Forest Planning Guidelines.

Original Language Title: Linee guida di programmazione forestale.

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THE MINISTER OF ENVIRONMENT AND PROTECTION OF LAND view of the art. 7 of the law 5 March 2001, n. 57, paragraph 1 the Government responsible to issue legislative decrees for the modernization in the agriculture, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture and paragraph 3, letter i) provides that these legislative decrees are intended to create conditions to promote the sustainable development of the forest system, in compliance with the criteria and principles identified by the ministerial conference on the protection of forests in Europe; Having regard to Legislative Decree 18 May 2001, n. 227, bearing orientation and modernization of the forestry sector, which in art. 3, paragraph 1, entrusts the Ministry of Environment and Protection of Natural Resources and the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry, each within its jurisdiction, the task of issuing guidelines in respect of forests, in relation to which regions define the lines of protection, conservation, enhancement and development of the forest sector in their areas of jurisdiction, through the preparation and audit of their forest plans; Given the Convention for the Protection of the Alps, signed in Salzburg in November 1991, which sets targets for proper environmental policy to safeguard long-term alpine ecosystem as well as' protection of the economic interests of local residents, and its Protocol for mountain forests, in order to preserve the mountain forests as almost natural habitat, and when this 'is necessary, develop or increase the extent and enhance their established'; Given the Convention on diversity 'biological, signed at Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992, ratified by Law 14 February 1994 n. 124; Considering that during the Sixth Conference of the Parties to the Convention on the Diversity 'biological, held at The Hague in 2002, and' Decision VI / 22 was adopted in Annex I define a work program for the conservation of diversity 'biological forestry, considered irreplaceable element for the overall preservation of diversity 'biological also in relation to forests relationship - climate and reaffirms that more' times the importance of sustainable forest management; the views of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, adopted in New York on 9 May 1992 and the Kyoto Protocol in December 1997, which represents an implementation tool and which recognizes that forests play a significant role in climate stabilization policies their ability 'to carbon fixation; the views of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (United Nations convention to combat desertification - UNCCD) of 17 June 1994, ratified by the law June 4, 1997, n. 170; Given the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Flora and Fauna (CITES) signed in Washington March 3, 1973 and ratified by Law 19 December 1975 n. 874; Given the results of the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held in Rio de Janeiro in 1992, which gave substance to the concept of sustainable forest management (SFM), defining the three main dimensions, ecological (conservation of forest resources ), social (positive social impacts) and economic (efficiency in the organization of supply of forest products or services), and claimed a framework of principles to achieve a global consensus on the management, conservation and sustainable development of all the types of forests, known under the designation of forest principles; these principles accompanying the Chapter 11 of Agenda 21, devoted to the strategy against deforestation; The proposals for action of the Intergovernmental Panel on Forests (Intergovernmental panel on forest, 1995-97 IPF) and the Intergovernmental Forum on Forests (Intergovernmental forum on forest, IFF 1997-2000) for the promotion of national and international policies for management sustainable forestry, which have been continued since October 10, 2000 in the multiannual work program of the United Nations Forum on forests (United Nations forum on forests, UNFF); Given the strong focus on national forest planning policies in the FAO; Given the sixth action program for the environment of the Community 'European 2001-2010 (Decision no. 1600/2002 / EC); Having regard to the EU action plan against illegal timber trade (FLEGT) adopted on 13 October 2003; Given the Directive 92/43 / EEC of the Council of 21 May 1992 on the conservation of natural habitats and of wild flora and fauna that promotes the establishment of a coherent European ecological network, called Natura 2000, consisting of special areas of conservation (SACs ) and special protection areas (SPAs), implemented in Italy by decree of the President of the Republic of 8 September 1997, n. 357 amended and supplemented by the Decree of the President of the Republic of 12 March 2003, n. 120; Having regard to Regulation (EC) No. 1782/2003 of 29 September 2003 establishing common rules for the direct support scheme under the common agricultural policy (CAP), implemented in Italy by Decree of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry of 5 August 2004 laying down detailed provisions for the 'implementation of the reform of the common agricultural policy, and in particular the policy of conditionality'; Given the proposal for a Council regulation on rural development by the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) of 14 July 2004; Considering that Italy, adhering to the Pan-European process of the Ministerial Conferences on the Protection of Forests in Europe (MCPFE), has adopted the concept of sustainable forest management (SFM) so 'as defined by the resolutions of Strasbourg (1990), Helsinki (1993 ), Lisbon (1998) and Vienna (2003) and in particular by the Helsinki resolution H1 of 1993, calling for a "proper management and use of forests and forest lands in a way and at a rate, that maintains their diversity 'biological, productivity,' ability 'to renewal, vitality' and a potential 'to ensure, now and in the future, relevant ecological, economic and social at the local, national and global levels that do not cause damage to other ecosystems'; Considering that, in order to make complete and harmonious application of the provisions of the aforementioned Article. 3, paragraphs 1 and 2 of Legislative Decree 18 May 2001, n. 227, and 'you should envisage a concerted forest planning system with the different actors with responsibilities in the field, taking account of aspects of the protection, enhancement, development and monitoring in the forestry sector, particularly with regard to sustainable forest management to order to fall into reality 'Italian addresses accrued in the field contained in the conventions and international treaties signed by our country; Considering that in this context the Italian state, understood in plurality 'of its central and regional offices, aims to provide a framework to develop program guidelines and specific interventions on the territory; View the agreement sanctioned under Article. 8, paragraph 6 of the Law of 5 June 2003, n. 131, by the Permanent Conference for relations between the State, regions and autonomous provinces of Trento and Bolzano, in its meeting of July 15, 2004, the repertoire acts n. 2049, on the forest planning guidelines provided for by art. 3, paragraph 1, of Legislative Decree 18 May 2001 n. 227;
Decrees: 1. They are issued pursuant to art. 3 of Legislative Decree 18 May 2001, n. 227, the following guidelines relating to forestry that are designed to assess the state of conservation of the sector in relation to the protection of biodiversity 'and to identify address elements for programming that will implement regions in the implementation of international commitments and Community legislation and national law and in consideration of the strategies, criteria and indicators they have identified.
I. Forests in Italy According to the latest national forest inventory of 1985 (MAF / ISAFA, 1988), the Italian forest area amounted to 8,675,100 hectares, including 2,160,900 hectares of the forest shrub formations, rock and riparian. The first projections of the data relating to the new national forest inventory (national forest inventory and carbon sinks), confirms an estimate of the total area Italian forests of about 10.5 million hectares. According to data from ISTAT 2000, 53% of the forest area and 'governed coppice and coppice, whose age' media and 'about 20 years, and 43% high forest, whose age' is not much higher than that of coppice, reaching a 40-year average. The remaining 4% and 'covered with Mediterranean maquis. In 1985 the wood mass of coppice was on average 88 m3 per hectare, while the commission of high forests amounted to 178 m3 per hectare. The average increase of the high forests amounted to 4.3 m3 per hectare per year. Since the mid 'eighties and' we witnessed a minor wood removal, and that 'now stood at around 10 million m3 per year, including that outside the forest, which is 2% of the forestry commission (EUROSTAT, 1995 ). This lower wooden levy resulted in an increase of the commission of our forests equal to about 34 million m3 per year, which, however, has not yet achieved, especially as regards the high forests, the optimal values ​​to guarantee the established 'and the dynamic balance of forest ecosystems. Woody uses the last three decades have been characterized by a cyclical pattern. In 1997 (ISTAT, 2000) the removal of firewood numbered about 5.1 million m3, and that of industrial roundwood to 3.8 million m3. Of these about 72% were deciduous timber, primarily intended to roundwood logs. Currently poplar, with only about 100,000 hectares, providing nearly 50% of the Italian roundwood production. One of the main features of the forestry sector and 'fragmentation of the property', being the forest area for the 61.5% owned 'private, for 27.5% of the municipalities, for 7% of the state and regional governments and 5% of other public bodies. It should also be noted that a large number of agricultural and private forest holdings have an area less than 5 hectares, and that very limited and 'also the management associated (about 200,000 hectares). Forest habitats characterize most of the protected areas established under the Law of 6 December 1991 n. 394, and a good part of Natura 2000 sites identified under Directives 79/409 / EEC and 92/43 / EEC. The forest area included in protected natural areas listed in the fifth official update of the list of protected natural areas and 'approximately 1,760,000 hectares and added to the forest area of ​​Natura 2000 sites are not included in the protected areas included in the list amounted to approximately 3 million hectares. Ensure continuity 'space of forest stands over large areas, through different systems of protection which also covers ecological corridors and the interconnection areas, is one of the keys to combating the phenomenon of fragmentation-tion of forest ecosystems, the phenomenon underlying the processes of loss of biodiversity 'animal and vegetable at all levels. The Italian forests contain a wealth of biodiversity 'tank as evidenced by the presence in our country of two-thirds of European woody floral heritage. From here the need 'to maintain the Italian woods in optimal conditions not only structural, favoring the floristic diversification and increase of biomass, but also functional, maintaining and / or restoring their state of conservation and their ability' of regeneration; the structural and functional conditions of the wood must be controlled by appropriate monitoring programs. Over a quarter of the national forest area it does not present an optimal state of health: among the main factors of disturbance of forest ecosystems can detect fires and, in the alternative, grazing and pollution and climate change on a large scale. With regard to forest fires in the last decade it has been covered by the fire on average about 100,000 hectares per year; the average for the period of 1997-2003 'amounted to 95,248 hectares of which about' wooded goal and the other half 'non wooded, with an average area affected by each event approximately 10.5 hectares for fire; the phenomenon is very worrying, also in relation to the budget absorption of CO2-emissions in the atmosphere. As regards the phenomena of decay, these were concentrated in the sawmills consortia, although the white fir appears to follow one of the species more 'sensitive. The main cause of the decay phenomena for Southern Europe and 'was identified nell'intensificarsi periods of drought', while air pollution and 'been acknowledged to be one of the main factors weakening. It highlights the importance of the production system of the forest-based industry, as it represents 5% of manufacturing production and contributes to 15% of the active balance of trade.
II. General considerations Forests play a strategic multifunctional role: they are a source of renewable energy, provide protection from natural disasters, act as carbon sinks, act as a buffer against environmental changes, they are among the factors determining the balance of the water cycle, are a source of raw material for important productive sectors and play an important educational and recreational function. Forests have always been part of the history of mankind, of which preserve numerous traces and cultural aspects. All competent authorities to forestry are committed to preserving and enhancing this natural wealth with targeted policy actions. We need to increase the efforts needed to preserve the natural diversity 'of species and forest habitats, optimizing management methods of existing protected areas and enlarge whenever possible, to include in them a wide spectrum of types of forests and to create links limit the problems of excessive fragmentation of habitats. It appears crucially important to identify a national rural development policy in which the forest takes on a central role in view of the commitments made in Kyoto in 1997 and in subsequent negotiating agreements on limiting greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere, providing rational management silvicultural as well as 'works of forestation and reforestation in compliance also of biodiversity' conservation principles and to combat desertification. All those responsible for the different sectors related to forests should closely cooperate for the protection and proper use of forests, in order to achieve the environmental protection objectives, the strengthening of competitiveness' of the forest-based industry and the improvement of economic conditions social reality of 'rural, taking into account the different needs. The regional forest programs acquire, in this context, an essential role. Sustainable forest management and 'feasible and effective in the long run taking sufficient account of the economic value of goods and services offered by forests. In particular, in rural and mountain areas the forests are an important, if not the main, source of employment and income. Becomes essential, then, to provide an efficient economic policy that takes into account this aspect, also in collaboration with other realities' social and economic. Actions to be undertaken in pursuit of sustainable forest management, following action made by the central address, will have to find a proper place in the new programming tools presented by regions according to the Community regulations for the rationalization of all existing measures related to the improvement of the companies, the processing and marketing of products offered by forest and rural development assets.
III. strategic objectives of the national forest policy The strategic objectives of forest policy are descended primarily from the need 'to place the preservation and enhancement of forests and forest products in a comprehensive approach to sustainable management of renewable natural resources and more' general of the territory, taking into account all components of ecological, socio-cultural and economic conditions in accordance with international and Community commitments, in particular in implementation of the resolutions of the ministerial conferences on the protection of forests in Europe (MCPFE). These guidelines relating to forestry are aimed at the following strategic objectives:
1. environmental protection, through the maintenance, conservation and appropriate development of biodiversity 'in forest ecosystems and the improvement of their contribution to the global carbon cycle, maintaining the health and vitality' forest ecosystem, maintaining, the conservation and enhancement of protective functions in forest management, particularly with regard to the hydrogeological system and the protection of water;
2. the competitiveness of the 'strengthening of forest-based industry through the maintenance and promotion of productive functions of forests - both timber products that do not - and through actions aimed to promote the processing and utilization of wood raw material; 3
. the improvement of socio-economic local conditions and in particular of employees, through the careful training of forest workers, the promotion of actions for the protection and ongoing management of the territory able to stimulate direct and induced jobs, training environmental operators, guides and involved in ground surveillance dependent on local authorities, the promotion of initiatives that enhance the socio-economic function of the forest, ensuring an adequate financial return to owners or managers. To achieve these objectives, are strategic good knowledge of the area in general and in particular forestry, forest planning at various levels (regional, possibly sub-regional and especially corporate), shared by raising awareness and sharing of all the components labor concerned to that territory. then there must be incentives in various ways the activities' aimed at the knowledge and forest use planning. To make such planning and its more 'effective and sustainable management is appropriate to merge and expand the most' can the units' territorial management, in order to promote an autonomous economic management through planning instruments that have multiple and far-sighted objectives of practical applicability 'and to sustain over time with the necessary commitments to the various economic and organizational levels where the continuity' of sustainable forest management interventions and their monitoring, favoring altresi 'the certification of good forest management. For the same objectives and strategic sector 'that of research that must be developed further both in relation to the natural features - in particular as regards the protection of biodiversity' with conservation in situ and ex situ conservation of forest resources (species, origin, variability 'genetic intra-specific), its activities' nursery, monitoring the state of conservation and the role of forests in the carbon cycle - both in terms of the economics with market surveys of forest products (wood and non-wood, tourist - recreational, environmental, etc.) and with the technological innovations to improve the machinery for the extraction and use of the timber, the exploitation of domestic wood species, the development for wood production, the promotion of recycling and reuse. IV. General criteria for intervention for a forest management
Sustainable Regions verify the status and characteristics of forest resources in relation to the national economy and regional and general environmental situation with particular reference to the conservation of biodiversity '. The regions plan the management and development of the forestry sector through the drafting of forest plans that take account of the multifunctional role of the forest and that meet the strategic objectives and to international addresses, EU and national set forth above, in order to achieve optimal management of forest ecosystems. The regions may provide forest plans for specific geographical areas in order to make more 'smooth implementation of forest policy at the local level. The forest management plans should be defined taking into account these guidelines and must be updated periodically. Forest management in protected natural areas must 'comply with guidelines for sustainable forest management and forest policy adopted by the regions in accordance with these guidelines, in respect and in accordance with national and Community law for these areas. Forest management of Natura 2000 sites must 'also take into account the "Guidelines for the management of Natura 2000 sites" issued by Decree of the Ministry of Environment and Protection of Land 3 September 2002. The regions will have to make available on their respective Internet sites a framework, updated annually due to specific monitoring programs, forest planning at regional, sub-regional and corporate (inter-municipal, municipal and private where possible), pointing out the common and respective surfaces of the planning area and the period the plan value. The actions to be taken by the regions through the forest plans should take account of the six criteria for sustainable forest management, identified in Annex I of Resolution L2 of the Lisbon Ministerial Conference (2-4 June 1998), and quantitative and qualitative indicators related to them, as reported in the 'pan-European Indicators aged for sustainable forest management "adopted as part of the work by the Vienna ministerial conference (7-8 October 2002). These criteria and indicators define the essential elements and the set of conditions or processes by which we can 'be achieved sustainable forest management:
1. Maintenance and appropriate development of forest resources and their contribution to the global carbon cycle:
a) forest management should aim at maintaining and improving the economic, ecological, cultural and social development of forest resources, including water, soil, flora and fauna;
b) forest management practices should safeguard the quantity 'and quality' of resources in the medium and long term by balancing utilization with the rate of increase and preferring techniques that minimize direct and indirect damage to forest, water resources, soil and the flora and fauna resources;
c) forest management contributes to action for mitigation and adaptation to global climate change through the adoption of practices to maximize the capacity 'of carbon absorption of forests and implementation of afforestation and reforestation works.
2. maintaining health and vitality 'forest ecosystem:
a) the health and vitality 'of forests should be periodically monitored, especially in relation to factors of biotic disturbance (insects and pathogens) and abiotic (fires and climatic phenomena);
b) preventing and fighting forest fires must be carried out through cleaning silvicultural operations of the undergrowth and plant cultivation of the topsoil (pruning, sfolli, thinning) in the areas most 'appropriate;
c) the forest management plans, or their equivalent, should be defined so as to minimize the risk of degradation to forest ecosystems;
d) forest management practices must comply with the most 'can the natural processes favoring diversity' genetic and structural;
e) nell'imboschimento and reforestation should be used native species and provenances are the most 'local as possible, adapted to phytoclimatic stations and still not invasive;
f) the use of synthetic chemicals must be reduced as much 'as possible taking into account silvicultural and biological alternative measures;
g) are to be avoided forestry practices can negatively impact on river ecosystems and water resources;
h) actions aimed at reducing air pollution should be encouraged and should be investigated in further detail the impact that this pollution has on the various forest ecosystems;
i) if they are found damage caused directly or indirectly to pollutants will be taken action against the latter and specific practices for the recovery of the functionality 'of the forest ecosystem. 3
. Maintenance and promotion of productive functions of forests (wood and non):
a) the national forests should be improved and increased aiming at a sustainable management that allows the maintenance of the different activities' of economic goods and services produced by forests;
b) the management must strive to maintain and improve the production of diversified products and services in the long run;
c) the utilization rate - both timber forest products as well as non-timber - has an impact on increasing production, that 'on interests and not on the forest capital, not exceeding the portion that can' be taken in the long run, thus ensuring the cyclical renewal of withdrawn products;
d) adequate infrastructure, such as roads, skidding trails or bridges should be planned, built and maintained so as to ensure the efficient distribution of products and services, and at the same time minimizing the negative environmental impact;
e) the processing, marketing and utilization of the raw material wood should be favored;
f) the works of afforestation also aimed at timber production should be encouraged;
g) the production of wood as a renewable source of energy along with the development and the creation of supply chains linked to the energy use of forest biomass must be promoted as a priority in rural areas and in mountain areas;
h) forest certification and traceability 'of the wood should be promoted at various levels such as the adjustment of security instruments of the forms of forest management to good forestry practice internationally recognized criteria;
i) the importation of lumber cut phenomenon illegally must be fought with all possible means, including awareness campaigns and the certification of wood products;
j) the conversion of abandoned agricultural areas and wooded areas not in wooded areas must be taken into account whenever this 'may' increase the economic value, ecological, social and / or cultural;
k) and 'necessary to promote the creation of registers of qualified companies that operate in the forest sector.
4. Maintenance, conservation and appropriate development of diversity 'biological in forest ecosystems:
a) Forest management planning should aim at the conservation and improvement of biodiversity 'at the ecosystem level, of species, varieties' and, where appropriate, at the landscape level;
b) planning of forest management, inventory on the ground and mapping of forest resources should include ecologically important habitats, taking into consideration the protected forest ecosystems, rare, sensitive or representative, riparian areas and wetlands, areas that are home to species endemic and habitats of threatened species (as defined in recognized reference lists), so 'as genetic resources in situ protected or endangered;
c) the introduction of potentially invasive alien species should be avoided where possible and controlled and the impact of species already 'introduced mitigated;
d) must promote, where appropriate, forms of ex situ conservation of forest genetic heritage, first of all necessary to integrate the measures for in situ conservation;
e) must be supported, maintained and enhanced the traditional and local forest management systems that have created valuable ecosystems;
f) infrastructure must be planned so as to minimize damage to forest ecosystems, especially to rare ecosystems, sensitive or representative ecosystems and genetic reserves, taking into account that often forest ecosystems are vital areas for endangered species or significant in their paths migration;
g) the pressure of animal populations and grazing must allow the renewal, growth and retention of resources and the variety 'of the forest;
h) forest management practices must aim to maintain and increase the diversity 'biological of all connected ecosystems. Special importance is every initiative recovery of biodiversity 'in areas of high human activity and land use;
i) the loss of biodiversity 'due to excessive fragmentation of the territory and the change of land use should be prevented, mitigated and eventually compensated;
j) necessary to promote and encourage the establishment of new protected areas and their proper management.
5. Maintenance and appropriate enhancement of protective functions in forest management (notably soil and water):
a) Forest management planning should aim to maintain and enhance the protective functions of the forest: the protective function of soil erosion, the protection function and retention of water resources, the protection function from other adverse hydrological phenomena such landslides, floods and avalanches, the protection function built-up areas and infrastructure;
b) forest areas that are of specific and recognized protective functions must be counted and forest management plans or their equivalents should take account of the characteristics of these areas;
c) should be paid particular attention to silvicultural operations on sensitive soils and areas subject to possible erosion. In these areas should be avoided inappropriate silvicultural techniques and the use of unsuitable equipment;
d) should be paid particular attention to the activities' of forest management on areas with protection functions and water regulation in order to avoid negative effects on the quality 'and quantity' of water resources;
e) the construction of forest infrastructure such as runways and streets of unloading, must be carried out so as to minimize the impact on soils with particular regard to erosion, degradation and compaction as well as 'waterproofing, preserving functionality' hydraulic and level of naturalness' of rivers.
6. Maintenance of other socio-economic functions and conditions:
a) the sustainable management of forest ecosystems can 'materialize even in the pursuit of sustainability' economic;
b) the functions unproductive forest must be respected and protected with special attention to the possibility 'of development of rural areas and to the new opportunities' employment associated with the activities' forestry;
c) it must facilitate the consolidation of management and, where possible, of the property ', which is currently too divided, because the combination of environment - economy, forestry, can' find success in relatively large geographical areas, managed in a unified manner and then in a farsighted and sustainable planning, with real positive impacts on employment and the local market;
d) forest management should be implemented while respecting and promoting the use of the experience and knowledge of local forest;
e) forest workers must be properly trained and trained on safety issues in the workplace;
f) the socio-economic, cultural, recreational and aesthetic value of the forests must be enhanced;
g) the interventions for the protection and maintenance of the territory should be performed periodically with continuity 'and consistency over time, consistent with available economic resources;
h) training of environmental professionals, guides, provincial police and hunting guards should be stimulated;
i) environmental education should be promoted at all grade levels;
j) any tax relief, at central, regional and local levels to promote sustainable forest management must be evaluated considering the direct and indirect effects on the conservation of forest ecosystems and local development.
V. financial order commitments 1. In accordance with the provisions of art. 3, paragraph 1, letter b) of Legislative Decree 18 May 2001, n. 227, the financial requirements for the realization of the plans referred to in these guidelines and 'estimated in programmatic terms for 250 million euro for each year of the biennium 2006-2007. 2. The tool for effective implementation are the regional forest plans. 3. The financing of the plans referred to in the preceding paragraph are granted the ministries concerned in the context of the resources required by current legislation and the direct agreements with the regions, in particular through the agreements provided for by art. 8 of the decree of the President of the Republic 20 April 1994, n. 367, and through the application of Articles 9 and 10 of the same decree. 4. If it appears that the financial resources in current legislation are not sufficient to cover the financial needs analysis referred to in point 1, the Ministries concerned are activated as part of the relevant legislation provisions, so that 'the amounts not covered are found in 'sphere of public finance maneuver for the two years. This decree will be 'published in the Official Gazette of the Italian Republic.
Rome, 16 June 2005
Minister: Matteoli