The Saeima has adopted and the President promulgated the following laws: the law on amendments to the civil code to make the following amendments: 1. Turn off the article 34. 2. Turn off the article 37, the words "except where termination of adoption established the legal relations". 3. Express article 38 the second part as follows: "Also prohibited the marriage guardian with no charge, included termination of guardianship relationships." 4. To make the law the first part of the first chapter of the second subdivision of section II of the title as follows: "(II). The marriage". 5. Turn off article 40. 6. Express article 41 the following: "41. Marriage shall be concluded no sooner than one month and not later than six months after submission and other marriage requires submission of documents to the vital statistics office where the marriage is not this law, 32, 35, 37 and 38. article contains obstacles." 7. Turn off the article 44. 8. Article 45 of the following expression: ' 45. in urgent cases the civil registry Department official has the right to shorten the article 41 of this law the minimum periods referred to. " 9. Turn off 46, 47, 48, 49 and 50. 10. Replace the words "in article 51 of the tender shall be made" with the words "the contract of them." 11. off 52 article. 12. the first part of the law of the first chapter of the second section: turn off the title of section III "III. Marriage"; considered in section IV, V and VI respectively of section III, IV and V. 13. Replace article 53 and 54, the word "driver" with the word "official". 14. off 55. 15. the express 54. the second subparagraph by the following: "the vital statistics office in the open sections of the contract premises or other appropriate location." 16. Article 57: replace the first paragraph, first and second sentence, the word "driver" with the word "officer"; to turn off the second part. 17. Replace article 60, first paragraph, the words "which is not closed nor the vital statistics office, not at the cleric" with the words "If the laulāšan has not taken the vital statistics office officials or clergy." 18. Turn 62, the words "been considered incapable of action along the disease or dementia, or also". 19. Article 74: Express (1) of the following: 1) the breakdown of the marriage is legal in the physical, sexual, psychological or economic violence against a spouse, divorce, or against his children's spouses or children; " replace the second paragraph, the words "in the first paragraph" with the words and figures "the first subparagraph, in point 2 and 3". 20. the express article 79 paragraph 2 by the following: "2) commensurate with their State of the funds to the previous level of welfare." 21. Replace the words "article 80 if the latter through their actions contributed to the breakdown of the marriage and the means required for the previous level of welfare or consumption" with the words "the previous level of welfare". 22. the express article 81 as follows: "81. obligation to give funds to the previous level of welfare former spouse out if: 1) after a divorce or annulment passed as long as the period of marriage or cohabitation divorced marriage recognised; 2) the former spouse has gone to a new marriage; 3) the former spouse income provides nutrition; 4) the former spouse to get the features avoided consumption by your work; 5) the former spouse who is required to pay maintenance to the other spouse, the former do not have sufficient means of subsistence or he become dependant; 6) the former spouse has committed a criminal offence against the other former spouse or upstream or downstream to his life, health, liberty, property or honor; 7) the former spouse left the other ex-spouse helplessness State if was possible to help him; 8) the former spouse against one of the 6 of this article, persons referred to in paragraph suggested by the deliberately false accusation of an offence; 9) the former spouse lived in the wasteful or fornication; 10) the former spouse who is required to pay maintenance to the other spouse, or a former his former spouse dies or is declared dead; 11) is another important reason. " 23. Supplement article 82 the first sentence of the second paragraph after the word "the" with the words "court or jury notary". 24. Replace article 89 in the first paragraph, the number and the abbreviation "obtained during marriage (p. 91)" with the words "obtained during the marriage as a separate property. 25. To make the first paragraph of article 91 of the introductory paragraph as follows: "each spouse's separate property in particular, is:". 26. Express article 95 the third part as follows: "in Cases when the spouses are living apart, the spouse can, if necessary, require from the other spouse commensurate with his status of property funds in the previous level of welfare." 27. Article 98 and off 109 in the third subparagraph of article number and the abbreviation "(91. p.)". 28. Article 114: Add to the article with a new third paragraph as follows: "If one of the spouses is laulājam or limited capacity, he concluded the Treaty of marriage itself to the extent that the Court is not restricted to his capacity, but the other part, with the consent of the guardian. If the person whose capacity is limited, can not act independently and the laulājam or the spouse is also its patron, on the conclusion of the contract of marriage shall be decided by family courts. "; consider the third part of the fourth paragraph of article. 29. To make 115. the first part of the article as follows: "marriage contracts, it cannot replace the contactor by the Governors. These contracts shall be concluded before a notary in the order personally in the presence of two laulājam at the same time, or spouses. If the laulājam is a minor, such contracts shall be concluded, in the presence of his or her legal representative. " 30. Express article 130, first paragraph, point 2 as follows: "2) for their commitment, from the obligation to maintain their parents or grandparents;". 146. Article 31: turn off in the first paragraph, the words "subject to the approval of the medical certificate"; Supplement to the fifth article as follows: "paternity presumption does not apply if paternity recognised this law, article 155 eighth." 32. off the third subparagraph of article 149. 33. To turn off the second part of article 151. 34. in article 155: make the first part of the first sentence by the following: "paternity recognition occurs when a child's father and mother in person to submit a joint application to the vital statistics office or the vital statistics Office application addressed to the applicant of the notarized signature authenticity."; off in the third paragraph, the words "or accepted by the Court on a tall unable because of illness or mental deficiency"; replace the third paragraph, the word "hair" with the word "mother"; turn off the fourth part; Supplement to the eighth article as follows: "paternity can be recognised, even if the child's mother, the child's mother's husband or child in his mother's former husband and the child's biological father personally submit a joint application to the vital statistics office or the vital statistics Office application addressed to the applicant of the notarized signature authenticity." 35. Article 156 of the following expressions: "156. recognition of paternity by the Court may be declared void only if the person who found the child on your own, may not be his biological father and the child recognized as their law, false or coercion. To challenge paternity recognition can the person who acknowledged paternity or child's mother two years from the date when they learned about conditions that exclude paternity. A person who claims to be the biological father of the child, unless the child conceived crime against morals and dzimumneaizskaramīb, recognition of paternity can be challenged within two years from the date of the birth. Child paternity recognition itself may be challenged by adulthood in two years from the date on which he became aware of the circumstances that exclude paternity. Recognition of the paternity dispute is consistent with the rights of the child to an identity and a stable family environment. the right to challenge paternity recognition is personal. It does not go to the heirs of the deceased, but his action brought the heirs may continue. " 36. Replace article 158 in the first paragraph, the words "of the baby's father" with the words "for the child's biological father. 37. Add to article 162 of the second part of the sentence the following wording: "the care of the child the adoptive parent may refer the decision to the family courts for a period of up to six months, according to the Cabinet's adoption procedure laid down." 38. Express article 163 the following: "163. Adoptive parent must be at least twenty-five years old and at least eighteen years older than the adoptee. Conditions for the minimum age of the adopter and the adoptee and the adoptive parent of the permissible age difference may be waived if you adopt your spouse's child. However, also in this case, the adopter must be at least twenty-one years old. In the first subparagraph the limits may be waived, if between the adoptive and adoptable formed true the older and children. About adoptive must not be a person: 1) which penalized for intentional criminal offences related to violence or abuse piedraudējum — regardless of the deletion or removal of the conviction; 2) which punished criminal offences against morals and dzimumneaizskaramīb, apart from deleting or removing the criminal record; 3) repealed the duties of the guardian the disordered to the default; 4) which audžuģimen or host families deprived status, as it has not complied with the relevant obligations under the child's interests; 5) that a judgement has been deprived of his custody rights; 6) which the Court has applied the criminal law in certain medical coercive measures on the State of insanity committed a criminal offence provided for in the criminal law. In order to determine suitability for adoption, family courts under the Cabinet's adoption of the policy provided no more than six months out adoptive family. " 39. off 164. paragraph 3 of article. 40. Article 165 of the following expressions: "165. Adopt more children can at a time. The adopted brother (half-brother) and sister (half-sister) is inseparable. In the interest of children permitted (half-brothers) brothers and sisters (half-sisters) divorce, if any of them have an incurable illness or are the barriers that impede the brothers (half-brother) and sister (half-sister) to adopt together. " 41. Article 167 of the following Express: "167. Guardian is entitled to adopt her charge. The charge was adopted, guardian galanorēķin served simultaneously with the application for adoption to the family courts. After the adoption of the galanorēķin family courts up to the date of entry into force of the Court judgment on approval of an adoption, the adoptee rights and legal representative of the interests of the adoption. Guardian discount from their duties after the entry into force of the Court judgment on approval of adoption. " 42. Article 169 be expressed as follows: "169. Is required to give its agreement to the adoption by all the participants: 1) the adoptive parent; 2 if he is being) reached twelve years of age; 3 If the adoptee parents) they are not deprived of the custody rights; 4) guardian. The mother of your child's consent to adoption may be given not earlier than six weeks after giving birth. Consent to adoption parties to family courts expressed in person or submit them in the form of a notarial deed or by a certified in family courts. Consent to adoption may be revoked by its members, until the child is placed in adoptive care. In the family courts of the place of residence of the adoptee can decide if an adoption consent: 1) implemented under the aegis of only one parent, the other without reason, declined to give permission to adopt; 2 in older adoptee) is a minor; 3) guardian without reason, declined to give permission to adopt. Adoption of a child requires a decision of the family courts that adoption was in the best interests of the child. Family courts, the decision, find out, unless the adoptee in the views he can articulate as well as take into account the message of the adoptive parent, including his personality, religious beliefs, if any, assets, housing, to make children's capabilities, as well as news about adoptable, including his personality, religious beliefs, if any, the health of the ancestors. " 43. Article 175 be expressed as follows: "175. Adoption may be revoked if the Court adopted the minor with adoptive agreed on the adoption. Exceptionally, the adoption may be revoked, even in the absence of such agreement, but minor adopted shows that adoption between the adopter and the adoptee is not formed and the older child's true relationship. Removing adoption, it shall cease as of the date of entry into force of the judgment of the Court of Justice for the annulment of the adoption. " 44. Express 178. and article 178.1 in this wording: "178. Cohabiting parents custody exercised jointly. If the parents live separately, the parent shared custody will continue. Child care and the monitoring of the implementation of the parent with whom the child lives. Issues that may significantly affect the child's development, parents shall be adopted jointly. Parental disagreement, if the law in family courts resolve otherwise. Parental custody ends when, on the basis of the parents ' agreement or court order, shall be established under the auspices of one of the parents separate. 178.1 It from parents who separate under the auspices of the child is located, have all the resulting from custody rights and obligations. Parental dispute over custody rights be settled taking into account the best interests of the child and found the views of the child, unless he is able to articulate it. If you die it from parents who separate under the auspices of the child is located, as well as when they are unable to exercise custody, to implement the other parent, unless he has not been deprived of the right to custody or interrupted. " 45. Article 179: express first and second subparagraph by the following: "parental responsibility is commensurate with their abilities and the condition of the property to keep the child. This obligation rests with the father and the mother until the child himself can themselves provide. Disputes about maintenance the child settled in court. The obligation to provide for child maintenance do not cease if the child is separated from the family or live with one parent or both parents ". replace the third paragraph, the word "diet" with the word "maintenance"; to make a fifth as follows: "a minimum amount of maintenance, where a child is obliged to provide each parent, irrespective of his ability to keep the children and the property condition, determined by the Cabinet of Ministers, taking into account the national minimum wage and age of the child."; replace the sixth paragraph, the words "If there is a dispute about the maintenance for a child, the Court" with the word "Court". 46. in article 181: replace the second sentence of the second paragraph, the words "where the child separated from one or both parents" with the words "where the child is separated from the family or live with one parent or both parents"; in the fourth paragraph, replace the words "parents and persons who have the right of access in relation to the child or the child is in the care of" with the words "any person". 47. in article 182: turn off the second sentence of the first subparagraph; make the second paragraph as follows: "in determining the procedures for the exercise of rights of access, the Court may determine that a certain period of time (weekends, holidays, school, parental leave, etc.) the child spends at it earlier, at which he or she does not live in the time of the appointment. "; make the first sentence of the third paragraph the following wording: "the Court may restrict the rights of access and, if necessary, may determine that the child may meet only in the presence of a third party or in a specific location, as far as the interests of the child."; to supplement the article with the fourth paragraph as follows: "If a child is separated from the family, the rights of access may be limited to the family courts." 48. Article 183 of the following expressions: "183. as long as the parents provide the child maintenance, child should work for older home work without the right to claim any remuneration for it, unless he is not definitely promised." 49.186. Article: replace the first part of the number and the abbreviation "(178.1 p.)" with the number and the abbreviation "(178. p.)"; Replace paragraph 3 of the second paragraph, the words "awarded custody to one parent" with the words "established under the auspices of one of the single parents"; turn off the second part of paragraph 4; replace the third paragraph, first sentence, the words "there is a risk of delay" with the words "there is a risk that on children can join the adverse consequences"; to supplement the article with a new third paragraph as follows: "with the capacity constraints of the senior representative of the property relations of the child to the extent that the Court is not restricted to older capacity."; consider the third part of the fourth paragraph of article. 50. To replace in the second sentence of article 187, the words "tending to the children" with the words "put in custody". 51. To express in this 188 article: "188. the obligation to maintain their parents and siblings if necessary on all children commensurate with their ability to maintain their parents or siblings and belongings. Disputes about maintenance of parents or grandparents settled in court. A child may be exempted from the obligation to maintain their parents or grandparents if it is established that parents or grandparents without founded reasons avoided to fulfil their obligations towards the child. Grandchildren must maintain each of the grandparents, if not the last spouse and the children. " 52. To exclude article 198. 53. Article 199 of this expression: "199. By a judgment of custody rights taken away (200. p.) You can restore the judgment of the Court of Justice. " 54.200. Article: make the first part as follows: "a parent can take away the right of custody if: 1) his fault (parent deliberately or by negligence) is a threat to health or life of the child; 2) parent abuse their rights or do not provide child care and supervision and that may endanger the child's physical, mental or moral development. "; make the second paragraph, the second sentence as follows: "If the aegis, which would implement the other parent does not sufficiently protected from the risk of the child or custody rights are deprived of both parents, the Court instructs the family courts to provide child care for the ārpusģimen." 55. Article 203: replace the introductory phrase of the first subparagraph, the words "child care parents are deprived of the rights" with the words "Custody Rights" is terminated earlier; Add to the first part of paragraph 4, the words "except where he has given consent, as the spouse of the child legally adopted by the other spouse;" make the third paragraph as follows: "Stop the patronage rights to restore the earlier if family courts recognize that does not exist under the first paragraph of this article. If the year of termination under the aegis of the law it is not possible to restore them, bringing the family courts decide on the custody of the Court, with the exception of disqualification where a right of custody cannot be restored from earlier independent reasons. "; to supplement the article with the fourth paragraph as follows: "the family courts shall have the right to decide on action in court under the auspices of the disqualification, before the third part of this article, the time limit laid down in the evening, if it is in the interest of the child." 56.205.204. and make the article as follows: "204. If one of the parents been declared bankrupt, the property of the child manages the other parent or family courts for this purpose appointed special guardian. If both parents recognized as insolvent, managing the child's property the family courts shall appoint a special guardian. 205. where are terminated by one or both parents of the insolvency proceedings or guardianship over earlier repealed, special family courts decide on the abolition of the guardians. " 57. in article 217: Express (1) of the following: "1) on persons with mental or other disabilities, which restricted the capacity of Court (358. p.);" Add to article 1.1 as follows: ' 11) on persons with mental or other disabilities in urgent cases without the capacity restriction (364.2 p.); " make point 2 as follows: "2 persons) over PERT or wasteful life or over persons who drink alcohol or another intoxicating substance use risk of excessive lead yourself or your family, or the lack of capacity in poverty and limited Court (365. p.);". 239. Article 58. off the words "for which the guardian shall issue a certificate". 59. Article 355 of the following expression: "minors over 355. Patron after the judgment of the Court of Justice shall be appointed by the family courts, which determine the persons to be appointed trustee's opinion of, unless that person is able to formulate it. Family courts for the trustee may appoint a person selected by the trustee under the auspices of a spouse or one of the closest relatives, and family courts must respect the will of the person last order, which left him a fortune. Under the auspices of existing personal views should be taken into account, provided that it does not endanger the person's own well-being, health, life or other interests. Patron, the performance of guardian's duties, identify persons in custody views, unless she is able to articulate it, and act in the interest of the person. Persons in custody dispute settled with the trustee first family courts, but then the Court of disputes. " 60. To supplement the law with article 356.1 as follows: "a Person is not a controlled 356.1 personal property law, not to be able to defend their rights and legitimate interests of the institutions and the Court of Justice in relation to its capacity and freedom limitations, disputes, disputes with the trustee and the appointment and removal of a protector." 61. the first part of the law to make the second subdivision of the fourth chapter of title II, the following: "(II) Custody over persons. mental or other health impairment". 62. Express 357. article as follows: "357. If a person is mentally ill or other health problems, the capacity may be restricted, if necessary and in the interest of that person is the only way to protect them. In this case, the person in the custody of the reconcilable. " 358. Article 63. off. 64. To supplement the law with article 358.1 as follows: "a person with the mental capacity of 358.1 or other disorders may be limited to the extent that it can not understand their actions or their inability to drive action. The Court, in assessing a person's ability, first determine whether and to what extent the patron with the Guardianship Act together, and only then, if and to what extent patron will act independently. " 65. Make 359.360, 361, 362..., and the article as follows: "359. Mental or other health problems are connected with legal consequences only if a person's capacity for civil procedure, the Court restricted the procedure prescribed by law. 360. If the court restricts a person's capacity for mental health problems or other reasons, it shall notify it to the family courts shall be appointed as necessary over this person one or more protector, which instructs the Act to the extent laid down by the Court. Patron assisted in custody to learn skills and abilities that are required so that he could rebuild their capacity. Patron provides personal care in custody, but he is not obliged to set the same person. 361. under the auspices of The existing activities of the person that is spiritual in nature or other health disorders, be recognised as invalid, if it was made in the capacity to determine the extent of the limitation. 362. the action that the person with mental or other disabilities made before the establishment of the guardianship is in force. " 66.363 and 364. Off article. 67. To supplement the law with article 364.1 as follows: "specified Person capacity 364.1 limit review of civil law. Judgment of the Court of Justice on capacity limit in force until accepted by another court ruling on the matter. Judgment of the Court of Justice on capacity limit may be reviewed at any time, but no less than once every seven years from the date of its entry into force. If the court annuls the capacity limit for the person, it instructs the family courts to release from the protector of duties after they submitted galanorēķin, and property, have that person, in their management. " 68. To supplement the law with the first part of the fourth chapter of the second subdivision of section Ii as follows: "temporary guardianship of 364.2 Ii the Person's mental or other health disorders and who fail to understand their actions or their inability to drive action, the Court may establish a temporary custody without the capacity limit of the civil procedure law, if: 1) that are in urgent need of personal interest; 2) disorders are transient; 3) person with its active operation not able to cause yourself harm. Temporary guardianship by the Court establishes, for a period not exceeding two years. Temporary custody shall establish, if it is the only way to protect the person's interests. The Court, by establishing temporary custody, determine the duties of the protector to get only certain things. Specific things fighting associated with the personal use of the sort of emergency or personal needs or care. The interim trustee shall be appointed by the family courts. temporary custody shall terminate 364.3:1) with the Court ruling in the deadline; 2) Court ruling on the termination of temporary custody; 3 capacity control matters), with another ruling on the temporary guardianship establishing or with the entry into force of the judgment on the case. If the temporary guardianship is terminated, the protector of the family courts frees respective duties after they submitted galanorēķin and transferred from the custody of the person released property in their management. " 69. To make 365 and 366 of the following article.: "365. any Person who lived a dissolute or spendthrift, as well as alcohol or another intoxicating substance use risk of excessive lead yourself or your family in distress or poverty, the Court determines the capacity constraints and establishes the guardianship law of civil procedure. 366. the capacity constraint and the guardianship court to establish this law 365 person referred to in article deprives the action and management over her property to the extent necessary for the management of this person's belongings and family maintenance related expenses. The Court, limiting the capacity and establishing guardianship must first determine whether the patron with the Guardianship Act together, and then — or patron shall act independently and ask for the family courts concerned to appoint one or more protector. " 70. the express article 368 as follows: "368. Action that this law 365 a person referred to in article done before the capacity limitation, in force and associates." 71. the express article 369 by the following: "under the auspices of the 369. this law 365 persons referred to in article will continue until such time as there is no doubt anymore that it finally amended its nature and way of life, and while it has not reviewed the same court that restricted capacity and established a trusteeship. Judgment of the Court of Justice on the establishment of guardianship is effective until accepted by another court ruling on the matter. Judgment of the Court of Justice on the establishment of guardianship may be reviewed at any time, but no less than once every seven years from the date of its entry into force. " 72. Replace 394. in the first paragraph, the number and the abbreviation "children (p. 179) expenses "with the words, number and the abbreviation" maintenance for the child (p. 179) ". 73. Make 420 and 421. the following article: "420. Wills, to make each person, except for minors. Minors, if they reached 16 years of age, you can make a will for your free property (p. 195). Wills can make those located under the auspices. 421. Unable to express his will, he could not make a will. " 74. To replace paragraph 1 of article 1, the words "spirit of sick" with the words "persons with mental or other health impairment". 75. the express article following 617: "617. On the estate may not appoint a person who has the custody of the Court, and the juvenile." 76. To replace in the second sentence of article 654, the words "or becomes terminally sick in spirit "with the words" or lose their ability to express their will. " 77. Article 690: make second and third sentence as follows: "the vietniecīb is necessary, if the same person is invited to inherit with the capacity restrictions or minor. Instead minors their parents or guardians expressed the will, with the capacity restriction — guardian accompanying the person concerned or on its own, but instead of legal persons, their statutory representatives. "; turn off the fourth sentence. 78. To replace the words "in article 906 becomes long sick" with the words "lost the ability to express their will." 79. Express 1026. paragraph 3 of article as follows: "persons with the capacity of 3) limit, which they do not have the right to independently Act;". 80. the express article 1405 as follows: "1405. to be eligible for the transaction, it is necessary that the participants have a legal capacity for the purposes of this transaction; otherwise, the transaction is not valid. " 81. the express article 1408 as follows: "1408. Capacity of the missing minors. Persons who are under the auspices of the mental disorders or other health disorder or dissolute or spendthrift life, has incapacitated the capacity restriction laid down by the Court. " 82. the express article 1409 as follows: "1409. Legal transactions by the incapacitated person's full swing out of State or to explain his actions or unable to manage their activities, not force." 83. Express article 1411 as follows: "1411. a Person who lacks legal capacity and guardianship, legal transactions, representing the parents, guardian, and protector. Guardian representative in custody along with it or themselves. " 84. Replace 1501. in the first paragraph, the words "spirit of sick" with the words "persons with mental disabilities". 85. in article 1522: replace "savkār" with the word "turn"; replace the words "after he became terminally ill in spirit" with the words "after he lost the ability to express their will." 86. the express article following in 1637: "1637. impairment of blame For children up to seven years, as well as persons with mental or other disabilities that have not been able to understand the importance of its activities or have not been able to drive their actions. On the impairment of the incapacitated person to blame that it committed out of State or to explain his actions or unable to manage their activities. On delict is to blame people who themselves led in this State with alcoholic beverages or other means. " 87. Express 1780. the first sentence by the following: "losses caused the child to seven years, a person with mental disabilities who have not been able to understand their actions or not been able to drive their actions, or legally incompetent person in a State of consciousness or inability to understand their actions or unable to manage their activities need to be recovered from that person, insofar as this does not deprive the persons it maintenance." 88. Replace article number 2026 "585." with the number "855." 89. To complement the eighteenth chapter of part Iv of the first subdivision of section III1 as follows: "the mandate of the future 2317.1 With III1 future mandate the principal instructs the trustee to manage his affairs in case the principal health problems or other reasons or reasons not be able to understand the importance of their actions and be able to drive their actions. The Governor must act on behalf of his principal. 2317.2 the contract of mandate of the future make in the form of a notarial deed, personally present I the principal and Governors, and recorded in the notarial law. 2317.3 future authorisation agreement shall enter into force on the day of closing, but the Governor has authorized their activities started with the moment when the special laws in the order established and registered the principal's position or legal fact, which he temporarily or permanently fail to realize the importance of its activities and is unable to control their actions. 2317.4 the Court may suspend the right of Governors to represent the principal if it is established that the Governor his duties did not perform or comply with the opposite principal interest. The right of suspension to be registered Trustees of notarial law. future mandate terminates 2317.5 this law 2312. in the cases specified in article. 2317.6 future empowerment allure to another person is prohibited. 2317.7 future Governors have the right to revoke other powers issued in the principal amount, the future Governor is entitled to run. " 90. To complement the 2347. the first part of the article with the words "and the reward (pecuniary compensation) for moral damage". The law shall enter into force on January 1, 2013. The Parliament adopted the law in 2012 on November 29. The President a. Smith in Riga 2012 December 20.