The Executive Order On Classification And Definition Of Objectives For Nature State In International Nature Conservation Areas

Original Language Title: Bekendtgørelse om klassificering og fastsættelse af mål for naturtilstanden i internationale naturbeskyttelsesområder

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Overview (table of contents) Annex 1



Annex 2



Annex 3 The full text of the Executive order on classification and definition of objectives for nature State in international naturbeskyttelsesområder1)

Under section 41, paragraph 2, of the law on environmental objectives, etc. of water bodies and international nature protection areas (Environmental target practice law), see. lovbekendtgørelse nr. 932 of 24. September 2009, and section 16, paragraph 1, of the law on forests, see. lovbekendtgørelse nr. 945 of 24. September 2009, fixed: scope



§ 1. This notice contains the detailed rules on the classification and definition of objectives for nature State in international nature conservation areas as part of the Natura 2000 Natura 2000-forest planning and scheduling.

Health classes



§ 2. Within the individual, designated international nature protection area classified the natural habitats and habitats of species covered by the habitats directive annex I and II and annex I of the birds directive and this directive article 4, paragraph 2, and which are included in the basis of assessment for the area concerned, designation in State class I – V in accordance with the criteria for each type of Habitat and Habitat of species shall be laid down in the annex to this order.

(2). Health classes I-V is a natural quality scale, where health class I is an expression of high natural condition, condition, condition good natural condition class II class III moderate natural mode, State class IV rings natural mode and mode class V bad natural mode. Natural habitats and habitats of species in State class I and II satisfy the requirement of favourable conservation status, provided that implemented the natural type necessary effort.

(3). In annex 1 is laid down criteria for classification in health classes for 23 open habitats. Annex 2 criteria for classification in health classes for 10 forest habitats. In annex 3 criteria for classification in health classes for 5 types of ponds and small lakes.

(4). Nature agency may be authorized, in the annex to this order to establish criteria for the natural habitats and habitats of species for which there is as yet no fixed criteria.

Identifying objectives



§ 3. For each designated international nature conservation area be established objectives for the area's natural state. There can be set different targets for areas within the designated area.

(2). The overall goal is to ensure or restore, at favourable conservation status, natural habitats and the habitats of the wild animal and plant species, as the area is designated for, seen in relation to the designated areas in respectively the Danish Atlantic region and the Danish continental region (bio-geographic level) under a.

(3). The concrete targets for areas designated as both the bird protection area and habitat area, must accommodate designation amount for both designations.

(4). For the designated areas, which are also covered by the provisions of Council Directive No. 2000/60/EC of 23. October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy (water framework directive), this Directive shall apply in accordance with art. 4, paragraph 2, the strictest environmental objectives, see. However, section 4, paragraph 4.

(5). The individual designated areas must not målsættes lower than the best natural condition, which is documented since the entry into force of the birds directive and the habitats directive in 1981 entry into force in 1994, see. However, section 4, paragraph 4.

(6). Pending the establishment of specific objectives for the designated areas, natural habitats and habitats of species, such as areas designated for, must be ensured a favourable conservation status in the light of the best existing expertise.

§ 4. Setting targets for State of nature should be done on the basis of basic analyses, see. environmental goal § 41 and Ministry of the environment Decree No. 335 of 26. March 2007 on the establishment of the Natura 2000 forest planning. The objectives of the individual, the designated area shall be determined also on the basis of: 1) the area's current and potential importance for ensuring favourable conservation status of the bio-geographic level within Denmark's borders for the natural habitats and habitats of species, as the area is designated for.

2) a concrete balancing of EVS. conflicting interests within the individual international nature conservation area.

(2). By setting targets, it must be ensured that the condition and the total area of the natural habitat types and the habitats of species, as each area is designated for, and as in the basic analysis is classified in class I or II, health is stable or in progress in this area. It must also be ensured that the State of the natural habitat types and habitats, as in each area is classified in class III – V State, are in progress against State class I or II, and that the total area of these habitats and Habitat is stable or in progress in this area, see. However, paragraph 3 and paragraph 4.

(3). By setting targets to be deciding on whether you want the retention of current or restored natural mode or an untouched, dynamic natural mode, which will promote the achievement of favourable conservation status of natural habitats or the habitats of other species which are listed in annexes I and II of the habitats directive. If you want natural succession and natural population dynamics in a designated area or sub-area, which through the setting of targets for other designated areas ensuring favourable conservation status of the bio-geographic level within Denmark's borders for the habitats and species that are included in the designation, but which have to be predicted to disappear by natural succession and natural population dynamics.

(4). The provision in paragraph 2 may also be waived in the case of one or more of the natural habitat types and the habitats of species, as the area is designated for, if it is incompatible with other favourable conservation status of natural habitats and habitats of species, as the area is designated for, and that after a definite tradeoff, see. section 5, be given a higher priority.

§ 5. In weighing up the conflicting interests within an international nature conservation area shall pay particular attention to: 1) in the habitats directive identified priority habitats and species (* labelled natural habitats and species), 2) the bird species, which are listed in annex 1 to the birds directive or covered by this directive, art. 4 (2), (3)) of the European Commission's reports on the priority of selected habitats and species, 4) the geographical representation and conservation status of the natural habitats and species, designated 5) species, which are listed in annex IV of habitats directive.

(2). In weighing up the conflicting interests of nature within an international nature protection area, special attention is given to: 1) the designated natural habitats and species resilience opposite effects in the short and long term, 2) the designated natural habitats and species ecological requirements, 3) national natural values, including protected species, species red-listed species, and species of responsibility which are the basis for the selection of wilder and particularly valuable forests, 4) instances of special structures and species of particular Danish culture and natural history interest , 5) account of regional and local particularities with respect to the overall objective of the basic regulation. § 3, paragraph 2.

§ 6. The objectives of the individual international nature conservation area are long-term, but can be adjusted in the context of the review of the Natura 2000-plan.

§ 7. The notice shall enter into force on the 1. March 2011.

(2). Executive Order No. 815 of 27. June 2007 on classification and definition of objectives for nature State in international nature conservation areas are hereby repealed.

The Ministry of the environment, the 20. January 2011 Karen Ellemann-Jensen/Helle Pilsgaard



Annex 1



Technical report from DMU nr. 735, 2009







 

 



 





Calculation of the natural state through the use of simple indicators







 

 



 





Terrestrial habitats directive habitat types







 

 



 

 



 





Jesper Reinholt Fredshavn & Rasmus Ejrnæs







 

 



 

 





Data sheet







 

 

 





Series title and number:



 



Technical report from DMU nr. 735





 

 

 





Title:



 



Natural mode in habitat areas







Subtitle:



 
Open habitats directive habitat types





 

 

 





Authors:



 



Jesper Reinholt Fredshavn & Rasmus Ejrnæs







Department:



 



Department of wildlife ecology and Biodiversity





 

 

 





Publisher:



 



Danmarks miljøundersøgelser © University of Aarhus







URL:



 



http://www.dmu.dk





 

 

 





Year of publication:



 



September 2009







Editors concluded:



 



August 2009







Editing:



 



Tommy Asferg







Technical comment:



 



Flemming Skov





 

 

 





Financial support:



 



Urban and landscape Agency





 

 

 





Please quoted:



 



Fredshavn, J.R. & Ejrnæs, r. 2009. Natural mode in habitat areas. The habitats directive open habitats. National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University. 76 p. – Technical report from DMU nr. 735. http://www.dmu.dk/Pub/FR735.pdf Reproduction allowed with clear source is acknowledged.





 

 

 





Summary:



 



The report develops the calculation methods for the evaluation of natural condition in terrestrial habitats directive habitat types. The methods are applied to the mapping of Habitat areas 2004-08, and thus gives a comprehensive overview of the State in a wide range of habitats directive terrestrial habitats. In relation to NERI technical report 599, 2. version, is this report extended with several habitats habitats, e.g., Inland dunes and enekrat, and made new calculations on an updated and expanded data base. All data and calculation results are available in Danish Nature data (URwww.naturdata.dk).





 

 

 





Emneord:



 



Natural habitats, habitats directive, calibration, computational methods.





 

 

 





Layout:



 



Graphic Workshop, Neri Silkeborg







Cover photo:



 



Jesper R. Fredshavn, DMU





 

 

 





ISBN:



 



978-87-7073-117-1







ISSN (electronic):



 



1600-0048





 

 

 





Page number:



 



76





 

 

 





Internet version:



 



The report is available in electronic format (pdf) at DMU's homepage





 

 





http://www.dmu.dk/Pub/FR735.pdf







 





Content







 

 



 

 







Foreword







 

 







Summary







 

 







1









Introduction







 

 







2









The calibration method







 

 







3









Calculation of the index for natural mode







 



Structure index





 



Arts index





 

 







4









Natural mode in Danish habitats habitats







 



Natural mode on the coastal cliffs, Pebble Beach and salt marsh





 



Natural condition in the coastal dunes





 



Natural mode of Inland dunes, heaths and scrub





 



Natural condition on grasslands and intermittently wet meadow





 



Natural mode in acidic bogs





 



Natural mode in calcareous FENS





 

 







5









References







 

 







Annex 1. Species list with scores







 

 







Annex 2. Raised bog species







 

 







Annex 3. Invasive species







 

 







Annex 4. Problem species
 

 



 





National Environmental Research Institute







 

 



 





Professional reports from DMU







 

 









Foreword

The principles for the assessment of natural mode are presented in previous DMU reports. This report is based on the calculation methods as they are reported in the Technical report from the DMU nr. 599, 2. version to use for the open habitats of the habitats directive. This report allows for the State to assess a wider range of habitat types, and it contains a calibration of the total data set is now available in Denmark's Natural data with mapping of the counties in 2004-05, and Environment centres, charting in the period 2006-08 by Denmark's 254 designated habitat areas. Calibration is carried out by a working group with the participation of officials and biologists from the urban and landscape Agency, Ministry of the environment and researchers from the National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University.

Calibration consists in an adaptation of the score values and weights, so that the resulting index for natural condition correspond to the expectations of the working group by consensus has been to selected areas of natural values. In addition, there is made a leveling of the index to match the urban and landscape Agency's interpretation of the requirements of the habitats directive to the border between favourable and unfavourable conservation status. The majority of natural habitats is previously calibrated, and with this report is only made minor adjustments in calculating species index. Inland dunes and enekrat is a brand new calibration. The report is the result of many inspiring and constructive discussions, and a big thanks should be directed to the other members of the Working Group for their contributions: Erik Buchwald, BLST, Haraldsgade





 



Lisbeth B. Andersen, BLST, Haraldsgade





 



Erik Vinther, BLST, MC-Odense





 



Torben Ebbensgaard, BLST, MC-Ålborg





 



Peter Leth, BLST, MC-Roskilde





 



Lasse Werling, BLST, MC-Aarhus





 

 









In addition to the Working Group members, the system has been submitted to a working group with the participation of the guilds and professions with great interest and engagement has followed the development and commented on the results. None other than the authors are, however, responsible for any shortcomings and inaccuracies in the report.

Summary

The report further develops the calculation methods for the evaluation of the natural mode of open terrestrial habitats directive habitat types. The methods are applied to the total data set from the County mapping material from 2004-05 and Environment centres continuation thereof in 2006-08, and thus is now a comprehensive national assessment of the mapped areas natural condition in accordance with uniform and reproducible methods.

DMU-report "Assessment of natural condition" (fredshavn & Forest 2005) presented the principles for a system for assessment of natural condition in the habitats directive habitat types. In the DMU-report "calculation of the nature using simple indicators" (fredshavn & Ejrnæs 2007) developed a method of calculation and the calculations are made based on values. Counties and later Environmental centres in 2004-08 identified Denmark's 254 designated habitat areas, delineated areas with habitats habitats and collected field information on the one hand, the 18 habitat types included in the Terrestrial Habitat program and, on the other hand, the habitats directive inland dune types (2310, 2320 and 2330) and enekrat (5130). Data are all available in the Danish Nature data (URwww.naturdata.dk). These data formed the basis for the calibration of the system, carried out by a working group with the participation of biologists and officials from urban and landscape Agency, Ministry of the environment and researchers from the National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University.

Calibration consists in an adaptation of the score values and weights, so that the resulting index for natural condition correspond to the expectations of the working group by consensus has been to selected areas of natural values. In addition, there is made a leveling of the index to match the urban and landscape Agency's interpretation of the requirements of the habitats directive to the border between favourable and unfavourable conservation status.

The structure of the index is calculated as the average of the scores for the sum of the structural indicators. To use for the assessment of habitat ecosystems structural nature mode is selected five indicator groups for structure and function that is common to all of the natural habitat types: 1) vegetation structure



2) hydrology and coastal protection



3) Grazing/care



4) influence of agricultural operation



5) Habitat characteristic structures.

Within each group is assigned one or more indicators are recorded in the field. Each indicator is divided into relatively coarse categories, and registration is carried out by checking the category that best matches the Habitat's current state. The Working Group has assigned points for each of these categories and weighted the various indicators, so that the overall structure of the index reflects the nature of the land structural natural mode.

Arts index is calculated as a weighted average of the arts score index and species diversity index. Both indices are calculated on the basis of the change in vegetation species composition in an evidence-circle with radius 5 m, where the Centre is placed in a homogeneous area that is characteristic of the natural type. For each natural habitat type is the species divided into respectively. contribution species problem species and nularter. Contribution categories contribute with their specific points, there is a score between 1 and 7. High points are awarded species that are very sensitive to the negative influences of natural type, whereas species with low points will be more or less favoured by these influences. Arts score index is calculated as the average of the points values, no matter how many species included in the species composition. Species diversity index is calculated as the sum of the point values adjusted for Habitat's average species diversity. Problem species promoted by a powerful negative influence of natural type. In both indices have both problem species such as invasive species point value-1, while zero-species that are introduced and non-native species, have point value 0.

Both the index and category index structure has values between 0 and 1 in the reference scale, where 1 is the best natural condition, and 0 is the worst. The two indices are weighted together into a unified natural health index, describing habitat Habitat's overall natural mode. A newly injured area will have a small structure index, but still a high arts index, while a newly restored area will often have a high structure index, but even a low arts index. Areas through a long number of years has been cared for in an optimal way and only exposed to low impact, will have a high structure index and high arts index. Similarly, land that through a long number of years has been under heavy negative impact and lack of care, have a low structure index and a low arts index. Natural health index two underlying index has thus great legend value in itself, and this information should be included, where areas are assessed in a management context.

1. introduction

Condition assessment system translates the documented knowledge and experience of experts on structural and biological conditions in natural habitats and habitats to measurable and objective indicators which can be used in the characterisation and management of Danish natural habitats. State of nature described by a number of structural indicators and by the presence of vascular plants in a circular field with radius 5 m documentation. These indicators are selected on the basis of criteria of measurability, reproducibility, simplicity and relevance. State of nature is assessed on a scale from 0 to 1, divided into five State classes from poor to high natural mode, similar to the water framework directive's five ecological health classes. The selection of relevant indicators and methods for detection of the specific data basis for respectively. area, structure/function and species are described in the report "Assessment of natural condition" (fredshavn & Forest 2005). In the DMU-report 599, 2. Edition (fredshavn & Ejrnæs 2007) describes how respectively. structure and species index is calculated, and how they are to be considered together to a common natural health index. In this report, this technique extended to apply enekrat and Inland dunes, and a calibration has been carried out on the same data material.
All indexes using the reference scale from 0 and 1, where 1 is the best attainable condition. This makes it possible to distinguish higher natural modes from lower natural conditions in relation to structural and arts content. Structure and species index carries each on valuable information about the area's natural state and its expected development. Structure index characterizes the current impacts of natural base, so the improvement thereof over time provides opportunities for the improvement of arts content, whereas an aggravation often will lead to worsening opportunities for arts content. Arts index gives an indication of whether the Habitat associated species have managed to colonize the area and survive. It therefore also reflects the historical development. There will often be a delay or inertia in the arts content's response to changing opportunities, both in the positive and negative direction.

The third element, which should be assessed in a comprehensive analysis of a natural state of the area, its size and scope. These data are not used in the value statement, but rather included as factual, additional information about the area. Management, it is important to keep information about land sizes separately from the information on land natural mode. Information about small and particularly valuable areas with high natural mode can easily be overlooked, if information about area together weighed with the State of nature into a unified index.

In 2004 and 2005 have counties collected a comprehensive data material in connection with the mapping of the Natura 2000 areas, habitats habitats. This material has formed the basis for the development and calibration of condition assessment system, which is reported here.

The assignment of indicator values for structures and species is based to a large extent on expert judgement. These assessments will be replaced by more objective criteria, as the analysis of surveillance data collected from NOVANA establishes a more extended knowledge base.

Field data is collected systematically and with a reproducible method. This gives we a valuable indication of the investigated areas in natural mode. You should be aware, however, that there are important state parameters that are difficult to assess in the context of a short visit to a site, e.g.: – Eutrophication. You can sometimes find that a land-fertilizing the fields, but it is often not possible to recognize or quantify past fertilization, nitrate pollution of the overwhelming water or scale of a possible airborne kvælstofdeposition.



– Hydrology. State assessment is based on a snapshot from the site, and therefore it may be difficult to assess the site's hydrological variations over the year. Visible drains and ditches can be recorded, but this is rarely enough to describe hydrology.



– Natural dynamics. A number of our natural habitats (e.g., salt marshes and coastal dunes) is dependent on natural dynamics in the form of coastal erosion, wind erosion and periodic flooding. Such disorders are difficult to quantify at a single visit.

State assessment based on simple indicators give an immediate impression of the individual areas specific mode and response needs. It is therefore suitable as a data basis of Natura 2000-planning. A further analysis that should clarify what the causes of a eutrophication problem is, or should be able to explain the proportional variation of hydrological year, require a more in-depth data basis. NOVANA monitoring of habitat natural habitats provides more detailed data series, which monitoring data are also suitable to view changes over time, but as these data are a statistically based sampling, documentation of Habitat's general terms on national or bio-geographic level, they are not adequate to explain the specific facts in a non-monitored site. It is therefore essential to mapping data and monitoring data complement each other, so that monitoring data on the one hand to provide more clarity about causes and effects in the relationship in agttager in mapping data, and mapping data, on the other hand, gives an accurate picture of the geographical distribution of the natural habitat types and the concrete action needed at the individual sites.

2. Calibration method

The development of condition assessment system has had two phases. The first phase, the ranking, has passed in a weighting of indicators with a view to achieving a ranking of the investigated areas on a scale from 0 to 1. The second phase, calibration, has passed in a determination of the level of the scale divisions in the five State classes.

The ranking of areas consists in the organisation of the structural indicators score values and weights as well as arts scores in the system so that land, whose structure and function seems most optimal, and if nature content is estimated to be at most, will be placed at the top and the closest to 1 in the ranking on the reference scale from 0 to 1. Similarly, land that seems most affected and in the most natural state is placed at the bottom of the same scale. An area with a higher natural health index must therefore also appear as less affected by the factors that have been identified to have a negative impact on Habitat mode, and/or its natural content must be higher than another area with a lower index. The scale is arranged so that all land that is identified as the natural type, could be characterized by their natural state with an index between 0 and 1. No area may have an index higher than 1, and similarly, it is also not possible to achieve values lower than 0.

Calibration has passed in a setting of levels for health classes. The five State classes are preselected as equal to the reference scale, and thus have the calibration in practice consisted of a definition of the boundary between State classes II and III, corresponding to the value of 0.6 on the reference scale. This limit is important in relation to the forest and nature Agency's interpretation of the habitats directive requirements on favourable conservation status. In order to be in a favourable conservation status, areas within Habitat's distribution area to be stable or in progress, and the structures that are necessary to maintain the natural type, must continue to be present. If Habitat characteristic species are present in the area, must also be ensured their survival. Areas with a natural mode of 0.6 is expected to live up to these requirements, if mind you their condition be maintained in the foreseeable future.

The ranking is mainly carried out by the project working group, while the calibration of the level of favourable and unfavourable natural mode by this initial testing of the system is determined on the basis of the Danish forest and nature agency interpretation of the habitats directive requirements on the border between favourable and unfavourable conservation status. Method development has been an iterative process, where on the basis of DMU's proposal for score values and weights are made an adaptation of the natural habitat type as structural and species index gives the best possible academic ranking of areas according to their biological condition, and so that the numeric index values are in accordance with the requirements of the habitats directive to favourable conservation status.

3. calculation of the index for natural mode

Structure index

The structural indicators are simple to observe visually, and a trained eye can quickly gain an overview of the current state as well as the fact that pulls in favorable or unfavorable towards State of nature. Field observations are characterized by indicators in a number of categories. During the preparation of the index shall be assigned to the various categories of points depending on how precisely this mode is compatible with natural type in favourable conservation mode (S et al. 2003). In addition, the weighting of each indicator in relation to its impact on the overall index on the basis of an assessment of how important this relationship is for the current Habitat.

Score for indicator categories

On the basis of the structural indicators are assigned points for each of the categories, the indicator may be characterized by. The maximum point value, an indicator can assume is 1, which is assigned the category that describes the indicator in its optimal condition. This mode will not be the same for the different habitat types. Thus, a lysåben, dense, low herbal vegetation optimum for some natural habitats, while others are characterized by a very open, vegetationsløs bottom marked by frequent wind breakage or slippage and others by a high, tight-fitting herbal vegetation. The other categories of indicators are assigned lower points between 0 and 1 depending on how far from the optimal mode category is located.

At point assignment is that the distinction between a number of major types of point allocations depending on the kårgradienternes and the structural indicators optimum. In the final distributions are the values adjusted for these broad distributions; for example, in relation to invasive species only be talking about one favorable category (area share of invasive species is 0 per cent) and four more or less bad. For many of our natural habitats are the knowledge base in order to assign scores in the various categories yet flawed, and here the process has been based on the description of the criteria for the favourable conservation status (S et al. 2003) followed by a calibration, where well known locations with universally accepted state of conservation has formed the starting point for an iterative adaptation of score values.

Weighting of the importance of the indicators
The next step is to assess the impact of the individual indicators of the overall picture of Habitat condition. Hydrological conditions, such as dewatering and water abstraction, can be crucial in humid Marsh and bog types and irrelevance in the drying of drive-and dune types.

The indicators are weighted according to their importance, and because they are built in a tiered system, performed the weighting at each hierarchical level. The weights are normalized so that the sum of the weights is 1. Weight 0 means that the indicator is of no importance for the overall index, while the weight 1 means that the indicator represents the whole of the relevant hierarchical level's contribution to the structure of the index. The five overall indicator groups for structure and function are: 1) vegetation structure



2) hydrology and coastal protection



3) Grazing/care



4) influence of agricultural operation



5) Habitat characteristic structures.

Groups are assigned weights so that together produce 1. In the natural habitats, where the five groups included with equal weight in the structure of the index, have they so every value 0.2.

In a similar way are weighted indicators within each of indicator groups. In the indicator group, vegetation structure is included as indicators of area shares of, respectively: 1) bare ground



2) low herbs



3) means high herbs



4) tall herbs



5) dwarf shrubs



6) woody species



7) invasive species.

If, for example, it is estimated that the indicator of dwarf shrubs means just as much for vegetation structure as the other indicators, taken together, are assigned area share of dwarf shrubs, and the remaining value 0.5 0.5 shall be distributed on the remaining six indicators.

As for point ' should be assigned weights on a solid data base, but in the absence of weight assignment is made out from the best expert judgement. Also here it is happening with reference to common experiences from selected, well-known sites.

Calculation of the structure index

The overall structure of the index is obtained as the sum of the weighted adjusted points values, with each indicator weighted on the one hand, with the emphasis on its own level and, on the other hand, with the weight of the higher levels, share of the total structure index: S = (Σijk wk wj xij)/Σjk wk wj where xij is the scores of the ith category for the j'te indicator and wj are the weight of the j'te indicator. The j'te indicator is part of the k-th indicator group, and wk is the weight of this group in the overall index. If all the indicators included in the calculation, the total sum of the weights wk wj be 1. Not all indicators are included, e.g. because the site is not short, and coastal protection, thus, is not relevant, the sum will be less than 1, and thus the structure of the index corrects the denominator, so only those indicators that are assigned a value affects the formula.

Arts index

Species composition constitutes an important basis for being able to identify the various Habitat types, but species composition is also a valuable indicator of living standards. In many habitats are natural state heavily dependent on land operational history – they have been ploughed, fertilised, drained, or there have been long periods of grazing termination? Such information is difficult to document, but they are reflected in the change in vegetation composition. The place fixed or lavmobile organisms such as vascular plants, lichens, mosses, fungi and invertebrates are entirely dependent on the specific, local conditions, giving them a high degrees of importance. Tracheophytes excels, as compared with the other organism groups, by being easy to locate and identify over a long field season, and in most natural habitats provides tracheophytes meaningful indication of the condition. Data base for the arts index is species-information about tracheophytes found in documentation field on the registered area. Documentation is a homogeneous field, a circular area with a radius of 5 metres, where the Habitat is identified in a characteristic development under the given conditions. Arts schemes are therefore a documentation of that type of nature is present in the area. In addition, there may be included additional information on the species outside of the circle, i.e., characteristic species as referred to in the documentation. interpretation manual, invasive species, particularly rare species, etc., in principle, there is no obstacle for also involving other arts groups, including birds, amphibians, butterflies, beetles, etc. in the calculation of an arts index. It simply requires that previously made a score for each species. All species, both flora and fauna species in this way is assigned arts points, can be included in the calculation of an index of the mapped area species. Use the additional species not to natural state calculation, they will still be able to help with information about the area, e.g. in connection with an assessment of the plantation management needs.

Below are described the principles of calculating a floristisk arts index, which is based at the species data from 5 m circle. For each natural habitat type is the species previously divided into three categories: – Bidragarter: species that naturally belong to the type, nature and whose presence tells something about the positive and negative influences, natural type is exposed to at the area. In the calculations included species with arts scores between 1 and 7.



– Problem species: species that normally do not or only sporadically occur in nature type, and whose presence indicates a widespread, unwanted, negative influence of natural type. In the calculations included species with value-1.



– Nularter: species that do not normally occur in nature type, and therefore must be seen as random customers without degrees of importance. In the calculations included the species with the value 0.

All species are included in the calculations, allocated to arts points, also called a category score, on a scale from 1 to 7. High points are awarded species, indicating a high degree of upåvirkethed, and thus are vulnerable to negative influences, while the low points are awarded species more unaffected or direct beneficiaries of negative influences. Cultivated species of garden plants and indslæbte species allocated to arts score 0. In the habitats in which the species occurs as a problem species, they are assigned a value of-1, regardless of their other points value. All invasive species are assigned arts score-1 and thus counts as a problem species in all habitats. The species has as a starting point the same arts score in all habitats except the natural habitats where they are listed as problem species. Documentation for each circle can be calculated an average and a total point value for the species that contribute to that Habitat, and on the basis thereof is calculated, respectively. an arts score index and a species diversity index. The final arts index is a weighted sum of these two indices. All index is indicated by a value of the reference scale between 0 and 1.

Bidragarter

For each natural habitat type is chosen the main species that contribute to the description of Habitat condition. It will basically be the categories that are attached to the natural type in favourable condition, but a number of these may be generalists which can benefit from the first stages of a negative development. Natural habitats are never strictly defined, in fact, but appears most often as smooth transitions, on the other hand, in relation to the surrounding habitats and, on the other hand, in relation to a natural succession over time. To use for the identification of the natural habitat types, there is a need for the arts lists, which are so narrow that the types can be delimited from each other. But arts lists used for the description of the State of nature, must at the same time be so broad that natural type in its various forms of expression and transitions are covered. This causes a need also to include species found in other related natural habitats, so that transitional society will not be neglected. Each of the habitats directive habitat types belong to a parent main Habitat. Many times, the transitional forms of habitat natural habitats be transitional forms to related habitats within the main natural type. It can therefore be expected that species from the related habitats will occur on a given natural habitat areas, without in itself is an expression of an inferior condition.

In determining what species are to be included in the calculation of an arts index, included consideration of how robust index must be, and how much misinformation that can be tolerated. The more species there are included, the more robust the index will be understood in the way that, regardless of regional differences and large variations in Habitat condition will be able to deliver an index value. A very narrow list of species for each natural habitat type, e.g. in the form of selected indicator species, will mean that the index will be more vulnerable to land with very few species, whether it is caused by natural arts poverty or spredningsmæssige reasons. An index based on many species will be more robust than all else being equal, an index based on fewer species. On the other hand, lists that include many species from a wide variety of habitats and the various State levels during the not be able to distinguish between subtypes or natural succession stages.

In the absence of an extensive and comprehensive data sets, which can relate to different degrees of natural occurrences of species condition, is the distribution of bidragarter and problem species in the different main types of nature drawn up on the basis of expert knowledge. That may subsequently be required to adjust this list in relation to the actually observed distributions of species.

Problem species
A number of species are good indicators of an initial or prolonged negative impact of natural type. It may be a species that does not occur under normal circumstances in nature type, or species that occurs only sporadically in Habitat's favorable States of matter. It is therefore the species is especially promoted by disruptions and negative influences, but only rarely will be found under favourable conditions. Of all natural habitats, the presence of multiple problem species most often represents a comprehensive negative impact. A number of these negative impacts can be difficult to recognize in the physical structures, including special eutrophication and previous cultivation or drainage. Species, which has just been favored by eutrophication or anthropogenic disturbance in otherwise naturally nutrient-poor and stable habitats, will thus be valuable indicators of this problem. In the natural calcareous, and thus often more agriculturally valuable natural habitats, e.g. lime overdrev, want more of these problem species could occur sporadically, even under favourable conditions, and therefore the presence of one or a few species do not normally indicate a massive problem problem in these habitats.

The award of arts points

The species is assigned points that correspond to the species ' susceptibility to deterioration of the State of nature. Low points are awarded species that are tolerant or even beneficiaries of degradation, while high points are awarded species that are sensitive to degradation, and which disappear when the impoverishment of State reach a certain level. The species has through evolution adapted to various fundamental living conditions, which manifested in more or less specific requirements to grow the site. Typically, species have a wider or narrower optimum by a specific ecological status along with the main plant-distributing gradients. For the most important gradients hear humidity, salinity, temperature, lystilgængelighed, disturbance, nutrient availability and acidity. Along with these ecological gradients columns of the habitats directive habitat types out. At the same time, some of the ecological conditions under the strong influence of human activities. The most important of these is the nutrient gradient, disturbance gradient and humidity gradient. While eutrophication and altered hydrology gradienterne unique, can affect disturbance gradient is affected in both directions, e.g. tillage and pesticide spraying (increasing disorder) and grazing (reduced disruption). Some species thrive under relatively wide amplitudes, while other sets very specific requirements for the grow site. Rare species may be rare of proliferation historical reasons, because they will only thrive in a rare natural combination of living conditions (e.g. lysåbent grasslands on the chalk), or because they are very sensitive to the negative influences of natural type. Only species in the last category are good indicators of the State of nature, and therefore, there is not necessarily a close relationship between the rarity and value of the indicator. The situation today is that the majority of natural areas are heavily affected, and drainage, eutrophication and lack of care has resulted in a strong alignment of the ecological conditions, so few, kraftigtvoksende tall herbs and woody plants is gaining ground on natural areas at the expense of a large majority of frugal, low-growing species (Elleman et al. 2001). In the Danish, relatively intensively exploited and influenced the landscape will species that are particularly sensitive to disturbances and thus places high demands on upåvirkethed, will often be more rare than the opportunistic and disturbance favoured species. However, there are many deviations from this general rule, e.g. species that can thrive under the relatively deteriorating conditions, but only occurs in rare subtypes or regional editions of the natural type. They will at the national level have low frequency without being good indicators of degradation. Conversely, species that is widely distributed in many varieties of natural type, yet is very sensitive to degradation, be good indicators for good condition.

All that-and karsporeplante species allocated to arts points between-1 and 7 according to the following description:

7 points: extreme sensitive to influences that degrades the State of nature

6 points: very sensitive

5 points: sensitive

4 points: a little sensitive

3 points: either sensitive or tolerant

2 points: something tolerant

1 point: tolerant or slightly favored

0 points: not resident in Denmark

-1 points: invasive species and/or problemart beneficiary of degraded natural mode.

Annex 1 and annex 4 gives an overview of respectively. bilagarternes score and problem species associated with the various main habitats. Annex 2 is a special list of species is expected to occur on the raised bog areas (7110 and 7120). In the tables in Chapter 4 be described species with arts score 6 or 7 as the tostjerne species, indicated with **, and species with arts score 4 or 5 as star species, specified as *. The document lists are drawn up on the basis of expert knowledge, and which can subsequently be a need to adjust this allocation on the basis of a proven knowledge of the link between arts instances and ecosystems distribution on quality classes.

It is not always that species composition is a good expression for current natural state of the area. Some perennials can survive for many years in places that no longer live fully up to their requirements to the grow site (ecological inertia). They can be thought of as relics from earlier natural modes. Valuable species presence in an area under degradation must therefore not be interpreted as a satisfactory nature mode, but as an opportunity to continue to preserve a valuable arts content, if action is timely in and corrected the impoverishment. The area is under the deterioration will often could be seen on the absence of the most sensitive species (highest indicator value) as well as the widespread incidence of problem species. More mobile and short-lived species, such as birds, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles and short-lived plant species will disappear under degraded conditions faster. There are nearby, suitable habitats, these species often have the opportunity to survive here and, after a natural recovery of this devastated area have the opportunity once again to genindvandre. But that of course requires that such areas are found within of the species dispersal distances.

Arts index is based on a weighing of the means of an adjusted score for an area, and the sum of scores for an area. Means the score says something about the average sensitivity of the species, which grows in the area, and it is therefore not depending on whether it is an area with many or few species. This is appropriate, because many of our nutrient-poor habitats are natural species poor. Arts the sum depends on both species sensitivity scores and the number of species in an area. Assuming that a deterioration of the State of nature will often lead to the artsrig judgment of Habitat's typical species are disappearing (several species becoming extinct than immigrant), will be able to intercept such a negative sum of species development. Due to the large differences in arts the sum between areas that naturally have different species richness, species is the sum of special relevance in the assessment of health development on a concrete area over time.

In connection with the calibration of the arts index is the assigned point values for each species have been adjusted for comparison with the average agent scores obtained in the documentary circles, they are found in. In cases where there has been a big difference between the assigned point value and the average score for the species occurs in fields, is the species point value has been adjusted up or down. For instance, if a species has been given a relatively low point value, but, on average, have been found in relatively high scoring documentation circles, so along with species that otherwise is an expression of low exposure level, is the species point value revised upwards and vice versa. On the same occasion, it was also analysed whether species point value was depending on the type of Habitat they performed in all Of the species on the arts. the list was there only need to adjust the 107 species of which only 12 with 2 points. The analysis also showed that species indicator value only varied slightly between the various Habitat types, they appeared in. It seems therefore reasoned that use the same point value across the natural habitats of the species, which occur in several main habitats.

Product score

Means the score is the average point value of documentation squaring species: bilagarter, nularter and problem species. Problem species included with point value-1 regardless of their point value in other habitats. A low middle score is an expression of the fact that the land is relatively heavily influenced by adverse disturbances and a high middle score is an expression of that area is not or only to a very small extent is influenced. Means the score is not dependent on the diversity or the number of species in 5 m-circle, but reflects only the species ' response to the State of nature and thus the degree of influence on the area. In Table 1 are for each habitat Habitat shown the average agent scores calculated from the species ' occurrence in the mapping data set.

Arts the sum

Arts the sum is the sum of all the point values. When a given artssum both can be achieved with few species with high point value and with several species with a lower point value, is not an equally unique species the sum expression which means the degree of influence on the score for the area. On the other hand, combined the information about the actual diversity of native species and their reflection of the actual impacts in one index. Areas with a large diversity and many high scoring species thus gives a very high artssum, and areas with few contributions species all have a relative low point value, will only achieve a very low artssum.
 

 

 

 







Table 1. Average adjusted score for habitat Mediterranean habitats. The with * marked natural habitats are priority in the habitats directive.









Habitat Habitat









Average





product score









An average of





species number of









1330





Salt marsh





3.31





14.3







1340





* Inland salteng





3.22





12.5







2130





* Grey/green dune





3.54





14.6







2140





* Dune Heath





3.73





9.6







2190





Dune depression





3.75





13.9







2250





* Juniper dune





3.37





13.6







2310





Certain-inland dune





3.56





10.9







2320





Crowberry-inland dune





3.31





8.9







2330





Grass-inland dune





3.61





9.4







4010





Wet Heath





3.50





10.0







4030





Dry heat





3.36





10.1







5130





Enekrat





3.22





16.7







6120





* Dry lime sands overdrev





3.48





29.9







6210





(*) Lime overdrev





3.03





31.1







6230





* Sour over drive





3.25





23.0







6410





Intermittently wet meadow





3.22





19.0







7110





* Højmose





3.55





9.4







7120





Degraded raised bog





2.27





7.8







7140





Transition mires





3.62





14.0







7150





Peat depression





4.34





10.6







7210





Mariscus bog





3.42





13.8







7220





* Fount





2.92





22.2







7230





Rigkær





3.14





27.3





 

 

 

 









Calculation of the arts score index

Arts score index transforms the medium score, which usually assumes values between 0 and 7, to a value between 0 and 1 in the reference scale. Product score has an approximate normal distribution around Habitat's average value. The average middle score will be higher in the natural nutrient-poor and unaffected natural habitats, such as dunes and raised bogs, and lower in the naturally more productive and more agricultural affected habitats, e.g. lime overdrev and rigkær. Used a linear transformation of the Mediterranean the score to an arts score index, there will be a strong over-representation in the two or three middle State groups and almost no land in State class 1 and 5. A more even distribution of land in all five State classes require a more sigmoid turnover feature that brings together the highest and lowest values in the two outer classes and on the other hand, spreads the Centre square more out. As the sales function is a function used by the type: A

s = 1/(1 + exp (e) (ma) expe (1.60 (1-m)))





 

 









where As is arts score index, m is the middle score for this particular area, and maer, the average value of all Habitat Mediterranean scores. expe is the natural exponentialfunktion.

For a natural habitat with an average middle score of 2.5 are negotiable function gradients shown in Figure 1.







 

 
Figure 1. The sigmoide wagering feature that converts medium score with values between 0 and 7 for an arts score index with values between 0 and 1. The function's gradient depends on Habitat Mediterranean average score (here shown for ma = 2.5).



 









Calculation of species diversity index

Species diversity index translates into an index species sum between 0 and 1 at the reference scale. Arts the sum assumes values from 0 and typically up to 20-100 for the species-rich habitats. The distribution is very uneven with a Poisson-like distribution with a concentration of many relatively low values and only a few high values. A direct and linear transformation would therefore lead to a concentration in the very lowest health classes and only very few of the better health classes. There are therefore chosen a exponentielt waning and asymptotic turnover function: (A)

d = (ab/at) (1-(1/expe (s/d)))





 

 









where Ad is arts diversity index, s is the sum of the specific area, arts and d is a diversity parameter that depends on Habitat's average arts content. AB/at is the relative share of bidragarter (ab) in relation to the total number of species (contribution-, zero-and problem species) in the documentation the circle (at).

the d parameter is calculated as a function of Habitat Mediterranean average score (ma) multiplied by the average number of species in the circle of natural type documentation (na) d = 0, 8mana Arts sum reflecting the species ' susceptibility to influences, but also, of course, the number of species in the circle. That is why arts poor nature types achieve less artssum than species-rich habitats, without thereby refers to the species-rich habitats have higher natural quality. d-parameter compensates for the natural difference in species diversity between natural habitats, since the d parameter is a function of Habitat's average number of species.

For two natural habitats, both with an average adjusted middle score of 2.5 and an average number of species on contributions respectively. 10 and 25 in the documentation the circle, and therefore d-values of respectively. 20 and 50, are negotiable feature from artssum to species diversity index shown in Figure 2.







 

 







Figure 2. Sales function, which converts arts the sum with values between 0 and typically 20-100 for a species diversity index with values between 0 and 1. Revenue function is shown for two habitat types with an average number of species on respectively. 10 (blue) and 25 (red) in the documentation the circle.



 



 

 









d-parameter specifies, in other words, the artssum, which corresponds to the limit between moderate and good natural condition, as a artssum, that assumes the value equal to (d), leads to species diversity index will be approx. 0.6 corresponding to the boundary between the natural state class 2 and 3.

Calculation of arts index

Arts index (A) is defined as the weighted mean value of arts score index and species diversity index. Arts score index weighted 0.25 0.75 and species diversity index in this calculation.







 

 



 





(A) = 0, 75As + 0, 25Ad Natural Health index

Structure index and category index together weighed for a total expression of State of nature in the area. In the calculation used a precautionary principle, where the lowest index is weighted highest. A high structural index gets so difficult to hide the fact that there is still a very poor species composition on the area. Conversely, a good composition does not prevent timely detected a problem with the structural indicators, so that the good nature of content on the area also in the future can be maintained. The lowest of the two index attributed to hence weight weight 0.4 0.6 and the highest index in the calculation of natural health index N.

Hvis S større end A:







 

 



 





N = 0,4S + 0,6A





 

 









Hvis S mindre end A:







 

 



 





N = 0,6S + 0,4A





 

 









Beregningerne af struktur-, arts- og naturtilstandsindeks foretages vha. calculation tool TILDA (condition assessment of Danish natural habitats), developed by NERI, on the basis of extraction directly from the Danish Nature data. Environment centres are entering data from the mapping 06-08 directly into Denmark's Natural data.

Results from the mapping of Danish habitats habitats in the designated habitat areas have formed the basis for a calibration of the condition assessment method. In the following chapter provides a brief description of the structural characteristics of the habitats natural habitats, and thus the rationale for the allocation of the listed score values and weights. The spatial conditions and the resulting structure and species index and hence natural health index is shown, and in addition, is the natural habitat types characterized by their mean score, number of species and number of problem species.

4. Natural mode in Danish habitats habitats

Natural mode on the coastal cliffs, Pebble Beach and salt marsh

Tanglinier and opskyl on the unprotected Pebble Beach allows plant communities with both annual and perennial species adapted to disturbances, nutrient rich bottom, many of which also can be found on the cultivated fields as a weed species. On the steep cliffs and rocks, quite near the sea, characterized by salt exposure and natural disturbances are different plant communities, which can vary depending on the part of the soil and exposure. On the more sheltered Beach meadow shores is often found a strong zoning, created by the tidvise flooding with salt water, where the outer zones are dominated by annual Beach meadow vegetation and wading the grass community, and further inland are the real salt marsh. The presence of salt groundwater in inland locations, e.g. in connection with sources of salthorster, found the rare inland salteng.

On the habitats directive Annex 1 provides the following naturally occurring habitats in Denmark:

1210 annual vegetation of violence with Beach

1220 perennial vegetation of violence with Beach

1230 Coastal cliffs/rocks

1310 Annual Beach meadow vegetation

1320 Wade grass communities

1330 salt marsh

1340 * Inland salteng.

The bold featured types in NOVANA-monitored program, and the priority of the habitats directive is specified with * types.

Vegetation structure

Beach, the outer ramparts, strong salt marshes and mudflats grass affected communities have a high proportion of vegetation solve lots. The actual salt marsh and inland salt meadows have more closed vegetation, but also includes "salt pans" dominated by annuals. Cropped salt marshes has a low vegetation dominated by grasses and reeds (harril). The vegetation is divided into different zone calling certain of soil salt and water content. In the ugræssede form develops the wet parts of the beach meadow into Beach swamps with particularly Phragmites and schoenoplectus beach. On coastal cliffs and vegetation structure can be very variable. Woody species and dwarf shrubs occur in particular in the form of low, wind-tolerant shrubs/trees on the cliffs. Invasive species, especially wrinkled rose, can be a major problem, in particular on the Beach the ramparts.







 

 

 

 







Table 2. Indicators of vegetation structure in salt marshes and salt meadows. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









1330









1340











Without vegetation cover





 

 



 



0-5%





100





100





 



5-10%





60





75





 



10-30%
30





60





 



30-75%





10





10





 



75-100%





0





0









Grass/urteveg. under 15 cm





 

 



 



0-5%





0





0





 



5-10%





10





40





 



10-30%





30





60





 



30-75%





60





80





 



75-100%





100





100









Grass/herb vegetation 15-50 cm





 

 



 



0-5%





80





80





 



5-10%





100





100





 



10-30%





60





60





 



30-75%





30





40





 



75-100%





0





0









Græs/urtevegetation over 50 cm





 

 



 



0-5%





80





80





 



5-10%





100





100





 



10-30%





60





60





 



30-75%





30





40





 



75-100%





0





0









Dwarf shrubs





 

 



 



0-5%





100





100





 



5-10%





60





60





 



10-30%





30





30





 



30-75%





10





10





 



75-100%





0





0









Woody species (crown cover)





 

 



 



0%





100





100





 



1-10%





60





60





 



10-25%





30





30





 



25-50%





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0









Incidence of invasive species





 

 



 



0%





100





100





 



1-10%





40





40





 



10-25%





20





20





 



25-50%





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0





 

 

 

 









Hydrology
Dewatering, inter alia. in the form of ditches, can have a major impact on the drying up of especially the high marshes, but can also be a precondition to graze the land. Streams are important for the impact of fresh water on the beach meadow, but for all habitats except Inland type 1340, coastal Heath and the natural effects of the tides is essential for zone ring in natural habitats. Levees and coastal protection will dampen the natural zoning and suppress Beach meadow marked.







 

 

 

 







Table 3. Indicators of hydrology in salt marshes and salt meadows. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









1330









1340











Dewatering and water abstraction





 

 



 



seems to not





100





100





 



no vegetation changes





60





80





 



summer desiccation





30





30





 



widespread reclamation





10





10





 



complete reclamation





0





0









Streams





 

 



 



without intervention





100





100





 



sparsely regulated





60





75





 



partially regulated





30





50





 



comprehensive regulation





10





25





 



all streams rørlagte





0





0









Coastal protection





 

 



 



No coastal protection





100





100





 



m. zoning and dynamics





60





60





 



inhibited zoning and dynamics





30





30





 



small zoning and dynamics





10





10





 



no zoning or Dynamics





0





0





 

 

 

 









Agricultural impact

Agricultural impact rarely have meaning for Beach ramparts, whereas eutrophication and, to some extent, the study from spray drift from the higher elevations, cultivated agricultural land can have a strong negative impact on coastal cliffs. Beach meadows in their species-rich, low-growing form is entirely dependent on an appropriate grazing, and seems that regular fertilizing of land affects artsrig judgment strongly negative.







 

 

 

 







Table 4. Indicators for agricultural influence in salt marshes and salt meadows. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









1330









1340











Grazing/mountain hay





 

 



 



0-5%





0





0





 



5-10%





10





10





 



10-30%





30





30





 



30-75%





60





60





 



75-100%





100





100









Fertilizing electricity. injection injuries





 

 



 



0%





100





100





 



1-10%





40





40





 



10-25%





20





20





 



25-50%





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0
 

 

 









Habitat characteristic structures

The beach meadow is dependent on the constant dynamism which the tides and salt impact creates, and it is essential for the maintenance of the grazed salt marsh type is maintained lysåben. Fouling and coastal protection are the main threats for these communities.







 

 

 

 







Table 5. Indicators of Habitat characteristic structures in the salt marshes and salt meadows. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









1330









1340











Positive structures





 

 



 



common/well developed





100





100





 



spread/rudimentary





50





50





 



not present





0





0









Negative structures





 

 



 



common/well developed





0





0





 



spread/rudimentary





50





50





 



not present





100





100





 

 

 

 















 

 

 

 







Table 6. Major distribution of indicators in salt marshes and salt meadows. Bold is specified the percentage distribution of the broad elements of the structure of the index, and for each parent level is specified the percentage distribution of the indicators included in the fx vegetation structure.









Habitat type









1330









1340











Vegetation structure









25









30







 



bare ground





10





10





 



fix herbs





20





20





 



Mediterranean herbs





20





20





 



tall herbs





20





20





 



Dwarf shrubs





0





0





 



woody species





5





5





 



invasive plants





25





25









Hydrology









30









25







 



dewatering





30





75





 



streams





5





25





 



coastal protection





65





0









Agricultural impacts









15









15







 



grazing





75





50





 



eutrophication





25





50









Habitat characteristic structures









30









30







 



positive structures





60





10





 



negative structures





40





90





 

 

 

 









The result of the mapping of the natural state of the coastal zone

Figure 3 shows the percentage of land distribution in the five natural state classes after calibration. Inland salt Meadows is rare in Denmark, and the distribution represents, therefore, only very few areas and small areas.
Beach meadow area, on the other hand, is very large and middle size of areas are generally large. More than two-thirds of the land is in favorable natural condition (condition class 1 and 2). The distribution of the structural indicators (Table 8) shows that it is primarily grass/herb vegetation height distribution, the proportion with grazing and the presence of negative and the absence of positive Habitat characteristic structures that have dragged down the average structural index.







 

 







Figure 3. Percentage distribution of identified areas with salt marshes and inland salt meadows on the five natural state classes I-V, where in denotes the highest natural mode and (V) the lowest.



 



 

 









There are on average well 14 species found in documentary circles. Means the score is quite high, and there are generally found a relatively low number of problem species, most of the Inland salt meadows.







 

 

 

 







Table 7. Average area sizes, condition index and the number of species in the salt meadows.









Habitat type









1330









1340







 



mapped area in hectares





29241





14





 



number of identified areas





1733





14





 



average area size in hectares





16.87





0.99





 

 

 

 



 



natural health index





0.59





0.53





 



structure index





0.62





0.55





 



Arts index





0.61





0.57





 

 

 

 



 



product score





3.31





3.22





 

 

 

 



 



number of species in a 5 m circle





14.27





12.50





 



number of problem species





0.41





0.83





 



number of star species





6.74





5.33





 



number of tostjerne species





0.30





0.17





 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 







Table 8. Average scores of structural indicators in the salt meadows, where 100 is the best score of all areas. The lower the score, the less optimal has structure indicator averaged. Score values are weighted with significance in Table 6 in the calculation of the structure of the index.









Habitat type









1330









1340











Vegetation structure





 

 



 



Bare ground





0.90





0.92





 



fix herbs





0.37





0.73





 



Mediterranean herbs





0.54





0.67





 



tall herbs





0.52





0.63





 



Dwarf shrubs





1.00





1.00





 



woody species





0.88





0.87





 



invasive plants





0.86





1.00









Hydrology





 

 



 



dewatering





0.70





0.90





 



streams





0.58





-





 



coastal protection





0.81





-









Agricultural impacts





 

 



 



grazing





0.49





0.77





 



fertilizing





0.77





0.43









Habitat characteristic structures





 

 



 
positive structures





0.55





0.00





 



negative structures





0.46





0.58





 

 

 

 









Natural condition in the coastal dunes

Along the unprotected coastline, which in particular are exposed to the sea and the wind's impact, going on a comprehensive material handling of the washed-up sand into overland, by which sand dunes are formed. Part material is returned when the dunes are broken down and washes into the sea again. Extremely along the sea are formed forklitten and the white dune. Further inland there is a slow fouling and leaching, whereby the grey dune is formed. Where the sand has a high lime content from seashells, the species-rich green dune is formed. A further washout allows the dominance of dwarf shrubs, whereby the dune heaths are formed. Natural fouling of the dunes with a variety of native woody species give rise to particular plant communities.

On the habitats directive Annex 1 provides the following naturally occurring habitats in Denmark:

2110 Forklit

2120 2130 Grey/Green White clit clit



2140 Dune Heath 2160 Buckthorn clit

2190 2170 Gråris clit Clit depression



2250 * Juniper dune.

The bold featured types in NOVANA-monitored program, and the priority of the habitats directive is specified with * types. In addition, a special type of 2180 Wooded dunes, forest dunes that are discussed in the context of forest habitats.

Vegetation structure

The first stages of dune formation, forklitten and the white dunes, have a sparsely scattered vegetation cover of particularly resilient grasses (mainly helmets and Lyme grass) and low herbs. In the grey dune vegetation is more closed and in the Green dune can be quite prolific, artsrig and close. The vegetation is very variable and consists mainly of low grasses and herbs, often with many mosses and lichens, place shown with lots of tall grasses and herbs. Dune heaths are characterized by a more washed-out and stable bottom, dominated by dwarf shrubs, and where the dunes grow with native woody species, Sea buckthorn and gråris dune and the priority natural habitat type Juniper dune. In the hollows in the more stable areas formed the more or less moist dune Hollows, where vegetation structure can vary from low herbal and halvgræs vegetation to really rørsump.

Hydrology

In Dune hollows thrives the moisture-demanding species, and ditching and drainage have strong negative effect. Streams occurs in dune areas, but is rarely essential for the formation and development of coastal dunes. Coastal protection is the main hydrological factor in coastal dunes, as it may hinder the natural dynamics, the dunes are so dependent. Dune planting, especially with alien species, can both lead to an unnatural development of dunes and give rise to a widespread flora contamination by, among other things. invasive species.

Agricultural impact

Extensive sheep and cattle grazing has previously kept the vegetation low and open, particularly in the lush green dune. The more nutrient-poor and leached dune communities, particularly grey dune and dune Heath, is very sensitive to eutrophication, affecting Moss-and lavforekomsterne and increases fouling with grasses and woody plants.

Habitat characteristic structures

Increased nutrient supply, coastal protection, the drifting sand cushioning and stopped grazing has resulted in overgrowth, especially with udplantede drifting sand species generally is one of the biggest threats for these communities.







 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 9. Indicators of vegetation structure in the dunes. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









2130









2140









2190









2250











Without vegetation cover





 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





80





100





80





80





 



5-10%





100





60





100





100





 



10-30%





60





30





60





60





 



30-75%





30





10





30





30





 



75-100%





0





0





0





0









Grass/herb vegetation under 15 cm





 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





0





30





30





30





 



5-10%





30





60





60





60





 



10-30%





60





100





100





100





 



30-75%





100





60





60





60





 



75-100%





80





30





30





30









Grass/herb vegetation 15-50 cm





 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





80





30
30





80





 



5-10%





100





60





60





100





 



10-30%





60





100





100





60





 



30-75%





30





60





60





30





 



75-100%





0





30





30





0









Græs/urtevegetation over 50 cm





 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





80





80





100





80





 



5-10%





100





100





60





100





 



10-30%





60





60





30





60





 



30-75%





30





30





10





30





 



75-100%





0





0





0





0









Dwarf shrubs





 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





80





0





80





30





 



5-10%





100





10





100





60





 



10-30%





60





30





60





100





 



30-75%





30





60





30





60





 



75-100%





0





100





0





30









Woody species (crown cover)





 

 

 

 



 



0%





100





80





100





0





 



1-10%





60





100





60





30





 



10-25%





30





60





30





60





 



25-50%





10





30





10





100





 



50-100%





0





0





0





80









Incidence of invasive species





 

 

 

 



 



0%





100





100





100





100





 



1-10%





40





40





40





40





 



10-25%





20





20





20





20





 



25-50%
10





10





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0





0





0





 

 

 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 10. Indicators of hydrology in the dunes. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









2130









2140









2190









2250











Dewatering and water abstraction





 

 

 

 



 



seems to not





100





100





100





100





 



no vegetation changes





60





60





60





60





 



summer desiccation





30





30





30





30





 



widespread reclamation





10





10





10





10





 



complete reclamation





0





0





0





0









Streams





 

 

 

 



 



without intervention





100





100





100





100





 



sparsely regulated





60





60





60





60





 



partially regulated





30





30





30





30





 



comprehensive regulation





10





10





10





10





 



all streams rørlagte





0





0





0





0









Kystsikring





 

 

 

 



 



ingen kystsikring





100





100





100





100





 



m. zoning and dynamics





60





60





60





60





 



inhibited zoning and dynamics





30





30





30





30





 



small zoning and dynamics





10





10





10





10





 



no zoning or Dynamics





0





0





0





0





 

 

 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 11. Indicators for agricultural influence in the dunes. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









2130









2140









2190









2250
Grazing/mountain hay





 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





0





0





0





0





 



5-10%





10





10





10





10





 



10-30%





30





30





30





30





 



30-75%





60





60





60





60





 



75-100%





100





100





100





100









Fertilizing electricity. injection injuries





 

 

 

 



 



0%





100





100





100





100





 



1-10%





40





40





40





40





 



10-25%





20





20





20





20





 



25-50%





10





10





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0





0





0





 

 

 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 12. Indicators of Habitat characteristic structures in dunes. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









2130









2140









2190









2250











Positive structures





 

 

 

 



 



common/well developed





100





100





100





100





 



spread/rudimentary





50





50





50





50





 



not present





0





0





0





0









Negative structures





 

 

 

 



 



common/well developed





0





0





0





0





 



spread/rudimentary





50





50





50





50





 



not present





100





100





100





100





 

 

 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 13. Major distribution of indicators in the dunes. Bold is specified the percentage distribution of the broad elements of the structure of the index, and for each parent level is specified the percentage distribution of the indicators included in the fx vegetation structure.









Habitat type









2130









2140









2190
2250











Vegetation structure









40









40









30









30







 



bare ground





5





5





0





5





 



fix herbs





5





5





0





5





 



Mediterranean herbs





10





5





0





10





 



tall herbs





10





5





0





10





 



Dwarf shrubs





10





20





10





30





 



woody species





20





30





45





20





 



invasive plants





40





30





45





20





 

 





100









100





 

 







Hydrology









15









10









30









20







 



dewatering





30





50





50





10





 



coastal protection





60





50





20





80





 

 





100









100





 

 







Agricultural impacts









15









20









10









20







 



grazing





50





50





50





50





 



fertilizing





50





50





50





50





 

 





100









100





 

 







Habitat characteristic structures









30









30









30









30







 



positive structures





50





50





50





50





 



negative structures





50





50





50





50





 

 

 

 

 

 













 

 







Figure 4. Percentage distribution of identified areas with beach Dunes on the five natural state classes I-V, where in denotes the highest natural mode and (V) the lowest.



 



 

 









The result of the mapping of the natural state of coastal dunes

Figure 4 shows the percentage of land distribution in the five natural state classes after calibration. Dune areas are generally quite large, and at near Juniper authority consists of the relatively large area units.
In General, there is a good natural condition in the dunes, with more than three-quarters are in favourable condition (condition class 1 and 2). The distribution of the structural indicators (table 15) shows that it is the proportion with grazing and care, herbal and grass vegetation height distribution and incidence of invasive species and woody plants that have dragged down the average structural index.

There is an average of between 9 and 14 species found in documentary circles. Means the score is generally high, and that is only found get problem species.







 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 14. Average area sizes, condition index and the number of species in the coastal sand dunes.









Habitat type









2130









2140









2190









2250







 



mapped area in hectares





9281





13748





4286





229





 



number of identified areas





1256





1295





720





64





 



average area size in hectares.





7.39





10.62





5.95





3.58





 

 

 

 

 

 



 



natural health index





0.63





0.67





0.63





0.63





 



structure index





0.66





0.71





0.65





0.67





 



Arts index





0.63





0.66





0.64





0.61





 

 

 

 

 

 



 



product score





3.54





3.73





3.75





3.37





 

 

 

 

 

 



 



number of species in a 5 m circle





14.64





9.65





13.89





13.56





 



number of problem species





0.49





0.28





0.35





0.61





 



number of star species





7.41





6.12





7.47





6.56





 



number of tostjerne species





0.77





0.43





1.26





0.39





 

 

 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 15. Average scores of structural indicators in the coastal sand dunes, where 100 is the best score of all areas. The lower the score, the less optimal has structure indicator averaged. Score values are weighted with significance in table 13 in the calculation of the structure of the index.









Habitat type









2130









2140









2190









2250











Vegetation structure





 

 

 

 



 



bare ground





0.84





0.94





0.82





0.80





 



fix herbs





0.61





0.46





0.55





0.54





 



Mediterranean herbs





0.50





0.48





0.63





0.68





 



tall herbs





0.81





0.80





0.49





0.77





 



Dwarf shrubs
0.79





0.86





0.79





0.65





 



woody species





0.71





0.88





0.65





0.67





 



invasive plants





0.65





0.62





0.79





0.73









Hydrology





 

 

 

 



 



dewatering





0.99





0.89





0.74





0.92





 



streams





0.95





0.98





0.87





0.60





 



coastal protection





0.85





0.83





0.84





0.97









Agricultural impacts





 

 

 

 



 



grazing





0.17





0.12





0.14





0.23





 



fertilizing





0.86





0.89





0.93





0.97









Habitat characteristic structures





 

 

 

 



 



positive structures





0.68





0.75





0.63





0.73





 



negative structures





0.60





0.75





0.51





0.60





 

 

 

 

 

 









Natural mode of Inland dunes, heaths and scrub

Inland dunes are domestic flight sands instances. The sandy bottom are often very dry, hot and heavily washed-out. Natural habitats have limited circulation and belongs thus to some of our most dry, nutrient-poor and acidic sites. Are more common on sandy, nutrient-poor soils with typical mordannelse that is not attributable to flyvesand battles. The vegetation is dominated by lyngagtige dwarf shrubs and often with many mosses and lichens. Authority relies on a dynamic care in the form of grazing, burning, peat peeling or when that maintains the Heather vegetation, otherwise they naturally grows to and converted into nutrient-poor forest types. Slopes, grasslands and heathlands, where activities of fouling with enekrat, is seen in the habitats directive as an independent Habitat (5130).

On the habitats directive Annex 1 provides the following naturally occurring habitats in Denmark:

2310 Certain-inland dune

Nigrum 2320 Inland dunes-

2330 Inland dunes 4010 Wet grass-Heath



4030 Dry Heath 5130 Enekrat.

The bold featured types in NOVANA-monitored program, and the priority of the habitats directive is specified with * types.

Vegetation structure

Grass-inland dune has a scattered grass and herb cover with open sand lots and many énårige species. Enekrat has not always dwarf shrubs, but on the other the Inland dunes and heathlands dominated the ground cover of dwarf shrubs. The presence of certain and crowberry characterizes the two Inland dunes, and on the wet Heath is a large touch of Bell Heather and bog Bilberry. Heather, crowberry, bilberry, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, species of certain and lingonberries are most common in the dry and the dwarf shrub dominated the Inland dunes. Also creeping Willow contributes to dwarf bushes. The dense vegetation cover also consist of several halvgræs species as well as low grass and herbs. Airborne ammoniakdeposition often leads to a shift in species composition in favor of grass, among others. Deschampsia flexuosa and caerulea. On most devices, it is necessary to keep fouling with, among other things. trees down by grazing, controlled burning or peat peeling. One will be little gentle contours grazed and promoted by grazing, which can therefore be developed enekrat. Grazing and inadequate care promotes overgrowth with native species such as oak, Birch and Rowan, but often also with various introduced conifers.

Hydrology

The wet heat found in the Hollows, so drying out due to ditching, dewatering and, not least, water abstraction will often cause a spread of the dry heat at the expense of the wet Heath. Streams occur on authority, and improper maintenance may have the same drying effect on the surrounding areas as ditching and drainage and thereby threaten the wet hedepartier. None of these types are affected by coastal protection.







 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 16. Indicators of vegetation structure on Inland dunes and Moors. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









2310









2320









2330









4010









4030









5130











Without vegetation cover





 

 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





70





70





50





80





100
100





 



5-10%





100





100





100





100





60





60





 



10-30%





60





60





80





60





30





30





 



30-75%





10





10





50





30





10





10





 



75-100%





0





0





0





0





0





0









Grass/herb vegetation under 15 cm





 

 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





60





60





0





80





80





80





 



5-10%





80





80





30





100





100





100





 



10-30%





100





100





60





60





60





80





 



30-75%





60





60





100





30





30





60





 



75-100%





0





0





80





0





0





30









Grass/herb vegetation 15-50 cm





 

 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





100





100





100





30





80





80





 



5-10%





80





80





80





60





100





100





 



10-30%





70





70





70





100





60





60





 



30-75%





50





50





50





60





30





30





 



75-100%





0





0





0





30





0





0









Græs/urtevegetation over 50 cm





 

 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





100





100





100





80





100





100





 



5-10%





60





60





60





100





60





60





 



10-30%





30





30





30
60





30





30





 



30-75%





10





10





10





30





10





10





 



75-100%





0





0





0





0





0





0









Dwarf shrubs





 

 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





0





0





80





0





0





60





 



5-10%





0





0





100





30





10





80





 



10-30%





10





10





60





60





30





100





 



30-75%





60





60





30





100





60





100





 



75-100%





100





100





0





80





100





60









Woody species (crown cover)





 

 

 

 

 



 



0%





100





100





100





100





100





0





 



1-10%





60





60





60





60





60





30





 



10-25%





30





30





30





30





30





100





 



25-50%





10





10





10





10





10





80





 



50-100%





0





0





0





0





0





30









Incidence of invasive species





 

 

 

 

 



 



0%





100





100





100





100





100





100





 



1-10%





40





40





40





40





40





40





 



10-25%





20





20





20





20





20





20





 



25-50%





10





10





10





10





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0
0





0





0





0





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 17. Indicators of hydrology on Inland dunes and Moors. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









2310









2320









2330









4010









4030









5130











Dewatering and water abstraction





 

 

 

 

 



 



seems to not





100





100





100





100





100





100





 



no vegetation changes





60





60





60





60





60





60





 



summer desiccation





30





30





30





30





30





30





 



widespread reclamation





10





10





10





10





10





10





 



complete reclamation





0





0





0





0





0





0









Streams





 

 

 

 

 



 



without intervention





100





100





100





100





100





100





 



sparsely regulated





60





60





60





60





60





60





 



partially regulated





30





30





30





30





30





30





 



comprehensive regulation





10





10





10





10





10





10





 



all streams rørlagte





0





0





0





0





0





0









Coastal protection





 

 

 

 

 



 



No coastal protection





100





100





100





100





100





100





 



m. zoning and dynamics





60





60





60





60





60





60





 



inhibited zoning and dynamics





30





30





30





30





30





30





 
small zoning and dynamics





10





10





10





10





10





10





 



no zoning or Dynamics





0





0





0





0





0





0





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 









Agricultural impact

Authority is dependent on a dynamic care that maintains and rejuvenates hedelyngen. It can be done by extensive grazing with sheep and cattle for example or by regular peat skrælninger and burnings. Grazing promotes enekrat, while peat burning and peeling eliminates this type of Habitat. A major threat to both authority and Inland dunes are today the airborne eutrophication, that changes the competitive relationship between the plants in favor of grass and detrimental to dwarf bushes. Inland klitternes and the low nutritional content is the precondition for their special vegetation. Also the widespread Moss-and lavbestande supplanted by eutrophication, Campylopus introflexus, except for the invasive mosart.







 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 18. Indicators for agricultural impact on Inland dunes and Moors. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









2310









2320









2330









4010









4030









5130











Grazing/mountain hay





 

 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





0





0





0





0





0





0





 



5-10%





10





10





10





10





10





10





 



10-30%





30





30





30





30





30





30





 



30-75%





60





60





60





60





60





60





 



75-100%





100





100





100





100





100





100









Fertilizing electricity. injection injuries





 

 

 

 

 



 



0%





100





100





100





100





100





100





 



1-10%





40





40





40





40





40





40





 



10-25%





20





20





20





20





20





20





 



25-50%





10





10





10





10





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0





0





0





0





0





 

 

 

 

 

 









Habitat characteristic structures

Changes in vegetation structure and species composition are sure signs that the Inland dunes and heaths are negatively affected by eutrophication, especially as dwarf shrub/grass-ratio, rejuvenation of hedelyngen and, in the wet, the presence of moisture-demanding species are valuable indicators.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 19. Indicators of Habitat characteristic structures on Inland dunes and Moors. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









2310









2320









2330









4010









4030









5130











Positive structures





 

 

 

 

 



 



common/well developed





100





100





100





100





100





100





 



spread/rudimentary





50





50





50





50





50





50





 



not present





0





0





0





0





0





0









Negative structures





 

 

 

 

 



 



common/well developed





0





0





0





0





0





0





 



spread/rudimentary





50





50





50





50





50





50





 



not present





100





100





100





100





100





100





 

 

 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 20. Major distribution of indicators on Inland dunes and Moors. Bold is specified the percentage distribution of the broad elements of the structure of the index, and for each parent level is specified the percentage distribution of the indicators included in the fx vegetation structure.









Habitat type









2310









2320









2330









4010









4030









5130











Vegetation structure









50









50









50









30









40









50







 



bare ground





10





10





15





10





0





5





 



fix herbs





10





10





15





5





10





10





 



Mediterranean herbs





10





10





10





5





10





5





 



tall herbs





10





10





15





5





10
15





 



Dwarf shrubs





20





20





5





20





10





5





 



woody species





20





20





20





25





30





30





 



invasive plants





20





20





20





30





30





30









Hydrology









5









5









5









30









10









5







 



dewatering





100





100





100





75





100





100





 



streams





0





0





0





25





0





0





 



coastal protection





0





0





0





0





0





0









Agricultural impacts









20









20









20









20









25









25







 



grazing





50





50





75





25





50





50





 



fertilizing





50





50





25





75





50





50









Natural type of karak. structures









25









25









25









20









25









20







 



positive structures





50





50





50





50





50





50





 



negative structures





50





50





50





50





50





50





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 









The result of the mapping of natural mode of Inland dunes and Moors

Figure 5 shows the percentage distribution of land in the five natural state classes after calibration. The area with the Inland dunes is not completely mapped and is generally quite modest. Both the average plot size and condition is comparable to the, but certain-Inland dunes, however, have significantly better condition than the other types. The area with the dry is more than six times as large as the wet, and the wet heaths are generally limited to relatively small areas. Just over half of the identified Heath area is in favorable natural condition (condition class 1 and 2). The distribution of the structural indicators (Table 23) shows that for both Inland dunes and Moors, it is primarily a lack of grazing and well above all care, and resultant overgrowth with woody species and invasive species as well as the prevalence of negative Habitat characteristic structures that have dragged down the average structural index.

There is an average of 9 to 11 species found in documentary circles, however, almost 17 in enekrattene. Means the score is relatively high for all types, and there are on average found good one problemart on land.







 

 
Figure 5. Percentage distribution of identified areas of interest on the five natural state classes I-V, where in denotes the highest natural mode and (V) the lowest.



 



 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 21. Average area sizes, condition index and number of species on the Inland dunes and Moors.









Habitat type









2310









2320









2330









4010









4030









5130







 



mapped area in hectares





169





1522





63





1602





10644





358





 



number of identified areas





29





151





35





400





1013





181





 



average area size in hectares.





5.84





10.08





1.79





4.00





10.51





1.98





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 



natural health index





0.62





0.60





0.58





0.63





0.56





0.63





 



structure index





0.62





0.64





0.57





0.67





0.57





0.69





 



Arts index





0.63





0.60





0.61





0.62





0.58





0.59





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 



product score





3.56





3.31





3.61





3.50





3.36





3.22





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



 



number of species in a 5 m circle





10.90





8.91





9.43





9.99





10.12





16.73





 



number of problem species





1.29





1.14





0.67





1.14





0.94





1.73





 



number of star species





6.48





5.20





4.86





6.45





5.51





7.31





 



number of tostjerne species





0.52





0.30





0.67





0.92





0.50





0.87





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 22. Average scores of the structural indicators on Inland dunes and heathlands, where 100 is the best score of all areas. The lower the score, the less optimal has structure indicator averaged. Score values are weighted with significance in Table 20 in the calculation of the structure of the index.









Habitat type









2310









2320









2330









4010
4030









5130











Vegetation structure





 

 

 

 

 

 



 



bare ground





0.70





0.71





0.77





0.79





0.94





0.97





 



fix herbs





0.75





0.75





0.56





0.76





0.76





0.80





 



Mediterranean herbs





0.74





0.74





0.77





0.66





0.58





0.69





 



tall herbs





0.90





0.89





0.96





0.78





0.84





0.81





 



Dwarf shrubs





0.75





0.80





0.76





0.83





0.74





0.79





 



Woody species





0.59





0.48





0.61





0.58





0.48





0.53





 



invasive plants





0.50





0.48





0.50





0.69





0.54





0.68









Hydrology





 

 

 

 

 

 



 



Dewatering





1.00





1.00





-





0.69





0.89





1.00





 



Streams





-





-





-





0.50





0.94





1.00





 



Coastal protection





-





-





-





0.85





0.98





-









Agricultural impacts





 

 

 

 

 

 



 



Grazing





0.03





0.23





0.08





0.12





0.23





0.39





 



Fertilizing





0.88





0.89





0.93





0.93





0.88





0.96









Natural type of karak. structures





 

 

 

 

 

 



 



positive structures





-





-





-





0.72





0.64





-





 



negative structures





-





-





-





0.32





0.41





-





 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 









Natural condition on grasslands and intermittently wet meadow

Over drive is an old cultural history expression in the protection of nature is used as a legal term for græslands vegetation. BRUUN & Ejrnæs (1998) defines the natural type of drives as herbal dominated vegetation on well-drained bottom without other cultural impact than grazing.
The intermittently wet meadow is first and foremost subject to fluctuating water levels and, to a lesser extent of soil. It is therefore very variable; the can on the wettest and most calcareous deposits look like rigkær and on the more nutrient-poor occurrences only consist of a few species with caerulea as dominant species. Intermittently wet meadow represents a transitional Habitat between the dry grasslands and the wetter moser.

On the habitats directive Annex 1 provides the following naturally occurring habitats in Denmark: 6120 * dry lime sands overdrev



6210 (*) lime overdrev (* important orchid sites)



6230 * acidic grasslands



6410 Intermittently wet meadow.

The bold featured types in NOVANA-monitored program, and the priority of the habitats directive is specified with * types.

Vegetation structure

Grasslands are generally characterized by a lysåben vegetation dominated by perennial grasses and low, rosetagtige herbs with few or no tall perennials. There will often be a part of growing up by trees and shrubs, which has avoided nedgræsning. Especially at sur and nutrient-poor bottom can there be part dwarf shrubs.







 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 23. Indicators of vegetation structure on grasslands and in intermittently wet meadow. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









6120









6210









6230









6410











Without vegetation cover





 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





30





100





100





100





 



5-10%





60





60





60





60





 



10-30%





100





30





30





30





 



30-75%





60





10





10





10





 



75-100%





30





0





0





0









Grass/urteveg. under 15 cm





 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





0





0





0





0





 



5-10%





10





10





10





30





 



10-30%





30





30





30





60





 



30-75%





60





60





60





100





 



75-100%





100





100





100





80









Grass/herb vegetation 15-50 cm





 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





80





80





80





0





 



5-10%





100





100





100





30





 



10-30%





60





60





60





60





 



30-75%





30





30





30





100





 



75-100%





0





0





0





80









Grass/herb vegetation over 50 cm





 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





100





100





100





100





 



5-10%





60





60





60





60





 
10-30%





30





30





30





30





 



30-75%





10





10





10





10





 



75-100%





0





0





0





0









Dwarf shrubs





 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





100





80





30





80





 



5-10%





60





100





60





100





 



10-30%





30





60





100





60





 



30-75%





10





30





60





30





 



75-100%





0





0





30





0









Woody species (crown cover)





 

 

 

 



 



0%





100





80





80





80





 



1-10%





60





100





100





100





 



10-25%





30





60





60





60





 



25-50%





10





30





30





30





 



50-100%





0





0





0





0









Incidence of invasive species





 

 

 

 



 



0%





100





100





100





100





 



1-10%





40





40





40





40





 



10-25%





20





20





20





20





 



25-50%





10





10





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0





0





0





 

 

 

 

 

 









Both lime overdrev (6210) and acidic grasslands (6230) is characterized by a relatively close and connected vegetation, however, can be relatively open, where overdrev lime it occur on chalk or limestone. Dry lime sands overdrev (6120) has a very open bottom, pga. wind erosion and landslides on strongly sloping bottom has a herbal vegetation dominated by annuals and large vegetation solve lots. The thicket of roses, Hawthorn, Blackthorn and found frequently in excess of one drive, though not as widespread on the driest bottom. Invasive species are primarily Italian broom and wrinkled rose, who was previously a big problem near cottage areas, but now is a general problem in most of the country.

The species-rich intermittently wet meadow in gentle contours grazed form will develop a low species rich urtelag with lots of tall herbs. The uafgræssede forms developer both on the calcareous and the nutrient-poor bottom high grasses and herbs.

Hydrology

Grasslands are found on naturally well drained bottom, and therefore attributed to dewatering and water abstraction is of no importance for the natural type. That may occur in connection with the streams are open common areas, however, rarely have an impact on Habitat's development. Coastal protection may affect in particular the coastal cliffs with over drive, since it can mean less natural erosion and dynamism. Beach overdrev belongs to the beach on natural habitats, if salt influence is evident. Certain valuable fälad slopes are characterized by water flow over the surface close clay layer, but here the main threat is assessed not to be hydrologic changes, but on the other hand, eutrophication of the flowing water.

The intermittently wet meadow needs to have a fluctuating water levels and preferably, but not necessarily, winter and spring flooding. Dewatering is a very significant threat.







 

 

 

 

 
 







Table 24. Indicators of hydrology on grasslands and in intermittently wet meadow. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









6120









6210









6230









6410











Dewatering and water abstraction





 

 

 

 



 



seems to not





100





100





100





100





 



no vegetation changes





60





60





60





60





 



summer desiccation





30





30





30





30





 



widespread reclamation





10





10





10





10





 



complete reclamation





0





0





0





0









Streams





 

 

 

 



 



without intervention





100





100





100





100





 



sparsely regulated





60





60





60





60





 



Partially regulated





30





30





30





30





 



comprehensive regulation





10





10





10





10





 



all streams rørlagte





0





0





0





0









Kystsikring





 

 

 

 



 



ingen kystsikring





100





100





100





100





 



m. zoning and dynamics





60





60





60





60





 



inhibited zoning and dynamics





30





30





30





30





 



small zoning and dynamics





10





10





10





10





 



no zoning or Dynamics





0





0





0





0





 

 

 

 

 









Agricultural impact

Over drive types are dependent on grazing. Dry lime sands overdrev may, however, by natural dynamism maintain a low, lysåben vegetation in many years. All three types are affected negatively by eutrophication, which strongly favors high, strongly growing herbs and woody plants.

The intermittently wet meadow is also dependent on extensive grazing in order to remain lysåben.







 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 25. Indicators for agricultural impact on grasslands and in intermittently wet meadow. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









6120









6210









6230









6410











Grazing/mountain hay





 

 

 

 



 



0-5%





0





0





0
0





 



5-10%





10





10





10





10





 



10-30%





30





30





30





30





 



30-75%





60





60





60





60





 



75-100%





100





100





100





100









Fertilizing electricity. injection injuries





 

 

 

 



 



0%





100





100





100





100





 



1-10%





40





40





40





40





 



10-25%





20





20





20





20





 



25-50%





10





10





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0





0





0





 

 

 

 

 









Habitat characteristic structures

They are often very species-rich plant communities that develop on the ancient grasslands, are heavily dependent on a wide, stable development with constant grazing or natural Dynamics (positive structures) and absence of fertilizing and isåning of cultivated plants (negative structures).







 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 26. Indicators of Habitat characteristic structures on grasslands and in intermittently wet meadow. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









6120









6210









6230









6410











Positive structures





 

 

 

 



 



common/well developed





100





100





100





100





 



spread/rudimentary





50





50





50





50





 



not present





0





0





0





0









Negative structures





 

 

 

 



 



common/well developed





0





0





0





0





 



spread/rudimentary





50





50





50





50





 



not present





100





100





100





100





 

 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 27. Major distribution of indicators for grasslands and in intermittently wet Eng. in bold is specified the percentage distribution of the broad elements of the structure of the index, and for each parent level is specified the percentage distribution of the indicators included in the fx vegetation structure.









Habitat type









6120









6210









6230









6410











Vegetation structure
40









40









40









40







 



bare ground





30





5





0





0





 



fix herbs





10





15





15





20





 



Mediterranean herbs





10





15





15





5





 



tall herbs





10





15





15





20





 



Dwarf shrubs





0





0





5





0





 



woody species





20





25





25





20





 



invasive plants





20





25





25





35









Hydrology









10









5









5









45







 



dewatering





0





0





0





80





 



streams





0





0





0





20





 



coastal protection





100





100





100





0









Agricultural impacts









20









25









25









15







 



grazing





25





50





50





50





 



fertilizing





75





50





50





50









Natural type of karak. structures









30









30









30









0







 



positive structures





50





50





50





50





 



negative structures





50





50





50





50





 

 

 

 

 









The result of the mapping of natural condition of grasslands and meadows

Figure 6 shows the percentage of land distribution in the five natural state classes after calibration. The area with dry lime sands overdrev is quite small, and therefore should be taken without prejudice to the distributions. The rest are open common area is spread over a very large number of areas, however, there often are relatively small, with an average plot size of 2-3 ha. The intermittently wet meadows are also found in relatively small areas. About 60 percent of the over drive-and engarealet is in favorable natural condition (condition class 1 and 2), a little less for the calcareous grasslands and meadows. The distribution of the structural indicators (Table 30) shows that for the dry lime sands overdrev is the proportion of bare ground, grass/herb vegetation height distribution, afgræsningen and overgrowing with woody species that pull down. At over, it is also generally drives the spread of positive and negative Habitat characteristic structures that pull down, and finally, it is on the acidic grasslands also lack of instances of dwarf shrubs.

There are, on average, found a very large number of species, some 30 in the calcareous grasslands, 23 in the acidic grasslands, and about 18 in the intermittently wet Eng. Medium score is a maximum at the rare dry lime overdrev and lowest on the common lime overdrev. There is generally found a significant number of problem species, particularly on calcium overdrevene, which also has the greatest potentialities agriculturally on the naturally veldrænede soils.







 

 
Figure 6. Percentage distribution of identified areas with grasslands and meadows on the five natural state classes I-V, where in denotes the highest natural mode and (V) the lowest.



 



 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 28. Average area sizes, condition index and number of species on grasslands and in intermittently wet meadow.









Habitat type









6120









6210









6230









6410







 



mapped area in hectares





38





1619





4377





2282





 



number of identified areas





49





763





1644





760





 



average area size in hectares





0.78





2.12





2.66





3.00





 

 

 

 

 

 



 



natural health index





0.66





0.57





0.59





0.57





 



structure index





0.73





0.62





0.62





0.60





 



Arts index





0.63





0.56





0.60





0.58





 

 

 

 

 

 



 



product score





3.48





3.03





3.25





3.22





 

 

 

 

 

 



 



number of species in a 5 m circle





29.87





31.07





23.02





18.99





 



number of problem species





1.89





3.52





1.87





1.38





 



number of star species





12.45





10.88





9.13





8.31





 



number of tostjerne species





2.84





2.85





1.63





1.30





 

 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 29. Average scores of the structural indicators on grasslands and in intermittently wet meadow, where 100 is the best score of all areas. The lower the score the less optimal has structure indicator averaged. Score values are weighted with significance in Table 27 of the calculation of the structure of the index.









Habitat type









6120









6210









6230









6410











Vegetation structure





 

 

 

 



 



bare ground





0.69





0.93





0.96





0.94





 



fix herbs





0.59





0.38





0.47





0.32





 



Mediterranean herbs





0.58





0.44





0.46





0.75





 



tall herbs





0.84





0.57





0.73





0.33





 



Dwarf shrubs





1.00





0.80





0.45
0.82





 



woody species





0.59





0.72





0.80





0.81





 



invasive plants





0.80





0.81





0.76





0.81









Hydrology





 

 

 

 



 



dewatering





1.00





0.93





0.89





0.59





 



streams





1.00





0.82





0.91





0.47





 



coastal protection





1.00





0.93





0.89





0.82









Agricultural impacts





 

 

 

 



 



grazing





0.47





0.54





0.61





0.31





 



fertilizing





0.70





0.57





0.55





0.83









Natural type of karak. structures





 

 

 

 



 



positive structures





0.89





0.71





0.53





0.72





 



negative structures





0.69





0.54





0.64





0.58





 

 

 

 

 









Natural mode in acidic bogs

On nutrient-poor, acidic and moist bottom developed the acidic bog types. Transition mires starts as overgrowth of bank vegetation along the nutrient-poor lakes which gradually forms a more or less bearing and often shaky bottom. In the last stages of hang bag development happens immigration of woody species, and it should be replaced by the forest and the forest swamps. By fouling with especially sphagnum-peat layer species can lose contact with the ground water and the special acidic bog type of raised bog, develops where water and nutrient supply alone is based on rainfall. In many cases, peat extraction, drainage and nutrient rich rainfall mean an erosion of the delicate sphagnumlag, and the active raised bogs develops into a degenerate version of the Habitat directive is perceived as an independent natutype, degraded raised bog. Peat peeling, optrædning or natural dynamics can give rise to the rare natural type peat depression.

On the habitats directive Annex 1 provides the following naturally occurring habitats in Denmark: 7110 7120 Degraded raised bog 7140 transition mires * Højmose



7150 Peat depression.

The bold featured types in NOVANA-monitored program, and the priority of the habitats directive is specified with * types.

Vegetation structure

Raised bog surface itself is without trees, but in the degraded raised bog laggen and there will be early life of woody species. On hang the bag and in peat hollows woody species will be signs of drying out.







 

 

 

 

 







Table 30. Indicators of vegetation structure in acidic bogs. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









7110









7140









7150











Without vegetation cover





 

 

 



 



0-5%





80





80





0





 



5-10%





100





100





30





 



10-30%





60





60





60





 



30-75%





30





30





100





 



75-100%





0





0





80









Grass/herb vegetation under 15 cm





 

 

 



 



0-5%





0





0





0





 



5-10%





10





10





30





 



10-30%





30
30





60





 



30-75%





60





60





80





 



75-100%





100





100





100









Grass/herb vegetation 15-50 cm





 

 

 



 



0-5%





80





80





100





 



5-10%





100





100





60





 



10-30%





60





60





30





 



30-75%





30





30





10





 



75-100%





0





0





0









Græs/urtevegetation over 50 cm





 

 

 



 



0-5%





100





100





100





 



5-10%





60





60





60





 



10-30%





30





30





30





 



30-75%





10





10





10





 



75-100%





0





0





0









Dwarf shrubs





 

 

 



 



0-5%





30





30





80





 



5-10%





60





60





100





 



10-30%





100





100





60





 



30-75%





60





60





30





 



75-100%





30





30





0









Woody species (crown cover)





 

 

 



 



0%





100





100





100





 



1-10%





60





60





40





 



10-25%





30





30





20





 



25-50%





10





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0





0









Incidence of invasive species





 

 

 



 



0%





100





100





100





 



1-10%





40





40





40





 



10-25%





20





20





20





 



25-50%





10





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0





0
 

 

 

 

 









Both protected bog and hang the bag has widespread batches of low to moderately high herbs, grasses and sedges, and dwarf shrubs in particular occur frequently on raised bogs.

Hydrology

All types are dependent on an optimal hydrology. For raised bogs, it is a high secondary groundwater tooth that has no direct connection with the surroundings. Hang the bag in the early stages will be very vulnerable to road traffic and give in by pressure.







 

 

 

 

 







Table 31. Indicators of hydrology in acidic bogs. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









7110









7140









7150











Dewatering and water abstraction





 

 

 



 



seems to not





100





100





100





 



no vegetation changes





60





60





60





 



summer desiccation





30





30





30





 



widespread reclamation





10





10





10





 



complete reclamation





0





0





0









Streams





 

 

 



 



without intervention





100





100





100





 



sparsely regulated





60





60





60





 



partially regulated





30





30





30





 



comprehensive regulation





10





10





10





 



all streams rørlagte





0





0





0









Coastal protection





 

 

 



 



No coastal protection





100





100





100





 



m. zoning and dynamics





60





60





60





 



inhibited zoning and dynamics





30





30





30





 



small zoning and dynamics





10





10





10





 



no zoning or Dynamics





0





0





0





 

 

 

 









Agricultural impact

Transition mires and raised bogs are naturally open and very vulnerable to road traffic, so here will cattle often do more harm than good. Natural habitats belong all to among the most vulnerable to nutrient enrichment.







 

 

 

 

 







Table 32. Indicators for agricultural influence in acidic bogs. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









7110









7140









7150











Grazing/mountain hay





 

 

 



 



0-5%





0





0





0





 



5-10%





10





10





10





 



10-30%





30





30





30





 



30-75%





60





60





60
 



75-100%





100





100





100









Fertilizing electricity. injection injuries





 

 

 



 



0%





100





100





100





 



1-10%





40





40





40





 



10-25%





20





20





20





 



25-50%





10





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0





0





 

 

 

 









Habitat characteristic structures

Signs of moisture, nutrient-poor species and a widespread cover of peat mosses are sure signs of well-functioning, peat-forming natural habitats. Eutrophication and drying is very big threats for these vulnerable habitats.







 

 

 

 

 







Table 33. Indicators of Habitat characteristic structures in acidic bogs. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









7110









7140









7150











Positive structures





 

 

 



 



common/well developed





100





100





100





 



spread/rudimentary





50





50





50





 



not present





0





0





0









Negative structures





 

 

 



 



common/well developed





0





0





0





 



spread/rudimentary





50





50





50





 



not present





100





100





100





 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 







Table 34. Major distribution of indicators in acidic bogs. Bold is specified the percentage distribution of the broad elements of the structure of the index, and for each parent level is specified the percentage distribution of the indicators included in the fx vegetation structure.









Habitat type









7110









7140









7150











Vegetation structure









35









35









35







 



bare ground





0





0





20





 



fix herbs





5





10





20





 



Mediterranean herbs





5





10





5





 



tall herbs





15





10





5





 



Dwarf shrubs





25





0





0





 



woody species





25





35





25





 



invasive plants





25





35





25
Hydrology









25









25









25







 



dewatering





100





100





100





 



streams





0





0





0





 



coastal protection





0





0





0









Agricultural impacts









10









10









15







 



grazing





0





0





50





 



fertilizing





100





100





50









Natural type of karak. structures









30









30









25







 



positive structures





50





50





50





 



negative structures





50





50





50





 

 

 

 









The result of the mapping of the natural state of the acidic bogs

Figure 7 shows the percentage of land distribution in the five natural state classes after calibration. There are also shown the mapping result of the degraded raised bogs, as assessed using the same scale as the active raised bogs. Raised bog area is dominated by the large area of Lille vildmose. Both transition mires and peat hollows found on very small areas, and especially peat hollows there are not many, so the total area is quite small. The few areas that comply with the habitats directive description of peat Hollows, however is of very high quality, and the vast majority are therefore in favorable natural condition. Active raised bogs have a somewhat smaller area share in favourable condition, whereas the degraded condition of course is very inferior højmosers. Transition mires have barely two thirds in State class 1 and 2. The distribution of the structural indicators (Table 36) shows that for the acidic bogs in General is it the Avai rowing with Woody plants, hydrology and a high prevalence of the negative type of Habitat characteristic structures that pull down in the average structural index. Special for raised bogs drags a large proportion of invasive species (conifers) are also down. Peat lavningernes structural indicators look generally seem to have it better.

On the raised bogs are only a limited number of selected to contribute positively to the arts index. There are on average found good 9 species in højmosernes documentation circles, of which 6 have been star species and barely one tostjerneart. In transition mires and peat hollows are found several species, and generally means the score is very high for all types except the degraded raised bogs.







 

 







Figure 7. Percentage distribution of identified areas with acidic bogs on the five natural state classes I-V, where in denotes the highest natural mode and (V) the lowest.



 



 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 35. Average area sizes, condition index and the number of species in the acidic bogs.









Habitat type









7110









7120









7140









7150







 



mapped area in hectares





2531





869





752





121





 



number of identified areas





91





103





812





122





 



average area size in hectares





27.81





8.43





0.93





0.99





 

 

 

 

 

 



 



natural health index





0.58





0.47





0.65





0.68





 



structure index





0.57





0.55





0.71





0.68





 



Arts index





0.63





0.45





0.61





0.71





 

 

 

 

 

 



 
product score





3.55





2.27





3.62





4.34





 

 

 

 

 

 



 



number of species in a 5 m circle





9.38





7.81





13.95





10.57





 



number of problem species





0.00





0.00





0.51





0.28





 



number of star species





5.80





3.45





8.21





5.52





 



number of tostjerne species





0.76





0.27





0.68





2.74





 

 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 

 







Table 36. Average scores of structural indicators in the acidic bogs, where 100 is the best score of all areas. The lower the score the less optimal has structure indicator averaged. Score values are weighted with significance in Table 34 in the calculation of the structure of the index.









Habitat type









7110









7120









7140









7150











Vegetation structure





 

 

 

 



 



bare ground





0.81





0.82





0.80





0.45





 



fix herbs





0.21





0.13





0.22





0.49





 



Mediterranean herbs





0.49





0.39





0.51





0.45





 



tall herbs





0.83





0.57





0.45





0.94





 



Dwarf shrubs





0.61





0.57





0.38





0.69





 



woody species





0.48





0.49





0.55





0.66





 



invasive plants





0.66





0.75





0.87





0.86









Hydrology





 

 

 

 



 



dewatering





0.50





0.35





0.81





0.74





 



streams





0.64





0.21





0.72





0.55





 



coastal protection





1.00





1.00





0.99





0.64









Agricultural impacts





 

 

 

 



 



grazing





0.03





0.10





0.12





0.10





 



fertilizing





0.96





0.97





0.96





0.97









Natural type of karak. structures





 

 

 

 



 



positive structures





0.64





-





0.86





0.91





 



negative structures
0.30





-





0.48





0.66





 

 

 

 

 









Natural mode in calcareous FENS

On calcareous, damp bottom with high groundwater tooth developed under open conditions the species-rich natural type rigkær. Dominating the considerable half grass cladium mariscus, placed natural type for the bog. A special type of Habitat found in the overwhelming pressure of water, giving rise to the source host.

On the habitats directive Annex 1 provides the following naturally occurring habitats in Denmark: 7210 * mariscus bog



7220 * fount



7230 Rigkær.

The bold featured types in NOVANA-monitored program, and the priority of the habitats directive is specified with * types.

Vegetation structure

Rigkær have low-middle high, close, artsrig vegetation dominated by grasses, sedges, mosses and many flowering plants. Tall herbs and woody plants are signs of fouling and lack of grazing. Mariscus Marsh is dominated by tall sedges, grasses and herbs with scattered parties of woody species. Reed can Outrank mariscus after eutrophication. Natural type fount is the open form, characterized by a rich flora of mosses and low herbs. Source host can also occur in forest habitats as elle and ash forests (91E0).







 

 

 

 

 







Table 37. Indicators of vegetation structure in calcareous bogs. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









7210









7220









7230











Without vegetation cover





 

 

 



 



0-5%





100





80





80





 



5-10%





60





100





100





 



10-30%





30





60





60





 



30-75%





10





30





30





 



75-100%





0





0





0









Grass/herb vegetation under 15 cm





 

 

 



 



0-5%





80





0





0





 



5-10%





100





10





30





 



10-30%





60





30





60





 



30-75%





30





60





100





 



75-100%





0





100





80









Grass/herb vegetation 15-50 cm





 

 

 



 



0-5%





30





80





30





 



5-10%





60





100





60





 



10-30%





100





80





100





 



30-75%





60





60





60





 



75-100%





0





0





0









Græs/urtevegetation over 50 cm





 

 

 



 



0-5%





0





100





100





 



5-10%





10





60





60





 



10-30%





30





30





30





 



30-75%





60





10





10





 



75-100%





100





0





0
Dwarf shrubs





 

 

 



 



0-5%





100





100





100





 



5-10%





60





60





60





 



10-30%





30





30





30





 



30-75%





10





10





10





 



75-100%





0





0





0









Woody species (crown cover)





 

 

 



 



0%





100





100





100





 



1-10%





60





80





60





 



10-25%





30





30





30





 



25-50%





10





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0





0









Incidence of invasive species





 

 

 



 



0%





100





100





100





 



1-10%





40





40





40





 



10-25%





20





20





20





 



25-50%





10





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0





0





 

 

 

 

 









Hydrology

These moisture-intensive natural habitats are completely dependent on the hydrological conditions, so dewatering and water abstraction, that has drying effect, will generally be a threat. Some rigkær, however, is created by damming and dewatering of lakes and marine areas. Coastal protection is usually not relevant to the calcareous fen types.







 

 

 

 

 







Table 38. Indicators of hydrology in calcareous bogs. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









7210









7220









7230











Dewatering and water abstraction





 

 

 



 



seems to not





100





100





100





 



no vegetation changes





60





60





60





 



summer desiccation





30





30





10





 



widespread reclamation





10





10





0





 



complete reclamation





0





0





0









Streams





 

 

 



 



without intervention





100





100





100





 



sparsely regulated





60





60





60





 



partially regulated





30





30





30
 



comprehensive regulation





10





10





10





 



all streams rørlagte





0





0





0









Coastal protection





 

 

 



 



No coastal protection





100





100





100





 



m. zoning and dynamics





60





60





60





 



inhibited zoning and dynamics





30





30





30





 



small zoning and dynamics





10





10





10





 



no zoning or Dynamics





0





0





0





 

 

 

 









Agricultural impact

The influence of fertilizers and pesticides from adjoining fields can have a significant negative effect on the mosernes arts content.







 

 

 

 

 







Table 39. Indicators for agricultural influence in calcareous bogs. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.









Habitat type









7210









7220









7230











Grazing/mountain hay





 

 

 



 



0-5%





0





0





0





 



5-10%





10





10





10





 



10-30%





30





30





30





 



30-75%





60





60





60





 



75-100%





100





100





100









Fertilizing electricity. injection injuries





 

 

 



 



0%





100





100





100





 



1-10%





40





40





40





 



10-25%





20





20





20





 



25-50%





10





10





10





 



50-100%





0





0





0





 

 

 

 









Habitat characteristic structures

Drying out and fouling is together with eutrophication the greatest threats to these vulnerable natural habitat types, and structures, showing optimum hydrological conditions and signs of lack of fouling are important indicators.







 

 

 

 

 







Table 40. Indicators of Habitat characteristic structures. The table shows the percentage scores, where 100 is optimal.







Habitat type





7210





7220





7230









Positive structures





 

 

 



 



common/well developed





100





100





100





 



spread/rudimentary





50





50





50





 



not present





0





0





0









Negative structures





 

 

 



 
common/well developed





0





0





0





 



spread/rudimentary





50





50





50





 



not present





100





100





100





 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 







Table 41. Major distribution of indicators in calcareous bogs. Bold is specified the percentage distribution of the broad elements of the structure of the index, and for each parent level is specified the percentage distribution of the indicators included in the fx vegetation structure.









Habitat type









7210









7220









7230











Vegetation structure









30









30









30







 



bare ground





5





10





10





 



fix herbs





0





10





20





 



Mediterranean herbs





15





5





0





 



tall herbs





40





30





20





 



Dwarf shrubs





0





0





0





 



woody species





15





15





25





 



invasive plants





25





30





25









Hydrology









30









40









25







 



dewatering





100





80





80





 



streams





0





20





20





 



coastal protection





0





0





0









Agricultural impacts









20









20









30







 



grazing





0





75





75





 



fertilizing





100





25





25









Habitat characteristic structures









20









10









15







 



positive structures





50





50





50





 



negative structures





50





50





50





 

 

 

 









The result of the mapping of the natural state of the calcareous FENS

Figure 8 shows the percentage of land distribution in the five natural state classes after calibration. Area with mariscus bog is very small, and the allocation should therefore be taken with some caveats. The area with the source host and rigkær is divided into many small areas, with an average plot size on respectively. 0.5 hectare and 1.5 ha. All three Marsh types is generally very affected, and less than half of the land is in favorable natural condition (condition class 1 and 2). The distribution of the structural indicators (Table 43) shows that it is primarily the hydrology, lack of grazing and overgrowing with Woody plants, as well as the dissemination of positive and negative Habitat characteristic structures that have dragged down the average structural index.
Mariscus Marsh is relatively species-poor with button 14 species in documentary circles, but both the source host and rigkær is very species-rich with respectively. 22 and 27 species in documentation circle. Means the score is generally low, and particularly in the fount and rigkær is there found a large number of problem species.







 

 







Figure 8. Percentage distribution of identified areas with limy marshes on the five natural state classes I-V, where in denotes the highest natural mode and (V) the lowest.



 



 

 













 

 

 

 

 







Table 42. Average area sizes, condition index and the number of species in the calcareous fens.









Habitat type









7210









7220









7230







 



mapped area in hectares





125





313





2884





 



number of identified areas





47





691





2004





 



average area size in hectares





2.67





0.45





1.44





 

 

 

 

 



 



Natural health index





0.61





0.57





0.54





 



Structure index





0.67





0.63





0.54





 



Arts index





0.59





0.55





0.58





 

 

 

 

 



 



Product score





3.42





2.92





3.14





 

 

 

 

 



 



number of species in a 5 m circle





13.76





22.18





27.28





 



number of problem species





0.58





2.09





1.74





 



number of star species





5.85





10.20





13.14





 



number of tostjerne species





0.58





0.78





1.04





 

 

 

 













 

 

 

 

 







Table 43. Average scores of structural indicators in the calcareous bogs, where 100 is the best score of all areas. The lower the score the less optimal has structure indicator averaged. Score values are weighted with significance in Table 41 in the calculation of the structure of the index.









Habitat type









7210









7220









7230











Vegetation structure





 

 

 



 



bare ground





0.90





0.81





0.81





 



fix herbs





0.80





0.19





0.28





 



Mediterranean herbs





0.53





0.70





0.65





 



tall herbs





0.86





0.25





0.26





 



Dwarf shrubs





0.98





1.00





0.99





 



woody species





0.45





0.66





0.61





 



invasive plants





0.91





0.96





0.94









Hydrology





 

 

 



 



dewatering





0.55





0.80
0.58





 



streams





0.29





0.79





0.58





 



coastal protection





0.73





0.99





0.92









Agricultural impacts





 

 

 



 



grazing





0.15





0.48





0.48





 



fertilizing





0.80





0.75





0.67









Habitat characteristic structures





 

 

 



 



positive structures





0.80





0.48





0.64





 



negative structures





0.36





0.30





0.27





 

 

 

 









5. References

Bruun, h.h. & Ejrnæs, r. (1998): Over drive – a protected habitat. G.E.C. Gads forlag. Ministry of environment and energy, the forest and nature Agency, Copenhagen. 224 s.

Ellemann, l., Ejrnæs, r., Reddersen, j. & fredshavn, j. (2001): The open landscape. National Environmental Research Institute. 112 s. – Technical report from DMU nr. 372.

Fredshavn, j. (2004): a technical manual for the identification of terrestrial habitats. TA-N3, Version 1.01. Fagdata center for Biodiversity and Terrestrial Natural data, national environmental Research Institute. 10 s.

Fredshavn, J.R. & Forest, f. (2005): assessment of the Natural State. National Environmental Research Institute. 85 s. – Technical report from DMU nr. 548.

Fredshavn, J.F. & Ejrnæs, r. (2007): Calculation of natural state – using simple indicators. 2. Edition. National Environmental Research Institute. 90 s. – Technical report from DMU nr. 599.

Søgaard, b., Skov, f., Ejrnæs, r., Nielsen, K.E., Pihl, s., Clausen, p., Laursen, k., Bregnballe, t., Madsen, j., Baatrup-Pedersen, a., Søndergaard, m., Lauridsen, T.L., Møller, P.F., Riis-Nielsen, t., Buttenschøn, R.M., fredshavn, j., Aude, e. & Nygaard, b. (2003): criteria for favourable conservation status. Natural habitats and species covered by the EC habitats directive & birds covered by the EC birds directive. National Environmental Research Institute, Aarhus University. Technical report from DMU, nr. 457.462 s. 2. version.

Annex 1. Species list with scores

The following table specifies the arts score, used for the calculation of an arts index. On the raised bogs are included only species listed in Annex 2. Some species also acts as a problem species (Annex 4), whereby their arts score changed to-1.









ArtID





Scientific name



 



Danish name





Arts-score







22





Acer campestre



 



Peter Naur





3







29





Acer platanoides



 



salary, tip-





1







30





Acer pseudoplatanus



 



Maple





1







43





Achillea millefolium SSP. millefolium



 



Yarrow, common





3







46





Achillea ptarmica



 



Yarrow, nyse-





3







76





Actaea spicata



 



baneberry





5







81





Adoxa moschatellina



 



desmerurt





3







104





Agrimonia eupatoria



 



Agrimony, plain





3







106





Agrimonia procera



 



Agrimony, fragrant





3







112





Agrostis canina



 



Brown, dogs-





4







116





Agrostis capillaris



 



Brown, plain





3







121





Agrostis gigantea



 



Brown, Red





2







130





Agrostis stolonifera



 



bent grass, creeping-





3







131





Agrostis stolonifera var. maritima



 



Brown, clit-





6







132





Agrostis stolonifera var. stolonifera



 



bent grass, creeping-





3







133
Agrostis stricta



 



Brown, sandy-





5







137





AIRA caryophyllea



 



Dwarf pile, udspærret





4







138





AIRA caryophyllea SSP. caryophyllea



 



Dwarf pile, udspærret





4







141





AIRA praecox



 



Dwarf pile, early





4







148





Ajuga pyramidalis



 



Bugle, pyramid-





6







150





Ajuga reptans



 



Bugle, creeping





4







153





Alchemilla



 



claw-foot Batten





4







154





Alchemilla acutiloba



 



Lady's mantle, tip patched





4







163





Alchemilla filicaulis var. filicaulis



 



Lady's mantle, trådstænglet





4







164





Alchemilla filicaulis var. vestita



 



Lady's mantle, the hair





4







165





Alchemilla glabra



 



Lady's mantle, smooth





4







167





Alchemilla glaucescens



 



Lady's mantle, blue-green





4







174





Alchemilla micans



 



Lady's mantle, gloss magazine





4







176





Alchemilla monticola



 



Lady's mantle, grey





4







186





Alchemilla subcrenata



 



Lady's mantle, butlappet





4







188





Alchemilla vulgaris Coll.



 



Lady's mantle coll.





4







190





Alchemilla xanthochlora



 



Lady's mantle, yellow green





4







192





Alisma gramineum



 



alisma, short shaft





6







194





Alisma lanceolatum



 



alisma, lancet-





6







197





Alisma plantago-aquatica



 



alisma, plantain-





4







203





Alliaria petiolata



 



alliaria





1







209





Allium carinatum



 



onions, chilled





7







217





Allium oleraceum



 



onions, wild





5







221





Allium schoenoprasum



 



onions, pur-





4







225





Allium scorodoprasum



 



onions, forest-





4







229





Allium ursinum



 



onions, rams-





1







230





Allium vineale



 



onions, sandy-





5







231





Allium vineale var. purpureum



 



onions, purple, sand-





5







232





Allium vineale var. vineale
 



Onion, plain sand-





5







235





Alnus glutinosa



 



El-Red





1







247





Alopercurus aequalis



 



foxtail, yellow





4







251





Alopercurus arundinaceus



 



Fox tail, black





4







255





Alopercurus geniculatus



 



Alopecurus, knæbøjet





2







257





Geniculatus var. geniculatus alopercurus



 



Alopecurus, knæbøjet





2







260





Alopercurus pratensis



 



foxtail, meadow-





1







264





Althaea officinalis



 



Marshmallow





6







266





Alyssum alyssoides



 



grådodder





5







320





Ammophila arenaria



 



Ammophila, sandy-





3







322





Calamagrostis epigeios Ammophila arenaria x



 



Ammophila, Baltic Sea





3







339





Orchidaceae pyramidalis



 



Anacamptis





4







345





Anagallis representative arvensis



 



inheritance, Red





1







348





Anagallis representative minima



 



chaffweed





6







359





Anchusa officinalis



 



anchusa, doctor-





1







362





Andromeda polifolia



 



Rosemary Heather





5







371





Anemone apennina var. pallida



 



Anemone, blegblå





6







374





Anemone nemorosa



 



Anemone, white





4







375





Anemone nemorosa x ranunculoides



 



Anemone, svovlgul





6







378





Anemone pratensis



 



pasque flower, musk





5







381





Anemone pulsatilla



 



pasque flower, create





6







384





Anemone ranunculoides



 



Anemone, yellow





4







388





Anemone vernalis



 



pasque flower, spring





7







396





Angelica archangelica SSP. litoralis



 



Angelica, beach-





4







397





Angelica sylvestris



 



Angelica, forest-





4







409





Antennaria dioica



 



Mountain everlasting





7







415





Anthemis arvensis



 



Daisy, f-





2







424





Anthericum liliago



 



edderkopurt, unbranched





7







425





Anthericum liliago x ramosum



 



edderkopurt, unbranched x branched
7







426





Anthericum ramosum



 



edderkopurt, branched





7







429





Anthoxanthum odoratum



 



anthoxanthum, fragrant





4







433





Anthriscus caucalis



 



chervil, wicket-





1







435





Anthriscus sylvestris



 



chervil, wild





1







437





Anthyllis vulneraria



 



anthyllis





4







439





Anthyllis vulneraria SSP. carpatica



 



vetch, common





4







441





Anthyllis vulneraria SSP. danica



 



anthyllis, Danish





4







449





Anthyllis vulneraria SSP. vulneraria var. vulneraria



 



vetch, yellow





4







456





Aphanes arvensis



 



Dwarf Lady's mantle, plain





1







457





Aphanes australis



 



Dwarf Lady's mantle, småfrugtet





1







460





Apium graveolens



 



celery, wild





6







461





Apium inundatum



 



sump screen, floating





5







465





Apium repens



 



sump screen, creeping





7







475





Aquilegia vulgaris



 



Columbia





3







478





Arabidopsis thaliana



 



thale Cress, common





2







487





Arabis glabra



 



tårnurt





4







488





Arabis hirsuta



 



rockcress, stiff hair





5







489





Arabis hirsuta var. glaberrima



 



rockcress, smooth





6







490





Arabis hirsuta var. hirsuta



 



rockcress, stiff hair





5







503





Arctium lappa



 



burdock, slippery





3







507





Arctium minus



 



burdock, lesser





2







510





Arctium nemorosum



 



burdock, forest-





4







511





Arctium nemorosum SSP. nemorosum



 



burdock, forest-





4







519





Arctostaphylos alpinus



 



bearberry, mountain-





7







520





Arctostaphylos uva-ursi



 



Arctostaphylos, heat-





6







528





Arenaria leptoclados



 



Mark inheritance, infant





2







531





Arenaria serpyllifolia



 



Mark inheritance





2







532





Arenaria serpyllifolia SSP. lloydii



 



Mark inheritance, clit-





2
533





Arenaria serpyllifolia var. serpyllifolia



 



Mark inheritance, common





2







537





Argentina potentilla



 



Goose cinquefoil





3







544





Armeria maritima SSP. elongata



 



English grass, road





4







545





Armeria maritima SSP. maritima



 



English grass, beach-





4







551





Arnica montana



 



Gold plum





7







557





Arrhenatherum elatius



 



tall oatgrass





1







558





Arrhenatherum elatius var. bulbosum



 



tall oatgrass, bulbous





1







559





Arrhenatherum elatius var. elatius



 



tall oatgrass, plain





1







566





Artemisia campestris



 



Mugwort, mark-





3







568





Artemisia campestris SSP. campestris



 



Mugwort, mark-





3







582





Artemisia vulgaris



 



Mugwort-





1







586





Artemisia vulgaris var. vulgaris



 



Mugwort, plain grey-





1







588





Arum alpinum SSP. danicum



 



Arum, Danish





4







601





Asparagus officinalis



 



Asparagus





2







603





Asperugo procumbens



 



River





4







619





Asplenium adiantum-nigrum



 



Asplenium, black





6







625





Asplenium ruta-muraria



 



murrude





7







627





Asplenium scolopendrium



 



Joe Pye weed young





7







628





Asplenium septentrionale



 



Asplenium, Nordic





6







632





Asplenium trichomanes SSP. quadriv's



 



Asplenium, lime-





6







633





Asplenium trichomanes SSP. trichomanes



 



Asplenium, circular-finned





6







660





Astragalus danicus



 



Astragalus, Danish





6







662





Astragalus glycyphyllos



 



Astragalus, sweet





3







672





Athyrium filix-femina



 



feathered fern





3







679





Atriplex calotheca



 



common orache, estimates the ointment





4







683





Atriplex deltoidea



 



common orache, tooth-





2







684





Atriplex glabriuscula



 



common orache, fleshy





3







689





Atriplex laciniata



 



common orache, silver-





6
691





Atriplex latifolia



 



Spear-leaved orache,-





3







692





Atriplex littoralis



 



common orache, beach-





2







696





Atriplex longipes SSP. longipes



 



common orache, stalk-





4







699





Atriplex patula



 



common orache-





3







700





Atriplex pedunculata



 



wedge Cup,-stemmed





6







702





Atriplex portulacoides



 



wedge Cup, stilkløs





5







705





Atriplex prostrata SSP. prostrata



 



common orache, extensive





2







711





Atriplex triangularis



 



common orache, flour





2







737





Baldellia ranunculoides



 



søpryd, common





6







748





Barbarea stricta



 



Winter Cress, rank





5







756





Bassia hirsuta



 



tangurt, hair





7







764





Bellis perennis



 



daisies





1







772





Berteroa incana



 



kløvplade





1







774





Berula erecta



 



page display





3







780





Beta vulgaris SSP. maritima



 



ask, beach-





5







790





Betula pendula '



 



Birch, wart-





1







793





Betula pubescens



 



Birch, dun-





1







800





Bidens cernua



 



Trifid bur-marigold, nodding





4







806





Bidens radiata



 



Trifid bur-marigold, flat head





7







808





Bidens tripartita



 



Trifid bur-marigold, lobed





3







819





Blechnum spicant



 



hard fern





5







821





Blysmus compressus



 



Scirpus, flattened





4







822





Blysmus rufus



 



Scirpus, reddish-brown





5







832





Ophioglossum vulgatum



 



moonwort, plain





6







833





Botrychium matricariifolium



 



moonwort, Chamomile magazine





7







834





Botrychium multifidum



 



moonwort, stalk-





7







835





Botrychium simplex



 



moonwort, single





7







841





Brachypodium pinnatum



 



stilkaks, Hill-





4







842





Brachypodium sylvaticum



 
stilkaks, forest-





4







857





Brassica rapa SSP. campestris



 



cabbage, corn





3







868





Briza media



 



heart grass





6







873





Bromopsis benekenii



 



Brome, early forest-





4







874





Bromopsis erecta



 



Heron, create





3







876





Bromopsis racemosa



 



Heron, giant forest-





4







885





Bromus hordeaceus SSP. hordeaceus



 



soft Brome





2







886





Bromus hordeaceus SSP. thominii



 



Heron, lying





4







894





Bromus racemosus



 



Brome, meadow-





5







904





Bryonia alba



 



bryony, white





5







905





Bryonia dioica



 



bryony, dioecious





6







919





Bupleurum tenuissimum



 



known as rabbit ear, narrow-leaved





6







922





Butomus umbellatus



 



brudelys





4







931





Cakile maritima SSP. baltica



 



cakile, Baltic





4







932





Cakile maritima SSP. maritima



 



cakile, plain





4







934





Calamagrostis arundinacea



 



calamagrostis, forest-





4







938





Calamagrostis canescens



 



calamagrostis, eng-





3







942





Calamagrostis epigeios



 



calamagrostis, mountain-





1







947





Calamagrostis stricta



 



calamagrostis, stiff topped





6







960





Calla palustris



 



kærmysse





4







964





Callitriche



 



water star genus





4







965





Callitriche brutia



 



water star, stem chokeberry





6







966





Callitriche cophocarpa



 



water star, hairy





4







968





Callitriche hamulata



 



water star, narrow-leaved





4







969





Callitriche hermaphroditica



 



water star, harvest





6







970





Callitriche palustris



 



water star, småfrugtet





6







971





Callitriche platycarpa



 



water star, flat chokeberry





4







972





Callitriche stagnalis



 



water star, Highbush





4







974





Calluna vulgaris



 



Heather
4







977





Caltha palustris var. palustris



 



caltha palustris, meadow-





4







978





Caltha palustris var. radicans



 



caltha, creeping





4







984





Calystegia sepium



 



convolvulus, wicket-





2







986





Calystegia sepium SSP. sepium



 



convolvulus, wicket-





2







989





Calystegia soldanella



 



bindweed, beach-





6







1006





Campanula glomerata



 



Bell, Bellflower





6







1007





Campanula glomerata var. glomerata



 



Bell, Bellflower





6







1010





Campanula latifolia



 



Bell, broadleaf





4







1011





Campanula latifolia var. latifolia



 



Bell, broadleaf





4







1016





Campanula persicifolia



 



Bell, narrow-leaved





6







1020





Campanula rotundifolia



 



Bell, lesser





5







1022





Campanula trachelium



 



Bellflower, nettle-





4







1032





Capsella bursa-pastoris



 



Shepherd's purse





1







1038





Cardamine amara



 



large bittercress





4







1040





Cardamine bulbifera



 



tooth root





5







1041





Cardamine flexuosa



 



bittercress, forest-





4







1044





Cardamine impatiens



 



, Narrowleaf bittercress





6







1046





Cardamine pratensis coll.



 



cuckoo flower coll.





4







1047





Cardamine pratensis SSP. paludosa



 



Marsh Cress





4







1049





Cardamine pratensis SSP. pratensis



 



cuckoo flower





4







1051





Cardaminopsis arenosa



 



sand Cress





5







1057





CARDUUS acanthoides



 



thistle, welted





3







1060





CARDUUS crispus



 



thistle, curled





1







1063





CARDUUS nutans



 



thistle, musk





7







1068





Carex acuta



 



Star, nodding





4







1075





Carex acutiformis



 



Star, Marsh-





3







1077





Carex appropinquata



 



Star, long axis





5







1095





Carex arenaria



 



Star, sandy-





4
1121





Carex buxbaumii



 



Star, Mallet-





7







1124





Carex canescens



 



Star, grey





5







1141





Carex caryophyllea



 



Star, spring





7







1142





Carex cespitosa



 



Star, tue-





4







1147





Carex chordorrhiza



 



Star, Star





7







1150





Carex demissa



 



Star, green





4







1154





Carex diandra



 



Star, trindstænglet





5







1159





Carex digitata



 



Star, finger-





5







1163





Carex dioica



 



Star, dioecious





6







1176





Carex distans



 



Star, remove axis





4







1178





Carex disticha



 



Star, two-rowed





3







1180





Carex divulsa SSP. leersii



 



Star, between broken





4







1181





Carex echinata



 



Star, Star-





4







1182





Carex elata



 



Star, stiff





3







1187





Carex elongata



 



Star, extended





5







1188





Carex ericetorum



 



Star, Heather-





6







1189





Carex extensa



 



Star, distended





6







1190





Carex flacca



 



Star, blue-green





4







1191





Carex flava



 



Star, yellow





7







1192





Carex flava s.l.



 



Star s.l., yellow





7







1207





Carex hart manii



 



Star, hart's





7







1210





Carex hirta



 



Star, hair





2







1213





Carex hostiana



 



Star, sheath-





6







1226





Carex lasiocarpa



 



Star, thread-





5







1231





Carex lepidocarpa



 



Star, krognæb-





6







1235





Carex ligerica



 



Star, Cliff-





6







1236





Carex limosa



 



Star, slime-





6







1250





Carex maritima



 



Star, hunched-





7







1252





Carex montana



 



Star, Hill-





6
1257





Carex nigra var. nigra



 



Star, plain





4







1258





Carex nigra var. recta



 



Star, tuber-





4







1271





Carex otrubae



 



Star, sylt-





4







1273





Carex ovalis



 



Star, timeshare





4







1274





Carex pairaei



 



Star, spiny





4







1276





Carex paleacea



 



Star, beach-





7







1280





Carex pallescens



 



Star, pale





4







1281





Carex panicea



 



Star, millet-





4







1283





Carex paniculata



 



Star, top-





4







1286





Carex pauciflora



 



Star, myosotis





6







1289





Carex pendula '



 



Star, giant-





5







1290





Carex pilulifera



 



Star, pill-





4







1291





Carex praecox



 



Star, Russian





7







1292





Carex pseudocyperus



 



Star, bundle-





3







1295





Carex pulicaris



 



Star, flea-





7







1298





Carex remota



 



Star, axle floral





4







1302





Carex riparia



 



Star, tykakset





4







1305





Carex rostrata



 



Star, beak-





4







1321





Carex spicata



 



Star, encapsulated





3







1324





Carex strigosa



 



Star, thin axis





6







1327





Carex sylvatica



 



Star, forest-





4







1331





Carex trinervis



 



Star, clit-





7







1335





Carex vesicaria



 



Star, bladder-





3







1336





Carex viridula



 



Star coll., dwarf-





5







1337





Carex viridula var. pulchella



 



Star, harvest





5







1338





Carex viridula var. viridula



 



Star, dwarf-





5







1339





Carex vulpina



 



Star Fox-





5







1342





Carlina vulgaris



 



Thistle Hill





5







1343





Carlina vulgaris SSP. stricta



 



Hill, long-leaved Thistle
5







1344





Carlina vulgaris SSP. vulgaris



 



Thistle Hill, plain





5







1348





Carpinus betulus



 



hornbeam





1







1356





Carum carvi



 



comments





3







1367





Catabrosa aquatica



 



carpet grass





4







1397





Centaurea jacea



 



knapweed, common





5







1414





Centaurea phrygia SSP. pseudophrygia



 



knapweed, feather-





5







1416





Centaurea scabiosa



 



knapweed, large





5







1421





Centaurium erythraea



 



centaury, mark-





5







1422





Centaurium erythraea var. capitatum



 



centaury, main-





5







1423





Centaurium erythraea var. erythraea



 



centaury, mark-





5







1425





Centaurium littorale



 



centaury, beach-





5







1426





Centaurium littorale var. glomeratum



 



centaury, Bellflower





5







1427





Centaurium littorale var. littorale



 



centaury, beach-





5







1428





Centaurium pulchellum



 



centaury, lesser





5







1433





Cephalanthera damasonium



 



forest Lily, yellow-white





7







1434





Cephalanthera longifolia



 



forest Lily, sword-





7







1436





Cephalanthera rubra



 



forest Lily, Red





7







1448





Cerastium arvense



 



ear, big-flowered





2







1451





Cerastium brachypetalum



 



ear, stiff hair





6







1453





Cerastium diffusum



 



ear, firehannet





4







1460





Cerastium fontanum SSP. vulgare var. holosteoides



 



ear, unilateral





2







1461





Cerastium fontanum SSP. vulgare var. vulgare



 



ear, plain





2







1462





Cerastium glomeratum



 



ear, create





3







1463





Cerastium glutinosum



 



ear, sticky





4







1467





Cerastium pumilum



 



ear, lesser





7







1470





Cerastium semidecandrum



 



ear, little mouse





4







1472





Cerastium subtetrandrum



 



ear, the sound-





7







1475





Ceratocapnos claviculata



 
corydalis, climbing





4







1483





Ceratophyllum demersum



 



hornwort, thorn seed





4







1484





Ceratophyllum submersum



 



hornwort, tornløs





4







1491





Chaenorrhinum minus



 



toadflax, lesser





4







1500





Chaerophyllum temulum



 



Chervil





1







1530





Chenopodium album coll.



 



goosefoot coll., white flour





1







1531





Chenopodium album SSP. album



 



goosefoot, white flour





1







1546





Chenopodium chenopodioides



 



goosefoot, grape-





5







1552





Chenopodium glaucum



 



goosefoot, teal





5







1561





Chenopodium polyspermum



 



, many-seeded goosefoot





4







1566





Chenopodium rubrum



 



goosefoot, Red





4







1573





Chenopodium suecicum



 



goosefoot, green





3







1578





Chimaphila umbellata



 



Winter green, screen-





7







1596





Chrysosplenium alternifolium



 



Golden saxifrage, common





5







1597





Chrysosplenium oppositifolium



 



Golden saxifrage, small-leaf





5







1611





Cicuta virosa



 



the wife clearly





4







1618





Circaea alpina



 



circaea, lesser





7







1619





Circaea lutetiana



 



circaea, downy





4







1620





Circaea x intermedia



 



circaea, tip sheet





4







1622





Cirsium acaule



 



thistle, low





7







1625





Cirsium arvense



 



thistle, corn





1







1630





Cirsium helenioides



 



thistle, different magazine





6







1633





Cirsium oleraceum



 



thistle, cabbage-





3







1635





Cirsium palustre



 



thistle, Marsh-





4







1638





Cirsium vulgare



 



thistle, horse-





1







1647





Cladium mariscus



 



mariscus, Marsh Bellflower





5







1670





Cochlearia danica



 



cochlearia, Danish





5







1674





Cochlearia officinalis SSP. anglica



 



cochlearia, English





5







1675





Cochlearia officinalis SSP. officinalis



 



cochlearia, doctor-
5







1677





Coeloglossum viride



 



bag of lip





7







1699





Comarum palustre



 



kragefod





4







1706





Conium maculatum



 



hemlock





3







1716





Convallaria majalis



 



Lily of the Valley





5







1720





Kangkung arvensis



 



convolvulus, field-





2







1730





Corallorhiza giant ragweed



 



Lady's tresses





7







1731





Corallorhiza giant ragweed SSP. giant ragweed



 



Lady's tresses, plain





7







1732





Corallorhiza giant ragweed SSP. virescens



 



Lady's tresses, greenish





7







1746





Cornus sanguinea



 



dogwood, Red





4







1748





Cornus suecica



 



Dwarf Cornel, Swedish





7







1755





Corrigiola litoralis



 



skorem





7







1759





Corydalis cava



 



corydalis, hulrodet





4







1760





Corydalis intermedia



 



corydalis, lesser





5







1764





Corydalis pumila



 



corydalis, finger-





6







1771





Corylus avellana



 



Hazel





4







1774





Corynephorus canescens



 



Sandy beard





5







1786





Cotoneaster niger



 



cotoneaster, black





5







1787





Cotoneaster scandinavicus



 



cotoneaster, Red





5







1795





Crambe maritima



 



crambe





5







1797





Crassula aquatica



 



ecophysiology of plants





7







1806





Crataegus laevigata



 



Hawthorn, plain





3







1810





Crataegus monogyna



 



Hawthorn, éngriflet





3







1814





Crataegus rhipidophylla



 



Hawthorn, coral-





3







1823





Crepis biennis



 



Hawk's-beard, biennial





1







1824





Crepis capillaris



 



Hawk's-beard, green





2







1825





Crepis capillaris var. agrestis



 



Hawk's-beard, green





2







1831





Crepis paludosa



 



Hawk's-beard, Marsh-





4







1832





Crepis praemorsa



 



Hawk's-beard, afbidt





7







1836
Crepis tectorum



 



Hawk's-beard, roof-





1







1880





Cuscuta epithymum SSP. epithymum



 



Silk, Heather-





6







1882





Cuscuta europaea



 



Silk, nettle-





4







1900





Cynoglossum officinale



 



dog tongue doctor-





3







1902





Cynosurus cristatus



 



cynosurus, plain





4







1907





Cyperus fuscus



 



fladaks, Brown





7







1912





Cypripedium calceolus



 



early coralroot





5







1914





Cystopteris fragilis



 



Cup fern, brittle





6







1921





Cytisus scoparius



 



broom





1







1922





Cytisus scoparius SSP. scoparius f. horizontalis



 



broom, horizontal form





1







1923





Cytisus scoparius SSP. scoparius f. verticalis



 



broom, vertical form





1







1925





Dactylis glomerata



 



dog grass, plain





1







1926





Dactylis glomerata SSP. glomerata



 



dog grass, plain





1







1929





Dactylis glomerata SSP. lobata



 



dog grass, forest-





4







1981





Dactylorhiza



 



Orchid genus





5







1934





Dactylorhiza incarnata



 



Orchid, flesh-colored





5







1935





Dactylorhiza incarnata SSP. cruenta



 



flowered, blood-stained





6







1939





Dactylorhiza incarnata SSP. incarnata var. incarnata



 



Orchid, flesh-colored





5







1945





Dactylorhiza incarnata SSP. lobelii



 



Orchid, clit-





6







1946





Dactylorhiza incarnata SSP. ochroleuca



 



Orchid, yellow-white





6







1955





Dactylorhiza maculata SSP. fuchsii



 



Orchid forest-





6







1958





Dactylorhiza maculata SSP. maculata



 



Orchid, stained





5







1967





Dactylorhiza majalis



 



Orchid, may-





5







1968





Dactylorhiza majalis SSP. baltica



 



Orchid, Baltic





6







1969





Dactylorhiza majalis SSP. calcifugiens



 



Orchid, thy-





5







1970





Dactylorhiza majalis SSP. majalis



 



Orchid, may-





5







1972





Dactylorhiza majalis SSP. occidentalis



 



Orchid, Western may-





6







1973





Dactylorhiza majalis SSP. praetermissa



 
Orchid priklæbet





6







1974





Dactylorhiza majalis SSP. purpurella var. majaliformis



 



Orchid, vendsyssel-





6







1975





Dactylorhiza purpurella var. purpurella majalis SSP.



 



Orchid purple





5







1976





Dactylorhiza majalis SSP. sphagnicola



 



Orchid, mos-





6







1980





Dactylorhiza sambucina



 



Orchid, shelf-





6







1985





Danthonia decumbens



 



Dental pods





6







1988





Daphne mezereum



 



pebertræ





6







2000





Daucus carota



 



carrot





3







2001





Daucus carota SSP. carota



 



carrot, wild





3







2002





Daucus carota SSP. gummifer



 



carrot, beach-





4







2016





Deschampsia cespitosa



 



pile, mose-





3







2020





Deschampsia flexuosa



 



pile, wavy





3







2021





Deschampsia setacea



 



pile, fin





5







2025





Descurainia sophia



 



mustard, finbladet





3







2033





Dianthus armeria



 



Carnation, diet-





5







2040





Dianthus deltoides



 



Carnation, tray-





5







2045





Dianthus superbus



 



Carnation, beach-





5







2069





Diphasiastrum alpinum



 



Club Moss, mountain-





7







2072





Diphasiastrum complanatum SSP. complanatum



 



selago, flat





6







2074





Diphasiastrum tristachyum



 



Club Moss, Cypress-





6







2085





Dipsacus pilosus



 



karte bun, hair





6







2119





Draba incana



 



Draba, whitlow





7







2124





Draba muralis



 



Draba, mur-





7







2141





Drosera anglica



 



sundew, long-





7







2143





Drosera intermedia



 



sundew, lesser





6







2144





Drosera rotundifolia



 



sundew, Drosera





6







2151





Dryopteris affinis



 



mangeløv, gold scales-





6







2155





Dryopteris carthusiana



 



mangeløv, narrow-leaved





4







2160





Dryopteris cristata



 



mangeløv, butfinnet
6







2163





Dryopteris dilatata



 



mangeløv, broadleaf





4







2166





Dryopteris expansa



 



mangeløv, finbladet





5







2167





Dryopteris filix-mas



 



mangeløv, common





4







2195





Echium vulgare



 



snake head





3







2206





Elatine hexandra



 



bækarve, sekshannet





6







2207





Elatine hydropiper



 



bækarve, vendpeber-





7







2211





Eleocharis acicularis



 



Marsh straw, needle-





6







2215





Eleocharis multicaulis



 



Marsh straw, mangestænglet





6







2217





Eleocharis palustris SSP. palustris



 



Marsh straw, southern





6







2220





Eleocharis palustris SSP. vulgaris



 



Marsh straw, plain





4







2223





Eleocharis parvula



 



Scirpus, low





7







2224





Eleocharis quinqueflora



 



Scirpus, myosotis





6







2225





Eleocharis uniglumis



 



Marsh straw, enskællet





4







2251





Elymus caninus



 



dogs mercury, plain





1







2265





Elytrigia atherica



 



quick, stiff





4







2266





Atherica x Elytrigia juncea



 



Mercury, clit-





4







2269





Elytrigia juncea



 



Mercury, beach-





4







2271





Elytrigia juncea Leymus arenarius x



 



Mercury x Lyme grass, beach-





4







2272





Elytrigia juncea x repens



 



Mercury, hybrid





2







2274





Elytrigia repens SSP. repens



 



quick, plain





1







2279





Empetrum nigrum



 



crowberry





4







2293





Epilobium angustifolium



 



Fireweed





1







2311





Epilobium hirsutum



 



willowherb, hairy





1







2325





Epilobium lamyi



 



willowherb, rank





4







2331





Epilobium montanum



 



broad-leaved willowherb





1







2337





Epilobium obscurum



 



willowherb, rice-





3







2341





Epilobium palustre



 



willowherb, creeping spearwort-





4







2345





Epilobium parviflorum



 



willowherb, downy





4
2348





Epilobium roseum



 



willowherb, rose-





4







2350





Epilobium tetragonum



 



willowherb, edged





2







2355





Epipactis atrorubens



 



helleborine, Red





6







2357





Epipactis helleborine



 



helleborine, forest-





5







2358





SSP. helleborine epipactis helleborine



 



helleborine, forest-





5







2359





Epipactis helleborine SSP. neerlandica var. neerlandica



 



helleborine, Dutch





5







2360





Epipactis helleborine SSP. neerlandica var. renzii



 



helleborine, skagen-





5







2362





Epipactis leptochila



 



helleborine, big-flowered





7







2363





Epipactis palustris



 



helleborine, Marsh-





6







2364





Epipactis phyllanthes



 



helleborine, nodding





5







2365





Epipactis purpurata



 



helleborine, greenflower





6







2367





Epipogium aphyllum



 



knælæbe





7







2370





Equisetum arvense



 



horsetail, field-





3







2373





Equisetum fluviatile



 



horsetail, Marsh-





4







2374





Equisetum hyemale



 



equisetum hyemale





4







2376





Equisetum palustre



 



horsetail, Marsh-





4







2377





Equisetum pratense



 



horsetail, lund-





5







2380





Equisetum sylvaticum



 



horsetail, forest-





4







2381





Equisetum telmateia



 



horsetail, ivory-





4







2382





Equisetum variegatum



 



horsetail, equisetum





7







2399





Erica tetralix



 



Bell Heather





5







2402





Erigeron acer



 



Fleabane, bitter





3







2426





Eriophorum angustifolium



 



eriophorum, narrow-leaved





4







2431





Eriophorum gracile



 



eriophorum, fin





7







2432





Eriophorum latifolium



 



eriophorum, broadleaf





7







2437





Eriophorum vaginatum



 



eriophorum, tue-





5







2442





Erodium cicutarium



 



common storksbill





2







2450





Erophila verna



 



gæslinge flower, spring





4







2462
Eryngium maritimum



 



Eryngium, beach-





6







2472





Erysimum strictum



 



corner folding, rank





6







2483





Euonymus europaeus



 



Euonymus





3







2485





Eupatorium cannabinum



 



eupatorium, hemp-





3







2496





Euphorbia exigua



 



Spurge, lesser





4







2504





Euphorbia palustris



 



Spurge, beach-





7







2511





Euphrasia arctica SSP. minor



 



Euphrasia, Nordic





5







2514





Euphrasia dunensis



 



Euphrasia, clit-





5







2520





Euphrasia micrantha var. micrantha



 



Euphrasia, Heather-





5







2526





Euphrasia nemorosa



 



Euphrasia, short-





5







2534





Euphrasia rostkoviana SSP. montana



 



Euphrasia, eng-





5







2535





Euphrasia rostkoviana SSP. rostkoviana



 



Euphrasia, lime-





5







2541





Euphrasia stricta var. brevipila



 



Euphrasia, gland-





5







2542





Euphrasia stricta var. stricta



 



Euphrasia, tip





5







2544





Euphrasia stricta var. tenuis



 



Euphrasia, slender





5







2553





Fagus sylvatica



 



Beech





3







2559





Fallopia kangkung



 



knotweed, bindweed-





1







2560





Fallopia dumetorum



 



knotweed, wing-





4







2567





Festuca altissima



 



fescue, forest-





6







2568





Festuca arenaria



 



fescue, clit-





4







2569





Festuca arundinacea



 



Tall Fescue-





3







2577





Festuca brevipila



 



fescue, tray-





4







2578





Festuca filiformis



 



fescue, finbladet





6







2580





Festuca gigantea



 



fescue, fight-





3







2585





Festuca ovina



 



fescue, sheep





5







2587





Festuca polesica



 



fescue, Baltic





5







2588





Festuca pratensis



 



fescue, meadow-





2







2591





Festuca rubra



 



fescue, Red





3







2596
Festuca rubra SSP. litoralis



 



fescue, Marsh-





3







2599





Festuca rubra SSP. rubra



 



fescue, Red





3







2612





Filipendula ulmaria



 



Meadowsweet, common





3







2613





Filipendula vulgaris



 



Meadowsweet, bulbous





6







2622





Fragaria vesca



 



strawberries, forest-





5







2625





Fragaria viridis



 



Strawberry, tray-





5







2628





Frangula alnus



 



thirst





3







2633





Fraxinus excelsior



 



Ash





1







2653





Gagea lutea



 



Gold Star, plain





3







2654





Gagea minima



 



Gold Star, lesser





5







2655





Gagea pratensis



 



Gold Star, eng-





5







2656





Gagea spathacea



 



Gold Star, hyster-





5







2667





Galeopsis



 



hemp-nettle genus





1







2669





Galeopsis bifida



 



hemp-nettle, forest-





1







2671





Galeopsis ladanum



 



hemp-nettle, sandy-





2







2674





Galeopsis speciosa



 



hemp-nettle, hemp-





1







2675





Galeopsis tetrahit



 



hemp-nettle, common





1







2680





Galium album



 



bedstraw, Lady's bedstraw





4







2683





Galium aparine



 



bedstraw, galium





1







2685





Galium boreale



 



bedstraw, Northern





5







2687





Galium mollugo



 



bedstraw, white





3







2688





Galium mollugo var. elatum



 



bedstraw, broadleaf





3







2689





Galium mollugo var. mollugo



 



bedstraw, common





3







2690





Galium mollugo x verum



 



bedstraw, gulhvid





3







2695





Galium odoratum



 



Woodruff





3







2698





Galium palustre SSP. elongatum



 



bedstraw, water-





4







2699





Galium palustre SSP. palustre



 



bedstraw, creeping spearwort-





4







2704





Galium saxatile



 



bedstraw, Heather-





5







2708





Galium sterneri



 



bedstraw, lesser
5







2714





Galium uliginosum



 



bedstraw, swamp-





4







2715





Galium valdepilosum



 



bedstraw, scrub-





6







2717





Galium verum



 



bedstraw, yellow





4







2718





Galium verum SSP. verum



 



bedstraw, yellow





4







2727





Genista anglica



 



certain, English





5







2728





Genista germanica



 



certain, German





7







2729





Genista pilosa



 



certain, hair-





5







2730





Genista tinctoria



 



certain, color-





5







2732





Genista tinctoria SSP. tinctoria



 



certain, color-





5







2735





Gentiana pneumonanthe



 



gentian, Bell-





5







2740





Gentianella amarella



 



gentian, narrow shell





7







2743





Gentianella baltica



 



gentian, Baltic





7







2746





Gentianella campestris var. campestris



 



gentian, wide ointment





7







2750





Gentianella uliginosa



 



gentian, ginger





7







2756





Geranium columbinum



 



Dove, large cup





2







2757





Geranium dissectum



 



cranesbill, forked





2







2761





Geranium lucidum



 



cranesbill, shining





6







2763





Geranium molle



 



cranesbill, soft





2







2764





Geranium palustre



 



Robert, dear-





4







2768





Geranium pusillum



 



Geranium sylvaticum, lesser





1







2770





Geranium robertianum



 



cranesbill, stinky





2







2771





Geranium robertianum var. robertianum



 



cranesbill, stinky





2







2772





Geranium robertianum var. rubricaule



 



cranesbill, beach-





5







2774





Geranium sanguineum



 



cranesbill, bloody





6







2776





Geranium sylvaticum



 



cranesbill, forest-





6







2784





Geum rivals but he



 



Geum, eng-





4







2785





Geum urbanum x rivals but he



 



Geum, high





4







2786





Geum urbanum



 



Geum, fever-





2







2800
Glaucium flavum



 



Horn silique, beach-





5







2802





Glaux maritima



 



sand creeping





4







2804





Glechoma hederacea



 



glechoma





1







2809





Glyceria declinata



 



glyceria, toothed





3







2811





Glyceria fluitans



 



glyceria, manna-





3







2815





Glyceria maxima



 



glyceria, high





3







2816





Glyceria plicata



 



glyceria, butblomstret





3







2823





Gnaphalium sylvaticum



 



gnaphalium, rank





2







2824





Gnaphalium uliginosum



 



cudweed, Marsh-





2







2826





Goodyera repens



 



fragrant Orchid





7







2827





Goodyera repens var. ophioides



 



fragrant, netbladet





7







2828





Goodyera repens var. repens



 



fragrant Orchid, common





7







2835





Groenlandia densa



 



pondweed, close





4







2841





Gymnadenia conopsea



 



wire pore, long axis





7







2842





Gymnadenia conopsea var. conopsea



 



wire pore, long axis





7







2843





Gymnadenia conopsea var. densiflora



 



wire pore, greenflower





7







2849





Gymnocarpium dryopteris



 



egebregne, Tri-factor





5







2873





Hammarbya paludosa



 



heart lip





7







2876





Hedera helix



 



Ivy





2







2889





Helianthemum nummularium SSP. nummularium



 



soløje, felted





7







2890





Helianthemum nummularium SSP. obscurum



 



soløje, Hill-





7







2903





Helichrysum arenarium



 



gnaphalium, yellow





5







2905





Helictotrichon pratense



 



enghavre, common





6







2906





Helictotrichon pubescens



 



enghavre, downy





4







2930





Hepatica nobilis



 



Anemone, blue





5







2935





Heracleum sphondylium



 



Hogweed, common





3







2936





Heracleum sphondylium SSP. sibiricum



 



Hogweed, green floral





3







2937





Heracleum sphondylium SSP. sphondylium



 



Hogweed, common





3







2940
Herminium monorchis



 



Humpback lip





7







2944





Herniaria glabra



 



brudurt, smooth





5







3029





Hieracium sect. Alpestria



 



leafy coll., mountain-





6







3030





Hieracium sect. Hieracioides



 



coll., narrow-leaved hawkweed





4







3031





Hieracium sect. Hieracium



 



leafy coll., forest-





4







3032





Hieracium sect. Prenanthoidea



 



coll., heart-leaved hawkweed





7







3033





Hieracium sect. Sabauda



 



leafy coll., broadleaf





4







3034





Hieracium sect. Tridentata



 



leafy coll., rank





4







3035





Hieracium sect. Vulgatiformia



 



leafy coll., regular





4







3054





Hieracium umbellatum



 



leafy, narrow-leaved





5







3071





Hierochloë odorata



 



party grass





6







3080





Hippophaë rhamnoides



 



Sea buckthorn





3







3085





Hippuris vulgaris



 



Ponytail





4







3089





Holcus lanatus



 



Yorkshire fog





2







3090





Holcus mollis



 



horse grass, creeping





3







3095





Holosteum umbellatum



 



display inheritance





6







3097





Honckenya peploides



 



Beach inheritance





4







3099





Hordelymus europaeus



 



skovbyg





5







3112





Hordeum secalinum



 



barley, eng-





6







3123





Hottonia palustris



 



water milfoil





4







3126





Humulus lupulus



 



hops





3







3128





Huperzia selago



 



Club Moss, huperzia





6







3139





Hydrocharis morsus-ranae



 



frøbid





4







3143





Hydrocotyle vulgaris



 



water belly button





4







3154





Hypericum hirsutum



 



St. John's wort, hairy





5







3155





Hypericum humifusum



 



St. John's wort, dwarf-





5







3156





Hypericum maculatum



 



St. John's wort, edged





3







3157





Hypericum maculatum SSP. maculatum



 



St. John's wort, edged





3







3158





Hypericum maculatum SSP. obtusiusculum
 



St. John's wort, udspærret





3







3161





Hypericum montanum



 



St. John's wort, mountain-





5







3162





Hypericum perforatum



 



St. John's wort, wort





3







3163





Hypericum pulchrum



 



St. John's wort, beautiful





5







3164





Hypericum tetrapterum



 



St. John's wort, winged





4







3167





Hypochoeris maculata



 



hypochaeris, spotted





7







3168





Hypochoeris radicata



 



hypochaeris, plain





3







3179





Ilex aquifolium



 



Holly





4







3181





Illecebrum verticillatum



 



cartilage Cup





7







3186





Impatiens noli-tangere



 



Balsam, spring-





3







3189





Inula britannica



 



Elecampane, soløje-





6







3190





Inula conyza



 



Elecampane, trek lift-





5







3195





Inula salicina



 



Elecampane, arrow-





4







3206





IRIS pseudacorus



 



IRIS, yellow





4







3208





Iris spuria



 



IRIS, blue





7







3211





Isatis tinctoria



 



vajd, color-





6







3214





Isoetes lacustris



 



isoëtes, yellow green





7







3217





Isoetes lacustris



 



isoëtes, black green





6







3219





Isolepis fluitans



 



Scirpus, liquid





6







3220





Isolepis setacea



 



Scirpus, brush-





3







3226





Jasione montana



 



azorina vidalii





4







3237





Juncus acutiflorus



 



rushes, Apex floral





4







3240





Juncus alpinoarticulatus SSP. alpinoarticulatus



 



rushes, sod-





5







3243





Juncus alpinoarticulatus SSP. nodulosus



 



rushes, stalk-





5







3247





Juncus anceps var. atricapillus



 



Reed, sand-





4







3250





Juncus arcticus SSP. balticus



 



rushes, clit-





5







3252





Juncus articulatus



 



rushes, gloss encapsulated





4







3256





Juncus bufonius



 



rush, Toad-





2







3260





Juncus bulbosus SSP. bulbosus



 



Reed, lesser
5







3262





Juncus capitatus



 



rushes, fine





6







3264





Juncus compressus



 



reeds, flat straw





4







3266





Juncus conglomeratus



 



Reed, Bud-





3







3268





Juncus effusus



 



Reed, bright-





2







3271





Juncus filiformis



 



rushes, wire-





4







3272





Juncus gerardii



 



harril





4







3275





Juncus inflexus



 



Reed, blue-grey





4







3276





Juncus maritimus



 



SIV, beach-





4







3277





Juncus minutulus



 



rushes, Russian





7







3278





Juncus pygmaeus



 



Sedge, dwarf-





5







3279





Juncus ranarius



 



rushes, soggy-





4







3280





Juncus squarrosus



 



reeds, brush-





4







3282





Juncus subnodulosus



 



Reed, butblomstret





4







3288





Juniperus communis



 



one





4







3300





Knautia arvensis



 



field scabious





4







3309





Koeleria glauca



 



kambunke, dune





7







3312





Koeleria pyramidata



 



kambunke, Danish





5







3337





Lamiastrum galeobdolon SSP. galeobdolon



 



Yellow Archangel, common





4







3339





Lamium album



 



Lamium album





2







3340





Lamium amplexicaule



 



dead-nettle, Henbit





2







3341





Lamium confertum



 



dead-nettle, kidney-leaved





3







3343





Lamium hybridum



 



dead-nettle, lobed





1







3346





Lamium purpureum



 



dead-nettle, Red





1







3354





Lapsana communis



 



haremad





1







3366





Laserpitium latifolium



 



foldfrø





7







3368





Lathraea squamaria



 



Toothwort





6







3377





Lathyrus japonicus SSP. maritimus var. acutifolius



 



Lathyrus, clit-





6







3378





Lathyrus japonicus SSP. maritimus var. maritimus



 



pea, beach-





6







3381





Lathyrus linifolius
 



Lathyrus, scrub-





5







3382





Lathyrus niger



 



pea, black





5







3386





Lathyrus palustris



 



Lathyrus, Marsh-





5







3388





Lathyrus pratensis



 



pea, yellow





3







3390





Lathyrus sphaericus



 



Lathyrus, enblomstret





6







3391





Lathyrus sylvestris



 



Lathyrus, forest-





4







3395





Lathyrus vernus



 



Meadow vetchling, spring





6







3412





Lemna gibba



 



duckweed, thick





2







3413





Lemna minor



 



duckweed, lesser





3







3414





Lemna trisulca



 



duckweed, cross-





3







3420





Leontodon autumnalis



 



Borst, harvest





3







3423





Leontodon hispidus



 



Borst, stiff hair





5







3424





Leontodon saxatilis



 



dog salad





5







3435





Lepidium campestre



 



candlestick, Solomon





6







3440





Lepidium latifolium



 



Cress, beach-





2







3455





Leucanthemum vulgare



 



Chrysanthemum, white





3







3467





Leymus arenarius



 



Lyme grass





3







3475





Ligusticum scoticum



 



lovage, Scotch





7







3491





Limonium humile



 



Hinde beaker, low





6







3494





Limonium vulgare



 



Hinde Cup, greenflower





7







3498





Limosella aquatica



 



dyndurt





7







3514





Linaria vulgaris



 



toadflax, plain





2







3516





Linnaea borealis



 



linnaea





6







3520





Linum catharticum



 



flax, wild





5







3524





Liparis loeselii



 



mygblomst





7







3526





Listera cordata



 



fliglæbe, heart magazine





6







3527





Listera ovata



 



fliglæbe, ægbladet





5







3529





Lithospermum arvense



 



stone frog, corn





3







3532





Lithospermum officinale



 



stone frog, doctor-





4
3536





Lobelia dortmanna



 



lobelia, tvepibet





6







3543





Logfia arvensis



 



Filago, corn





4







3545





Logfia minima



 



Filago, lesser





3







3552





Lolium perenne



 



ryegrass, plain





1







3570





Lonicera periclymenum



 



Honeysuckle, common





3







3573





Lonicera xylosteum



 



Honeysuckle, downy





3







3580





Lotus corniculatus



 



Lotus, plain





4







3581





Lotus corniculatus var. corniculatus



 



Lotus, plain





4







3584





Lotus pedunculatus var. pedunculatus



 



Lotus, swamp-





4







3585





Lotus pedunculatus var. villosus



 



Lotus, clit-





4







3586





Lotus tenuis



 



Lotus, narrow-leaved





4







3590





Vulgatum rediviva



 



Moon silique, renewable





7







3601





Luronium natans



 



water ranke





7







3608





Luzula campestris



 



luzula, mark-





4







3611





Luzula congesta



 



luzula, main-





4







3613





Luzula multiflora



 



luzula, multiflowered





4







3620





Luzula pilosa



 



luzula, hair





4







3623





Luzula sylvatica



 



luzula, large





4







3632





Lychnis flos-cuculi



 



ragged Robin





4







3640





Lycopodiella inundata



 



selago, lesser





6







3642





Lycopodium annotinum



 



Club Moss, femradet





6







3644





Lycopodium clavatum



 



selago, plain





5







3652





Lycopus europaeus



 



blacken wealth





3







3658





Lysimachia nemorum



 



outlaw, lund-





5







3659





Lysimachia nummularia



 



outlaw, money magazine





3







3661





Lysimachia thyrsiflora



 



outlaw, dusk-





5







3663





Lysimachia vulgaris



 



outlaw, plain





3







3668





Lythrum portula



 



water-purslane





5







3670
Lythrum salicaria



 



purple loosestrife





3







3680





Maianthemum bifolium



 



majblomst





5







3692





Malus sylvestris



 



Apple, forest-





3







3695





Malva alcea



 



Mallow, rose-





3







3702





Malva sylvestris



 



Mallow, common





3







3703





Malva sylvestris SSP. mauritanica



 



Mallow, mauretanisk





3







3721





Matricaria recutita



 



Chamomile, fragrant





1







3723





Matteuccia struthiopteris



 



ostrich wing





6







3736





Medicago lupulina



 



snails pods, hops-





3







3738





Medicago lupulina var. lupulina



 



snails pods, hops-





3







3739





Medicago minima



 



snails pods, lesser





6







3746





Medicago sativa SSP. falcata



 



snails pods, seal-





4







3752





Melampyrum arvense



 



wheat, corn





6







3753





Melampyrum cristatum



 



wheat edged





5







3754





Melampyrum nemorosum



 



wood cow-wheat,





5







3755





Melampyrum pratense



 



wheat, common





5







3757





Melampyrum pratense var. pratense



 



wheat, common





5







3759





Melampyrum sylvaticum



 



wheat, forest-





5







3764





Melica nutans



 



flitteraks, nodding





5







3766





Melica uniflora



 



flitteraks, enblomstret





2







3769





Melilotus altissimus



 



sweet clover, high





3







3770





Melilotus dentatus



 



sweet clover, beach-





4







3782





Mentha aquatica



 



Mint, water-





3







3788





Mentha arvensis



 



Mint, corn





3







3806





Menyanthes trifoliata



 



fenugreek leaf





4







3809





Mercurialis perennis



 



dog's mercury, plain





1







3813





Mertensia maritima



 



horse heavy





7







3827





Milium effusum



 



effusum





4







3841





Minuartia viscosa



 
Norel, sticky





7







3851





Moehringia trinervia



 



forest succession





3







3855





Molinia caerulea



 



caerulea





3







3857





Moneses uniflora



 



Winter green, enblomstret





6







3861





Monotropa hypopitys



 



chimaphila





6







3862





Monotropa hypopitys SSP. hypophegea



 



chimaphila, smooth





6







3863





Hypopitys Monotropa hypopitys SSP.



 



chimaphila, plain





6







3867





Montia fontana SSP. fontana



 



water inheritance, large





5







3868





Montia fontana SSP. variabilis



 



water inheritance, vortet





5







3869





Montia minor



 



water inheritance, lesser





4







3888





Mycelis muralis



 



Woodland lettuce





2







3890





Myosotis arvensis



 



forget-me-not, mark-





2







3894





Myosotis discolor



 



forget-me-not, different colored





3







3897





Myosotis laxa SSP. caespitosa



 



forget-me-not, swamp-





4







3898





Myosotis ramosissima



 



forget-me-not, forget-me-not





4







3899





Myosotis scorpioides



 



forget-me-not, myosotis-





4







3903





Myosotis scorpioides var. strigulosa



 



forget-me-not, myosotis-





4







3906





Myosotis stricta



 



forget-me-not, rank





4







3907





Myosotis sylvatica



 



forget-me-not, forest-





4







3909





Myosoton aquaticum



 



water chickweed





3







3911





Myosurus minimus



 



mouse tail





4







3913





Myrica gale



 



pors, mose-





4







3918





Myriophyllum alterniflorum



 



thousand leaf, hair-





5







3920





Myriophyllum spicatum



 



thousand leaf, aks-





4







3921





Myriophyllum verticillatum



 



thousand leaf wreath-





5







3926





Najas flexilis



 



najads, lesser





7







3927





Najas marina



 



najads, great





7







3939





Nardus stricta



 



katteskæg





5







3942





Narthecium ossifragum



 



Narthecium ossifragum





4
3944





Nasturtium microphyllum



 



watercress, tyndskulpet





5







3945





Nasturtium officinale



 



watercress, tykskulpet





5







3952





Neottia nidus-avis



 



rederod





5







3987





Nuphar lutea



 



water lily, yellow





3







3990





Nuphar pumila



 



water lily, lesser





7







3993





Nymphaea alba



 



water lily, white





2







3994





Nymphaea alba SSP. alba



 



water-lily, white





2







3995





Nymphaea alba SSP. candida



 



water-lily, lesser





4







4004





Odontites litoralis



 



Red bartsia, beach-





5







4008





Odontites verna



 



Red bartsia, mark-





4







4010





Odontites vernus SSP. vernus



 



Red bartsia, early





4







4011





Odontites vulgaris



 



Red bartsia, summer





4







4013





Oenanthe aquatica



 



bunch of grapes screen billebo-





3







4015





Oenanthe fistulosa



 



bunch of grapes screen, water-





4







4016





Oenanthe fluviatilis



 



bunch of grapes screen, River





7







4018





Oenanthe lachenalii



 



bunch of grapes screen, eng-





5







4020





Oenothera ammophila



 



night light, clit-





6







4043





Ononis spinosa SSP. arvensis



 



krageklo, stinky





4







4044





Ononis spinosa SSP. maritima var. maritima



 



krageklo, mark-





4







4046





Ononis spinosa SSP. spinosa



 



krageklo, beach-





4







4053





Ophioglossum vulgatum



 



ophioglossum





5







4055





Ophrys apifera



 



biblomst





7







4056





Ophrys insectifera



 



fly flower





6







4059





Orchis mascula



 



Orchid, thin axis





5







4062





Orchis militaris



 



Orchid, Knight-





7







338





Orchis morio



 



Orchid, arrowroot





7







4064





Orchis purpurea



 



Orchid, large





6







4066





Orchis ustulata



 



Orchid Hill-





7







4068
Oreopteris limbo sperma



 



Mountain fern





6







4071





Origanum vulgare



 



Marjoram





6







4078





Ornithopus perpusillus



 



fugleklo, lesser





2







4086





Orobanche elatior



 



broom Smothers, great





4







4092





Orobanche purpurea



 



broom Smothers, yarrow-





5







4093





Orobanche reticulata



 



broom Smothers, Thistle-





7







4095





Orthilia secunda



 



Wintergreen, unilateral





6







4099





Osmunda regalis



 



Royal fern





6







4102





Oxalis acetosella



 



Sorrel





4







4140





Papaver argemone



 



poppy, Mallet-





4







4145





Papaver dubium



 



poppy, long-headed-





2







4163





Papaver rhoeas



 



poppy, corn-





3







4169





Parapholis strigosa



 



the tip of the tail





6







4171





Parentucellia viscosa



 



bartsie, yellow





7







4177





Paris quadrifolia



 



firblad





5







4179





Parnassia palustris



 



grass of Parnassus





6







4205





Pedicularis palustris SSP. opsiantha



 



lousewort, harvest





6







4206





Pedicularis palustris SSP. palustris



 



lousewort, eng-





6







4207





Pedicularis sceptrum-carolinum



 



the Royal scepter





7







4208





Pedicularis sylvatica



 



lousewort, bog-





6







4219





Persicaria amphibia



 



knotweed, water-





2







4221





Persicaria hydropiper



 



knotweed, biting





3







4224





Persicaria lapathifolia SSP. lapathifolia



 



knotweed, knudet





4







4225





Persicaria lapathifolia SSP. pallida



 



pale persicaria





1







4227





Persicaria maculosa maculosa SSP.



 



knotweed, peach-





2







4228





Persicaria minor



 



knotweed, lesser





4







4234





Petasites albus



 



butterbur, white





5







4239





Petasites spurius



 



butterbur, felted





7







4241





Petrorhagia prolifera



 
knob Carnation





6







4252





Peucedanum oreoselinum



 



milk-parsley, tray-





6







4254





Peucedanum palustre



 



milk-parsley, fen-





4







4263





Phalaris arundinacea



 



Reed Canary grass





2







4276





Phegopteris connectilis



 



dunbregne





5







4285





Phleum arenarium



 



rat tail, sandy-





6







4289





Phleum phleoides



 



rat tail, smooth





6







4290





Phleum pratense



 



rat tail, eng-





1







4291





Phleum pratense SSP. pratense



 



rat tail, eng-





1







4292





Phleum pratense SSP. serotinum



 



rat tail, tuber-





4







4299





Phragmites australis



 



Reed





3







4320





Phyteuma spicatum



 



rampion, aks-





5







4327





Picea abies



 



spruce, Red-





1







4343





Picris hieracioides



 



Oxtongue, ru





4







4350





Pilosella SSP. cymosa cymosa var. cymosa



 



hawkweed, tassel-





5







4351





Pilosella SSP. cymosa cymosa var. pubescens



 



hawkweed, soft tassel-





7







4357





Pilosella lactucella



 



hawkweed, Plantago magazine





5







4359





Pilosella officinarum



 



leafy hair





4







4361





Pilosella peleteriana



 



hawkweed, clit-





4







4363





Pilularia globulifera



 



pilularia globulifera





6







4367





Pimpinella major



 



saxifrage, large





4







4369





Pimpinella saxifraga



 



saxifrage, common





4







4370





Pimpinella saxifraga SSP. nigra



 



saxifrage, blånende





4







4371





Pimpinella saxifraga SSP. saxifraga



 



saxifrage, common





4







4376





Pinguicula vulgaris



 



common butterwort





7







4403





Pinus sylvestris



 



Guy, forest-





2







4419





Plantago coronopus



 



plantain, lobed





3







4420





Plantago coronopus SSP. coronopus



 



plantain, lobed





3







4423





Plantago lanceolata



 



plantain, Plantago-
3







4425





Plantago lanceolata SSP. lanceolata



 



plantain, Plantago-





3







4428





Plantago major



 



plantain, smooth





1







4429





Plantago major SSP. intermedia



 



plantain, corn





1







4431





Plantago major SSP. winteri



 



plantain, ginger





4







4432





Plantago maritima



 



plantain, beach-





4







4433





Plantago media



 



plantain, downy





4







4437





Plantago uniflora



 



strandbo





6







4441





Platanthera bifolia SSP. bifolia



 



bird's nest, tray-





6







4442





Platanthera bifolia SSP. latiflora



 



bird's nest, long trail





6







4445





Platanthera chlorantha



 



bird's nest, forest-





6







4463





POA annua



 



annual meadow-grass





1







4473





POA bulbosa



 



meadow-grass, onion-





4







4475





POA compressa



 



Meadow flat straw





3







4476





POA compressa var. compressa



 



Meadow flat straw





3







4481





POA nemoralis



 



Meadow Grove-





3







4482





POA palustris



 



meadow-grass, Red





5







4483





Poa pratensis



 



Meadow coll., eng-





2







4485





Poa pratensis SSP. angustifolia



 



meadow-grass, narrow-leaved





3







4486





Poa pratensis SSP. irrigata



 



meadow-grass, teal





2







4489





Poa pratensis SSP. pratensis



 



meadow-grass, meadow-





2







4492





POA remota



 



meadow-grass, giant-





7







4493





POA supina



 



meadow-grass, low





7







4494





POA trivialis



 



meadow-grass, common





2







4496





POA trivialis SSP. trivialis



 



meadow-grass, common





2







4502





Polemonium caeruleum



 



Jacob's ladder





7







4508





Polygala amarella



 



milkwort, bitter





7







4510





Polygala serpyllifolia



 



milkwort, infant





7







4511





Polygala vulgaris



 



milkwort, plain





7
4512





Polygala vulgaris SSP. oxyptera



 



milkwort, plain





7







4513





Polygala vulgaris SSP. vulgaris



 



milkwort, plain





7







4518





Polygonatum multiflorum



 



of the Valley, large





4







4520





Polygonatum odoratum



 



of the Valley, edged





5







4521





Polygonatum verticillatum



 



of the Valley, wreath-





6







4528





Polygonum aviculare SSP. aviculare



 



knotweed, road





1







4529





Polygonum aviculare SSP. microspermum



 



knotweed, narrow-leaved





1







4530





Polygonum aviculare SSP. neglectum



 



knotweed, prostrate





1







4531





Polygonum aviculare SSP. rurivagum



 



knotweed, tip sheet





1







4536





Polygonum oxyspermum



 



knotweed, beach-





5







4540





Polygonum raii SSP. norvegicum



 



knotweed, Norwegian





7







4541





Polygonum raii SSP. raii



 



knotweed, sandy-





7







4546





Polypodium vulgare



 



polypodium, Bigleaf





5







4548





Polypodium vulgare



 



polypodium, plain





4







4554





Polystichum aculeatum



 



Shield fern, common





5







4556





Polystichum braunii



 



skjordbregne, hair





5







4573





Populus tremula



 



European Aspen





3







4595





Potamogeton acutifolius



 



pondweed, tip sheet





6







4598





Potamogeton alpinus



 



pondweed, rust-





5







4605





Potamogeton berchtoldii



 



pondweed, lesser





4







4610





Potamogeton coloratus



 



pondweed, plantain-





6







4613





Potamogeton compressus



 



pondweed, tapeworm-





5







4615





Potamogeton crispus



 



pondweed, curled





2







4618





Potamogeton filiformis



 



pondweed, thread-





6







4621





Potamogeton friesii



 



pondweed, Sting magazine





6







4625





Potamogeton gramineus



 



pondweed, grass-leaved





5







4631





Potamogeton gramineus x perfoliatus



 



pondweed, short-stemmed





5







4634





Potamogeton lucens



 



pondweed, glistening
6







4638





Potamogeton natans



 



pondweed, floating





2







4640





Potamogeton obtusifolius



 



pondweed, obtusifolium





5







4641





Potamogeton pectinatus



 



pondweed, brush blade





2







4644





Potamogeton perfoliatus



 



pondweed, heart magazine





4







4646





Potamogeton polygonifolius



 



pondweed, oblong leaf





6







4648





Potamogeton praelongus



 



, long-leaved pondweed





6







4649





Potamogeton pusillus



 



pondweed, slender





5







4651





Potamogeton rutilus



 



pondweed, reddish





7







4652





Potamogeton trichoides



 



pondweed, subtle





7







4657





Potentilla acutifida



 



cinquefoil, pale yellow silver





6







4659





Potentilla anglica



 



cinquefoil, lying





5







4656





Potentilla arenaria



 



cinquefoil, grey





6







4664





Potentilla argentea



 



cinquefoil, silver-





3







4670





Potentilla decora



 



cinquefoil, beautiful Silver-





3







4671





Potentilla demissa



 



cinquefoil, smooth silver-





3







4673





Potentilla erecta



 



silverweed





6







4675





Potentilla heptaphylla



 



cinquefoil, mat





6







4677





Potentilla impolita



 



cinquefoil, hair silver-





3







4689





Potentilla norvegica SSP. norvegica



 



Norwegian cinquefoil, genuine





7







4692





Potentilla reptans



 



cinquefoil, creeping





3







4695





Potentilla sordida



 



cinquefoil, tray-





7







4696





Potentilla sterilis



 



cinquefoil, Strawberry-





5







4697





Potentilla subarenaria



 



cinquefoil, grey spring





7







4700





Potentilla tabernaemontani



 



cinquefoil, spring





6







4708





Primula elatior



 



Primrose, flat requirement





4







4711





Primula farinosa



 



Primrose, flour





7







4719





Primula veris



 



Primrose, cowslip





4







4721





Primula vulgaris



 



Primrose, big-flowered





5
4726





Prunella grandiflora



 



Brunelle, big-flowered





7







4729





Prunella vulgaris



 



Prunella Vulgaris, common





4







4731





Prunus avium



 



Cherry, birds-





3







4736





Prunus domestica SSP. insititia



 



Damson





1







4739





Prunus padus



 



bird cherry, plain





3







4743





Prunus spinosa



 



Blackthorn





3







4750





Pseudorchis albida



 



sækspore, white





7







4761





Pteridium aquilinum



 



pteridium aquilinum





2







4762





Pteridium aquilinum SSP. aquilinum



 



pteridium aquilinum, plain





2







4763





Pteridium aquilinum SSP. latiusculum



 



pteridium aquilinum, Northern





2







4767





Puccinellia capillaris



 



puccinellia, slap





5







4770





Puccinellia distans



 



puccinellia, udspærret





3







4773





Puccinellia maritima



 



puccinellia, beach-





5







4779





Pulicaria dysenterica



 



loppeurt, beach-





4







4782





Pulmonaria angustifolia



 



madwort, sky blue





7







4784





Pulmonaria obscura



 



madwort, plain





4







4786





Pulmonaria officinalis



 



madwort, white spotted





7







4796





Pyrola chlorantha



 



Winter green, greenish





7







4798





Pyrola media



 



Winter green, Bell-





7







4799





Pyrola minor



 



Wintergreen, lesser





5







4803





Pyrola rotundifolia SSP. maritima



 



Winter green, dune





6







4805





Pyrola rotundifolia SSP. rotundifolia



 



Wintergreen, mose-





6







4814





Quercus petraea



 



Oak, winter-





3







4817





Quercus robur



 



Oak, common





3







4820





Radiola lino ides



 



tusindfrø





5







4823





Ranunculus acris



 



Buttercup, biting





3







4826





Ranunculus acris SSP. friesianus



 



Buttercup park-





3







4828





Ranunculus aquatilis var. aquatilis



 



water Crowfoot, plain





4
4829





Ranunculus aquatilis var. diffusus



 



water Crowfoot, hårfliget





4







4833





Ranunculus auricomus



 



Buttercup, the magazine





4







4835





Ranunculus bulbosus



 



Buttercup, tuber-





4







4837





Ranunculus circinatus



 



water Crowfoot, circle blade





4







4841





Ranunculus ficaria



 



lesser celandine





3







4842





Ranunculus ficaria SSP. fertilis



 



lesser Celandine, liim-





3







4843





Ranunculus ficaria ficaria SSP.



 



lesser Celandine, plain





3







4844





Ranunculus flammula



 



lesser spearwort, Marsh-





4







4851





Ranunculus hederaceus



 



water Crowfoot, Ivy-





6







4854





Ranunculus lanuginosus



 



Buttercup, wooly





3







4856





Ranunculus lingua



 



long-leaved Buttercup





4







4867





Ranunculus peltatus SSP. baudotii



 



water Crowfoot, beach-





5







4869





Ranunculus peltatus SSP. peltatus



 



water Crowfoot, big-flowered





5







4870





Ranunculus penicillatus



 



water Crowfoot, brush-





6







4871





Ranunculus penicillatus SSP. pseudofluitans



 



water Crowfoot, symes





6







4874





Ranunculus polyanthemos SSP. nemorosus



 



Buttercup, lund-





6







4875





Ranunculus polyanthemos SSP. polyanthemos



 



Buttercup, multiflowered





4







4880





Ranunculus repens



 



buttercups, low





2







4881





Ranunculus reptans



 



Buttercup, creeping





5







4883





Ranunculus sardous



 



Buttercup, hairy





4







4884





Ranunculus sceleratus



 



Buttercup, beggar-





3







4914





Rhamnus flavescens



 



Buckthorn





3







4921





Rhinanthus minor



 



narrow-leaved, lesser





5







4922





Rhinanthus minor SSP. elatior



 



narrow-leaved, summer





5







4923





Rhinanthus minor SSP. minor



 



narrow-leaved, broadleaf





5







4924





Rhinanthus minor SSP. stenophyllus



 



narrow, narrow-leaved





5







4925





Rhinanthus serotinus



 



narrow-leaved, large





5







4926





Rhinanthus serotinus SSP. apterus



 



narrow-leaved, rye-
5







4927





Rhinanthus serotinus SSP. halophilus



 



narrow-leaved, beach-





5







4928





Rhinanthus serotinus SSP. paludosus



 



narrow-leaved, eng-





5







4929





Rhinanthus serotinus SSP. serotinus



 



narrow-leaved, harvest





5







4930





Rhinanthus serotinus SSP. vernalis



 



narrow-leaved, early





5







4934





Rhododendron tomentosum



 



post, bog-





7







4940





Rhynchospora alba



 



rhynchospora, white





6







4941





Rhynchospora fusca



 



rhynchospora, Brown





6







4943





Ribes alpinum



 



red currant, Alpine





1







4945





Ribes nigrum



 



black currant





4







4949





Ribes spicatum



 



red currant, wild





3







4950





Ribes uva-crispa



 



gooseberry





1







4961





Rorippa amphibia



 



water horseradish





4







4969





Rorippa palustris



 



rorippa, Marsh-





3







4976





Rosa canina



 



rose, dog





3







4977





Rosa canina SSP. canina



 



rose, smooth dog





3







4978





Rosa canina SSP. dumetorum



 



rose, the hair dogs-





3







4981





Rosa dumalis SSP. coriifolia



 



teal rose, hair





3







4982





Rosa dumalis SSP. dumalis



 



rose, teal





3







4985





Rosa elliptica SSP. inodora



 



rose, scentless Apple-





3







4996





Rosa obtusifolia



 



rose, rubladet





5







4997





Rosa pimpinellifolia



 



rose, clit-





5







5000





Rosa rubiginosa



 



rose, Apple-





3







5002





Rosa sherardii



 



rose, short-stemmed felt-





3







5003





Rosa tomentosa



 



rose, long-stemmed felt-





5







5005





Rosa villosa SSP. mollis



 



rose, soft felt-





4







5018





Rubus



 



cluster family





1







5030





Rubus caesius



 



Dewberry





3







5035





Rubus chamaemorus



 



cloudberry





5







5073
Rubus idaeus



 



Raspberry





1







5110





Rubus plicatus



 



Blackberries, plain





3







5116





Rubus radula



 



BlackBerry, Bristly





3







5119





Rubus saxatilis



 



Rubus saxatilis





5







5122





Rubus sect. Corylifolius



 



Coll., Hazel blackberries





3







5123





Rubus sect. Rubus



 



Coll., blackberries





3







5148





Rumex acetosa



 



acid, plain





3







5150





Rumex acetosa SSP. acetosa var. acetosa



 



acid, plain





3







5152





Rumex acetosa SSP. acetosa var. hydrophilus



 



acid, source-





6







5156





Rumex acetosella



 



sheep's sorrel





2







5157





Rumex acetosella SSP. acetosella



 



Rumex acetosella, common





2







5159





Rumex acetosella SSP. tenuifolius



 



sheep's sorrel, finbladet





2







5162





Rumex aquaticus



 



burdock, slime-





4







5167





Rumex bryhnii



 



burdock, rock-





5







5174





Rumex conglomeratus



 



burdock, key-





4







5180





Rumex crispus



 



burdock, frizzy





1







5193





Rumex hydrolapathum



 



burdock, water-





4







5195





Rumex longifolius



 



Yellow dock, city-





1







5199





Rumex maritimus



 



Yellow dock, beach-





4







5201





Rumex maritimus SSP. maritimus



 



Yellow dock, beach-





4







5205





Rumex obtusifolius



 



burdock, obtusifolium





1







5206





Rumex obtusifolius SSP. obtusifolius



 



burdock, obtusifolium





1







5207





Rumex obtusifolius SSP. sylvestris



 



burdock, tandfri





1







5208





Rumex obtusifolius SSP. shuttle's



 



burdock, short-toothed





1







5211





Rumex palustris



 



burdock, swamp-





4







5218





Rumex sanguineus



 



burdock, forest-





4







5221





Rumex thyrsiflorus



 



acid, dusk-





3







5225





Ruppia cirrhosa



 



seagrass, long-stemmed





4







5226
Ruppia maritima



 



seagrass, plain





4







5228





Ruppia maritima var. maritima



 



seagrass, plain





4







5240





Sagina maritima



 



pearlwort, beach-





5







5243





Sagina nodosa



 



pearlwort, knot-





4







5244





Sagina nodosa SSP. borealis



 



pearlwort, Northern knot-





4







5245





Sagina nodosa SSP. nodosa



 



pearlwort, southern knot-





5







5246





Sagina procumbens



 



pearlwort, plain





3







5249





Sagina subulata



 



pearlwort, awl-





5







5256





Sagittaria sagittifolia



 



arrowhead





5







5261





Salicornia dolichostachya SSP. dolichostachya



 



glasswort, long axis





4







5262





Salicornia dolichostachya SSP. strictissima



 



glasswort, Wade-





4







5263





Salicornia europaea



 



Salicornia Europaea





5







5286





Salix aurita



 



arrow, ear





2







5302





Salix caprea



 



arrow, selje-





2







5314





Salix cinerea



 



Willow, grey-





2







5315





Salix cinerea SSP. cinerea



 



Willow, grey-





2







5347





Salix hastata SSP. vegeta



 



arrow, spear-





4







5366





Salix myrsinifolia



 



arrow, black





2







5377





Salix pentandra



 



arrow, little mouse





5







5387





Salix repens SSP. repens var. argentea



 



gråris





3







5388





Salix repens SSP. repens var. repens



 



Willow, creeping





4







5390





Salix repens SSP. rosmarinifolia



 



arrow, Rosemary-





6







5407





Salsola kali



 



Tumbleweed





4







5423





Sambucus nigra



 



Elder, common





1







5426





Samolus valerandi



 



samel





6







5429





Sanguisorba minor SSP. minor



 



salad Burnet, styptic





5







5430





Sanguisorba minor SSP. polygama



 



salad Burnet, wing seed





5







5434





Sanicula europaea



 



sanikel





4







5447





Satureja acinos



 
acinos





5







5451





Satureja vulgaris



 



wreath brush





4







5465





Saxifraga granulata



 



saxifrage, grain





4







5468





Saxifraga hirculus



 



saxifrage, yellow





7







5480





Saxifraga tridactylites



 



saxifrage, trek lift-





4







5486





Scabiosa canescens



 



Scabiosa, fragrant





6







5487





Scabiosa columbaria



 



Scabiosa, due-





6







5493





Scheuchzeria palustris



 



blomstersiv





7







5503





Schoenoplectus lacustris



 



Scirpus, sea





3







5506





Schoenoplectus maritimus



 



Scirpus, beach-





3







5507





Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani



 



Scirpus, teal





4







5509





Schoenus ferrugineus



 



skæne, rust-





7







5511





Schoenus nigricans



 



skæne, black





7







5521





Scirpus sylvaticus



 



Scirpus, forest-





4







5524





Scleranthus annuus, SSP. annuus



 



knawel, annual knawel, mark-





3







5525





Scleranthus annuus, SSP. polycarpos area



 



knawel, tray-





3







5527





Scleranthus perennis



 



knawel, perennial





3







5538





Scorzonera humilis



 



common hawkweeds, low





5







5542





Scrophularia nodosa



 



figwort, bulbous





2







5545





Scrophularia umbrosa



 



figwort, water-





4







5546





Scrophularia umbrosa var. neesii



 



figwort, crenate





6







5547





Scrophularia umbrosa var. umbrosa



 



figwort, water-





4







5552





Scutellaria galericulata



 



skullcap, plain





3







5554





Scutellaria hastifolia



 



skullcap, spear-leaved





7







5563





Sedum acre



 



stonecrop, biting





5







5577





Sedum sexangulare



 



stonecrop, sekradet





7







5582





Sedum telephium SSP. maximum



 



SCT. hansurt, common





4







5587





Selaginella selaginoides



 



Dwarf Club Moss, MOSS-





7







5590





Selinum carvifolia



 
seline





5







5591





Selinum dubium



 



burn screen





7







5595





Senecio aquaticus



 



groundsel, water-





2







5596





Senecio aquaticus SSP. aquaticus



 



groundsel, water-





2







5597





Senecio aquaticus SSP. erraticus



 



groundsel, Russian





2







5600





Senecio erucifolius



 



groundsel, narrow lobed





6







5603





Senecio jacobaea



 



groundsel, eng-





2







5612





Senecio sylvaticus



 



groundsel, forest-





2







5620





Senecio vulgaris



 



groundsel, common





2







5621





Senecio vulgaris var. denticulatus



 



groundsel, clit-





4







5622





Senecio vulgaris var. hibernicus



 



groundsel, winter-





2







5627





Seriphidium maritimum



 



Beach Wormwood





4







5629





Serratula tinctoria



 



inserts, eng-





6







5635





Seseli libanotis



 



Moon carrots





5







5649





Sherardia arvensis



 



sherardia





3







5667





Silene conica and



 



Campion, cone-





6







5670





Silene dioica



 



stunning star, day-





3







5671





Silene dioica var. crassifolia



 



stunning star, day-





3







5672





Silene dioica var. dioica



 



stunning star, day-





3







5681





Silene latifolia SSP. alba



 



stunning star, evening





2







5686





Silene nutans



 



catchfly, nodding





5







5689





Silene otites



 



Campion, clit-





6







5695





Silene uniflora



 



Campion, beach-





6







5697





Silene uniflora SSP. uniflora



 



Campion, beach-





6







5701





Silene viscosa



 



Campion, sticky





6







5702





Silene vulgaris



 



bladder Campion





3







5730





Sisymbrium supinum



 



mustard, lime-





7







5735





Sium latifolium



 



brand, broadleaf





3







5749





Solanum dulcamara



 



nightshade, bittersweet
3







5750





Solanum dulcamara var. dulcamara



 



nightshade, bittersweet





3







5752





Solanum dulcamara var. marinum



 



nightshade, beach-





3







5758





Solanum nigrum



 



black nightshade





1







5780





Solidago virgaurea



 



goldenrod, common





4







5784





Sonchus arvensis



 



sow-thistle, corn





2







5785





Sonchus arvensis var. arvensis



 



pig milk, plain corn





2







5787





Sonchus arvensis var. glabrescens



 



sow-thistle, smooth corn





2







5788





Sonchus asper



 



Asper, ru-





1







5789





Sonchus maritimus



 



Asper, beach-





3







5790





Sonchus oleraceus



 



pig milk, plain





2







5791





Sonchus palustris



 



Asper, Marsh-





3







5798





Sorbus aucuparia



 



Mountain ash, plain





1







5806





Sorbus hybrida



 



Rowan, Finnish





4







5808





Sorbus intermedia



 



Rowan, selje-





1







5815





Sorbus rupicola



 



Mountain ash, rock-





5







5820





Sorbus torminalis



 



Rowan, gut twisting-





5







5826





Sparganium angustifolium



 



sparganium, narrow-leaved





5







5833





Sparganium emersum



 



sparganium, single





2







5840





Sparganium erectum



 



sparganium, branched





2







5841





Sparganium erectum SSP. erectum



 



sparganium, branched





2







5842





Sparganium erectum SSP. microcarpum



 



sparganium, småfrugtet





2







5843





Sparganium erectum SSP. neglectum



 



sparganium, ten-





2







5844





Sparganium erectum SSP. oocarpum



 



sparganium, ball-





2







5849





Sparganium natans