JORF n ° 196, August 25, 2007 14147 text no. 7 Decree of 3 August 2007 page defining technical standards of CCTV (Corrigendum) NOR systems: IOCD0762353Z ELI: https://www.legifrance.gouv.fr/eli/arrete/2007/8/3/IOCD0762353Z/jo/texte corrigendum to the Official Journal of 21 August 2007, electronic edition, text no. 4, and edition paper, page 13889, after the signing, add the following appendices : Annex A N N E X E T E C H N I Q U E 1 order lays down technical standards that concern, on the one hand, cameras and storage (articles 1 and 2) and transmission systems, other, on the interoperability of systems for storing and exporting the data to the forces of police and gendarmerie (article 3).
To facilitate the use of this circular, the requirements of order that it says are listed in italics.
1. cameras ' cameras are paid, equipped and connected to the system and, if applicable, the storage system, so that images rendered when viewing in real or delayed time to meet the purposes for which the video surveillance system was authorized.»
1.1. the technical characteristics of the video surveillance system must achieve the objectives of security for its installation.
The first implication is that the objectives of the system and each camera, in terms of safety, must be clearly stated. These objectives concern the overall system (rate accepted downtime, characteristic of the system of storage...) as well as actual cameras, roles must be defined. For example, such group of cameras will have as its primary function is to allow the lifting of doubt before a door opening, while as another group of cameras will have as the main objective is to enable parsing of the image in real time as, for example, the recognition of individuals who accessed a given area.
1.2. the quality of the images.
The second implication, which is fundamental, is that the technical characteristics of the system must be consistent with the stated objectives. This is essential because, if the diversity of the situations not define absolutely what must be the technical characteristics of a system to obtain a certain result, however it is always possible to check the consistency of a system with the objectives assigned. The order specifies that this audit should not be exclusively on the various elements of the system (quality of cameras, data link quality, quality of the compression of images...) but on the quality of the rendered images.
This layout consistency requires the operator to adapt the deficient elements or poorly dimensioned system when the quality of the rendered images is incompatible with its objectives.
The control of this consistency during the examination of the application for prior authorisation to install, so "on record", can be difficult. A technical annex nevertheless provides some benchmarks which the services of the prefectures will be during the examination of the dossiers.
It should be to draw attention to the fact that this first requirement has a certain interest in the event of a posteriori control of the system, when the application for renewal of the authorisation for example.
"Cameras are technical characteristics adapted to the conditions of illumination of the parking place.
It's simply verify that the operator has taken into account specificities related to the illumination of the videosurveiller scenes at the choice of the cameras. Indeed, if it comes to be able to record quality in night vision images, then appropriate use high sensitivity cameras either allow extra lighting, infrared, for example. These elements must go hand in hand with special conditions for the lighting of the scenes filmed, which need to be also specified (bright light can indeed, indoors, allow the use of a less sensitive camera).
2. the transmission of images "networks on which pass the video streams offer bandwidth compatible with the flow needed for the transmission of images of sufficient quality to meet the purposes for which the video surveillance system was cleared."
Images from the cameras, to be transmitted on networks, should be coded and usually compressed in order to be communicated in real time through the arteries of transmission. Flow up to these channels, called bandwidth, therefore directly determines the quality of the received images. Thus, insufficient bandwidth will automatically result in a loss of quality (compression of excessive images inducing a damaging loss of information) or performance (decrease of the number of frames per second or choosing not to transmit all streams).
The diversity of use cases (still image or with a lot of movement for example) and technical devices (MPEG 2, MPEG 4, JPEG, JPEG 2000 compression...) does not define in advance the minimum bandwidth required for digital transmission of image quality, this dependent quality also the security target. It is recalled to memory, the average weight of an excellent quality image is 45 KB. On the other hand, the table below gives an overview of the order of magnitude of the bandwidth used to transmit images with certain characteristics for different classes of data compression.
You can consult the table in OJ No 196, 08/25/2007 text number 7, if an operator declares make transit 8 simultaneous streams of images, to 4 CIF format to 12 frames per second compressed in MPEG 2 format (2 MB x 8 = 16 Mbps of theoretical throughput necessary for the transmission of these flows), on a system with a bandwidth of 4Mbits should be wondering about the appropriateness of this choice.
"The networks on which pass the video stream take into account these safety, guaranteeing their availability, confidentiality and integrity."
The data returned by video surveillance systems must submit three types of essential characteristics:-they must conform to the original images. These should not have been corrupted or altered during transfer. The transmission system must offer a guarantee of integrity of the data provided;
-they must be accessible in case of load. For that, you need in the first place that the transmission system is robust to failures as to any external aggression. It must offer a guarantee of availability of the data provided;
-they must be accessible only to persons authorised to dispose of it. This implies that specific devices must be implemented to prevent interception and reading of the data transmitted. The transmission system must therefore offer a guarantee of confidentiality of the data exchanged, most often through appropriate cryptographic functions.
It is not here to engage in a comprehensive security expertise ensuring these three criteria, or even ask the operator for a formal security certificate. On the other hand, it should be to ensure that these criteria have been taken into account and that the solutions implemented are these three subjects.
The case of digital wireless transmissions (so-called Wi - Fi and Wi - Max technologies for example) certainly deserve special attention. Indeed, the interception of the flow is by easy nature and, to a lesser extent, the 'denial of service '. It is therefore appropriate that, on the one hand, the operator guarantees the confidentiality of the data by the use of suitable and reliable encryption and that on the other hand, it limits the use of these technologies in segments of network terminals or unfit to wired technologies.
3. the storage "storage of the video stream is done on digital support for video surveillance systems with eight cameras or more. '' This storage can also be achieved on another type of support. Storage of the video stream is done on analog or digital support for video surveillance systems with less than eight cameras. "When an installation of video surveillance becomes important, it is not conceivable, with the aim of quality of service, to use analog storage. Digital storage is therefore imperative. It should be noted that this constraint applies only to the module of recording images, which implies that nothing precludes using analog cameras which flows will be scanned later. It is however specified that storage can also be performed on another type of support in order to allow operators to maintain their system of analog recording (type VHS tapes), in addition to the digital recording system that they will be required to put in place.
To limit the cost of installation of small video surveillance systems, it is possible to use an analog storage medium providing greater ease of installation and use. Targeted systems here, which include seven cameras or less, must be understood as those intended to secure an autonomous geographical entity. For example, a company that files an application for authorization for video surveillance in each of its agencies (thus independent and autonomous) systems can design these as independent systems for each of them. In this case, all agencies seven cameras or less are allowed to retain a system of storage of analog. Nevertheless, it must be noted that these systems are considered as independent unless the storage and/or visualization occurs (nt) in each of the agencies. If the videos of the agencies are repatriated on one or more common sites, each agency systems cannot be considered to be independent.
«All video streams recorded digitally is stored with information to determine at any time the movie its date, time and location of the camera.»
In order to be able to use the video images stored in judicial proceedings, it is necessary to be able to certify the spatial and temporal information associated with the images. Article 2, second paragraph, of the Decree of 26 September 2006 applies explicitly only the ability of the registration system to associate the images these three data. His mind however is to allow an investigator service to effectively use digital data, which has a double involvement:-date and location parameters must be accessible to the investigator with the visualization system available to it;
-the parameters must be accurate.
Should be to ensure, insofar as possible, that these two constraints have been taken into account.
There is a simple method which is to mark this information directly on the video image. However, this method has the disadvantage of hide portions of the image. Another method is to associate information with the video stream, and then create a software link between the images and the associated information file. In this particular case, readers provided to the investigation services must have a specific capacity to re-home the data and images during their operation.
The operator of the video surveillance system will also clarify how it ensures the reliability of the temporal repository that will be associated with the images.
"For analog recording of flows systems video, a device allows to determine at any time the date, time and location of the camera corresponding to recorded images."
The need for the police force is the same regardless of the nature of the system, only the storage mechanism of information associated with the images will be different. In the case of analog recording (of type VHS tapes), the information must exist but their format (file paper or digital) is not specified. Should nevertheless ensure that investigators will be able to have this information in the analysis of images. Data associated with analog media therefore must them be communicated with the videotapes.
"Digital recording ensures integrity of video streams and associated data to the date, time and location of the camera.".
The means to be implemented to ensure the integrity of the video stream and associated data on the date, time and location of the camera are not specified. In particular, it is not required here that systems incorporate devices of electronic tagging of images (sometimes referred to as watermarking or watermarking), even if these devices are welcome and should be encouraged. Indeed, a robust digital system as the recorded traces (any intervention likely to change data is invariably registered) and the operating environment (which inter alia guarantees the integrity of the traces system) is likely to achieve the objectives of integrity.
"From stored video streams from cameras which, given their positioning and their orientation, mainly work in narrow terms, excluding those of road traffic, have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to 704 x 576 pixels. This format may be less if the system allows the extraction of face with a minimum resolution of 90 x 60 pixel thumbnail. "The purpose of article 2, fifth paragraph, is to promote the existence of images of a satisfactory accuracy for the work of the investigators. It therefore establishes the principle of a minimum level of images stored when they are from cameras operating in narrow plan.
The balance here is to ensure a good level of quality images only when it is necessary for the police and gendarmerie forces without excessive technical demands on the parts of the device less directly affecting the investigative work.
For this, there are two major types of CCTV cameras, those whose main function is to analyze information on individuals or objects in the field of cameras (which are said to operate in narrow plan) and those whose main function is to provide an overview of the situation (which are said to operate in wide shot).
This classification calls for two remarks and deserves to be illustrated by a few examples.
First of all, it is understood that cameras which are a video surveillance device most often have multiple missions. This is even more true that some cameras are equipped with zoom and fast orientation functions that allow them to offer a comprehensive plan and spend the instant following in close-up. Nevertheless, it remains that each camera is most often assigned a main objective of operation: lift of doubt, a queue management, surveillance of sensitive lens, control flows...
It is necessary that these objectives are specified for each camera in the dossiers submitted by the operators. Most often they are to decide on the classification of the cameras to plan wide or narrow plan.
Then, it is legitimate to wonder about the possible correlation between the technical characteristics in terms of focal length or zoom cameras and their plan use broad or narrow plane (such as these concepts have been defined above). Given the diversity of the uses of video surveillance, this link does not seem to be relevant. Indeed, a camera designed to guarantee the security of an ATM or secure input-output in a bus can, made the distance to the target, work with an angular opening important, whereas within the meaning of the Decree of 26 September 2006 it has, taking into account the precision expected of the image, narrow plan operation. In the same way, some cameras aimed at securing railways can operate with a small opening angle but plan to the sense of order, if they are intended for the regulation of rail traffic.
704 x 576 resolution corresponds to the format says 4 CIF, standard in the field of video, compatible with the performance of the majority of the cameras installed and constituting the high standard in image definition pending the generalization of the so-called high-definition cameras. The definition referred to in this article applies to images stored on the registration system. This implies that the entire video should display characteristics compatible with these recording formats: resolution of the sensors (technical characteristics of cameras), the camera output image format, the compression ratio of the images during the transfer to storage. Another consequence is that storage spaces must be compatible with the overall characteristics of the system. It is therefore important that technical specifications (definition, compression ratio, number of images per second, duration of storage of data, number of stored streams) system are specified and the calculation leading to the design of storage spaces.
In some cases, it is not necessary to have an image of 704 x 576 pixels to provide a satisfactory resolution of filmed subjects. Operators are therefore free to hold a lower format if he proposes, in the nominal area of shooting, a resolution allowing the identification of a face. In particular, digital cameras in VGA (640 x 480 pixels) format that would allow mining on videos recorded thumbnails of face of 90 x 60 pixels are suitable.
It is certain that the diversity of situations will inevitably result in contested or ambiguous cases for which narrow large/plan plan classification of the bidder proposal may appear questionable. To determine the minimum characteristics of the images stored in a practical way, the table of examples proposed in annex I is most often to assimilate these situations to an already processed use approaching case.
"The other video stream stored have an aspect ratio greater than or equal to 352 x 288 pixels.
All other streams video from CCTV systems covered by the Act of 21 January 1995, amended by the law of 23 January 2006, should at least be stored with a resolution of 352 x 288 pixels, also known as CIF format. This is particularly the case of the images by a traffic control device.
«A minimum of twelve frames per second frequency is required for recording of video streams from cameras installed for one of the purposes mentioned in II of article 10 of the law of 21 January 1995 referred to above, excluding regulation of road traffic, and which, given their positioning and their orientation, mainly work plan narrow and film mainly individuals in fast moving streams.»
The number of frames per second is also an important parameter when it comes to seek specific elements in a video scene in motion. Should nevertheless modulate the requirements according to the actual operational needs to do not to oversize the system unnecessarily. This is why the requirement to dispose of 12 frames recorded per second applies to cameras operating mainly in narrow plan (see article 2, paragraph 5) and among them exclusively to those designed to monitor flows of persons in "fast moving".
This notion explicitly refers to situations where filmed individuals are, except under specific circumstances, walking without encountering undue obstacles when they pass through the shooting area. There is particularly rapid movement for cameras for filming a transit space in public places (metro corridor, hall of airport, urban sidewalk...). On the other hand are not considered as fast travel images of individuals trying to cross a door or a subway turnstile, or stationing in a lobby for waiting or luggage collection.
Cases the most typical or likely problems are discussed in Appendix 2.
"For the registration of other streams video, a minimum frequency of six frames per second is required."
All other images covered by the law of 21 January 1995 at least shall be recorded at a real rate of 6 frames per second from a camera which of course the frequency of acquisition of images will be of at least 6 frames per second. Thus, it would therefore be artificially reconstruct a stream at 6 frames per second from for example an initial sequence at 3 frames per second. It is same for a record at 12 frames per second.
"Used storage system is associated with a journal that keeps track of all actions performed on the video stream."
The traceability of actions performed on the system is paramount to ensure no abuse and that no malicious act was committed. In the case of eight cameras analogue or digital CCTV less systems registration systems, a journal that keeps track of all actions carried out on the stream (export, change, delete...) can be held in the hand.
"For digital systems, this log is automatically generated in electronic form."
To simplify the operation of logging, which can be tedious for large systems, must be that, for digital systems, this operation is automated. Should be to ensure that the proposed system incorporates this function and that the operator foresees in its operating plan to be implemented.
4. the order of September 26, 2006 interoperability constraints is designed video surveillance techniques can implement in concrete terms the provisions that the amended Act of 21 January 1995 was enacted.
The provisions of article 3 of the decree are designed to specifically facilitate the operation of the systems by police and gendarmerie services.
«Video streams are exported without degradation of quality.»
The transmission of the video films at police and gendarmerie forces requires a so-called «export» operation It is necessary that the quality of the exported images is maximum, which means that the system must be able to export its data without loss of quality.
If during the export operation, it is necessary to change the format or type of video stream compression, should then ensure that the exported videos compression degrades not their quality.
It is therefore important to know how to export the video stream, and where it comes not from a simple copying data, the characteristics of the compression used for storage and export.
"For CCTV systems using analogue technology, a device determines the list of exported flows, indicating the date and time of the filmed images, their duration, the identifier concerned cameras, the date and time of export, the identity of the person who made the export."
It is important to maintain traceability of exports to ensure that no abuse is committed. The difficulty of this measure for a system of analog video surveillance, and to a lesser extent for digital systems under eight cameras, is sometimes the lack of automation system. It is necessary to integrate into the video stream export procedure the manual creation of a log of the operations performed on the system. This action of constitution of a newspaper in particular should be able to identify the person who exported the video stream.
«For CCTV systems using digital technology, an electronic journal of the exports, with the information referred to in the preceding paragraph, is automatically generated.»
As for analog systems, traceability of exports is for digital systems, paramount. The advantage of a digital system is the ability to automate actions. Thus, to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in the list of exported flows, just create a "journal" electronic formed automatically by the system.
"The registration system remains in operation during these export operations."
Exporting data must not diminish the capabilities of a video surveillance system. Indeed, it would be highly damaging, when exporting video images, a serious event to occur and it is impossible to record the video stream is associated. The fact that the registration system remains in operation during export operations aims in particular to prohibit the extraction of storage of the system during the phases of investigation if this action prohibits the continuation of the normal operation of the system. It is therefore important to check that the export procedure complies with this requirement. A simple method is to provide additional storage media to replace those that would be temporarily extracted from the system.
"The physical support of export is a digital medium non-rewritable, direct access, consistent with the volume of data to be exported. In the case of large volumes of data to export, hard drives using a standard connectors may be used. For digital video surveillance systems, a software that allows the use of the images is provided on support digital, disjointed data support. "The video records storage system must have the ability to export movies and photos to non-rewritable media, which, in the current state, will be the most often of the type CD or DVD burner. All systems must therefore have this feature. This means in particular that the USB key (which constitute a rewritable) cannot be the only support for export to such a system.
Support must moreover have direct access, information must be accessible without having to browse sequentially the bracket Assembly. In particular, the DAT cassettes cannot constitute a valid export support.
However, it is sometimes necessary to export a large amount of data. In this case exclusively, it is permitted to use hard drives, which allow greater storage capacity. This option adds the ability to export on non-rewritable media, which are in all cases the default means of transmission of data to the security forces.
"The software allows:" 1 ° reading from the video stream without degradation of the quality of the image;
"2 ° playback of video streams in fast motion, backwards, in slow motion;
«3 ° the reading frame-by-frame video streams, a freeze-frame, backup image and sequence, in a standard format without loss of information;
«4 ° the display on the screen of the identifier of the camera, the date and time of the registration;
«5 ° searching by camera, date and time.»
The video streams are exported to be processed by the police or gendarmerie services. The mentioned characteristics must therefore be integrated into the player software, provided with a digital separate distinct from that of the images, by the investigating services operator at the same time as the images.
A N N E X E T E C H N I Q U E 2 examples, illustrating the concepts of "narrow plan operation" and «individuals in fast moving streams»:
You can consult the table in OJ No 196, 08/25/2007 text number 7 these examples allow to cover a large number of cases of settlements of cameras. This table is presented for guidance to enable the departmental commissions to decide more easily on the broad plan classification, narrow plan.
However, it is understood that there may be special cases where this table is not applicable:-cameras whose objective is to facilitate the flow control are usually operating in wide shot cameras. However, as soon as it is specified that this control should allow to know who are the people on the videos, these cameras will be considered as operating in narrow plan;
-Similarly, a camera monitoring an entrance of parking whose purpose is to control which person or what vehicle accesses the parking shall operate in 4 CIF and 6 frames per second or 12 frames per second (fast moving stream) according to regulated entry of vehicles and persons;
-any camera whose objective is to analyse information about individuals or objects in the scene should be considered as operating in narrow plan, whatever its situation and its implementation;
-any camera whose objective is to analyse information on individuals or fast-moving objects in the scene will have to operate in 12 frames per second (people on treadmill, entered a shop without filter...).
A N N E X E T E C H N I Q U E 3 Glossary Definition of some technical terms frequently used in CCTV direct access (storage in): this term refers to the ability of a storage tank system to be able to directly access information saved, navigate to the record. The most common direct access storage system is the hard drive. These systems are as opposed to sequential access storage systems.
Sequential access (storage in): storage where the playback and recording are carried out according to a predefined order. For example, the cassettes VHS, K7, DV, DAT, where, to access the third minute of the recording, it is necessary to browse the first three minutes, are sequential access storage systems.
Bandwidth (network): in the field of computer science, the term bandwidth refers to a flow of information, specifically the amount of information that can transmit a network (computer system). This bandwidth that usually measured in bytes per second or bits per second.
VHS tapes: recording medium analog sequential access using standard VHS.
Field (optical): in optics, the notion of field refers to the portion of visible space through the lens of the camera.
Compression: reduction of the space required for the storage and transmission of data (videos, images...). This compression can be performed with or without loss of information on these data.
DAT: Digital Audio Tape is a digital audio recording medium at the base. This support is now also used to store video, audio or data. This type of storage is sequential.
Denial of service: computer security, 'the attack denial of service' is an attempt to make an application, system, or a computer resource unavailable to its authorized users. If a computer system (server for example) is no longer able to process requests from clients for reasons intentionally caused by a third party, there is "denial of service". The most prevalent type of attack is to make an inoperative server by sending too many requests. The consequences of such an act can result in the case of a video surveillance network system by:-an unusually slow network (difficulty to communicate continuously with a camera, for example);
-inability to access a particular camera;
-inability to access any camera;
-increase in the number of messages received via the network (mail, control message, error,...).
Hard disk: storage system to direct access and non-volatile memory based on magnetic memory principle. Developed initially for use on computer, it has gradually replaced all other storage systems video and audio by the rapid evolution of capacity of storage and ease of access to the backed up data.
Export (of data): operation to copy or extract of the targeted information storage system.
Flux: in computer science, set of basic data of a computer system.
Focal length (distance): the focal length of an optical system is one of the quantities that fully defines an optical system. Can assimilate it in most cases the distance between the lens and the sensor of the camera.
Format (4 CIF) CIF: Common Intermediate Format. The CIF is a digital format of images of 352 x 288 pixels. 4 CIF format mentioned in this circular is the standard image of 704 x 576 pixels format.
Image format: image size defined in terms of pixels or lines and columns.
Software link: linked by computer software of automatic way between several data or operators.
Angular diameter (optical): this quantity represents the portion of space in terms of visible angle through the lens of the camera.
Pixel (Picture Element): the basic structure of a digital image. It is the smallest point discernible on an image. The pixel can be a geometric shape any, even if the square is its most common structure. Each pixel contains information of color (color image) or grayscale (black and white) level Resolution: see image format.
(Analog/digital) storage: storage, data backup (in this case video) on a support of type analog (VHS tape...) or digital (hard disk, DVD...).
Digital system: the concept of digital system, in the context of the order, shall apply only to the storage modules. Thus a system consisting of analog cameras, but with a digital storage module, will be regarded as a digital video surveillance system.
Analog system: the concept of analog system, in the context of the order, shall apply only to the storage modules. On an installation of video surveillance, if the storage module is analog, then the video surveillance system will be considered analog. It will expand this category to less than eight cameras CCTV systems equipped with digital storage, but whose functionality is limited to those analog storage module.
Face: you will hear by dimensions of the face the distances between the bottom of the Chin and the top of the hair or the skull between the ears. According to the present requirements in order, the dimensions of a face on a less than 4 CIF format camera, operating in narrow terms, must be at least 60 pixels to the distance between the two ears and 90 pixels for the distance between the bottom of the Chin and the top of the hair or the skull.
Watermarking/Watermarking: technique for adding information to secure an image, a video or any other type of digital documents, integrating them in the file without modifying it or damage Wi - Fi: technology of wireless computer network running on a short distance (from a dozen to a hundred meters in normal conditions of use).
Wi - Max: family of standard for the wireless computer networks using wireless technologies.
Zoom (optical): objective on which focal length is changed continuously. An equipped with a zoom camera allows to restrict or increase the visible (optical) field on recorded video without changing the resolution of the video.