Regulation Of The Minister Of The Ministry Of Women Empowerment And Child Protection The Number 24 Of 2010

Original Language Title: Peraturan Menteri Kementerian Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak Nomor 24 Tahun 2010

Subscribe to a Global-Regulation Premium Membership Today!

Key Benefits:

Subscribe Now for only USD$20 per month, or Get a Day Pass for only USD$4.99.
BN 602-2010 .doc REPUBLIC INDONESIA No. 602, 2010 MINISTRY of PP & PA. Elderly Women. The protection. REGULATION of the MINISTER of STATE for WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT and CHILD PROTECTION of the REPUBLIC of INDONESIA NUMBER 24 of 2010 MODELS of PROTECTION OF WOMEN RESPONSIVE GENDER AGED with GRACE GOD ALMIGHTY STATE MINISTER of the EMPOWERMENT of WOMEN and CHILD PROTECTION of the REPUBLIC of INDONESIA, Considering: a. that the elderly woman had the same rights in the life of society, nation and State and entitled to social security that allows the development of itself completely as human dignity; b. that Act No. 13 of 1998 about Elderly Welfare mandates the need for seniors to be empowered so that they can play a role in national development activities; c. that the number of elderly residents who are predominantly women potentially suffered discrimination and considered to be the population that is not productive due to her age; www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 2 d. elderly women that actually has the ability to live independently and plays an active role in community life, reasonable in the nation, and State; e. that in an effort to empower women seniors needed model of protection of women responsive gender seniors; f. that based on consideration of the letter a, letter b, letter c, letter d and the letter e need to set rules of State Minister of the empowerment of women and child protection of Elderly Women Protection Model which is Gender Responsive; Remember: 1. Act No. 7 of 1984 on the passage of the Convention on Elimination of all forms of discrimination against Women (the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women) (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Number 29 in 1984, an additional Sheet of the Republic of Indonesia Number 9); 2. Act No. 13 of 1998 about the welfare of the Elderly (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Number 190 in 1998, an additional Sheet of the Republic of Indonesia Number 3796); 3. Act No. 39 of 1999 on human rights (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia year 1999 Number 165, an additional Sheet of the Republic of Indonesia Number 3886); 4. Act No. 13 of 2003 on Labor (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Number 39 in 2003, an additional State Gazette Number 4279); 5. Act No. 20 of 2003 on the National Education System (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Number 78 in 2003, an additional Sheet country number 4301); www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 3 6. Act No. 11 of 2009 about social welfare (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia number 12 in 2009, an additional Sheet of the Republic of Indonesia Number 4967); 7. Act No. 36 of 2009 about health (State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Number 144 in 2009, an additional Sheet of the Republic of Indonesia Number 5063); 8. Government Regulation Number 43 in 2004 Implementation Efforts Improved Social Welfare of Seniors (the State Gazette of the Republic of Indonesia Number 144 in 2004, an additional Sheet of the Republic of Indonesia Number 4451); 9. Presidential Decree Number 83/P in 2009 on the establishment of a United Indonesia Cabinet II; Decide: Define: REGULATION Of MINISTER Of STATE For WOMEN'S EMPOWERMENT And CHILD PROTECTION Of The REPUBLIC Of INDONESIA On The MODEL Of The PROTECTION Of The ELDERLY WOMEN RESPONSIVE GENDER. Article 1 Protection Model Women Seniors who Responsifr Gender include: a. empowering seniors especially women in the field of mental health, social, spiritual, education, economics; b. the role of individuals, families and communities; Article 2 regarding the activities and services for elderly women in the field of mental health, social, spiritual, economic and education as well as the role of individuals, families and communities referred to in Pasal1 is as set out in the annex to this regulation of the Minister. Article 3 protection of women Aged Model that aims to let women Gender Responsifr seniors getting health, social services, mental spiritual, education, the economy needed. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 4 Article 4 models of protection of women responsive Gender Seniors can be used as a guide for Governments, local authorities and communities in organizing the protection of elderly women. Article 5 protection of women Aged Model which implemented Gender Responsive, coordinated, systematic and sustainable to the fulfillment of the rights of the elderly especially women. Article 6 the Government, local authorities and communities in implementing the services and activities of Elderly Women Protection Model which is Responsive to Gender can be done gradually adapted to development needs, institutional capability, the means, the infrastructure. Article 7 the Ministry provided a Model of protection of Elderly Women responsive Gender: a. adjusted by observing the wisdom, knowledge, expertise, skill, experience, age and physical condition of elderly women; b. can be provided to elderly men. Article 8 the Government and local authorities in implementing the Model of protection of Elderly Women responsive Gender can: a. establish working groups whose membership consists of relevant agencies and communities b. cooperation related institutions, civic organizations, academicians, in accordance with the provisions of the legislation. Article 9 this Ministerial Regulation comes into force on the date of promulgation. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 5 so that everyone knows it, ordered the enactment of this Ministerial Regulation with its placement in the news of the Republic of Indonesia. Established in Jakarta on December 14, 2010 STATE MINISTER of the EMPOWERMENT of WOMEN and CHILD PROTECTION of the REPUBLIC of INDONESIA, LINDA AMALIA SARI Enacted in Jakarta on December 14, 2010 the MINISTER of LAW and HUMAN RIGHTS Republic of INDONESIA, PATRIALIS AKBAR www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 6 ATTACHMENT RULES STATE MINISTER OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT and CHILD PROTECTION of the REPUBLIC of INDONESIA NUMBER 24 of 2010 ABOUT ELDERLY WOMEN PROTECTION MODEL which is GENDER RESPONSIVE www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010 , No. 602 7 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. Background according to the purpose of the formation of the Government of the Republic of Indonesia as mandated in the preamble of the Constitution of 1945 is protecting all of the nation of Indonesia, and all the spilled blood of the Indonesia national development goals, then the dicita-citakan are realizing just and prosperous society for all the people of Indonesia by producing more community social conditions and improved life expectancy and age was further increased, so that the elderly population also grew. Therefore then has become an obligation of the State and Government to protect the population of the elderly in the life of society, nation and State. The population of seniors as citizens have the same rights in the life of society, nation and State and entitled to social security that allows the development of itself completely as human dignity, since Act No. 13 of 1998 about Elderly Welfare mandates the need for seniors to be empowered so that they can play a role in development activities of national demographic Transition that happened in Indonesia has led to a shift in the age structure of the population. Declining fertility and mortality figures, accompanied by the increasing life expectancy of the elderly population (seniors). Based on the results of population census in 1971 aged population (elderly) aged 60 years and over in Indonesia recently about 5.3 million (4.5 percent), yet the results of the 2000 population census shows that the number has increased almost three fold be 14.4 million. Although the percentage still belongs to low compared to developed countries, but in absolute terms the number of elderly residents of Indonesia is much larger than the countries that are now experiencing the problem of residents of elderly, as Japan, South Korea, Singapore and Hong Kong. The elderly population of Indonesia in 2000 as many as 14.4 million (7.18 percent of the total population), far greater than the population of the elderly in South Korea only 3.8 million (approximately www.djpp.depkumham.go.id


2010, no. 612 8 8 percent of the total population); and more than tripled the number of elderly population in Singapore (4.2 million or about 7 percent of the total population). By 2020, the projected population of the elderly in Indonesia is estimated to continue to increase to 28.8 million (11.34%). According to WHO, the percentage of elderly residents of 7 percent or more is considered to have entered the category of residents of old (aging population). With the ever increasing population of elderly, required the attention of all parties in anticipating various problems related to the aging of the population. Aging population brings various implications both from the aspect of social, economic, legal, political and especially health. The result of the age of the female life expectancy is higher than men, then the total population of the elderly in Indonesia are more dominated by women. Therefore, the problems of the elderly in General in Indonesia, in fact there is another problem which is more dominated by women. Please note that, as a result of differences is not supernatural nature or as a result of gender differences, women elderly in Indonesia have slightly different characteristics with elderly men. Because of his habit of taking care of the household makes the elderly women are considered more ready to face his old time. In addition due to the habit of taking care of yourself, your life becomes a widow no matter it's not tough for elderly women. Elderly women more ready to lead a life alone. Elderly woman also has the ability of community better and stay active community (arisan, payroll, and so on). Elderly women also tend to live in families to vent his habit of taking care of the household. Meanwhile, the social structure makes the women should work in the domestic sphere, causing the women did not have equal access with men to get jobs that make money. Elderly woman in Indonesia could potentially experience double discrimination, both because of her status as a woman or because as a resident who was already advanced. As women, discrimination caused by social and cultural structures of society is in fact already occurred since a young age, even since I was a baby or children. This can be seen on the gap in the various fields of development, among them: www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 9 • the population of women aged 10 years and over who have never school number is double that of men. • The population of women who are illiterate is also doubling boys. • Old school average population of women lower than men. • The mortality rate of pregnant women and childbirth is still high. • Anemia sufferers Figures on women is still high. • The rate of labour force participation (TPAK) women is much lower than that of men. • The gender development index (GDI/Gender Development Index) of the human development index (HDI/Human Development Index) that indicates that the overall human resources development has not been followed by the success of gender. • Gender Empowerment Index (GEM/Gender Empowerment Measure) is still low which suggests that the participation of women in public office and decision-making is still low. • Violence against women is still relatively high. • There are still many laws and regulations gender bias and discriminate women. • Understanding of the people will be the concept of gender equality and justice is still low. Meanwhile, as the population of elderly, discrimination often occurs because considered useless to society. Considered to be a burden only troublesome group of younger age population. This happens because not a few problems that will be encountered at the time of being elderly, include: • health continued to decline, either due to natural factors or because of disease. Many elderly residents who are experiencing health problems, prone to disease. • Finances worsening, both due to poverty that occurred since the pralansia or the result of not preparing finance old age well. • Many elderly forced to still have to work or become a burden to the family, community or country. • Many elderly residents who are displaced and impoverished. Social security www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 10 has not been implemented properly. Many elderly residents who are having problems in financing life especially for health financing. • Socially, the perceived value of the decline has occurred in respect of the elderly. Proven to be the growing number of cases of abandonment or other violence against elderly people by his own family. • Many elderly residents who have a relationship and communication is very limited. • Lack of facilities and infrastructure are still public friendly elderly, so the result in the low accessibility of the elderly. • Environmental quality are low, not clean and not healthy. • Socio-cultural Changes that occur due to the terkikisnya relationships between the generations. This among other things because most of the population of productive age leaving his residence for a living, as a result many elderly who have to live alone, especially for women. Pay attention to the problems the population elderly elderly women in general or specifically as set forth above, then the necessary efforts provide protection women responsive gender as a model that gives the service aksebilitas be easy to obtain health services, social economic civic, spiritual, mental, economic, education is needed for women seniors 1.2. Health Problems and economic issues (financial/welfare) is the main problem associated with the elderly population, as it related to human physical deterioration that occurs naturally and can not be negotiable as well as regarding the fulfillment of the necessities of life. However that does not mean other areas became a problem that is not important. Other fields such as social, spiritual, environmental and mental stuff, is the life of the elderly should get attention in a comprehensive manner. Therefore it is not redundant if related to the protection of the elderly, elderly issues diketegorikan this into ten areas, namely: www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 11 a. problems of health. Being elderly is still synonymous with the decrease in the degree of a person's health, so keep and care for the health of the elderly is becoming a very important issue to consider. b. social problems. Being elderly is often coupled with the loss of a variety of social roles in the lives of families and communities. If it is not ready to deal with it can lead to problems that are not easily overcome it. c. economic problems. Financial unpreparedness elderly often result in poor, forced to keep working (Although physically already does not support), or be a burden to others. d. the problem of education. Many elderly who are still illiterate or educated very low so as inhibit for access on a wide range of facilities and services. e. mental spiritual problems. Many elderly who psychologically are not ready to enter old age psychiatric disease so many threatening him. f. problems of culture. Becoming elderly means facing any change cultural values of the next generation, which currently tend to be more individualist, even attention and reverence in the elderly began to decline. g. environmental problems. Because of the ability to take care of herself began to wane, many elderly who are immersed in an environment that is dirty and unhealthy. h. problems of accessibility. The mobility of the elderly being reduced due to changes in addition to the physical condition is also due to the lack of transportation infrastructure support elderly-friendly. i. legal issues. Many of the elderly are not able to protect himself and his wealth so many emerging cases of violence and criminality. j. political issues. Being elderly sometimes have to get out of people's lives so that political rights are often taken or not given. When one's political rights will not disappear just because someone gets old or sick. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id


2010, no. 602 12 1.3. Goals and objectives the protection of the protection is the guarantee of a sense of security given by a country to all the communities of violence and/or threats in terms of human rights fulfilment as human beings. Thus protection of the elderly is not another country's efforts in providing assurance on the elderly a sense of security so that azasinya rights are met. Protection of the elderly is intended so that the elderly can lead a life based on principles of participation, independent, caring, self esteem, and self-actualization. Seen from the aspect of protection includes access, participation, control and benefits. Given the problems faced by the elderly population that is highly diverse, said protection here has a wider meaning, i.e. It includes the efforts of service, empowerment and protection itself. Thus the protection of the elderly are not only limited to provide protection from the threat of another party (the violence and criminality), but more on the empowerment and the Ministry's efforts to improve the quality of life of the elderly, so that the elderly can be traveled with a time prosperous and happy. The target group of the female elderly protection system is not limited to just the female elderly only. The target group of women's protection system for the elderly can be grouped into several groups: (1) a resident who has entered a period of elderly, i.e. age 60 or over. In the community, also known as term usila (old age), glamur (the information age), seniors, elders, etc.; (2) the population that will soon be entering a period of elderly (called pralansia), i.e. age 45 years – 64 years old; and (3) a resident of young age, i.e. under the age of 45 years. In this target group does not differentiate between elderly women as well as men elderly. In bankruptcy, both men and women, both of which are expected to be protected, served and empowered so that the quality of his life can be maintained and enhanced as best as possible. While the younger population groups is expected to be encouraged to prepare and perform better anticipation so that life in the elderly is becoming more prosperous. Thus the protection of elderly women in fact are included in the system of protection of the elderly as a whole. More important is how all these elderly protective measures can be www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 13 independent of gender inequalities, free from discrimination, marginalization, subordination, stereotyping, violence against women and the elderly. Further away from it the protection of the elderly also expected more responsive gender that is already paying attention to the distinction between elderly men and elderly women, both of which occur as a result of the differences is not supernatural or because the result of social construction that occurred during this time. The purpose of the system of protection of elderly women or elderly protection systems that are gender-responsive is to make the elderly as a whole (both men and women) can be prosperous and happy life was born. In order that the purpose of life and inner peace can be realized, many areas of the lives of those who need the protection. In accordance with the problems encountered, the areas of the life of the elderly who need the protection are: a. the health field. It is one of the basic rights of the elderly should get protection. They are entitled to continue to preserve and maintain his health, to know the condition of his health, getting adequate care, running a pattern of life that is healthy, balanced meals and exercise regularly and enough rest. b. the social Field. The social life of elderly women is an aspect that is often forgotten, especially by his own family. Discretion to communicate, make friends and interact with fellow elderly or other groups that favored is the right of the elderly who need to keep given. c. Economics. Economic or financial aspect in the lives of elderly women is none other than the right to meet all his needs, especially basic needs i.e. boards, clothing and food. Therefore, for those who are not able to satisfy himself and his family also were not able to bear them, become the obligation of the State to pay it as a form of protection. For the elderly who are still potential also still has the right to work (not because it is forced) in accordance with its ability. d. education. Education is the right of every citizen from birth to death (lifelong education). Discretion to continue to acquire knowledge should continue to get protection. Efforts continue to add knowledge will make the brain continues to work that implies physical and non physical health. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 14 e. mental spiritual Areas. Mental and spiritual lives of the elderly is an aspect that largely determine the quality of their lives. Discretion in the exercise of worship appropriate lull in life as well as his conviction is a need that must be met as well. f. cultural Field. Cultural aspects include a right to expression, artistic activity or enjoy and appreciate other cultural products. This right is not lost even though the people become elderly. g. environmental Field. Elderly population as more in need of a healthy and clean environment. Given the extent of their particular occasionally on can not take care of her, then becomes the obligation of the other party to maintain and protect the environment in the vicinity. h. the field of accessibility. Accessibility of the elderly become very low due to the large number of public infrastructure still not friendly elderly. Technical and physical barriers is sometimes still coupled with psychic barriers by his family. i. law. Legal aspects of life of the elderly need the protection especially legal rights such as the right to used interchangeably in front of the law, the right to make use of possessions, the right to obtain legal assistance, as well as other legal rights. j. the political sphere. Political life someone should still get protection despite being elderly. Political rights of a person to determine the life of the community, the nation and the country should not be lost because a person becomes elderly. The elderly have the right to participate in political life, choosing or selected. Elderly woman in protective measures undertaken by many parties in Indonesia, namely by elderly individuals themselves (both from pralansia and after being elderly), by families, by the community and by the Government. This is in accordance with the mandate of the Act No. 13 of 1998 about the welfare of the Elderly which mentions that the Government, society and the family responsible for the realization of social welfare enhancement efforts are elderly. Each component of the perpetrator of such protection is certainly has functions or role of each, in accordance with the inherent character. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 15 Governments as a form of representative of the country that holds the responsibility to protect all citizens, play a role in the protection of the elderly either directly or indirectly. Through its cognate units, the Government runs the elderly protection functions with direct service programs to the elderly or still pralansia. To the elderly directly given various assistance or services in order to continue to be able to keep the quality of life. Whereas to pralansia are encouraged to prepare for the life of her day early to gain a blissful life of the elderly. In addition the Government also runs programmes aimed at encouraging greater involvement of the community in the efforts of protection of elderly women. To the business world are encouraged to run the program protection guarantees of the old days for employees or workers. Boost can also be directed so that the corporate world running programs of CSR (corporate social responsibility) in elderly women protection efforts. To the families are also encouraged to continually improve care to elderly women who became part of her family. Next to the general public, other citizens and environmental NGOS (nongovernmental organizations) or civic organizations, also continue to be encouraged to matter to the lives of the elderly. The community can act provides protection to the elderly (in the form of a variety of services) as well as to the family of the elderly in order to continue to improve awareness and skills in providing care in the elderly. Elderly protection system as outlined above can be described in simple terms as in Figure 1.1. below. Figure 1.1. Elderly woman www.djpp.depkumham.go.id protection system


2010, no. 602 16 1.4. The nature of protection of elderly women (gender-responsive) protection of elderly women in fact are the protection of the elderly (not limited to women) gender responsive. I.e. every effort the elderly protection independent of gender inequalities, free from discrimination, marginalization, subordination, stereotyping, violence against women and the elderly. Further away from it the protection of the elderly that are gender-responsive is already paying attention to the distinction between the needs of elderly men and elderly women, both of which occur as a result of the differences is not supernatural or because the result of social construction that occurred during this time. Elderly woman is the part that is inseparable from the elderly in General. Therefore, of course, in a protective elderly, elderly women's groups are included in it. Even since the age of life expectancy of women is higher than men's, which resulted in the number of elderly women more than men, then the target of various protection programs should be more women than men. Look at it like this, at first glance there is no issue with the protection of elderly women. The question will be if we try to be aware of the various aspects of life of the elderly as well as the differences between women and men. As a result of gender inequality and injustice since the age is still young, at the time of entering the elderly, however, the gap between women and men is still quite high. This happens almost in all areas, education, health, economy and so on. The condition of elderly women has always been under the elderly male, although the number of them more. A further question is whether these conditions having regard to the then elderly woman to do its own protective measures, apart from the male elderly? Should the organized system or a model exclusive reserved only for the female elderly? Of course not. An effort separate then made him exclusive also will not solve the problem of inequality. Thus will pose a gender bias. To do is make the effort of the entire elderly protection program be fair in gender and the further away from it being gender responsive. Thus the efforts of protection of the elderly women at elderly protection efforts is the fact that the (overall immunity, either male or female) that equitable gender and gender-responsive, www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 17 i.e. elderly protection that meets the principles of fairness and gender responsive. Gender equality and justice may be easier said and proclaimed, but it's not an easy thing to be realized in the country which has long been strong cultural patriarkhi such as Indonesia. In order to achieve gender equality and justice is certainly to be avoided all forms of gender inequalities. Gender inequalities are most frequent and highly felt during this is the occurrence of discrimination, namely the dibedakannya treatment of women is not caused because the difference is not supernatural which is natural, but rather solely because they are women-sex. In our society women's dinomorduakan (subordination) in decision making. In fact, sometimes for Affairs of the joint (men and women), women did not talk to. As a result, women can't control if the decision was not profitable or even harm them. Women also have no chance as men in the mastery of economic resources, so that women are economically marginalized or termarjinalisasikan. In factories or offices, mostly women working in a lowly class and automatically pay was also lower than that of men. Not just a question of salary, welfare issues such as benefits, women are often treated differently. Keperempuanannya women because often gets a negative label, for example, women were teasers, kanca wingking (plays in the back or in the domestic sector), Heaven Hell nunut katut (throughout the lives of women will greatly depend on the male), chatty, and so on. Women also often become victims of violence both in private areas as well as in public areas such as domestic violence (violence against a wife), dating violence, rape, or sexual harassment. Further than that, within the family, women often have workloads that are much heavier than the males, but women often work is not valued as the work of men. In fact, in modern life, women have increasingly doubled work load. Pay attention to these things then to bear a fair share of elderly protection efforts in gender, then the necessary effort so that all protection activities can escape from a wide range of gender inequalities. This effort can be done by way of questioning the entire back www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 18 688 process activities occurring, whether it contains elements that are potentially discriminatory against women. Furthermore, to guarantee the elderly protection activities are already gender-responsive, also need to be questionable whether all aspects in the protection of the elderly have looked deeply into the differences that exist between the elderly woman with elderly men. As it known that their characteristics are different by nature. In addition the conditions also differ significantly, so as to accelerate the achievement of gender equality and justice, the elderly protection program must be gender responsive. The availability of data disaggregated according to gender becomes a must to know the difference of conditions and position of men and women are elderly. The existence of data disaggregated according to gender will be revealed whether gender issues as a basis for the determination of policies, programs, and activities of elderly protection of gender responsive. For example, it is known that the proportion of elderly women who are illiterate two-fold from elderly men. Then to achieve equality, should be the target in the activities for the eradication of illiteracy more intended for elderly women. Elderly woman also has the tendency of many different things from the male, then a lot of programs of protection must also be adapted to the different tendencies. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 19 CHAPTER II CHARACTERISTICS and CONDITIONS of ELDERLY 2.1. The General characteristics of Increasing age and eventually became the elderly nature of dust. This happens both on men and women. Thus, the characteristics of the female elderly will not be much different from the characteristics of the elderly in General. At the time of entering the elderly person will begin to feel the presence of the physical and mental abilities. In addition to physical setbacks, grow old also marked by the decline of cognitive abilities, such as memory, easy to forget better precisely on the longer events, orientation and perception of time decreased, intelegensia weakened and not receptive to new ideas. Naturally the human body undergoes the normal change is inevitable. Fast or slow changes affected by factors of psychological, social, economic and medical. The changes will be seen in tissues and organs of the body, such as: a. the skin becomes dry and berkeriput. b. the graying and loss. c. decreased vision in part or whole. d. diminished Hearing. e. the sense of taste diminishes. f. height shrinks due to osteoporosis resulting body slouch. g. porous Bone mass, reduced, reduced power and break easily. h. the elasticity of lung tissue is reduced, the breath becomes short. i. reduction of organ function Occur in the stomach. j. blood vessel walls thicken and high blood pressure. k. heart muscle work inefficiently. b. decline of reproductive organ function, especially in women. d. the brain shrinks and the reaction becomes slow. n. Sexuality not always decline. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id


2010, no. 602 20 2.2. The characteristics of the health consequences of the aging process, human beings will be exposed to the risk of a variety of changes to her, good physical and non physical changes. These changes often cause symptoms of abnormality if compared with the State before entering the elderly. In the aspect of health is sometimes difficult to distinguish whether an abnormality caused by the aging process (normal) or caused by a disease. He said with the increasing age of a person then it is likely decline anatomik and functional organ-organnya grew up. Researcher Andres and Tobin mengintroduksikan "Law 1 (one) percent" that stated that the function of the organs will be decreased as much as one percent every year after the age of 30 years. Although other studies have stated that the decline is not sedramatis as above, but there is indeed a real functional decline after the age of 70 years. The following are the 12 (twelve) health aspects that many changes (read: functional decline) in humans after entering the elderly. a. the system Senses. The result of the aging process, on the elderly will happen reduction function almost on all five senses. This happens because of various changes morfologik on the eyes, ears, nose, taste on the tongue nerves and skin. Degenerative changes are functional anatomik so result in vision, hearing, smell and taste nerve sensitivity is reduced. the Gastro Intestinal System b. .. In this aspect there are changes ranging from the tooth up to the anus, among other changes atrofik in the jaw so that the teeth are easier dates (many elderly toothless). Atrofik changes also occur in the mucous glands and digestive muscles that cause functional changes to patologik changes, such as chewing and swallowing disorders, appetite changes to various diseases. c. Cardiovascular System. Despite the absence of the disease, a heart on the elderly has shown a decrease in the force of contraction, the contraction speed and content sekuncup. Happened also a significant reduction of the reserves of the heart and the ability to increase the power of the bulk of the heart, for example at the time of exercise. d. system of Respiration (Breathing). In humans, respiration system has reached maturity growth at the age of 20 – 25 years, after which the www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 21 function will continue to decline. On the elderly lung elasticity and strength of the chest muscles decreases, while the increased chest wall stiffness that result in a decrease in the ratio of ventilation-perfusion in pulmonary section that is not free and widening the artery to alveolar oxygen gradient. In addition it also happens to decrease motion wall Cilia respiration system, decreased reflex coughs and other physiological reflexes, leading to the possibility of the occurrence of acute infection in lower respiratory tract. Further, the various changes and the functional morfologik will facilitate the occurrence of various circumstances, including patologik obstructive pulmonary disease (PPO), Acute Pulmonary Infection Disease/Chronic pulmonary Malignancy, and bronchi. e. the system Endokrinologik. In this system the State of patologik often happens is osteoporosis, which often occurs in the elderly either primary or secondary type. Especially the case in women post-menopause because of sudden decrease in the hormone estrogen. At the older age, the incidence in males was also increased because of the factors inaktivitas, intake of calcium is lacking, the manufacture of vitamin D through the skin is decreased and also the hormonal factor. f. System Hematologik. The pattern of growth in the real bone marrow contain fewer cells hemopoitik with declining response against artificial stimuli. Regenerative response against blood loss or pernicious anemia therapy also reduced compared to young at a time. Various types of anemia that is often found on the elderly, among others, are: (1) iron deficiency Anemia due to missing blood, malabsorbsi and malnutrition; (2) megaloblastik Anemia; (3) the Anemia in chronic disease consequences. g. system of Joints. Rheumatic diseases is one of the main causes of the occurrence of diabilitas in the elderly, in addition to stroke and cardiovascular disease. The joint changes be not ratanya surface of the joint, fibrillation and formation of Rift and indentations on the surface of cartilage. Erosion of cartilage causes the bones of eburnasi and the formation of cysts in the subkodral cavity and the bone marrow. These circumstances could be called patologik, but it was agreed that these changes should be considered patologik when there is additional stress, for example in case of trauma or the joint insurer the load. h. Urogenital System and blood pressure. On the elderly kidney undergoes many changes, among other thickening on kapsula bowman and www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 22 disorders permeability against solut that will difiltrasi. Nefron overall decline in the number of (nefron at the end of life on average lived 50 percent than at the age of 30 years) and began to look to atrophy. Renal blood flow in at the age of 75 years living about 50 percent than at a young age. In the event of physical stress (exercise heavy of heart failure, infection, etc.), the kidneys can't cope with the increase in these needs and easy to kidney failure. Generally moderate to large blood vessels on the elderly has experienced numerous changes. Thickening occurred that ultimately led to the flexibility of the blood vessels of the banks increased. This would lead to an increase in blood pressure. i. Systems Immunology and infection. Immune on the elderly continue to decline as a result of various changes morfologik due to the aging process. Also an increase in the formation of auto-antibodies so that the incidence of the disease increased auto-immune. The introduction of and attacks against tumor cells also decreases the incidence of disease, causing increased. Infection on the elderly also tend to be more severe, it can even cause death. Infection of the lower respiratory tract and urinary tract infection is an infection of the importance on the elderly, who can continue over weight. j. Central Nervous System and autonomous. The weight of the brain will decline about 10 percent in aging between 30 to 70 years. Besides thickened meningen, giri and sulci of the brain reduced its depth. However, this disorder does not cause disturbance patologik means. That is pathological is the presence of macular pigment of substantia nigra, tangling neurofibriler and the establishment of the Agency hirano. This state corresponds to the onset of Parkinson's Syndrome and pathology of Alzheimer's. k. Skin and Integumentary Systems. Going to atrophy of epidermis, sweat glands, hair follicles as well as in the above-mentioned pigmentation due to thinning of the skin. Skin color varies with here and there a pigmentation not occur evenly. Thinning nails and break easily. Hair loss baldness occurs until. Subcutaneous fat also reduced causing a reduced skin pads so the durability against pressure and temperature change being reduced. Thinning of the skin causing the skin is easily hurt and skin infections. b. System of muscles and bones. Muscle undergoing atrophy in addition as a result of reduced activity, also often due to disorders of the www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 23 metabolic or nerve denervation. The State of the muscle due to inaktivitas can be overcome by improving the pattern of life (sports or activities are hard-wired). But the distractions that plagued the old metabolic disease is innervated nerves often already irreversible, although metaboliknya abnormality fixed. With increasing age, the pairing process (= coupling) penulangan, i.e. the destruction of bone formation and slowing down, especially its formation. This is in addition to the result of a decrease in the activity of the body, also due to the decrease in hormone estrogen (female), vitamin D (especially those who are less exposed to the Sun) and some other hormones, such as kalsitonin and parathormon. The bones become more hollow-cavity, micro-architecture is changing and often result in broken bones good light due nor spontaneous. 2.3. the psychological Characteristics. In addition to anatomical changes and that boils down to morfologik health, aging process also causes mental problems risk and psychological. On average an elderly will decrease his three IQ points per decade. Environmental factors have an effect on the mental health especially of religious and educational environment of the environment. Here are some of the psychological problems of the elderly often encountered: a. Loneliness (loneliness, was). Loneliness or loneliness, was typically experienced by the elderly at the time of the death of the spouse or a close friend. Especially when itself at that time also experience a variety of health status decline, for example, suffered various physical ailments, severe mobility impaired or sensory disorders, especially hearing loss. Should be distinguished between the lonely with his own life. Many of the elderly who live alone but not lonely because of the experience of social activity is still high. On the other hand there are the elderly who, though living in a neighborhood that included quite a lot but are experiencing loneliness. In people with this lonely role of social organization is very meaningful because it can be entertaining, give motivation to further enhance the social role of the sufferer, in addition to providing assistance work work at home when there is indeed a disability sufferers in these things. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id


2010, no. 602 24 b. grief (bereavement). The period of mourning is a time that is very prone to the elderly. The death of the spouse, a close friend, or even a favorite animal, could suddenly decided his mental resilience that is already fragile. This can be triggered to physical and health disorders. A period of two years since the death of the spouse's life was his most prone. At this time the person should thus be left to be able to express dukacitanya. Often starts with a blank, then feeling like crying and then an episode of depression. Depression due to grief on the elderly usually not self limiting. Doctors and health workers must give a chance to these episodes pass. Needed a companion with great empathy, listening to complaints, provide entertainment, and not let every prolonged episodes and is running too heavy. When the attempt does not succeed, even severe depression occurred, psychiatric consultation may be necessary, with the possibility given anti-depressant drugs. c. depression. In epidemiologik, in Western countries there is a depression at 15-20 percent of the population of the elderly. The incidence is even higher in the elderly population are accommodated in social institutions. In Asia the number is much lower because there are factors the socio-religious thought to effect positive. A study in Indonesia found only 2.3 percent of the elderly population who are cared for in acute geriatric ward suffering from depression. The figure in the community were also lower. Depression is not caused by a single pathology, but is usually an multifaktor. On the elderly, where environmental stress often leads to depression and adaptability is already declining, often result in far worse than if it occurs at a younger age. d. anxious Disorders. Anxious disorders are divided into several groups, i.e., phobias, panic disorder, general anxiety disorder, post traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. On the elderly disorders anxiety is often a continuation of the disruption that this has happened at a time when young adults. e. Psychosis. Various forms of psychosis can occur in the elderly, either as a continuation of the circumstances at young adults or arising on the elderly, among them are: (1) Parafrenia, is an advanced form of schizophrenia that often occurs in the elderly characterized by waham (usually waham suspect and accused). Sufferers often feel www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 25 steal his stuff or his neighbors neighbors intend to kill him. Usually occurs in isolated individuals or withdraw from social activities. These circumstances caused the frequent incidence of commotion between the neighbors; (2) syndrome Diogenes, is a situation in which the elderly showed the appearance of a very disturbed behavior. The House or the room is very dirty, and smelly urine spots as well as feces everywhere (because the sufferer often seen tinkering with urine/stool). Rat hanging around and so on. Sufferers of piling her belongings with irregular. Sufferers usually have a high IQ, and usually refused to be included in a social parlors. Attempts to hold the settings/home cleaning/room will usually fail. After some time it would be repeated again. 2.4. Conditions of the elderly based on the number and percentage of the population Between the census survey results (SUPAS) recorded in 2005, the population of the elderly (60 years and over) in Indonesia as many as more than 15 million inhabitants (not including NAD and Nias) or about 7 percent of the total population. Of these, the elderly woman turns out to be more than men, with a comparison of 48.5 percent male and 51.5 per cent women. Table 2.1. Elderly population by region and gender, 2005 Regional Male Female Total Urban Rural Total 4,696,565 4,937,619 9,634,184 2,844,967 3,058,659 5,903,626 7,541,532 7,996,278 15,537,810 when viewed from the shelter, most of the elderly living in the countryside. Only 38 percent of the elderly living in urban areas, while the rest (62 per cent) live in rural areas. One reason why the elderly more lived in the rural countryside is because many elderly, selected by both men and women to enjoy the day. This is shown by the number of residents who live a retire back to his homeland in the countryside. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 of 26 Figure 2.1. The percentage of Elderly Population by region and gender, 2005 37.72 62.28 48.54 38.25 61.75 51.46 38.00 62.00 100.00 men Women Total Urban Rural Total elderly population tend to experience increased from year to year. These conditions, among others, due to the increasing socio-economic conditions of the population indicated from the increasing life expectancy of the population. In general the life expectancy of the population increased from 67.6 years old in 2004 became 68.1 years in 2005. Life expectancy of women is generally longer than men by comparison 66.2 years for men and 70.2 years for women in 2005. That is why elderly women more than men. Table 2.2. Life expectancy of the population according to sex, the 2004-2005 Year men Women Total 2004 65.7 69.6 67.6 2005 66.2 70.2 68.1 marital Status by age with longer life expectancy, then the number of elderly women are more numerous than men. In addition, many elderly women first left her husband dead, because men generally married younger women. This led to most of the elderly woman's status as a divorced died, with comparisons of 13.9 per cent for men and women for 52.9 percent (about four times as much). www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 27 Table 2.3. The percentage of Elderly according to marital Status, Marital Status in 2005 Total Rural Urban male Perem puan-Total male Perem puan-Total male Perem-puan Total Yet mating Mating 0.84 1.82 1.35 0.64 1.23 0.94 0.72 1.45 1.10 83.93 40.34 61.35 84.62 43.29 63.44 84.36 42.16 62.64 Divorced life 1.23 3.48 2.39 0.94 3.56 2.28 1.05 3.53 2.32 Divorced die 14.01 54.36 34.91 13.80 51.93 33.34 13.88 52.86 33.94 Total 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 As well as who is divorced life, more women than men, although the difference is not too much. This is likely due in the event of divorce more women who are not married anymore. It is also shown of elderly male mating status percentage doubled more than elderly women (84.36 per cent compared to 42.16 percent). Education education is one of the indicators to show the quality of life of the population. When seen from the number of illiterate elderly residents, as many as 35 percent of the elderly are unable to read and write. The percentage of elderly women who were illiterate were more than double the male elderly (by comparison 22.93 46.85% and percent). Thus it can be concluded that in general the quality of life of the elderly is still low, and elderly women are at a condition that is more alarming than elderly men. Figure 2.2. The number of illiterate Elderly Population by region and gender, 2005 13.90 28.40 22.93 34.03 54.79 46.85 24.33 41.93 35.24 Male Female L + P Urban Rural Total www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 603 of 28 other indicators used to measure the quality of life of elderly in education is the average of the old school. In General, the average elderly population only old school 3.36 years or equivalent of education ELEMENTARY grade 3. So on average the elderly in Indonesia did not finish ELEMENTARY SCHOOL. Comparison between men and women, average old school female elderly lower than men (4.77 years and 2.50 years or male equivalent to 4th grade, whereas women only to class 2 SD). When compared by region of residence, old school average elderly in rural conditions are more alarming than the elderly in urban areas. This is shown from more low average old school good for elderly women as well as men. Elderly men in urban areas have an average of old school reaches 6 years and women 3.59 years, whereas in rural areas the average old school male elderly only 3.38 years and women 1.66 years. Figure 2.3. The average of the old School (years) population of the Elderly by region and gender, 2005 3.38 6.04 4.39 3.59 1.66 2.40 2.50 4.77 3.36 male Female L + P Urban Rural Total Employment from around the elderly in Indonesia, about 45 percent are still working to gain income or help earning. If compared between genders, the elderly men more than women are still working with comparison 60.3 percent for male elderly 30.3 percent for women and the elderly. From around the elderly who still works, mostly working in the agricultural sector as much as 69.2 per cent, industrial sector 6.7 percent and services 24.1 percent. Those who work in the agricultural sector more male www.djpp.depkumham.go.id


2010, no. 602 29 than women, while for services more women than men. For those working in the industrial sector there is almost no difference between men and women. This condition is not much different from the conditions of employment for the population in General. However, the percentage of elderly who worked in the agricultural sector is much larger than the population as a whole that does not reach 50 percent. Figure 2.4. The elderly who work according to sector and gender, 2005 45.4 6.7 12.6 6.7 38.4 19.6 69.2 4.2 4.2 Male Female L + P Agriculture service industry Figure 2.5. The elderly are the biggest source of income, according to a 2005 68.6 63.8 36.2 31.9 30.2 31.4 32.4 31.2 30.5 42.0 Employment/Pension/social security business interest savings/Stock/Bond/deposit any man Woman viewed from the source of his income, the condition of elderly men better than women. This can be seen from the largest source of income earned male has a larger percentage of almost to all sources of income, except for any other source of income is derived from, among others, granting or submissions. The most striking difference is on the source of pandapatan originating from www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 30 retirement/social security and which derives from the work/business, the percentage of elderly men with a second source of income is much larger than the female. Thus it can be said that the elderly man had a guarantee of a better living than female elderly. Other Elderly healthy and independent course will be able to conduct various activities without the help of others. From around the elderly, about 85 percent of them can conduct various activities without the need to help others. This percentage should be constantly improved by continuing to improve the quality of life of the population in order to remain healthy and independent to in old age. Elderly woman turns out to be more independent than elderly men. This condition can be seen from the percentage of elderly women who can do the activities without the assistance of others is greater than men (87.85 per cent for male elderly elderly women from the whole and 81.25 percent for elderly men from the rest elderly men). Figure 2.6. The elderly according to the use of the assistance of others in the Occupation according to the gender, 2005 29.0 50.3 45.2 45.3 46.5 37.5 33.2 34.1 24.7 30.9 53.5 54.7 Tdk need help Dressing Waste Water Baths to prepare food/drink Eating female Female Female elderly require more help with dressing, bathing and defecating, while elderly men more in need of the assistance of others to prepare food and to eat/drink. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 31 Activities most often done by elderly shows how the activity/creativity in running elderly life in old days. The elderly are the most frequent activities are watching TV and doing social activities, the percentage is more women than men. While elderly men more often do activities fishing, picnic/sports, traveling, reading/writing and maintaining plant/aquarium fish. 2.5. elderly elderly Population Classification are classified based on the physical condition and age as well as the variable defined by different countries and institutions. Many of these are related to time entering retirement. The UN set a limit elderly age is 60 years old, while the WHO set 65 years. In Indonesia in accordance with Act No. 13 of 1998 about Elderly Keesejahteraan established that the elderly age is 60 years. According to age group, the elderly can be divided in several groups, namely (a) the age of 60 – 69 years are known as young elderly; (b) age 70 – 79 years referred to as the elderly are; and the age of 80 years and above are known as elderly parents. The elderly are also often classified as a group of elderly early (55 – 64 years); a group of elderly (65 – 70 years); and groups with high risk elderly (70 years and up). Besides the elderly are sometimes grouped based on the level of his independence, namely: (a) elderly excuse/senile (senile), that are no longer able to meet the basic needs of his life so very dependent on other people; (b) the elderly productive, i.e. which is able to take care of himself and not dependent on others; and (c) elderly papa (destitute), who do not have relatives or the ability of the support itself as no job or income or other resources for survival. More elderly are often also grouped according to place of residence. Thus special elderly women can break down into (a) elderly women who live alone; (b) elderly women who lived with a spouse; (c) elderly living with children or her own or together with his partner. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 32 CHAPTER III POLICIES and GOVERNMENT'S ROLE 3.1. The policy On policy level has not seen the existence of regulations, especially at the level of legislation that specifically regulates the female elderly protective measures. However, the policy of protection that are related to the protection of the elderly in General, have been around for a long time. The most fundamental and of course there are in our country's Constitution, the Constitution of 1945 Article 28 H subsection (3) have confirmed that any person (including the elderly and women are elderly) are entitled to social security that allows the development of itself completely as human dignity. This policy strengthened again by law No. 39 of 1999 concerning human rights in article 5 paragraph (3) which States that every person including the vulnerable community groups (the elderly, among others) has the right to obtain treatment and more with regard to their protection. Further than that in article 8 also States that the protection, promotion, enforcement, and the fulfilment of human rights is primarily the responsibility of the Government. Next is the legislation that is compiled specifically for elderly residents, namely Act No. 13 of 1998 about the welfare of the Elderly. On this legislation affirmed that social welfare enhancement efforts geared towards the elderly so that the elderly can still empowered so that it plays a role in development activities with attention to functions, wisdom, knowledge, expertise, skill, experience, age and physical condition, as well as social welfare levels of maintenance are invited, the elderly. The efforts increased elderly social welfare aims to extend the life expectancy of age and productive time, materialize the independence and kesejahteraannya, the rights of cultural value systems of kinship Nation Indonesia and more closer to God Almighty. Furthermore mentioned that elderly people have the same rights in the life of society, nation and State. As a homage and tribute to the elderly are given the right to raise social welfare that includes: (a) the mental and spiritual religious services; (b) health services; (c) the Ministry of employment; (d) the Ministry of education and training; (e) the use of facilities Services, www.djpp.depkumham.go.id


2010, no. 602 33 public facilities and infrastructure; (f) ease in the services and legal aid; (g) social protection; and (h) social assistance. On the other part was also mentioned that the Government, society and the family are responsible for the attainment of social welfare enhancement efforts are elderly. To the Government commissioned to steer, guide and create an atmosphere that is conducive to the implementation of the welfare improvement efforts of the elderly. Departure from Act No. 13 of 1998 about the welfare of the Elderly, has followed up with the policy of its derivatives, namely (1) the Government Regulation Number 43 in 2004 about implementation Efforts Improved social well-being; (2) National action plans (RAN) for the welfare of Elderly 2003 – 2008; (3) the Presidential Decree Number 52 in 2004 about a National Commission on Ageing; and (4) the Presidential Decree Number 93/M in 2005 About the membership of the National Commission. In addition, other policies related to the protection of the elderly, such as Act No. 6 of 1974 Regarding provisions of principal social welfare. Article 1 this provision confirms that every citizen is entitled to social welfare levels are at their best and are obligated to as much as possible to participate in social welfare efforts. Later in Chapter 3 that the task of Government is to determine which line the wisdom needed to nurture, guide, and promote social welfare efforts; and do the safeguards and supervision of the implementation of social welfare efforts. To carry out the mandate of the Government doing the efforts in the field of social welfare which were in the form of: (a) social assistance to nationals of either an individual or a group who experience a loss of social roles or become victims due to the occurrence of disasters, whether natural or social, or other events; (b) the maintenance of adequate social welfare through the Organization of a system of social security. Further in article 5 paragraph (1) be affirmed again that the Government convene the efforts towards the attainment of connecting and a comprehensive social security system. Combined with various policies that govern the protection of women (not only after being elderly), elderly women protection policy on the policy level is actually quite adequate. Policy related to the protection of women www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 34 of them are law No. 7 of 1984 on the ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of all forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). With the ratification of this it is clear that Indonesia should have a strong commitment to eliminate all forms of discrimination against women. Then the agreement of many countries (including Indonesia) in Beijing in 1995, which produced the Beijing Platform for Action (BPfA). Here our country agree on the existence of the 12 critical areas for the empowerment of women should be a concern. Next on the Millennium Development Goals agreed in 2000, one of the goals that must be achieved in Indonesia is the realization of gender equality by 2015. 3.2. The role of Government the role of Government in the protection of elderly women nor the elderly in General, can be seen on the sejauhmana aparaturnya through the ranks of Government, outlines various policies that have been set into the programs and activities that are real. Further than that how its implementation in the field. To see more easily how the Government has been instrumental in the protection of elderly women nor the elderly in General, will be presented according to the field of development. Health problems of the main health risks facing someone as being elderly, as already expressed in the previous chapter, is the decline in the function and durability of the body. This resulted in the risk of experiencing different diseases be increased. Due to further psychological disorder, can cause disorders of self-reliance, easily hurt and the emergence of a wide range of degenerative diseases. Some of the health problems that arose in the elderly include malnutrition, incontinence, impaired balance, sudden confusion, immobilitas, loneliness, the use of polypharmacy and so on. Then some of the illnesses that many among them are hypertension, DM, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, coronary heart disease, CVD, infections, hearing loss and vision, depression and dementia. Please note that the presence of various diseases or the level of one's health is actually more influenced by behavior (53 percent), the rest is influenced by the environment (19 www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 35 percent), health care (10 percent) and by the descendants of (18 percent). In an effort to protect the health of the elderly, the Government through the ranks of the Ministry of health is inseparable from the major strategies, namely (1) Moving and empowering people to live a healthy life; (2) Enhance public access against quality health services; (3) improve the system of surveillance, monitoring and health information; (4) Improve health financing. These efforts are generally aimed at the attainment of the degree of health extended to seniors through the protection of health. While specifically intended to: (1) formation of health protection network of community-based elderly with healthy lifestyle; (2) the availability of health protection network of seniors who are professionals and cascading in each region; and (3) Achieve universal coverage membership seniors in the system of health coverage. Health services for the elderly in General to improve the degree of health and quality of life elderly in order to achieve a happy old age and berdayaguna in the lives of families and communities. While specifically aims to (a) raise awareness of the elderly to live a healthy life, (b) increasing the capabilities and role of the family/community in addressing the problem of elderly health, and (c) increasing the coverage and quality of the elderly health services. The target of the program is divided into two, namely: (a) the direct targets of which include pralansia, the elderly and the elderly with high risks, and (b) target indirectly through families, communities where the elderly are, social organization, health workers and the public at large. Further explained that to achieve the goal of health protection for the elderly, a policy taken: (1) berazas cooperation partnerships with relevant agencies, the private sector and NGOs and civic organizations; (2) move the participation and the active role of the family and society in construction of health elderly; (3) the construction of the holistic nature of the elderly through a systems approach; (4) Conduct health services seniors comprehensively (promotif, preventive, curative, rehabilitative); (5) the Ministry of health of the elderly is implemented with emphasis on primary health care givers (private/Government), for example: Polite Elderly Health Centers; (6) the elderly health services implemented in good quality, controlled costs without compromising standards and keep the service. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id


2010, no. 602 36 so that the elderly health services policies can be realized, the Government pursued a strategy of operational, by means of: (1) Strengthen institutional elderly health services through the existence of an institution and institutional welfare of elderly (from the Center to the family of the elderly); (2) increase the sensitivity, motivation and understanding of families and communities towards the protection of the elderly; (3) form a network and co-operation of national and abroad; (4) the setting up of the infrastructure Ministry. Through the empowerment of families and increase community participation in carrying out the construction of the elderly and health care; (5) improve and fulfillment infrastructure as required elderly as well as ease of access services for the elderly (primer – tertiary). Next the activities that the Government include (1) carrying out logging and mapping the health of the elderly; (2) promotes the rights and obligations of Government and the community for the elderly; (3) Develop models of elderly health services; (4) to train health care personnel (General practitioners, specialists in internal medicine, family physician, public health nurse or hospital) about geriatric medicine and gerontologi; (5) to train volunteers, care giver and family; (6) Improving the accessibility of health services for the elderly; and (8) financing. As for programs that are conducted are: (1) Improvement Program and the establishment of the elderly health services efforts in basic health services namely, sarana clinics; (2) the increased efforts of the health referral for seniors to poligeriatri at RS Stratum II and III; (3) the extension and dissemination of health information for the elderly; (4) health care for the elderly and its family at home (home care); (5) the increased community empowerment through bankruptcy; and (6) Development agencies hospitium (place of care) for the elderly. The first program, implemented by way of developing Clinics Mannered elderly. Public health clinics are Elderly People who are doing service to the elderly by giving priority to preventive and promotif aspects in addition to curative and rehabilitative aspect, proactively good and courteous, as well as provide convenience and support for the elderly. In some areas, in the elderly there manners clinics specifically for the examination of the elderly. In addition it also carried out activities outside the building of clinics to provide medical services on a group of elderly. This activity is often referred to as Posyandu elderly. Types of services include: daily Activities (activity of www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 37 daily living); Mental status examination; Examination of nutritional status; Physical examination in General (blood pressure, pulse, breath, and others); A simple laboratory inspection; Health counselling; Health consultation; Other activities such as gymnastics, the granting of additional food, and others. Other activities included in the health services at the basic level is the elderly health care at home (Home Health Care), comprehensive health services at home. This activity aims to memandirikan elderly and elderly health care in the family home. This activity was attempted by involving elderly and his family as subjects to participate planned activities carried out in the form of care and team. In this way are expected to push the elderly reach the condition of healthy and self-sufficient. Then considering the many elderly who are accommodated in an wredha, then the activities of the elderly at nursing health coaching wredha is also very important. In addition it also conducted the recording and monitoring of the elderly using personal health book containing the card towards the elderly healthy (KMS) as a means of recording and monitoring to find out early disease suffered (early detection). Services for the elderly poor could wear the askeskin funds. Strata II health services at the hospital district and Strata III in the hospital was an effort promotif, preventive, curative and rehabilitative programmes. The main curative and rehabilitative efforts. This Ministry to follow up on referrals from the primary service. In some provincial hospitals already have geriatric Neurology clinics or community. In the field of health the Government is also paying attention to the problem of financing health care for the elderly. Financing health care for the elderly was further increased the longer. Therefore, the Government is developing the financing through a system of health coverage. Financing can be sourced from: payment independent of government subsidies, social assistance, the Foundation funds healthy elderly, social funds, and others. Elderly who already gets health coverage of which is bankruptcy the poor through community health guarantee. Elderly retired CIVIL SERVANTS get health coverage from PT ASKES. As for the elderly from among the people who are capable, are expected to secure the financing of health through commercial health insurance. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 38 from the explanation concerning the protection of the elderly in the health field, to see that the efforts still neutral gender. It was not visible the existence of gender bias, but also not yet be described as gender responsive. This means that has not seen the presence of attention will be the difference between the needs of elderly women and elderly men. Social field In the social field, the role of Government in the protection of elderly women are mainly dealt with by the Social Department with the range from the Center to the regions. The role of Government in the social field is based primarily on the social problems of the elderly residents, including (1) the decline of physical, mental and social; (2) vulnerable to disease; (3) work productivity decreases; Relationships and communications limited; and (4) prone to become victims of neglect, violence and criminality. To answer social problems the elderly, the Government based on the Government Regulation number 43 in 2004 About implementation of Elderly social welfare Efforts, has set program, namely (1) social services in Parlors; (2) the social services outside the Parlor; (3) the social Institutional; and (4) social protection and accessibility. Social services in the parlors are implemented to meet the needs of a decent life which includes: (1) In Regular social services Centres; (2) service of daily (Day Care Services); and (3) the service of cross-Subsidies. The implementation of social service programs in the parlors to date is already pretty much done. In practice the Government collaborating with the local government and also the community. Although an established and managed the Central Government only 2 units, but there are currently 70 parlors run by the local government. While that is managed by the public/private numbered 165 parlors. Thus there are 237 national nursing units. Social services outside of the parlors are social services addressed to the elderly based on the family, community or social organizations. Elderly targeted stayed with family, respectively, are not accommodated in a dorm or parlors. Type of service outside of the covers: (1) Home Care (accompaniment and care of the elderly at home), which is the service of the elderly who are not potential neighborhood families: the granting of food aid, health care, hygiene assistance, mentoring, recreation, counseling and referrals; (2) Foster Care, namely services to elderly displaced through family www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 39 others or substitute families. The form of the same services with home care, namely the granting of food aid, health care, hygiene assistance, mentoring, recreation, counseling and referrals; and (3) Day Care Services (daily service), which is social services provided for the elderly that are temporary, implemented during the day both inside and outside of the care at any given time. For the elderly outside of the redeveloped given various types of services as described above, there are also some programs that service more empowerment, namely: (1) help Economically Productive Business package (UEP), the assistance provided to the elderly poor who still potential individually with the granting of social guidance and preceded skills.; (2) Aid Group joint venture (KUBE), the aid package in groups (1 group amounted to 5 – 10 people) and preceded the guidance of enterprise development; and (3) Fostering Economically Productive Effort, i.e. the aid given to the pralansia in the framework of the preparation of entering old age. Institutional development programme for elderly social, such as is done with (1) the creation of networks or network between institutions both national and international in its handling of the elderly; (2) institutional Coordination between the elderly and inter sectoral; (3) Organizing HLUN (Elderly Day) and HLUIN (International Day of Elderly); and (4) Fostering and institutional empowerment of elderly. As for the social protection program and accessibility of which is carried out by means of (1) the social protection of the elderly; (2) the development of the range of accessibility of the elderly; (3) the granting of elderly social security; and (4) improvement of partner related institutions, community/social organization for social protection and accessibility of the elderly. Elderly social security program (JSLU) aimed at: (a) relieve the burden of spending on seniors for the fulfillment of basic needs, (b) maintain the welfare of the elderly in order to live. The magnitude of social security it is Rp 300,000 displaced perlansia monthly for 12 months. As for the target criteria are: a. Aged 60 years and above (priority is getting old). b. included in poor households. c. have no source of income. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id


2010, no. 602 40 d. is not able to perform daily activities. e. sickly (often medication). f. not currently got some help from the Government or other institutions. g. Not physically and mentally disabled. h. not the pioneer of independence, veterans, the recipient of the retirement/severance. i. Not client PSTW. j. the senses of sight and hearing are not normal. k. in one day eat less than 2 times in 1 week. b. for the elderly husband and wife were on just one of those get JSLU. d. has a Population Sign Card (ID CARD). n. have a social security card Seniors (JSLU). o. do not have sufficient clothing (1-4). q. does not have a fixed place to sleep. Elderly social security program has been tested is meant as social protection efforts through the granting of social assistance is permanent. The year 2008 has been awarded to 5,000 person elderly each earn Rp. 300.000,-one month until his death. Trials were held in 15 provinces, namely: DKI Jakarta, Banten, West Java, Central Java, Yogyakarta, East Java, North Sumatra, South Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, East Nusa Tenggara, West Sumatra, West Kalimantan, Bali, North Sulawesi, and Maluku. The coverage spread over 72 Kabupaten/Kota, Kecamatan and 421 143 villages. No different than happens in health aspects, the efforts of social protection for the elderly conducted by the Government is also still a neutral gender. Impersonal and invisible existence of special attention to women's groups. The spiritual mental fields to protect the mental and spiritual life of the elderly, the Government in this regard the Department of religion and would strive to conduct various activities of coaching. The construction of the religious and spiritual mental effort is the inner or spiritual fulfillment so that the elderly can be more www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 41-capable of facing problems both regarding the personal self, family and community. The construction of the religious life and spiritual mental coaching for the elderly executed in the integral by involving the various elements within the family, schools and society. Mental coaching target the entire population of the spiritual is elderly, either potential or already still no potential again. In general the mental and spiritual religious services for the elderly are meant to thicken the sense of faith and devotion to God Almighty. Mental coaching specifically aims to increase religious observance and improve mental health so that the elderly can further enhance the back and was able to assume the role of passions is reasonably within the family and society. Construction of mental and spiritual activities for the elderly include efforts to improve and solidify our faith and devotion in accordance with their religion or belief in God Almighty, which points its activities are: a. extension and lighting to all members of the community with regard to both the elderly and family where the elderly lived. b. Increasing the role of religious figures who specifically did construction of the religious life of spiritual and mental. c. enhance cooperation in integrated between units in the Environment Ministry of Religious Affairs Directorate of information such as religion, BP4, Sub Directorate of boarding school, religious education and so on. d. improved quality of service through religious facilities and infrastructure such as books, brochures, pamphlets and leaflets relating to knowledge of religion, religious relationship with physical or mental health of the elderly. e. Prepare human resources professionals who are capable and ready to play an active role and help the needs of the organization or institution that cares for the elderly, including the preparation of material module extension, lectures, and educational materials. f. Gather and create a network of community organizations, NGOS, religious institutions care elderly in other communication along which intensive coaching in the elderly. g. Conducting studies, research and seminars relating to the construction of the elderly. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 42 h. increase the holding of forums meetings include gatherings in order to solidify the confidence elderly in accordance with the religion or belief adhered. i. Organization of the activities of the pilgrimage to the historic places of religious nuances that can increase the faith and religious passion. j. ritual activities Increased in the Congregation in accordance with the religion and beliefs of each. k. Increased social religious charities. b. Improvement and coaching relationships between religions. The field of education the role of Government in the protection of the elderly in the education field have been tried elaborated and implemented by the Ministry of national education as the unit responsible Government in education. The general objective assigned to the education of the elderly is increasing the degree of health and quality of life for the elderly achieve a happy old age and Sepik in family life and society in accordance with its existence in the strata community. Whereas in particular the aim is: (1) Increasing the role of the elderly to the development of the nation and State; (2) Education for All Continuing Education that the elderly Messenger updates for the next generation; and (3) the education of the elderly should be initiated as early as possible to achieve success. The discretion of the Ministry of national education in the construction of the elderly conducted in the form of (1) the application of life skills and health education on bankruptcy; (2) education safety and independence of the elderly; (3) education about maintaining physical freshness on the elderly; (4) education of skills and productivity of the elderly; and (5) environmental education for the elderly. As target elderly education are all elderly are mainly the elderly who still potential and productive elderly who experience social and family problems that has the elderly. Activities conducted in the construction, such as (1) Increasing outreach and guidance efforts of elderly social welfare through various forums, especially through the school education (public education); (2) Strengthening the support of families and communities to improve the quality of elderly individuals and raise awareness of the elderly to always introspective and www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 43 willing pass down knowledge and experiences; (3) an increase in the quality of life of elderly who are done with the Organization of specific courses for the elderly, the 56th education and exercises practical technology, socio-cultural field, consulting activities and preparation of labor toward retirement and an increase in physical training together, outward bond's elderly, active recreation and so on. The economy of one of the Government's role in the field of Economics in elderly protective measures are implemented by the Department of labor with the range through a variety of coaching programs and services aimed at the elderly. Target group used as the target population is elderly who still potential and productive and resident soon to be entering a period of elderly. The purpose of coaching in General is to take advantage of the potential and capabilities as well as elderly morale so that capable role optimally in national development. Whereas in particular the goal is to leverage existing elderly workforce in accordance with their knowledge and experience as well as his expertise in order to improve the quality of life of the community. To achieve these goals the Department of labor has a wide program of activities, among them: a. placement service of the labour program of the elderly. Is an attempt to bring together labor elderly with the employer so that the elderly can labor get a job that suits your talents, interests and ability as well as the employer obtain labor according to your needs. b. skills enhancement program in order instead of the profession as well as the enhancement of capabilities. Implemented in order to improve the ability, skill, quality and productivity of labor for the elderly was capable of competing with labor particularly in the job market. c. the program expansion of job opportunities for elderly workforce through the guidance of independent business. Is an attempt to improve the ability of the elderly instead of just entering the world of work but more than that as well so that it can play a role in creating employment opportunities. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 44 other fields other than in the field of health, social, education and economy, protection of elderly women in other fields is not so much can tell. In the field of transportation currently living a railway transport services provide discounts of 20 percent for the elderly by showing a GOVERNMENT-ISSUED ID at time of purchase. The same price cuts have also been given by air freight services, but currently it seems to no longer apply. Meanwhile, in terms of the provision of special facilities (Special carriages, special seating, and others) for the elderly on public transport, up to this day is still a discourse failed to realized. In the field of other public services already occurs is granting a lifetime ID CARD facility for the elderly. This service, then there is no longer a requirement for the elderly to take care of the ID CARD every five years. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id


2010, no. 602 45 CHAPTER IV on the ROLE of individuals, families and SOCIETY 4.1. The role of the individual Being old is a natural process which inevitably happen to anyone. The passage of the age is not negotiable and postponed. Therefore the elderly life could have foreseen even a planned since he was young. Increasingly early preparation is carried out the better. The life of the elderly is a sustaining phase that starts from young (pralansia) and elderly phase itself. On the elderly phase, before the problem comes is handled by other parties, actions need to be noteworthy is how it can be handled on its own. This means there are two phases that can be done to give the sense of protection of its own. The first phase, pralansia is a self protective measures that can be done on the benefits of youth and their necessity is felt during the quarter. The necessity of understanding the subject at hand during the quarter was a prerequisites how oneself can plan things that its impact is felt during the quarter. Healthy life, a condition that is literate and savings should be raised and planned since young. Second, elderly phase which is an action that can be performed on an already aging age before finally helpless at all and had to be assisted by another party. Ability to resolve problems in the elderly on the one hand is the accumulation of successes and planning in his youth and ability themselves to defend it after entering the elderly before the problems encountered are not able to be handled alone. Thus, the role that can be done to deal with the problems in the elderly, of course, very long and it starts far before helplessness occurs in the elderly. In phase pralansia, even long before that (since the phase of pralansia is often meant as aged 45 – 60 years old), needs to be done so that preparation efforts of residents remained productive to be elderly. Being elderly is a process that is natural in human life that is not possible we avoid. Naturally, because the process of aging elderly will decline physically and mentally, but in www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 46 fact it varies between individuals, because the process experienced by each individual usually depends on the lifestyle while still young. Time is not the time when the elderly person must depend and be a burden, but a time of elderly can be a fun time strived, productive and energetic without having to feel old and helpless. Many are also the elderly to age over 80 years still productive, but otherwise there are already hanging out with other people despite the still relatively young. Therefore, the pembudayaan a healthy lifestyle since young became important. The protection of the life of the elderly since young (pralansia) is the most ideal protection model. Elderly protective measures that diilakukan at the time of the young age would be more effective when directed at all aspects that must be protected, both aspects of the health, social, economic and other aspects. To protect your health, since pralansia can do the pattern of healthy living (eating a balanced, rest, regular exercise, not smoking, not drinking, not changing sexual partners, as well as a medical examination on a regular basis). It is believed, because a person's health is largely influenced by the behavior of his own. The other way is to participate or purchase health coverage policy. The individual's role in the maintenance of health is still lacking. Only be carried out by a small group of residents, that is those who can afford and realize the importance of living a healthy life. It can be seen from the level of a public health insurance membership is still low. To protect financial condition at the time of the elderly, individuals pralansia can do so by way of saving in a disciplined and consistent, so that in the old days having money or wealth enough to finance his life until he died. Another way is to buy insurance products that its benefits will be accepted on a certain age after become old or approaching old age. Furthermore it could be by doing a long term investment, like buying property, shares, or any other type of investment whose value will grow profitable, so that the elderly can be quoted at the time of its benefits. Nevertheless, this kind of role (in finance) are also relatively little is still performed by the inhabitants of pralansia. Proven until today there are still many elderly who suffer and the poor. In fact it also occurs in resident at the time of his pretty productive. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 47 on phase after entering the age of the elderly, elderly roles to protect the life of its own even more difficult if during previous was not prepared properly. This occurs because at this time the whole potential and ability has already started to decline. However it is not meant that they could not play a role in protecting himself. Even in some areas of life, such as health, the role of the individual is very elderly determine the quality of health care itself. Without the full participation of the elderly continues to behave itself for healthy living, seniors health quality impossible can be realized. The elderly have the same obligation in the life of society, nation and State. Therefore, in the social field, the elderly are also obliged to: (1) Guiding and advising in arif and prudent based on knowledge and experience, especially in the family environment in order to safeguard the dignity and improve kesejahteraannya; (2) the Practice and transforming knowledge, expertise, skill, ability and experience to the next generation; (3) give the example in all aspects of life to the next generation. Furthermore, each individual well before becoming elderly and after becoming elderly can be instrumental in realizing the full life of its own at the time of being elderly. Here are some activities that can be played by individuals, which has been done, but it's possible there are that have not been thought of to execute it. Table 4.1. Activities/roles in the protection of the elderly individual herself. No field of the protection of the Individual Role 1 Healthcare o Behaves live a healthy life (eating a balanced, regular exercise, enough sleep, do not smoke, do not consume drugs, not changing sexual partners). o join the health insurance. o find information about maintaining health in the elderly. o find information about food-food that is suitable for the elderly. o Dig information about how to resolve problems encountered when the elderly. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 Social o 48 2 active in social activities since I was young. o continue to establish relationship with peers. o active in various environmental activities and society generally. 3 Economic o Join insurance/warranty days old since I was young. o Saving/investing since I was young. o Active looking for job opportunities for elderly if still possible. o find information source of funds for the elderly. o Digging information about efforts can do for the elderly. o a group form joint venture elderly. 4 Education o continuing to maintain the desire to learn. o Barpartisipasi was active in any educational activities for the elderly. o continue to maintain intellect and memory by doing light activities that affect the intellect like filling out CROSSWORD, and listen to music. 5 Mental spiritual o Prepare mentally entering the elderly since young. o follow or hold religious activities on the environment. o Establish or join in a gathering of elderly. o Realize itself is old. 6 Culture o Occupying a hobby or other artistic activity. o Participate in the race-a race of artistry. o maintaining sustainability culture. 7 Environment o participate in creating a clean and healthy environment. o participate in the cleaning activities in the surrounding environment. o keep clean at least his bedroom alone. 8 Askesibilitas/transport o continues to maintain health especially bone health. 9 the law o aware of his legal rights as a citizen. o do not hesitate asking for legal assistance if need. 10 Political o continued to actively follow the development of political information. o participate in various political activities both national, regional as well as the environment. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id


2010, no. 602 49 4.2. The role of the family role of the family in caring for and protecting the elderly women is very important. Families that are meant here is someone who has a family relationship with the female elderly in question. In a society known for Indonesia two concepts family, namely the nuclear family (batih) consisting of the husband (father), his wife (mum) and children, as well as a large family that has wider kinship. In relation to the protection of elderly women discussed here a lot more emphasis on the concept of the nuclear family. Thus is the family of the elderly women are all members of a family consisting of a life partner or husband (if still alive), son or son-in-law, and grandchildren. Each has a role that might be different between each other. Spouse (husband) is generally well advanced age will certainly be different from the role of the son, daughter or grandson. The role of the family against the protection of elderly women is not limited to just aimed at the elderly women who live the same House, but also against those who do not live together. They may stay in the family home or for various reasons stay in parlors or other places. Because of the generally older, also had the role of the husband in providing protection for the spouse (elderly women) has been much reduced. Not seldom happens exactly the opposite. The husband is more in need of protection from his wife. His wife should take care when they should still not be elderly. Given that the life expectancy of women is higher, things like this can certainly a lot going on. However, it doesn't mean this can't be life partner was instrumental in protecting his wife. The husband can act at least as friends sejiwa who together maintain health by continuing to remind on the pattern of healthy living. In terms of finances, the husband also generally still many role especially for that have pension funds or savings/assets that can be used as stock living in the old days. So also in the social life of the community, spiritual and mental aspects the protection of others. Thus the role of protection of elderly women conducted by the spouse is the role of reciprocity, i.e. mutually protect and help each other to continue to maintain the quality of life of www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 50 of them. This is especially the case in the elderly women who still lived with her husband at home without any accompanied children. Indeed for elderly women who still have a spouse generally tends to stay living apart from her children. Rare pair of elderly parents who are willing to move to the place of residence of the child or his son-in-law. That happened quite the contrary, the child or the daughter-in-law who stay at home parents or in-laws for reasons of compassion to see his parents no one caring. There are also caused by the children haven't been able to buy a home. In such a case, the husband is not just a shelter his wife, but was also instrumental in the economy took away her son's needs. For a husband and wife who were staying in the centres or living with the family of the child or the daughter-in-law, the role of the husband will certainly be lighter. At least a part in the economic or financial aspect is usually already taken over by the son or son-in-law. Thus the role of lainnyalah in the aspect which should be taken up, namely in health aspects of spiritual, mental, cultural and so forth. The son or daughter has a very vital role in the protection of elderly women. Supported by the general culture of a society's culture Indonesia upholds the honour of the elderly, is already a "liability" of a child to give protection to his parents at the time of being elderly. This role should be on all aspects of protection, but because of ignorance and incompetence, generally only a small portion of just the role that can be performed. Generally children or son-in-law only provides shelter, adequate clothing and needs pangannya, and assume it's over. But there are still many other aspects that should be protected as his health, his social life, his education, his spiritual mental needs, its cultural life, its surroundings, aksesibilitasnya, as well as his political and legal rights. In protecting the health of elderly women, a son or daughter should be able to play a role in providing healthy food menu in accordance with his age, observe, record and control diets. Health checked periodically, not only in the event of a complaint of pain and or accompany exercise regularly or have it delivered to the places of elderly sports. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 51 in protecting social life, a son or daughter should be able to facilitate them to be able to continue to communicate with friends, enter in the Group/Assembly of the elderly, and to give responsibility on some of the work in accordance with its ability. While in protecting his education which is none other than to let his brain stimulated to continue working, a son or a daughter can be instrumental in providing the preferred readings or linking them on educational resources accordingly. For the protection of the mental and spiritual, a child does not have to teach the Koran, but sought in various ways that parents can obtain those services, including by providing facilities which make it easier for the elderly, held a study at home by inviting a teacher or friend with the audience ustadz peers, connecting on a study groups that already exist, be friends talk or provide friends to talk and provide consulting psychology case depression , stress or loneliness. Protection in cultural aspects such as melidungi women's rights for the elderly can still express its cultural values, the right to artistic activity, the right to enjoy cultural products and so on. In this case of course a son or daughter can take a role in helping provide the facilities or provide enough access so that his parents met its cultural rights. Further, that no less important is the right of elderly women to get a healthy environment. Here of course the role of a child or the daughter-in-law is very large. Moreover, for the elderly who have been unable to take care of itself. Environmental quality of elderly women strongly depends on its people. The role of families is the next in the aspect of accessibility. It is this aspect of the family in the very elderly quality of life determines whether or not. Even on all aspects of protection, the role of the main family is actually helping the elderly to keep the aksesibilitasnya on a wide range of services. In Indonesia, the intensity of the role of the family especially children/son-in-law different because affected by conditions of the region are very diverse. Based on ethnographic studies in the five ethnic groups in Indonesia, www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 52 found that children from different ethnic backgrounds have different behavior in caring for the elderly. On ethnic Batak, girls are generally more often provide relief and also taking care of his parents (elderly) than boys. However, parents are generally ashamed to accept it. In Java and Bali, the oldest boy in the economy took away the lives of elderly parents, and girls are responsible for him, especially as his residence. In the Bugis, responsibility for caring for the elderly were given to children who have worked, especially those who are living together with elderly. In the life of society, elderly residents of Indonesia in addition to receiving a transfer from his children, there are also others who provide transfers. Research Wirakartakusumah (1999) regarding the population of the elderly in Indonesia found that 58 percent of its revenue from its life resting the elderly themselves, received 27 percent support (support) of the child or his son-in-law, 19 percent of retirement life resting and husband/wife income. Other studies in the South Village, East Java, found that most of the elderly still work or earn income from retirement. This is because only a portion of the respondents who have bad health. By using Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) 1993, Mundiharno found that 62 percent of adult children provide transfers to the elderly the elderly who live alone. Meanwhile, only 21 percent of adult children receive transfers from elderly parents who live alone. The proportion of older adults who provide transfers to the elderly parents living alone was higher than those who provide transfer to the elderly living with children or son-in-law. Thus it can be said that the family still plays an important role in supporting elderly life, though actually still many elderly who are still working to fulfill his life everyday. Qualitative research in East Java found that elderly is not regarded as a "burden" family, but instead they became the backbone of the economy of the family. Other qualitative research in Yogyakarta and North Sumatra, found some informants acknowledge that they still support the lives of their children who were already adults living with one's home. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id


2010, no. 602 53 Table 4.2. Activities/role of the family in the protection of elderly women. No field of the protection of the Family the role of spouse/Child/Husband address the Health o 1 tu Grandkids Together keep the behavior of healthy living. o become friends. o maintain a healthy menu for the elderly. o Remind for enough rest. o health Checked periodically (posyandu brings to the elderly). o Enter as a participant in health insurance. o Deliver to the doctor when sick. o bear the cost of healthcare. o Provide knowledge/information about the pattern of healthy living. o Accompanying elderly in ill. 2 Social o be friends talk, where the vent (companion). o Be good friends (play). o connecting with peers, provide an opportunity to meet up with his friends. o keserasan did not do against the elderly. o Provide discretion to the elderly do when working on housework everyday except that damning. o Educate grandkids to be able to be a companion. 3 Economic o Insufficient basic needs (food, clothing, Board). o Find/give the appropriate job. o Finance health care. 4 Education o Help access to the eradication of illiteracy. o Provide reading materials. o help the access to the library. o Help access to training institutions. o provide information about how to live life as elderly. 5 Mental spiritual o held a study by inviting uztads. o Providing on-site service. o Include in group recitation. o provide a psychologist/caregiver if needed. o Invite sightseeing, including religious tourism, pilgrimage. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 54 o mutual understanding. o Give responsibility to the elderly so that felt he still needed. 6 o Culture Gives freedom of expression, the case of art. o help develop a hobby. o Provide discretion to enjoy cultural products. o Find a hobby/arts can do together-the same. o allow the elderly to follow environmental and arts activities encourage. 7 Environment o maintain the cleanliness of the bedroom and home environment. o Keeping/creating tranquility and comfort of the home atmosphere. 8 Askesibilitas o Accompanied/escorted to various destinations. o Providing and preparing the tool mobiltas (sticks, wheelchairs). o Provide transportation costs/expenses to support mobility. 9 the law o maintaining his legal rights as individuals. o Help access services and legal aid. o not do domestic violence. o assist in taking care of the formal documents such as letter of land, etc. 10 Political o helps keep his political consciousness. o help get a political information. o Help/usher using voting rights in elections/elections. o protect from the intervention of the other party which is not desired. o Help take care of the political administration. 4.3. The role of neighborhood residents and NGOs/CBOs in addition to family, in relation to the protection of elderly women or the elderly in General, at least there is still three more components that make up the society as a whole. The third component is the corporate world or institutional business; non-governmental organizations (NGOS) or civic organizations (Cbos); local people and the environment. The third component of the society, especially the last two components, as long as it has played an important role in providing the protection of elderly women in Indonesia. Although it has not yet been fullest involvement of the community in providing protection on elderly women was already quite large. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 55 Environment of local people who normally reside in the unity RT/RW (jiran/tenets of citizens) are already pretty much have a program stipend for the "widow" which is none other than elderly women. The granting of compensation is primarily aimed at elderly women categorized as poor and his family also judged less capable. They raise money to then be given to elderly women. Usually done twice a year which of course this frequency was very far from sufficient given the needs of the elderly living in progress all the time. However, these cases indicate that environmental concern and the role citizens (RT/RW) can be encouraged and developed in other forms. Aspect of protection can also be developed is not always just fix the problem or economic prosperity alone. Elderly women are another aspect of life can also be organised to get noticed. No possibility of an environment RT/RW on the initiative of its own founding parlors, activity center, or other protection format for the elderly. In terms of environmental health the citizens can seek entry into the environment the elderly posyandu program so that the health of the elderly can be checked at regular intervals. The environment can also hold sports or gymnastics together to the elderly. These activities combined with various other activities while also protecting the social life of his spiritual and mental. Elderly women protection efforts as well as elderly in General is also widely performed by non-governmental organizations (NGOs). NGOS generally have more power, both in terms of knowledge, as well as financial networks, the role that can be performed in a protective elderly women in general are more comprehensive. Attention is not limited to just one aspect of protection alone but almost in all aspects. Any forms of activities. From the most simple, by providing compensation, provide food, form Assembly, providing the Centre activities, to establish the parlors. Elderly woman who was subjected to the protection of the NGOS is a little bit different from that carried out by the environment. NGOS are not only focusing on the elderly who are poor and powerless, but also the elderly are in fact able to economically either himself or his family. But they need www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 56 other protection services, namely in the social aspect of the spiritual, cultural, mental, etc. NGOS/Cbos may also play a role indirectly by giving encouragement to the families in order to have the awareness and enhance the knowledge in the care of elderly women. NGOS/CBOs may also play a role in conducting a training-training on elderly care. The role of the community in the protection of the elderly as evidenced by the who laboured and organized by the community which currently has reached 165 parlors. Not to mention the involvement of the community in implementing INHERITANCE (family stipend), whether performed individually or on behalf of institutions/NGOs. Table 4.3. Activities/roles that can be made in the protection of the community's elderly women. NO field of the protection of the community's Environmental Role (RT/RW) NGOS/Cbos 1 Health o Hosts and enable elderly posyandu. o Organizing sports/gymnastics together. o Establish health clinics mannered elderly. o conduct training elderly care. o Provide health workers for the elderly. o Promote healthy lifestyle behaviors. o Help sick elderly medical expenses. o Menbantu elderly women get/provide information about healthy life patterns. o help the elderly get free health services/pontongan price. 2 Social o held a forum/joint activities of the elderly. o create a bevy of elderly. o Hold recreation along the elderly. o Visiting elderly homes. o provide escorts for the elderly. o Train families elderly to elderly care. o elderly care Campaign. o Provide for exemption/relief on the elderly to work on environmental tasks. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 57 o Give Honorable position for the elderly in environmental organizations. o help the elderly get social services that become his right. 3 Economic o collect and disburse compensation for the elderly poor. o set up a soup kitchen the elderly. o Establish parlors or elderly service centres. o Provide employment for elderly potential. o initiate the elderly to obtain microcredit/soft. o fight for empowerment against elderly women by establishing cooperation with the citizens of the corporate world and Government. 4 Education o conduct the eradication of illiteracy. o Provide reading materials. o held a job training/skills. o held a preparatory exercise. o Establish the library. 5 Mental spiritual o Hold investigations. o organize a pilgrimage together. o provide the o psychiatrist consultation and guidance of religion. o prepare the infrastructures of worship (mosques/churches) elderly-friendly. o maintain the security environment o provide opportunities for elderly women to follow environmental activities (bitching) o include the elderly in religious events 6 Culture o provides artistic activity for the elderly. o Provide entertainment for the elderly. o held a race-a race for the elderly. o elderly provides opportunities in arts activities o provides opportunities for the elderly to participate in art competitions o Provide a means for elderly women to give education to the citizens of the young age of sdalam order to preserve indigenous culture, o Give the role on the elderly as sentinels of culture. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id


2010, no. 602 58 7 o keep the Environment healthy and friendly environment of the elderly. o healthy environment Campaign. o held a joint clean-up activities. 8 Askesibilitas/transport o Keep transportation infrastructure remain friendly elderly. o provide the mobility aids for the elderly (canes, wheelchairs, etc.). 9 the law o Treat elderly equal before the law. o Provide legal aid services. o maintaining the legal rights of the elderly from a variety of possibilities (heritage etc.). o Menbantu elderly obtain legal aid when necessary o Reported to the authorities when there is violence against elderly o help the elderly to obtain his rights as a citizen. 10 Political o maintain and did not reduce his political rights as citizens. o give priority in various political events (elections/elections). o help provide political information. o assist in the process of the political administration. 4.4. The role of the business world the role of the business world in the elderly woman's protection efforts as well as the elderly in General, relatively not much visible. Yet many companies involved in the efforts of protection of the elderly directly. That there is an indirect role. The role was seen for example on its participation to include employees as participants of the scheme with the assurance of his day or other type of retirement plan. Or involve its employees in the health insurance program that implies healthcare employees better. Another role of the corporate world are selling products that are indeed its benefits will be obtained at the time after retirement or the elderly. This is done by the insurance service companies with insurance products. In addition the company also sell banking products savings or deposits combined with the benefits that will accrue in the future. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 59 involvement in social activities through programs of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) are specifically aimed at the protection of elderly women or elderly in General is also not widely known. However, CSR programs in the form of health care, education, community empowerment, women's empowerment is already quite a lot. It is possible that some groups of women are elderly already netted through those programs. But for economic empowerment programs, somewhat doubtful can touch a group of the elderly, especially elderly women. This is because on this kind of program is usually enforced restrictions on the maximum age. Given the number of elderly women and especially the elderly will continue to be the more enlarged, as well as paying attention to the condition of the elderly women who generally need protection, the business world can be encouraged to play a role in the effort greater protection of elderly women. The role of the corporate world it can be done in the form of business development service of the elderly and to its social activities. CSR programs can also be directed to this elderly woman protection efforts. Many forms of activities to choose from such as granting compensation, elderly health services, the provision of elderly activity center (guesthouses elderly) to establish a viable for the elderly. Table 4.4. Activities/roles of the business world can be done in the protection of elderly women. NO field of the protection role of the business world 1 Health o held a retirement fund for employees/employees. o free health checks for elderly who live around the location of the business. o provide milk and healthier food on the elderly poor. o Provides health facilities for the elderly (elderly mannered clinic). 2 Social o provide training preparation for retirement for employees. o Provide social assistance to the elderly poor. 3 Economic o Provide employment opportunities to the elderly who are still potential. o involving the elderly in CSR programs community economic empowerment. www.djpp.depkumham.go.id 2010, no. 602 60 4 Education o held an education/training on the elderly. o participate in eradication of illiterate elderly. o Provide reading materials for the elderly. o establish the library. 5 Mental spiritual o conduct religious for the elderly. 6 Culture o held an art competition for the elderly. o Provide arts facilities for the elderly. 7 Environment o do not pollute the environment. o Berpasrtisipasi in creating a healthy environment. 8 Askesibilitas o Providing transportation facilities to the elderly group activities. o help provide elderly mobility AIDS (canes, wheelchairs, etc.). 9 the law o provides assistance services law. o participate in movement activities are aware of law for the elderly 10 Political o other community components Together help elderly articulate his political rights of STATE MINISTER of the EMPOWERMENT of WOMEN and CHILD PROTECTION of the REPUBLIC of INDONESIA, LINDA AMALIA SARI www.djpp.depkumham.go.id

Related Laws