Sixteenth Regulation On The Implementation Of The Federal Immission Control Act

Original Language Title: Sechzehnte Verordnung zur Durchführung des Bundes-Immissionsschutzgesetzes

Subscribe to a Global-Regulation Premium Membership Today!

Key Benefits:

Subscribe Now

Read the untranslated law here: http://www.gesetze-im-internet.de/bimschv_16/BJNR010360990.html

Sixteenth Regulation on the implementation of the Federal Immission Control Act (traffic noise protection Ordinance - 16 BImSchV) 16 BImSchV Ausfertigung date: 12.06.1990 full quotation: "traffic noise protection Ordinance of 12 June 1990 (BGBl. I p. 1036), by article 1 of the Decree of December 18, 2014 (BGBl. I p. 2269) has been changed" stand: amended by art. 1 V v. 18 12 2014 I learn 2269 more to the stand number in the menu see remarks footnote (+++ text detection off) : 21.6.1990 +++) input formula on the basis of § 43 para 1 sentence 1 No. 1 of the Federal Immission Control Act of 15 March 1974 (BGBl. I p. 721, 1193) enacted the Federal Government after consultation with stakeholders: § 1 scope of application (1) the regulation applies to the construction or significant modification of public roads and railways of the railways and tramways (roads and railways).
(2) the change is essential if 1 a road to one or more continuous lanes for motor vehicle traffic or a rail construction extends to one or more continuous tracks or 2 by significant structural intervention of the assessment level of posed by the road to change traffic noise by at least 3 decibels (A) or to at least 70 decibels (A) on the day or at least 60 decibels (A) in the night is increased.
A change is also essential if the assessment level of posed by the road to change traffic noise by at least 70 decibels (A) is increased on the days or 60 decibels (A) in the night by a significant architectural intervention. This does not apply in a commercial environment.

§ 2 Immissions limit values (1) to protect of the neighborhood from adverse environmental impacts by the traffic noise is when the construction or significant modification to ensure that the assessment level does not exceed one of the following emission limit values: Day night 1 at schools, hospitals, old people's homes, sanatoriums 57 decibels (A) 47 DB (A) 2nd in pure and General residential areas and small settlements 59 DB (A) 49 decibels (A) 3rd in core areas , Village and mixing areas 64 decibels (A) 54 DB (A) 4 in commercial areas 69 decibels (A) 59 DB (A) (2) the type of equipment referred to in paragraph 1 and areas arises from the determinations in the development plans. Other fixed in zoning land for systems and areas as well as areas for which there exist no determinations, and are referred to in paragraph 1, to assess structural plants in the outdoor area No. 1, 3 and 4 in accordance with the need to protect pursuant to paragraph 1.
(3) if the use of protective exercised only during the day or only at night, is only the exposure limit value for this period to apply.
(4) the Federal Government reimbursed no later than in the year 2025 and then continuously every 10 years the German Parliament report on the implementation of the regulation. In the report whether the Immissions limit values referred to in article 2 paragraph 1 shall correspond to the State of noise impact research and whether further measures to protect against harmful environmental impacts caused by traffic noises are needed shows in particular.

§ 3 is calculation of the assessment level for roads of the assessment levels for roads according to Appendix 1. The calculation has to be made separately for the assessment period day (6: 00 to 10: 00) and the assessment period night (10: 00-6: 00).

According to annex 2, § 4 is calculation of the assessment level for tracks (1) the assessment level for railways. The calculation has to be made separately for the assessment period day (6: 00 to 10: 00) and the assessment period night (10: 00-6: 00).
(2) in the case of the calculation, in particular the following conditions to be observed are: 1 the sound level values for vehicles and railway infrastructure, 2. the effects on the propagation path, 3. the peculiarities of rail transport by premiums or discounts a) for the nuisance of noise due to its temporal course, their duration, their frequency and their frequency and b) for the unpleasantness of clay or containing impulse noises.
(3) by way of derogation from paragraph 1, sentence 1 is for sections of projects, for which until 31 December 2014 has been plan approval process already opened and the interpretation of the plan is publicly disclosed, continues to apply article 3 in conjunction with Annex 2 in the version applicable up to 31 December 2014. Section 43 paragraph 1 sentence 3 of the Federal Immission Control Act shall remain unaffected.

§ 5 defining acoustic characteristics for different rail technology and sound technical innovations (1) deviating railway technology or sound technical innovations allowed the calculation of the assessment level only be taken into account according to § 4, paragraph 1, sentence 1, if in proceedings in accordance with the paragraphs 2 to 4 for the calculation acoustic characteristics has set the competent authority. Different rail technology is technology that is listed number 3 to 6 or Annex 1 to 3 in Appendix 2 and assign one of the following areas: 1. road types, 2. noise reduction measures on the track or on the wheel or 3. railway-specific noise mitigation measures in the propagation path.
Sound technical innovations are new and technical advancements to railway technology listed in annex 2 paragraph 3 to 6 or Annex 1 to 3, which have an impact on the noise emission and-immission of this railway technology.
(2) the federal railway authority decides laying down acoustic characteristics on request for the railways of the Federation and for other railways authority each according to national law. An acoustic characteristic value is set, if the emission data of different rail or the sound technical innovations for this technique are significant and if sound technical innovations the acoustic characteristics significantly differ each referred to in paragraph 3 to 6 or Annex 1 to 3 characteristic values from the in Appendix 2. A significant deviation must reach at least the values specified in Appendix 2 number 9.2.2.
(3) is entitled to make an application under paragraph 2 sentence 1, 1 railway infrastructure companies, 2. holder of rights of different techniques of railway or by sound technical innovations and 3 licensees by different techniques of railway or by sound technical innovations.
(4) the request referred to in paragraph 2 sentence 1 have following particulars and documents include: 1. a description of the different rail or sound technical innovation for the defining of acoustic characteristics is sought in particular to explain is, what differs the different rail technology or sound technical innovation of the technology corresponding to listed in Appendix 2, 2. the opinion of a recognized measuring point according to Appendix 2 number 9.3 , 3. a proposal to which control Appendix 2 by way of derogation can be described number 3 to 6 or Annex 1 to 3 different railway applications in addition or the sound technical innovation, including a data sheet, which is the acoustic characteristics standard in the proposed mapping, 4. a description of how the acoustic effectiveness through customary wear changed.
(5) which are competent authority the applicant the decision referred to in paragraph 2 sentence 1 in writing known. The competent authority makes known also set 1 publicly a defining of acoustic characteristics referred to in paragraph 2.

Concluding formula the Federal Council has approved.

Appendix 1 (to section 3) calculation of the assessment level for road site of the original text: Federal Law Gazette I 1990, be 1037-1044 of the assessment level LR, T in decibels (A) (dB(A)) for the day (6: 00 to 22:00) and the assessment level LR, N in dB(A) for the night (22.00 to 6.00) for a lane calculated following equations: (1) (2) mean: LM ,T(25)...
Averaging level in dB(A) for the day (6: 00 to 22:00) according to diagram I.
LM,N(25)...
Averaging level in dB(A) for the night (22.00 till 6:00) according to diagram I.
M applicable hourly traffic volume and the applicable share of truck p using the underlying plan, projected average daily traffic volume (DTV) according to table A calculated, unless there are no suitable project-related findings, taking into account the development of transport in the forecast period for determining a) the applicable hourly traffic volume M (in cars/h) b) examinations of the relevant truck part p (over 2,8 t GVW) in % of the total traffic for the period of time between 22.00 and 6.00 as an average for all days of the year are can. A road traffic is to associate the two outer lanes each half. The emission municipalities to adopt 0.5 m height above the center of the lane.
DV...
Correction for different allowable maximum speeds depending on the truck share p according to diagram II.
DStrO...
Correction for different road surfaces in accordance with table B.
DStg...
Correction for gradients and slopes of table C.
DS⊥...
Level change due to different distances S⊥ between the control (0.5 m above the center of the considered Lane) and the decisive Immissions site without soil and meteorology damping according to diagram III. The decisive Immissions site depends on the circumstances in each individual case; front of buildings he is in height of the storey ceiling (0.2 m above the upper edge of the window) of the space to be protected; the Immissions site is 2 m above the center of the area used as outdoor living outdoor living areas.
DBM...
Level change due to soil and meteorology damping in relation to the Middle height hm according to diagram IV. The mean height hm is the average distance between the bottom and the connecting line between the emissions and Immissions site. In flat terrain results in hm as the arithmetic average of the heights of the place of emission and immission location above ground, DB...
Level change due to topographic conditions, structural measures and reflections. Depending on the local conditions are this particular noise barriers and walls. Cuts, bumps and screened by construction equipment. DB the level change is to determine according to the guidelines for the noise on the streets - output 1990 - RLS-90, Chapter 4.0, made known in the transport journal, Official Journal of the Federal Ministry of transport of the Federal Republic of Germany (where.) No. 7 from April 14, 1990 under no. No. 79. The guidelines are by the research agency for roads and transport, Alfred-Schütte-Allee 10, 5000 Cologne 21 K...
Additional payment for increased interference effect of signal-controlled intersections and junctions in accordance with table D.
The assessment level for long, straight lanes are calculated using the equations (1) and (2), which exhibit constant emissions and constant propagation along its entire length.
If one of those conditions is not true, the lanes on sections need to be divided, to determine their individual assessment level official journal of the Federal Ministry of transport are made known in the transport journal the Federal Republic of Germany (where.) No. 7 of the 14 April 1990 according to the guidelines for noise protection on roads - Edition 1990 - RLS-90, Chapter 4.0, see item No. No. 79. The guidelines are by the research agency for roads and transport, Alfred-Schütte-Allee 10, 5000 Cologne 21.
The assessment level for the two outer lanes are to sum up to the total assessment level for the road after diagram V.
The overall assessment level LR and LR, N shall be rounded up to whole dB(A). In the case of § 1 para 2 No. 2 is to round up the difference of assessment level only.
Chart I: averaging level Lm,T(25) or Lm,N(25) in dB (A) chart II: fix DV in dB(A) for different allowable maximum speeds depending on the share of the truck p diagram III: changing the level DS⊥ in dB(A) due to different distances s⊥ between the control (0.5 m above the center of the considered Lane) and the decisive Immissions site diagram IV: level change DBM in dB(A) by soil and meteorology damping in relation to the Middle height hm chart V : Overall assessment level LR, ges from two assessment level LR, LR, 1 and 2 Appendix 2 (at paragraph 4) calculation of the assessment level for railways (sound 03) (site: BGBl. I 2014 S. 2271-2313) table of contents 1 calculation 2. terms, definitions 3. modelling of acoustic sources 4. noise emissions from railways 5. noise of trams 6 sound propagation 7 calculation of sound Immissions 8 assessment level 9 consideration of differing rail technology and sound technical innovations 10 accessibility of technical rules and standards 1 calculation procedures for railways is the assessment level LR in the neighborhood separately for the assessment period day (6: 00 to 10: 00) and the evaluation period at night (10: 00-6: 00) according to number 8.1 specified. The number of projected moves of the type of train, as well as the underlying operational planning speeds up the planning section of the railway line to be considered are the basis for the calculation of the level of assessment.
The calculation of the level of assessment in the following steps is carried out on the basis of this forecast data:-distribution of the railway to single tracks and sections and others with the same traffic composition, same speed, same road type and same driving State according to paragraph 3.1 as well as identification and definition of sound sources by shunting and handling stations referred to in point 4.8.
-FZ of vehicle units, calculation of linear or area-based levels of sound power in octave bands, separately for each section of a course referred to in point 3.2 or any sound source of a shunting and handling station in all heights h referred to in point 3.3 based nFz of all kinds by the amounts per hour;
-Separation of the sections into pieces kS or separation of the surfaces in areas kƒ to the formation of point sound source with an assigned level of sound performance, taking into account the directivity and radiation characteristics according to paragraphs 3.4 and 3.5;
-Calculation of noise emissions from railways to Supplement 1, number 4 and Supplement 3 and from tram number 5 and annex 2;
-Calculation of noise Immissions by propagation calculation referred to in point 6;
-Summary of noise Immissions components at the Immissions site referred to in point 7;
-Formation of the assessment level for the relevant appraisal periods referred to in point 8.
The software products that are used in the calculation must ensure the standard figure of that provision; This can be carried out in accordance with DIN 45687, acoustic - software products for calculation of sound Immissions in the open air - quality requirements and test specifications, Edition May 2006 2 terms, definitions 2.1 railway terms 2.1.1 railway vehicles and infrastructure facilities, which are listed in the General railway law (AEG); to the demarcation of trams (see 2.1.9) 2.1.2 railway stations, breakpoints and stops passengers vehicle unit smallest not dissectible driving part of a railroad train or a tram vehicle 2.1.3 facilities, where, around - or get off note is 1: railways in the EBO conceptually between station (§ 4 paragraph 2 EBO), breakpoint (article 4, paragraph 8 EBO) and stop (§ 4 paragraph 9 EBO) distinguished. In trams is the concept of the station in General (§ 31 of tram - building and operating order - BOStrab) and the double stop (article 31, paragraph 1 number 3 BOStrab) used. In this annex, the terms are used depending on the type of transport (railway/tram).
Note 2: Railways, railway stations can be combined with other railway facilities, for example with loading devices of car passenger trains.
2.1.4 marshalling yards stations for freight transport, where substantial freight trains formed or decomposed 2.1.5 be rail Web damper devices for damping noise emissions from rail bridges 2.1.6 rail bridge shielding devices to shield the noise emissions from rail bridges 2.1.7 rail caused trackage with bottom and superstructure including a catenary, paragraphs 2.1.1 and 2.1.9, where driving operations noise Immissions.
Note 1: The noise nuisances caused by the rolling noise, aerodynamic noise, aggregate, and drive noise of railway vehicles.
Note 2: operating systems, of which other noise Immissions assume such as substations or inverter works, maintenance and loading equipment and washing machines, are not subject to this regulation.
2.1.8 threshold track superstructure, consisting of tracks on wood, concrete or steel sleepers in ballast bed 2.1.9 tram vehicles and infrastructure facilities in the passenger transport Act (PBefG) and the tram construction and operating regulations (BOStrab) are listed. to the demarcation of railways (see 2.1.1), by way of derogation of § 4 paragraph 2 PBefG Ropeways or similar lines of a particular type rather than trams in the sense this facility provided.
2.1.10 Straßenbündiger roadbed embedded Metro railways with tracks, road roadway or walkway surfaces 2.1.11 the run as independent courses through their type or location on the entire length of other public are independent tracks, and have no level crossings (article 1(2) of the railway crossing Act) 2.1.12 envelope stations equipment of combined transport as part of the public rail transport with tracks for arriving and departing trains , with loading equipment and Ladestraßen link to the public road network, if necessary with parking or storage areas 2.1.13 composite block brake block brakes with brake blocks made of composite materials; These brakes use such as composite brake blocks with high friction value level (K base) or low friction value (LL sole).
VDU 2.2 concepts 2.2.1 A-weighted sound pressure level LpA ten decade logarithm of the ratio of the square of the RMS of sound pressure with the frequency weighting together with an assessment of the time and the square of the reference sound pressure p0 = 20 μPa in air note 1: the frequency weighting and time evaluation (for example, F, S) E.g. LpAF specify as an index of the sound pressure level LP.
Note 2: The sound pressure level is specified in decibels, dB.
2.2.2 A-weighting A frequency weighting according to DIN EN 61672-1, electroacoustics – sound level meters – part 1; Requirements, Edition October 2003 Note: the marking of A weighted level standards through the index of A in the formula character L carried out, not by appending the formula character A to the unit dB.
2.2.3 shielding level double decrease of sound pressure level in a place behind an obstacle to the sound pressure level without impediment to one free progressive sound wave Note: the cut-off level specified in decibels, dB,.
2.2.4 absorption loss Dƿ loss of sound energy at reflections Note: the absorption loss is given in decibels, dB,.
2.2.5 of equivalent continuous sound pressure level LP, AEQ, T A-weighted energy equivalent averaging level for a sound pressure level variable over time T Note: the equivalent continuous sound pressure level Lpeq, T is formed (for example, for the frequency weighting and time evaluation F) as follows: (see also averaging level) Note: the equivalent continuous sound pressure level specified in decibels, dB,.
2.2.6 assessment level LR size to indicate the strength of the noise immission during the assessment time tr, taking into account- or discounts for certain sounds, times or situations. If no premium or discounts are taken into account, the equivalent continuous sound pressure level is the assessment level: Note 1: the assessment level LR is formed as follows from the equivalent continuous sound pressure level LpAFeq, TI and AI surcharges during the part time interval TI for the assessment time TR: note 2: the assessment level specified in decibels, dB,.
2.2.7 reference height for sound sources SO Rails for rail vehicles, referred to the track axis FO route Oberkante for road vehicles, based on the roadway 2.2.8 single event level LP, T0 the equivalent continuous sound pressure level of a sound event occurring during the time period T related to 1 second = 1 s note 1: note 2: in octave bands is the A weighted single event level with LEA, referred to ƒ.
Note 3: The single-event sound pressure level is specified in decibels, dB.
2.2.9 emission level LmE of equivalent continuous sound pressure level after acoustic 03: directive for the calculation of noise Immissions by rail - sound 03, Edition 1990, published in the official journal of the Deutsche Bundesbahn No. 14 of 4 April 1990 under the indicated Number 133 for a certain period, such as for the hours when free sound propagation by a UN-shielded track/infrastructure, depending on the road surface characteristics, the driving surface condition and train / vehicle quantities, at a distance of 25 m from the railway / road axis and 3.5 m above the rail and infrastructure top Note: the emission level can be for flat terrain by LmE = LW 'A 19 dB from the level of the linear sound power LW' A estimate.
2.2.10 Immissions site IO significant venue for the determination of an assessment level, after this facility - in buildings in height of the storey ceiling (0.2 m above the top of the window) on the façade of the spaces to be protected and, for outdoor living areas 2 m above the center of the area used as outdoor living area Note: for Immissions sites on buildings, reflections on its facade are not included.
2.2.11 averaging level ch Einzahl value to describe sound operations with time as variation level or sound fields with locally different sound levels or a combination thereof Note: the A weighted averaging level for a temporally variable sound pressure level is called the equivalent continuous sound pressure level.
2.2.12 octave level in the frequency range of specified sound level 2.2.13 the octave level of area-related A weighted sound power LW "A A-weighted averaging level to describe the noise emission from the surface noise source; After this system specified for the average height of the rail and road edges in an extensive railway system Note: the level specified in decibels, dB, referring to a sound power of 1 pW and an area of 1 m2.
2.2.14 level of linear weighted sound power LW'A A-weighted averaging level to the description of the noise emission of a sound source. After this system specified for different levels over a route or road section with specific roadway features and driving surface conditions during operation with note certain vehicles and speed: the level specified in decibels, dB, referring to a sound power of 1 pW and a length of 1 m.
2.2.15 level correction for the saliency sounds KL level correction to account for the saliency of noise with pronounced pitch, pulse or Informationshaltigkeit increased Note: the level correction for the saliency of noise specified in decibels, dB,.
2.2.16 level corrections for noise of bridges and viaducts without soundproofing KBr level corrections to the taking into account of the wheel - and rail-related rolling noise of driving over bridges and viaducts without soundproofing this level correction including Note 1: the interference effect of low-frequency noise shares, which not is taken by the A-weighted of sound level.
Note 2: a bridge with multiple fields is known as viaduct in this plant.
Note 3: The level corrections for sounds of bridges and viaducts are specified in decibels, dB.
2.2.17 level corrections for sounds of bridges and viaducts with soundproofing KBr + KLM level corrections to take account of the wheel - and rail-related roles noise when driving over bridges with soundproofing note 1: the separate identification of the effect of noise reduction measures is used the incentive to the application of low-emission bridge constructions.
Note 2: Level corrections of noise of bridges and viaducts with soundproofing are specified in decibels, dB.
2.2.18 level correction road - rail KS level correction to account for the lower interference effect of rail noise from road traffic noise note 1: was the application of the level correction in paragraph 3 in connection with Annex 2 of the traffic noise protection Ordinance of 12 June 1990 (Federal Law Gazette I p. 1036) set and the eleventh Act amending the Federal Immission Control Act of 2 July 2013 (BGBl. I S. 1943) abolished with effect from 1 January 2015 for railways and to the 1 January 2019 for trams (cf. section 43 paragraph 2 sentence 2 and) 3 of the Federal Immission Control Act).
Note 2: The level correction road - rail is specified in decibels, dB.
2.2.19 set effect measure DI measure to describe the uneven dispersion of a sound source in the air; After this system consistently for all sound sources of a range in all frequency bands Note: the setting effect measure is specified in decibels, dB,.
2.2.20 sound absorption sound energy conversion from a room or space in heat Note: sound absorption specified in decibels, dB,.
2.2.21 sound pressure level LP ten decade logarithm of the ratio of the square of the sound pressure p and the square of the reference sound pressure p0 = 20 µPa Note: the sound pressure levels specified in decibels, dB,.
2.2.22 noise emission of sound 2.2.23 sound immission meeting of sound at the Immissions site 2.2.24 sound power level LW Mittelung level to the description of the noise emission of a single sound source Note: the sound power level is specified in decibels, dB, referring to a sound power of 1 pW.
2.2.25 sound reflectivity stood reflected portion of the sound energy, related to the incident sound energy for a given frequency, and set conditions of a reflective surface 2.3 symbol units, energy meters table 1: symbols, units, and importance column A B C line symbol unit meaning 1 ɑA dB A-weighted overall level of linear acoustic power under certain conditions 2 Δɑ dB difference to the overall level ɑA ƒ 3 A dB octave band dispersion damping dimension 4 Adiv dB attenuation measurement due to geometric spreading 5 Aatd dB attenuation measurement due to air absorption 6 EGR
dB attenuation measurement as a result of ground impact 7 Abar dB damping level as a result of screening by obstacles 8 b - speed factor 9 c dB counter level corrections c1 and c2 10 c1 dB level correction for roadway types 11 c2 dB level correction for driving State 12 C2 - shielding factor for simple diffraction 13 C3 - additional shielding factor in multiple diffraction 14 d m path length of the sound between the sound source and Immissions site of 15 dp m horizontal distance between the sound source and Immissions site of 16 dr m distance last diffraction edge - Immissions site 17 ds m distance sound source - 1 diffraction edge
18 dso m distance sound source - reflector 19 dor m clearance reflector - Immissions site 20 dП m distance sound source - Immissions site parallel to the edge of the diffraction 21 DI dB setting effect measure 22 friends dB setting effect measurement of reflected sound 23 Dreƒl dB level correction for reflective sound insulation wall with absorbent base 24 DZ dB shielding measure 25 Dρ dB reflection attenuation measurement 26 DΩ dB space angle measure 27 e, e1... m distance between diffraction edge 28 ƒ - counter for octave band 29 ƒm - octave band center frequency 30 FZ - counter for vehicle category 31 h - counter height range 32
Habs m height of the absorbing base of a soundproof wall 33 hg m
M height height of the sound source on the rails of the sound source on the floor of 34 hLSW m average height of a soundproofing wall above the Rails 35 hm m average height above ground 36 hs 37 hr m height of the Immissions site above the floor 38 i - counter for single sound source 39 j - source 40 k counter dB counter level correction K 41 K dB level corrections 42 KBr dB level correction for bridge 43 kF - counter for part of an area 44 KLM dB level correction for sound mitigation of bridge 45 KL dB level correction for the saliency of noise 46 KLA dB level correction for noise protection measures against the saliency of noise 47 occurs - correction factor for meteorological influences 48 kS - counter for part of a line or route 49 KS dB level correction to account for the lower interference effect of rail traffic noise 50 l m length 51 lh m horizontal dimension of an obstacle on the sound propagation path 52 ll m of vertical distance between the connecting line source - receiver and 1 endpoint of the obstacle on the sound propagation path
53 lr m vertical distance between the connecting line source - receiver and 2. endpoint of the obstacle on the sound propagation path 54 lmin m smallest dimension of the reflector 55 LEA dB A-weighted single event level per octave band ƒ 56 LP, AEQ dB of equivalent continuous sound pressure level 57 LP, AEQ, day dB of equivalent continuous sound pressure level for the assessment period day (6: 00 to 10: 00) 58 LP, AEQ, night dB of equivalent continuous sound pressure level for the assessment period night (10: 00-6: 00) 59 LR dB noise rating 60 LWA dB A-weighted overall level of Sound power 61 ΔLW, ƒ dB level difference between the A-weighted overall levels of in the ƒ octave band sound power 62 LW'A dB A-weighted overall level of linear acoustic power 63 LW "A dB A-weighted overall level of area-based sound power 64 ΔLW', ƒ dB level difference between the A weighted level of linear acoustic power in the octave band ƒ 65 LWA DB A-weighted sound power level sound source level 66 m - part sources number 67 nAchs - number of axles per vehicle unit 68 nFz - number of vehicles per hour 69 ni - number of events per hour on" the point sound source 70 nj - number of events per hour on the line sound source 71 nQ - number of sound sources per vehicle unit 72 q - number of sound sources in the shunting and transfer station 73 r m radius 74 R - index for marshalling yard 75 S m2 area 76 T s time 77 v km/h speed 78 w - counter for propagation path 79 z m detour of a sound beam diffraction 80 α dB/km 81 β wheel absorption coefficient λ reflection angle of 82 Ϭ wheel angle of the sound radiation 83
m sound wavelength 84 ρ - sound reflection table 2: abbreviations column A B line abbreviations meaning 1 büG especially monitored track 2 E-Lok electric locomotive 3 ET electric multiple units 4 FO road Oberkante 5 high speed rail HGV 6 IO Immissions site 7 RBF yard 8 SO Rails 9 UBF transfer station 10 V-Lok (diesel locomotive) locomotive 11 VT combustion Triebwagen 3. modeling the routes to assessed 3.1 split into sections uniform noise sound sources are in sections with uniform noise after divided following criteria : - Traffic composition, - speed classes, - road type, - driving State station areas and stops, - bridges and viaducts, level - crossings, - curves.
For the resulting sections are single level of linear sound performance to determine.
Assessed shunting and handling stations are described by sound sources according to table 10. The location of the sound source is specified according to their geometric expansion as point or line sound source with the corresponding source height according to table 10 in Cartesian coordinates. Areas of the shunting or transshipment station with several different sound sources of altitude range, but with a constant sound radiation may be summarized to larger areas sound source. Similar equipment and operations in the respective area, which are uniformly describe an area-based sound power level are decisive for the allocation of shunting and handling stations in areas sound source.
Railway evening of shunting and handling stations or tram lines are treated as other routes (see paragraph 2.2.18).
3.2 sound power level for railway and tram tracks of the level of linear sound power LW'A, ƒ, h, m, FZ in the octave band ƒ in terms of height h, as a result of a part - source m (see table 5, and table 13) for a vehicle unit of the vehicle category FZ per hour is calculated according to the following equation (EQ. 1): referred to here: ɑA, h, m, FZ A-weighted overall level of linear acoustic performance at the reference speed v0 = 100 km/h on average driving state threshold track , according to Supplement 1 and 2, in dB, Δɑƒ, h, m, FZ level difference in the octave band ƒ, according to Supplement 1 and 2, in dB, nQ number of sound sources of the vehicle unit referred to in point 4.1 or 5.1, nQ, 0 reference number of the noise sources of vehicle unit referred to in point 4.1 or 5.1, bƒ, h, m speed factor according to table 6 or 14, vFz speed referred to in point 4.3 or 5.3.2 , in km/h reference speed v0 v0 = 100 km/h, total of c level corrections for road type (c1) according to table 7 or 15 and running surface (c2) according to table 8, in dB, sum of k level corrections for bridges in accordance with table 9 and 16 respectively and the peculiarity of noise according to table 11, in dB.
Note: The indices h, m and FZ are not carried in Supplement 1 and 2.
In the calculations the eight octave bands be considered ƒ with the centre frequencies from 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz. The parameters to be used are summarized in paragraph 4 for railways and in paragraph 5 for trams.
During intercourse by nFz vehicles per hour, the type FZ is the level of linear acoustic power in the octave band ƒ and calculated altitude range h according to the following equation (EQ. 2): 3.3 noise for shunting and handling stations the sound emission is specified in eight octave bands ƒ at centre frequencies from 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz sound power level for radiation in the solid angle of 4π. It is the space angle measure according to the equation (EQ. 9). To distinguish sound sources are according to table 10. The sources are point-shaped or linear-shaped.
The level of the A weighted sound power of point sound source LW, ƒ, h, i in the octave of ƒ in the altitude range i is depending on the number h, as a result of a single source ni of events or calculated units per hour according to the following equation (EQ. 3): the level of the weighted linear sound power by sound source LW'A, ƒ, h, j to the octave band ƒ in the altitude range of h, due to a single source j is based on the number nj of events or units per hour according to the following equation (GL. 4) calculated : Referred to in: LWA, h, i, LW'A, h, j A-weighted overall level of sound power or linear sound power of the single source i or j to annex 3 in dB, ΔLW, ƒ, h, i, ΔLW', ƒ, h, j ƒ according to annex 3 in dB level difference in the octave band, ni nj number of events or units per hour, KK level correction for the saliency of the noise table 9 and table 11 , in dB.
Note: the indices h, i and j are not carried In the supplementary sheet 3.
Sub-areas of shunting and handling stations with uniform acoustic emissions can be grouped together to areas sound source. The emission areas sound source, summarized from point and line sound source, is the A weighted sound power level LW "A, ƒ h specified in octave band ƒ and height h by the following equation (EQ. 5): referred to here: SF = 1 m2 of surface area with uniform acoustic emission, in m2, S0, lj length of line source j, m, l0 = number of point sound source of type i in the altitude range h 1 m reference length, qi, h" , qj, h number of sound source of type j in the heights area h. movements of incoming, outgoing and passing trains and shunting movements are considered in point 3.2.
3.4 training of point sound source through part of decomposition of calculation of assessment levels are based on point sound source. To all sources of lines and areas are broken down in point sound source (see Figure 1). An extensive source for all parts to an Immissions site uniform sound propagation conditions prevail, is modelled as a point sound source. In addition, the length of the sections is lks or the size of the part surface SkF through more separation to limit that in half of all parts or areas the Immissions share changed according to the equation (EQ. 29) for all posts at the respective Immissions site by less than 0.1 dB.
Figure 1: Examples of the decomposition of line and surface noise source in sections and areas note 1: in marshalling yards are such as track brakes as a point sound source considered.
Note 2: The claim is specified after constant propagation conditions at each observed point a part piece to the Immissions site through the threshold of 0.1 dB. It includes requirements for clearances, sound beam height above the ground, shielding and reflections. Left at free sound propagation over level ground half of the length of the path serves as a benchmark for a suitable length DK. from the middle of the section of up to the Immissions site. A quarter of the square of the length of the path serves as a benchmark for a suitable part size SkF for free sound propagation over level ground Jackie by the middle of the part surface to the Immissions site.
The length for lkS a section between ks and from weighted levels of linear octave sound power LW'A, ƒ, h according to the equation (EQ. 5) at the heights established under this system are the A weighted sound power level LWA h (see table 5 and table 10) in this section, calculated according to the following equation (GL. 6) ƒ ƒ, h, kS in the octave band: l0 = 1 m. octave sound power level according to the equation (GL. 6) describe along with the setting effect degree according to the equation (EQ. 8) and the room angle measure to to expect the sound emission with from a point source in the middle of a section of ks in height hs of the equation (EQ. 9) above the rail surface is.
With the SkF of a part surface area and of the levels of LW "A, ƒ, h of area-based sound power according to the equation (EQ. 5) relating to altitude defined according to table 10 h be the sound power level LWA, ƒ, h, calculated according to the following equation (EQ. 7) kF: S0 = 1 m2."
The octave sound power level describes the equation (EQ. 7) together with the room angle measure according to the equation (EQ. 9) the non-directional sound emission of point sound source in the middle of a sub-plot kF height hs about rail resp. the upper edge of the roadway.
3.5 directivity and space angle measurement 3.5.1 directivity setting effect measure DI, kS is calculated by the following equation (EQ. 8) for parts of sections: referred to in δkS the angle between a sound beam that emanates from the point sound source, and the track axis (see fig. 2): Figure 2: definition of the angle δkS to a railway Note: the setting effect measure is graphically represented in Figure 3: Figure 3: directional effect measure DI. , kS in dB according to equation (EQ. 8) for δkS in degree note 1: the setting effect measure identifies the average radiation of rolling noise for train travel in both directions.
Note 2: The angle of δkS can be obtained from geometrical descriptions of the track axis and the place of emission.
For sources in shunting and handling stations, no directional effect is taken into account for this calculation rule.
3.5.2 space angles that give sound power level of all sources of this plant to the radiation in the solid angle of 4π. While the apparent rise of the sound power level of the sound source due to reflections on the ground is taken into account by the angles of the room according to the following equation (EQ. 9): referred to here: hg level of the sound source on the ground, in m, hr height above ground, in m, of the place of Immissions dp horizontal distance between the sound source and Immissions site, in m. Note: reported to the height of the sound source according to the tables of 5, 10 and 13 refer to the upper edge of the roadway. The height of the upper edge of the roadway above the ground is equivalent to the specified height of the sound source to add.
4. noise emissions from railways 4.1 vehicle for calculating the noise emissions are vehicle categories FZ according to table 3 types: table 3: vehicle types, FZ categories and reference number of axles for railways column A B C line vehicle type of vehicle category FZ reference number of axes nAchs, 0 1 HGV driving head 1 4 2 HGV-medium / driving cars, not 2 powered 4 3 HGV train 3 32 4 high-speed tilting train 4 28 5 E train and S-Bahn (ET) 5 10 6 V trains (VT) 6 6 7 electric locomotive (electric locomotive) 7 4 8 diesel locomotive (V-Lok) 8
4 9 coaches 9 4 10 wagons 10 4 determination to table 3, column C: the sound performance of the rolling noise increases with the number of axes. If there is deviation of the number of axes asses a vehicle unit of the reference number of axles will asses, 0 a correction in the equation (EQ. 1) with nQ = asses made. This correction is applied only for the sound source type rolling noise according to table 5. In all other types of sound source is nQ = nQ, 0. The A-weighted level ɑA, h, m, FZ linear sound performance and the level difference Δɑƒ, h, m, FZ in the octave of ƒ at the reference speed v0 = 100 km/h on average driving state threshold track are compiled for each vehicle type in annex 1 (see also the equation EQ. 1). The composition and the number of vehicles of trains can, if these are not given for the calculation, are provided in table 4.
Table 4: traffic data for railways column A B C D E F G H I J K L line train type maximum speed in km/h in the rule number of the vehicle units per FZ-category 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 ICE 1 train 250 2 12 2 ICE 2-half train 250 1 7 3 ICE-2-full 250 2 14 4 ICE 3-half train 300 1 5 ICE-3 full 300 2 6 ICE-T 230 1 7 Thalys PBKA half train 300 2 5 8 Thalys PBKA full 300 4 10 9 ETR 470 Cisalpino 200 1 10 IC-train (covered with electric locomotive) 200 1 12 11 IC train (covered with V-Lok) 160 1 12 12 commuter train (covered with electric locomotive) 160 1 5 13 commuter train (covered with V-Lok) 140 1 5 14 commuter train (ET) 140 1 15 commuter train (VT) 120 1 16 IC3 180 1 17 S-Bahn 120 1 18 freight train (covered with electric locomotive) 100 1 24 19 freight train (covered with V-Lok) 100 1 24 notes to table 4 : Line 6: The 7-part version (class 411) and the 5-piece version (class 415) of the ICE-T are indistinguishable sound level.
Rows 10 and 11: the car with wave disc brakes Wheelsets.
Lines 14 and 17: Detailing after series see data sheet of the vehicle category 5 line 15: detailing after series see data sheet of the vehicle category 6 row 16: to be treated as BR 612 in the data sheet of the vehicle category 6.
Can be expected in freight trains, that by the year 2020 80 per cent and 100 per cent of freight wagons with composite block brakes are equipped up to the year 2030. This applies to the four sound source types listed in table 5 in the corresponding fields of the heights wagons in accordance with the lines of 5 to 7 and 18 to 20 by Supplement 1, vehicle category 10 4.2 are types of sound source for calculating the noise takes into account.
Table 5: types of sound source on vehicles for railways column A B C D E line sound source type height range h height hs over SO part sources m sound cause, component 1 rolling noise 1 0 m 1 rail roughness 2 1 0 m 2 wheel roughness 3 2 4 m 3 radiation of transmitted as structure-borne noise roller noise due to the rail roughness by tank car bodies 4 2 4 m 4 coverage of the aerodynamic as conferred on structure-borne noise roller noise due to the wheel roughness by tank car bodies 5 noise 3 5 m 5 pantograph rocker 6 2
4 m 6 pantograph foot grid of cooling and air conditioning in the roof area 7 1 0 m 7 air flow around the bogies 8 aggregate noise 2 4 m 8 fans of cooling and air conditioning systems, suction side in the roof area 9 1 0 m 9 fans of cooling and air conditioning systems, suction and pressure side in the under floor area 10 drive noise 2 4 m 10 exhaust system 11 1 0 m 11 engine , Transmission specifications table 5: rows 1 and 2: on inclines with a slope of ≥ 20 ‰ and a length ≥ 500 m a surcharge of 3 is for trains with cast iron block brakes on downhill traffic track dB on the rolling noise in height hs = to 0 m due to brake noise.
Rows 3 and 4: Tank car the roughness of rolling noise through sound radiation of the superstructure in the height affect hs = 4 STS from. The corresponding part source is applied only for tank cars. If not more accurately known, tank car for every freight train is assumed a share by 20 percent.
4.3 speed the weighted overall level of the linear sound power listed in annex 1 shall apply to the reference speed v0 = 100 km/h. The influence of different speeds is taken into account in the equation (EQ. 1) with the speed factor b according to table 6.
Table 6: speed factor b for railways column A B C line sound source type partial sources m speed factor b in the octave band center frequency, in Hz 1 63 125 250 500 1 000 2 000 4 000 8 000 2 rolling noise of 1, 2, 3, 4 – 5 0 10 25 25 25 3 aerodynamic noise 5, 6, 7 50 4 aggregate noise 8, 9 – 10 5 drive noise 10 , 11 20 speed vFz is determined as follows: the starting point is the vehicle-related speed limit in the rule. Several cars of a train have different speed limits, the maximum speed of the slowest vehicle for all vehicles is to use. The permissible track speed is low, this is to be used.
In the area of passenger stations (within the labeled) and breakpoints or stops (the length of the platform plus on either side of 100 m), the permissible speed of the free section is at least 70 km/h to apply. With vFz = 70 km/h, the sounds of falling in train stations and at breakpoints or station areas caused E.g. by doors closing or when driving over turnouts or during braking and starting, are taken into account.
Note: A compilation of speed limits for different types of train can be found in table 4.
The acoustic characteristics listed in annex 1 apply threshold tracks (see point 2.1.8) 4.4 road types, level crossings. For other types of roadway level corrections must be performed according to the equation (EQ. 1) according to table 7.
Table 7: level corrections c1 for roadway types column A B C line factor level corrections c1 in dB for octave band center frequency, in Hz 63 125 250 500 1 000 2 000 4 000 8 000 1 slab track elevated rail emission 0 0 0 7 3 0 0 0 2 reflection on the road 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 slab track with absorber increased rail emission 0 0 0 7 3 0 0 0 4 reflection on the roadway 0 0
0 - 3 0 0 5 level crossing increased rail roughness 0 0 0 8 4 0 0 0 6 reflection on the carriageway 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 specifications to table 7: rows 1 and 3: level correction for the increased noise emissions of rail due to elastic rail fasteners required for solid roads; the correction is on the rolling noise as a result rail roughness and wheel roughness (sources of part 1 and 2) to apply. When all other sources of part m is c1 = 0 dB.
Rows 2, 4, and 6: level correction for the modified sound radiation pattern due to the changing reflections over the gravel bed; the correction is all part of sources on height of rail (part sources 1, 2, 7, 9 and 11) to apply. When all other sources of part m is c1 = 0 dB.
Rows 3 and 4: Absorber are classified as noise protection measures.
Row 5: level correction for the sound radiation pattern of the rail due to the increased roughness of road surface. The correction is on the rolling noise due to the roughness of wheel and rail roughness (sources of part 1 and 2) to apply. When all other sources of part m is c1 = 0 dB.
Lines 5 and 6: The level correction for level crossings for pieces, which correspond to the 2-time across the street, is to apply. Level adjustments for other types of road are not taken into account.
Note 1: threshold tracks in the gravel bed include concrete sleepers, wooden sleepers and steel sleepers.
Note 2: usually no absorber can be installed In the area of turnouts.
Note 3: 5 can be omitted on a level correction for level crossings, which serve only as a foot - and cycle paths, after line completely, according to line a path width of the attached railroad ≤ 7 m 6.
The acoustic characteristics listed in annex 1 apply 4.5 sound mitigation techniques at the track for an average driving State and without special acoustic measures on the rail. For the driving State "especially monitored track (FR.)" and for measures on the rail bridges level corrections are according to the equation (EQ. 1) according to table 8 to make.
Table 8: level corrections c2 for driving State "especially monitored track (FR.)", as well as for rail Web damper and-abschirmung column A B C line measure part of source m level corrections c2 in dB in the octave band center frequency, in Hz 63 125 250 500 1 000 2 000 4 000 8 000 1 especially monitored track (büG) 1, 3 0 0 0-4 - 5 - 5 - 4 0 2 rail Web damper 1 , 3 0 0 0-2 - 3 - 3 0 0 3 2, 4 0 0 0-1 - 3 - 2 0 0 4 rail bridge shield 1 0 0 0-3 - 4 - 5 0 0 c2 correction values for the "fr." on the part of sources of rolling noise due to the roughness of the Rails, applied part sources 1 and 3, with the influences of rail Web damper on the part of sources 1 to 4 and at the rail bridge shielding only on the part of source 1. Applies when all other sources of part c2 = 0 dB. The measures considered as noise protection measures according to table 8. The used rail Web damper and-abschirmungen must have the acoustic effectiveness according to table 8. An addition of the correction values of c2 from lines 1 and 2, as well as the lines 1 and 4 is possible.
Note 1: The "especially monitored track (FR.)" is a sound protection with a special form of the monitoring and maintenance of the rail driving surfaces. It is based on the recognition that in addition to the vehicle type-dependent State of the wheel tread, especially the driving State of the Rails plays a crucial role in the development of the rolling noise. When using this measure, certain track sections at regular intervals on their acoustic condition to be checked and in case of need with a special grinding ground (acoustic loops). The measure aims that on such track sections always an exceptionally good, i.e. smooth driving State of the rails and correspondingly low occurs the rolling noise.
Note 2: rail Web damper is a damping action, rail bridge shield is a screening measure for rail and rail bridge; both technologies are noise protection measures.
The measure of "fr." is associated with following specifications: - prior to the commissioning of sections of the measure "büG" and after each audible grinding the track deemed PR accepted, if the büG grinding procedures recognized's available. 1110 rap/Rau 98 by the 16.3.1998 (following 1998, vol. 7, p. 262, no.) No. 74) complaint was handled.
-Technical noise of "fr." are monitored by a descent with the sound test (SMW). The first inspection is carried out not later than twelve months after the commissioning of the stage with the measure of "fr.". Each additional descent with the SMW takes place no later than 12 months after the last descent.
-The SMW for a track section shows a reading of + 2 dB (threshold) or more, so this track is acoustically ground within the next twelve months after the inspection. An audible grinding is not necessary if the track section is longer than 50 m and on the subsequent on one side or on both sides track sections of at least 200 m the threshold not exceeded length or where the measure of "fr." is not performed.
-The acoustic loops can be omitted if appropriate Schleifverfahren such as for example the high speed grinding demonstrated that the measured value displayed by the SMW is less than + 1 dB.
According to § 5, paragraph 3, sentence 2, further specifications of the competent authority must be observed.
The sound emission of the bridge superstructure by a correction, which contains also the harassment due to low-frequency noise percentages into account is 4.6 bridges at the crossing of a train crossing a bridge. She is represented as combined bridge and road surface correction, KBr because it contains also the influence of the roadway on the bridge next to the noise of the bridge. Measures which lead to a reduction of the noise emission of a bridge, be taken into account by a correction of KLM and than apply sound protection measures. For the most common five bridges and track types, 9 level corrections are indicated in table. The correction is carried out for the clearance of the bridge plus on each side of 2 m. The level corrections apply to the sources of part 1 and 2. For all other sources of part of KBr is + KLM = 0 to use dB. Corrections for road surface types are row 1 to 4 according to table 7 does not apply.
Table 9: Correction, KBr and KLM for bridge column A B C line bridge and roadway type KBr in dB KLM in dB 1 bridges with steel superstructure, directly stored on tracks 12-6 2 bridges with steel superstructure and track sleepers in the gravel bed 6-3 construction over 3 bridges with solid deck or with special steel and threshold track in the gravel bed 3-3 4 bridges with concrete slab 4 - specifications for table 9 : Row 1: Rails are directly or mounted over timber sleepers on bridge construction. The reductions for noise mitigation measures are to be by column C, if highly elastic rail fasteners with the permitted values least for the terms of are used to reduce the noise emission of the bridge for the stiffness of the base.
Line 4: impairment by noise emissions down is expected to have the impact of an appropriate measure, such as an elastic mat between the roadway and superstructure, are reduced. In case of doubt, the measure by a sound technical opinion is to clarify.
Column C: level corrections for noise mitigation measures to bridge with ballast (lines 2 and 3) are to apply when used to reduce the noise emissions of the bridge under gravel mats with the permitted values least for the terms of for the ballast module.
Note to table 9 line 3: deck of reinforced concrete, prestressed concrete, rolling in concrete, double composite beam or arch bridge; also bond bridge massive concrete deck and steel bridges parts. The special steel superstructure differs from the bridges described in line 2 by constructive measures to prevent resonances.
A noise barrier on a bridge located in accordance with table 9 row 1 to 3, sound mitigation measures are with a minimum effectiveness according to table 9 column C can be provided and taken into account in the calculation.
4.7 noise emissions of buildings In the area of tunnel openings and concourses are there any sound emissions into account. It is to assume the sound services set out in the numbers 4.1 to 4.6. The absorption and transmission properties of the structures are according to the recognised rules of technology apply.
Note 1: Acknowledged rule of technology is the DIN EN 12354-4 Architectural Acoustics - calculation of the acoustic properties of buildings from the component properties, rooms outdoors, issue April 2001 note 2: that may be occurring micro-pressure wave ("tunnel blast") at the high speed transport at tunnel portals of this directive not covered by part 4: sound transmission and should be considered separately outside of this regulation.
4.8 shunting and handling stations for calculating the noise of shunting and handling stations be taken into account the sound sources listed in table 10.
Table 10: sound sources in shunting and handling stations column A B C D E line sound source type height range h part height hs of SO/FO sound reason 1 shunting and handling stations 2 break-in, directional -, Nachordnungs - and extension group in shunting and handling stations, as well as in car-train systems rolling noise of locomotive and freight cars, units and propulsion noise of the locomotive 1 0 m roughness of rail and wheel tread, fans, motor , Transmission 3 drive noise of shunting locomotive 2 4 m exhaust system 4 curves noise 1 0 m stick-slip, tarnishing the wheel flange on the rail head 5 drive-in Group print noise of freight wagons over the hump 2 4 m units and drive the oppressive off locomotive 6 direction and after order group track brake noise 1 0 m friction of the wheel sides on brake beam 7 retard er noise (ringing noise) 1 0 m impressions of shock absorbers 8 drag casserole sound 1 0 m friction of the wheel set on metal 9 casserole shock noise 6 1.5 m buffer shock 10 direction and extension group noise When marking and stopping loosely coupled cars 6 1.5 m sudden acceleration and deceleration of loosely-coupled freight cars specifications to table 10: rows 2 through 4: rolling noise of locomotive and freight cars as well as aggregate and drive sounds of the locomotive (height range 1 and 2) must be determined in all parts of the shunting and handling stations at 70 km/h on the basis of annex 1. Each movement is as an event. Rolling noise of to oppressive wagons and the locomotives oppressive off, as well as the rolling noise of freight wagons expiring by the hump in direction or to order group are not to take into account.
Row 4: curves driving noises are to determine where each vehicle (locomotive, freight car) must be regarded as each event on the entire length of each track arc with r≤ 300 m in all parts of the shunting and handling stations.
Line 5: The number of sound events depends on the number of operations of pressing through the switcher sweltering from. The calculation of the sounds of the locomotive oppressive off every trip a boxcar by a track brake or retarder is rows 6 and 7: according to Supplement 1, FZ category 7 or 8 as a sound event. In steady-state routes are also the locomotive rides as sound events to determine when the retarder for it can not be folded away.
Rows 8 and 9: Each wagon flow caused per drag casserole sound. In the sound-technical investigation is to assume that 15 percent of all sound events in the first, 25 percent in the second and 60 percent in the last third of the rail harp of direction or to order groups emerge. Sounds of the drag chute facilities are already included in the sound power levels for drag casserole sounds (annex 3). Sentences 1 and 2 to lines 8 and 9 shall apply mutatis mutandis to buffer shocks.
Line 10: The number of sound events is determined by the number of cunning to and braked down and loosely coupled groups of wagons. Rigidly coupled wagons shall be disregarded.
Supplement contains information on the A weighted sound power level and the distribution in octave bands 3. 4.9 conspicuity of railway noise sound, impuls-or information containing noise by sections or areas are with a frequency-independent supplement KL to the sound power level according to table 11 on the part of sources 1 and 2 according to Supplement 1 takes into account. If permanently effective measures to prevent the occurrence of squeaking noises are not taken, an additional level correction KLA is to perform.
Table 11: level corrections KL for the saliency of noise column A B C D E line sound source type sound source KL dB KLA dB comment 1 curves noise in railway of curve radius 0.5 m with a distance of ds Dreƒl 5 m between the sound source and reflective noise protection wall can be neglected.
The double shielding measure is to calculate according to the following equation (EQ. 21): referred to here: 40 C2 = shielding factor of railways with sound source types according to the tables of 5 and 13, 20 = C2 shielding factor for two lifts with types of sound source according to table 10, C3 = 1 shielding factor for easy bending, correction factor for meteorological influences.
For parallel edges of diffraction: screen value as the difference between the running path lengths of the bent and the direct sound. If there is a line of sight between the sound source and Immissions site, z is fitted with a negative sign.
DS distance of point sound source to the (first) diffraction edge in m, dr distance from the (last) diffraction edge to the Immissions site, in m, s running path length between first and last edge of screen, in m, dП distance between point sound source and Immissions site, d running distance between source and Immissions site, in m. Fig. 6: measured parallel to the diffraction edge (see fig. 5), m, example of a sound way over more than two major parallel diffraction edges; negligible edges made marked by x the selection of relevant diffraction edges according to the so-called rubber-band method. Edges are not touched by a rubber band, which is stretched by the point sound source to the Immissions site, shall be disregarded for the multiple diffraction.
Non-parallel diffraction edges, i.e. when at least the edge of a diffraction is not parallel to the other diffraction edge involved in the rubber band, applies: Figure 7: example of a sound way over more than two significant non-parallel diffraction edges; negligible edges are marked by x multiple diffraction is considered only if the way of bent noise as an example shown in Figure 6, via multiple edges.
In defining noise mitigation measures you are acoustic properties of sound insulation and sound absorption after the State of the art to be observed.
The screening level double room in an any octave band should be at simple diffraction (i.e. with thin sound screens) not greater than 20 dB and double diffraction (i.e. with thick sound screens) not greater than 25 dB to be adopted.
The reflective or absorbent properties of noise barriers in the calculation mirror sources or mirror receiver are 6.6 by reflections in reflective or partially reflecting increase sound insulation walls (E.g. with glass towers) to take into account. In addition, the reflections between reflective noise protection wall and truck bodies are considered by reducing the shielding effect according to the equation (EQ. 20).
According to this system, reflections are taken into account by incoherent mirror sources. On the ground close to the source, they are connected according to the equation (EQ. 9) about the angle measure of a space with the intensity of the original source. Reflections on buildings and sound screens are for all octave bands only to calculate, if each of the following requirements are met:-a geometric/specular reflection is, as schematically shown in Figure 8, constructibility.
-The sound of the obstacle surface reflectance is greater than ρ = 0,2. - the smallest dimension of the reflector meets the following equation (EQ. 27): referred to here: lmin smallest dimension of the reflector, in m, β angle between a line source to Immissions site and the reflector normal, sound wavelength when the octave band mid-frequency ƒm, m, dso path of sound from the point sound source Q to the reflector R, m, dor running path of the sound from the reflector of r to the Immissions site IO , in m. Fig. 8: mirror reflection on an obstacle of the A-weighted sound power level of the mirror sound source LWA, in the shall be calculated by the following equation (EQ. 28): referred to this: LWA A-weighted sound power level according to the equations (EQ. 7) and (GL 8), in dB, Dρ absorption loss for reflections on the wall surface for table 18, in dB, friends set effect measurement of point sound source in the direction of the mirror sound receiver (see equation (EQ. 8)) , in dB.
The frequency dependence of absorption loss and set effect level is ignored in this plant.
Table 18: absorption loss of walls column A B line wall surface absorption loss Dρ in dB 1 level and hard walls 0 2 building walls with Windows and small additions 1 3 absorbing noise barriers 4 4 absorbing high sound insulation walls 8
Note to line 1: for example tiled walls, smooth concrete surfaces.
Direct and reflected contributions are determined separately. For mirror sources, damping Terme are the equation to determine (EQ. 10) as well as Dρ and friends according to the equation (EQ. 28) according to the propagation path of the reflected sound. There are reflections and including the 3rd order to calculate.
7 calculation of sound Immissions the sound emission at an Immissions site is calculated as the equivalent continuous sound pressure level LpAeq for the period of an hour: it is formed by energetic addition of contributions by all part of sound source in octave bands with centre frequencies from 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz, - all heights h, - all sections of kS, - all part surfaces kF and - all propagation paths w.
On the railway and tram lines summations of the sound pressure level shall be according to the following equation (EQ. 29): referred to here: ƒ counter for octave band, h counter height range, kS counter for part of or a portion of it, w counters for different pathways, LWA, f, h, kS A-weighted sound power level of point sound source in the middle of the section of kS, which specifies the emission from the heights area h after the equation (GL. 6) , in dB, DI, kS, w setting effect measurement of the propagation path w according to the equation (EQ. 8), in dB, DΩkS space angle measure according to the equation (EQ. 9), in dB, AF, h, kS, w propagation attenuation measurement in octave band ƒ in terms of height h of the piece kS along the way w according to the equation (EQ. 10), in dB.
Shunting and handling stations are summations of energy, taking into account the equations (EQ. 3) (GL 4) and (GL 7) to make: referred to here: R index for marshalling yard, ƒ counter for octave band, h counter height range, i count for point sound source, kS counter for part of kF counter part area, w counter propagation path, LWA, ƒ, h, i A weighted sound power level of point sound source i according to the equation (EQ. 3) , dB LWA, f, h, kS A-weighted sound power level of the section of kS from the equation (GL. 6), dB LWA, f, h, kF A-weighted sound power level of the part area kF from the equation (EQ. 7), in dB, DΩ space angle measurement according to the equation (EQ. 9), in dB, Áƒ, w propagation attenuation measurement in the octave band ƒ along the way w according to the equation (EQ. 10), in dB.
8 assessment level of 8.1 equivalent continuous sound pressure level assessment periods if the traffic volumes overall information about the in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, sentence 2 relevant assessment periods day (16 hours) or overnight (8 hours) are available, are these traffic volumes on medium traffic volumes per hour for those periods to convert. The equivalent continuous sound pressure level as calculated according to the equation (EQ. 29) and the equation (GL. 30) and are for lines of the railway and tram with LP, AEQ, day, LP, AEQ, night or for shunting and handling stations with LP, AEQ, day, R, LP, AEQ, night, R.
The traffic volumes are available separately for each hour during the assessment period, the equivalent continuous sound pressure level for the assessment period are day and for the night of the assessment period to determine the following equations (GL 31) and (GL 32): referred to this: T counter for full hours of the assessment period day (6 h-22 h), N counter for full hours of assessment period night (10: 00-6: 00).
8.2 assessment level for railways 8.2.1 routes at an Immissions site is affected by the noise from a distance for railways with or without train stations, bus stops, or breakpoints, the assessment level according to § 4, paragraph 1, sentence 2 disconnects for the assessment period day (6: 00 to 10: 00) and the evaluation period at night (10: 00-6: 00) following equations calculate (GL 33) and (GL 34) : Referred to in: LR, day assessment level for the assessment period day (6: 00 to 10: 00), in dB, LR, night assessment level for the assessment period night (10: 00-6: 00), in dB, LP, AEQ, day, LP, AEQ, night equivalent continuous sound pressure level of routes, in dB, KS - 5 dB = level correction road - rail number 2.2.18. level corrections for clay, impuls - or information-rich sounds are included in the calculation of the acoustic emission and are not separately recognized in the formation of the assessment level.
Compared with the emissions limit values pursuant to section 2, the assessment level LR, day and LR are round night on entire dB. In the case of article 1, paragraph 2, number 2 is only round up the difference of the level of assessment.
8.2.2 shunting and handling stations at an Immissions site is represented by sounds of a shunting or transfer station and railway lines is concerned, the assessment level in accordance with article 4, paragraph 1, sentence 2 separately for the assessment period day (6: 00 to 10: 00) and the evaluation period at night (10: 00-6: 00) following equations (GL 35) and (GL 36) calculated: it referred: LR, day assessment level for the assessment period day (6: 00 to 10: 00) , in dB, LR, night assessment level for the assessment period night (10: 00-6: 00), in dB, LP, AEQ, day, R, LP, AEQ, night, R of equivalent continuous sound pressure level from the scope of the shunting or transshipment station, in dB, LP, AEQ, day, LP, AEQ, night equivalent continuous sound pressure level in the field of continuous routes tracks, in dB, KS - 5 = dB level correction road - rail in paragraph 2.2.18 (applies not to a - and extending trains and shunting).
Level corrections are not separately recognized for clay, impuls - or information-based sounds. Such corrections are included in the emission of sound.
Compared with the emissions limit values pursuant to section 2, the assessment level LR, day and LR are round night on entire dB. In the case of article 1, paragraph 2, number 2 is only round up the difference of the level of assessment.
8.3 assessment level for trams at an Immissions site is affected by the noise of a route for trams according to § 4, paragraph 1, sentence 2 disconnects the assessment level for the assessment period day (6: 00 to 10: 00) and the evaluation period at night (10: 00-6: 00) following equations (EQ. 37) and (38 GL.) calculated: it referred: LR, day assessment level for the assessment period day (6: 00 to 10: 00) , in dB, LR, night assessment level for the assessment period night (10: 00-6: 00), in dB, LP, AEQ, day, LP, AEQ, night equivalent continuous sound pressure level of routes, in dB, KS - 5 dB = level correction to account for the lower interference effect of rail traffic noise compared to the road number 2.2.18 level corrections for clay, impuls - or information-rich sounds are included in the calculation of the acoustic emission and are in the formation the assessment level not used (see paragraph 4.9). The rules in section 43, paragraph 1, sentence 2 and 3 of the Federal Immission Control Act in the version of July 12, 2013 remain unaffected.
Compared with the emissions limit values pursuant to section 2, the assessment level LR, day and LR are round night on entire dB. In the case of article 1, paragraph 2, number 2 is only round up the difference of the level of assessment.
9 taking into account differing rail technology and sound technical innovations 9.1 measurement determination of emission data from differing rail technology and sound technical innovations 9.1.1 vehicles detection of sound technical innovations in vehicle units has to be made in accordance with the following stipulations: the noise emissions of such vehicle units are to determine through pre-accession speed measurements on an emerging track and level measurements according to DIN EN ISO 3095:2014 7, acoustics - railway applications - measuring of noise emissions of track-bound vehicles (ISO 3095:2014-7); German version EN ISO 3095:2014 7, taking into account the additional measurement requirements of decision 2008/232/EC of 21 February 2008 concerning the technical specification for interoperability of the subsystem "Vehicles" of the trans-European high-speed rail system (made under file number K(2008) 648) (OJ L 84 of 26 March 2008, p. 132) (TSI) for railways and VDV font 154 noises of rolling stock of public persons transport (public transport), November, 2011 for trams. Pre-accession ride measurements should be carried out after at least three operating braking.
Note 1: Results can be used by measurements, which already have been conducted for other reasons, as for example in the context of the approval of new interoperable vehicles of railways to decision 2008/232/EC or by trams according to VDV-154 or abroad emission data.
Note 2: The use of directional microphones or an array measurement technology for the detection of individual sound sources can be useful in special cases.
Note 3: VDU innovations can cause lower or higher noise than the technology covered by this annex. Higher noise emissions can occur such as faster trains, zugkräftigere locomotives or even older, imported railway or tram technique.
The results of pre-accession speed measurements are for the top speed regionaleisenbahn computationally posts - rolling noise, - aerodynamic noise (only for railways), on - unit noises - drive noise and - driving noises (streetcars only).
Serve information levels the A weighted sound power related to a length of 100 km in eight octave bands with centre frequencies from 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz. provided not by measurements and special measurements – such as behind a sound shield, the noise emission data for aerodynamic noise are known with a directional microphone or in the wind tunnel - to incorporate units and drive noises for the vehicle type in the respective height range of emission associated pursuant to annex 1 or Annex 2.
Note 4: results, for example, the measurement of pre-accession ride a V-locomotive at speed v in the distance d in the height h on SO in the octave band ƒ an A-weighted single event level LEA, ƒ and the measurement of exhaust noise in the State at the same engine power a sound power level LWA, aggr, so is - taking into account of emission levels of aerodynamic and propulsion noise as well as aggregate noises that occur - identified rolling noise on very smooth Rails according to the following equation in addition to the exhaust noise after the cut sheet for V engines at speed v : Referred to it: ɑA, FZ A-weighted sound levels of linear acoustic performance at the reference speed v0 = 2 100 km/h on emerging track for rolling noise due to the roughness of wheel (part of source m = 2), in dB, Δaƒ, 2, FZ level differential of linear acoustic performance at the reference speed v0 = 100 km/h on emerging track for rolling noise due to the roughness of wheel (part of source m = 2), in the octave band ƒ, in dB, LEA , Ƒ A-weighted single event level per octave, DB, bƒ, 2 speed factor for tyre noise (part of source m = 2) according to table 6, v speed while driving past, in km/h, v0 ´, FZ A-weighted octave sound power level of other partial sources, in dB, = 100 km/h reference speed, LWA, ƒ, h, m bƒ, m ´ speed factor for other part sources according to table 6, m ´ counter part sources without m 2 =.
The expression under the sign of the sum may take maximum the value 0.5, to allow a third-party noise correction. The numbers 36 and 44 are regarded as approximations for distance d from 5 to 10 m. table 19: assessment of rail roughness-induced emission (part source = 1 m) A B column C line driving State of Rails energetic contribution to the overall emission level differential to the wheel roughness (partial source = 2 m) 1 very smooth 0% - 20 dB 2 smooth, limit according to TSI or VDV 154 20%-7 dB 3 smooth , Limit value according to DIN EN ISO 3095:2014-7-40%-4 dB are the rolling noise split on radrauheits - and rail roughness-induced emissions. The following three methods are allowed: a) the measurements were performed on very smooth Rails, whose driving State however was not measured. The rolling noise mission alone is then applied to the vehicle (see row 1 of table 19).
(b) the measurements were carried out on smooth Rails with proven driving State. Then, an assessment of the rail roughness-induced emission is made according to table 19. The remaining contribution to total emissions, but at least 50 percent of the energy corresponding to a level differential to the wheel roughness of 3 dB, is associated with the vehicle. This represents the normally.
(c) in exceptional cases and for trams measurements, carried out on tracks with unknown driving State may be used. Then, energetically equal contributions of wheel and rail roughness are to accept.
The procedure must not be applied to letter c for vehicles with cast iron-block brakes.
Note 5: For vehicles is only the wheel roughness-induced emission of interest. She can be determined higher for Rails with good driving surface condition according to procedure referred to in (a) to up to 3 dB as to procedures referred to in c, whereas the procedure referred to in (b) in the midfield. Measurements on Rails with darker driving surfaces provide usually unintentionally high wheel roughness related emissions according to the three procedures. Rail roughness related emissions is taken from the supplements 1 to 3 to the associated vehicle mode. For the wheel roughness related issue, preferably measurement results according to procedure are referred to in b to use.
Note 6: The measurement results can be used independently of limit values for emissions data according to the decision 2008/232/EC for VDV characters 154 for trams and railways. However can be accepted for new vehicles, that the limit values are not exceeded.
The results for the wheel roughness related emissions are to provide, which varies according to table 20 of the measuring conditions for conversion to the average operating condition with a surcharge.
Note 7: The surcharges were estimated from empirical values for the dispersion of measurement results in a database.
Table 20: Charges for conversion to the average mode depending on the measuring conditions column A B C D row 1 measuring point, average over different FZ, in dB 3 measurement sites, average over different FZ, in dB 1 measuring point (for example, TSI, VDV 154), average about same FZ in dB 1 vehicles with disc brakes 2 0 3 2 vehicles with composite block brakes 2 1 4 3 vehicles with cast iron-block brakes 3 2 5 conducted the measurements on a threshold track (in the gravel bed) , but on a different roadway, shall apply the level corrections for road types in the distribution of the rolling noise according to table 7 or 15.
9.1.2 components of vehicles is the noise of a vehicle component as a sound technical innovation to an already regulated vehicle category compared with the noise part of sources existing vehicles (see table 5 and 13 column D Supplement 1 and 2) to collect and assess. These measurements shall before the proof advance, from which a significant contribution of the component can be derived. A contribution which is level up to 3 dB below the measured values for the total noise is considered to be authoritative. Measurements EN ISO are 3095:2014-7 or special measurements – according to DIN for example behind a shield wall or with a directional microphone - to describe.
Note: For high sources is recommended to attract obtained results behind a shield wall or with a directional microphone.
9.1.3 components of shunting and handling stations is the noise of a component as a sound technical innovation compared with the noise of existing part sources (see table 10 and annex 3) to collect and assess. These measurements shall before the proof advance, from which a significant contribution of the component can be derived. A contribution which is level up to 3 dB below the measured values for the total noise is considered to be authoritative. The measurements are to be described.
9.1.4 roadways different railway technology and sound technical innovations on roadways include the stiffness of rail fasteners or a better absorption property of the roadway, for example. They are compared with well-known roads of similar design to capture the tables 7 and 15 at operations with the same vehicles and to assess. The emissions are EN ISO 3095:2014-7 under conditions in which outweighs the rolling noise to determine through pre-accession speed measurements according to DIN. Through special check of wheel and rail driving surfaces, it is to ensure that the resulting driving surface roughness in the wavelength range, which can be observed according to decision 2008/232/EC of the Commission and VDV font 154, differ in the comparison measurements in octave bands by more than 1 dB.
Preferably is to insert a test vehicle for comparative measurements whose cycling surfaces are smooth against the rail running surface. Then the test is limited to comparable roughness of the track driving surfaces of conventional and new roadways. Alternatively it can be used with a measuring vehicle with stubbornly high driving surface roughness of the wheels. Then, only compliance with a permissible limit for the is to check driving surface roughness of the Rails to ensure that comparison measurements of conventional and new roadways rail roughness influence remains small.
9.1.5 can boast bridges new bridge as a sound technical innovations special constructions of the bridge superstructure or noise mitigation measures. They are compared with known bridges of similar design to tables 9 and 16 at operations with the same vehicles to capture and to assess. The emissions are pre-accession speed measurements on the bridge and on the subsequent free line under conditions in which outweighs the rolling noise to determine. It is the unrated sound pressure level to determine. Through special check of wheel and rail driving surfaces, it is to ensure that the resulting driving surface roughness in the wavelength range, which can be observed according to decision 2008/232/EC of the Commission and VDV font 154, differ in the comparison measurements in octave bands by more than 1 dB.
Note: The evaluation of non-valuated sound pressure level does the harassment due to low-frequency noise components.
9.1.6 noise reduction measures on the track and the wheel
Noise mitigation measures come on the track and the wheel as both as different rail technology and sound technical innovations into account. Also track maintenance measures such as the especially monitored track in trams can be different railway technology.
The sound technical innovations can lead to a change of the rolling noise and are in effect with the rolling noise sound source type, to compare part sources rail roughness or wheel roughness of tables 5 and 13 in connection with the supplements 1 and 2. Serve to describe: - direct measurements of surface roughness with actionable transducers, indirect roughness measurements on Board of measuring vehicle - pre-accession speed measurements with a measuring vehicle or - noise measurements during pre-accession trains.
The procedure used is to represent, stating the period of measurement and the determination of an average over a period of assessment. For the detection of changes are the measurement results as the A weighted sound power level and to specify level differences in the eight octave bands with centre frequencies from 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz.
9.1.7 railway specific noise protection measures in the propagation path are screening facilities and similar measures, the effect of which is not predictable referred to under 6.5 as to describe different railway technology in association with existing arrangements. Regarding the verification of changes in measurement results in eight octave bands with centre frequencies from 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz as level differences to the calculated degree of shielding referred to under 6.5 to be specified.
9.1.8 has recognized measuring point of the applicant to perform the verification measurements according to paragraphs 9.1.1 to 9.1.7 through a recognized measuring point. Approved measuring points are according to § 29 b paragraph 2 of the Federal Immission Control Act known given points.
9.2 evaluation of measuring results for different rail technology and sound technical innovations 9.2.1 different rail technology the recognised test point has to determine on the basis of the measurements referred to in point 9.1 what sound technical deviations are too well known and in the annex 2 of listed rail technology with similar design. When roads referred to in point 9.1.4 the result as level correction towards the road of similar design is specified in the octave bands to 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz and 2 000 Hz. The other octave bands shall be disregarded; no correction level is specified for them. Noise reduction measures on the track or on the wheel referred to under 9.1.6 are the measurement results as the A weighted sound power level and to specify level differences in the eight octave bands with centre frequencies from 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz for the detection of changes.
Level differences are characteristic of the different rail emission comparable, described in the supplements 1 to 3 part sources. Railway-specific noise protection measures in the propagation path referred to under 9.1.7 6.5 are for the detection of changes in measurement results in eight octave bands with centre frequencies from 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz as level differences to the calculated degree of shielding by number to specify.
9.2.2 VDU innovations that has recognized measuring point on the basis of measurements after number 9.1 to determine whether the application object of the sound technical information of this system differs significantly.
A significant departure sound technical innovations according to paragraphs 9.1.1 to 9.1.6, occurs when a source of part of according to table 5 or 13 uncertainty is at least 4 dB A weighted overall level for certain types of vehicle according to table of 3 and 12 at least 2 dB or in each octave bands. For noise control measure in the propagation path referred to under 9.1.7 usually a significant departure from the calculation results according to number 6 is, if at an Immissions site according to DIN EN ISO 3095:2014-7 the deviation for the calculation result in the A weighted level at least 2 dB or in each octave band is at least 4 dB.
The accepted measurement point has to describe the assignment of the subject of the request to the existing published or set forth in paragraphs 3 to 6 and the different technical noise effect for all sound technical innovations. The sound technical effect are conveyed through the detection on all dB mathematical rounding.
The results of the A weighted sound power level and to specify level differences in eight octave bands with centre frequencies from 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz for the reference speed of 100 km/h according to the supplements 1 to 3 are sound technical innovations according to paragraphs 9.1.1, 9.1.2 and 9.1.3. Level differences are characteristic of sound technical innovations the emission of comparable, described in the supplements 1 to 3 part sources.
Sound technical innovations in point 9.1.4, the result as level correction towards the road of similar design in the octave bands to 500 Hz, 1,000 Hz and 2 000 Hz is to specify. The other octave bands shall be disregarded; no correction level is specified for them.
Sound technical innovations point 9.1.5 the result as level correction, KBr or for noise mitigation measures as level correction specified KLM, resulting from the difference between of the non-valuated sound pressure level on the bridge and the free line.
9.3 opinion of the accepted measurement point the measuring body appointed by the applicant after number 9.1.8 created through the measurements carried out in accordance with the numbers of 9.1.1 to 9.1.7 an opinion which must contain the following particulars and documents: a) the description of the measurement Assembly, b) the description of local conditions as well as the description of the condition of the track and the rail surfaces, c) the description of weather conditions , d) the description of the State of entertainment, the mileage and wheel roughness of the vehicle used in the measurement, e) the measurements, measurement protocols f) specifying the number of measurements taken, if more than the measurements contained in the assessment were carried out, g) the evaluation of measurement results according to point 9.2. 10 accessibility of technical rules and standards 1.
Which are mentioned DIN standards, DIN-EN and DIN-ISO standards in the regulation at the Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin, and in terms of archive secured laid down in the German national library.
2 the VDV-154 is to be obtained from the Association of German transport companies (VDV) Kamekestraße 37-39 d-50672 Cologne and laid down in the German national library archive terms secured.
Supplement 1 datasheets railways - specification for the Thalys PBKA half train and Thalys PBKA full without wheel absorber: ɑA the sources of part 1 and 2 are to increase per 5 dB.
For the ETR 470 Cisalpino without wheel absorber: ɑA the sources of part 1 and 2 are to 5 dB, all other part sources to increase dB 2.
Annex 2 data sheets trams - specifications for vehicles with air conditioning: 4 part source dB is ɑA to 8 to increase.
The values apply to average vehicles of newer design. Especially with older vehicles, a check is required according to section 9.1.1.
Supplement 3 data sheets Terminal and transshipment stations - definitions * the specified LWA applies a brake element with a length of approx. 1.2 m * nret is the number of the retarder per linear metre track.
* nret is the number of the retarder per linear metre track.
Overrunning speed is v = not exceed 1.25 m/s.
* The value refers to a moving Group of 20 cars (400 m in length).