Regulations On The Construction And Operation Of Trams

Original Language Title: Verordnung über den Bau und Betrieb der Straßenbahnen

Read the untranslated law here:

Regulations on the construction and operation of trams (tram construction- and operating order - BOStrab) BOStrab Ausfertigung date: 11.12.1987 full quotation: "tram construction- and operation order of December 11, 1987 (BGBl. I S. 2648), most recently by article 1 of the Decree of November 8, 2007 (BGBl. I S. 2569) has been changed" stand: last amended by art. 1 V v. 8.11.2007 I 2569 for details on the stand number found in the menu see remarks footnote (+++ text detection from) : 1.1.1988 +++) (+++ more to apply requirements as a result of the EinigVtr gem. Article 109 No. 5 alia f G v. 8.12.2010 I 1864 mWv 15.12.2010 +++) table of contents the first section General section 1 scope and general definitions section 2 principles article 3 General requirements for the construction of equipment and vehicles section 4 General requirements on operation § 5 technical supervision section 6 exceptions second section management § 7 entrepreneur section 8 Manager § 9 confirmation as the Manager of third section of operating staff § 10 General requirements for operating staff article 11 special requirements on driving staff § 12 training and Examination of driving staff article 13 conduct during disease fourth section of § 14 service behavior facilities § 15 routing 16 § car body § 17 track article 18 perimeter of scan area section 19 security rooms § 20 crossings article 21 signalling section 22 train safety equipment § 23 communication systems section 24 § 25 power plants Catenary Systems § 26 lines section 27 lighting section 28 piping section 29 bridges section 30 tunnel article 31 stops § 32 escalators and moving walkways fifth section vehicles § 33 vehicle design § 34 vehicle § 35 drives 36 brake section 37 drive § 38 driving control section 39 pantograph and grinder § 40 signalling section 41 rail scraper and mounting section 42 coupling facilities § 43 doors for the exchange of passengers § 44 drivers seat article 45 interior lighting, heating and ventilation section 46 information facilities § 47 labels and symbols section 48 equipment for emergencies sixth section operating paragraph 49 driving regulations § 50 permissible speeds § 51 signals section 52 use by operating staff section 53 occupy the trains with driving staff § 54 driving article 55 on the road article 56 behavior in case of defects on trains § 57 maintenance of premises and vehicles section 58 use and entering the premises and vehicles section 59 Betriebsgefährdende acts seventh section procedures section 60 examination Construction materials for facilities § 61 supervision of the construction of operating equipment § 62 decrease eighth section misdemeanors, final and transitional provisions article 63 offences section 64 Berlin clause § 65 entry into force and transitional provisions installation 1 labelling and safety of level crossings Appendix 2 limits for stunts Appendix 3 symbol concerning the identification of seats for disabled and other seat needy persons Appendix 4 signals input formula on reason of § 57 of the passenger transport Act where in the Federal Law Gazette Part III , Outline number 9240-1, adjusted version published recently by section 70, paragraph 2, of the Act of 15 March 1974 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 721) is changed, will be prescribed with the consent of the Federal Council: first section General section 1 scope and general definitions (1) this Regulation applies to the construction and operation of trams in the meaning of § 4 of the passenger transport Act (PBefG). The building regulations of countries remains unaffected.
(2) trams are 1 road-dependent cars (§ 4 ABS. 1 PBefG), 2 independent railways (§ 4 ABS. 2 PBefG).
(3) construction is the construction or alteration of facilities and vehicles.
(4) operation is the totality of all measures which for passenger transport, including the training of operating staff and maintenance of equipment and vehicles.
(5) operation includes adjusting and securing the routes, cut off and running of trains manoeuvring.
(6) operating staff are 1 when driving (driving staff), 2 in the control and monitoring of the operations staff involved, 3. person responsible for the maintenance of equipment and vehicles, 4. as senior or monitor user agents according to paragraphs 1 to 3 (7) operating systems are all systems used by the operating, in particular 1 the structural, mechanical and electrical equipment for operation , including the help buildings, 2 for the stay and the clearance of passengers specific plants, 3. the parking areas for vehicles, 4. the repair connected to the rail network.
(8) vehicles are those that can run track-bound trains or trains. Multi-part vehicles can not be disconnected during operation, are considered a vehicle.
(9) operating vehicles are vehicles which are not carrying passengers. Used, in particular for the training of operational staff for the maintenance of operating systems or for measures in case of malfunctions and accidents.
(10) trainsets are temporary trains on routes tracks. You can run as individuals - or operating trains and consist of one or more vehicles.

§ 2 principles (1) equipment and vehicles shall be so designed, that they satisfy the requirements of safety and order. These requirements is considered to be fulfilled, if facilities and vehicles according the provisions of this regulation, the arrangements taken by the technical supervisory authority and by the approval authority and the generally accepted rules of technology are built and operated.
(2) by the generally accepted rules of technology may be waived, if at least the same safety is ensured.

Article 3 General requirements for the construction, equipment and vehicles (1) facilities and vehicles must be installed that its anticipated operation harms anyone or more than inevitably compromised or hindered be. You must be particularly designed that 1 the highest stresses operationally occur in mechanical, electrical and thermal type without risk to operation can be recorded, 2. dangerous parts and facilities does not inadvertently can be touched, 3. the emergence and spread of fires will be complicated by preventive measures and in case of fire the possibility to the rescue of persons, as well as fire-fighting, 4 DC railways with energy transmission through Rails adverse effects of stray current corrosion are low , 5 components and devices for protection against external influences are protected, as far as it is operationally necessary, 6 the persistence of excessive contact voltages is prevented by protective measures, 7 by electrical interference the reliability cannot be adversely affected.
(2) equipment in equipment and vehicles, which are intended for use or operation by passengers, must be clearly visible and easily accessible. Their handling must reveal to convey; Maloperation may cause any operating risk.
(3) when operating equipment and vehicles, measures must be taken, unauthorized pressing prevent more than unavoidable operating risk as a result.
(4) failures and errors by automatically acting facilities in facilities and vehicles can appear occupied operating offices in operation necessary extent.
(5) measures which allow the use of equipment and vehicles without particular difficulty disabled, elderly or infirm persons, expectant mothers, children and passengers with small children include the construction requirements. Facilities for these individuals should be characterized by notes.
(6) railways of adjacent transport company should take account of the possibilities of an operation network in its technical design.

§ 4 General requirements for operation are (1) operating staff to put in the number required for the safe and proper operation.
(2) operating equipment and vehicles are to be maintained. Faults on them during operation, which may affect the safety, are wholly or partially inoperative to take them and, if necessary, to cover.
(3) the operation hazardous or disturbing circumstances are, as long as they are not automatic weighing devices the competent operational body, to report this immediately after finding.
(4) through operational measures is to ensure that operating errors be eliminated quickly and that assistance is provided immediately during accidents and fires.

§ 5 technical supervision (1) the technical supervisory authority according to § 54 para 1 sentence 3 of the passenger transport Act monitoring compliance with the provisions of this regulation. You performs the required tests, consents and approvals in fulfilling this task and makes the necessary arrangements.
(2) the technical inspectorate may use the exercise of technical supervision of other knowledgeable persons or bodies. This includes also the Manager referred to in section 8 or the project proponents according to § 7 paragraph 6.
(3) the proper production of plant, vehicles or components particularly requires the expertise and experience of the persons responsible for that or is equipped with special facilities, the technical Inspectorate by the entrepreneur may proof require that he or the contracted manufacturer has such professionals or institutions and use them in the production.
(4) there is any doubt that plant, vehicles or traffic operations conform to the provisions of this regulation, the technical authority of the contractor may request the submission of particular evidence or opinion.
(5) the technical supervisory authority finds that the entrepreneur will not fulfil his duties according to § 7, she shall take the necessary measures. In particular 1 can put him a reasonable time limit for the Elimination of deficiencies, restricting 2. inadequate security that map to be interrupted or stopped by construction work or the use of certain equipment and vehicles or prohibit.

By the provisions of this regulation in particular cases or generally for certain applicants, exceptions exceptions that technical supervisory authority may approve § 6.
Second section management § 7 entrepreneur (1) the operator has to make sure to meet the needs of security and order pursuant to section 2. He has in particular to ensure that equipment and vehicles are in safe condition and ensure it is run.
(2) the provider is obliged in the selection to apply use and supervision of operating staff the care that requires a safe and proper transportation of passengers.
(3) the contractor shall appoint a Manager to fulfil the tasks incumbent upon this regulation, without prejudice to its own responsibility. Ever a manager can be ordered in several modes. For every manager at least a Deputy is appointed.
(4) the appointment of the Manager and his Deputy needed the approval of the technical authority.
(5) the operator has to make sure that the Manager can properly fulfil the responsibilities incumbent. In decisions that affect the management of managers to participate in decisive is planning and construction of facilities, 2. procurement of vehicles, 3. statement of needs especially when 1 operating staff, 4. selection, use and supervision of operating staff, 5.
Investigations of service failings of operating staff and the resulting measures, 6 agreements on the transfer of tasks that affect the responsibility of the head of the operation, on persons or bodies that do not belong to the company.
(6) is according to § 3 para 3 of the passenger transport Act the contractor equals carrier of a project needs to order a plant manager, if the responsible management in the construction of facilities entrusted to an official of the higher technical management service or an employee in the public service with equivalent skills and experience.
(7) the operator has to support the activities of the technical supervisory authority and to provide the necessary information.
(8) to buildings or other facilities that are built and maintained not in accordance with this regulation, used with trams, the operator has to prove that they are suitable for the operation of the trams and their maintenance is guaranteed.
(9) the danger that the reliability is affected by measures third party, shall ensure that precautions are taken against such impairment of entrepreneurs.

§ 8 is overall responsible for the safe and proper operation Manager (1) the operating head.
(2) the Manager has to prepare instructions for operating personnel to the provisions of this regulation according to the operational needs and to ensure their observance.
(3) the Manager has to bring its service instructions of the technical inspectorate.
(4) the manager shall immediately report 1 accidents where a person has been killed or seriously injured or equipment or vehicles considerably have been damaged, 2. operating incidents, which attract public attention supervisors.
(5) in the case of public transport, the reporting requirements are whether the managers responsible for the respective line pursuant to paragraph 4.
(6) representative may be working as managers except in cases of emergency only after written service delivery.

§ 9 confirmation as Operations Manager (1) at the request of the entrepreneur confirms the technical supervisory authority the appointment of the Manager for this company, if he has passed the examination of the operating head 1, 2. no evidence of facts, which for the activity of a manager being unreliable him appear.
(2) by way of derogation from paragraph 1 No. 1 is who in a Department include planning, construction and operation of track-bound lanes to substantial, has passed the large State examination for the higher technical management services and has worked at least three years in street railway companies in the for the construction and operation of the tramway-essential departments as an engineer as Manager also confirmed; Joining railway company during the preparatory service before the large State examination can be used wholly or in part.
(3) the request for confirmation as the operating head shall be accompanied by 1 a curriculum vitae with photograph, 2. a certificate, 3. the testimony of managers passed the examination or in cases referred to in paragraph 2 the certificate passed the large State examination and evidence of activity in street railways.
(4) as Deputy of the Manager the paragraphs 1 to 3 shall apply for the confirmation.
Third section operating staff § 10 General requirements for operating staff (1) as of operating staff may be only active, who is at least 18 years old 1, 2. is mentally and physically fit and is loaded 3. not by the facts, let him appear as unreliable for the activity.
(2) the suitability must be established prior to first start of the activity by a company doctor ordered for a street railway company.
(3) a person who has completed the 40 years of age, may be only retained as operating staff, the continued existence of the suitability has been determined by a physician referred to in paragraph 2. The same is then valid after another five years.
(4) exist justified doubts as to the continued existence of the suitability, especially after a severe illness, the operating staff as such may be only retained its suitability has been established again referred to in paragraph 2.
(5) over operating staff according to § 1 para 6, Nos. 1 and 2 are records to lead, from which in particular suitability, education, results of tests, inspections, teachings and retraining must be shown.

§ 11 particular requirements for travel agents (1) driving staff must be at least 21 years old. This does not apply to train handlers, train for driving personnel, the vehicles in parking areas and workshops operate.
(2) travel agents may be used only if fit has been established pursuant to section 10 para 2. The examination must be repeated every three years.
(3) driving staff, trains, accompanying or unpaid, must be trained in emergency operations at the scene of the accident.

§ 12 training and testing of driving staff (1) driving staff must be trained a reasonable time under the supervision of teaching staff for their activities.
(2) during the training of the teaching staff is responsible for the proper operation of equipment and vehicles.
(3) after the training has the Operations Manager or operating staff appointed by him, who was not involved in the training, to determine the suitability of the trained for the planned activity by an examination. After passing the fitness test, the driving staff member receives a card signed by the Manager of the activities for which its suitability has been established.
(4) driving staff are supplementary to schools after their training on a regular basis.

§ 13 behavior while on duty (1) operating employees have to use the care in the operation of equipment and vehicles, which implies that people to the safe carriage are entrusted to them.
(2) operating officers have to behave towards passengers considerate and sensible way.
(3) operating employees are prohibited during the service and the service to have alcoholic drinks or other means of affecting the business activities or to join the service if they are under the effect of such drinks or means.
(4) driving staff is prohibited while the car is running sound or image to other than operational purposes to use for receiving and playback devices.

§ 14 behavior in disease
(1) an operating employee has a disease that can affect his duty, he may not be able to perform his service.
(2) driving staff, trains, accompanying or check, or operating staff serving passengers, may this activity does not exercise, as long as they or members of their home community to one in § 34 paragraph 3 No. 2, 4, 6, 8, 11 of the infection Protection Act of 20 July 2000 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 1045) suffer the disease, unless unless you prove by medical certificate, that there is no danger of transmission of the disease.
(3) diseases are referred to in paragraph 1 and 2 notified to the contractor.
Fourth section allow operating systems section 15 (1) route that route and the location of the stations must meet the traffic needs and especially cheap change to other modes of transport.
(2) curve radius and longitudinal inclinations to be driving dynamics favourable and allow high speeds. But the speeds for the individual sections of the respective use of road space and urban situation to adapt; Accordingly, curve radius and longitudinal inclinations can be differentiated.
3 tram lines do not level cross railway lines of public transport.
(4) the technical supervisory authorities responsible for the intersecting railways decide tram lines crossing railway lines of non-public traffic level, type and scope of the backup.
(5) routes for two direction traffic should be not single track.
(6) routes should have independent or special car body.

§ 16 car body (1) railways include the superstructure and the substructure supporting him, which can consist of ground, support or engineering works.
(2) the base must be stable in accordance with the geological and hydrological conditions.
(3) any waters must be derivable without affecting railway operation of the railway track bed.
(4) car body are 1 railways flush with the street, 2. Special roadbed, 3 independent car body.
(5) Straßenbündige are embedded with their tracks into road roadway or sidewalk areas car body.
(6) special roadbed in the transport area of public roads, but are separated from other traffic by curbs, guard rails, hedges, rows of trees or other stationary obstacles. Also level crossings, which are according to § 20 paragraph 7 as level crossings include the special roadbed.
(7) independent car body are independent due to their location or their design from other traffic. Include crossings according to § 20 (8) at pedestrian crossings over the independent roadbed a special car body must be exist between this and adjacent road roadway safety islands for pedestrians when crossing of roadbed and street not by light character is regulated.
(9) in the case of driving without drivers the unauthorized entry, driving on, or use of the car body must be by fencing or other means prevents. If it requires the reliability, the technical inspectorate may demand this on certain sections in other operating modes.

§ 17 track (1) the superstructure must that exercised static and dynamic forces without permanent deformation can record from the relevant loads train at the speed.
(2) Gleismaße and vehicle mass must be so matched that a safe lane guidance, as well as maximum running smoothness are preserved at the allowed speed in the permissible wear condition of the components.
(3) curve radius of routes tracks with independent car body should be at least as big, that no restrictions of speed are necessary in the track curve.
(4) track curve should be set up so that the outcropping at the permissible speeds, not balanced lateral acceleration and change per unit of time are as low as possible. If necessary, peaks, superelevation ramp and transition arc must be present.
(5) the longitudinal inclinations of the tracks and the train and braking forces of the trains must be coordinated, that 1 the trains even under unfavourable operating conditions sure can be made to hold, 2. a fulfilment are train can be moved from one another.
(6) remote adjustable switch can are protected against switch, as long as their moving parts of a train are occupied.
(7) movable parts of turnouts, which navigated more than 15 km/h against the tip can be set positively in their end positions.
(8) be set by vehicle bodies, the setting process not by the power consumption of the drive of the vehicle must be dependent.
(9) trades at ends must be marked and so designed that they meet the operational requirements.

§ 18 perimeter of the sparse room (1) the clearance space is associated with each track, which must be kept free for safe operation of vehicles fixed and movable objects.
(2) the perimeter of the sparse room, as well as the light space technically relevant characteristics of the vehicles and the track must be so matched that it can be hazardous to touch between vehicles and objects, and between vehicles on adjacent tracks in any acceptable operating condition.
(3) the probability of overlapping parallel radial factors must be taken into account in determining the dimensions of light.
(4) between the perimeter of the bright room and the light space, a safe distance to pass, which is parked on the determination accuracy of the light space.

19 security rooms (1) for the protection of persons a safety there must be space beside each track outside the perimeter of the light space §. He must be accessible from the track out and through the doors of the vehicles. Between two tracks, a common security space is sufficient.
(2) security premises must at least 0.7 m wide and 2.0 m high and perpendicular. Deviations of the tunnel cross section of the rectangle shape, the width of the security room in the upper and lower range may be slightly restricted.
(3) disruption of security rooms by installed equipment, in particular by supporting or signalling systems, are allowed on short lengths when it there is a distance of at least 0.45 m between the internals and the vehicle. This distance needs to be available for installations in common security rooms referred to in paragraph 1 sentence 3 on one side only.
(4) in the transport area of public roads, except motorways and force driveways, the adjacent to the railway body part of the transport space considered security space.
(5) stops the space on the platforms considered security space, whose top is not more than 0.5 m above the accessible surface of the railway body. A security space on the other side of the track or under the platform must be arranged at greater altitude.
(6) security rooms under platforms must at least 0.7 m wide and 0.7 m high. You must be accessible at occupied track; no track must be ahead of them.
(7) in the case of catwalks in the area of parking facilities, you apply according to paragraphs 5 and 6.
(8) in the case of overhead tracks can be waived security rooms, if the safety of passengers and of operating staff in other ways is ensured, in particular by measures for the immediate recovery in case of emergency.

Article 20 level crossings (1) are level crossings by crossing for Appendix 1 figure 1 designated level crossings of trams on independent car body with roads, paths or squares.
(2) on level crossings, the tram traffic has priority over road traffic.
(3) the crossing that is characteristic of the priority referred to in paragraph 2 must be in the places that way users must wait when the level crossing should not be crossed.
(4) level crossings must be technically secured. This applies not for 1st level crossings, which are crossed usually of no more than 100 motor vehicles within a day and are backed up by the overview on the railway that 2nd level crossings by footpaths and cycle paths, which are secured by the survey on the railway line and through turnstiles or similarly sensitive equipment.
(5) as technical protection according to paragraph 4 must present his 1st Timer for light character with the colour sequence yellow - red to Appendix 1 figure 2, that can be connected, with Halbschranken according to Appendix 1 Figure 3 2 timer for monitoring signals Bü 0 and Bü 1 to annex 4 before the railway crossing or integrated into train protection systems monitoring of the facilities referred to in point 1 (6) is the backup through the overview on the railway , if the way user railway so far and see from such a distance, that they can safely cross the level crossing when applying the necessary traffic or stop before him.
(7) also level crossings of trams on special roadbed with streets, considered level crossings paths or squares, if the requirements of paragraphs 3 to 6 are complied with.

§ 21 signalling
(1) signal equipment must be so constructed that they clearly enter the orders given to them, for their intended purpose processing and operating as signals.
(2) signalling for main and notice signals according to annex 4 No. 1 and 2 must be integrated into train protection systems pursuant to § 22.
(3) signalling installations must exist in operational reasons necessary to annex 4 No. 3, especially in places where drivers orders will receive 1, deviating from the arrangements of the traffic light sign, single-track sections in the two-directional operation be cycled 2.; In addition the signalling installations must be so disabled that released the section only for one direction, and the shared direction only when not occupied section changed can.
(4) signalling installations in Exchange Lichtzeichen system involved according to section 37 of the road traffic regulations, the same precautionary measure must be in all parts of the overall system applied.

Section 22 train protection equipment (1) train protection systems are systems for securing and controlling driving. They serve 1 to set the routes, and to secure, 2nd to send orders via the driving trains, 3. technically to supervise the operation of trains and affecting hazardous deviations.
(2) routes are considered secured if 1 at least the braking distance of backup-technically detectable obstacles is free and will be kept free, 2. the corresponding switches are positively set and 3 the speeds permissible in the orders for the operation are taken into account.
Backup-technically detectable obstacles are standing and moving trains, ends and routes which are not secured against the flank or counter rides.
(3) train protection systems must be reliable and, so far as they serve to not only control of the operation, signal-technically assured.
(4) train control systems must be designed that orders be effective to control only in relation to driving back up.
(5) apply parts of train protection systems, which are arranged on vehicles, according to paragraphs 3 and 4.

Article 23 communication systems (1) for the understanding of the operating staff with operational units must be present within the scope necessary for operating communication systems. Particularly important messages to key operational units can be transmitted as a priority.
(2) television systems must allow for the recording of operations capture a sufficient field of vision and clear operations.
(3) when driving without driver communication systems must exist, which allow a priority communication between passengers and an operating agency.
(4) in the tunnel facilities must exist that enable a rapid and secure mutual understanding between police, fire, emergency services, whose operations centers and the central offices of the operation.

Section 24 (1) energy supply systems energy supply systems are intended to refer to electrical energy from foreign or railway networks, to transform, reject continued to distribute and assign to resources in facilities or vehicles. Also railway-owned equipment include the energy-supply systems for generating electrical energy.
(2) energy-supply systems must be dimensioned such that the operating voltages within the operational range of load only in so far deviate from the nominal voltage, this as allow the voltage tolerances of the equipment to feeding.
(3) protective measures against the persistence of excessive contact voltages, protection measures for plants of third parties, may not each other ineffective make.
(4) power plants to switch to the energy supply to the dining sections of catenary again automatically for vehicles after shutdown due to short-time overload.
(5) for the energy supply of equipment in operating systems be 1st aid feeds must except the main power feeds also available, where's the operating conditions require, 2 spare power feeds from a grid-independent power source for a) safety lighting according to § 27 ABS. 4, beacons for emergency exits according to § 30 para 6 and, so far as it requires the operational safety, communication systems according to article 23; they must meet their energy needs at failure of the mains-dependent feeds for a sufficient period of time, b) restraint systems according to section 22, if operationally required. they must meet their energy requirements during failure of mains-dependent feeds during the phasing out of the operation.
The feed must be equipped with automatic changeover facilities.
(6) in tunnels and underground stops sockets to power mobile resources must be available in sufficient number.

§ 25 overhead contact systems under voltage standing (1) Betriebsmäßig parts of the driving management system must have at least a partial protection against direct contact. This applies to the area, a current collector standing under voltage can reach.
(2) in the transport area of public roads and on level crossings catenary systems must release a sufficient headroom for road traffic. This requirement is for nominal voltages up to 1000 V AC and 1500 v for DC satisfied if the clearance between the upper edge of the roadway and above parts of the driving direction is at least 4.7 m. This amount can be reduced under buildings, as well as immediately above it and behind it up to 4.2 m. the height restriction is noted by signs 265 of the road traffic regulations and signs with lightning arrow. The existing clearance height minus a safety distance of 0.2 m shall be indicated as allowable height on the characters of 265.
(3) overhead lines must be divided into separately switchable power sections.
(4) overhead lines must have a surge protector, dangerous overvoltages can occur in them.
(5) against voltage procrastination by breakage of a wire or derailment or break of a current collector, measures must be taken.
(6) contact wires may be worn at most up to a residual cross-section of 60 per cent of their nominal cross section.
(7) grinding head with protective conductor function and on the connected cables must be electrically and mechanically reliable; Connections may be solvable only by tool.

Section 26 lines (1) return electrically and mechanically reliable, must be. Connections serve as return resources may be solvable only by tool.
(2) Every substation must be connected to at least two wires with the Rails. Failure of rear head the other loads must be not inadmissible.
(3) measures must be taken against the dangers of touch voltages from the rail potential.

§ 27 lighting equipment (1) lighting systems must be available 1 in areas of operating systems, which are intended for the stay of persons, as well as in their in - and outlets;
2. in tunnels and underpasses, if they are not durchblickbar or longer than 100 m.
The requirement can be fulfilled pursuant to sentence 1 by the General street light.
(2) lighting installations must be designed, taking into account the operational needs and arranged, that 1 operating systems can be used pursuant to paragraph 1 without risk and in particular platforms are clearly visible, 2. no signals to be spoofed, 3. recognition is not affected by signals.
(3) the intervention of the lighting in tunnels must be requested via communication systems. This does not apply if the lighting at intervals of not more than 50 m can be activated directly. Also, facilities must be available, which automatically switch the lighting failure the catenary voltage of more than 60 seconds. The lighting can be switched off only by authorized.
(4) a security lighting is required for 1 platforms, where's the importance of the services or the operating conditions require 3 safety facilities in tunnels, except security rooms under platforms and catwalks, especially at stops in high or low position, 2. escape routes, 4. emergency exits, 5 rooms, in which passengers are served, 6th arrivals and departures from platforms referred to in point 1 and from premises referred to in point 5 (5) which have safety lighting be constructed and be organized , that the plant can be sufficiently illuminated pursuant to paragraph 4. She must be switched on for 0.5 seconds after failure of mains-dependent lighting within the scope necessary for operation. Tunnels and emergency exits, this time may be up to 10 seconds.

§ 28 pipes metal pipes must be electrically isolated before entering railway buildings if lines exist in this railway buildings according to § 26 DC. This applies also to metal reinforcement cables except that they isolated are in the railway building and continued.

§ 29 bridges (1) must bridge the relevant for the route train of borne by as well as the other static and dynamic loads on the speed can safely absorb.
(2) curves with radii less than 300 m to bridges must have additional guidance where the guidance otherwise is ensured.
(3) supports of bridges, which are arranged beside roads roads must be designed so that they can withstand the impact of a vehicle, unless they are protected by their location or by special measures against vehicle impact.
(4) paragraph 3 shall apply mutatis mutandis to supports of bridges in the area own and other roads.
(5) are security facilities on bridges, railings must exist, provide protection to the persons at the premises of vehicles against crash.
(6) the rules on bridges are on culverts and other above-ground railway buildings that bear the superstructure or support, apply mutatis mutandis.

Article 30 tunnel (1) tunnel must designed be that 1 the lift even at highest to pitching groundwater does not endanger the stability, 2. fire the stability of its load-bearing components are maintained, 3. penetrating moisture does not interfere with the operation.
(2) in determining the load assumptions for the calculation of tunnels, the results of the studies on soil and water management are taken into account. You must provide information in particular about expected soil characteristics and chemical influences.
(3) endangered supports must be designed so that they can withstand the impact of a vehicle, unless that failure each the occurring loads of the other components certainly can be included a support.
(4) in the case of steel concrete tunnels, where lines are available pursuant to section 26 DC, reinforcement must be electrically conductive connected; Insulating joints, these connections should be separated. The reinforcement should be not conductively connected with 1 the Rails, 2. the reinforcement or metal construction of other railway buildings and train foreign plants.
(5) in the tunnel leading emergency exits must exist and are designed to be in the open, that escape route is not more than 300 m long up to the next platform, emergency exit or to the mouth of the tunnel. Emergency exits must be present also at tunnel ends when the next emergency exit or the next platform is more than 100 m away.
(6) emergency exits must be identified by a blue light.
(7) emergency exits must be suitable for the transport of injured on wearing.
(8) in output openings leading outside of the emergency exits must 1 by road surfaces have a reasonable distance, 2. be accessible at all times; they may in particular can not be blocked by road vehicles, 3. to be covered, that they can be opened from the inside without tools, externally not by unauthorized persons.
(9) the ventilation stops, tunnel mouths and emergency exits is not sufficient in tunnels or harassment of passengers by air stream are to be expected, are additional measures must be taken.
(10) are tunnel under waters and water penetration may risk of a flood of longer sections, shut-off devices must be provided limiting the water drop in a short section. In waters with low water flow or large tunnel cover from water-retentive soils may be derogated from it.
(11) shut-off devices must be connected with train protection systems pursuant to section 10, which prevent that trains 1 to shut-off areas will automatically be included, take 2nd on shut-off devices.
(12) the provisions of paragraphs 1, 2 and 4 shall apply accordingly, if retaining walls in connection with a sole form a trough.

Article 31 stops (1) stops 1 character as such identified, must be. at stops in high or low position must the additions marked exhibit, 2. the name of the stop and be equipped with facilities for bikes and networks, 3 as a double station be marked, if on a platform two trains in a row hold and can be handled.
Stops to have platforms, as well as provide weather protection and seating areas.
(2) investments and disposals in stops need to be safe and comfortable.
(3) stops of walk-in routes should be accessible without steps. Stops in high or low position should be accessible via elevators.
(4) as far as the operating conditions require it, stops must be fitted with 1. facilities for information and clearance of passengers, 2. equipment to monitor the change of passenger, 3. emergency, 4. fire-fighting equipment, fire-fighting water supply, 5 means and facilities for first aid.
(5) when driving without drivers special facilities must exist in stops, which counteract a danger caused by moving trains.
(6) the width of the platforms must be sized according to the volume of traffic, taking into account the strength and integration of passenger flows. There must be a usable width of at least 2.0 m, with platforms inside the traffic of public roads by at least 1.5 m along the platform edge.
(7) the horizontal distance between the platform edge and vehicle floor or treads must be as small as possible; He must not exceed 0.25 m in the worst case in the middle of the door.
(8) the height of platform surfaces, vehicle floor and vehicle treads must be coordinated, that the passengers comfortably and can get off. The platform surface shall not exceed the vehicle floor in its lowest position; She must be slip-resistant.
(9) on the borders of the platform, the danger of collapsing of persons must be bent-over. Will need to be clearly visible.
(10) the height difference to overcome is more than 8.0 m, in a stop at least a ramp, an escalator or other mechanical support assistance must exist.
(11) sales stands, advertising and other plants may not interfere with the operation and not hinder especially rapid distribution of passengers on the platforms.

§ 32 escalators and moving walkways (1) escalators and walkways must be such that 1 levels and belts are non-slip, 2 of them crushing and shearing points avoided or protected are, 3. the risk of falling by users, in particular at the shut-down, bent-over.
(2) for escalators and moving walks, only used when entering into operation, the direction must be clearly displayed.
(3) emergency stop switch must be available at least at the in - and outlets.
(4) on escalators and moving walks safety devices to the automatic shut-down must be present.
(5) after switching off the drive of escalators or moving walkways, an accidental onward or return of the levels or bands even under load must be excluded.
(6) on the supply and disposal, free rooms as storage spaces must be present.
Fifth section vehicles section 33 is vehicle design (1) in the construction of vehicles as load assumption of the burden of its own and the payload, to assume the powers from start-up acceleration and braking, vehicle runs and rear-end impacts, as well as by other forces resulting from the operating conditions.
(2) as a payload for passenger vehicles 1 per seat is a load of 750 N 2 per sqm standing area a load of 5,000 N to accept.
(3) the building materials and the construction of passenger cars must comply with the State of the art fire safety. In particular must 1 the materials and components in passenger spaces offer sufficient resistance against outbreak and spread of fires, facilities with increased fire hazard so get 2 or built into it that is unlikely to occur with the spreading of fire on passenger compartments, 3. in the event of fire, the development and spread of heat and pollutants as far as bent-over still can leave the train.
(4) Windows and other glass must meet at least the requirements for safety glass.
(5) Windows of passenger spaces must be designed so that a backrest, is not possible.
(6) passenger vehicles must have emergency exits in sufficient number, appropriate design and arrangement.
(7) in the Interior and on the outline of the vehicle no parts may protrude so, so attached or designed to be more than inevitably endanger persons.
(8) in articulated vehicles, the joint area of the cockpit must be designed that passengers without endangering it can stop.
(9) vehicle floors must slip-inhibiting, vehicle steps slip-resistant and be clearly visible.
(10) seats in passenger spaces must be constructed and be so arranged, that injuries are not to be expected.
(11) in passenger spaces, in particular relating to the door, fixed systems must exist in sufficient numbers.
(12) passenger cars, used on routes without a security room, must be such that 1 in the passenger compartment a native fire not can occur, 2. a native arising outside the cockpit fire passengers are protected until the recovery from injuries, 3. passengers can be salvaged.

§ 34 vehicle mass
(1) the light space technically relevant characteristics of the vehicles and the track must be so matched that it can be hazardous to touch between vehicles and objects, and between vehicles on adjacent tracks in any acceptable operating condition.
(2) on the flush Street railways in the transport area of public roads of light space in curves on the basis of the geometric arc from transfer of vehicles on each side must be greater to a maximum of 0.65 m than the light space in the straight.
(3) vehicles of road-dependent cars must not exceed the following dimensions 1 width in the heights area a) up to 3.4 m above the Rails 2.65 m, b) above of 3.4 m above the Rails direction indicator outstanding, 2.25 m on the side walls, pilot lights, rear view mirrors, open doors and mileage out tread expect not to the width of the vehicle.
2. height above the Rails to top of the disconnected current collector 4.0 m. (4) the height of the vehicle floor, vehicle treads and platform surface must be coordinated so that passengers comfortably and can get off. The vehicle floor should not deeper than the surface of the platform is in its lowest position.
(5) the clear height of passenger spaces must be at least 1.95 m, seats at least 1.7 m. This does not apply for vehicles without standing room if a rapid exchange of passengers without undue obstruction is possible.

§ 35 drives (1) essential vehicle mass and Gleismaße need for the running properties as co-ordinated be a safe lane guidance, as well as maximum running smoothness are preserved at the allowed speed in the permissible wear State of the components.
(2) the requirement of paragraph 1 also applies to the values of suspension and damping of the vehicles and the track.
(3) the safe guidance must be maintained even in damage to suspension or loss of vehicles.

Section 36 brakes (1) vehicles must have at least two brakes. This must be so independent that the effectiveness of the other brake remains at errors within a brake; its effectiveness must be ensured also in case of failure of the catenary voltage.
(2) the brakes must be so constructed and coordinated including their controls so that 1 vehicles and trains without endangering the passengers with minimum jerk to a stop (service braking), 2 can be delayed until traction between wheel and rail in operation necessary could be exploited, they have 3 services of duration of together, adapted to the inclination in the network and the operational conditions.
(3) in the case of a brake failure at least the Middle Bremsverzögerungen must be achieved with the other brake table 1 according to annex 2.
(4) a brake can prevent rolling off stationary with largest payload vehicle on the biggest existing network addiction. This brake must act according to the principle of spring storage; its braking force must be produced exclusively by mechanical means and transferred.
(5) in the case of vehicles of road-dependent cars, except when operating vehicles under paragraph 6, 1 a brake from the friction between wheel and rail must be independent, the other brakes by sand scattering facilities be added 2, 3 with the brake at least the Middle Bremsverzögerungen to Appendix 2 table 2 achieved (emergency braking).
(6) by way of derogation from paragraph 1, operating vehicles, whose speed 40 km/h, on other railway bodies does not exceed 30 km/h, on independent railway bodies need to have only a brake. At least the average braking delays must be achieved with her table 1 to annex 2.
(7) the brakes of vehicles operated in the train of Association, must be controlled so that the train reached the prescribed for vehicles stopping power after paragraphs 2 to 6.
(8) in the case of accidental separation of the train at least the train parts occupied with driving staff must slow down automatically; the train separation must be the drivers or an occupied operating agency.
(9) in passenger cars must have, that passengers in case of an emergency can initiate a braking (braking). On routes without security room and in tunnels operating these facilities must lead outside only stops at the next platform to the stop.

§ 37 drive motors, transmissions and other components for power transmission must be calculated taking into account the track conditions, the train compositions, and the speeds for the most operationally occurring drive and braking forces. In particular the stresses 1 regenerative braking, 2nd at the spin cycle, as well as excess braking, are to note 3 on sudden changes of the catenary voltage.

§ 38 driving control (1) control of drives and brakes must be designed that 1 Bremsbefehle to driving commandments primarily run 2. driving forces and braking forces change with minimum jerk, 3. when driving without drivers monitored the execution of the Bremsbefehle be.
(2) passenger vehicles must have a SIFA, which causes a braking failure of the driver to stop.
(3) passenger vehicles, operated on routes with train protection systems pursuant to § 22, must be equipped with this supplementary signalling facilities.

§ Must be 39 pantograph and grinder (1) pantograph and Catenary Systems coordinated, that the current can be removed reliably up to the maximum permitted speed This also applies for Sanders.
(2) grinder must be so constructed that they are only separated from the neutral or grounding if the associated pantograph have withdrawn from the overhead line, and that they are applied in the creation of pantographs against these in the neutral or grounding.

§ 40 seeders (1) signalling devices must exist within the scope necessary operational reasons and designed be that they 5 (caution signal) after annex 4 unambiguously and clearly can relinquish the train signals and the protection signal sh. Its effectiveness must be independent of the catenary voltage.
(2) when road-dependent cars, the two lower lights of the train signal Z 1 (peak signal) must be headlights. They must allow 1 can adequately illuminate the track area, simultaneously and equally dazzle off 2., 3. be so secured, that they can adjust not unintentionally.
(3) in the case of vehicles of road-dependent cars dealer for the train signal Z 4 (direction signal) on both sides must be at least front and rear available.
(4) paragraph 3 shall apply accordingly for the train signal Z 5 (warning flasher signal). The hazard lights of the vehicle must Flash at the same time.
(5) the intervention of the not abgeblendeten headlight (high beam), as well as the function of the drive - and the Warnblink signal device must be displayed convey to the drivers.
(6) vehicles of road-dependent cars must have two red reflectors on the back.
(7) in the case of operating vehicles without own drive, encoder for direction and warning flashing signals are expendable, if other measures for an adequate backup is taken care of.

§ Reduce 41 track cleaner and mounting must have (1) vehicles before the first drive towards wheel set rail scraper or mounting, a derailment risk caused by obstacles. You must be arranged before the wheels as close as possible and have a minimal distance from the top of the rail.
(2) for vehicles of road-dependent cars, railway scrapers or mounting must decrease a risk of derailment, which can be caused by obstacles transactions at the track side.
(3) car wiper slots or mounting are expendable, if their tasks with can take over other devices of the vehicle.

§ 42 coupling facilities (1) coupling facilities of vehicles to be operated in the train Association, co-ordinated according to size and type have.
(2) in the case of automatic coupling facilities, the proper running and lock the coupling must be visible.

§ 43 doors for the exchange of passengers (1) doors must be built and arranged be, that a rapid exchange of passengers.
(2) doors must have a clear width of at least 0.65 m. On each side of the vehicle, at least one of the doors must have a clear width of at least 0.8 m.
(3) doors must have protective devices that prevent that passengers are injured by crushing.
(4) mechanical, moving treads may move only in relation to the movement of the associated doors can be.
(5) in passenger cars facilities must exist, that 1 the driver indicating that the doors are closed, a page-based open allow 2 with doors on both sides, 3. when driving without drivers make sure that trains only with doors closed can hit.
(6) doors must be kept in closed position. You can be opened but by passengers in an emergency.
(7) by way of derogation from paragraph 6 sentence 2 doors may cannot be opened passenger cars sections without security space passengers, if the rescue of the passengers in case of danger otherwise is ensured.

§ 44 drivers course (1) which has drivers place be designed so that the driver can safely train. In particular, an adequate field of vision, as well as facilities to protect against weather-related influences and draughts must be present. Disabilities by passengers must be avoided by appropriate technical measures. The drivers place, in particular the work seat, must be set up according to the generally recognized safety, health and hygiene rules, as well as the other safe ergonomic findings.
(2) drivers seats must be built so that they can be evacuated quickly in an emergency.
(3) vehicle guide places must be equipped with tachographs and speed indicators.
(4) on vehicles of road-dependent cars a rear-view mirror must exist in the field of vision of the driver at least on the right in direction of travel of the vehicle.
(5) for places which are intended for the operation of vehicles in shunting operations and in the event of a fault, paragraphs 1 to 4 shall apply only in so far as is necessary for the purpose.

§ 45 interior lighting, heating and ventilation (1) passenger spaces must have a sufficient interior lighting. She never can not turn off of passengers.
(2) may not substantially impaired the driver's visibility by the interior lighting.
(3) step levels ranges from passenger cars can be illuminated so, that the levels are well visible.
(4) passenger vehicles must have an Illuminator, sufficiently illuminated failure rule lighting at least the areas of doors and emergency exits.
(5) passenger compartments and driver seats must be adequately heated and ventilated.

§ 46 information facilities (1) passenger vehicles facilities have, the 1 on the front of the train line and the terminus of the line, 2 on the entry side of the line label, the end point of the line and if necessary the curve, 3rd at the rear of the train line, 4th in the passenger compartment the route map or the history of the line and if necessary indicate the line label. The ads must be visible even in the dark.
(2) facilities are expendable, pursuant to paragraph 1 No. 2 when the appropriate information at all stops by train destination displays on the platforms.
(3) passenger vehicles must have facilities 1 to the announcement of the next stop and other operating instructions, 2. submission and confirmation of the holding desire if kept at individual bus stops only when needed.
(4) vehicles must have facilities for a speech connection between driver and an operating agency. Emergency information to can be reported by priority.
(5) in the case of driving without drivers, passenger vehicles must have facilities for a speech connection between passengers and an operating agency. Paragraph 4 sentence 2 shall apply accordingly.
(6) institutions under paragraphs 1 and 3 are expendable, if passengers choose the targets of trains. Trains associated with them must be clearly visible to passengers.

§ 47 labels and symbols (1) on the outside of vehicles must present his 1st on the long sides, name and Head Office of the operator or whose business signs or coat of arms, as well as the vehicle number, 2. full and advice sign in the places, where hoists used for passengers, 3. information on the weight of the charge may be, 4 for operating vehicles.
(2) in the Interior of the passenger cars must present his 1st actuation and advice for passengers, 2 symbols according to Appendix 3 of the seats to provide severely disabled, impaired in the ability to walk, elderly or infirm persons, pregnant women and passengers with small children are 3. Notes on facilities and equipment for emergencies.
(3) labels and symbols must be unique, highly visible and clearly legible. Their visibility will be unaffected by other labels or signs.

§ Have 48 equipment for emergencies must at least per a first-aid kit, a portable fire extinguisher (1) passenger cars and commercial vehicles with its own drive and, as far as they participate in public road traffic, a warning triangle.
(2) in the case of vehicles of independent railways may be waived the carriage of first aid kits, if they are present on the bus stops in sufficient number.
Sixth section operating paragraph 49 driving order (1) one train may follow one another only at such a distance, that he may in time be associated even with unfavourable operating conditions, in particular when unexpectedly stopping of the train vehicle in front, to hold. This distance must be effected 1. when driving on sight by the driver, 2. when driving on train protection signalling systems according to section 22 to be guaranteed.
(2) in the term may not drive 1 trains of independent railways, 2 trains of road-dependent cars a) at a speed of 70 km/h, b) in tunnels.
(3) by way of derogation from paragraph 2 should be used term 1 at shunting operations, 2nd in short tunnels of road-dependent cars, if the operating brake is available, 3. operating problems in compliance with SOPs.
(4) on double track lines should be two-directional operation be driven right.
(5) single-track sections may not simultaneously be cycled in both directions. This must be ensured his 1. when driving on sight by depending on connected Fahrsignalanlagen according to § 21 ABS. 3 Nr. 2, 2. when driving on train protection signalling systems according to § 22.
When temporarily eingleisigem driving this requirement can also be fulfilled by other measures.

§ 50 permissible speeds (1) which is applicable routes top speeds for the network to the technical inspectorate.
(2) limits the speed of individual sections are set by the Manager after the construction and after the track conditions, as well as for special reasons. About permanent restrictions on the speed, the technical inspectorate shall be informed.
(3) on railway road-flush, body, do not exceed the speed applicable for other road traffic.
(4) the following speeds do not exceed 1 in passing on platforms without stopping 40 km/h, 2. when driving against the tip of not positively laid turnouts 15 km/h.

§ 51 signals (1) signals must uses scope require the safety and operational conditions.
(2) signals have the shapes, colors, and sound types according to annex 4.
(3) signals that optically transmit orders, must be visible in a timely manner and clearly identifiable. You may not affect traffic signs, light signals or signals of other modes of transport in their effect and give no cause for confusion.
(4) has been a signal or can not clearly perceived it, is to assume the importance that ensures greater security.
(5) notice signals must be used if the main signal is not the operating braking distance is recognizable due to the local conditions.
(6) driving signals F are 0 (stop) by driving signals F 4 (expected stop) to announce with sufficient temporal flow. This does not apply if the trains at the speed without exception to keep, or if a signal change from F 1, F 2 or F 3 (released) on F 0 (stop) within the operational braking distance is ruled out by the passing train.
(7) train signals Z 1 (peak signal) and no. 2 (closing signal) are to show when the visibility so require, especially at dusk, at night and in the tunnel.
(8) in normal operation term shuts, the train signals Z 3 (brake signal), to use Z 4 (direction signal) and Z 5 (warning flasher signal). Paragraph 7 shall remain unaffected.
(9) change the permissible speed down must be identified by speed signals G 2 operation necessary extent.
(10) speed signals are G 2 because of local conditions not in sufficient distance, speed signals G 1 or notice signal V 2 must be reported.
(11) are driving term turnouts are not involved in signalling systems used at speeds exceeding 15 km/h towards the top, switch signals must be reported W 11, W 12 or 13 W.
(12) the transition from driving on signalling to driving over the term needs through special signal so 2 and the transition from driving over the term to drive on train control through special signal so be marked 1.
(13) outside the bus stops and parking areas are the sites of the main signals through special signal so to identify 3 or so 4.
(14) on the main signal H 0 (stop) may only for marking by the special signal so 4 (order shield) or be passed on special order.
(15) on the driving signal F 0 (stop) may be passed to stop, if a failure of the signal system is visible and the traffic situation allows continuing. This does not apply for single-track sections, which are used in the two-directional operation; the passing is allowed only on special order.
(16) the monitoring signal for the crossing remains dark, is to stop before the crossing. The ride may be continued if the traffic situation allows.
(17) manoeuvring orders not delivered by technical communication facilities, apply only when the signals are recorded be seen and heard. the trolley stop is already when it is absorbed only audible or visible only.
(18) signals, which have no importance of operationally, are to eliminate or to cover up and to be marked by a white cross with a black border.

§ 52 use by operating staff (1) equipment and vehicles may be operated only by operating staff, which have been suitably trained and determined by the Manager to do this.
(2) in special cases, in particular for determining the serviceability and maintenance, equipment and vehicles by trained authorised may be operated, not belonging to the company. The responsibility of operating staff for operational safety shall remain unaffected.
(3) operating equipment or vehicles which work wholly or partly automatically or remotely, should be monitored within the framework of the operational requirements of operating staff on proper function.
(4) the service of driving staff are records to lead. You must include 1 name of driving staff, 2. service commencement and period, 3. incident.

Article 53 occupy the trains with travel agents (1) each train must be staffed with a track-knowledgeable drivers while driving.
(2) by way of derogation from paragraph 1, trains of independent cars with drivers need to be staffed if 1 equipment and equipment for automatic operation exist that meet the requirements of section 22 and be monitored according to § 52 para 3, 2. regularly verifies that the clear Chamber of the track of persons and technical backup elusive obstacles is free, 3 between the passengers and an operating agency speaking ability is and 4 passengers in an emergency without delay can be salvaged.
(3) operating trains must be occupied with at least a further driving staff except the drivers if they are equipped with a react according to § 38 paragraph 2 or according to § 38 paragraph 3 on tracks with train protection systems without signalling facilities.
(4) have become defective train no longer can be from the Zugspitze from, this is with a driving staff to occupy, which gives orders for the movement of the train the drivers via radio or in any other way, and warns vulnerable.

§ 54 driving operation (1) passenger trains may only leave if found by inspection or technical devices is that the doors to the exchange of passengers are closed.
(2) doors must be in normal operation only at stops, released only on the platform side and only stop the trains to the exchange of passengers.
(3) passenger trains may be only accelerate and just so slow that passengers be endangered no more than inevitable.
(4) name of the stop, as well as transfer possibilities are in the trains in time to announce, except at target-pure traffic.
(5) over malfunctions of a longer duration, the passengers should be taught at stations and in trains. This is to point out in particular on spare carriage or redirects.
(6) communication and information facilities may not be used for other than operational purposes.
(7) the charge on operating vehicles is safe to install. She must not extend beyond the outline of the vehicle. Deviations are permissible, if the necessary safety measures have been taken.
(8) parked vehicles should be secured against rolling off and unauthorized launch.
(9) there are records to lead on the composition and the use of the trains.

Article 55 participation trains take part in (1) traffic on road-flush car body on the road. While the drivers must comply with the provisions of road traffic regulations relating to them.
(2) trains, which take part in road transport, should be no longer than 75 m.
(3) on special and independent railway bodies including the level crossings according to § 20 trains not participate in road traffic.

Article 56 trains with unsafe should not remain in the operating behaviour in case of defects of trains (1). When possible continuation to an operationally suitable intermittent point depending on the nature and severity of the defects, precautionary measures are to meet. The passengers are, if the circumstances permit, to carry to a stop.
(2) when moving trains with faulty brakes, the speed is to match the reduced stopping power.
(3) in the case of driving without drivers or on routes without a security room operational precautions must be taken to allow an immediate rescue of passengers from left behind trains.

§ 57 maintenance of premises and vehicles (1) the maintenance of the equipment and vehicles includes maintenance, inspections and repairs. She must extend at least to the parts, which the State can influence the reliability.
(2) nature and extent of the maintenance and inspections have type and load of the equipment and vehicles to be addressed.
(3) inspections should be scheduled recurring within the following time limits 1 tunnel and station buildings, other railway buildings, except earth buildings 10 years, 2. energy supply systems 5 years, 3 bridges 6 years, 4 Catenary Systems 5 years 5 tracks 5 years, 6 train protection systems, 5 years, 7 signalling 5 years 8 substantially affecting the safety technical equipment 5 years 9 crossings two years, 10 escalators and moving walkways 1 year , 11 vehicles, after completion of 500,000 km, but not later than after 8 years.
(4) without prejudice to paragraph 3, equipment and vehicles after serious accidents where parts are, been damaged which may affect the safety, are to undergo an inspection.
(5) the technical inspectorate may extend the time limits pursuant to paragraph 3 for equipment and vehicles in special cases. It may impose shorter time limits when operating equipment and vehicles with special technical features.
(6) through the maintenance and inspections, records are to lead. For the construction and maintenance to add essential documents, in particular the acceptance notice, as well as operating systems are the records that the documents have been the construction approval basis.
(7) the records of the service are three years until the next inspection, but at least, to keep those inspections up to the decommissioning of installations and vehicles.

§ 58 use and entering the premises and vehicles (1) persons who are not operating staff may not enter premises and vehicles, as far as they are not the general traffic use, or otherwise use. You may cross special and independent car body only at the points provided for this purpose.
(2) representative of the technical inspectorate and other persons who are entrusted with the exercise of national sovereignty, are entitled to enter the premises and vehicles in the exercise of their office or order. You need to prove.
(3) the technical inspectorate may permit in agreement with the road authority using special and independent car body by buses or trolleybuses of line transport entrepreneurs of passenger transport. The safety of train operation should not be affected by this.

Section 59 Betriebsgefährdende it is forbidden to damage installations or vehicles, abusive to operate their facilities, to build ride obstacles, or to perform other operations endangering acts acts (1).
(2) passengers is in particular prohibited abusive to operate doors or devices for the emergency braking of vehicles.
Seventh section procedures section 60 audits of construction documents for equipment (1) the construction of operating equipment may be started if the examination of the construction documents of the technical supervisory authority showed that the provisions of this regulation are met, and if the entrepreneur the outcome of this examination by a zoning decision or consent order pursuant to paragraph 3 has been informed.
(2) operating systems of safety child importance are free of the examination. This particularly applies to systems for which strength calculations, light space calculations or other security credentials are not required. In case of doubt the technical supervisory authority decides.
(3) the technical inspectorate issued a notice of approval, or 2 on the outcome of the examination, if 1 in the case of § 28 para 2 or 3 sentence 1 of the passenger transport Act reaps a plan approval.
the audit of the construction documents is not already carried out as part of a permit required by the passenger transport act or zoning.
(4) in addition to the approval decision, the licences to other public service regulations remain unaffected; the technical supervisory authority may require the contractor to submit these permits.
(5) the construction documents must contain the required for the exam. These include in particular working drawings, construction information, load assumptions as well as other, essential for the assessment of safety descriptions and calculations.
(6) is the carrier of the project other than the entrepreneur (§ 3 para 3 of the passenger transport Act), the construction documents only in agreement may be presented with the contractor, insofar as its interests are affected. in case of doubt the technical supervisory authority decides.
(7) the equipment must be installed except in cases of paragraph 2 only after the approved construction documents. Should be departed from them, are to supplement the documentation and re-submit the technical supervisory authority; Paragraphs 1 to 6 shall apply mutatis mutandis.
(8) for operating facilities, which are constructed according to the same construction records standard, simplified construction documents is sufficient if the technical supervisory authority has granted a type approval.
(9) the consent decision occurs except force, when three years after issuance with the execution of major construction projects not started within or interrupted the construction of three years. The period may be extended by not more than one year prior to its expiration upon application.
(10) for plants of the entrepreneur, which are not operating, but affect the safety of operation (other investments), apply the paragraphs 1 through 9 on the procedures, as well as the according to §§ 61 and 62 on the supervision of the construction of facilities and the decline. There are doubts whether an other facility can affect the safety of operation, the technical supervisory authority shall decide.

§ 61 supervision of the construction of operating equipment (1) the technical inspectorate oversees the construction of operating equipment. She can thereby be confined to samples. She may require that initiation and termination of certain construction works are displayed in time.
(2) the supervision covers in particular findings about 1 the regularity of the construction, 2. the usefulness of building materials and components, 3. used the adequate backup of operation affected by the construction.
(3) the oversight is access to the construction site, as well as insight into which the supervisory authority to provide the necessary documents the officer.

§ 62 acceptance (1) new or modified equipment and vehicles are allowed except for determining the fitness for use only in operating, if the technical inspectorate has removed them. This does not apply to changes that do not affect the operational safety; in case of doubt the technical supervisory authority decides. section 37 of the passenger transport Act remain unaffected.
(2) the findings made through measurements, functional tests or other controls, that the operating system or the vehicle complies with the approved construction documents and is safe to operate include the loss.
(3) on the results of the inspection is to make a transcript.
(4) the operator has to apply for the acceptance by the technical supervisory authority. The purchase of vehicles is to apply for, once the construction designs are available; Construction documents shall be attached the application according to § 60 para 5.
(5) is requested the acceptance of vehicles, which both built according to same construction documents these documents only with the application for acceptance of the first vehicle of the series need to be submitted.
(6) after the permanent loss, the technical supervisory authority granted an official acceptance letter the entrepreneurs. The technical inspectorate may demand that acceptance certificates, which are required for other public service regulations, be submitted by the contractor.
(7) are the findings made pursuant to paragraph 2 with regard to the reliability, the operating system or the vehicle prior to issuance of the acceptance notification for the time being in operation is allowed, if the technical inspectorate has determined otherwise.
Eighth section misdemeanors, final and transitional provisions article 63 offences (1) any person in the sense of § 61 para 1 No. 4 of the passenger transport Act is, who intentionally or negligently as contractor 1 contrary to section 7, paragraph 3, sentence 1 or 3 a Manager or an alternate not ordered, 2. contrary to article 60, paragraph 1, also in conjunction with section 10 starts set 1, with the construction of operating systems or other systems , 3. contrary to article 62, paragraph 1, sentence 1, new or modified equipment or vehicles prior to their acceptance into operation takes.
Paragraph 2 applies to the other carrier of a project (section 3 para 3 of the passenger transport Act) according to.
(2) any person in the sense of § 61 para 1 No. 4 of the passenger transport Act is also, who intentionally or negligently enters 1 as a person who is not operating personnel, equipment or vehicles contrary to article 58, paragraph 1, sentence 1 or else 2. as passenger contrary to article 59 paragraph 2 operated exterior doors or devices for the emergency braking of vehicles used.

Article 64 (lapsed) - section 65 entry into force and transitional provisions (1) this regulation into force on January 1, 1988.
(2) (3) in this regulation on the construction of installations or vehicles provided other requirements than under the previous law, existing or under construction equipment or vehicles do not need to be adapted to the requirements of this regulation. The technical inspectorate may demand an adjustment, if required by the security.
(4) by way of derogation from paragraph 3 to existing or under construction equipment or vehicles at least comply with the provisions of this regulation at the following times 1 signalling of single sections (§ 21 ABS. 3 Nr. 2) no later than January 1, 1990;
2. technical limitations of level crossings (section 20 para 4), equipment of stops (§ 31 para. 1 No. 2) and voice communications (§ 46 para 4 sentence 1) no later than January 1, 1992;
3. crossover office facilities (§ 17 par. 8) and emergency braking systems (section 36 subsection 9 sentence 2) at the latest by January 1, 1996.

Concluding formula of the Federal Minister of transport Appendix 1 (to section 20) labelling and safety of level crossings (site: BGBl. I, 1987, no. 58, attachment band 2) Figure 1 St. Andrew's cross lightning DART in the middle of the Andreas cross indicates that the line has electric catenary image 2 light characters in confined spaces must the Andreas cross beside or above the light string attached his picture 3 light signal with Halbschranke in confined spaces apply data image 2 according to.
The Halbschranke must be striped vertically.

Annex 2 (to section 36) limits for stunts (site: Federal Law Gazette I, 1987, plant band to no. 58, p. 3) limits a and s of tables 1 and 2 apply to empty vehicles on a straight level track.
a in m/s (high) 2 = minimum value of the Middle brake delay s m = maximum value of the braking distance between the beginning of actuation of the brake and stop v in km/h = output speed at the beginning of the brake control a v(hoch)2 = - 3.6 (high) 2 x 2 s table 1 limit values at failure of a brake (article 36, para. 3 and 6) v km/h a m/s (high) 2 s 20 0.77 m 20 30 0.87 40 40 0.95 65 50 1.03 94 60 1.06 131 70 1.07
177 80 1.07 230 90 1.08 290 100 1.09 355 table 2 limits for dangerous stunts (§ 36 para 5 No. 3) v km/h a m/s (high) 2 s m 20 1.71 9 30 2.04 17 40 2.29 27 50 2.47 39 60 2.57 54 70 2.73 69 plant 3 (to § 47 para. 2 No. 2) allegory concerning the identification of seats for disabled and other seat needy persons (site : BGBl. I, 1987, no. 58, system volume S. 4) of normally and the image border color black white color of the substrate Appendix 4 (to the §§ 21, 40, 51) signals (site of the original text: System band to BGBl. I, 1987, no. 58) Overview 1 main signals H 2nd notice signals V 3. driving F 4. clearance signals A 5 train Z 6 speed signals G 7 protection signals sh 8 shunting signals R 9 switching signals St 10 turnout signals of W 11 monitoring signals for level crossings Bü 12 special signals so (site : BGBl. I, 1987, no. 58, attachment band p. 6-28) 1 main signals (ride on train safety) label signal image meaning explanation H 0 a red light stop H 1 a go-ahead drive signals H 1 and H 2 can also in conjunction with cruise signals be given G 2 H 2 a go-ahead yellow over a drive with speed limit 2. notice signals (ride on train safety) label signal image meaning explanation V 0 two yellow lights right ascending to the following home signal stop is to V 1 right expect two green lights rising to the following home signal is V 2 a green and a yellow light from left to right stronger upgrade on the following main signal is expected to await drive with speed limit
In a restricted space, the lights can be arranged vertically with each other when no confusion with other signal aspects are to be feared.
3. driving signals (go term) name signal image meaning explanation F 0 a white horizontal light bar stop F 1 a white vertical light bar ride released going straight ahead F 2 a white diagonally right above facing light beams ride released only to the right F 3 a white diagonally from left top-facing light beams ride released only to the left F 4 a white point of light to expect stop F 5 a white light triangle with top down drive released in accordance with the rules of Abbieger pursuant to § 9 road traffic regulations 4. clearance signals description signal image meaning explanation A 1 on white- or yellow shining T doors include A 2 a short acoustic or an optical or an acoustic and a Visual sign driving A 2 b a white - or green-lit ring 5. train signals signal image name meaning explanation No. 1 on the top of a train three white lights top signal the headlight of the top signal the line label can contain Z 2 train finally two red lights finally signal No. 3 at the end of train two yellow or red lights brake signal Z 4 yellow flashing lights on one of the two long sides direction signal Z 5 yellow flashing lights at the same time on both sides warning flasher signal indicates that the train broke down 6 speed signals label signal image meaning explanation G 1 a a triangular, standing on the top yellow bar with white border and black code notice the speed limit is speed limit any change the permissible speed down in restricted areas can be a triangle top after G show up 1 b a white shining Reference number G 2 a a rectangular yellow plate with white border and black code beginning the speed limit G 2 b a white luminous indicator G 3 a rectangular white board black e end of speed restriction speed limit is any change the permissible speed to below G 4 a rectangular white Panel with black border and black code beginning which shows speed limit changes the permissible speed upwards to; can be used instead of signal G 3 indicators of the signals G 1, G 2 and G 4 mean that the value in km/h as the speed is approved; used single-digit figures, the value of ten considered permissible speed.
7 protection signals label signal image meaning explanation of sh 1 a square yellow Panel with horizontal green stripe forced stop features make, sh 2 to stop when driving on sight in any case is a rectangular red board with white border protection stop driving is not permitted SH 3 a at least 3 short acoustic signals to stop emergency stop which is sh in quick succession took the shortest route 3B a white red-white flag or the arm in the district moved to SH 3 c a lantern , dimmed as red, or a luminous object in the district moved SH 3 d a red flashing light or several red lights with each other a rectangular white Panel with black L ringing are local conditions according to SH 4 beeps to give a moderately long tone SH 5 or Läutezeichen warning SH 5 signal, the border to warn people to sh 6 features a red and white sign or mark in the track area landmarks , to which the track be occupied at converging tracks up sh 7 may a rectangular black Board with white H or a rectangular white Panel with black H or mark in the track section retaining table indicates where the top of the train to stop for 8 shunting signals called signal image meaning explanation R 1 a moderately long tone and vertical movements of the arm , in the dark with a white Lantern go shunting movement by the signal giving away two moderate R 2 long beeps and horizontal slow movements of the arm, in the dark with a white Lantern three short beeps and circular movements of the arm, in the dark with a white come here shunting movement to the signal giver and R 3 Lantern trolley stop 9 switching signals called signal image meaning explanation St 1 a square blue sign with a white S signal contact at signal 1 St is a signal contact press St 2 a square blue sign with a white W switch contact on the signal St is to press the switch control 2 St 3 a square, standing on the top blue panel with black and white border and a mangled white U turning off the signal St 3 at the power must be switched off his St 4 a square, standing on the top blue bar black and white edge and a closed white U turn allowed from the signal St 4 from the power must be switched on
St 5 a square, standing on the top blue bar mi black and white borders and a horizontal white stripe pantograph disconnect the signal St 5 must be deducted from the pantograph St 6 a square on the pantograph create peak standing Blue Board with black and white border and a vertical white stripe from the signal St 6 from his St 7 may with the pantograph once again created a square blue sign a white T Streckentrenner on the signal St 7 is the power to turn St 8 briefly a square, standing on the top blue panel with black and white edge and standing on the top square white frame with internal white square stop for vehicles with a pantograph runs via signal St 8 out 10 turnout signals label signal image importance are not allowed for vehicles with a pantograph explanation W 1 a white shining angle with lace up soft stands for driving straight ahead with no more than 15 km/h non-positive end position moving turnout parts (soft without closure) W 2 angle shining a white tip right soft stand W 3 for driving to the right with no more than 15 km/h after know radiant angle with tip left turnout stands for drive to the left with no more than 15 km/h W 11 angle shining a white tip to the top and below turnout stands for drive base beams straight with permissible speed, the moving parts of the crossover are positively in the respective end position set W 12 angle shining a white tip to the right and base beams (switch is locked) left soft represents a drive to right with the permissible speed W 13 White luminous angle with tip to the left and right soft base bar stands for drive to the left with allowable speed W 14 a white angle with tip downwards and base bar on the top of a square black plate switch should not be used on 11 monitoring signals for level crossings label signal image meaning explanation Bü 0
A black and white diagonally striped, reflecting mast plate stop before the crossing. Proceed only if the traffic situation allows Bü 0 indicates that failed the technical backup of the level crossing Bü 1 is a white flashing light on a black and white diagonally striped, the level crossing can reflecting mast plate used to Bü 1 indicates that the technical backup of the level crossing is properly Bü 2 a rectangular black panel with four superimposed standing on the tips of white diamonds is a tracking signal to expect 12 special signals signal image name meaning explanation so 1 white a square table with two black dots with each other beginning a line with signalling transition from driving to vision to drive on train control so 2 white a square table with two black dots with each other and a rising right red diagonal stripe end a line with train protection transition by riding on the train back to driving over the term so a black-and-white detection Strip location indicator is 3 the location of main signals to so 4 is a yellow-white mast plate order plate the job , at the signal of H 0 in accordance with special arrangements, which are set in a service statement to pass so 5 early - meeting ban on certain vehicles and directions can a square yellow tablet with green diagonal cross meeting ban - additional signs are used as 6 a square yellow table end with green edge meeting ban - -.