Sixteenth Regulation implementing the Federal Immission Control Act (Traffic Noise Protection Regulation-16. BImSchV)Non-official table of contents
Date of delivery: 12.06.1990
" Traffic noise protection regulation of 12. June 1990 (BGBl. 1036), as defined by Article 1 of the Regulation of 18 June 2008. December 2014 (BGBl. I p. 2269) "
|:||modified by Art. 1 V v. 18.12.2014 I 2269|
For details, see the menu under Notes
(+ + + Text evidence from: 21.6.1990 + + +) Non-Official Table of Contents
Based on § 43 (1) sentence 1 no. 1 of the Federal Immission Protection Act of 15. March 1974 (BGBl. 721, 1193), after consulting the interested parties, the Federal Government decrees: Non-official table of contents
§ 1 Scope of application
(1) Regulation shall apply to the construction or the substantial modification of public roads and railway tracks of the railways and trams (roads and railways). (2) The amendment is essential if
- a road around one or more continuous traffic lanes for motor vehicle traffic or a Rail path around one or more continuous tracks is extended structurally or
- due to a significant structural intervention of the assessment level of the from the to changing traffic noise emitted by at least 3 decibels (A) or at least 70 decibels (A) at the day or at least 60 decibels (A) at night.
A change is also essential if the assessment level of the traffic noise is increased by: the traffic noise of at least 70 decibels (A) on the day or 60 decibels (A) at night is increased during the night by a substantial structural intervention, not in commercial areas. Non-official table of contents
§ 2 Immission limits
(1) To protect the neighborhood from harmful environmental impacts caused by traffic noise ensure that the assessment level does not exceed one of the following emission limit values:
|1.|| Hospitals, schools, health care homes and senior citizens ' homes|
|57 Dezibel (A)|| 47 Dezibel (A)|
|2.||in pure and general residential areas and small settlement areas|
|59 Dezibel (A)||49 Dezibel (A)|
|3.|| in core areas, village areas and mixed areas|
| 64 Dezibel (A)||54 Dezibel (A)|
|4.||in Business Areas|
|69 Dezibel (A)||59 Dezibel (A)|
2) The nature of the installations and territories referred to in paragraph 1 shall be the result of the fixing in the development plans. Other land set up in development plans for installations and areas and installations and areas for which there are no fixed conditions shall be laid down in accordance with paragraph 1, paragraphs 1, 3 and 4, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1, To assess the need for protection.(3) If the use to be protected is exercised only on the day or only during the night, only the immission limit value shall be applied for that period.(4) The Federal Government shall report to the German Bundestag on the implementation of the Regulation at the latest in 2025 and then on an ongoing basis every ten years. The report shall indicate in particular whether the emission limit values referred to in Article 2 (1) are in accordance with the state of noise impact research and whether further measures are required to protect against harmful environmental effects caused by traffic noise . Unofficial Table Of Contents
§ 3 Calculation of road assessment level
The road assessment level is to be calculated according to Appendix 1. The calculation shall be carried out separately for the assessment period (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.) and the assessment period (night (10 p.m. to 6 p.m.). Unofficial table of contents
§ 4 Calculation of the rail route assessment level
(1) The rail route assessment level is to be found in Appendix 2 calculating. The calculation shall be carried out separately for the assessment period (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.) and the assessment period (night (10 p.m. to 6 p.m.).(2) In the calculation, the following conditions must be observed in particular:
- Sound level characteristics of vehicles and driving paths,
- the influences on the propagation path,
- the peculiarities of rail traffic due to up-or-downs
- for the lameness of noises due to their chronological history, their duration, their frequency and frequency, and
- for the levity of sound or impulshal noises.
(3) By way of derogation from paragraph 1, the first sentence is for sections of projects, for which up to 31. The plan is already opened and the interpretation of the plan has been made public, § 3 in conjunction with Appendix 2 in the up to 31 December 2014. It will continue to apply in December 2014. § 43 (1) sentence 3 of the Federal Immission Protection Act remains unaffected. Non-official table of contents
§ 5 Establishment of acoustic characteristics for deviating rail technology and sound engineering innovations
(1) In the calculation of the assessment level referred to in Article 4 (1), first sentence, railway technology or sound-technical innovations may be taken into account only if the competent authority is to be calculated in accordance with the procedure laid down in paragraphs 2 to 4. acoustic characteristics have been established. Deviating railway technology is technology that is not listed in Appendix 2, points 3 to 6, or leaflet 1 to 3, and which is to be assigned to one of the following ranges:
- Sound mitigation measures on track or wheel or
- track-specific sound reduction measures in the propagation path.
Sound engineering innovations are technical new and further developments to the in Appendix 2, number 3 to 6, or Sheets 1 to 3, which have an impact on the noise emission and immission of this railway technology.(2) On request for the railways of the Federal Government, the Federal Railway Authority shall decide on the determination of acoustic characteristics and shall determine the competent authority of the Federal Republic of Germany on the basis of national law. An acoustic characteristic shall be determined if the emission data of the different railway technology or of the sound technical innovations are indicative of this technology and if, in the case of sound-technical innovations, the acoustic characteristics of the in- Annex 2 (3) to (6) or (1) to (3) of each of the above-mentioned characteristics differ substantially. A significant deviation shall reach at least the values set out in Annex 2, point 9.2.2.(3) In order to make an application as referred to in the first sentence of paragraph 2,
- Railway infrastructure companies,
- Owner of the intellectual property rights of deviating rail techniques or of sound-technical innovations and
- licensees of different railway techniques or sound technical innovations.
(4) The application referred to in the first sentence of paragraph 2 shall contain the following information and documents:
- a description of the different railway technology or sound technical innovation, for which the definition of acoustic characteristics is requested, in particular where the different railway technology or sound technical innovation is based on the relevant technology listed in Appendix 2; different,
- the opinion of a recognized measuring point according to Appendix 2, number 9.3,
- a proposal for which regulation of Appendix 2, numbers 3 to 6 or supplements 1 to 3, to supplement the deviating railway technology or the sound-technical innovation , with the addition of a data sheet representing the acoustic characteristics typical of the proposed allocation,
- a description of how the
() The competent authority shall inform the applicant of the decision referred to in the first sentence of paragraph 2 in writing. The competent authority shall also publicly disclose the establishment of acoustic characteristics referred to in the first sentence of paragraph 2. Non-official table of contents
The Federal Council has agreed. Unofficial table of contents
Appendix 1 (to § 3)
Calculation of road assessment level
Fundstelle des Originaltextes: BGBl. I 1990, 1037-1044
The assessment level Lr, T in decibels (A) (dB (A)) for the day (6.00 to 22.00 o'clock) and the assessment level Lr, N in dB (A) for the night (22.00 to 6.00 o'clock) are used for a lane according to the following equations: calculated:
- Medium level in dB (A) for the day (6.00 a.m. to 22.00 p.m.) by diagram I.
- Medium level in dB (A) for the night (22.00 to 6.00 p.m.) by diagram I.
Thehourly traffic strength M and the relevant truck share p will be used by the forecasted average daily average daily traffic. Traffic intensity (DTV) according to Table A, provided that there are no suitable project-related research results which, taking into account the development of traffic during the forecasting period, are available for the investigation of
- the authoritative hourly traffic strength M (in motor vehicle/h)
- the authoritative truck component p (over 2.8 t permissible total weight) in% of total traffic
for the period between 22.00 and 6.00 as the average over all days of the year can be used. The traffic volume of a road is to be allocated half to the two outer lanes each. The emission levels are to be assumed at a height of 0.5 m above the middle of these lanes.
- Correction for different allowable top speeds depending on truck share p after Diagram II.
- Correction for different road surfaces according to table B.
- Correction for gradients and gradients according to table C.
- Change of level by different distances S.sub.g between the emission location (0.5 m above the center of the ) and the relevant immission site without soil and meteorological attenuation according to diagram III. The relevant immission location depends on the circumstances in each individual case; in front of buildings it is located at the height of the floor (0.2 m above the upper edge of the window) of the room to be protected; in the case of exterior living areas, the immission location is 2 m above the centre of the surface area.
- Level change due to ground and meteorology attenuation depending on the middle altitude hm after Diagram IV. The mean height hm is the mean distance between the ground and the connection line between emission and immission location. In the same terrain, hm is the arithmetic mean of the heights of the emission range and of the immission type above ground
- Change level by topographical conditions, constructional measures, and reflections. Depending on the local conditions, these are in particular noise protection rolling walls and walls. Incisions, soil elevations and shielding by construction equipment. The level change DB is to be determined in accordance with the guidelines for noise protection in road edition 1990-RLS-90, chapter 4.0, published in the Official Journal of the Federal Minister of Transport of the Federal Republic of Germany (VkBl.) No. 7 of 14 April 1990, under lfd. 79. The guidelines are to be obtained from the Forschungsgesellschaft für roads-und Verkehrswesen, Alfred-Schütte-Allee 10, 5000 Köln 21.
- K ...
- supplement for increased Interference effect of light-sign-controlled intersections and junctions according to Table D.
means of equations (1) and (2), the assessment levels are calculated for long, straight lines of travel, which are based on their entire length of time.
If any of these conditions are not applicable, the lanes must be divided into sections whose individual assessment levels are to be determined According to the guidelines for noise protection in road edition 1990-RLS-90, chapter 4.0, published in the Official Journal of the Federal Minister of Transport of the Federal Republic of Germany (VkBl.) No. 7 of 14 April 1990, under lfd. 79. The guidelines are to be obtained from the Research Society for Road and Transport, Alfred-Schütte-Allee 10, 5000 Cologne 21.
The assessment levels of the two outer lanes are according to diagram V to the overall assessment level for the
The overall assessment levels Lr, T, and Lr, N are to be rounded up to entire dB (A). In the case of § 1 para. 2 no. 2, only the difference of the assessment level is to be rounded up
I: medium level Lm, T(25)
or Lm, N(25)
in dB (A)
Diagram II: Correction Dv in dB (A) for different allowed maximum speeds depending on truck share p
Diagram III: Level change Dsmented in dB (A) by different distances between the emission location (0.5 m above the center of the subject) Travel strip) and the authoritative immission
IV: level change DBM in dB (A) by soil and meteorological attenuation in Middle Altitude Dependency
V: Overall Assessment Level Lr, Ges From Two Assessment Levels Lr, 1, And Lr, 2unofficial table of contents
Appendix 2 (to § 4)
Calculation of the rating level for rail tracks (Schall 03)
(Fundstelle: BGBl. I 2014 pp. 2271-2313) Table of contents
- Calculation procedure
- terms, specifications
- sound source modeling
- Sound emissions from railways
- Sound emissions from trams
- Sound propagation
- Calculation of the formwork emission
- Assess Level
- Consideration of deviating web technology and sound engineering Innovations
- Accessibility of technical rules and standards
2.3 Formula characters, Units, Meter Table 1: Formula characters, Devices, and Means
- Calculation procedures For rail paths, the assessment level Lr in the neighborhood is separated for the assessment period day (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.) and the Assessment period nightly (10pm to 6am) as specified in point 8.1. The basis for the calculation of the assessment level is the number of projected trains of the respective type of train as well as the speeds on which the operational planning is based on the planning section of a railway line to be considered. the basis for this forecast data is the calculation of the assessment level in the following steps:
The software products used for the calculation must ensure the standard-compliant illustration of this rule; this can be done in accordance with DIN 45687, Acoustics software products for the calculation of the sound emissions in the open-air quality requirements and test specifications, May 2006 edition.
- Distribution of the railroad to be viewed in individual tracks and sections, etc. a. with the same transport composition, the same speed, the same type of carriageway and the same ground state as specified in point 3.1, and identification and definition of the sound sources of the rangout and transhipment stations by number 4.8;
- on the basis of the quantities per hour of all types of Fz of vehicle units, calculation of the length-related or area-related levels of sound power in Octave bands, separated for each section of a route as specified in point 3.2 or for each sound source of a Rangier and transhipment station in all height ranges h according to point 3.3;
- Explode the sections into sections kS and/or Decomposition of the surfaces in sub-faces k` to form point sound sources with an associated level of sound power, taking into account the directional effect and the radiation characteristic according to points 3.4 and 3.5;
- Calculation of sound emissions from railways as specified in point 4 and supplement 1, respectively. Leaflet 3 and of trams according to number 5 and leaflet 2;
- Calculation of the formwork emission by means of propagation calculation in accordance with point 6;
- Summary of the Noise Emission Shares at the Immission Location in accordance with point 7;
- Education of the Level of assessment for the relevant assessment periods according to point 8.
- Terms, Definitions
- Railway terms
- Railroad vehicles and infrastructure facilities, which are generally Railway Law (AEG); for the demarcation of trams (cf. 2.1.9)
- The smallest part of the vehicle unit in driving operation of a railway train or a tramway vehicle
- passenger stations, stops and stops at which passengers are in-, or Note 1: In the case of railways, the EBO distinguishes between the railway station (§ 4 paragraph 2 EBO), the holding point (§ 4 paragraph 8 EBO) and the stop (§ 4 paragraph 9 EBO). In the case of trams, the concept of the bus stop is generally used (§ 31 of the tramway construction and operating regulations-BOStrab) and the double stop (section 31 (1) (3) BOStrab). In this Appendix the terms are used according to the mode of transport (Railway/Tram). Note 2: In the case of railroads, railway stations may be used with other railway lines, e.g. For example, with the loading facilities of car tracks.
- Staying stations for freight transport, to which significant amounts of freight are used. Freight trains are formed or dismantled
- Rail damper devices to damp sound radiation from rail stews
- Rail shield shields to shield the sound radiation from rail stews
- railroad track systems with substructure and superstructure including a overhead line, in accordance with points 2.1.1 and 2.1.9, on which switching operations are carried out by driving operations Note 1: The sound emissions can be caused by rolling noise, aerodynamic noises, aggregate and drive noises of rail vehicles. Note 2: Operating systems, of which others Sound emissions, such as B. Underworks or converters, maintenance and loading facilities, and washing machines, are not covered by this Regulation.
- Swingstock superstructure, consisting of rails on wood, concrete or steel sleepers in gravel bed
- Tray vehicles and infrastructure facilities listed in the Passenger Transport Act (PBefG) and the Road Rail Building and Operating Regulations (BOStrab); on the delimitation of railways (cf. 2.1.1), by way of derogation from Section 4 (2) of the PBefG, suspension trains or similar types of special design shall not be regarded as trams within the meaning of this Appendix.
- Street rail tracks embedded in trams or walking surfaces
- Underground Railways with bus bars independent of their design or location on the entire length of the line from other public transport and do not have railway crossings (Section 1 (2) of the Railroad Cross Law)
- Combined transport transshipment stations as part of the public rail transport with tracks for freight trains moving on and off, with loading means and charging roads that connect to the public road network, where applicable With storage or intermediate storage surfaces
- Composite block brake pad brakes with brake soles made of composite materials; these brakes use, for example, B. Composite brake shoe soles with high friction level (K-Sohle) or low coefficient of friction (LL-sole).
- Sound technical terms
- A-weighted sound pressure level LpAtens of decadic logarithm of the quotient the square of the effective value of the sound pressure with the frequency evaluation A, together with a time evaluation and the square of the reference sound pressure p0 = 20 μPa in air note 1: the frequency evaluation A and the time evaluation (e.g. B. F, S) are given as the index of the sound pressure level Lp, e.g. B. lpAF.Note 2: The sound pressure level is expressed in decibels, dB.
- A-evaluationAFrequency evaluation according to DIN EN 61672-1, electroacoustics- Sound level meter-Part 1; Requirements, October 2003Note: A-weighted level is marked by index A on the basis of the symbol L, not by appending the A to the unit dB.
- Sound pressure level shielding from a location behind an obstacle to the sound pressure level without hindrants at a free Progressive acoustic wave note: The shielding dimension is expressed in decibels, dB.
- loss of absorption loss of sound energy at Reflexion Note: The absorption loss is expressed in decibels, dB.
- Equivalent continuous pressure pegelLp, Aeq, TA-rated Energy-equivalent mean level for a sound pressure level variable over time T: The equivalent permanent sound level Lpeq, T is formed (for example, for frequency evaluation A and time evaluation F) as follows: src="http://www.laws-im-internet.de/normengrafiken/bgbl1_2014/j2269-1_0010.jpg "alt =" " /> (see also mean level) Note: The equivalent continuous-noise pressure level is specified in decibels, dB.
- assessmentspegelLrSize to mark the strength of the formwork mission during the assessment time Tr, taking into account the increase in or drop for certain Noises, times or situations; if no increase or drop is to be taken into account, the equivalent continuous sound level of the assessment level is: Note 1: The assessment level Lr shall be as follows from the equivalent continuous sound level LpAFeq, Ti and The allowances Ki during the part-time intervals Ti for the assessment time Tr:Note 2: The assessment level is in decibels, dB,
- The reference height for the sound source SOrail upper edge for rail vehicles, related to the GleisachseFODriving path edge for road vehicles, related to the road
- Single-event-level Lp, T0 = 1sThe equivalent continuous-noise-pressure level of one in the time period T-related Notes Event Note 1:Note 2: In octave bands, the A-weighted single event level is specified by LEA, ' note 3: The Single event sound pressure level is specified in decibels, dB.
- Emissions level LmEequivalent continuous sound pressure level according to Acoustics 03: Directive on Calculation of the formwork emissions of railway tracks-Schall 03, issue 1990, published in the Official Journal of the German Federal Railways No. 14 of 4. April 1990 under the lfd. Number 133 for a given period, e.g. B. for the daytime, free sound propagation from an unshielded track/track, depending on the characteristics of the roadway, the ground state and the quantities of train/vehicle, at a distance of 25 m from the track/road axis and at a height of 3.5 m above the Rails/FahrwegoberkanteNote: The emission level can be estimated for flat terrain by LmE = LW 'A -19 dB from the level of the LW' A length-related sound power.
- ImmissionsortIOdimensional place to determine a rating level, after this appendix
Note: For immission assorted buildings Reflections on the associated facade are not taken into account.
- on buildings at the height of the floor (0.2 m above the window top) on the facade of the protective rooms and
- for outdoor living areas 2 m above the centre of the area used as outdoor living area
- Medium-level Lm deposit value for the description of sound processes with time arbitrarily fluctuating level or of sound fields with locally different sound levels or a combination thereof: The A-weighted average level for a time-variable sound pressure level is equivalent to the Continuous sound pressure level.
- OktavpegelIn the frequency range of an octave specified sound level
- Level of area-based A-rated sound power LW " AA-weighted average level to describe the sound emission from a surface sound source; after this Installation indicated for the mean height of the rails/roadway edges in a planar position note: The level is measured with respect to a sound power of 1 pW and an area of 1 m2 in decibels, dB,
- A level of the length-related A-weighted sound power LW ' AA-weighted average level to describe the sound emission from a Line-borne sound source; specified in this Appendix for different heights above a section or road section with certain road characteristics and surface conditions in the case of operation with certain vehicles; and Speed Note: The level is specified with respect to a sound power of 1 pW and a length of 1 m in decibels, dB.
- Sound level correction for noise level correction to take into account the increased diversion of noises with pronounced pitch, impulse or Information note: The level correction for the abnormality of noises is expressed in decibels, dB.
- Level corrections for Noises of bridges and viaducts without sound protection KBrLevel corrections to take account of wheel-and rail-related rolling noise when driving via bridges and viaducts without sound protection Note 1: This level correction also includes the Disturbing effect of low-frequency noise components, which are not adequately taken into account by the A-rating of the sound level. Note 2: As a viaduct, a bridge with several fields is called in this system. for noises of bridges and viaducts are indicated in decibels, dB.
- Level corrections for noises of bridges and viaducts with Soundproofing KBr + KLMPegel corrections to take account of wheel-and rail-related rolling noise when driving via bridges with sound protection Note 1: The separate designation of the effect of sound reduction measures serves the incentive to Application of low-emission bridge constructions.Note 2: The level corrections for noises of bridges and viaducts with sound protection are given in decibels, dB.
- Level Correction Road-SchieneKSPegel correction to take into account the lower interference effect of rail traffic noise Road noise Note 1: The application of the level correction has been made in § 3 in conjunction with Annex 2 of the Traffic Noise Protection Regulation of 12. June 1990 (BGBl. 1036) and by the Eleventh Act amending the Federal Immission Protection Act of 2. July 2013 (BGBl. I p. 1943) with effect from 1. January 2015 for Railways and for 1. January 2019 for trams abolished (cf. Section 43 (2) sentences 2 and 3 of the Federal Immission Control Act). Note 2: The road-rail level correction shall be specified in decibels, dB.
- directivity to describe the unbalanced emission of a sound source in the air; consistent with this system for all sound sources of a sound source Distance in all frequency change note: The directivity measure is specified in decibels, dB.
- Sound absorption conversion of sound energy from one room or room area in thermal remark: The sound absorption is indicated in decibels, dB.
- Sound pressure level LpTen times decadic The logarithm of the quotient of the square of the sound pressure p and the square of the reference sound pressure p0 = 20 µ PaNote: The sound pressure level is expressed in decibels, dB.
- Sound emission release from Schall
- Slow emission impact Of sound at the immission site
- Sound power level LWmid level for the description of the sound emission of a single sound source note: The Sound power level is indicated with respect to a sound power of 1 pW in decibels, dB.
- Sound reflectance graded reflectance fraction of the Sound energy, related to the incident sound energy, for a given frequency and fixed conditions of a reflecting
ZeileFormula character unit meaning
| 1|| The A|| dB|| A-rated total level of length-related sound power under certain conditions|
| 2|| Δago|| dB|| Difference to overall level A in octave band "|
| 3|| A|| dB|| Distribution attenuation measure|
| 4|| Adiv|| dB|| Attenuation dimension due to geometrical propagation|
| 5|| Aatm|| dB|| dampening measure due to air absorption|
| 6|| Agr|| dB|| dampening measure due to ground impact|
| 7|| Abar|| dB|| Attenuation dimension due to shielding by obstacles|
| 8|| b||-|| speed factor|
| 9|| c|| dB|| Counter for level corrections c1 and c2|
| 10|| c1|| dB|| Level correction for roadway types|
| 11|| c2|| dB|| Level correction for surface condition|
| 12|| C2||-|| shielding factor at single diffraction|
| 13|| C3||-|| Additional shielding factor for multi-diffraction|
| 14|| d|| m|| Run path length of sound between sound source and immission location|
| 15|| dp|| m|| Horizontal distance between sound source and immission location|
| 16|| dr|| m|| Distance last diffraction edge immission location|
| 17|| ds|| m|| Distance Sound Source-1. Diffraction edge|
| 18|| dso|| m|| Distance Sound Source- Reflector|
| 19|| dor|| m|| Distance reflector- Immissionsort|
| 20|| dП|| m|| Distance Sound Source-Immission Location parallel to the diffraction edge|
| 21|| DI|| dB|| directionalight|
| 22|| DIr|| dB|| directivity measure of the reflected sound|
| 23|| Dreƒl|| dB|| Level correction for reflecting soundproofing wall with absorbent base|
| 24|| Dz|| dB|| shielding dimension|
| 25|| Dρ|| dB|| Reflect attenuation measure|
| 26|| DΩ|| dB|| Room angle measure|
| 27|| e, e1 ...|| m|| Distance between Diffraction Edges|
| 28|| "||-|| Meters for octave band|
| 29|| ƒm||-|| Oktavbandmittenfrequency|
| 30|| Fz||-|| Vehicle Category Counter|
| 31|| h||-|| Meters for elevation|
| 32|| habs|| m|| Height of the absorbent base of a Soundproofing wall|
| 33|| hg|| m|| Height of the sound source above the Floor|
| 34|| hLSW|| m|| Middle height of a Soundproofing wall above the rail top edge|
| 35|| hm|| m|| Middle Height above the ground|
| 36|| hs|| m|| Height of the sound source above the Rail top edge|
| 37|| hr|| m|| Height of the immission variety above the Floor|
| 38|| i||-|| Meters for Single sound source|
| 39|| j||-|| Meters for Line source|
| 40|| k|| dB|| Counter for level corrections K|
| 41|| K|| dB|| level corrections|
| 42|| KBr|| dB|| Level correction for bridges|
| 43|| kF||-|| Counter for part of an area|
| 44|| KLM|| dB|| Level correction for noise reduction measures on bridges|
| 45|| KL|| dB|| Level correction for the conspicuity of noises|
| 46|| KLA|| dB|| Level correction for noise protection measures against the abnormality of noises|
| 47|| Kmet||-|| Correction factor for meteorological influences|
| 48|| kS||-|| Counter for part of a line or Route|
| 49|| KS|| dB|| Level correction to take into account the lower interference effect of the rail traffic noise|
| 50|| l|| m|| Length|
| 51|| lh|| m|| Horizontal dimension of an obstacle on the sound propagation path|
| 52|| ll|| m|| Normal distance between connecting line source-receiver and 1. End point of the obstacle on the sound propagation path|
| 53|| lr|| m|| Perpendicular distance between connecting line source-receiver and 2. End point of the obstacle on the sound propagation path|
| 54|| lmin|| m|| The smallest dimension of the reflector|
| 55|| LEA|| dB|| A-weighted single event level per octave band.|
| 56|| Lp, Aeq|| dB|| Equivalent Continuous Sound Pressure Level|
| 57|| Lp, Aeq, Tag|| dB|| Equivalent continuous sound pressure level for the assessment period day (6 a.m. to 22 p.m.)|
| 58|| Lp, Aeq, night|| dB|| Equivalent Continuous sound pressure level for the night assessment period (10 p.m. to 6 a.m.)|
| 59|| Lr|| dB|| Assess Level|
| 60|| LWA|| dB|| A-weighted total sound power level|
| 61|| ΔLW, || dB|| Level difference to A-rated total sound power level in octave band "|
| 62|| LW ' A|| dB|| A-rated total level of length-related sonic performance|
| 63|| LW "A|| dB|| A-rated total level of space-related sonic power|
| 64|| ΔLW ',|| dB|| Level difference to the A-rated total level of the length-related sound power in the octave band |
| 65|| LWA, im|| dB|| A-rated total level of Sound power of the mirror sound source|
| 66|| m||-|| Part-source number|
| 67|| nAchs||-|| Number of axes per Vehicle Unit|
| 68|| nFz||-|| Number of vehicles per Hour|
| 69|| ni||-|| Number of events per hour the dot sound source|
| 70|| nj||-|| Number of events per hour the line sound source|
| 71|| nQ||-|| Number of sound sources per Vehicle Unit|
| 72|| q||-|| Number of sound sources in the Rangier- and transhipment station|
| 73|| r|| m|| Radius|
| 74|| R||-|| Index for shunting station|
| 75|| S|| m2|| Surface|
| 76|| T|| s|| Length of time|
| 77|| v|| km/h|| Speed|
| 78|| w||-|| Meters for propagation path|
| 79|| z|| m|| detour of a sonic beam by diffraction|
| 80|| α|| dB/km|| Absorption coefficient|
| 81|| β|| Wheel|| Reflection angle|
| 82|| Top "|| Wheel|| Angle of sound emission|
| 83|| λ|| m|| Soundwave length|
| 84|| ρ||-||Sound reflectivity|
Table 2: Abbreviations
3.Modeling The Sound Sources
| 1|| büG|| especially monitored track|
| 2|| E-Lok|| Elektrolokomotive|
| 3|| ET|| Elektrotriebwagen|
| 4|| FO|| roadside edge|
| 5|| HGV|| High speed traffic|
| 6|| IO|| Immission Location|
| 7|| Rbf|| Rank Station|
| 8|| SO|| rail top edge|
| 9|| Ubf|| transhipment station|
| 10|| V-Lok||XX_ENCODE_CASE_CAPS_LOCK_On combustion locomotive (Diesellok)|
| 11|| VT||Combustion Drive Cart|
4.Sound emissions of railroads
- split into sections of uniform sound-emission-based routes will be Split into sections with uniform sound emission according to the following criteria:
For the resulting sections, uniform levels of the length-related sound power to be determined. Rangier and transshipment stations to be assessed are described by sound sources according to Table 10. The respective position of the sound source is indicated in accordance with its geometric extent as a point or line sound source with the corresponding source height according to Table 10 in Cartesian coordinates. Areas of the Rangier or A transfer station with several different sound sources of a height range, but with uniform sound emission, can be combined to form larger surface sound sources. The distribution of yummy and transshipment stations in surface sound sources shall be governed by similar plant parts and operational sequences on the respective surface, which shall be described in a uniform manner by a level of the area-related sound power Railway or tramway lines passing by tenderers and transhipment stations are treated as other routes (see point 2.2.18).
- Traffic Composition,
- Speed Classes,
- carriageway type,
- surface condition,
- Bahnhofsextents and stops,
- Bridges and Viaducts,
- Web transitions,
- Curve radii.
- Sound power level for railway and tramway line The level of the length-related sound power LW 'A,', h, m, Fz in the octave band ', in the height range h, as a result of a Part sound source m (see Table 5 and Table 13), for a vehicle unit of the vehicle category Fz per hour, is based on the following equation (Gl. 1) calculated:where:
: The indices h, m and Fz are not carried out in the supplement 1 and 2. The eight octave bands are calculated in the calculations. With the center frequencies from 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz. The parameters to be used are in point 4 for railways and in number 5 for trams. For traffic of nFz vehicle units per hour of the type Fz, the level of the length-related sound power in the octave band and the height range is h according to the following equation (Gl. 2) calculated:
|A, h, m, Fz|| A-weighted total of the length-related sound power at|
the reference speed v0 = 100 km/h on a threshold low-speed train with an average surface condition, according to the supplement 1 and 2, in dB,
| Δtr", h, m, Fz||Octave Level Difference ", according to supplement 1 and 2, in dB,|
|nQ|| Number of sound sources of the vehicle unit according to point 4.1 or 5.1,|
|nQ, 0||The reference number of the sound sources of the vehicle unit by number 4.1 or 5.1,|
|bf, h, m||speed factor according to Table 6 or 14,|
|vFz|| Speed according to point 4.3 or 5.3.2, in km/h,|
|v0||reference speed, v0 = 100 km/h,|
|The sum of the c level corrections for road type (c1) according to Table 7 or 15 and Driving surface (c2) according to Table 8, in dB,|
|Sum of k Level corrections for bridges according to Table 9 or 16 and the conspicuity of noise according to Table 11, in dB.|
- Sound power level for Rangier and The sound emission is indicated in eight octave bands at center frequencies of 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz as sound power level for radiation into the solid angle 4π. The spatial angle measure according to the equation (Gl. 9). Sound sources according to Table 10 are to be distinguished. The sources are shaped in a punctiform or linear form. The level of the A-weighted sound power of point sound sources LW,f, h, i in the octave band, in the height range h, as a result of a single source i, is dependent on the number ni of the events or, respectively, of the events. Units per hour according to the following equation (Gl. 3) calculated:The level of the A-rated length-related sound power of line sound sources LW 'A, ` `, h, j in the octave band', in the height range h, as a result of a Individual source j is dependent on the number nj of the events or Units per hour according to the following equation (Gl. 4) calculated:In this case
: In Supplement No. 3, the Indices h, i and j are not carried out. Faces of Rangier and Envelope Stations with a uniform sound emission can be combined to form surface sound sources. The emission of the surface sound source, combined from point and line sound sources, is determined by its A-weighted sound power level LW "A,", "h in the octave band" and the height range h according to the following equation (Gl. 5) specified:where:
|LWA,h, i, LW ' A, h, j|| A-weighted total sound level or the length-related sound power of the individual source i or j according to supplement 3, in dB,|
|ΔLW,t, h, i, ΔLW ', " h, h, j|| Level difference in octave band " according to supplement 3, in dB,|
|ni, nj||number of events or Units Per Hour,|
|Kk||Level correction for the abnormality of noises according to Table 9 and Table 11, in dB.|
movements of trains on, off and passing trains as well as shunting journeys are taken into account in accordance with point 3.2.
|SF|| Face with Uniform Sound Emission, in m2,|
|S0 = 1 m2||Reference Surface,|
| lj||line source length j, in m,|
|l0 = 1 m||reference length,|
| qi, h||Number of types i point sound sources in the height range h,|
|qj, h|| Number of line sound sources of type j in the height range h.|
- Education of point sound sources by part-piece decomposition The calculation of the assessment level is based on dot sound sources. For this purpose, all lines and areal sources are broken down into point sound sources (see Figure 1). An extended source, for which uniform sound propagation conditions prevail from all parts up to an immission location, is modeled as a point sound source. In addition, the length of the parts is lk or lk, respectively. to limit the size of the SkF face by further cutting in such a way that, in the event of a halving of all sections or parts, Faces of the immission portion according to the equation (Gl. 29) for all contributions at the respective immission location is changed by less than 0.1 dB.
Figure 1: Examples of the decomposition of line and surface sound sources into sections and subsurface note 1: In marshalling yards, for example: Note 2: The requirement for uniform propagation conditions at each point under consideration of a part of the immission location is specified by the threshold value of 0.1 dB. It includes requirements for distances, sound beam height above the ground, shielding and reflections. As a guide value for a suitable length lks with free sound propagation over the same ground, half of the path length dkS is used from the middle of the part to the immission location. A quarter of the square of the path length dkF from the middle of the partial surface to the immissionsort.From the length lkS of a piece ks and from the length lkS of a partial piece of SkF for a suitable particle size SkF with a free sound propagation over a flat ground. A-assessed levels of the length-related octave sound power LW ' A, ` `, h according to the equation (Gl. 5) in the height ranges h defined according to this Appendix (see Table 5, respectively). Table 10) in this section, the A-weighted sound power levels LWA, ` `, h, kS in the octave band ' are determined in accordance with the following equation (Gl. 6) calculated:with l0 = 1 m.Oktav sound power level according to the equation (Gl. 6) describe together with the directivity measure according to the equation (Gl. 8) and the space-angle measure according to the equation (Gl. 9) the sound emission, with which from a point sound source in the middle of a part ks in height hs above the top edge of the rail. With the surface SkF of a face and from the levels LW "A,", h the area-related sound power according to the equation (Gl. 5) in the height ranges h defined in accordance with Table 10, the sound power levels LWA, `, ', h, kF are determined according to the following equation (Gl. 7) calculated:with S0 = 1 m2.The Oktav sound power level according to the equation (Gl. 7) describes together with the spatial angle measure according to the equation (Gl. 9) the undirected sound emission of a point sound source in the middle of a face kF in height hs above the rails or rails. the roadway edge.
- directionality and space angle dimension
- directionalThe directional measure DI, kS is based on the following equation (Gl. 8) for sections of line sections:In this case, δkS denotes the angle between a sound beam emanating from the point sound source, and the track axis (see FIG. 2):
2: Definition of the angle δkS on a rail link note: The directivity measure is graphically shown in Figure 3 shown:
3: directivity measure DI, kS in dB according to equation (Gl. 8) for δkS in GradNote 1: The directivity measure characterizes the mean emission of the rolling noise during train journeys in both directions. For sources in Rangier and Transshipment Stations, no directionality will be taken into account in accordance with this calculation rule.
- Spatial-angle-scale The sound power level of all sources of this system indicates the radiation to the solid angle 4π. In this case, the apparent increase in the sound power level of the sound source due to reflections on the ground is determined by the space-angle measure according to the following equation (Gl. 9) taken into account:where:
Note: information on the level of sound source by the Tables 5, 10 and 13 relate to the roadway top edge. Accordingly, the height of the road top edge above the ground is to be added to the sound source height indicated
- The height of the sound source above the ground, in m,
- height of the immission above the ground, in m,
- horizontal distance between the source of sound and the place of immission, in m.
5.Sound emissions from trams
- Vehicle wheels For calculation of sound emission Vehicle categories Fz according to Table 3 differed: Table 3: Vehicle garden, Fz categories and number of axles for railroads
to table 3, column C:The sound power of the rolling noise increases with the number of axles. If the number of axles of a vehicle unit deviates from the reference number of the axes nAchs, 0, a correction is made in the equation (Gl. 1) with nQ = nachs. This correction shall be made only for the sound source type rolling noise according to Table 5. For all other sound source types nQ = nQ, 0. The A-weighted total level A, h, m, Fz of the length-related sound power and the level difference Δφ, h, m, Fz in the octave band ' at the reference speed v0 = 100 km/h on the threshold of the average surface condition are for each vehicle type in Leaflet 1 compiled (see also equation Gl. 1). The composition and the number of vehicle units of trains, if not specified for the calculation, can be taken from Table 4. Table 4: Transport data for railways
Timber vehicle category FzReference number
| 1|| HGV-Triebkopf|| 1|| 4|
| 2|| HGV-Mittel/Steuerwagen, not driven|| 2|| 4|
| 3|| HGV-Triebzug|| 3|| 32|
| 4|| HGV-Neigezug|| 4|| 28|
| 5|| E-Triebzug and S-Bahn (ET)|| 5|| 10|
| 6|| V-Triebzug (VT)|| 6|| 6|
| 7|| Elektrolok (E-Lok)|| 7|| 4|
| 8||Diesellok (V-Lok)|| 8|| 4|
| 9|| Travel train car|| 9|| 4|
| 10|| Freight wagon|| 10|| 4|
Time guard top speed
in regular traffic
to the hight of the Vehicle units per Fz category
| 1|| ICE-1 train|| 250|| 2|| 12|| |
| 2|| ICE-2 half-train|| 250|| 1|| 7|
| 3|| ICE-2 full train|| 250|| 2|| 14|
| 4|| ICE-3 half-train|| 300|| || 1|
| 5|| ICE-3 full train|| 300|| 2|| |
| 6|| ICE-T|| 230|| 1|| |
| 7|| Thalys-PBKA half-train|| 300|| 2|| 5|
| 8|| Thalys-PBKA-full train|| 300|| 4|| 10|
| 9|| ETR 470 Cisalpino|| 200|| || 1|
| 10|| IC train (bespted with|
| 200|| 1|| 12|
| 11|| IC train (bespted with|
| 160|| || 1|| 12|
| 12|| Nearby train|
(bespted with e-lok)
| 160|| 1|| 5|
| 13|| Nearby train|
(bespted with V-Lok)
| 140|| 1|| 5|
| 14|| Nearby train (ET)|| 140|| || 1|
| 15|| Nearby train (VT)|| 120|| 1|| |
| 16|| IC3|| 180|| 1|| |
| 17|| S-Bahn|| 120|| 1|
| 18|| Güterzug (bespNamed with|
| 100|| || 1|| 24|
| 19|| Güterzug (bespNamed with|
| 100|| || 1||24|
Notes to Table 4: Row 6: The 7-part version (BR 411) and the 5-part version (BR 415) of the ICE-T are not sound-proof Lines 10 and 11: Wheel sets of the carriages with shaft disc brakes. Lines 14 and 17: detailed regulation according to model series see data sheet of the vehicle category 5.Line 15: Detailed regulation by model series see data sheet of the vehicle category 6.row 16: To treat as BR 612 in the data sheet of the vehicle category 6.For freight trains, it can be expected that by 2020, 80 per cent and by 2030 100 per cent of the freight wagons are equipped with composite knock brakes. This applies to freight wagons according to lines 5 to 7 and 18 to 20 of supplement 1, vehicle category 10.
- Sound source species for the calculation of the The four sound sources listed in Table 5 are taken into account in the associated altitude ranges. Table 5: Sound source types on vehicles for railways
specifications for table 5: lines 1 and 2: For downhill courses with an inclination of ≥ 20% and a length ≥ 500 m, for freight trains with grey cast iron engine brakes on the valley In the case of a tank wagon, the roughness of the rolling noises is affected by the sound radiation of the superstructures, even in the case of the rolling noise, which is to be taken into consideration by the noise emitted by the superstructure. Height hs = 4 m. The corresponding sub-source is only used for tank wagons. If not more accurately known, a share of 20 percent boiler wagons will be accepted for each freight train.
ZeileSchallsourceartHöhenbereich hheight hs via SOSubsources mnoise cause,
| 1|| Roller Noise|| 1|| 0 m|| 1|| Rail roughness|
| 2|| 1|| 0 m|| 2|| Radrauheit|
| 3|| 2|| 4 m|| 3|| Radiation of the body-borne sound Rolling noise due to rail roughness due to boiler car superstructures|
| 4|| 2|| 4 m|| 4|| Radiation of the rolling noise transmitted as a body sound due to the wheel roughness by Kesselwagenaufbauten|
| 5|| Aerodynamic noises|| 3|| 5 m|| 5|| Stromablerwippe|
| 6|| 2|| 4 m|| 6|| Current pickup foot, grid of cooling and air-conditioning systems in the roof area|
| 7|| 1|| 0 m|| 7|| Reflow of the Turning point|
| 8|| Aggregated noise|| 2|| 4 m|| 8|| Ventilators from Kühl-und Air conditioning, suction side in the roof area|
| 9|| 1|| 0 m|| 9|| Ventilators of cooling and air conditioning systems, suction and pressure side in the subfloor area|
| 10|| Drive noises|| 2|| 4 m|| 10|| exhaust system|
| 11|| 1|| 0 m|| 11|| Engine, transmission|
- Speed The one listed in Supplement No. 1 A-rated total level of the length-related sound power shall apply to the reference speed v0 = 100 km/h. The influence of deviating velocities is found in the equation (Gl. 1) taking into account the speed factor b according to Table 6. Table 6: Speed factor b for railroads
The speed vFz is determined as follows: Starting point is the allowed the maximum speed in regular traffic due to the vehicle. If several vehicles of a train have different maximum speeds, the maximum speed of the slowest vehicle is to be used for all vehicles. If the speed of the track is lower, it is to be used. In the area of passenger stations (within the entry signals) and of stops and/or stops, it is possible to use the following information: Stops (length of the platform, plus 100 m on each side) is the permissible Speed of the free distance, but at least 70 km/h. With vFz = 70 km/h, they are located in stations and at stops or stops, respectively. sounds occurring in stops areas, such as Note: A compilation of maximum speeds for different types of garden can be taken from Table 4. Note: A compilation of maximum speeds for different types of garden can be taken into account.
Time sound source type part-
sources mSpeed factor b in the
octave band center frequency, in Hz
| 1|| 63|| 125|| 250|| 500|| 1 000|| 2 000|| 4 000|| 8 000|
| 2|| Rollnoises|| 1, 2, 3, 4|| -5|| -5|| -5|| 0|| 10|| 25|| 25|| 25|
| 3|| Aerodynamic noises|| 5, 6, 7|| 50|
| 4|| Aggregate Noise|| 8, 9|| -10|
| 5|| drive noises|| 10, 11||20|
- Railway types, railway crossing acoustic characteristics listed in supplement 1 shall apply to a threshold level (see point 2.1.8). For other types of carriageway, the equation (Gl. 1) Level corrections as shown in Table 7. Table 7: Level corrections c1 for road maps
table 7: lines 1 and 3: level correction for the increased sound emission of the rail due to the elastic rail fastening required for fixed roadways; the correction is to the Rolling noise due to rail roughness and wheel roughness (sub-sources 1 and 2). For all other subsources m, c1 = 0 dB.Lines 2, 4 and 6: level correction for the altered sound radiation due to the altered reflections in relation to the gravel bed; the correction is to all sub-sources at the level of the rail (subsources 1, 2, 7, 9 and 11). For all other subsources m, c1 = 0 dB.Lines 3 and 4: Absorbers are to be incorporated as a sound protection measure. Line 5: Level correction for the sound emission of the rail due to the increased road roughness. The correction shall be applied to rolling noise due to the roughness of the rail and the roughness of the wheel (subsources 1 and 2). For all other subsources m, c1 = 0 dB.Lines 5 and 6: The level correction for railway crossings is to be used for sections corresponding to 2 times road width. Level corrections for other types of road are not to be taken into consideration. Note 1: Swelling of the bulkhead bed includes concrete sleepers, wooden sleepers and steel sleepers. Note 2: In the area of switches, there is usually no Note 3: A level correction for railway crossings serving only as footpaths and cycle paths can be omitted after row 5, after line 6 with a path width of the fixed path of ≤ 7 m.
Time influencing level corrections c1 in dB
for octave band center frequency, in Hz
631252505001 0002 0004 0008 000
| 1|| Fixed Track|| Increased rail emission|| 0|| 0|| 0|| 7|| 3|| 0|| 0|| 0|
| 2|| Reflection on the roadway|| 1|| 1|| 1|| 1|| 1|| 1|| 1|| 1|
| 3|| Fixed Track|
| Increased rail emission|| 0|| 0|| 0|| 7|| 3|| 0|| 0|| 0|
| 4|| Reflection on the roadway|| 0|| 0|| 0|| -2|| -2|| -3|| 0|| 0|
| 5|| railroad transition|| Increased rail roughness|| 0|| 0|| 0|| 8|| 4|| 0|| 0|| 0|
| 6|| Reflection on the roadway|| 1|| 1|| 1|| 1|| 1|| 1|| 1|| 1|
- Sound-reduction techniques on track The acoustic characteristics listed in supplement 1 shall apply to an average surface condition and without special acoustic measures on the rail. For the "particularly monitored track (büG)" for the surface state and for measures on the rail webs, according to the equation (Gl. 1) Level corrections according to Table 8. Table 8: Level corrections c2 for the surface condition "particularly monitored track (büG)" as well as for rail shock absorbers and shields
Correction values c2 for the "büG" to the partial sources of rolling noise due to rail roughness, sub-sources 1 and 3, In the case of the influencing variables, rail shock absorbers are applied to the partial sources 1 to 4 and, in the case of the rail-type shield, only to the partial source 1. For all other subsources, c2 = 0 dB. The measures set out in Table 8 shall be considered as a sound protection measure. The rail shock absorbers and shields used must have the acoustic effectiveness in accordance with Table 8. An addition of the correction values c2 from the lines 1 and 2 as well as the lines 1 and 4 is possible. Note 1: The "particularly monitored track (büG)" is a sound protection measure with a special form of monitoring and maintenance of the rail travel surfaces. It is based on the knowledge that, in addition to the vehicle-dependent state of the wheel running surfaces, above all the running surface condition of the rails plays a decisive role in the formation of the rolling noise. When this measure is used, certain track sections are checked at regular intervals to their acoustic state and, if necessary, are ground with a special grinding process (acoustic grinding). The aim of the measure is to ensure that on such track sections an above-average good, d. h. the smooth running surface condition of the rails is present and the rolling noise is correspondingly low. Note 2: Rail damper is a damping measure, rail shield shielding is a shielding measure for rail foot and rail web; both Technologies are soundproofing measures. The measure "büG" is associated with the following provisions:
mLevel corrections c2 in dB in the
Octavband center frequency, in Hz
631252505001 0002 0004 0008 000
| 1|| specially monitored track (büG)|| 1, 3|| 0|| 0|| 0|| -4|| -5|| -5|| -4|| 0|
| 2|| Rail Damper|| 1, 3|| 0|| 0|| 0|| -2|| -3|| -3|| 0|| 0|
| 3|| 2, 4|| 0|| 0|| 0|| -1|| -3|| -2|| 0|| 0|
| 4|| Rail Shield|| 1|| 0|| 0|| 0|| -3|| -4|| -5|| 0||0|
According to § 5 (3), second sentence, more detailed provisions of the competent authority must be observed.
- Prior to the commissioning of section sections with the measure "büG" and after each acoustic loop, the track is considered to be removed when it is recognized with the Methods available Pr.1110 Rap/Rau 98 of 16.3.1998 (VkBl. 1998, Issue 7, p. 262, lfd. 74).
- The sound monitoring of the "büG" is carried out by means of an experience with the sound measuring carriage (SMW). The first experience shall be carried out no later than twelve months after the commissioning of the route section with the measure "büG". Any further experience with the SMW will take place at the latest 12 months after the previous experience.
- Shows the SMW for a track section a measured value of + 2 dB (Trigger threshold) or more, this track section will be acoustically ground within the next twelve months after the experience. An acoustic loop shall not be required if the track section is not longer than 50 m and the trigger threshold is not exceeded on the track sections of at least 200 m in length adjacent to or on either side of the track or on both sides of the track section. The "büG" measure is not carried out there.
- The acoustic grinding can be omitted if suitable grinding methods such as B. High-speed grinding is demonstrated that the measured value indicated by the SMW is less than + 1 dB.
- Bridge When crossing a train over a bridge, the sound emission of the bridge superstructure is due to a correction, which also the annoyance due to the low frequency Noise components must be taken into account. It is represented as a combined bridge and roadway correction KBr, since it also contains the influence of the road on the bridge, in addition to the sound emission of the bridge. Measures which lead to a reduction of the sound emission of a bridge are taken into account by a correction KLM and are to be used as a sound protection measure. For the most common five types of bridges and superstructures, level corrections are given in Table 9. The correction takes place for the clear width of the bridge, plus 2 m on each side. The level corrections apply to the sub-sources 1 and 2. For all other subsources KBr + KLM = 0 dB. Corrections for road maps in accordance with Table 7 lines 1 to 4 are not to be added. Table 9: Corrections KBr and KLM for bridges
TimleBridge and FahrbahnartKBr
| 1|| Bridges with steel superstructure, slide directly mounted|| 12|| -6|
| 2|| Bridges with steel superstructure and swellable glue in the gravel bed|| 6|| -3|
| 3|| Bridges with a massive track plate or with special steel superstructure and Swellings in the gravel bed|| 3|| -3|
| 4|| Bridges with fixed track|| 4||-|
Table 9: Line 1: rails are attached directly or via wooden sleepers on the bridge construction. The charges for sound reduction measures in column C shall be applied if, in order to reduce the sound emission of the bridge, highly elastic rail fastenings with the lowest permitted levels for the present conditions are to be used for the Support point stiffness is used. Line 4: If an impairment is to be expected from sound emissions downwards, the impairment must be due to a suitable measure, e.g. An elastic mat between the roadway and the superstructure is reduced. In case of doubt, the measure shall be replaced by a sound technical opinion. Column C: The level corrections for sound reduction measures on bridges with a ballast bed (lines 2 and 3) shall be used if the sound emissions of the bridges are reduced by the Bridge sub-gravel mats with the lowest approved values for the bedding module for the present conditions. Note to table 9, row 3: steel concrete track plate, prestressed concrete, concrete roll support, double composite girder or arch bridge; also composite bridge made of solid concrete road plate and steel bridge parts. The special steel superstructure differs from the bridges described under row 2 by means of constructive measures for the prevention of resonance. If a soundproofing wall is located on a bridge according to Table 9, lines 1 to 3, are: to provide for sound reduction measures with a minimum effectiveness according to Table 9, column C, and to take account of the calculation in the calculation.
- Sound emission In the area of tunnel openings and station halls, the sound emissions emerging there must be taken into account. The sound outputs defined in points 4.1 to 4.6 shall be presumed to be sound. The absorption and transmission properties of the structures are to be found in accordance with the recognized rules of technology. Note 1: Anrecognised rule of technology is the DIN EN 12354-4 building acoustics calculation of the acoustic properties of buildings the component properties, Part 4: Sound transmission of rooms to the open, edition April 2001.Note 2: Those on high-speed transport, if necessary Micropressure waves ("tunnel bang") occurring at tunnel portals shall not be covered by this Directive and shall be considered separately outside the scope of this Regulation.
- Rangier and UmschlagbahnhöfeFor the calculation of sound emissions from rangier and The sound sources listed in Table 10 shall be taken into account in transshipment stations. Table 10: Sound sources in Rangier and Envelope Stations
For table 10: lines 2 to 4: rolling noises of locomotive and freight wagons as well as locomotive unit and drive noises (height range 1 and 2) are available in all parts of the rangee and To determine transfer stations at 70 km/h on the basis of supplement 1. Each movement is to be regarded as an event. Not to be taken into account are rolling noises of the freight wagons to be crushed and the crushing locomotives as well as the rolling noises of the freight wagon running from the runway in direction or rearrangement groups. Line 4: cornering noise are in all parts of the rangion and transshipment stations, each vehicle (locomotive, freight wagon) being considered to be an event on the whole length of each track at r≤ 300 m. line 5: The number of sound events is determined by the Number of depressing operations by the oppressive shunting locomotive. The noises of the crushing locomotive are calculated according to supplement 1, Fz category 7 or 8.rows 6 and 7: each journey of a freight wagon by a track brake or via retarder is to be considered as a sound event. In steady-state routes, the train trips are also to be determined as sound events, if the retarder cannot be folded away for it. Lines 8 and 9: Each freight wagon flow causes an obstacle to the running of the ingress. In the sound engineering investigation, it is assumed that 15 per cent of all sound events in the first, 25 per cent in the second and 60 per cent in the last third of the track harps of the directional or reordering groups are created. Noises of the inhibitor throw-off devices are already included in the sound power levels for inhibitor impact noise (supplement 3). For buffer surges, the sentences 1 and 2 apply analogously to lines 8 and 9. Line 10: The number of sound events is dependent on the number of excited and braked, loosely coupled car groups. Fixed interlinked freight wagons remain unaccounted for. Data on the A-weighted total sound power level and for the distribution in octave bands are included in supplement 3.
Time Asset Sound Source Type Height hight
| 1|| Rangers and transshipment stations|
| 2||XX_ENCODE_CASE_One entrance, direction, post-regulation and "Border-right: 0.5pt solid; border-bottom: 0.5pt solid;" "border-right: 0.5pt solid;" in car-run stations and car-ice-stations align="center "valign="top" charoff="50"> Rolling noises of locomotive and freight wagons, aggregates and Drive noise|
of the locomotive
| 1|| 0 m|| Rauness of the rails and wheel treads, fans, motor,|
| 3|| Drive noises|
of the shunting locomotive
| 2|| 4 m|| exhaust gas system|
| 4|| cornering noise|| 1|| 0 m|| Stick-slip, Anlaufen der Radspurkränze am rail head|
| 5|| Einfahrgruppe|| Impression Noise of freight wagons over the expiration mountain|| 2|| 4 m|| Aggregates and drive of the crushing locomotive|
| 6|| directional and reordering group|| Gleisbrake noise|| 1|| 0 m|| Friction of the wheel flanks on brake bars|
| 7|| Retarder Noise|
| 1|| 0 m|| Impressions of shock absorbers|
| 8|| Inhibiting shoe running noise|| 1|| 0 m|| friction of the wheelset to Metal|
| 9|| Emergence Impact Noise|| 6|| 1, 5 m|| Buffer surge|
| 10|| directional and exit group|| Noise when tearing and braking loose coupled cars|| 6|| 1, 5 m||jerk-like acceleration and Brakes on loose coupled freight wagons|
- Collision of railway noises, pulse or information-like noises of part-sections or faces with a frequency-independent supplement KL to the sound power level according to Table 11 on the sub-sources 1 and 2 according to the supplement 1. If permanently effective precautions against the occurrence of squeaking noises are made, an additional level correction KLA is to be carried out.
Table 11: Level corrections KL for the ability to find noise
Level corrections for noise reduction measures in order to avoid conspicuous noise KLA in the area of narrow curve radii and braking systems in marshalling yards shall be used if friction modifiers are used to reduce the sound emissions, which shall be used to reduce noise emissions. prevent the occurrence of squeaking noises permanently.
| 1|| cornering noise on railroad tracks|| Curving radius < 300 m|| 8|| -3|
| 2|| Curving radius from 300 m to < 500 m|| 3|| -3|
| 3|| Curving radius ≥ 500 m|| 0|
| 4|| cornering noise|
in Rangier and transshipment stations
| all radius ≤ 300 m|| 6|| -3|
| 5|| Gleisbraking noise|| Feed brake|| 6|| -3|| |
| 6|| Talbrake TW without or with segments, directional track brake TWE on one side with segments, Talbrake FEW Leipzig|| 6|| -3|
| 7|| Talbrake TW on both sides with GG segments, TW soundproofed|| 3|
| 8|| Screw brake|| 3|
| 9|| Retarder|| 3|| is also valid for shunting journeys over Retarder tracks|
| 10|| Other Noises|| Inhibition slips|| 6|| Noises only occur in|
Rangiers stations without modern shunting technique on
| 11|| Run Hits|| 3|| in marshalling yards with modern technology|
| 12|| 6|| in marshalling yards with older technology|
| 13|| Arriving and braking loose coupled freight wagons|| 6||Noises preventable due to fixed domes of the|
- Vehicle gardenTo calculate the noise emission from the vehicle garden according to Table 12 Table 12: Vehicle garden, vehicle categories Fz and reference number of axles for trams
to table 12 column C:The sound power of the rolling noise increases with the number of axles. If the number of axles of a vehicle unit deviates from the reference number of the axes nAchs, 0 = 8, the third term is in the equation (Gl. 1) with nQ = nAchs and nQ, 0 = nAchs, 0. This term is used for the sound source type driving noises according to Table 13. For all other sound sources nQ = nQ, 0. The A-weighted total level A, h, m, Fz of the length-related sound power and the level difference Δφ, h, m, Fz in the octave band ' at the reference speed v0 = 100 km/h on a threshold level with an average surface condition are for each The vehicle category is listed in the leaflet 2 (see also Gl. 1). The number of vehicle units per hour and the composition of trams are to be taken from the documents of the transport companies. Notes to Table 12: Line 1: The sources of aggregate noise are mainly on the roof. and 3: The sources of the aggregate noise are mainly below the vehicle floor.
Time Vehicle Vehicle Category
| 1|| Tramway low-floor vehicles|| 21||8|
| 2|| Tram high-floor vehicles|| 22|
| 3|| U-Bahn-Vehicles|| 23|
- Sound source specials In the calculation of the sound emission, the Table 13: Table 13: Sound source types for trams
timelSound source type height range
mNoise reason, component vehicle category < br /> Fz
| 1|| Driving Smoke|| 1|| 0 m|| 1|| Rail roughness|| 21, 22, 23|
| 2|| 1|| 0 m|| 2||Radrauheit, Motor, Gearbox|
| 3|| Aggregated noise|| 1|| 0 m|| 3|| power converter, compressor,|
climate and Ventilation aggregates
| 22, 23|
| 4|| 2|| 4 m|| 4||Power converter, compressor,|
Climate-resp. Ventilation aggregates
5.4 carriageway species The acoustic characteristics listed in supplement 2 apply to the vehicle garden on a sill bed in the gravel bed and for an average well-groomed Wheel-rail system. For other types of carriageway, level corrections according to Table 15 are available on the basis of the rail and wheel roughness for the sub-sources 1 and 2. Note: Swelling softness in the ballast bed includes concrete, wood and steel sleepers. Table 15: Level corrections c1 for other types of carriageway compared to the threshold level in the bulkhead bed
- Reference speed The total levels of the length-related sonic output listed in supplement 2 are valid for the reference speed v0 = 100 km/h. The influence of deviating velocities is found in the equation (Gl. 1) taken into account by speed factor b according to table 14. Table 14: speed factor for trams
to table 14, line 3: High-floor vehicles also partially have aggregates (e.g. Air conditioning for the passenger compartment) on the roof. If a special data sheet is available for such vehicles, this is the basis for the calculation. Note to Table 14, lines 1 and 2: The speed factors are of a design type. In comparison to the reference speed of 100 km/h, large speed factors b cause high impact rates for slow vehicles due to the design of the vehicle.
Time Sound Source Part Source
mSpeed Factor b
for octave band center frequency, in Hz
| 63|| 125|| 250|| 500|| 1 000|| 2 000|| 4 000|| 8 000|
| 1|| Driving noise from Niederflur-and High-floor vehicles|| 1, 2|| 0|| 0|| -5|| 5|| 20|| 15|| 15|| 20|
| 2|| Driving noise from|
| 1, 2|| 15|| 10|| 20|| 20|| 30|| 25|| 25|| 20|
| 3|| Aggregated noise|| 3, 4||-10|
- For The calculation to be used in principle is calculated on all routes with the maximum speed of the track. If the maximum vehicle speed is lower than the maximum speed of the track, the maximum vehicle speed shall be set. If the maximum track speed is less than 50 km/h, a speed of v = 50 km/h is expected to be carried out. You must consider the following lengths:
Excursions with permanently v≦30 km/h (e.g. B. Slow driving and pedestrian areas), provided that these sections are sections with r > 200 m and areas without switches, stops or crossings. In these cases, a fair speed of v = 30 km/h is required. Note 1: The increased sound emissions on track bows with small radii, switches and crossings, on insulating and welding tappings, on acceleration and braking distances and on Stops are taken into account by an assumed speed, which is higher in these areas than the speed actually being driven. As a result, the noises typical of holding points, such as e.g. B. Sound-containing start-up and braking noises, door-closing noises and communication of passengers taken into account. If no effective sound reduction measures are taken in track bows with radii r < 200 m to reduce the cornering noise, in addition to the assumption of the assumed speed of v = 50 km/h-the level of the length-related sound power of rolling noises according to the equation (Gl. 1) due to the special conspicuity of the cornering noise by KL = 4 dB. Note 2: Effective sound reduction measures can be used, for example, B. Treatment measures on the rail head and wheel absorber. Track crane lubrication systems can contribute to the reduction of the typical noises in the track, but they do not completely prevent the occurrence of these noises
- Soft: Soft length plus 25 m in front of it, and behind,
- Crossings: Length of intersection plus 25 m each before and behind,
- stops on lines: track length plus 25 m in front of and behind it.
tables 15: For rail crossings in the area of scoops in the gravel bed or in the area of road maps according to lines 2 and 3, the level correction c1 after row 1 is for sections which are 2 times the width of the road; the level corrections for other types of roads shall not be taken into consideration.5.5Bridges and In the case of the crossing of a train via a bridge, the sound emission of the bridge superstructure must be taken into account by means of a correction, which also contains the annoyance due to low-frequency noise components. The correction is indicated as a "combined bridge and road correction" KBr, because in addition to the sound emission of the bridge, it also contains the influence of the roadway on the bridge. A correction for the type of carriageway according to Table 15 is therefore not to be added. Measures which lead to a reduction in the sound radiation of a bridge are taken into account by a check-the correction KLM-and are considered to be a Noise reduction measure, not to be used as a change in the type of bridge or road. For the most common types of bridges and superstructures, the level corrections K are given in Table 16. Derogations from Table 16 shall be taken into account only after the competent authority has been determined in accordance with Article 5 (2). The correction is carried out for the clear width of the bridge between the abuttles plus 2 m on each side. The level corrections apply to the sub-sources 1 and 2 of Table 13. For the other subsources m, K = 0 is to be added. Corrections for road maps in accordance with Table 15 lines 1 to 3 are not to be added. Table 16: Corrections KBr and KLM for bridges and viaducts
timeslane type application
mLevel corrections c1 in dB
for octave band center frequency, in Hz
631252505001 0002 0004 0008 000
| 1|| Street-flush railroad bodies and fixed track|| 1, 2|| 2|| 3|| 2|| 5|| 8|| 4|| 2|| 1|
| 2|| Green railroad track cover with low vegetation level|| 1, 2|| -2|| -4|| -3|| -1|| -1|| -1|| -1|| -3|
| 3|| Green railroad track cover with high vegetation level|| 1, 2|| 1|| -1|| -3|| -4|| -4|| -7|| -7|| -5|
to table 16: Line 1: rails are attached directly or via wooden sleepers on the bridge construction. The reductions in the noise reduction measures in column C shall be applied if, in order to reduce the sound emission of the bridge, highly elastic rail fastenings with the minimum permitted levels for the present conditions are to be used for the Column C: The level corrections for noise reduction measures on bridges with a bulkhead bed (lines 2 and 4) shall be used if, in order to reduce the sound emission of the bridge, sub-gravel mats with those for the Note to Table 16, lines 3, 4 and 5: Reinforced Concrete Road Plate, Reinforced Concrete, Concrete, Double Composite Beam, or Waulted Bridge; also Composite bridge made of solid concrete road plate and steel bridge parts. The special steel superstructure differs from the bridges described in row 2 by means of constructive measures to prevent resonance. In the case of a soundproofing wall on a directly traveled or with a bulkhead bed Bridge shall be provided for sound reduction measures with a minimum effectiveness according to Table 16, column C, and shall be taken into account in the calculation.6. Sound propagation
ZeileBridge and FahrbahnartKBr
| 1|| Bridges with steel superstructure, slide directly mounted|| 12|| -6|
| 2|| Bridges with steel superstructure and swellable glue in the gravel bed|| 6|| -3|
| 3|| Bridges with steel superstructure or solid roadway plate, track|
in Roadway embedded (grooved rail)
| 4|| Bridges with solid road plate or with special steel superstructure, tracks on swellings in gravel bed|| 3|| -3|
| 5|| Bridges with solid track, track directly mounted|
6.3 Air absorption The attenuation due to air absorption during the sound propagation is based on the following equation (Gl. 12) calculated:Here is:
- Influencing variables on the propagation paths of the sound from a point source to an immission location is the propagation attenuation measure A after the following equation (Gl. 10) to consider:where:
pressure level increases caused by reflections are to be determined in accordance with point 6.6, the space-angle dimension DΩ as a result of reflections at the bottom near the source, in accordance with point 3.5.Untaken into account shall remain after this installation
|Adiv|| A by geometric propagation according to point 6.2,|
|Aatm||A by air absorption according to point 6.3,|
| Agr||A by ground impact according to point 6.4,|
|Abar||A by shielding by obstructions after Number 6.5.|
Note 1: The calculation methods describe the conditions for propagation favourable weather conditions, such as those occurring with light mite wind and/or light soil inversion, for example, in clear, windy wets.Note 2: Indices kS for the section of a line sound source or kF for that of a surface sound source are not carried out in the equations of point 6.
- Beading Level Reduction and
- Soundpropagation with reflections higher than the 3. Regulation.
- Geometric propagation The cushioning of the geometric propagation is used for the spherical sound propagation from an undirected spot source in the Free field according to the following equation (Gl. 11) calculated:where:
|d|| Running path length between point source and immission location, in m,|
|d0 = 1 m||reference length.|
absorption coefficients according to Table 17 are to be used as the default values. Table 17: Absorption coefficients of the air for octave bands
|α|| The absorption coefficient of the air, in dB per 1 000 m for each octave band at the bandmite frequency.|
to Table 17: The absorption coefficients to be used in this asset correspond to DIN ISO specifications 9613-2 Acoustic Attenuation of the sound during the propagation outdoors, Part 2: General calculation procedure, October 1999 edition, for a temperature of 10 ° C and a relative humidity of 70 percent.6.4 BodeneinfluThe attenuation due to the ground influence is calculated according to this system frequency-independent according to the following equation (Gl. 13):where:
TimesLabeling octave tape center frequency , in Hz
| 1|| 63|| 125|| 250|| 500|| 1 000|| 2 000|| 4 000|| 8 000|
| 2|| Absorption coefficient α in dB per 1 000 m|| 0, 1|| 0, 4|| 1, 0|| 1, 9|| 3, 7|| 9, 7|| 32, 8||117|
|Agr, B|| Damping measure due to soil absorption over the ground (Gl. 14),|
|Agr, W||Attenuation measured by reflection on water (Gl. 16),|
: The spelling of the equation (Gl. 14) should indicate that negative calculated values are replaced by 0 dB after the middle part of the formula.Where:
|d||Distance between sound source center and immission location, in m,|
|S|| Area between runway and ground, in m².|
|dW||section of the horizontal distance between sound source center and immission location over water surfaces, in m|
Picture 4: Method for determining the mean height hm = S/d6.5 shielding by obstacle-An object on the propagation path between point sound source and immission location is to be considered as an obstacle when it comes to the following Requirements:
- In the projection on the ground plan, the sound beam passes through one or more multiple diffraction edges of the obstacle (see picture 5),
- the area-related mass of the obstacle is at least 10 kg/m2,
- the obstacle has an acoustically closed surface and
- the horizontal dimension lh of the The obstacle perpendicular to the connecting line between the source and the receiver is greater than the sound wavelength λ at the octave band center frequency according to the following equation (Gl. 17):
|Sound wavelength at the octave band center frequency" ƒm ", in m,|
| ll||perpendicular distance between connection line source-receiver and 1. The end point of the obstacle, in m,|
|lr||perpendicular distance between the connection line source-receiver and 2. The end point of the obstacle, in m.|
5: Sound path through an obstacle with two effective parallel edge A screen edge, over which is diffracted across the sound is then to be called the upper edge when it forms an angle of less than 45 ° with the horizontal. Otherwise, it is referred to as a side edge around which a lateral bending occurs. An upper edge is modeled as a sequence of straight pieces, a side edge as a straight line. Railway platforms, platform roofs and standing or moving travel or travel Freight trains, individual voyage or freight wagons, trams, deposited and stacked containers, as well as other movable obstacles, shall not be regarded as obstacles in the way of propagation. For low soundproofing walls 1.0 m > hLSW> 0.5 m with a distance of ds < 2 m to the nearest track axis, the height hLSW above the rail upper edge for the sound propagation calculation is to be reduced by 30 percent. The bending of the sound due to lateral bending around an obstacle will be determined by the following equation (Gl. 18) calculated:Here is:
the case of bending over an obstacle, the attenuation is achieved by shielding according to the following equation (Gl. 19) calculated:where:
|Dz|| shielding measure according to equation (Gl. 21), in dB.|
1: As a result of equation (Gl. 19) includes the equation (Gl. 10) instead of the separate expulsion of Abar and Agr summarizing the shielding measure Dz-if necessary with a level difference for reflective essays according to the equation (Gl. Note 2: The spread of sound is to be calculated for the propagation paths w over the upper edge and the side edges of the obstacle. Note 3: Dreƒl takes into account the multiple reflection between reflective soundproofing wall and body structure. In addition, reflections are to be taken into account on the soundproofing wall according to point 6.6. Note 4: The spelling of the equations (Gl. 18), (Gl. 19) and (Gl. 20) should indicate that negative calculated values are replaced by 0 dB after the middle part of the formula. Note 5: At intervals > 5 m between sound source and reflecting soundproofing wall, Dreƒl can be neglected. is based on the following equation (Gl. 21) to calculate:where:
Level correction for reflective Soundproofing walls at the distance
ds≤ 5 m with absorbent base of height habs above the top edge of the rail, in dB,
|Agr||Soil impact after the Equation (Gl. 13), in dB.|
Correction factor for meteorological influences. For parallel diffraction edges:
|C2 = 40|| shielding factor for railway lines with sound source types according to tables 5 and 13,|
|C2 = 20||shielding factor for surface-to-surface railway systems with Sound source types according to Table 10,|
|C3 = 1||Single Diffraction Shielding Factor|
|Screen value as the difference between the running path lengths of the diffracted and the direct sound. If there is a visual connection between the sound source and the immission location, z will be marked with negative sign.|
|ds||Distance from the Point sound source to the (first) diffraction edge, in m,|
|dr||Distance from the (last) diffraction edge to the immission location, in m,|
| e||Run path length between first and last screen edge, in m,|
|dП||Distance between point sound source and immission location, measured parallel to the diffraction edge (see picture 5), in m,|
|d||running path length between source and Immissionsort, in m.|
6: Example of a sound path over more than two authoritiy
parallel diffraction edges; Negligible edges are marked by x-The selection of the relevant diffraction edges takes place according to the so-called rubber band method. Edges which are not touched by a rubber band which is tensioned from the point sound source to the immission location remain unaccounted for for the multiple diffraction. In the case of non-parallel diffraction edges, d. h. if at least one diffraction edge is not parallel to the other diffraction edges involved in the rubber band, the following applies
Picture 7: Example of a sound path over more than two authoritative non-
parallel diffraction edges; negligible edges are due to x Multiple bending is only taken into account if the path of the diffracted sound, as shown by way of example in FIG. 6, leads over several edges. When setting sound reduction measures the acoustic properties for sound insulation are and sound absorption according to the state of the art. The shielding measure Dz in any octave band should be used in the case of single diffraction (d. h. in the case of thin shields) not greater than 20 dB and double-diffraction (d. h. in the case of thick sound screens) not larger than 25 dB.6.6Level increase due to reflective or partially reflecting reflection Soundproofing walls (e.g. In the case of glass sales), the reflective or absorbing properties of the soundproofing walls are to be taken into account in the calculation by means of mirror sources or mirror receivers. In addition, the reflections between the reflective soundproofing wall and the superstructure are achieved by reducing the shielding effect according to the equation (Gl. 20). Reflections are taken into account after this installation by incoherent mirror sources. On the ground in the vicinity of the source, they are based on the equation (Gl. 9) is connected to the strength of the original source via a space-angle measure. Reflections on buildings and umbrellas shall be calculated for all octave bands only if each of the following requirements is met:
- A geometrical/specular reflection, as shown schematically in Figure 8, can be constructed.
- The The sound reflectivity of the obstacle surface is greater than ρ = 0.2.
- The smallest dimension of the reflector satisfies the following equation (Gl. 27):
|lmin|| The smallest dimension of the reflector, in m,|
|β||angle between the connection line source to the immission location and the Reflector normal,|
|Sound wavelength at Octave band center frequency, in m,|
|dso||running path of sound from point source Q to reflector R, in m,|
| dor||Running distance of the sound from the reflector R to the immission location IO, in m.|
Image 8: mirror reflection at an obstacle The A-rated sound power level of the mirror sound source LWA, in is according to the following equation (Gl. 28) to calculate:where:
The frequency dependence of absorption loss and directivity is not taken into account in this Appendix Table 18: Absorption loss on walls
|LWA|| A-weighted sound power level according to the equations (Gl. 7) and (Gl. 8), in dB,|
|Dρ||absorption loss for reflection at the wall surface according to table 18, in dB,|
| DIr||The directional measure of the point sound source in the direction of the mirror sound receiver (see equation (Gl)). 8)), in dB.|
to line 1: z. B. tiled support walls, smooth concrete surface. Direct and reflected contributions are determined separately. For mirror sources, the damping properties are according to the equation (Gl. 10) as well as Dρ and DIr according to the equation (Gl. 28) in accordance with the propagation path of the reflected sound. These are reflections up to and including the 3. Order to calculate.7.Calculation of the formwork mission The formwork emission at an immission location is considered to be the equivalent continuous-noise pressure level LpAeq calculated for the period of a full hour: It is formed by the energetic addition of the contributions of
Dρ in dB
| 1|| Level and hard walls|| 0|
| 2|| Building walls with windows and small attachments|| 1|
| 3|| Absorbent Soundproofing Walls|| 4|
| 4|| High-absorbent soundproofing walls|| 8|
On lines of the railroad and tram, summations of the sound pressure levels are based on the following equation (Gl. 29) to perform:where:
- all sub-sound sources in octave bands with center frequencies from 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz,
- all Height ranges h,
- all parts kS,
- all faces kF and
- all propagation paths w.
Rangier and transhipment stations, summation of the energy taking into account the equations (Gl. 3), (Gl. 4) and (Gl. 7) to make:where:
| Meters for octave band,|
|w||counter for different propagation paths,|
| LWA, f, h, kS||A-weighted sound power level of the point sound source in the middle of the section kS, which indicates the emission from the height range h according to the equation (Gl. 6), in dB,|
|DI, kS, w||directivity measure for the propagation path w according to the equation (Gl. 8), in dB,|
|DΩkS||Space-angle according to the equation (Gl. 9), in dB,|
|Af, h, kS, w||propagation attenuation measure in the octave band in the height range h from the part kS along the path w according to the equation (Gl. 10), in dB.|
|R|| Index for shunting station,|
|Meters for octave band,|
|kS|| Meters for Subpiece,|
| w||propagation path count,|
|LWA,t, h, i||A-weighted sound power level of the Point sound source i according to the equation (Gl. 3), in dB,|
|LWA, f, h, kS||A-weighted sound power level of the part kS according to the equation (Gl. 6), in dB,|
|LWA, f, h, kF||A-weighted sound power level of the face kF according to the equation (Gl. 7), in dB,|
|DΩ||Space-angle according to the equation (Gl. 9), in dB,|
|A, w||propagation attenuation measure in the octave band, along the path w according to the equation (Gl. 10), in dB.|
8.3The assessment level for tramway Immission location affected by noises from a tramway route shall be separated from the assessment level in accordance with Article 4 (1), second sentence, for the assessment period (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.) and the assessment period (night (10 p.m. to 6 a.m.) according to the following equations (Gl. 37) and (Gl. 38) calculated:where:
- Equivalent Continuous Sound Pressure Level in Assessment Time Beds The Amounts of Traffic as Global Expenditure On The 2 Sentence in accordance with § 4 (1) sentence 2 Assessment periods day (16 hours) or At night (8 hours), these traffic volumes are to be converted to mean volumes per hour for these periods. The equivalent continuous-sound pressure levels are calculated according to the equation (Gl. 29) and the equation (Gl. 30) calculated and used for railway and tramway routes with Lp, Aeq, Tag, Lp, Aeq, Nacht and/or for Rangier and transhipment stations with Lp, Aeq, Tag, R, Lp, Aeq, night, R designnet.Liegen the volumes separately for each hour in the assessment period , the equivalent permanent sound pressure levels for the assessment period day and for the assessment period of night shall be based on the following equations (Gl. 31) and (Gl. 32) to determine:where:
corrections for sound, pulse or information-shaking noises are in the calculation of For comparison with the emission limit values according to § 2, the assessment levels Lr, Tag und Lr, Nacht are to be rounded up to entire dB. In the case of Section 1 (2) (2), only the difference of the judgment level shall be rounded up.
|T|| Meters for full hours of the assessment period day (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.),|
|N||Counter for full hours of assessment period night (22) Clock to 6 o'clock)|
- The assessment level for railroads
- Route at an immission site by noises from a track for railways with or without train stations, stops or stops, the assessment level according to § 4 (1) sentence 2 shall be separated for the assessment period day (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.) and the assessment period night (22 a.m. to 6 a.m.) according to the following Equations (Gl. 33) and (Gl. 34) calculated:where:
|Lr, tag|| Assess level for the assessment period day (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.), in dB,|
|Lr, night||Assessment level for the assessment period Night (10 p.m. to 6 p.m.), in dB,|
|Lp, Aeq, Tag, Lp, Aeq, night||equivalent continuous continuous pressure level of lines, in dB,|
| KS = -5 dB||Level correction road-rail according to point 2.2.18.|
- Rangier and UmschlagbahnhöfeAn an immission site which shall: is affected by noise from a rangout or transhipment station as well as by railway lines, the judgment level shall be separated in accordance with Article 4 (1), second sentence, for the assessment period (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.) and the assessment period (night) (22). Clock up to 6 o'clock) according to the following equations (Gl. 35) and (Gl. 36) calculated:where:
0050] Level corrections for sound, pulse or information-shaking noises are not set separately. Such corrections are included in the sound emission. For comparison with the immission limit values according to § 2, the assessment levels Lr, Tag and Lr are to be rounded up to entire dB. In the case of § 1 paragraph 2, point 2, only the difference of the assessment level is to be rounded up.
|Lr, tag|| Assess level for the assessment period day (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.),|
|Lr, night||Judgment level for the Assessment period of night (10 p.m. to 6 p.m.), in dB,|
|Lp, Aeq, Tag, R, Lp, Aeq, night, R||equivalent continuous pressure level from the range of the rangion or Transshipment station, in dB,|
|Lp, Aeq, Tag, Lp, Aeq, night||equivalent continuous-sound pressure level from the range of continuous stretch-to-length dB,|
|KS = -5 dB||Street rail level correction within the meaning of point 2.2.18 (does not apply to moving trains and trains, and [ 0050|
corrections for sound, pulse or information-shaking noises are included in the calculation of the noise emission and are not separately scheduled for the formation of the assessment level (see point 4.9). The regulations according to § 43 (1) sentence 2 and 3 of the Federal Immission Protection Act (BundesImmissionsschutzgesetz) in the version of 12. July 2013 remain untouched. For comparison with the immission limit values according to § 2, the assessment levels Lr, Tag and Lr are to be rounded up to entire dB. In the case of § 1 paragraph 2, point 2, only the difference of the assessment level is to be rounded up.9.Consideration of deviating railway technology and Of sound engineering innovations
|Lr, tag|| Assess level for the assessment period day (6 a.m. to 10 p.m.), in dB,|
|Lr, night||Assessment level for the assessment period Night (10 p.m. to 6 p.m.), in dB,|
|Lp, Aeq, Tag, Lp, Aeq, night||equivalent continuous continuous pressure level of lines, in dB,|
| KS = -5 dB||Level correction to take into account the lower interference effect of rail traffic noise in relation to road traffic by number 2.2.18.|
9.2Evaluation of the Measurement results for different web technology and for sound engineering innovations
- Measurement of emission data from Different railway technology and sound engineering innovations
- Vehicle Detection of sound-technical innovations in vehicle units shall be carried out in accordance with the following measures: The sound emissions of such vehicle units shall be determined by means of the passing measurements on a sill track and stand measurements in accordance with DIN EN ISO 3095 :2014-7, Acoustics-Railway applications-Measurement of noise emissions from track-bound vehicles (ISO 3095 :2014-7); German version EN ISO 3095 :2014-7, taking into account the additional measurement requirements of Decision 2008 /232/EC of the Commission of 21 February 2008 on the technical specification for interoperability of the 'Vehicles' subsystem of the trans-European high-speed rail system (notified under document number C (2008) 648) (OJ L 327, 28.11.2008, p. OJ No L 84, 26. 132) (TSI) for Railways and VDV-Paper 154 Noise of public passenger rail vehicles (public transport), November 2011 for trams. The passing measurements should have been carried out after at least three service braking. Note 1: Results of measurements which have already been carried out for other reasons, such as, for example, the following: B. in the context of the approval of new interoperable rolling stock by Commission Decision 2008 /232/EC, or of trams according to VDV-type154, or emissions data. Note 2: In special cases, the application may of directional microphones or of an array measurement technique for the detection of individual sound sources. Note 3: Sound technology innovations can cause lower or higher noise emissions than the technology regulated in this system. Higher sound emissions may, for example, be by faster high-speed trains, more tractive locomotives, or even older, imported railway technology or tramway technology. The results of the travel measurements are calculated for the maximum speed of the regular traffic split to posts from
To do this, you can find information about the levels of the to a length of 100 km-related A-weighted sound power in the eight octave bands with center frequencies from 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz. Except as a result of stand measurements and special measurements, e.g. The noise emission data for aerodynamic noises, aggregate and drive noises for the vehicle type assigned according to supplement 1 or leaflet 2 are known, for example, behind a sound screen, with a directional microphone or in the wind tunnel, for the vehicle type assigned in accordance with the supplement 1 or the leaflet 2. Note 4: For example, if a V-locomotive is measured at speed v at a distance d in height h over SO in the octave band, there is an A-weighted individual event level LEA, ' and the Measurement of exhaust noises in the stand with the same engine power a sound power level LWA,aggr, so-taking into account the emission values of the aerodynamic and drive noises as well as of aggregate noises, which in addition to the Exhaust gas noise according to the single sheet for V-locomotives at speed v occur-the rolling noise on very smooth rails is determined in accordance with the following equation: Where:
- rolling noise,
- aerodynamic noises (for railroads only),
- Aggregate sounds,
- drive noises and
- driving noises (trams only).
expression below the sum character must not exceed the value of 0.5 to allow for an extrantion noise correction. The numerical values 36 and 44 are considered to be approximations for distances d from 5 to 10 m.Table 19: Estimation of the rail roughness-related emission (partial source m= 1)
|A, 2, Fz||A-weighted Summan level of the length-related sound power at the reference speed v0 = 100 km/h on sleeper track for rolling noise due to wheel roughness (partial source m= 2), in dB,|
|Δaj, 2, Fz||level difference of length-related Sound power at reference speed v0 = 100 km/h on threshold for rolling noise due to wheel roughness (partial source m= 2), in octave band ', in dB,|
|LEA,'|| A-weighted single event level per octave band, in dB,|
|bw, 2||speed factor for rolling noise (partial source m= 2) after Table 6,|
|v||speed during the route, in km/h,|
|v0 = 100 km/h|| Reference speed,|
|LWA,, h, m ', Fz||A-weighted Oktav sound power level of other subsources, in dB,|
|bd, m '||speed factor for other subsources according to table 6,|
|m'|| Count for subsources without m= 2.|
The rolling noises are to be split into emissions caused by noise and rail roughness. The following three methods are allowed:
Rail Energetic contribution to the total
emissions level difference to the total Radrauheit
| 1|| Very smooth|| 0%|| -20 dB|
| 2|| Glatt, Limit value according to TSI or VDV 154|| 20%|| -7 dB|
| 3|| Glatt, limit according to DIN EN ISO 3095 :2014-7|| 40%||-4 dB|
The procedure referred to in point (c) shall not be applied to vehicles with cast iron knock brakes. Note 5: For vehicles alone, the hydraulic-related Emission of interest. It may be determined for rails with good surface condition by up to 3 dB higher according to the procedure referred to in point (a) than in accordance with the procedure referred to in point (c), while the method referred to in point (b) is in the midfield. According to the three methods, measurements on rails with a poor running surface state usually inadvertently supply high emission values due to noise. The rail roughness-related emission is taken over from the leaflets 1 to 3 for the associated vehicle type. For emission-related emissions, measurement results are preferably to be used in accordance with the procedure referred to in point (b). Note 6: The measurement results may be independent of limit values for emission data according to Commission Decision 2008 /232/EC for Railway and VDV-font 154 for trams are used. However, it can be assumed for new vehicles that the limit values are not exceeded. The results for the emission-related emission are to be provided for conversion to the average operating condition with a surcharge, which shall be: Table 20 depends on the measurement conditions. Note 7: The surcharges have been estimated from experience values for the dispersion of measurement results in a database. Table 20: Allowances for conversion to the average operating condition in the database. Dependency on measurement conditions
- The measurements were carried out on very smooth rails. However, the state of the running surface has not been measured. The rolling noise emission is then assigned to the vehicle alone (see row 1 of Table 19).
- The measurements were carried out on smooth rails with proven track rails with a proven track record. Running surface condition. Then, according to Table 19, an estimation of the emission of the rail roughness is carried out. The remaining contribution to the total emission, but at least 50 per cent of the energy corresponding to a level difference to the wheel roughness of -3 dB, is assigned to the vehicle. This is the rule case.
- In justified exceptional cases and for trams, measurements may be taken on rails with an unknown number of tracks. The state of the running surface was carried out. In that case, equal energy contributions of wheel and rail roughness shall be assumed.
Were the Measurements are not carried out on a sill (in the gravel bed) but on a different road surface, the level corrections for the types of carriageway according to Table 7 are used in the division of the rolling noise. 15.
line 1 measurement location,
in dB3 measurement locations,
Mean average over
in dB1 measurement location
(for example, B. TSI, VDV 154),
mean value over
| 1|| Vehicles with disc brakes|| 2|| 0|| 3|
| 2|| Vehicles with composite knock brakes|| 2|| 1|| 4|
| 3|| Vehicles with cast iron knock brakes|| 3|| 2||5|
- Components of vehicle The sound emission of a vehicle component as a sound technical innovation to an already regulated vehicle category is compared with to record and assess the sound emission of partial sources of existing vehicles (see Tables 5 and 13, column D, Supplement 1 and 2). For this purpose, measurements must be carried out prior to the detection, from which measurements a decisive contribution of the component can be derived. A contribution which is at most 3 dB lower than the measured value for the total noise shall be considered to be decisive. Measurements according to DIN EN ISO 3095 :2014-7 or special measurements-e.g. Note: For high-lying sources, it is recommended to use measurement results obtained behind a shielding wall or with a directional microphone.
- Components of Rangier and UmschlagbahnhöfenThe sound emission of a component as a sound technical innovation is compared to the sound emission of existing Partial sources (see Table 10 and Supplement 3) to be assessed and assessed. For this purpose, measurements must be carried out prior to the detection, from which measurements a decisive contribution of the component can be derived. A contribution which is at most 3 dB lower than the measured value for the total noise shall be considered to be decisive. The measurements are to be described.
- Railroad deviating railway technology and sound-technical innovations on roads include, for example, the stiff the rail fastening or a better absorption property of the roadway. They shall be recorded and assessed in comparison with known roadways of similar design in Tables 7 and 15 in the case of operation with the same vehicles. The emissions shall be determined by means of pre-accession measurements in accordance with DIN EN ISO 3095 :2014-7 under conditions in which the rolling noise predominates. Special testing of the wheel and rail surfaces shall ensure that the resulting surface roughness in the wavelength range, which is to be observed in accordance with Commission Decision 2008 /232/EC and VDV specification 154, shall be ensured in the case of the Comparison measurements in octave bands differ by not more than 1 dB. Preferably, a measuring vehicle is used for the comparison measurement, the wheel surfaces of the measuring vehicle being smooth with respect to the rail surfaces. The test will then be limited to the comparable roughness of the rail surfaces of conventional and new types of road. As an alternative, a measuring vehicle with unchanged high surface roughness of the wheels can be used. It is then only necessary to check compliance with a permissible limit value for the surface roughness of the rails in order to ensure that the influence of the rail roughness is small in comparison measurements of conventional and new types of roadways.
- Bridge-like bridges can be used as sound-technical innovations due to special constructions of bridge superstructures or Noise reduction measures are distinguished. They shall be recorded and assessed in comparison with known bridges of similar design according to Tables 9 and 16 in the case of the operation of the same vehicles. The emissions shall be determined by means of pre-departure measurements at the bridge and the subsequent free route under conditions where the rolling noise predominates. It is the unrated sound pressure level to be determined. Special testing of the wheel and rail surfaces shall ensure that the resulting surface roughness in the wavelength range, which is to be observed in accordance with Commission Decision 2008 /232/EC and VDV specification 154, shall be ensured in the case of the Comparison measurements in octave bands differ by not more than 1 dB. Note: The evaluation of the unrated sound pressure level takes into account the annoyance due to low-frequency noise components.
- Sound reduction measures on track and wheel sound reduction measures on track and on the wheel come both as deviating railway technology and as sound engineering Innovations in consideration. Deviating rail technology can also be used for track maintenance measures such as the particularly monitored track on trams. The sound-technical innovations can lead to a change in rolling noise and are in their effect with the sound source type Rolling noise, sub-sources of rail roughness-or wheel roughness of Tables 5 and 13 in conjunction with sheets 1 and 2. Used to describe:
The method used is to indicate the period of measurement and the determination of an average over to represent an assessment period. For the detection of changes, the measurement results are to be reported as the total level of the A-weighted sound power and as level differences in the eight octave bands with center frequencies of 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz.
- Direct roughness measurements with actionable transducers,
- Indirect Roughness Measurements on Board of a Measuring Vehicle,
- Means of Measurements with a Measuring Vehicle or
- Sound measurements during train passing.
- Web specific sound protection measure in the propagation path shielding facility and similar measures, the effect of which cannot be calculated according to point 6.5, are as to describe different railway technology in association with the existing regulations. For the detection of changes, measurement results in the eight octave bands with center frequencies of 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz are to be reported as level differences to the calculated shielding dimension according to point 6.5.
- Recognized Measuring StelleThe Applicant has to be able to carry out the detection measurements according to points 9.1.1 to 9.1.7 by a recognised measuring point. Recognised measuring points are the places announced in accordance with Section 29b (2) of the Federal Immission Protection Act.
9.3Opinion of the The recognised measuring point referred to in point 9.1.8 of the applicant shall draw up an expert opinion on the measurements carried out in accordance with points 9.1.1 to 9.1.7, which shall contain the following information and documents:
- Differing BahntechnikThe recognized measuring point has to determine on the basis of the measurements as specified in point 9.1, which sound technical deviations to be known and Railway technology of similar construction listed in Appendix 2. In the case of roadways in accordance with point 9.1.4, the result is indicated as a level correction with respect to the road of similar design in the octave bands by 500 Hz, 1 000 Hz and 2 000 Hz. The remaining octave bands remain unaccounted for; no level correction is given for them. In the case of sound reduction measures on the track or on the wheel according to point 9.1.6, the measurement results shall be the total level of the A-weighted sound power and as level differences in the eight octave bands with centre frequencies of 63 Hz for the detection of changes. up to 8 000 Hz. In the case of deviating railway technology, level differences are the emission of comparable sub-sources described in the leaflets 1 to 3. In the case of railway-specific sound-protection measures in the propagation path according to point 9.1.7, measurement results in the eight octave bands with center frequencies of 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz are used as level differences for the calculated shielding dimension for the detection of changes in the eight octave bands. Point 6.5.
- Noise-technical innovaThe recognised measuring point shall determine, on the basis of the measurements referred to in point 9.1, whether: the subject-matter of the application shall be substantially different from the sound technical information provided by this Appendix. A significant deviation shall be provided for sound technical innovations referred to in points 9.1.1 to 9.1.6, if for a sub-source according to Table 5 or 13 the Deviation in the A-weighted total level for individual vehicle gardens according to Table 3 or 12 at least 2 dB, or at least 4 dB in individual octave bands. In the case of a sound protection measure in the propagation path according to point 9.1.7, there is usually a significant deviation from the calculation results according to point 6, if the deviation for the calculation result in accordance with DIN EN ISO 3095 :2014-7 in accordance with DIN EN ISO 3095 :2014-7 A-rated total level of at least 2 dB or in individual octave bands at least 4 dB. The recognised measuring point has for all sound-technical innovations the assignment of the subject of the application to the existing leaflets or stipulations in paragraphs 3 to 6 and the different sound-technical effects. The sound-technical effect shall be carried out by the verification of whole dB by mathematical rounding. In the case of sound technical innovations according to points 9.1.1, 9.1.2 and 9.1.3, the results shall be the total level of the A-weighted sound power and as a To indicate level differences in eight octave bands with centre frequencies of 63 Hz to 8 000 Hz for the reference speed of 100 km/h in accordance with the leaflets 1 to 3. Characteristic of sound technical innovations are level differences for the emission of comparable partial sources described in the leaflets 1 to 3. In the case of sound-technical innovations according to point 9.1.4, the result is compared with the level correction. of the track of similar construction in the octave bands by 500 Hz, 1 000 Hz and 2 000 Hz. The remaining octave bands remain unaccounted for; no level correction is specified for them. In the case of sound technical innovations according to point 9.1.5, the result is as level correction KBr or for sound reduction measures as level correction KLM. expressed in the difference between the unrated sound pressure levels at the bridge and the free distance
10. Accessibility of technical rules and standards
- the description of the measurement setup,
- the description of the local conditions as well as the description of the state of the track and the rail surfaces,
- the description of the meteorological conditions,
- the description of the entertainment state, the Running performance and wheel roughness of the vehicle used in the measurement,
- the measurement protocols of the measurements carried out,
- specifying the number of measurements taken if more than the measurements included in the review were performed
- the evaluation of the measurement results in accordance with point 9.2.
and in of the German National Library. Supplement 1 datasheets Railways-Fixed interpretations
- The DIN standards, DIN EN standards and DIN ISO standards referred to in the regulation are available at Beuth Verlag GmbH, Berlin, and are archive-wise in the German National Library. backed up.
- The VDV font 154 is to be obtained by the German Transport Association (VDV)
For the Thalys-PBKA half-train and Thalys-PBKA-move without wheel absorber: A of the sub-sources 1 and 2 are to be increased by 5 dB each.
the ETR 470 Cisalpino without Wheel absorption:A of sub-sources 1 and 2 are each 5 dB to increase each of the other subsources by 2 dB
leaflets 2 datasheets trams-fixings
For vehicles with climate contact: A of the partial source 4 is increased by 8 dB.
The specified values apply to average New types of vehicles. In particular, in the case of older vehicles, a check in accordance with section 9.1.1 is required.
leaflet 3 datasheets Rangier and transshipment terminals
* The specified LWA is valid for a braking element with the length of approx. 1.2 m
* nret is the Number of retarder per running meter track
* nret is the number of retarder per running meter track.
The run-up speed must be v = Do not exceed 1.25 m/s
* The value refers to a shunting group of 20 cars (400 m in length).