariat of the activities of other relevant international bodies and convention; (e) to enter, under the guidance of the Conference of the parties, into such administrative and contractual arrangements as may be required for the effective discharge of its functions; (f) to prepare reports on the execution of its functions under this Convention and present them to the Conference of the parties; and (g) to perform such other Secretariat functions as may be determined by the Conference of the parties. 3. The Conference of the parties, at its first session, shall designat a permanent secretariat and make arrangements for its functioning. Article 24 Committee on Science and Technology 1. A Committee on Science and Technology is hereby established as a subsidiary body of the Conference of the parties to provide it with information and advice on scientific and technological matters relating to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of the drough. The Committee shall meet in conjunction with the ordinary sessions of the Conference of the parties and shall be multidisciplinary and open to the participation of all parties. It shall be composed of government representatives competent in the relevant fields of expertise. The Conference of the Parties shall decide, at its first session, on the terms of reference of the Committee. 2. The Conference of the Parties shall establish and maintain a roster of independent experts with expertise and experience in the relevant fields. The roster shall be based on nomination received in writing from the parties, taking into account the need for a multidisciplinary approach and broad representation location. 3. The Conference of the parties may, as an ad hoc cessary, not appoin panel to provide it, through the Committee, with information and advice on specific issues regarding the State of the art in fields of science and technology relevant to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of the drough. These panels shall be composed of experts whose names are taken from the roster, taking into account the need for a multidisciplinary approach and broad representation location. These experts shall have scientific backgrounds and field experience and shall be appointed by the Conference of the parties on the recommendations of the Committee. The Conference of the Parties shall decide on the terms of reference and the work of the modalit of these panels. Article 25 networking of institutions, agencies and bodies 1. The Committee on Science and Technology shall, under the supervision of the Conference of the parties, make provision for the undertaking of a survey and evaluation of the relevant existing networks, institutions, agencies and bodies willing to become units of a network. Such a network shall support the implementation of the Convention. 2. On the basis of the results of the survey and evaluation referred to in paragraph 1, the Committee on Science and Technology shall make recommendations to the Conference of the parties on ways and means to strengthen and facilitat networking of the units at the local, national and other levels, with a view to ensuring that the thematic needs set out in articles 16 to 19 are addressed. 3. Taking into account these recommendations, the Conference of the Parties shall: (a) identify those national, subregional, regional and international units that are most appropriate for networking, and recommend operational procedures, and a time frame, for them; and (b) identify the units best suited to facilitating and strengthening such networking at all levels. Part V procedures article 26 Communication of information Each Party shall communicate 1 to the Conference of the parties at its ordinary sessions for considerations, through the Permanent Secretariat, reports on the measure in which it has taken for the implementation of the Convention. The Conference of the Parties shall determin the timetabl for submission and the format of such reports. 2. Affected country Parties shall provide a description of the strategies established pursuan to article 5 and of any relevant information on their implementation. 3. Affected country Parties which action program of pursuan implementations that it articles 9 to 15 shall provide a detailed description of the programmes and of their implementation. 4. Any group of affected country Parties may make a joint communication on the measure taken at the subregional and/or regional levels in the framework of the action programme. 5. Developed country Parties shall report on the measure taken to assist in the preparation and implementation of action programmes, including information on the financial resources they have provided, or are providing, under the Convention. 6. Information communicated to it in paragraph 1 it pursuan 4 shall be transmitted by the Permanent Secretariat as soon as possible to the Conference of the parties and to any relevant subsidiary body. 7. The Conference of the Parties shall facilitat the provision to affected developing countries, particularly those in Africa, on request, of technical and financial support in compiling and communicating information in accordanc with this article, as well as identifying the technical and financial needs associated with action programmes. Article 27 "to resolve questions on implementation by the Conference of the Parties shall consider and adop procedure and institutional mechanisms for the resolution of questions that may «arise with regards to the implementation of the Convention. Article 28 settlement of dispute 1. Parties shall settle any dispute between them concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention through negotiation or other peaceful means of their own choice. 2. When ratifying, accepting, approving, or acceding to the Convention, or at any time thereafter, a Party which is not a regional economic integration organization may declare in a written instrument submitted to the Depositary that, in respect of any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, it recognizes one or both of the following means of dispute settlement as compulsory the oft in relations to any Party accepting the same obligation : (a) arbitration in accordanc with procedures adopted by the Conference of the parties in an annex as soon as practicabl; (b) submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice. 3. A Party which is a regional economic integration organization may make a declaration with like effect in relations to arbitration in accordanc with the procedure referred to in paragraph 2 (a). 4. A declaration made to paragraph 2 shall remain pursuan in force until it expires in accordanc with its terms or until three months after written notice of its revocation has been deposited with the Depositary. 5. The expiry of a declaration, a notice of revocation or a new declaration shall not in any way be affec proceedings pending before the tribunal or the CAs UN International Court of Justice unless the parties to the dispute otherwise agree. 6. If the parties to a dispute have not accepted the same or any procedure and if pursuan to paragraph 2 they have not been able to settle their dispute within the twelve months following notification by one Party to another that a dispute exists between them, the dispute shall be submitted to Acas at the request of any Party to the dispute , in accordanc with procedures adopted by the Conference of the parties in an annex as soon as practicabl. Article 29 status of Annexe 1 Annexe form an integral on. of the Convention and, unless expressly provided otherwise, be a reference to the Convention also constitut-a reference to its annex. 2. The Parties shall to the interpre provision of the annex in a manner that is in conformity with their rights and obligations under the articles of this Convention. Article 30 Amendments to the Convention Any Party may 1 to the proposes amendments of the Convention. 2. Amendments to the Convention shall be adopted at an ordinary session of the Conference of the parties. The text of any proposed amendment shall be communicated to the parties by the Permanent Secretariat at least six months before the meeting at which it is proposed for adoption. The Permanent Secretariat shall also communicate proposed amendments to the signator to the Convention. 3. The Parties shall make every effort to reach agreement on any proposed amendment to the Convention by consensus. If all efforts at consensus have been exhausted and no agreement reached, the amendment shall, as a last resort, be adopted by a two-thirds majority vote of the Parties present and voting at the meeting. The adopted amendment shall be communicated by the Permanent Secretariat to the Depositary, who shall circulate it to all parties for their approval or ratification, acceptance, accession. 4. Instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession in respect of an amendment shall be deposited with the Depositary. An amendment adopted shall enter the paragraph 3 pursuan into force for those parties having accepted it on the ninetieth day after the the date of receipt by the Depositary of an instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by at least two thirds of the parties to the Convention which were parties at the time of the adoption of the amendment. 5. The amendment shall enter into force for any other Party on the ninetieth day after the date on which that Party deposits with the Depositary its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of, or accession to the said amendment. 6. For the purpose of this article and article 31, "Parties present and voting" means Parties present and casting an affirmativ or negative vote. Article 31 Adoption and amendment of annex 1 of Any additional annex to the. Convention and any amendment to an annex shall be proposed and adopted in accordanc with the procedure for amendment of the Convention set forth in article 30, provided that, in adopting an additional regional implementation annex or amendment to any regional implementation annex, the majority provided for in that article shall include a two-thirds majority vote of the parties of the region concerned present and voting. The adoption or amendment of an annex shall be communicated by the Depositary to all parties. 2. An annex, other than an additional regional implementation annex, or an amendment to an annex, other than an amendment to any regional implementation annex, that has been adopted in accordanc with paragraph 1, shall enter into force for all parties to the Convention six months after the date of the communication by the Depositary to such parties of the adoption of such annex or amendment , except for those parties that have notified the Depositary in writing within that period of their non-acceptance of such annex or amendment. Such annex or amendment shall enter into force for parties which withdraw their notification of non-acceptance on the ninetieth day after the date on which the withdrawals of such notification has been received by the Depositary. 3. An additional regional implementation annex or amendment to any regional implementation annex that has been adopted in accordanc with paragraph 1, shall enter into force for all parties to the Convention six months after the date of the communication by the Depositary to such parties of the adoption of such annex or amendment, except with respect to: (a) any Party that has notified the Depositary in writing within six month period, such of its non-acceptance of that additional regional implementation annex or of the amendment to the regional implementation annex, in which case such annex or amendment shall enter into force for parties which withdraw their notification of non-acceptance on the ninetieth day after the date on which the withdrawals of such notification has been received by the Depositary; and (b) any Party that has made a declaration with respect to additional regional implementation annex or amendments to regional implementation annex in accordanc with article 34, paragraph 4, in which case any such annex or amendment shall enter into force for such a Party on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit with the Depositary of its instrument of ratification acceptance, approval or accession, with respect to such annex or amendment. 4. If the adoption of an annex or an amendment to an annex of an amendment to involv the Convention, that annex or amendment to an annex shall not enter into force until such time as the amendment to the Convention enter into force. Article 32 right to vote 1. Except as provided for in paragraph 2, each Party to the Convention shall have one vote. 2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, shall exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of their member States that are parties to the Convention. Such an organization shall not exercise its right to vote if any of its member States exercises its right, and vice versa. On the FINAL VI PROVISION of article 33 signature this Convention shall be opened for signature at Paris, on 14-15 October 1994, by States members of the United Nations or any of its specialized agencies or that are parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice and by regional economic integration organizations. It shall remain open for signature, thereafter, at the United Nations Headquarters in New York until 13 October 1995 article 34 Ratification, acceptance, approval and accession 1. The Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by States and by regional economic integration organizations. It shall be open for accession from the day after the date on which the Convention is closed for signature. The instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary. 2. Any regional economic integration organization which become a Party to the Convention without any of its member States being a Party shall be bound to the Convention by all the obligations under the Convention. Where one or more member States of such an organization are also Party to the Convention, the organization and its member States shall decide on their respectiv has responsibilities for the performance of their obligations under the Convention. In such cases, the organization and the member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under the Convention concurrently. 3. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, regional economic integration organizations shall declare the exten of their competence with respect to the matters governed by the Convention. They shall also promptly inform the Depositary, who shall in turn inform the parties, of any substantial modification in the exten of their competence. 4. In its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, any Party may declare that, with respect to it, any additional regional implementation annex or any amendment to any regional implementation annex shall enter into force only upon the deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with respect to theret. Article 35 interim arrangements the secretariat functions referred to in article 23 will be carried out on an interim basis by the secretariat established by the General Assembly of the United Nations in its resolution 47/188 of 22 December 1992, until the completion of the first session of the Conference of the parties. Article 36 Entry into force 1. The Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. 2. For each State or regional economic integration organization ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to the Convention after the deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit by such State or regional economic integration organization of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. 3. For the purpose of paragraphs 1 and 2, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration the Organization shall not be counted as additional to those deposited by States members of the organization. Article 37 reservations Of reservations may be made to this Convention. Article 38 Withdrawals At any time 1 after three years from the date on which the Convention has entered into force for a Party, that Party may withdraw from the Convention by giving written notification to the Depositary. 2. Any such withdrawals shall take effect upon expiry of one year from the date of receipt by the Depositary of the notification of withdrawals, or on such later date as may be specified in the notification of withdrawals. Article 39 Depositary the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall be the Depositary of the Convention. Article 40 Authentic texts the original of the present Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. In WITNESS WHEREOF the undersigned, being duly authorized to that effect, have signed the present Convention. Done AT Paris, this 17th day of June one thousand nine hundred and ninety-four.

Annex I Regional Implementation Annex for Africa article 1 scope this Annex applies to Africa, in relations to each Party and in conformity with the Convention, in particular its article 7, for the purpose of combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of the drough in its arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid area. Article 2 purpose the purpose of this Annex, at the national, subregional and regional levels in Africa and in the light of its particular conditions, is it: (a) identify measure and arrangements, including the nature and processes of assistance provided by developed country Parties, in accordanc with the relevant provision of the Convention; (b) provide for the efficient and practical implementation of the Convention to address conditions specific to Africa; and (c) promote processes and activities relating to combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of the drough within the arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas of Africa. Article 3 Particular conditions of the African region In carrying out their obligations under the Convention, the Parties shall, in the implementation of this Annex, the adop a basic approach that takes into considerations the following particular conditions of Africa: (a) the high proportion of arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid area; (b) the substantial number of countries adversely affected by desertification and by the population and by the frequent recurrence of sever a drough; (c) the large number of affected countries that are landlocked; (d) the widespread poverty prevalen in the most affected countries, the large number of least developed countries among them, and their need for significant non of external assistance, in the form of grants and loans on concessional terms, the objective of their development pursu; (e) the difficult socio-economic conditions, exacerbated by deteriorating and fluctuating terms of trade, external indebtednes and political instability, which induce internal, regional and international migrations; (f) the heavy reliance of population on natural resources for the subsistenc which, compounded by the effects of demographic trends and factors, a weak technological base and unsustainabl production practices, contribute to serious resource degradation; (g) the insufficient institutional and legal frameworks, the weak infrastructural base and the the insufficient scientific, technical and educational capacity, leading to substantial capacity building requirements; and (h) the central role of actions to combat desertification and/or the effects of mitigat drough in the national development of affected African countries to kesko. Article 4 the Commitment and obligation of African country Parties 1. In accordanc with their respectiv capabilities of African country Parties, undertak to: (a) the combating of desertification adop and/or the mitigation of the effects of the drough in a central strategy in their efforts to eradicat poverty; (b) promote regional cooperation and integration, in a spirit of solidarity and partnership based on mutual interest, in programmes and activities to combat desertification and/or the effects of mitigat drough; (c) strengthen existing rationaliz and institutions concerned with desertification and drough and involv other existing institutions, as appropriate, in order to make them more effective and to ensur more efficient use of resources; (d) promote the exchange of information on appropriate technology, knowledge, know-how and practices between and among them; and (e) develop contingency plans for mitigating the effects of the drough in areas degraded by desertification and/or to drough. 2. Pursuan to the general and specific obligations set out in articles 4 and 5 of the Convention, affected African country Parties shall aim to: (a) make appropriate financial allocations from their national budget is consistent with national conditions and capabilities and reflecting the new priority Africa has accorded to the phenomenon of desertification and/or drough; (b) sustain and strengthen reforms currently in progress towards greater decentralization and resource unless we as well as the participation of local population reinforc and communities; and (c) identify and mobilise new and additional national financial resources, and expand, as a matter of priority, existing national capabilities and facilities to mobilise domestic financial resources in. The article 5 Commitment and obligations of developed country Parties 1. In fulfilling their obligation to their articles pursuan 4, 6 and 7 of the Convention, developed country Parties shall give priority to affected African country Parties and, in this context, shall: (a) assist them to combat desertification and/or the effects of mitigat drough by, inter alia, providing and/or facilitating access to financial and/or other resources, and promoting, financing and/or facilitating the financing of the transfer , adaptation and access to appropriate environmental technologies and know-how, as mutually agreed and in accordanc with national policies, taking into account their adoption of poverty eradication as a central strategy; (b) continue to allocate significant resources and/or increase resources to combat desertification and/or the effects of mitigat drough; and (c) assist them in strengthening capacities to enable them to improve their institutional frameworks, as well as their scientific and technical capabilities, information collection and analysis, and research and development for the purpose of combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of the drough. 2. Other country Parties may provide, on a voluntary basis, technology, knowledge and know-how relating to desertification and/or financial resources, to affected African country Parties. The transfer of such knowledge, know-how and techniques is facilitated by international cooperation. Article 6 Strategic planning framework for sustainable development of the National action programme, 1 shall be a central and integral part of a broader process of formulating national policies for the sustainable development of affected African country Parties. 2. A consultative and participatory process involving appropriate levels of Government, local population, communities and non-governmental organizations shall be undertaken to provide guidance on a strategy with flexible planning to allow maximum participation from local population and communities. As appropriate, bilateral and multilaterals assistance agencies may be involved in this process at the request of an affected African country Party. Article 7 preparation of action programmes Timetabl for Pending the entry into force of this Convention, the African country Parties, in cooperation with other members of the international community, as appropriate, shall, to the exten to possible, provisionally apply those provision of the Convention relating to the preparation of national, subregional and regional action programmes. Article 8 content of national action programmes 1. Consistent with article 10 of the Convention, the overall strategy of national action programmes shall the integrated local development programme emphasiz for affected areas, based on participatory mechanisms and on integration of strategies for poverty eradication into efforts to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough. The programme shall aim at strengthening of the capacity of local authorities and ensuring the active involvement of the local population, communities and groups, with emphasis on education and training, of the non-governmental organization in the mobilizations with proven expertise and strengthening of decentralized governmental structures. 2. National action programmes shall, as appropriate, include the following general features: (a) the use, in developing and implementing national action programmes, of past experience in combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of a drough, taking into account social, economic and ecological conditions; (b) the identification of factors contributing to desertification and/or drough and the resources and capacities available and required, and to the setting up of appropriate policies and institutional and other responses and measure not to combat those cessary phenomen of and/or mitigat is their effects; and (c) the increase in participation of local population and communities, including women, farmers and pastoralist, and delegation to them of more responsibility for management. 3. National action programmes shall also, as appropriate, include the following: (a) measure to improve the economic environment with a view to eradicating poverty: (i) increasing income and employment opportunities, especially for the poores members of the community, by:-developing markets for farm and livestock products; — creating financial instruments suited to local needs; -encouraging diversification in agriculture and the setting-up of agricultural enterprises; and — developing economic activities of a para-agricultural or non-agricultural type;     (ii) improving the long-term prospects of rural economies by the creation of to: — incentives for productive investment and access to the means of production; and — price and tax policies and commercial practices that promote growth;     (iii) defining and applying population and migration policies to reduce population pressure on land; and (iv) promoting the use of the drough resistant crop and the application of integrated dry-land farming systems for food security purpose; (b) measure to conserve natural resources: (i) ensuring integrated and sustainable management of natural resources, including agricultural land and pastoral land:; -vegetation cover and wildlife; — Forrest; -water resources; and — biological diversity;     (ii) training with regard to, and strengthening, public awareness and environmental education campaigns and disseminating knowledge of techniques relating to the sustainable management of natural resources; and (iii) ensuring the development and efficient use of diverse energy sources, the promotion of alternative sources of energy, particularly solar energy, wind energy and bio-gas, and specific arrangements for the transfer, acquisition and adaptation of relevant technology to alleviat is the pressure on fragile natural resources; (c) measure to improve institutional organization: (i) defining the roles and responsibilities of central Government and local authorities within the framework of a land use planning policy;     (ii) encouraging a policy of active decentralization, devolving responsibility for management and decision-making to local authorities, and encouraging initiative and the assumption of responsibility by local communities and the establishment of local structures; and (iii) adjusting, as appropriate, the institutional and regulatory framework of natural resource management to provide security of land unless for local population; (d) measure to improve knowledge of desertification: (i) promoting research and the collection, processing and exchange of information on the scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of desertification;     (ii) improving national capabilities in research and in the collection, processing, Exchange and analysis of information so as to increase understanding and to translate the results of the analysis into operational terms; and (iii) encouraging the medium and the long term study of: socio-economic and cultural — trends in affected areas; — and the trends quantitativ qualitativ in natural resources; and — the interaction between climate and desertification; and (e) measure to monitor and assess the effects of: (i) developing drough strategies to evaluate the impacts of natural climate variability on regional drough and desertification and/or it utilizes a prediction comes of climate variability on interannual time scales the seasonals in efforts to the effects of mitigat drough;     (ii) improving early warning and response capacity, efficiently managing emergency relief and food aid, and improving food stocking and distribution systems, cattle protection schemes and public works and alternative livelihood for the drough pron area; and (iii) monitoring and assessing ecological degradation to provide reliable and timely information on the process and dynamics of resource degradation in order to better policy formulation and facilitat responses. Article 9 Preparation of national action programmes and implementation and evaluation indicators for Each affected African country Party shall designat an appropriate national coordinating body to function as a catalyst in the preparation, implementation and evaluation of the national action programme of it. This coordinating body shall, in the light of article 3 and as appropriate: (a) an identification and review of undertak actions, beginning with a locally driven consultation process, involving the local population and communities and with the cooperation of local administrative authorities, developed country Parties and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, on the basis of initial consultation of those concerned at the national level; (b) identify and analyze the constraint, and the gap in the needs and sustainable development regimes by land use and recommend practical measure to avoid duplication by making full use of relevant ongoing efforts and promote implementation of results; (c) design and formulat facilitat, project activities based on interactive, flexible approaches in order to ensur active participation of the population in affected areas, to minimize the negative impact of such activities, and to identify and prioritise the requirements for financial assistance and technical cooperation; (d) establish pertinen, quantifiabl and readily verifiabl indicator to ensur the assessment and evaluation of national action programmes, which encompass actions in the short, medium and long terms, and of the implementation of such programmes; and (e) prepare progress reports on the implementation of the national action programme. Article 10 Organizational framework of subregional action programmes in their article 1 to 4 Pursuan of the Convention, African country Parties shall cooperate in the preparation and implementation of subregional action programmes for central, eastern, northern, southern and western Africa and, in that regard, may delegate the following responsibilities to relevant subregional intergovernmental organizations: (a) acting as focal points for activities and features coordinating the implementation of the subregional action programme; (b) assisting in the preparation and implementation of national action programmes; (c) facilitating the exchange of information, experience and know-how as well as providing advice on the review of national legislation; and (d) any other responsibilities relating to the implementation of the subregional action programme. 2. Specialized subregional institutions may provide support, upon request, and/or be entrusted with the responsibility of the line activities in their respectiv fields of competence. Article 11 content and preparation of subregional action programmes of the Subregional action programmes shall focus on issues that are better addressed at the subregional level. They shall establish, where no mechanism for the cessary, management of shared natural resources. Such mechanisms shall effectively handle transboundary problems associated with desertification and/or drough and shall provide support for the implementation of the national action programme for harmonio. Priority areas for subregional action programmes shall, as appropriate, focus on: (a) joint programmes for the sustainable management of transboundary natural resources through bilateral and multilaterals mechanisms, as appropriate; (b) coordination of programmes to develop alternative energy sources; (c) cooperation in the management and control of salvation as well as of plant and animal diseases; (d) capacity building, education and public awareness activities that are better carried out or supported at the subregional level; (e) scientific and technical cooperation, particularly in the climatological, hydrological fields, including support and networking for data collection and assessment, information sharing and project monitoring, and coordination and prioritization of research and development activities; (f) early warning systems and joint planning for mitigating the effects of the measure, including those of the drough address the problems resulting from environmentally induced migrations; (g) exploration of ways of sharing experience, particularly regarding participation of local population and communities, and creation of an enabling environment for improved land use management and for use of appropriate technologies; (h) strengthening of the capacity of subregional organizations to line and provide technical services, as well as establishment, reorientation and strengthening of subregional centres and institutions; and (i) the development of policies in fields, such as trade, which have impact upon affected areas and population, including policies for the coordination of regional marketing regime and for common infrastructure. Article 12 Organisational framework of the regional action programme 1. Pursuan to article 11 of the Convention, African country Parties shall jointly determin the procedures for preparing and implementing the regional action programme. 2. The parties may provide appropriate support to relevant African regional institutions and organizations to enable them to assist African country Parties to fulfil their responsibilities under the Convention. Article 13 content of the regional action programme for the regional action programme relating to the measure includes combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of the drough in the following priority areas, as appropriate: (a) development of regional cooperation and coordination of the regional action programme of the sub-for building regional consensus on key policy areas, including through regular consultation of the sub-regional organizations; (b) promotion of capacity building in activities which are better implemented at the regional level; (c) the seeking of solutions with the international community to global economic and social issues that have an impact on affected areas taking into account article 4, paragraph 2 (b) of the Convention; (d) promotion among the affected country Parties of Africa and its subregion, as well as with other affected regions, of exchange of information and appropriate techniques, technical know-how and relevant experience; promotion of scientific and technological cooperation particularly in the fields of climatology, meteorology, hydrology, water resource development and alternative energy sources; coordination of the sub-regional and regional research activities; and identification of regional allocation for research and development; (e) coordination of networks for systematic observation and assessment and information exchange, as well as their integration into world wide networks; and (f) coordination of and reinforcemen of sub-regional and regional early warning systems and contingency plans to drough. Article 14 Financial resources 1. Pursuan to article 20 of the Convention and article 4, paragraph 2, affected African country Parties shall endeavour to provide a macroeconomic framework conduciv to the mobilizations of financial resources and shall develop policies and establish procedures to channel resources more effectively to local development programmes, including through non-governmental organizations, as appropriate. 2. the article 21 Pursuan, paragraphs 4 and 5 of the Convention, the parties agree to establish an inventory of sources of funding at the national, subregional, regional and international levels to ensur the rational use of existing resources and to identify the gap in resource allocation, implementation of the action in facilitat program. The inventory shall be regularly reviewed and updated. 3. Consistent with article 7 of the Convention, the developed country Parties shall continue to allocate significant resources and/or increased resources as well as other forms of assistance to affected African country Parties on the basis of partnership agreements and arrangements referred to in the article 18, giving, inter alia, due attention to matters related to debt, international trade and marketing arrangements in accordanc with article 4 , paragraph 2 (b) of the Convention. Article 15 Financial mechanisms 1. Consistent with article 7 of the Convention underscoring the priority to affected African country Parties and considering the particular situation prevailing in this region, the Parties shall pay special attention to the implementation in Africa of the provision of article 21, paragraph 1 (d) and (e) of the Convention, notably by: (a) facilitating the establishment of mechanisms , such as national desertification funds, to channel financial resources to the local level; and (b) strengthening existing funds and financial mechanisms at the subregional and regional levels. 2. Consistent with articles 20 and 21 of the Convention, the parties which are also members of the bodies of each relevant regional and subregional financial institutions, including the African Development Bank and the African Development Fund, shall promote efforts to give due priority and attention to the activities of those institutions that advance the implementation of this Annex. 3. The Parties shall streamline, to the exten to possible, procedures for channelling funds to affected African country Parties. Article 16 Technical assistance and cooperation of the parties, in accordanc with undertak their capabilities, their respectiv is the technical assistance the rationaliz and cooperation with, African country Parties with a view to increasing project and programme effectiveness by, inter alia: (a) limiting the costs of support and backstopping, especially overhead "costs; in any case, such costs shall only be an appropriately low represen percentage of the total cost of the project so as to maximize project efficiency; (b) giving preference to the utilization of competent national experts or, where not, to experts from competent cessary within the subregion and/or region, in project design, preparation and implementation, and to the building of local expertise where it does not exist; and (c) effectively managing and coordinating, as well as efficiently utilizing, technical assistance to be provided. Article 17 Transfer, acquisition, adaptation and access to environmentally sound technology In implementing article 18 of the Convention relating to transfer, acquisition, adaptation and development of technology, the parties give priority to undertak to African country Parties and, as it could not develop with them cessary, new models of partnership and cooperation with a view to strengthening capacity building in the fields of scientific research and development and information collection and dissemination to enable them to implementations that their strategies to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough. Article 18 Coordination and partnership agreements 1. African country Parties shall line the preparation, negotiation and implementation of national and subregional action programmes, regional. They may, as appropriate, involv other parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in this process. 2. The objective of such coordination shall be to ensur that financial and technical cooperation is consistent with the Convention and to provide the cessary continuity in the use and administration of resources. 3. African country Parties shall organize consultative processes at the national, subregional and regional levels. These consultative processes may: (a) serve as a forum to gotiat and not the partnership agreements conclud based on national, subregional and regional action programmes; and (b) specify the contribution of African country Parties and other members of the consultative groups to the programmes and identify allocation and agreements on implementation and evaluation indicators, as well as funding arrangements for implementation. 4. The Permanent Secretariat may, at the request of African country Parties, pursuan to article 23 of the Convention, the convocation of facilitat such consultative processes by: (a) providing advice on the organization of effective consultative arrangements, drawing on experience from other such arrangements;- (b) providing information to relevant bilateral and multilaterals agencies concerning consultative meetings or processes, and encouraging their active involvement; and (c) providing other information that may be relevant in establishing or improving consultative arrangements. 5. The subregional and regional coordinating bodies shall, inter alia: (a) recommend appropriate adjustments to partnership agreements; (b) monitor, assess and report on the implementation of the agreed subregional and regional programmes; and (c) the aim of efficient communications and ensur it cooperation among African country Parties. 6. Participation in the consultative groups shall, as appropriate, be open to Governments, interested groups and donors, relevant organs, funds and programmes of the United Nations system, relevant subregional and regional organizations, and representatives of relevant non-governmental organizations. Participants of each consultative group shall to determin the modalit of it management and operations. 7. in article 14 the Pursuan of the Convention, developed country Parties are encouraged to develop, on their own initiative, an informal process of consultation and coordination among themselves, at the national, subregional and regional levels, and, at the request of an affected African country Party or of an appropriate subregional or regional organization, to participat in a national, subregional or regional consultative process that would evaluate and responds to assistance needs in order to facilitat of implementation. Article 19 follow-up arrangements for the follow-up of this Annex shall be carried out by African country Parties in accordanc with the Convention as follows: (a) at the national level, by a mechanism the composition of which should be determined by each affected African country Party and which shall include representatives of local communities and shall function under the supervision of the national coordinating body referred to in article 9; (b) at the subregional level, by a multidisciplinary scientific and technical Consultative Committee, the composition and operation of the modalit of which shall be determined by the African country Parties of the subregion concerned; and (c) at the regional level, by mechanisms defined in accordanc with the relevant provision of the Treaty establishing the African Economic Community, and by an African Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee.    Annex II Regional Implementation Annex for Asia article 1 purpose the purpose of this Annex is to provide guidelines and arrangements for the effective implementation of the Convention in the affected country Parties of the Asian region in the light of its particular conditions. Article 2 Particular conditions of the Asian region In carrying out their obligations under the Convention, the Parties shall, as appropriate, take into considerations the following particular conditions which apply in varying degrees to the affected country Parties of the region: (a) the high proportion of areas in their territories affected by, or to, desertification and vulnerabl drough and the broad diversity of these areas with regard to climate topography, land use, and socio-economic systems; (b) the heavy pressure on natural resources for livelihood; (c) the existenc of production systems, directly related to widespread poverty, leading to land degradation and to pressure on water resources scarc; (d) the significant impact of conditions in the world economy and social problems such as poverty, poor health and nutrition, lack of food security, migration, displaced persons and demographic dynamics; (e) their expanding, but still insufficient, capacity and institutional frameworks to deal with national desertification and drough problems; and (f) their need for international cooperation to promote sustainable development objective by pursu-combating desertification and mitigating them relating the effects of drough. Article 3 Framework for national action programme of the National action programme 1 shall be an integral part of broader national policies for sustainable development of the affected country Parties of the region. 2. The affected country Parties shall, as appropriate, develop national action programmes to articles 9 to pursuan 11 of the Convention, paying special attention to article 10, paragraph 2 (f). As appropriate, bilateral and multilaterals cooperation agencies may be involved in this process at the request of the affected country Party concerned. Article 4 National action programmes 1. In preparing and implementing national action programmes, the affected country Parties of the region, consistent with their respectiv in circumstanc and policies, may, inter alia, as appropriate: (a) appropriate bodies designat responsible for the preparation, coordination and implementation of their action programmes; (b) the affected population, including involv local communities, in the coordination and implementation of their elaborations, action programmes through a locally driven consultative process, with the cooperation of local authorities and relevant national and non-governmental organizations; (c) survey the State of the environment in affected areas to assess the causes and consequences of desertification and to determin priority areas for action; (d) evaluate, with the participation of the affected population, past and current programmes for combating desertification and mitigating the effects of the drough, in order to design a strategy and activities in their action of elaborat program; (e) prepare technical and financial programmes based on the information derived from the activities in subparagraph (a) to (d); (f) develop and utilizes procedure and benchmark for evaluating implementation of their action programmes; (g) promote the integrated management of the basin drainag, the conservation of soil resources, and the enhancement and efficient use of water resources; (h) strengthen and/or establish information, evaluation and follow up and early warning systems in regions pron to desertification and drough, taking account of climatological, hydrological, biological and other support, the relevant factors; and (i) in a spirit of formulat partnership, where international cooperation, including financial and technical resources, is involved, appropriate arrangements supporting their action programmes. 2. Consistent with article 10 of the Convention, the overall strategy of national action programmes shall the integrated local development programme emphasiz for affected areas, based on participatory mechanisms and on the integration of strategies for poverty eradication into efforts to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough. Measure in the sectoral action programmes shall be grouped in priority fields which take account of the broad diversity of affected areas in the region referred to in article 2 (a). Article 5 Subregional and joint action programmes 1. Pursuan to article 11 of the Convention, affected country Parties in Asia may mutually agree to consult and cooperate with other parties, as appropriate, to prepare and implementations that subregional or joint action programmes, as appropriate, in order to increase effectiveness, and complemen in the implementation of, national action programme. In either case, the relevant parties may jointly agree to entrust subregional, including bilateral or national organizations, or specialized institutions, with responsibilities relating to the preparation, coordination and implementation of the program. Such organizations or institutions may also act as focal points for the promotion and coordination of actions to articles 16 pursuan to 18 of the Convention. 2. In preparing and implementing subregional or joint action programmes, affected country Parties of the of the region shall, inter alia, as appropriate: (a) identify, in cooperation with national institutions, combating desertification and relating them to kesko mitigating the effects of the drough which can better be met by such programmes, as well as relevant activities which could be effectively carried out through them; (b) evaluate the operational capacities and activities of relevant regional, subregional and national institutions; (c) assess existing programmes relating to desertification and drough among all or some parties of the region or subregion and their relationship with national action programmes; and (d) in a spirit of formulat partnership, where international cooperation, including financial and technical resources, is involved, appropriate bilateral and/or arrangements supporting the programme the multilaterals. 3. Subregional or joint action programmes may include agreed joint programmes for the sustainable management of transboundary natural resources relating to desertification, the allocation for coordination and other activities in the fields of capacity building, scientific and technical cooperation, particularly early warning systems to drough and information sharing, and means of strengthening the relevant subregional and other organizations or institutions. Article 6 Regional activities Regional activities for the enhancement of subregional or joint action programmes may include, inter alia, to strengthen institutions and "mechanisms for coordination and cooperation at the national, subregional and regional levels, and to promote the implementation of articles 16 to 19 of the Convention. These activities may also include: (a) promoting and strengthening technical cooperation networks; (b) preparing to inventor of technologies, knowledge, know-how and practices, as well as traditional and local technologies and know-how, and promoting their dissemination and use; (c) evaluating the requirements for technology transfer and promoting the adaptation and use of such technologies; and (d) encouraging public awareness programmes and promoting capacity building at all levels, strengthening training, research and development and building systems for human resource development. Article 7 Financial resources and mechanisms 1. The Parties shall, in view of the importanc of combating desertification and mitigating the effects of the drough in the Asian region, promote the mobilizations of substantial financial resources and the availability of financial mechanisms, pursuan to articles 20 and 21 of the Convention. 2. In conformity with the Convention and on the basis of the coordinating mechanism provided for in article 8 and in accordanc with their national development policies, affected country Parties of the region shall, individually or jointly: (a) to measure their adop rationaliz and strengthen mechanisms to supply funds through public and private investment with a view to achieving specific results in action to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough; (b) identify international cooperation requirements in support of national efforts, particularly financial, technical and technological; and (c) promote the participation of bilateral and/or multilaterals, financial cooperation institutions with a view to ensuring implementation of the Convention. 3. The Parties shall streamline, to the exten to possible, procedures for channelling funds to affected country Parties in the region. Article 8 Cooperation and coordination mechanisms 1. Affected country Parties, through the appropriate bodies designated to article 4 pursuan, paragraph 1 (a), and other parties in the region, may, as appropriate, set up a mechanism for, inter alia, for the following purpose: (a) exchange of information, experience, knowledge and know-how; (b) cooperation and coordination of actions, including bilateral and multilaterals arrangements, at the subregional and regional levels; (c) promotion of scientific, technical, technological and financial cooperation pursuan to articles 5 to 7; (d) identification of external cooperation requirements; and (e) follow-up and evaluation of the implementation of the programme of action. 2. Affected country Parties, through the appropriate bodies designated to article 4 pursuan, paragraph 1 (a), and other parties in the region, may also, as appropriate, consult and line as regards the national, subregional and joint action programmes. They may, as appropriate, involv other parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in this process. Such coordination shall, inter alia, seek to secure agreement on opportunities for international cooperation in accordanc with articles 20 and 21 of the Convention, enhance technical cooperation and channel resources so that they are used effectively. 3. Affected country Parties of the region shall hold periodic coordination meetings, and the Permanent Secretariat may, at their request, to article 23 pursuan of the Convention, the convocation of facilitat such coordination meetings by: (a) providing advice on the organization of effective coordination arrangements, drawing on experience from other such arrangements; (b) providing information to relevant bilateral and multilaterals agencies concerning coordination meetings, and encouraging their active involvement; and (c) providing other information that may be relevant in establishing or improving coordination processes.    Annex III Regional Implementation Annex for Latin America and the Caribbean article 1 purpose the purpose of this Annex is to provide general guidelines for the implementation of the Convention in the Latin American and Caribbean region, in the light of its particular conditions. Article 2 Particular conditions of the Latin American and Caribbean region, the Parties shall, in accordanc with the provision of the Convention, take into considerations the following particular conditions of the region: (a) the existenc of broad expanses which are vulnerabl and severely affected by desertification have been and/or drough and in which diverse characteristics may be observed, depending on the area in which they occure; This cumulative and intensifying the process has negative social, cultural, economic and environmental effects which are all the more serious in that the region contains one of the largest resources of biological diversity in the world; (b) the frequent use of unsustainabl development practices in affected areas as a result of complex interactions among physical, biological, political, social, cultural and economic factors, including international economic factors such as external indebtednes, deteriorating terms of trade and trade practices which affec the markets for agricultural, fishery and forestry products; and (c) a sharp drop in the productivity of ecosystems being the main consequences of desertification and drough, taking the form of a declin in agricultural, livestock and forestry yield and a loss of biological diversity; from the social point of view, the results are the impoverishmen, migration, internal population movement, and the deterioration of the quality of life; the region will therefore have to be of an integrated approach to adop problems of desertification and to promote sustainable development by promoting drough model that are in keeping with the environmental, economic and social situation in each country. Article 3 Action programmes 1. In conformity with the Convention, in particular its articles 9 to 11, and in accordanc with their national development policies, affected country Parties of the region shall, as appropriate, prepare and national action programme it implementations that combat desertification and the effects of mitigat drough as an integral part of their national policies for sustainable development. Subregional and regional programmes may be prepared and implemented in accordanc with the requirements of the region. 2. In the preparation of their national action programmes, affected country Parties of the region shall pay particular attention to article 10, paragraph 2 (f) of the Convention. Article 4 content of national action programmes In the light of the situation of their respectiv, the affected country Parties of the region may take account, inter alia, of the following thematic issues in developing their national strategies for action to combat desertification and/or the effects of mitigat drough, pursuan to article 5 of the Convention: (a) increasing capacities, education and public awareness technical, scientific and technological cooperation, and financial resources and mechanisms; (b) eradicating poverty and improving the quality of human life; (c) achieving food security and sustainable development and management of agricultural, livestock-rearing, forestry and multipurpose activities; (d) sustainable management of natural resources, especially the rational management of the drainag basin; (e) sustainable management of natural resources in high-altitude areas; (f) rational management and conservation of soil resources and exploitation and efficient use of water resources; (g) formulation and application of emergency plans to the effects of mitigat drough; (h) strengthening and/or establishing information, evaluation and follow-up and early warning systems in the area of desertification and to drough pron, taking account of climatological, hydrological, biological, soil, support, economic and social factors; (i) developing, managing and efficiently using diverse sources of energy, including the promotion of alternative sources; (j) conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in accordanc with the provision of the Convention on Biological Diversity; (k) the considerations of demographic aspects related to desertification and drough; (l) establishing or strengthening and institutional and legal frameworks permitting application of the Convention and aimed, inter alia, at decentralizing administrative structures and functions relating to desertification and drough, with the participation of affected communities and society in general. Article 5 Technical, scientific and technological cooperation In conformity with the Convention, in particular its articles 16 to 18, and on the basis of the coordinating mechanism provided for in article 7, affected country Parties of the region shall, individually or jointly: (a) promote the strengthening of technical cooperation networks and national, subregional and regional information systems, as well as their integration , as appropriate, in worldwide sources of information; (b) prepare an inventory of available technologies and know-how and promote their dissemination and use; (c) promote the use of traditional technology, knowledge, know-how and practices to their article 18 pursuan, paragraph 2 (b), of the Convention; (d) identify transfer of technology requirements; and (e) promote the development, adaptation, adoption and transfer of relevant existing and new environmentally sound technologies. Article 7 Financial resources and mechanisms In conformity with the Convention, in particular its articles 20 and 21, on the basis of the coordinating mechanism provided for in article 7 and in accordanc with their national development policies, affected country Parties of the region shall, individually or jointly: (a) to measure their adop rationaliz and strengthen mechanisms to supply funds through public and private investment with a view to achieving specific results in action to combat desertification and the effects of mitigat of the drough; (b) identify international cooperation requirements in support of national efforts; and (c) promote the participation of bilateral and/or multilaterals, financial cooperation institutions with a view to ensuring implementation of the Convention. Article 7 Institutional framework 1. In order to give effect to this Annex, affected country Parties of the region shall: (a) establish and/or strengthen national focal points for the action to combat desertification line and/or the effects of mitigat drough; and (b) set up a mechanism to line the national focal points for the following purpose: (i) exchanges of information and experience;     (ii) coordination of activities at the subregional and regional levels;     (iii) promotion of technical, scientific, technological and financial cooperation;     (iv) identification of external cooperation requirements; and (v) follow-up and evaluation of the implementation of the programme of action. 2. Affected country Parties of the region shall hold periodic coordination meetings and the Permanent Secretariat may, at their request, to article 23 pursuan of the Convention, the convocation of facilitat such coordination meetings, by: (a) providing advice on the organization of effective coordination arrangements, drawing on experience from other such arrangements; (b) providing information to relevant bilateral and multilaterals agencies concerning coordination meetings, and encouraging their active involvement; and (c) providing other information that may be relevant in establishing or improving coordination processes.    Annex IV Regional Implementation Annex for the Northern Mediterranean article 1 purpose the purpose of this Annex is to provide guidelines and arrangements not cessary for the effective implementation of the Convention in affected country Parties of the northern Mediterranean region in the light of its particular conditions. Article 2 Particular conditions of the northern Mediterranean region the particular conditions of the northern Mediterranean region referred to in article 1 include: (a) semi-arid climatic condition in large areas, the seasonals regimes by drought, very high rainfalls variability and sudden and high-intensity rainfalls; (b) poor and highly erodibl the soil, pron to develop surface crusts; (c) uneven relief with steep slope and very diversified landscapes; (d) extensive forest coverage of the loss due to frequent wildfires; (e) crisis conditions in traditional agriculture with associated land and deterioration of soil abandonmen and water conservation structures; (f) exploitation of the unsustainabl of water resources leading to serious environmental damage, including chemical pollution, salinization and exhaustion of aquifer; and (g) concentration of economic activity in coastal areas as a result of urban growth, industrial activities, tourism and irrigated agriculture. Article 3 Strategic planning framework for sustainable development of the National action programme, 1 shall be a central and integral part of the strategic planning framework for sustainable development of the affected country Parties of the northern Mediterranean. 2. A consultative and participatory process, involving appropriate levels of Government, local communities and non-governmental organizations, shall be undertaken to provide guidance on a strategy with flexible planning to allow maximum local participation, pursuan to article 10, paragraph 2 (f) of the Convention. Article 4 Obligation to prepare national action programmes of Affected country Parties and timetabl of the northern Mediterranean region shall prepare national action programmes and, as appropriate, subregional, regional or joint action programmes. The preparation of such programmes shall be finalized as soon as practicabl. Article 5 Preparation and implementation of national action programmes In preparing and implementing national action programmes to articles 9 and pursuan 10 of the Convention, each affected country Party of the region shall, as appropriate: (a) appropriate bodies designat responsible for the preparation, coordination and implementation of its programme; (b) the affected population, including involv local communities, in the elaborations, coordination and implementation of the programme through a locally driven consultative process, with the cooperation of local authorities and relevant non-governmental organizations; (c) survey the State of the environment in affected areas to assess the causes and consequences of desertification and to determin priority areas for action; (d) evaluate, with the participation of affected population, past and current programmes in order to design a strategy and the activities in the elaborat action programme; (e) prepare technical and financial programmes based on the information gained through the activities in subparagraph (a) to (d); and (f) develop and utilizes procedure and benchmark for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the programme. Article 6 content of national action programmes of Affected country Parties of the region may include, in their national action programmes, of relating it to measure: (a) legislative, institutional and administrative areas; (b) land use patterns, management of water resources, soil conservation, forestry, agricultural activities and pastur and range management; (c) the management and conservation of wildlife and other forms of biological diversity; (d) protection against forest fires; (e) promotion of alternative livelihood; and (f) research, training and public awareness. Article 7 Subregional, regional and joint action programmes of Affected country Parties 1 of the region may, in accordanc with article 11 of the Convention, prepare and subregional and/or regional implementations that action programme in order to increase the complemen and efficiency of national action programmes. Two or more affected country Parties of the region may similarly agree to prepare a joint action programme between or among them. 2. The provision of articles 5 and 6 shall apply mutatis mutandis to the preparation and implementation of subregional, regional and joint action programmes. In addition, such programmes may include the conduct of research and development activities concerning selected ecosystems in affected areas. 3. In preparing and implementing subregional, regional or joint action programmes, affected country Parties of the region shall, as appropriate: (a) identify, in cooperation with national institutions, national objective of relating to desertification which can better be met by such programmes and relevant activities which could be effectively carried out through them; (b) evaluate the operational capacities and activities of relevant regional, subregional and national institutions; and (c) assess existing programmes relating to desertification among parties of the region and their relationship with national action programmes. Article 8 Coordination of subregional, regional and joint action programmes of Affected country parties preparing a subregional, regional or joint action programme may establish a coordination committee composed of representatives of each affected country Party concerned to review progress in combating desertification, harmonize national action programmes, make recommendations at the various stages of preparation and implementation of the subregional, regional or joint action programme , and act as a focal point for the promotion and coordination of technical cooperation to articles 16 pursuan to 19 of the Convention. Article 9 Non-eligibility for financial assistance In implementing national, subregional, regional and joint action programmes, affected developed country Parties of the region are not eligible to receive financial assistance under this Convention. Article 10 Coordination with other subregion and region to Subregional, regional and joint action programmes in the northern Mediterranean region may be prepared and implemented in collaboration with those of other regions, particularly in the subregion or with those of the subregion of northern Africa.    Annex V Regional Implementation Annex for Central and Eastern Europe article 1 purpose the purpose of this Annex is to provide guidelines and arrangements for the effective implementation of the Convention in affected country Parties of the Central and Eastern European region, in the light of its particular conditions. Article 2 PARTICULAR CONDITIONS OF the CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN REGION, the particular conditions of the Central and Eastern European region referred to in article 1, which apply in varying degrees to the affected country Parties of the region, include: (a) specific problems and challenges related to the current process of economic transition, including macroeconomic and financial problems and the need for strengthening the social and political framework for economic and market reforms; (b) the variety of forms of land degradation in the different ecosystems of the region, including the effects of the drough and the risk of desertification in the region of soil erosion caused by a pron to water and wind; (c) crisis conditions in agriculture due, inter alia, to depletion of arabl land, problems related to inappropriate irrigation systems and gradual deterioration of soil and water conservation structures; (d) the exploitation of water resources of unsustainabl leading to serious environmental damage, including chemical pollution, salinisation and exhaustion of aquifer; (e) forest coverage of loss due to climatic factors, consequences of air pollution and frequent wildfires; (f) the use of unsustainabl development practices in affected areas as a result of complex interactions among physical, biological, political, social and economic factors; (g) the risks of growing economic hardship and deteriorating social conditions in areas affected by land degradation, desertification and drough; (h) the need to review the research objective and the policy and legislative framework for the sustainable management of natural resources; and (i) the opening up of the region to wider international cooperation and the pursuit of the broad objective of sustainable development. Article 3 ACTION programmes National action programme of 1 shall be an integral part of the policy framework for sustainable development and address in an appropriate manner the various forms of land degradation, desertification and the regimes of the drough parties of the region. 2. A consultative and participatory process, involving appropriate levels of Government, local communities and non-governmental organizations, shall be undertaken to provide guidance on a strategy with flexible planning to allow maximum local participation, pursuan to article 10, paragraph 2 (f), of the Convention. As appropriate, bilateral and multilaterals cooperation agencies may be involved in this process at the request of the affected country Party concerned. Article 4 PREPARATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL ACTION programmes In preparing and implementing national action programmes to articles 9 and pursuan 10 of the Convention, each affected country Party of the region shall, as appropriate: (a) appropriate bodies designat responsible for the preparation, coordination and implementation of its programme; (b) the affected population, including involv local communities, in the elaborations, coordination and implementation of the programme through a locally driven consultative process, with the cooperation of local authorities and relevant non-governmental organizations; (c) survey the State of the environment in affected areas to assess the causes and consequences of desertification and to determin priority areas for action; (d) evaluate, with the participation of the affected population, past and current programmes in order to design a strategy and elaborat action in the action programme; (e) prepare technical and financial programmes based on the information gained through the activities in subparagraph (a) to (d); and (f) develop and utilizes procedure and benchmark for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the programme. Article 5 SUBREGIONAL, REGIONAL AND joint ACTION PROGRAMMES of Affected country Parties 1. of the region, in accordanc with articles 11 and 12 of the Convention, may prepare and subregional and/or regional implementations that action programme in order to increase the complemen and effectiveness and efficiency of national action programmes. Two or more affected country Parties of the region may similarly agree to prepare a joint action programme between or among them. 2. Such programmes may be prepared and implemented in collaboration with other parties or regions. The objective of such collaboration would be to secure an enabling international environment and to facilitat financial and/or technical support or other forms of assistance to address more effectively desertification and drough issues at different levels. 3. The provision of articles 3 and 4 shall apply, mutatis mutandis, to the preparation and implementation of subregional, regional and joint action programmes. In addition, such programmes may include the conduct of research and development activities concerning selected ecosystems in affected areas. 4. In preparing and implementing subregional, regional or joint action programmes, affected country Parties of the region shall, as appropriate: (a) identify, in cooperation with national institutions, national objective of relating to desertification which can better be met by such programmes, and relevant activities, which could be effectively carried out through them; (b) evaluate the operational capacities and activities of relevant regional, subregional and national institutions; (c) assess existing programmes relating to desertification among parties of the region and their relationship with national action programmes; and (d) consider action for the coordination of subregional, regional and joint action programmes, including, as appropriate, the establishment of coordination committees composed of representatives of each affected country Party concerned to review progress in combating desertification, harmonize national action programmes, make recommendations at the various stages of preparation and implementation of the subregional, regional or joint action programme, and act as focal points for the promotion and coordination of technical cooperation to articles 16 pursuan to 19 of the Convention. Article 6 TECHNICAL, SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL COOPERATION In conformity with the objective and principles of the Convention, parties of the region shall, individually or jointly: (a) promote the strengthening of scientific and technical cooperation networks of monitoring indicators and of information systems at all levels, as well as their integration, as appropriate, in worldwide systems of information; and (b) promote the development, adaptation and transfer of relevant existing and new environmentally sound technologies within and outside the region. Article 7 FINANCIAL resources AND mechanisms In conformity with the objective and principles of the Convention, affected country Parties of the region shall, individually or jointly: (a) to measure their adop rationaliz and strengthen mechanisms to supply funds through public and private investment with a view to achieving concrete results in action to combat land degradation and desertification and the effects of mitigat drough; (b) identify international cooperation requirements in support of national efforts, thereby creating, in particular, an enabling environment for investments and encouraging active investment policies and an integrated approach to effectively combating desertification, including early identification of the problems caused by this process; (c) seek the participation of bilateral and/or multilaterals partners and financial cooperation institutions with a view to ensuring implementation of the Convention, including programme activities which take into account the specific needs of affected country Parties of the region; and (d) assess the possible impact of article 2 (a) on the implementation of articles 6, 13 and 20 and the other related provision of the Convention. Article 8 INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK 1. In order to give effect to this Annex, parties of the region shall: (a) establish and/or strengthen national focal points for the action to combat desertification line and/or the effects of mitigat drough; and (b) consider mechanisms to strengthen regional cooperation, as appropriate. 2. The Permanent Secretariat may, at the request of parties of the region and to their article 23 pursuan of the Convention, the convocation of coordination facilitat meetings in the region by: (a) providing advice on the organization of effective coordination arrangements, drawing on experience from other such arrangements; and (b) providing other information that may be relevant in establishing or improving coordination processes.

United Nations Convention to combat desertification/land degradation in countries experiencing significant drought and/or Desertification, particularly in Africa, the Convention the Contracting Parties confirming that living things desertification and drought in affected or threatened areas, is the central reason, reflecting concerns of the international community, including States and international organizations, emerging concerns about desertification and drought induced adverse consequences being aware that arid, semiarīd and dry sub-humid areas partly occupies a significant part of the planet as well as being the only life and place of large farming population, recognizing that desertification and drought are problems of global dimension, affecting all regions of the world, and to prevent desertification or drought, reducing the need for such measures, involving the entire international community, noting that among the developed countries, especially the least developed countries, particularly in many African countries in the region, regularly faced with desertification and drought cause problems that is often the same tragic consequences, noting also that desertification is caused by complex physical, biological, political, social, cultural and economic factors, taking into account the trade and international economic contacts, the impact on the possibilities of many countries to effectively combat desertification, recognizing that sustainable economic development, social development and poverty eradication are priorities of desertification in affected developing countries, particularly in Africa, and is a very important factor when setting up sustainable development objectives Given that the effects of desertification and drought affect sustainable development through their interaction with social problems like poverty, poor health care, inadequate food, poor quality food, and that these problems largely stem from demographic dynamics, migration and movement of persons, assessing the measures already carried out and stressing the importance for the international community and the international organization of the great experience in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought in the especially in realizing the action plan to combat desertification, which was adopted in the UN Conference on the fight against desertification in 1977, understanding that, despite all the measures implemented in the past, still has not reached the expected progress in combating desertification and drought-induced effects, why the need of a new and more effective approach at all levels, based on a sustainable development approach, recognizing that the United Nations Conference on environment and development decisions , especially Agenda 21 and its chapter 12, indicate the paths and methods to combat desertification, reaffirming in this regard the commitments made by the developed countries and which are contained in chapter 13 of Agenda 21 33. part, recalling the UN General Assembly decision 47/191, in particular its importance for African countries, and other important UN decisions and programmes on desertification and drought as well as important decisions with respect to both the African countries and other regions, reaffirming the Rio Declaration on environment and development, principle 2, which stresses that according to the UN Charter and international law principles, the Member States have the sovereign right to its exploitation of resources according to their policies on environment and development, as well as the full responsibility for the fact that the realization of this right shall not cause damage to other countries, as well as no exit control national legislative boundaries Recognizing that national Governments play a key role in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, why success is dependent on the affected areas developed the common programme of action implementation at the local level, recognizing that the fight against desertification and drought, reducing the importance of international cooperation and partnership, recognizing that in many developing countries, particularly in Africa, required additional resources, inter alia, substantial financial support , including new and updated existing funds, as well as access to technology, without which they will not be able to fully implement the Convention, expressed concerns about desertification and drought on development in Central Asia and Transkaukāz, stressing the major role of women in developing countries affected by desertification and drought, particularly in rural areas, and the need to provide programs for the prevention of desertification and drought both men and women's participation Stressing the non-governmental organizations and the various interest groups of the importance of participation in programmes to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, bearing in mind that the relationship between desertification and other environmental problems of global concern not only the national society, but the whole international community, bearing in mind also that any contribution in the fight against desertification also helps to achieve the objectives set in the United Nations Framework Convention on climate change, the Convention on biological diversity and other conventions relating to the environment Believe that desertification prevention strategy for mitigating the effects of drought will be most effective if they are implemented will be based on appropriate scientific expertise, high-quality systematic observations and regular evaluation of their results, recognizing that the urgent need to improve the efficiency of international cooperation and coordination to be able to realize the various national plans and determine the meaning those priorities, pledging to take the appropriate action, to combat desertification and mitigate drought effects caused by today's society and on behalf of future generations, agreed on the following: section I introduction article 1 of this Convention, the terms used for the purposes of the following: (a) "desertification" means land degradation in arid, semiarīdo and arīdo in the partially-humīdo areas of various factors, including climate and human activity affect; (b) "combating desertification" includes activities which are part of the integrated land use practices in arid, semi arid and semiarīd-and sub-humid areas, which focus on: (i) land degradation prevention and/or reduction; (ii) rehabilitation of partly degraded land; and (iii) the land reclamation of pārtuksnešot; (c) "drought" means natural natural phenomenon that gets, if rainfall is far below normal quantities observed, causing serious hydrological balance changes, and invoking the negative effects as regards the land as resource productivity; (d) "mitigating the effects of drought" means activities that help predict drought intervention, as well as to reduce the effects of the impact on society and natural systems, if they have a direct connection with the fight against desertification; (e) "land" means land bio-productive system that comprises soil, vegetation, other biota, and the ecological and hydrological processes that take place within this system; (f) "land degradation", arīdo, semiarīdo and humīdo areas in dry means its economic or biological productivity decline or disappearance of, or changes in the relationship between the natural wet and arable land for irrigated areas, or between pasture and forests, as well as other land-use planning change combinations, including anthropogenic activities and also for changes in the species, such as: (i) soil erosion of wind and/or water activities; (ii) soil physical, chemical, biological and economic category, and (iii) natural vegetation loss over a period of time; (g) "arid, semiarīd and dry sub-humid areas in the partly-" means areas, other than polar and partially-polar regions where annual rainfall in relation to the potential evapotranspiration is in the range from 0.05 to 0.65; (h) "affected areas" means arīdo, semiarīdo and/or dry part-humīdo areas that are affected by or affect the desertification; (i) "affected countries" means countries whose territories are located, in whole or in part, affected areas; (j) "regional economic integration organization ' shall mean the region of the sovereign States of the organisation which has competence in the monitoring of this Convention, and which issues are transferred to the respective powers of the appropriate international procedures, to sign, ratify, accept, approve or accede to this Convention; (k) "developed country members" means developed countries as Contracting Parties to the Convention and create regional economic integration organizations. Article 2 objective 1. The objective of this Convention is to combat desertification and reduce the effects of drought in countries experiencing serious drought and/with or causes problems of desertification, particularly in Africa, through effective shares at all levels, with the support of the international community and apply to the partnership, according to the guidelines adopted Agenda 21 for sustainable development in affected areas. 2. This objective requires a long-term integrated strategies in affected areas while making the soil protection measures, enhancing soil productivity by introducing sustainable land and water resource management, as well as improving domestic conditions, especially at the local level. Article 3 principles in order to achieve the objective of this Convention and to implement its methods, the Contracting Parties shall be guided, inter alia, of the following: (a) the Parties shall ensure that a decision on the development of programmes to combat desertification and/or drought effects and their implementation, are taken by the public and the participation of local authorities, as well as a good link is created between the local and the national level of shares; (b) the parties form a mutual solidarity and cooperation partnership, enhancing mutual cooperation and coordination at subregional, regional and international levels, better use of financial, human, organisational and technical resources where they are needed; (c) the Parties shall establish cooperation at all levels between the Government, local authorities, non-governmental organizations and landowners, based on good partnerships and cooperation to create a better and shared understanding of nature and the land and water resources in affected areas of value to help you operate it in the direction of sustainable use, and (d) the Parties shall take fully into account the special circumstances and problems in affected developing countries, in particular for the least developed countries. Chapter II general provisions article 4 General requirements 1. Parties may implement the requirements of this Convention, individually or in cooperation, common or through existing or new bilateral or multilateral arrangements or a combination thereof, however, the role of the coordination of the long-term strategy at all levels of cooperation. 2. to achieve the objective of this Convention, the Parties shall: (a) uses an integrated approach to desertification and drought processes of physical, biological and socio-economic aspects; (b) international and regional institutions to properly assess the situation, the developing countries with regard to international trade, market relations and debt to create economic instruments for sustainable development; (c) integrating poverty reduction strategies measures to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought; (d) promote cooperation between parties affected the protection of the environment and land and water resource protection areas, as they are binding in relation to desertification and drought; (e) strengthen subregional, regional and international cooperation; (f) shall cooperate with the relevant intergovernmental organizations; (g) establish various institutional mechanisms, if necessary, bearing in mind the need to avoid duplication of functions; and (h) promote the existing bilateral and multilateral financial mechanisms and arrangements that mobilize and channel substantial financial resources to affected developing countries (parties) in order to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. 3. Affected developing countries (parties) are evaluated as objects of assistance, for the implementation of this Convention. Article 5 requirements of the affected countries, the parties to the Convention, in addition to the requirements contained in article 5 of the Convention, the affected parties: (a) combating desertification and mitigate the effects of drought is defined as a priority and allocate the necessary resources for these measures according to their circumstances and actual capabilities; (b) establish strategies and priorities in relation to the principles of sustainable development and the plans and/or policies, to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought; (c) focus on desertification and pay special attention to the socio-economic impacts of desertification process; (d) create public awareness and promote the involvement of local communities, especially youth and women, to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, as well as the use of non-governmental organizations; and (e) provide the necessary conditions, strengthening, if necessary, the relevant existing legislation, but that that is not sufficient for preparing new legislation and developing long-term policies and action programmes. Article 6 requirements for developed countries, parties to the Convention, in addition to the General requirements arising from article 4 of the Convention, the developed country Parties to the Convention: (a) actively support the agreement, individually or jointly, affected developing country Parties to the Convention, in particular the efforts of the African countries, and particularly least developed countries, to combat desertification and drought-induced effects; (b) provide adequate financial resources and other forms of support to assist affected developing countries, particularly in Africa, to develop and implement their own long-term plans and strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought-driven; (c) encourage the development of new and additional funding sources according to article 20, part 2, point (b); (d) encourage the private sector and other non-government participation in the funding source; and (e) initiate and promote affected developing country introductions with the necessary knowledge, technology and know-how. Article 7 priority to Africa for the implementation of this Convention, the Parties shall give priority to affected African countries, on the basis of the specific situation in the region, while not pushing developing countries in other regions. Article 8 relationship with other conventions 1. The Parties shall coordinate the actions that are carried out under this Convention and, if they are parties to other conventions or international agreements, in particular the UN General climate change Convention or the Convention on biological diversity, the Convention on measures to maximise the positive effect of each Convention and to avoid overlapping and duplication of activities. The Parties shall ensure the conduct of joint programmes, especially in areas such as research, training, systematic observation and information collection and Exchange, in the manner and level so that they contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the Treaty. 2. the provisions of this Convention shall not affect any party's rights and obligations arising from bilateral, regional or international agreements signed by the parties before this Convention enters into force. Title III action programmes, scientific and technical cooperation and SUPPORTING measures 1. Subdivision: action programme article 9 of the basic conditions to comply with Convention 1 article 5, affected developing countries/parties and any other affected country Party/on the basis of the respective regional implementation annex or, otherwise, as nosacīj by the Permanent Secretariat of the Convention, expressed in writing a proposal to prepare a national action programme, shall be publicly discussed and disposed of national action programmes If possible, or, existed for other plans or programmes, subregional and regional action programmes, a central element of which is the fight against desertification and the effects of drought, taking part in them. Such programmes should be updated and clarified, on the basis of the actual time of the observation, as well as research results. National action programmes should be closely linked with other national policies for sustainable development. 2. in accordance with article 6 of the conditions laid down for support of developed countries and its various forms, preference should be given, as required, national, subregional and regional action programme implementation in affected developing countries, particularly in Africa, both directly and through the relevant international organizations, or both. 3. the Parties shall use the UN or other international organizations, academic institutions, scientific organizations and non-governmental organizations have created regulatory organs, funds and programmes, to cooperation, in accordance with their mandates and capabilities, to support the development of the programme of action, implementation and monitoring. Article 10 national action programmes 1. National action programmes aim to identify the factors which are decisive in the process of desertification and to find methods and their use in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought negative effects. 2. national action programmes shall emphasise and define the role of Governments, local authorities and land ownership, as well as the available and required resources. They are, inter alia: (a) join the long-term strategy in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, emphasise implementation and integration into national sustainable development policies; (b) permit the various modifications according to changing conditions, as well as allowing considerable freedom at the local level, to be able to include various socio-economic, biological and ģeofizikālo conditions; (c) pay special attention to the various preventive measures for lands that are not yet degraded or which are only slightly degraded; (d) support national climatological, meteorological and hydrological capabilities and the means of drought early warning; (e) develop policies and strengthen the institutional structure to improve cooperation and coordination of the good spirit of partnership among all levels of Governments, local communities and public interest groups, and contribute to the local community access to information and appropriate technology; (f) provide for public and non-governmental organizations in the effective powers of the local, national and regional level, also appropriate for women and men, natural resource users, farmers and pastoralists and their representative, the Office of policy development, decision-making, implementation, and follow-up action in regard to the evaluation the national programmes; and (g) require regular review of, and progress reports on their implementation. 3. National action programmes may include, inter alia, all or some of the following measures to prepare for the effects of the drought to reduce or prevent: (a) create and/or strengthen, where appropriate, early warning systems, including local and national structures, as well as the combined system subregional and regional levels, and mechanisms to support environmental conditions displaced persons; (b) strengthening of drought preparedness and management, preparing drought action plans at local, national, subregional and regional levels, which include both seasonal and permanent climate probability; (c) establish and/or strengthen, as appropriate, of food security systems, including storage and market regulation mechanisms, especially in the field of urban areas; (d) establish alternative farming projects that guarantee the income drought affected areas; and (e) establish sustainable irrigation systems and crops and livestock. 4. in the light of each affected country party/conditions and specific requirements, national action programmes include, if necessary, inter alia, measures in some of the following priorities if they relate to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought in affected areas or their populations: promotion of alternative livelihoods development and improving national economic environments with a view to strengthening the programme for the eradication of poverty, food security , demographic dynamics, sustainable management of natural resources; sustainable agriculture practices; more efficient use of energy resources and new energy sources; institutional and legal consistency; regular observation and evaluation, sponsoring bodies including hydrological and meteorological services, and universal public education, development and participation. Article 11 subregional and regional action programmes of affected country Parties shall consult in order to prepare, as appropriate, in accordance with relevant regional implementation annexes, subregional and/or regional action programmes to harmonise, complement and increase the efficiency of national programmes. This issue is addressed in article 10 and shall apply mutatis mutandis to subregional and regional programmes. Such cooperation may include agreed joint programmes for cross-border sustainable management of natural resources, scientific and technical cooperation, as well as the appropriate institution building. Article 12 international cooperation for the affected country Parties, in cooperation with other States parties and the international community work together to ensure the implementation of the Convention, the necessary environment and circumstances. Such cooperation should also include scientific research and technology areas, as well as information collection and Exchange, and financial resources. Article 13 support for the action programme for the development and implementation of measures to support 1 action programmes, as set out in article 9 include, inter alia: (a) financial cooperation to provide predictability for action programmes for development; (b) the various cooperation mechanisms in order to better support program support and implementation at the local level, including non-governmental organizations and for the support of participation and various pilot programs; (c) increase the project customization, also with regard to their funding and implementation of the experiment, to be able to engage local communities in them; and (d) if necessary, administrative and financial procedures that allow effective involvement of various support programs. 2. Providing support to affected developing country Parties, priority must be given to African country Parties, as well as the least developed country Parties. Article 14 coordination action programme development and implementation 1. The Parties shall work closely together, both directly and through the relevant international organizations to develop and implement the action programmes. 2. The Parties shall establish operational mechanisms, in particular the national and field levels, to ensure the highest possible coordination among developed country Parties, developing country Parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, to avoid duplication and the harmonized intervention approach, and the most of the positive effects of aid. In affected developing country Parties, priority must be given to international cooperation, coordination of related shares to increase the efficient use of resources, ensure adequate participation, please contact and support of national action programmes and the implementation of the priorities of the Convention. Article 15 regional implementation annexes in order of action elements are to be selected and to be applied in accordance with the socio-economic, geographic and climatic factors, which in particular useful in affected countries parties or regions, as well as by their development levels. Guidelines for the preparation of the programme of action and their main objectives the focusing is developed and included in the regional implementation annexes. 2. subdivisions: scientific and technical cooperation article 16 information collection, analysis and exchange of the Parties shall decide, in accordance with their respective capabilities, to integrate and coordinate the collection, analysis and Exchange in respect of all temporary and long-term data and information to ensure systematic observation of land degradation in affected areas and to better understand desertification and drought effects. It might help to improve, inter alia, early warning and previous planning processes with regard to the period of anticipation, which could be expected from the average of the differences in climate, providing practical advice for users at all levels, in particular, be informed of those local inhabitants. To achieve this, they must: (a) to support and strengthen the global network and the functioning of the institutions and data collection, analysis and exchange mechanisms, as well as systematic observation at all levels, which should be, inter alia: (i) implement the aim to use compatible standards and systems; (ii) to provide the necessary data and station network, including far in sparsely populated areas; (iii) to use modern technology for data collection, transmission and assessment, as well as the assessment of land degradation; and (iv) more closely links the national, subregional and regional data and information centres more closely with global processing of information sources; (b) ensure that information collection, analysis and Exchange on the local population and decision makers with information that addresses these specific problems, and that local people are involved in these activities; (c) support and further develop bilateral and multilateral programmes and projects aimed at defining, conducting, assessing and financing the collection, analysis and sharing, including, inter alia, integrated physical, biological and social and economic indicators; (d) use the fully competent intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and the experience of the experts, in particular, to disseminate relevant information and experiences among target groups in different regions; (e) the need to give the full data collection, analysis and exchange of relevant to socio-economic data, and their integration with physical and biological data; (f) to achieve the full and open exchange of information and full disclosure of all available sources relating to combating desertification and the effects of drought; and (g) according to the respective national legislation and/or policies, to disseminate information on local and traditional knowledge, in order to ensure their preservation and movement, as well as get the maximum return from them with regard to the local population. Article 17 research and development 1. the Parties shall, within their means, shall adopt measures to develop the technical and scientific cooperation in the fight against desertification and drought effects in reducing both among national, subregional, regional and international institutions. To achieve this, they support the scientific activities that: (a) increased knowledge of the processes that causes desertification or drought, as well as their impact, and the relationships between them, for certain specific cases, both natural and anthropogenic, relating to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, and achieve to increase productivity or improve the sustainable use of natural resources and management; (b) comply with well defined objectives, ensure the specific needs of local populations and lead to the identification of methods and measures, which led to a population increase of the standard of living in affected areas; (c) protect, integrate, support and evaluate traditional and local knowledge, know-how and practices, ensuring the protection of the respective national legislation and/or policies, that the owners of knowledge to them, or from the development of technology related to this knowledge for direct commercial advantage; (d) develop and strengthen national, subregional and regional scientific potential in affected developing countries, particularly in Africa, including the local knowledge and skill development and strengthening to the required level, especially in countries with underdeveloped research base, with particular relevance between disciplinary and socio-economic research; (e) take into account, where relevant, the relationship between poverty, migration caused by environmental factors, and desertification; (f) support and run joint research programmes between national, subregional and international research institutions, both public and private sectors, to develop and improve the technology in the direction of sustainable development, make them available and accessible to the local community; and (g) to increase the availability of water resources in affected areas, inter alia, of the artificial rain. 2. Research priorities for individual regions and subregions, reflecting different local conditions, and that includes the action programmes. The Conference of the Parties shall periodically review research priorities at the science and Technology Committee. Article 18 transfer of technology, a presentation, an adaptation and development 1. the Parties shall take steps, as decided, and according to their national legislation and/or policy to promote, Fund and/or promote such transfer, financing, adaptation and presentation of development of environmentally friendly, economically accessible and socially acceptable technologies, which is useful in combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought, while also encouraging the achievement of sustainable development in affected areas. Such cooperation can be realized by bilateral or multilateral, as necessary, to ensure full intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations and practices. The Parties shall ensure that: (a) full use of relevant existing national, subregional, regional and international information systems and "clearing-house" information on the evaluation front available technologies, their sources, their environmental risks and the broad-scale information on their application; (b) the approach is promoted, in particular in relation to the affected developing country Parties, on favourable terms, including concessional and various arrangements, taking into account the need to protect intellectual property rights, as well as the fact that the technology should be useful for the local population-specific needs, paying special attention to the impact of such technology on the social sphere, culture, the economy and the environment; (c) to promote cooperation between the affected countries in terms of technology through financial assistance or other applicable techniques; (d) extend technology cooperation among affected developing country Parties, including, where relevant, joint ventures, especially in those sectors that offer alternative livelihoods; and (e) adopt appropriate measures to create domestic market conditions and incentives, fiscal or otherwise, who runs the appropriate technology development, transfer, and adaptation of izpazīstināšan, knowledge, know-how and practices, including measures to ensure adequate and effective protection of intellectual property. 2. the Parties shall, with regard to their capabilities and their national legislative provisions and/or policies, protect, promote and use special local traditions and local technology, knowledge, know-how and practices and, in a way, they do the following: (a) prepare inventories of such technology, knowledge, know-how and practices for their possible use in the local community, the wide and complete the following information, where appropriate in cooperation with relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations; (b) ensure that such technology, knowledge, know-how and practices to use adequate protection and that the local population benefits from its direct benefits, options and similar as agreed, of all possible commercial applications sometimes or from all the subsequent developments, which are based on these technologies later; (c) provide and actively support the further development of such technologies and the spread of knowledge, know-how and practices, as well as the application of new technologies to the base; and (d) promote, where appropriate, the adaptation of such technology, knowledge, know-how and practices to wide use and integrate them with the use of modern technology, as it can. 3. Subdivision: support measures article 19 capacity-building, education and public involvement 1. Parties recognize the capacity of the critical importance of building — with this concept of realizing the appropriate local and national institution-building, training and development, measures to combat desertification and drought, to reduce the adverse effects. They support, as necessary, the capacity-building: (a) with the local people, particularly women and youth participation at all levels, in particular at the local level, and in cooperation with regional and non-governmental organizations; (b) strengthening training and research capacity at the national level in the areas of desertification and drought; (c) by establishing and/or strengthening and expanding services that result in adequate technological methods and techniques more effectively through field training and field organizations are distributed to the general public, and are useful for the protection of natural resources and their sustainable management; (d) supporting local people knowledge and know-how and promote their dissemination and use, where possible; (e) the adapting, where necessary, relevant environmentally sound technology and traditional methods of agriculture and pastoralism to modern socio-economic conditions; (f) providing appropriate training and technology in the use of alternative energy sources, especially renewable resources, aiming to reduce dependency on the use of wood fuels; (g) through cooperation, as mutually agreed, to strengthen the affected developing country Parties to the capacity-to develop and implement programs, data collection, analysis and in the field of exchange of information pursuant to article 16; (h) with innovative techniques for developing alternative livelihoods, as well as learning new skills; (i) training of decision makers, managers and personnel responsible for the data collection and analysis, as well as their dissemination and use of early warning information on snow expected drought conditions and the expected yield; (j) with the effective functioning of national authorities and its legislative database, which is required when creating new institutions, together with the strategic planning and management issues; and (k) the use of professional exchange programme, to increase the capacity of the affected country Parties with long-term interactive teaching and study process. 2. Affected developing country Parties shall develop, in cooperation with other parties and competent between the Government and non-governmental organizations, as appropriate, an interdisciplinary review of available capacity and institutions at the local and national level, and the strengthening of their capabilities. 3. the Parties shall cooperate with each other and through competent intergovernmental organisations, as well as with non-governmental organizations, creating and sustaining programs and training in public involvement, both affected and, where relevant, not in affected country Parties to promote understanding of the causes and consequences of desertification and drought cause and for the attainment of the objectives of the Convention's importance in this area. To this end: (a) organizing, extensive public engagement campaign; (b) support, the regular way, access to public interest information, as well as the participation of the general public education and participation activities; (c) encourage the various associations and institutions involved in the public participation process; (d) developing and disseminating educational and public outreach material, where possible in local languages, also Exchange experts and ensure lasting participation of experts in affected countries, to train personnel and carry out relevant education and awareness programmes, as well as the full use of all the competent international institutions training materials to be acquired; (e) assess educational needs in affected areas, elaborate appropriate school curricula and increase if needed, educational and adult educational programs and the likelihood of these all, particularly girls and women, on the assessment of natural resources, the protection and sustainable management in affected areas; and (f) develop interdisciplinary participatory programmes integrating desertification and drought issues in the education system, including these questions also informal, adult, and distance and practical training programmes. 4. The Conference of the Parties shall provide and/or strengthen contacts between regional education and training centres to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. These contacts are created between institutions, created with the purpose to train scientific and technical staff and managers, and to strengthen existing institutions responsible for education and training in affected country Parties, where appropriate, the harmonization of programmes and organizing exchanges of experience on their marketing. These contacts, in close cooperation with relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations to avoid overlap and duplication. Article 20 financial resources 1. Putting in the foreground, the provision of funding for the attainment of the objectives of the Convention, the parties, taking into account their real possibilities, shall make every effort to ensure adequate funding of programmes to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought realisation. 2. In this connection, developed country Parties, giving priority to affected African country Parties and not excluding assistance to affected developing country Parties in other regions, in accordance with article 7, shall ensure: (a) the mobilization of substantial financial resources, including grants and concessional loans, in order to support programmes to combat desertification and the effects of drought; (b) promote the use of appropriate volume and time of mobilization of financial resources, timely for new and additional funding from the Global Environment Fund activities that relate to desertification in four focal areas that are defined by the global environment facility in accordance with their own procedures; (c) promoting, through international cooperation, technology, knowledge and know-how transfer, and (d) develop, in cooperation with affected developing country Parties, innovative methods and incentives for mobilising and deliver resources, including from various foundations, non-governmental organizations and the private sector, in particular debt reduction and other innovative means which increase the internal funding opportunities through the international debt reduction or deletion in affected developing country Parties, particularly in Africa. 3. affected developing country Parties, taking into account their real possibilities, mobilise adequate financial resources for the implementation of national action programmes. 4. Mobilizing financial resources, the Parties shall examine all possibilities to use and continue various qualitative improvements in national, bilateral and multilateral funding sources and mechanisms, forming consortia, joint programmes and parallel financing, and attracting private sector funding sources and mechanisms, including non-governmental organizations. To this end, the Parties shall fully use the operational mechanisms, which are given in article 14 of the Convention. 5. in order to mobilize the financial resources necessary for affected developing country Parties in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, the Parties shall: (a) streamline and strengthen their resources, which are already used to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, management, using the most efficient and effective use of the evaluation of the success and bottlenecks, eliminating barriers to their effective use and, redirecting to an integrated long-term program approach to meet the spirit of the Convention; (b) the Government gives priority to the international financial institutions, bodies and funds, including regional development banks and funds, to supporting affected developing country Parties, particularly in Africa, in activities which contribute to the implementation of the Convention, apply it to the action programmes which are being implemented in conjunction with the regional implementation annexes; and (c) examine ways to strengthen regional and subregional cooperation, to support the activities carried out at national level. 6. other parties are invited on a voluntary basis, to share knowledge, know-how and techniques related to the fight against desertification and/or financial resources to affected developing countries. 7. to affected developing country Parties to implement the Convention fully, especially African countries, should receive appropriate assistance from developed country Parties, in particular with regard to financial resources and transfer of technology. In carrying out their obligations, developed countries takes into account that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first priority for affected developing country Parties, particularly in Africa. Article 21 financial mechanisms to support the Conference of the parties 1 the availability of financial mechanisms and shall encourage such mechanisms to the maximum possible funding, in the provision of the affected developing country Parties, particularly in Africa, to implement the Convention. In this regard, the Conference of the Parties shall consider and nominate for adoption inter alia approaches and policies to: (a) meet the required financing needs at the national, subregional, regional and global levels for activities that meet the objectives of the Convention; (b) support the different sources of funding approach, its relevant mechanisms and arrangements and their assessment, consistent with article 20; (c) provide interested parties and intergovernmental and non-governmental organisations with regular information on available resources and funds and their requirements for use, to promote better cooperation between these organizations; (d) support the establishment of the mechanism, if necessary, such as national desertification funds, including how members and inviting non-governmental organizations, to deliver financial resources rapidly and efficiently to the local level in affected developing country Parties; and (e) strengthen existing funds and financial mechanisms at subregional and regional levels, particularly in Africa, thus more effective support for the implementation of this Convention. 2. the Conference of the parties to support the implementation of the Convention through multiple mechanisms within the United Nations system and through the international financial institutions in support of national, subregional and regional levels activities that enable developing country Parties to implement their obligations laid down in the Convention. 3. affected developing country Parties, and is used where necessary, establish and/or strengthen, national coordinating mechanisms, integrated into their national development programmes, to ensure effective use of available financial resources. They provide non-governmental organizations, local groups and private sector participation in the financing, its availability in the preparation, implementation and control of participation at the local level. These activities can be secured only through improved coordination and fast responsive programs of those parties which provide funding and provide assistance. 4. to increase the existing financial mechanisms, efficiency and productivity, the global mechanism will be created to develop financial resources mobilization and channelling them to measures such as technology transfer in the form of grant and/or concession or other terms acceptable to the affected developing country Parties. This global mechanism held the Conference of the parties to the Convention and management and is accountable to the Conference of the parties to the Convention. 5. the Conference of the first session, identify organizations that find the global mechanism. The Conference of the parties and shall identify the Organization agree on the global mechanism and the format so that it can provide, inter alia, the following tasks: (a) identify existing bilateral and multilateral cooperation programmes and preparing the inventory, which is useful for the implementation of the Convention; (b) to give advice, if one of the parties is required, on innovative methods of financing and sources of funding and improve the opportunities for cooperation between the party and those measures or improving coordination at the national level; (c) to provide interested parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations with information on available financial resources and the terms of use, to promote cooperation between them; and (d) starting with the second session to report to the Conference of the parties on its activities. 6. The Conference of the parties at its first session, establish the necessary contacts and links with the organisation, which it identified as the global mechanism, administrative communication with this mechanism, establishing for this purpose possible budgetary and human resources. 7. The Conference of the Parties shall, at its third ordinary session, review and renew the global mechanism operational policies, tools and measures, as well as assess the relevant part of this article and in the light of article 7. Based on this review, it may take decisions on appropriate actions. Title IV institutions article 22 Conference of Parties 1. The Conference of the parties is hereby established. 2. The Conference of the parties is the supreme body of the Convention. So, according to its mandate, the decisions necessary for the effective implementation of the Convention. The Conference of the parties: (a) regularly review the implementation of the Convention, its institutional decisions according to the experience gained at the national, subregional, regional and international levels, as well as the last scientific and technical knowledge; (b) support and promote the exchange of information and other measures adopted by the parties, and determine the form and time for submission of information under article 26 of the Convention's requirements, evaluate and prepare a report on those findings; (c) establish additional institutions as are necessary for the implementation of the Convention; (d) consider reports submitted additional institutions and their evaluation; (e) decide on and adopt, through compromise, rules of procedure and financial rules and procedures for yourself and additional institutions; (f) adopt annexes to Convention in accordance with articles 30 and 31; (g) adopt the programme and budget performance, including additional institutions, and shall take the appropriate measures to ensure the financing thereof; (h) if necessary, through coordination, use of services and the competent authorities and the Agency prepared information, both national and international, intergovernmental or non-governmental; (i) promote and strengthen the collaboration with other relevant conventions while avoiding duplication of measures; and (j) take any action that is necessary for the attainment of the objectives of the Convention. 3. The Conference of the parties at its first session, adopt the agreement of its rules of procedure, including the including the decision making mechanism for issues that are fixed in the Convention. Such procedures may include special provisions on the voting majorities required in adopting specific decisions. 4. The first Conference of the Parties shall arrange for the interim secretariat of the Convention in accordance with the requirements of article 35 at the latest one year after the entry into force of the Convention. If the Conference of the Parties decides otherwise, the Conference's second, third and fourth ordinary sessions shall be held yearly, but further the implementation of the Convention in the course of an ordinary session shall be held once every two years. 5. The Conference of the parties to the extraordinary sessions can be held at a time and in order, as it shall be decided upon by the Conference of the parties in ordinary session or at the written proposal of any of the parties that filed permanent secretariat, within three months after the date of this application by the parties, if such a proposal is supported by at least one third of the parties. 6. At each ordinary session, the Conference of the Parties shall elect a Bureau. Structure and functions of the Office must be determined in the rules of procedure. Confirming the composition of the Bureau, great attention must be paid equivalent to the national parties by geographical representation and influence factors, with particular attention being paid to the African country. 7. The United Nations, its specialized agencies and by each Member State as well as the observer of a country not party to the Convention, may be represented as an observer at the session of the Conference of the parties. Each institution or agency, both national and international, governmental or non-governmental, which is competent and qualified with the Convention matters, and which has informed the Permanent Secretariat of its wish to be represented at sessions of the Conference of the parties as an observer may be admitted unless it is at least one third of the parties. The admission and participation of observers shall be subject to the rules of procedure, which shall be adopted by the Conference of the parties. 8. The Conference of the parties may request competent national and international bodies which have appropriate experience in the field, prepare information in connection with article 16 of the Convention (g), article 17 paragraph 1 point (c) of part a, and article 18, part 2, point (b). 23. Article 1 the Permanent Secretariat is hereby established the Permanent Secretariat. 2. Independent Secretariat functions include: (a) prepare the sessions of the Conference of the parties and provide all the necessary services for the created additional to the Convention institutions; (b) organize and transmit reports submitted to it; (c) support to help affected developing country Parties, upon request, in particular the African countries, the implementation of the Convention, the necessary information and arranging distribution; (d) to coordinate its activities with the secretariats and other relevant international bodies and conventions; (e) participating, under the guidance of the Conference of the parties, administrative measures and to conclude the contract, which requires effective enforcement function; (f) to prepare reports on the execution of its functions under the Convention and to submit it to the Conference of the parties; and (g) to perform other Secretariat functions determined by the Conference of the parties. 3. The Conference of the parties at its first session, shall designate a permanent secretariat and make arrangements for it to function properly. Article 24 the Committee of science and technology 1. Science and Technology Committee is established as a subsidiary body of the Conference of the parties to provide the necessary information and provide advice on scientific and technological matters relating to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. The Committee will hold its meetings in connection with the regular meetings of the Conference of the parties and is multidisciplinary and open to the participation of all the parties. It consists of the Government representatives who are competent and experienced in the relevant matters. The Conference of the parties at its first ordinary session, gives the work task Committee. 2. The Conference of the Parties shall prepare and update a list of independent experts who have the skills and experience in important areas. The list is generated based on the parties ' nominations, submitted in writing, taking into account the need for multidisciplinary analysis and follow geographical representation. 3. The Conference of the parties may, if necessary, to create "ad hoc" working groups, to ensure through the Committee needed information and advice on relevant specific issues of science and technology areas relevant to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. These working groups of experts shall be drawn up, which included a list of words taking into account the need to ensure a multidisciplinary approach and broad geographical representation. These experts must be sufficient scientific expertise, including in the field of work, and the list must be approved by the Conference of the parties on the basis of the application of the Committee. The Conference of the Parties shall decide on the terms of reference and the work of the working group. Article 25 the institutions, agencies and networks of organizations 1. Science and Technology Committee under the supervision of the Conference of the parties to carry out a study on the existing network and the evaluation in relation to the relevant existing networks, institutions, agencies and organizations who wish to be included in this network. This network supports Implementation of the Convention. 2. on the basis of the study and the evaluation stipulated in part 1, the science and Technology Committee recommends the Conference of the parties and the means to develop and strengthen the improvement of access to local and other levels, judged it to be provided to the recipient of that thematic need addressed in article 16 and article 19. 3. in the light of these recommendations, the Conference of the parties: (a) identify those national, subregional, regional and international units that are most important to start on the network, and recommends them to operational procedures and time schedules; and (b) identify the units that are most useful to support such a network and strengthening at all levels. Title v article 26 procedure Information movement 1. Each Party shall provide the Conference of the parties for consideration at the regular session, through the Permanent Secretariat, reports on measures adopted for the implementation of the Convention. The Conference of the Parties shall establish the following message content, format and submission schedule. 2. Affected country Parties shall prepare a description of the strategy for the implementation of article 5, as well as the necessary for their implementation. 3. Affected country Parties which implement action programmes pursuant to articles 9 to 15, the program provided detailed and performance description. 4. any affected country Parties may make the group — a common report on the measures undertaken for subregional and/or regional levels in accordance with the programme of action. 5. the developed countries reported on measures to help action programme preparation and implementation, including information on financial resources they have transferred, or going to do, for the implementation of this Convention. 6. Distributed information in accordance with sections of part 1 to 4, shall be submitted to the Permanent Secretariat as soon as possible of the Conference of the parties, as well as the corresponding subordinate organizations. 7. The Conference of the parties, with respect to affected developing countries, particularly in Africa, at their request, of technical and financial assistance for the collection and dissemination of information in the context of the article, as well as identifying the technical and financial needs associated with action programmes. Article 27 measures in relation to issues of implementation, the Conference of the Parties shall consider and adopt procedures and institutional mechanisms for the adoption of resolutions that may be necessary in connection with the implementation of the Convention. 28. Article 1 of the procedure for the prevention of disputes. the parties avoid any disputes concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention through negotiation or other peaceful means of their own choice. 2. When ratifying, accepting, approving, or acceding to the Convention, or at any time thereafter, a party which is not a regional economic integration organization may make a declaration in writing to the depositary that, in respect of any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, it recognizes one or both of the following means of dispute avoidance as binding for each side, which accepts the same obligation: (a) arbitration in connection with the procedures adopted by the Conference of the parties as an annex to the Convention as soon as possible; (b) submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice. 3. a party that is a regional economic integration organization shall declare on the application of the arbitration under part 2 (a). 4. the Declaration submitted under part 2, shall remain in force until its expiry or three months after the time when the notice in writing of its withdrawal is fixed with the depositary. 5. at the time of the Declaration, a notice of the suspension or the new declaration must in no way affect the procedures begun before the arbitrator or the Tribunal, the International Court of Justice unless the parties to the dispute decide otherwise. 6. If the parties to the dispute have not accepted the same or any of the dispute procedures according to part 2, and they have not been able to agree within a period of 12 months from the time when one of the Parties notifies the other of a dispute, the dispute between them should be deposited in the dispute at the request of a party to the dispute, in accordance with the procedures adopted by the Conference of the parties as quickly as possible. Article 29 the Annexes annex 1: legal status make up an integral part of the Convention and, if you make reference to the Convention, it automatically includes a reference to the annexes. 2. the Parties shall translate the obligations stipulated in the annexes in accordance with the rights and obligations arising from the Convention articles. Article 30 amendments to the Convention each party may propose amendments to the Convention. 2. Amendments shall be adopted during the current session of the Conference of the parties to the Convention. The Permanent Secretariat will circulate the text of the proposed amendment to the parties at least six months before the meeting at which the text is proposed for consideration and adoption. The Permanent Secretariat of the proposed amendments to the signatories to the Convention were also distributed. 3. The Parties shall make every effort to reach a compromise and agreement to make any amendments to the Convention submitted. If all the resources are spent on finding a compromise, but no agreement has been reached, the amendment shall, using the last resort may be adopted by a two-thirds majority vote of the Parties present at the meeting. The amendments adopted by the Permanent Secretariat sent to the depositary, who shall circulate it to the parties for ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. 4. instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession in respect of the annexes, shall be deposited with the depositary. The amendments adopted under part 3, shall enter into force for the States which adopted it, within 90 days after the depositary has received instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession of at least two-thirds of the parties that were parties to the adoption of this annex. 5. The amendment shall enter into force for any party on the 90th day after that party's instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession in relation to the specific scenario in the depositary annex. 6. This article and within the meaning of article 31. "Parties present and voting" means Parties present and submit a positive or negative vote. Article 31 adoption and amendment of Annexes 1. each Annex to the Convention and any amendments to the annexes are recommended and adopted in accordance with the procedures of the Convention, in article 30, provided that, in addition to the adopting the regional implementation annex or amendment to any regional implementation annex, the majority of this pursuant to this article shall ensure that at least two-thirds of the votes of the parties of the region concerned, which participated and voted. The depositary shall inform all parties of the adoption or amendment of the annex. 2. in the annex, which is not a regional implementation annexes or amendments to those annexes, other than amendments to any of the regional implementation annexes, and adopted in accordance with part 1, shall enter into force for all Contracting Parties to the Convention six months after the date of the depositary has announced the following Contracting Parties of such annex or amendment, except for those parties that have notified of this time of writing, the depositary of the adoption of the annex or Amendment No. The following annex shall enter into force for parties which withdraw on or non-acceptance of the amendment of the annex, on the 90th day after being informed the depositary of its acceptance of the warning was withdrawn. 3. regional implementation annex or amendment to any regional implementation annex, adopted in accordance with part 1, shall enter into force for all Contracting Parties to the Convention six months after the date of the depositary has announced the following Contracting Parties of such annex or amendment, except: (a) any party which warned the depositary in writing, within six months, on the implementation of the regional Annex or amendment thereto is not making in such a case, the annex or amendment shall enter into force for this party on the 90th day after it informed the depositary of their acceptance of the withdrawal not warning; and (b) any party which has made a declaration with respect to additional regional implementation annexes or amendments to regional implementation annexes in accordance with article 34 of part 4, subject to the requirements of this annex or of the amendment to enter into force on the 90th day since the submission of the instruments of accession, instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval, or accession, concerning this amendment, supplement or submitted to the depositary. 4. If the amendment of the annex or adoption of amendments necessary to the Convention, that annex or amendment can enter into force before the entry into force of the amendments to the Convention. Article 32 right to vote 1. Exception stipulated in part 2, each party to the Convention shall have one vote. 2. regional economic integration organizations, in matters of their competence, you can use a number of votes corresponding to the Member States-parties to the Convention. However, such an organisation cannot use their right to vote if any of the Member States exercise theirs, and the other way around.
Section VI final ISSUE in article 33 signature this Convention is open for signature by the United Nations Member States or any of its specialized agencies which, if they recognize how the International Court of Justice, the parties, as well as regional economic integration organisations, Paris, 1994, 14-15 October. It is open for signature by the end of this period, the United Nations Headquarters in New York until 13 October 1995. Article 34 ratification, acceptance, approval and accession 1. it is the subject of the Convention, which States and regional economic integration organization ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to it. The Convention may also accede to the date of its signing has been terminated. Instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be submitted to the depositary. 2. Any regional economic integration organization which becomes a party to the Convention, before any of its Member States become party to the Convention shall assume full liability for the Convention. When one or more of the following Member States of the organisation become parties to the Convention, the Organization and its Member States shall decide on the allocation of responsibility for implementation of the Convention. In such cases, the Organization and its Member States can not to exercise rights under the Convention. 3. in their instruments of ratification of the Convention, acceptance, approval or accession, the regional economic integration organisation declares in its field of competence with regard to the disposal of the Convention issues. They also made clear that while the depositary shall inform the parties, of any substantial modification of the competence of those organizations or increases. 4. In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession instruments each party may declare that, for any regional implementation annex or amendment shall enter into force in the country only when the instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, was delivered to the depositary. Article 35 of the provisional agenda the secretariat functions according to article 23 of the United Nations General Assembly on 22 December 1992 decision 47/188 established the interim secretariat until the time when the first session of the Conference of the parties. Article 36 entry into force 1. The Convention will enter into force on the ninetieth day after the deposit of instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with the Depositary of the instrument in the late 1950s the submission. 2. Any State or regional economic integration organization which ratifies, accepts, approves or accedes to the Convention after the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession with the depositary of the submission, the Convention shall enter into force on the 90th day after the date on which that State or regional economic integration organization shall submit to the depositary of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. 3. in accordance with part 1 and 2, any instrument submitted, submitted by a regional economic integration organization shall not be counted as a complement to those instruments provided the Member States of the organisation. Article 37 reservations no reservations may be made to this Convention. 38. Article 1 of the Withdrawal at any time three years after the entry into force of the Convention for the party concerned, it may withdraw its participation in the Convention by submitting an application in writing to the depositary. 2. Any such withdrawal shall take effect one year after the depositary has received the following application, or later, if specified in the application for revocation. Article 39 depositary of the United Nations General Secretariat is depository of this Convention. Article 40 authentic texts the original of this Convention in the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish languages is completely authentic and have been deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations. In witness whereof, the undersigned, being duly authorized, have signed the Convention. In Paris, one thousand nine hundred and ninety-four seventeenth day of June.

Annex I regional implementation annex for Africa, article 1 the content of this annex applies to Africa, in relation to each party and in accordance with the Convention, in particular its article 7, relating to combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought within the arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas in the partially-. Article 2 purpose the purpose of this annex is the national, subregional and regional levels in Africa, in accordance with its particular conditions: (a) to identify measures and arrangements, including the process of assistance measures and preparatory work, which developed country Parties provide it, in connection with the relevant mechanisms of the Convention; (b) to provide practical opportunities for the effective implementation of the Convention in Africa, according to its specific conditions, and (c) to support the process and measures related to combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought in arid, semi arid semiarīdajos and sub-humid areas in Africa-. Article 3 special circumstances in various regions of Africa in carrying out their obligations with respect to this Convention, the Parties shall, with regard to the implementation of the annex, uses a holistic approach, which is based on the following specific circumstances of Africa taking into account: (a) the high arid, semiarīd and dry sub-humid areas partly-share; (b) a significant number of countries and their population is significantly affected by desertification and drought in the regular repetition of negative effects called; (c) many of the affected countries are neighbours of the apjož; (d) the general poverty is common to many of the affected countries, there are many developing countries that require significant amounts of external assistance, both the grant and loan, both in the form of concessions to ensure their development; (e) the difficult social and economic conditions, exacerbated by the uncertainty of marketing conditions, external indebtedness and political instability, which leads to internal, regional and international migrations; (f) the existence of the population too much in direct dependence on natural resources that, in relation to demographic factors and effects and their trends, a weak technological base and unsustainable production practices, contributes to serious resource degradation; (g) the insufficient legislative base and weak institutions which implement it poorly developed infrastructure and the insufficient scientific, technical and educational capacity, leading to substantial capacity building requirements of the need in all areas; and (h) measures for combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought should be isolated as the leading event for all affected African countries development priorities. Article 4 of the African States the rights and obligations of the parties 1. Match your actual capabilities, African country Parties shall recognize: (a) combating desertification and/or the effects of drought as a central strategy for the eradication of poverty; (b) support for regional cooperation and integration, solidarity and good spirit of partnership based on mutual interest, in programmes and activities to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought; (c) rationalize and strengthen existing with desertification and drought issues in related institutions, and involve other actors institutions, if necessary, to create a more effective and to ensure more efficient use of resources; (d) promote the exchange of information on appropriate technology, knowledge, know-how and practices within and between them; and (e) develop contingency plans for degraded areas with respect to mitigating the effects of drought and desertification. 2. in accordance with the General and specific conditions resulting from the Convention and article 4, affected country Parties of Africa: (a) distribution to the appropriate financial resources from their national budgets and in accordance with national capabilities, and reflecting the recognition that Africa has recognized desertification and/or drought impacts a priority; (b) implement and promote reforms for greater centralization, better monitoring of the resources, as well as provide local residents and public participation; and (c) identify and engage new and additional national financial resources, and expand, as a priority measure, existing national capacity and institutions to mobilise domestic financial resources. 5. the article developed country-rights and obligations of the parties 1. In carrying out their obligations arising from the Convention, articles 6 and 7, the developed countries-the Parties shall give priority to affected African country Parties and, in this regard: (a) assist them to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought, inter alia, providing and/or facilitating access to financial and/or other resources, and promoting, financing and/or support the appropriate environmental technologies and know-how transfer , an adaptation of, the availability, as mutually decided in connection with national policies, taking into account that they recognize poverty as his central strategy; (b) continue the significant resources deployment to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought; and (c) assist them in capacity building and ensure institutional compliance, as well as their scientific and technical capabilities, information collection and analysis, as well as research on development, necessary for combating desertification and/or mitigating the effects of drought. 2. other country Parties may provide, on the initiative of the free base, technology, knowledge and know-how relating to desertification and/or financial resources, to affected African country Parties. Such knowledge, know-how and technology transfer to support international cooperation in General. Article 6 strategic planning for sustainable development 1. National Programme of action is a central and integral part of broader national policy process, formulating national policies for sustainable development in affected African countries. 2. The consultative and participatory process adequately involved the Government, local residents, civil society and non-governmental organizations to develop policies and strategies that include fast reactive planning process and allow maximum local and community participation. If necessary, bilateral and multilateral assistance agencies may be involved in this process at the affected African country Parties-request. Article 7 the elaboration of action programmes in the time following the entry into force of this Convention, the African country Parties, in cooperation with other international partners, if necessary as far as possible, be provided with national, subregional and regional action programmes in the related paragraph of the Convention. Article 8 content of national action programmes under the Convention 1 article 10, national action programmes the strategy stresses the areas affected the developed application integration in local development programmes, based on participatory mechanisms and integrating poverty reduction strategies in activities related to combating desertification and the effects of drought. Programs include the necessary measures for local capacity building and provides an active local community groups and participation in education and training, mobilization of non-governmental organizations, through their experience and strengthening decentralized government structures. 2. National action programmes shall, as appropriate, include the following issues: (a) past experience gained in designing and implementing action programmes to combat desertification and/or reducing the effects of drought, taking into account the social, economic and ecological conditions; (b) the identification of the factors that determine desertification and/or drought and the resources and capacities needed and necessary policies and institutions, form joint measures to combat these phenomena and/or reducing their effects; and (c) measures for the local population and to strengthen public participation, including women, farmers and the involvement of both, and asking them greater responsibility for their own housekeeping. 3. National action programmes, if necessary, include: (a) measures to improve the economic environment, with the aim of reducing poverty: (i) the increase in employment and thus providing greater revenue opportunities, especially for the poorest members of society, through the development of the market: farm and livestock production; — local needs a suitable financial instrument; the transformation of agriculture and the creation of new agricultural enterprises; and, for agricultural and non-agricultural economic activities; (ii) improving long-term development opportunities through practice areas: productive initiatives in investment and the availability of means of production; and, the price and tax policies and commercial practices that promote growth; (ii) the definition and implementation of population growth and migration policies to reduce population pressures on the land unit; and (iv) promoting drought-resistant plant breeding, as well as supporting the integrated dry land farming systems for food security purposes; (b) measures for the conservation of natural resources: (i) ensuring integrated and sustainable management of natural resources, including: — agricultural land and pastures; -vegetation cover and the natural life processes; — forests; -water resources; and biological diversity; (ii) training with respect to the above, and the strengthening of public participation in creating environmental education campaigns and disseminating knowledge of techniques relating to the sustainable management of natural resources; and (iii) ensuring the diversification of energy resources and their effective use, promoting the use of alternative forms of energy, especially solar, wind and biogas energy, as well as implementing the measures of this technology transfer, reading, adaptation to reduce the load on fragile natural resources; (c) institutional measures for improvement: (i) defining the distribution of duties and responsibilities between Central Government and local authorities for land-use planning policies and planning; (ii) promoting the decentralisation policy by sharing the responsibility for the management and local decision making, and promoting local initiatives in relation to sponsorship and appropriate management structures; and (iii) applying, if necessary, monitoring of natural resources and management control bodies and legislative regulations, the level of the local monitoring; (d) measures to improve knowledge of desertification: (i) promote research and data collection, processing and exchange of information on desertification scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects; (ii) improving national capacities in the field of scientific research and data collection, processing and exchange of information, its analysis, to increase understanding of the results and use them in the development of proposals for action; and (iii) supports the medium-and long-term study of: — social and economic changes and kulturālaj in affected areas; — natural resources quality and quantitative changes; and, the interaction between climate and desertification; and (e) measures the effects of the drought monitoring and assessment for improvement: (i) developing strategies to evaluate the impacts of natural climate fluctuations on drought and desertification regional manifestations and/or conditions that determine the seasonal and annual climate changes, to mitigate the effects of drought; (ii) improving early warning systems and response mechanisms in order to effectively manage the emergency measures and ensure food supply, and improving food stocking and distribution systems, cattle protection schemes and public works and alternative livelihoods for drought prone areas; and (iii) monitor and evaluate the ecological degradation to provide accurate and timely information on the process and dynamics of resource to promote more accurate policy decisions and responses. Article 9 national action programme for the development and implementation by using the indicators of Any affected African country party means the appropriate national authorities, acting as Coordinator for establishing, implementing and evaluating the implementation of this programme. This coordinating body shall, in accordance with article 3 of this Annex: (a) the choice of measures and the required cases reassessed, starting with local consultation, involving local populations and communities in them, in cooperation with the local administration, developed countries and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, on the basis of initial consultations at the national level; (b) identify and analyse the conditions, needs and deficiencies affecting the sustainable land use and recommend practical measures to avoid duplication with regard to measures to be implemented and the results of the assessment; (c) develop, propose and formulate various measures based on an interactive and evolving approaches to ensure the active participation of the population in affected areas, measures to reduce these potential negative impacts, identify and prioritize financial and technical assistance needs; (d) select direct, comparable and clearly measurable indicators to assess and evaluate national action programmes that include short, medium and long-term measures, and the implementation of the programmes; and (e) prepare progress reports on the implementation of national action programmes. Article 10 Subregional action programme organizational structure 1. in accordance with article 4 of the Convention, African country Parties shall cooperate in the following subregional programme preparation and implementation for the Central, Eastern, Northern, southern and Western Africa and, in this regard, may delegate the following appropriate intergovernmental subregional organizations its responsibility in such matters (a) to act as the focal point for the subregional action programme for the implementation of coordination; (b) the participation of national action program development and implementation; (c) participation in the promotion of exchange of information, experience and know-how, as well as the national implementation legislation in the evaluation; and (d) any other responsibilities relating to the implementation of subregional action programmes. 2. Specialised subregional institutions may provide assistance, if such is required and/or the resulting from delegated functions relating to the coordination of measures within their competence. Article 11 Subregional action programme preparation and the subregional action programmes focus on such issues, which better addressing subregional level. It establishes, where necessary, mechanisms for the sharing of natural resources management. Such mechanisms can be more effectively solved in transboundary issues related to desertification and/or contribute to the harmonised implementation of national action programmes. The following priority areas of subregional action programmes, if necessary, are: (a) joint programmes for sustainable management of natural resources in the cross-border aspect, providing them with bilateral and multilateral mechanisms required; (b) coordination of the programme for the development of alternative forms of energy; (c) cooperation and the cooperation of the parasites and plant and animal disease control and eradication; (d) capacity building, education and public participation, which is effectively implemented at the subregional level; (e) scientific and technical cooperation, particularly in the climatological, meteorological and hydrology, including data collection network and data evaluation, access to information and project assessment, and scientific and development coordination; (f) early warning systems and joint effects of drought planning, including problems resulting from migration caused by environmental conditions; (g) exchange opportunities, especially for local residents and public participation, and an appropriate environment for better land use and application of relevant technologies; (h) strengthen the capacity of the sub-regional organisations and coordinates and provides technical maintenance, as well as the preparatory work and for the subregional development centres and institutions; and (i) developing policy in areas such as trade, which have a great impact on the affected areas and populations, including policies for regional markets and infrastructure coordination. Article 12 regional action programme preparation and the content of 1. Article 11 of the Convention, African country Parties shall establish procedures common to the regional action programme preparation and implementation. 2. the parties may provide appropriate support to relevant African regional institutions and organizations to increase their capabilities in providing assistance to African countries in the fulfilment of the obligations concerning this Convention. Article 13 of the regional action programme of the regional action programme contents include measures associated with combating desertification and/or drought effect prevention in the following priority areas, as necessary: (a) development of regional cooperation and coordination of subregional action programmes, to establish a common understanding regarding the defining policies of the region, this is achieved through regular consultations between regional and subregional organizations; (b) promotion of capacity building for the implementation of the measures more effectively at the regional level; (c) in the context of solutions with the international community on global economic and social issues which have a direct impact on affected areas taking into account article 4 of the Convention, paragraph 2, point (b); (d) supporting between affected African country Parties and subregions, as well as other affected areas, exchange of information on appropriate techniques, technical know-how and relevant experience; promoting science and technology cooperation in particular in meteorology, climatology, hydrology, water and alternative energy sources; subregional and regional scale studies; and setting regional priorities for research and development; (e) coordinating the systematic observation networks and the evaluation of the exchange of information, as well as integrating the networks global networks; and (f) subregional and regional early warning systems and drought plan coordination. Article 14 financial resources 1. According to the Convention and to article 20, part 2, article 4, affected country Parties of Africa provides the necessary macroeconomic adjustment, to mobilize financial resources, and develop a policy and establish procedures which resources more effectively in a discharge permit to the local programs through non-governmental organizations, where appropriate. 2. in accordance with article 21 of the Convention a part 4 and 5, the parties agree on an inventory of available resources, in the subreģināl national, regional and international levels to ensure the rational use of available resources and identify gaps in their positions by promoting the implementation of the programme of action. This inventory should be regularly reviewed and updated. 3. In connection with article 7 of the Convention, developed country Parties shall continue to deploy significant resources and/or increase those resources, as well as other forms of assistance for the affected African country Parties, based on cooperation agreements and arrangements referred to in article 18 of the Convention, focusing, inter alia, sufficient attention to this country in debt related issues, international trade and marketing, in relation to article 4 of the Convention, part 2, point (b). Article 15 Financial mechanisms 1. Article 7 of the Convention, evaluating the affected African country Parties and considering the particular situation in the region, the Parties shall pay special attention to the Convention, part 1 of article 21 (d) and (e) point for the implementation of the conditions in Africa, noting: (a) the establishment of mechanisms such as national desertification funds, to channel financial resources to the local level; and (b) the existing funds and financial mechanisms for strengthening the subregional and regional levels. 2. In relation to the 20 and 21 of the Convention, the parties which are also party to the relevant regional or subregional financial institutions management facilities, including the African Development Bank and the African Development Fund, shall promote efforts by these bodies and the activities that contribute to the implementation of this annex. 3. the Parties shall, wherever possible, simplify the procedures for channelling funds to affected African country Parties. Article 16 technical assistance and cooperation of the parties, within their capabilities, African country Parties will be given technical assistance and cooperation with these countries, streamlining to increase the effectiveness of projects and programmes, inter alia: (a) the limitēj and related support measures and their costs, in particular costs of supervision; in any case, such costs may be drawn up only a small portion of the total cost of the project, to prevent the decline of the effectiveness of the project; (b) giving priority to the involvement of experienced national experts or, where necessary, competent experts from the subregion of involvement and/or region, in project planning and implementation, and creating local expert experience, which do not yet have them, and (c) effectively managing and coordinating, as well as the implementation of the technical assistance provided. Article 17 Transfer, presentation, and availability of adaptation to environment-friendly technologies in implementing article 18 of the Convention, relating to the transfer of technology, a presentation, an adaptation and development the Parties shall give priority to African country Parties and, if necessary, form a new cooperation with them and cooperation models, in order to strengthen their capacity for research and the collection and use of information in the areas that would allow them to implement strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. Article 18 coordination and cooperation agreements 1. African country Parties shall coordinate national, subregional and regional action programmes in the development, adoption and implementation. They may involve, as appropriate, other parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in this process. 2. such coordination aims at providing financial and technical cooperation under the Convention and to ensure the necessary continuity in the use of resources in adiministratīv. 3. African country Parties shall organise a consultation at the national, subregional and regional levels. Such consultations shall be: (a) serve as a forum to consider and conclude cooperation agreements based on national, subregional and regional action programmes, and (b) the specific African country Parties and other members of the Advisory Group of the investment in such programmes and priorities and agree on the choice of the various indicators and use, as well as on the financing of the implementing measures. 4. The Permanent Secretariat, in response to the request of African country Parties, pursuant to article 23 of the Convention, facilitate this consultative process: (a) organisation providing advice for effective advice, transfer of experience in the organisation of such measures; (b) providing information on relevant bilateral and multilateral agencies that provide such measures of progress, and their active involvement; and (c) providing other information that may be important for preparing or holding a consultation. 5. Subregional and regional coordinating bodies shall, inter alia: (a) recommending enhancements to make the corresponding cooperation agreements; (b) monitor, assess and report on the subregional and regional programmes; and (c) endeavour to ensure efficient communication and cooperation with African countries-between the parties. 6. Participation in the consultative groups, if necessary, to ensure the Government, interest groups and donors, relevant preparatory work, the Fund and the United Nations system, relevant subregional and regional organizations, and the representatives of non-governmental organisations. Each such representative Advisory Group sets out its scope of responsibility and the operation procedure. 7. According to article 14 of the Convention, developed country Parties are invited to develop, on their own initiative, an informal process of consultation and coordination among themselves, at the national, subregional and regional levels, and in affected African country Parties or the appropriate subregional or regional organizations, on request, to participate in a national, subregional or regional consultative process to assess the necessary help and answer about your opportunities to support implementation. Article 19 surveillance monitoring for the implementation of this annex carried out in African countries parties to the Convention and in the following manner: (a) at the national level, with a mechanism which is to be determined for each affected African country party and which shall include representatives of local communities and functions mentioned in article 9 of the Convention national focal institution supervision; (b) at the subregional level, by a multidisciplinary scientific and Technical Consultative Committee, the cooperation of the African country Parties at the subregional level; and (c) regional level, by mechanisms that are mentioned in the relevant decisions, which established the African Economic Community and the African scientific and technical monitoring Committee. Annex II regional implementation annex for Asia article 1 purpose the purpose of this annex is to provide guidelines and preparations for the effective implementation of the Convention in affected Asian country Parties, taking into account their specific circumstances. Article 2 particular conditions of the Asian region in the execution of its obligations in relation to the Convention, the Parties shall take into account, if necessary, the following particular conditions which, up to a certain level refers to the affected countries in this region, the parties: (a) the great desertification and drought affected, or against these phenomena, sensitive areas, as well as a great diversity of such areas of climatological, topographical, land use and socio-economic aspects; (b) holding a large load on natural resources; (c) the distribution of production systems, directly related to widespread poverty, leading to land degradation and high load on scarce water resources; (d) significant a major factor as world economic situation and social problems like poverty, poor health and inadequate nutrition, lack of food security, migration, displaced persons and demographic dynamics; (e) kept increasing, but still insufficient institutional structures and capacities relating to desertification and drought issues in national capacity; and (f) the need for international cooperation to pursue sustainable development objectives relating to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. Article 3 conditions for national action programmes 1. National action programmes have a broader implementation of sustainable development an integral part of national policies in relation to the affected countries of the region. 2. affected countries-parties, if necessary, develop national action programmes under the Convention's article 9 to 11, paying special attention to article 10, part 2, paragraph (f). If necessary, bilateral and multilateral international cooperation agencies may be involved in this process at the affected country Parties. Article 4 national action programmes 1. formulating and implementing national action programmes, affected country Parties of the region, according to their circumstances and policies, may, inter alia, as appropriate: (a) to appoint appropriate bodies responsible for the preparation of national action programmes, coordination and implementation; (b) involve affected populations, including local communities, in the elaboration of action programmes, coordination and implementation, through local consultations, in collaboration with the local authorities and national and non-governmental organizations; (c) to explore the State of the environment in affected areas to assess the causes and consequences of desertification, and recommend priority measures (d) together with the affected populations, to assess past and current programmes for combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, in order to prepare strategies and integrated its action programmes; (e) on the basis of the measures arising from points (a) to (d), prepare technical and financial programmes; (f) establish and apply procedures and establish criteria to assess the implementation of the measures provided for in the programmes; (g) support integrated watershed management, soil conservation, and water resource efficiency program implementation; (h) improve and/or provide information, evaluation and decision-making, as well as early warning systems in regions that suffer from desertification and drought, taking account of climatological, meteorological, hydrological, biological and other relevant factors; and (i) formulate in a spirit of partnership, where international cooperation, including financial and technical resources, is involved, appropriate measures to support such programs. 2. in accordance with article 10 of the Convention, the overall strategy of national action programmes of affected stressed local development programme integration in using participatory mechanisms, as well as integrating poverty reduction strategies into efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. Industry-wide measures in action programmes are grouped by priority areas, taking into account the great diversity of affected areas in the region, according to article 2 (a). Article 5 subregional and joint action programmes under the Convention 1 article 11, affected country Parties of Asia may agree on cooperation and consultations with other parties, if necessary, to prepare and implement subregional or joint action programmes, if necessary, to supplement, enhance the implementation of national action programmes. In that case, the relevant parties may jointly agree on subregional, including bilateral or national organizations, or specialized institutions, designation as responsible for such preparation, coordination and implementation. Such organisations or institutions may also act as focal points 16 to 18 of the Convention, in article to support actions and coordination. 2. in preparing and implementing subregional or joint action programmes, affected countries of the region, the parties, inter alia, as appropriate: (a) identify, in cooperation with national institutions, priorities relating to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought which can better be achieved by running the following program, as well as significant activities that can be implemented through the following programs; (b) assess the relevant regional, subregional and national institutions and assess their operational capabilities; (c) assess existing programmes relating to desertification and drought among all or some parties of the region or subregion and their relationship with national action programmes; and (d) formulate in a spirit of partnership, where international cooperation, including financial and technical resources, appropriate bilateral and/or multilateral agreements that support the program. 3. Subregional common action programmes may include joint programmes on transboundary management of natural resources relating to desertification, priorities for coordination and other activities concerning capacity building, scientific and technical cooperation, particularly drought early warning systems and the availability of information, as well as relevant subregional and regional institutions and the strengthening of the organization. Article 6 regional measures regional measures that support subregional or joint action programmes may include, inter alia, measures to strengthen institutions and mechanisms to improve the coordination and cooperation at national, subregional and regional level to promote the Convention article 16 to 19. These measures may include: (a) technical cooperation and strengthening of networks; (b) drawing up the inventory of technology, knowledge, know-how and practices, as well as traditional and local technologies and know-how, and counting the distribution and use of this information; (c) technology transfer requirement evaluation and adaptation of such technologies and the promotion of the application; and (d) public information and involvement in supporting and promoting capacity building at all levels, improving training, research and development and building systems for human resource. Article 7 financial resources and mechanisms 1. Hand, convinced the fight against desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, the significance of the Asian region, support the mobilization of substantial financial resources, and the preparation of the financial mechanisms provided for in the Convention articles 20 and 21. 2. According to the Convention and on the basis of the coordination mechanism, which stipulated in article 8 of the Convention, and in the context of their national development policies, affected country Parties of the region shall, individually or jointly: (a) take measures to rationalize and strengthen mechanisms to supply funds through public and private investment with a view to achieving specific results in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought; (b) identify the need for international cooperation to support national efforts, particularly in the financial, technical and technological areas; and (c) promoting bilateral and multilateral financial cooperation institutions, with a view to ensuring implementation of the Convention. 3. the parties, real simple means, procedures for channelling funds to affected country Parties in the region. Article 8 cooperation and coordination mechanisms 1. Affected country Parties, through the appropriate preparatory work, which would, in accordance with article 4 of the Convention part 1 (a) of paragraph 1, as well as other parties in the region, can, if necessary, establish mechanisms, inter alia, the following objectives: (a) exchange of information, experience, knowledge and know-how for the Exchange. (b) cooperation and coordination of actions, including bilateral and multilateral preparatory work, the subregional and regional levels; (c) the scientific, technical, technological and financial support for cooperation in connection with article 5 to 7; (d) external cooperation needed for identification; and (e) the programme of action for evaluation of implementing measures. 2. affected country Parties, through appropriate arrangements, designated in accordance with article 4 of the Convention part 1 (a) and other parties in the region, you can also, if necessary, consult and coordinate with regard to national, subregional and joint action programmes. They may involve, as appropriate, other parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations in this process. Such coordination may, inter alia, seek to conclude agreements on international cooperation in the framework of the Convention and article 20 of 21 in support of technical cooperation and the means and resources to its effective use. 3. affected country Parties of the region may hold periodic coordination meetings and the Permanent Secretariat may, at their request, pursuant to article 23 of the Convention, to encourage the holding of such meetings of coordination: (a) giving advice on the Organization of effective coordination arrangements, the transfer of such events experience; (b) giving information on major bilateral and multilateral agencies that major deals with the coordination of meetings and ensuring their active involvement; and (c) giving any other information that may be important in creating or improving coordination processes. Regional implementation annex III annex of the Latin American and Caribbean Basin countries article 1 purpose the purpose of this annex is to define the main guidelines for the implementation of the Convention in Latin America and the Caribbean Basin countries, taking into account the special circumstances of the region. Article 2 of the Latin American and Caribbean countries in the particular circumstances of the parties, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, take into consideration the following particular conditions of the regions: (a) a large open, sensitivity to desertification and/or drought and observe this phenomenon already affected areas, which are very different, depending on their location; as well as the cumulative effects of the intensification of the process and bring negative social, cultural, economic and environmental effects, which are considered very serious, given that this region is still preserved in the world's largest biodiversity resources; (b) the frequent practice of the development of unbalanced distribution in affected areas, called the complex physical, biological, political, social, cultural and economic factors, including international economic factors, as external debt, trade rules and trade practice violations affecting the agriculture, fisheries and forestry product markets; and (c) the rapid decline in productivity of ecosystems as a direct consequence of desertification and drought that causes the decrease of production in agriculture, animal husbandry and forestry, as well as the loss of biodiversity; Judging from the social point of view, this phenomenon results in deterioration of the living conditions of the of the internal migration, population movements, and the degradation of the quality of life; Therefore, the region should adopt an integrated approach to the problems of desertification and drought's, promoting the sustainable development model implementation, including environmental, economic and social conditions for each country. 3. Article 1 of the action programme in accordance with the Convention, in particular its articles 9 to 11, and in the context of national development policies, affected country Parties of the region, if necessary, draw up and implement national action programmes to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought as an integral of the national sustainable development policy. Subregional and regional action programmes can be designed and implemented in accordance with the requirements of the region. 2. the drafting of their national action programmes, the affected countries of the region, the parties pay particular attention to article 10 of the Convention, part 2, paragraph (f). Article 4 composition of national action programmes to suit your situation, the affected countries of the region in developing their national strategies to combat desertification and/or mitigate the effects of drought, pursuant to article 5 of the Convention, affected country parties can take into account, inter alia, the following issues: (a) education and public participation, technical, scientific and technological capacity-building and financial resources, and the development of the mechanism; (b) eradication of poverty and improving the quality of human life; (c) food supply and implementation of sustainable development and management of agricultural, livestock, forestry and multipurpose activities; (d) sustainable management of natural resources, specifically focusing on the rational management of the catchment area; (e) sustainable management of natural resources highland areas; (f) soil conservation and rational management, as well as the efficient use of water resources; (g) developing emergency plans and to mitigate the effects of drought; (h) the supply of information system and strengthening early warning systems and/or creation of areas that are exposed to the threat of desertification and drought, taking account of climatological, meteorological, hydrological, biological, soil, economic and social factors; (i) the development of various energy sources, use and effective use, by supporting the use of alternative resources; (j) protection of biodiversity and the sustainable use of under the Convention on biological diversity; (k) includes the impact of demographic change on desertification and drought; and (l) the creation and strengthening of the institutional and legal framework for the implementation of the Convention, and take measures, inter alia, focused on the administrative system of decentralization with regard to issues related to desertification and drought, with the affected populations and the general public. Article 5 technical, scientific and technological cooperation in accordance with the provisions of the Convention article 16 to 18, and article 7 on the coordination mechanism established in the base, the region affected country Parties, individually or in combination: (a) support the strengthening of technical cooperation networks and national, subregional and regional information systems, as well as their integration, as appropriate, in worldwide sources of information; (b) draw up practicable technologies and know-how and promote their dissemination and use; (c) the promotion of traditional technology, knowledge, know-how and practices pursuant to article 18 of the Convention, part 2, point (b); (d) identify the need for technology transfer, and (e) promote the important eco-friendly technology development, adaptation, adoption and transfer. Article 6 financial resources and mechanisms in accordance with the Convention, especially its articles 20 and 21, and in the context of the coordination mechanisms set out in article 7, and in accordance with their national development policies, affected country Parties of the region, individually or in combination: (a) the choice of measures to rationalize and strengthen mechanisms to supply funds through public and private investments to achieve specific results in the fight against desertification and mitigate the effects of drought; (b) identify international cooperation requirements in support of national efforts; and (c) promoting bilateral and/or multilateral cooperation the involvement of institutions to ensure the implementation of the Convention. Article 7 institutional arrangements for the implementation of this Annex 1, in the affected countries of the region, the parties: (a) establish and/or strengthen national focal points to coordinate measures to combat desertification and/or drought effect; and (b) establish mechanisms to coordinate the national focal points for the following purposes: (i) the exchange of information and experience; (ii) subregional and regional coordination of the measures; (iii) technical, scientific, technological and financial cooperation; (iv) external cooperation to identify the need for, and (v) the action programme tracking and evaluation of their implementation. 2. affected countries of the region shall hold periodic coordination meetings and the Permanent Secretariat may, at their request, in relation to article 23 of the Convention, can promote such coordination meetings, through: (a) advice on the organisation of effective coordination arrangements, the transfer of such events experience; (b) providing information to relevant bilateral and multilateral cooperation agencies, in respect of such coordination meetings, and encouraging their active involvement; and (c) by providing other information that may be useful in creating or strengthening such coordination processes. Annex IV regional implementation annex for the Northern Mediterranean countries article 1 purpose the purpose of this annex is to provide guidelines and arrangements necessary for the effective implementation of the Convention in the Northern Mediterranean countries in relation to their particular circumstances. Article 2 of the Northern Mediterranean region the particular circumstances At the northern part of the Mediterranean special conditions include: (a) the semiarīd climatic conditions affecting large areas, seasonal droughts, very high rainfall variability and sudden high-intensity rainfall; (b) weak and severely erodible soil, unable to resist against the formation of cracks in the surface; (c) variable terrain with steep slopes and very diverse landscapes; (d) large natural forest cover loss of frequent forest fires; (e) traditional agricultural crisis, it abandoned land and degraded soil and water conservation structures; (f) the unbalanced use of water resources, which led to significant environmental damage, including chemical pollution, salinisation and exhaustion of the aquifer; and (g) concentration of economic activities in coastal urbanization, industry, tourism and the development of irrigation in agriculture. Article 3 conditions for strategic planning for sustainable development 1. National action programmes are central to sustainable development and integral component of planning in affected Northern Mediterranean country Parties to the Convention. 2. ensure the participation of the consultative process, involving appropriate levels of Government there, local authorities and non-governmental organizations, to develop a strategy to engage the local population to the maximum and which would be able to react quickly, according to article 10 of the Convention, part 2 (f). Article 4 requirements for the preparation of national action plans and their execution time the Mediterranean affected countries in developing national action programmes, and, where appropriate, subregional, regional or joint action programmes. Such programming must be carried out with the maximum in a short time. Article 5 national action programme for the development and implementation of the development and implementation of national action programmes in accordance with the Convention's article 9 and 10, each affected country party if-necessary: (a) means the appropriate institution, responsible for programme development, coordination and implementation; (b) involve affected populations, including local communities, in the elaboration of these programmes, coordination and implementation, through local initiatives started the consultation process with local authorities and relevant non-governmental organisations; (c) carry out research on the State of the environment in affected areas to assess the causes and consequences of desertification and to determine the necessary countermeasures; (d) evaluate, with the participation of affected populations, past and now carried out programs to develop strategy and prevent the continuation of the earlier error action programmes; (e) prepare technical and financial programmes based on the information derived from the activities referred to in (a) to (d) points; and (f) develop and use procedures and thresholds used for the monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of the programme. Article 6 composition of national action programmes of affected country Parties of the region may include in their national action programmes, the following measures: (a) strengthening of the legislative, institutional and administrative measures; (b) land use, water management, soil conservation, forestry, agricultural activities and pasture; (c) wildlife protection and management, and other forms of biological diversity; d) forest fire prevention; (e) promotion of alternative livelihoods; and (f) research, training and public awareness. Article 7 subregional, regional and joint action programmes to be implemented 1. affected countries of the region may, in accordance with article 11 of the Convention, to prepare and implement subregional and/or regional action programmes in order to complement and increase the efficiency of national programmes. Two or more countries at the same time, the parties can agree on a joint action programme. 2. articles 5 and 6 of the Act, the conditions shall apply, mutatis mutandis, also with regard to the subregional, regional or joint programmes are developed and implemented. Such programmes may include the scientific research and development issues for selected ecosystems in affected areas. 3. In preparing and implementing subregional, regional or joint action programmes, affected country Parties of the region may, if necessary: (a) identify, in cooperation with national institutions, national objectives relating to desertification which can better meet the objectives of the programme and the important measures that can be carried out efficiently; (b) assess regional, subregional and national institutions essential operational capabilities; and (c) assess existing programmes in the region to combat desertification, which is now agreed between the parties, to determine their compliance with national action programmes. Article 8 Subregional, regional and joint action programmes in the Affected countries coordinating parties prepare a subregional, regional or joint action programme may establish a Coordination Committee, composed of the represented parties each nominated representatives who oversee the fight against desertification, harmonizes national action programmes, prepare proposals for the various levels in respect of subregional, regional or joint action programmes, as well as act as a focal point for the promotion of technical cooperation and coordination in accordance with Convention article 16 to 19. Article 9 conditions that countries should not receive financial assistance in the context of the implementation of this Convention, the implementation of national, subregional, regional or joint action programmes, affected countries in the region, the Parties shall not be entitled to receive any financial assistance. Article 10 coordination with other subregions and regions subregional, regional and joint action programmes may be prepared and implemented in cooperation with other subregions or regions, particularly the North African subregion. Annex v regional implementation annex for Central and Eastern Europe article 1 purpose the purpose of this annex is to provide guidelines and arrangements necessary for the effective implementation of the Convention in Central and Eastern European countries in relation to their particular circumstances. Article 2 Central and Eastern European region-specific conditions referred to in article at the first Central and Eastern European region-specific conditions that impact on different countries of the region, is owned by the parties: (a) the specific problems and opportunities associated with the current economic restructuring process, including macroeconomic, financial problems and the need to strengthen social and political structures, making the market economy reforms; (b) land degradation in different shapes different ecosystems of the region, including the impact of drought and desertification risks related to wind and water erosion of the soil called. (c) crisis conditions in agriculture, including the deterioration of arable land due to problems of inappropriate irrigation systems, and soil and water aizsargbūvj partial wear; (d) the principle of sustainability, using water resources, leading to environmental damage, including chemical pollution, sasāļošano and water run out of the horizon; (e) forest cover loss due to climatic factors, air pollution and frequent forest fires affect; (f) the complex physical, biological, political, social and economic factors that affected areas leads to the sustainable development practices of non-compliance; (g) increasing the risk of economic hardship and deteriorating social conditions in areas affected by land degradation, desertification and drought; (h) the need to revise the objectives of research, political and legislative structure to achieve sustainable management of natural resources, and (i) open opportunities in the region to the wider international cooperation and the achievement of sustainable development goals, comprehensive. Article 3 action programmes 1. National action programmes must be sustainable development policy for an integrated part of the proper way to land degradation targeted different manifestations, desertification and drought affecting the parties in the region. 2. ensure the participation of the consultative process, involving appropriate levels of Government, local authorities and non-governmental organizations to develop guidelines in a flexible manner planned strategy, which would engage the maximum local population, according to article 10 of the Convention, part 2 (f). If necessary bilateral and multilateral cooperation agencies may be involved in this process at the request of the affected country Parties. Article 4 national action programme preparation and execution of the preparation and execution of national action programmes under the Convention to article 9 and 10, each affected country Party of the region shall, as appropriate: (a) means the bodies responsible for the preparation, coordination and implementation; (b) involve affected populations, including the territory of the local government, this program is the development, coordination and implementation, through local initiatives launched in consultation processes, with the local authorities and relevant non-governmental organisations; (c) carry out research on the State of the environment in affected areas to assess the causes and consequences of desertification and to determine priorities for action; (d) evaluate, with the participation of the population in the affected areas, the past and at present executables with the objective of developing a strategy of action programmes and to establish action programmes; (e) prepare technical and financial programmes based on the information obtained from (a) to (d) points in these activities, and (f) develop and use procedures and thresholds used for the monitoring and evaluation of programmes. Article 5 subregional, regional and joint action programmes to be implemented 1. affected States parties may, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention, article 11 and 12, to prepare and implement subregional and/or regional action programmes in order to complement and increase the effect of national action programmes and efficiency. Two or more States parties may simultaneously agree on joint action programme implementation. 2. Such programmes may be prepared and implemented in collaboration with other parties or regions. The aim of such cooperation may be to ensure the development of an international environment and promote financial and/or technical support or other forms of assistance to address desertification and drought issues at different levels. 3. articles 3 and 4 are operating provisions, mutatis mutandis, to prepare and execute a subregional, regional and joint action programmes to be implemented. In addition, such programmes may include scientific research and development issues for selected ecosystems in affected areas. 4. developing and implementing subregional, regional and joint action programmes to be implemented by the affected countries in the region, the parties may, if necessary: (a) identify, in cooperation with national institutions, national objectives relating to desertification which can better meet the objectives of the programme and the important steps that can be met effectively; (b) to assess regional, subregional and national capacity of corresponding institutes; (c) determine existing between the parties, concluded the program to combat desertification compliance with national action programmes, and (d) consider action for the coordination of subregional, regional and joint action programmes to be implemented, providing, if necessary, the establishment of the Steering Committee of each affected country party representatives to assess the progress achieved in combating desertification, harmonise national action programmes, developed recommendations on the preparation and implementation of various grade existing subregional, regional and joint action programmes to be implemented , and act as focal points (nodes) to promote coordination and technical cooperation under the Convention article 16 to 19. Article 6 technical, scientific and technological cooperation in accordance with the objectives and principles of the Convention, the parties in each region separately or combined: (a) promoting scientific and technical cooperation bodies, at all levels of the monitoring indicators and the strengthening of information systems, like the integration if necessary, global information systems, and (b) contribute to the appropriate existing or new environmental technology development, adaptation and transfer within the region and outside it. Article 7 financial resources and mechanisms according to the purposes and principles of the Convention in the regions affected country Parties individually or combined: (a) the choice of measures to rationalize and strengthen mechanisms to supply funds through public and private investment to achieve the specific results of the action in combating land degradation and desertification and mitigating the effects of drought; (b) determine the need for international cooperation to support national efforts, thereby creating, in particular, and encouraging environment for investment and support an active investment policy, as well as an integrated approach to the efficient fight against desertification, including early warning of problems that arise in this process; (c) seek cooperation with bilateral and/or multilateral partners and financial cooperation institutions, in an effort to ensure the implementation of the Convention, including programmes of action which takes account of the affected country Parties of the region-specific needs; and (d) assess the article 2, point (a) potential impact on 6, 13 and article 20 of the Convention and other relevant conditions. Article 8 institutional formations 1. For the implementation of this annex to the affected countries of the region, the parties: (a) establish and/or strengthen national focal points (nodes) to coordinate measures to combat desertification and/or drought effects prevent; and (b) creates a mechanism to strengthen regional cooperation, if needed. 2. the Permanent Secretariat may, at the request of the parties in the region, in relation to article 23 of the Convention, to promote such coordination meetings, by: (a) advice on the organisation of effective coordination arrangements, the transfer of such events, and (b) by providing other information that may be useful in creating or strengthening the coordination process.


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