Keywords foreign, INTERNATIONAL agreement, international CONVENTION, RATIFICATION, Act of nuclear terrorism, REPRESSION, anti-terrorism CONVENTION, fight against the terrorism JORF n ° 0055 March 6, 2014 page 4882 text no. 2 order No. 2014-289 of 4 March 2014 promulgating the international convention for the Suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism, signed in New York on September 14, 2005 (1) NOR : MAEJ1404405D ELI: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/decret/2014/3/4/MAEJ1404405D/jo/texte Alias: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/decret/2014/3/4/2014-289/jo/texte the President of the Republic, on the report of the Prime Minister and the Minister of Foreign Affairs, pursuant to the Constitution, particular articles 52 to 55.
Pursuant to law No. 2013 - 327 of 19 April 2013 authorizing the ratification of the international convention for the Suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism;
Having regard to Decree No. 53-192, 14 March 1953 as amended relating to the ratification and the publication of the international commitments entered into by France;
Considering Decree No. 92-110 February 3, 1992, on the publication of the convention on the physical protection of nuclear material, opened for signature in Vienna and New York on 3 March 1980 (together two annexes), enacts as follows: Article 1 the international convention for the Suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism, signed at New York on 14 September 2005, will be published in the Official Journal of the French Republic.
Article 2 the Prime Minister and the Foreign Minister are responsible, each in relation to the implementation of this Decree, which shall be published in the Official Journal of the French Republic.
C O N V E N T I O N I N T E R N A T I O N A L E for the Suppression of acts of terrorism nuclear the States Parties to the Convention, bearing in mind the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations concerning the maintenance of international peace and security and the development of good-neighbourly relations friendship and cooperation between States, recalling the Declaration of the fiftieth anniversary of the United Nations dated 24 October 1995, considering that all States have the right to develop and use nuclear energy for peaceful purposes and that they have a legitimate interest to enjoy the benefits of the peaceful use of nuclear energy, bearing in mind the Convention on the physical protection of nuclear material , 1980, deeply concerned by the multiplication, in the world, of acts of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, recalling the Declaration on measures to eliminate international terrorism, annexed to resolution 49/60 of the General Assembly, of 9 December 1994, in which, among other provisions, the States members of the United Nations reaffirm solemnly their unequivocal condemnation as criminal and unjustifiable, all acts, methods and practices of terrorism, wherever they occur and whatever the authors, including those which jeopardize friendly relations among States and peoples and threaten the territorial integrity and security of States, noting that the Declaration also calls on States to review urgently the scope of the international legal provisions in force which relate to the prevention , repression and elimination of terrorism in all its forms and manifestations, in order to ensure that there is a comprehensive legal framework covering all aspects of the question, recalling the resolution 51/210 of the General Assembly, of 17 December 1996 and the Declaration to supplement the 1994 Declaration on measures to eliminate international terrorism, which is annexed , Recalling also that, pursuant to resolution 51/210, the General Assembly, an Ad Hoc Committee was established to develop, inter alia, an international convention for the Suppression of acts of nuclear terrorism to supplement international instruments existing in this area, noting that acts of nuclear terrorism may have the most serious consequences and may constitute a threat to peace and security international , Noting also that the instruments existing multilateral legal process not these attacks in a proper way, convinced of the urgent need to strengthen international cooperation between States for the development and adoption of effective and practical measures intended to prevent this type of terrorist acts and to prosecute and punish the perpetrators, noting that the activities of the armed forces of States are governed by rules of international law which lie outside the framework of this Convention and that the exclusion of certain acts from the scope of the Convention no excuse nor makes lawful otherwise unlawful acts and does not preclude prosecution under other laws, have agreed as follows: Article 1 for the purposes of this Convention: 1. "Radioactive material" means any nuclear material or other radioactive substance containing nuclides which disintegrate spontaneously (a process accompanied by emission of one or more types of ionizing radiation such as ionizing Alpha, beta, gamma, and neutron), and which may, owing to their radiological or fissile properties, cause death, serious bodily injury or substantial damage to property or the environment.
2. "nuclear material" means plutonium, except that with the isotopic concentration of plutonium-238 exceeding 80%. uranium 233; uranium enriched in the isotope 235 or 233; uranium containing the mixture of isotopes occurring in nature other than in the form of ore or ore residue; or of any other material containing one or more of the foregoing;
"Uranium enriched in the isotope 235 or 233" means uranium containing either the isotope 235 or 233 or both in quantity as the ratio of the isotope levels for the sum of these isotopes to the isotope 238 is greater than the ratio of the isotope 235 to the isotope 238 occurring in nature.
3. "Nuclear facility" means: a) any nuclear reactor, including a reactor onboard a ship, vehicle, aircraft or a spacecraft as a source of energy used to propel such vessel, vehicle, aircraft or spacecraft, or for any other purpose;
(b) any device or transport for the purpose of producing unit, store, reprocess or transporting radioactive material.
4. "Device" means: a) of any nuclear explosive device; or (b) any device radioactive material dispersal or radiation-emitting device which, owing to its radiological properties, cause death, serious bodily injury or substantial damage to property or the environment.
5. 'Government or public facility"means any equipment or any means of movement of permanent or temporary nature that is used or occupied by representatives of a State, members of Government, Parliament or the judiciary, or agents or employees of a State or any other authority or public entity, or by officials or employees of an intergovernmental organization , as part of their official duties.
6. "forces armed forces of a State" means the forces of a State organized, trained and equipped under its internal law, essentially for the purpose of national defence or national security, and persons acting in support of those armed forces who are placed officially under their command, their authority and responsibility.
Article 2 1. Commits an offence within the meaning of this Convention any person who unlawfully and intentionally: has) possesses radioactive materials, manufactures or holds a gear: i) with intent to cause the death of a person or cause him serious bodily harm. or ii) with the intent to cause substantial damage to property or the environment.
(b) uses in any way radioactive, or materials or uses or damages a nuclear facility to release or risk of release of radioactive materials: i) with the intent to cause the death of a person or cause him serious bodily harm. or ii) with the intent to cause substantial damage to property or the environment; or (iii)) in the intent to compel a natural or legal person, an international organization or a Government to perform an act or to refrain.
2. also commits an offence who: has) threat, in circumstances which render the credible threat to commit an offence referred to in paragraph (b) of paragraph 1 of this article; or b) demands unlawfully and intentionally delivery of materials or radioactive or nuclear facilities using the threat, under circumstances which render it credible, or the use of force.
3 also commits an offence anyone who attempts to commit an offence referred to in paragraph 1 of this article.
4. is also guilty of an offence who: has) accomplice to an offence referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 or 3 of this article; or (b) organizes the commission of an offence referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 or 3 of this article or ordered others to commit; or
c) contributes in any other way to the commission of one or more of the offences referred to in paragraphs 1, 2 or 3 of this article by a group of persons acting in concert if it deliberately and to facilitate the general criminal activity of group or serve the purposes thereof, either by knowing the intention of the group to commit the offence or offences covered.
Article 3 this Convention shall not apply where the offence is committed within a single State, the alleged offender and the victims are nationals of that State, the alleged perpetrator of the offence lies in the territory of that State and no other State has reason, pursuant to paragraph 1 or paragraph 2 of article 9 to exercise jurisdiction, being understood that the provisions of articles 7, 12, 14, 15, 16 and 17, as appropriate, apply in such cases.
Article 4 1. Nothing in this Convention affects the other rights, obligations and responsibilities arising for States and individuals of international law, in particular the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and international humanitarian law.
2. the activities of armed forces during periods of armed conflict, within the meaning given to those terms by international humanitarian law, which are governed by that law, are not governed by this Convention, and the activities performed by the armed forces of a State in the exercise of their official functions, as they are governed by other rules of international law are not governed by this Convention.
3. the provisions of paragraph 2 of this article are interpreted not as condoning or making lawful otherwise unlawful acts, or precluding prosecution under other laws.
4 this Convention does not and cannot be interpreted as in any way addressing the question of the legality of the use or the threat of use of nuclear weapons by States.
Article 5 each State party shall take the measures which may be necessary for: a) establish as criminal offences under its national legislation offences under article 2 of this Convention;
(b) suppress such offences by sentences taking due account of their gravity.
Article 6 each State party shall adopt measures that may be required, including, if appropriate, national legislation to ensure that the criminal acts covered by this Convention, in particular those which are intended or calculated to provoke terror in the population, a group of persons or particular persons, cannot under any circumstances be justified by political considerations philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or other similar nature, and that they are punished for their seriousness.
Article 7 1. The States Parties shall cooperate: a) by taking all possible measures, including, if necessary, adapting their national law, to prevent or thwart the preparation in their respective territories, of offences referred to in article 2 aimed at be committed inside or outside their territories, including the measures to prohibit on their territories illegal individuals groups and organizations that encourage, instigate, organize, finance informed or knowingly provide technical assistance or information or commit such offences;
b) exchanging information accurate and audited in accordance with the provisions of their national legislation and according to the terms and conditions set out in these provisions and in coordinating the administrative measures and other taken, where appropriate, in order to detect, prevent and combat the offences listed in article 2 of this Convention, and to investigate them and to initiate proceedings against the alleged perpetrators of these crimes. In particular, any State party is required to inform without delay the other States referred to in article 9 any offence referred to in article 2 and all preparations for such offences of which he had knowledge, as well as to inform, where appropriate, international organizations.
2. States Parties shall take measures consistent with their national law to preserve the confidentiality of any information received in confidence from another State party in accordance with the provisions of this Convention, or obtained through their participation in activities carried out pursuant to this Convention. If States Parties communicate in confidence the information to international organizations, they are necessary to ensure that confidentiality is maintained.
3. the provisions of this Convention do not impose the obligation to disclose information he would not have the right to disclose, under its national law, or that could endanger his safety or the physical protection of nuclear material to a State party.
4. States Parties shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations Organization the name of their bodies and relevant focal points responsible for communicate and receive the information referred to in this article. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall communicate information about bodies and relevant focal points to all States Parties and the International Atomic Energy Agency. Access to these bodies and these centres should be opened permanently.
Article 8 for the purpose of preventing the offences set forth in the present Convention, the States Parties shall endeavour to adopt appropriate measures to ensure the protection of radioactive material, taking into account the recommendations and the relevant functions of the International Atomic Energy Agency.
Article 9 1. Each State party shall adopt the measures which may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction with regard to offences set forth in article 2 when: a) the offence is committed on its territory; or (b) the offence is committed on board a vessel flying its flag or aircraft registered under its laws at the time the offence was committed; or (c) the offence is committed by one of its nationals.
(2 each State party may also establish its jurisdiction over such offences when: a) the offence is committed against one of its nationals; or (b) the offence is committed against a public that State outside its territory, including an Embassy or diplomatic premises or consular of that State; or (c) the offence is committed by a stateless person who has his habitual residence in its territory; or (d) the offence is designed to compel that State to do any or abstain. or e) the offence is committed on board an aircraft operated by the Government of that State.
3. when of the ratification, acceptance or approval of this Convention or accession, each State party shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the jurisdiction it has established under its national law in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article. In case of modification, the State party concerned shall immediately notify the Secretary-General.
4. each State party shall also adopt measures that may be necessary to establish its jurisdiction with regard to the offences referred to in article 2 in cases where the perpetrator of the offence lies in its territory and where it does not extradite him to one any of the States Parties which have established their jurisdiction in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article.
5. this Convention shall preclude the exercise of any criminal jurisdiction established by a State party in accordance with its national legislation.
Article 10 1. When he is informed that an offence referred to in article 2 has been committed or is committed in its territory or the author or the perpetrator of such an offence could be found on its territory, the State party concerned shall take the measures that may be necessary under its domestic law to investigate the facts before her.
2. If it considers that the circumstances so warrant, the State party on the territory of which the offender is present or the alleged perpetrator of the offence takes appropriate measures under its national law to ensure that person's presence for the purpose of prosecution or extradition.
3. any person with respect to which the measures referred to in paragraph 2 of this article are taken is entitled: has) to communicate without delay with the nearest qualified representative of the State of which it is a national or which is otherwise empowered to protect the rights of the person or, if a person stateless, of the State on whose territory it has its habitual residence;
(b) to be visited by a representative of that State;
(c) to be informed of rights conferred on it by paragraphs a and b.
4. the rights referred to in paragraph 3 of this article are exercised within the laws and regulations of the State on whose territory is the author or the alleged perpetrator of the offence, provided, however, that these laws and regulations must enable the full realization of the purposes for which the rights are granted under paragraph 3.
5. the provisions of paragraphs 3 and 4 of this article are without prejudice to the right of any State party having established its jurisdiction, in accordance with paragraph (c) of paragraph 1 or paragraph (c) of paragraph 2 of article 9, to invite the international Committee of the Red Cross to communicate with the perpetrator of the offence and to visit.
6. where a State party has placed a person in custody in accordance with the provisions of this article, he shall notify immediately of this detention and the circumstances that justify it, directly or through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, States Parties which have established their jurisdiction in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 of article 9 and, if it considers it appropriate all other States Parties concerned. The State conducting the investigation referred to in paragraph 1 of this article quickly communicate the said States Parties conclusions and tells them whether it intends to exercise jurisdiction.
Article 11 1. In cases where the provisions of article 9 shall apply, the State party on the territory of which lies the perpetrator of the offence shall, if it does not extradite to submit the case, without undue delay and without exception, that the offence has been committed in its territory, to its competent authorities for the exercise of criminal action according to a procedure consistent with the legislation of that State. These authorities shall take their decision in the same conditions for any other offence of a serious nature under the laws of that State.
2 whenever, under its national law, a State party is permitted to extradite or to one of its nationals only on condition that the person concerned will be handed over to serve the sentence which has been imposed at the end of the trial or proceedings for which the extradition or surrender was sought, and this State and the State requesting extradition accept this formula and other terms they may deem appropriate extradition or conditional surrender sufficient to deliver the requested State party the obligation laid down in paragraph 1 of this article.
Article 12 any person placed in detention or against which any other measure is taken or proceedings pursuant to this Convention is guaranteed fair treatment and all rights and guarantees consistent with the legislation of the State on whose territory it is located and the applicable provisions of international law, including those relating to human rights.
Article 13 1. The offences set forth in article 2 shall be regarded as extraditable in any extradition treaty concluded between States Parties before the entry into force of this Convention. States Parties undertake to consider such offences as extraditable in any extradition treaty to be subsequently concluded between them.
2. when a State party that makes extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty receives a request for extradition from another State party with which it is not bound by an extradition treaty, the requested State party has the latitude to consider this Convention as the legal basis for extradition in relation to the offences set forth in article 2. Extradition shall be subject to the other conditions laid down by the legislation of the requested State.
3. States Parties which do not make extradition conditional on the existence of a treaty recognize the offences referred to in article 2 as extraditable between them under the conditions laid down by the legislation of the requested State.
4. the offences set forth in article 2, if any, qualify for the purposes of extradition between States Parties as if they had been committed not only instead of their Commission on the territory of the States that have established their jurisdiction in accordance with paragraphs 1 and 2 of article 9.
5. the provisions of all treaties or agreements of extradition between States Parties relating to the offences referred to in article 2 shall be deemed be changed between States Parties to the extent that they are incompatible with this Convention.
Article 14 1. The States Parties shall grant the broadest mutual assistance possible for any investigation, criminal or extradition proceedings relating to the offences referred to in article 2, including the obtaining of the evidence they have and which are necessary for the purposes of the procedure.
2. States Parties to fulfil the obligations that their obligations under paragraph 1 of the present article in conformity with any treaty or agreement for mutual legal assistance that may exist between them. In the absence of such a treaty or agreement, States Parties agree this assistance in accordance with their national legislation.
Article 15 for the purposes of extradition or mutual legal assistance between States Parties, none of the offences referred to in article 2 is considered an offence political or related to a political offence or inspired by political motives. Accordingly, a request for extradition or for mutual legal assistance based on such an offence may be refused for the reason alone that it concerns a political offence, an offence connected with a political offence or an offence inspired by political motives.
Article 16 no provision of this Convention shall be construed as implying an obligation of extradition or mutual legal assistance if the requested State party has reasonable grounds for believing that the request for extradition for offences set forth in article 2 or the request for mutual assistance concerning such offences was presented for the purpose of continuing or punishing a person for reasons of race religion, nationality, ethnic origin or political opinions, or that this request would be detrimental to the situation of that person for any of these considerations.
Article 17 1. Any person detained or serving a sentence in the territory of one State party whose presence in another State party is required to provide testimony or identification or in order to assist in the establishment of facts in an investigation or prosecution under this Convention may be the subject of a transfer if the following conditions are met (: a) the person freely gives informed consent; and (b) the competent authorities of the two States concerned so agree, subject to the conditions that they may deem appropriate.
2. for the purposes of this article: a) the State to which the transfer is made has the authority and obligation to keep the person transferred in custody, unless otherwise requested or authorized by the State from which the person was transferred;
(b) the State to which the transfer is made shall carry out without delay of the accountability of the person responsible for the custody of the State from which the transfer was made, in accordance with what has been agreed beforehand, or as otherwise agreed, by the competent authorities of both States;
(c) the State towards which the transfer is made shall not require the State from which the transfer is made to initiate extradition proceedings for the person concerned;
(d) account shall be taken of the period that the person concerned has spent in detention in the State to which he was transferred for the purposes of the count of the sentence to be served in the State from which he was transferred.
3. unless the State party from which a person shall be transferred, in accordance with the provisions of this section, does not give its agreement, the person, what regardless of nationality, may not be prosecuted, detained or subjected to other restrictions on its freedom of movement in the territory of the State to which it is transferred at the rate of acts or convictions prior to his departure from the territory of the State from which it was transferred.
Section 18 (1). After entering of radioactive or nuclear facilities or material or otherwise taking control of these materials, equipment or facilities after the Commission of an offence referred to in article 2, the State party which holds must: a) take the necessary measures to neutralize the materials or radioactive, or nuclear facilities;
(b)) ensure that nuclear materials are held in a manner consistent with applicable International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards; and (c) take into account the recommendations for physical protection and health and safety standards published by the International Atomic Energy Agency.
2. Once completed the statement to an offence referred to in article 2 or earlier if required by international law, materials or radioactive devices or nuclear facilities shall be returned, after consultation (especially in the terms of return and storage) with the States Parties concerned, the State party to which they belong, to the State party of which the person natural or legal owner of these materials , equipment or facilities is a national or resident, or to the State party on whose territory they have been stolen or obtained illegally in another way.
3. a) if domestic law or international law prohibits a State party to render or accept such materials or radioactive or nuclear facilities, or if the States Parties concerned so agree, subject to the provisions of paragraph (b) of this paragraph, the State party which holds materials or radioactive or nuclear facilities shall continue to take the actions described in paragraph 1 of this article; These materials or radioactive or nuclear facilities will be used only for peaceful purposes;
(3B) if it is not lawful for a State party which holds materials or radioactive or nuclear facilities to have in its possession, that State must ensure that they are, as soon as possible, entrusted to a State which can detain them in a manner lawful and which, as appropriate, provided for their neutralization of insurance complying with the requirements in paragraph 1 of this article in consultation with the State concerned; These materials or radioactive devices or nuclear facilities shall be used only for peaceful purposes.
4. If the materials or radioactive devices or nuclear facilities referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of the present article do not belong to any of the States Parties or do not belong to a national or resident of a State party and were not stolen or obtained illegally in another way in the territory of a State party, or if no State is willing to receive these materials devices or facilities in accordance with paragraph 3 of this article, the fate of these will be the subject of a separate decision, in accordance with paragraph (b) of paragraph 3 of this article, taken after consultation between States and relevant international organizations.
5. for the purposes of paragraphs 1, 2, 3 and 4 of this article, the State party which holds radioactive or nuclear facilities or materials may request the assistance and cooperation of other States Parties, and in particular the States Parties concerned, and the competent international organisations, in particular the International Atomic Energy Agency. States Parties and relevant international organizations are encouraged to provide all possible assistance in application of the provisions of this paragraph.
6. States Parties that decide the fate of materials or radioactive or nuclear facilities or who retain them pursuant to this article shall inform the Director-general of the international agency of Atomic Energy of the fate they have booked these materials, equipment or facilities or the manner in which they retain. The Director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency passes this information to the other States Parties.
7 if it were spread in relation to an offence referred to in article 2, nothing in this section alters in any way the rules of international law governing liability for nuclear damage or other rules of international law.
Article 19 the State party where proceedings have been instituted against the perpetrator of the offence furnishes, in accordance with its national law or applicable procedures, the final outcome to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, who shall inform the other States Parties.
Article 20 States Parties shall consult directly or through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, if necessary with the assistance of international organizations, to ensure the correct application of this Convention.
Section 21 States Parties fulfill the obligations arising from the Convention in compliance with the principles of sovereign equality and territorial integrity of States, as well as that of non-interference in the internal affairs of other States.
Article 22 nothing in this Convention entitles a State party to exercise on the territory of another State party jurisdiction or functions that are reserved exclusively for the authorities of that other State party by its national law.
Article 23 1. Any dispute between States parties concerning the interpretation or application of this Convention which cannot be settled through negotiation within a reasonable time is subject to arbitration at the request of one of those States. If, within six months following the date of the request for arbitration, the parties are unable to agree on the Organization of the arbitration, one any of them may refer the dispute to the International Court of Justice, by filing a request in accordance with the Statute of the Court.
2 any State may, at the time where he signs, ratifies, accepts or approves this Convention or accedes thereto, declare that it does not consider itself bound by the provisions of paragraph 1 of this article. Other States Parties are not bound by these provisions to any State party which has made such a reservation.
3. any State which has made a reservation in accordance with paragraph 2 of this article may at any time withdraw such reservation by a notification addressed to the Secretary general of the United Nations.
Article 24 1. This Convention is open for signature by all States from September 14, 2005, to December 31, 2006, at the United Nations Headquarters in New York.
2. the present Convention shall be ratified, accepted or approved. The instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
3. this Convention is open to accession by any State. The instruments of accession shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Article 25 1. This Convention shall enter into force the thirtieth day following the date of deposit with the Secretary-General of the United Nations of the twenty-second instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
2. for each of the States which ratify, accept or approve the Convention after the deposit of the twenty-second instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Convention enters into force the thirtieth day after the deposit by such State of its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
Article 26 1. A State party may propose an amendment to this Convention. The proposed amendment is addressed to the depositary, who shall immediately communicate it to all States Parties.
2. If a majority of States Parties request the depositary the convening of a conference for the consideration of the proposed amendment, the depositary invites all States Parties to a conference, which will open at the earliest three months after the sending of the notices.
3. the conference doesn't neglect no effort so that the amendments are adopted by consensus. In case it cannot achieve, amendments shall be adopted by a majority of two thirds of all States Parties. Any amendment adopted at the Conference is immediately communicated by the depositary to all States Parties.
4. the amendment adopted pursuant to paragraph 3 of this article shall enter into force for each State party that deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of the amendment, or of accession to the amendment, the thirtieth day following the date on which two thirds of the States Parties have deposited their relevant instrument. Thereafter, the amendment shall enter into force for any State party the thirtieth day following the date on which it has deposited its relevant instrument.
Article 27 1. Any State party may denounce this Convention by written notification addressed to the Secretary general of the United Nations.
2. the denunciation shall take effect one year after the date on which the notification has been received by the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Article 28 the original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, french, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the Organization of the United Nations, which shall keep certified copies to all the States.
In faith whereof the undersigned, duly authorized thereto by their respective Governments, have signed this Convention, which was opened for signature at the headquarters of the United Nations in New York, September 14, 2005.
Made on March 4, 2014.
François Hollande by the President of the Republic: Prime Minister, Jean-Marc Ayrault Foreign Affairs Minister, Laurent Fabius (1) presents convention entered into force on 13 October 2013.