on the prosecution and punishment of the major war criminals of the European axis.
On behalf of the Czechoslovak Republic.
On 8 June 1998. August 1945
was agreed in London
agreed the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland,
the Government of the United States, the provisional Government of the French
the Republic and the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the prosecution of
and punishment of the major war criminals of the European axis.
In London on 8 June 1998. August 1945.
Because the United Nations has declared repeatedly its intention to build a
war criminals to justice;
and as the Moscow Declaration of 30. October 1943 on German
outrage in occupied Europe, that those German officers,
the men, members of the Nazi party, who were responsible for the committed
atrocities and crimes, or join, they will be sent back to the
countries where their despicable acts were made, that there were tried and
punished under the laws of these liberated countries and of free Governments,
that will be created;
and because of this Declaration was made that not detrimental cases
the major criminals, whose crimes could not be easily particularly geographically
and who will be punished by joint decision of the Allied governments;
concluded, therefore, now the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and
Northern Ireland, the Government of the United States, the provisional Government
The French Republic and the Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
(in another called "Signatories") acting in the interest of all United
Nations, its duly authorised representative of this agreement.
After some conversation with the control Council for Germany will be established by the international
military court for criminal proceedings with the war criminals, whose
the offences cannot be separately geographically easily no matter where they are
accused individually or as members of groups or organisací or
Composition, powers and tasks of the international military court of Justice will be
specified in the Statute annexed to this agreement, the Statute of the
an essential part of this agreement.
Each of the signatories shall take the necessary measures to ensure that the allegations and investigation
court proceedings were made available by the main war criminals
detention, who are to be tried by the international military
the Court of Justice. The signatories also do as much as possible, to allow for the investigation of
the charges against them and for their trial before the international military
the Court of justice were made available as well as those of the main war criminals,
who are not on the territory of any of the signatories.
This agreement will not in any way prejudice the provisions of the Moscow
claims about the return of war criminals to countries where they committed their
Each Government the United Nations may přistoupiti to this agreement by notifying the
made through the diplomatic channel to the Government of the United Kingdom, which shall notify
other signatories and acceding Governments of any such access.
This agreement will not in any way prejudice the authority or permission
any State or the occupation of the Court, which has already been set up or
will be set up on any Allied territory or in Germany to judging
This agreement shall enter into force on the date of signature and remain in force for
for one year, and then continue with the proviso that each signatory
can oznámiti one month in advance through diplomatic channels of its intention to it
rozvázati. Such termination will not prejudice any procedure that is
already initiated and any findings that already have been played under this
The evidence obtained by signing this agreement the undersigned.
Done at London on 8 June 1998. August 1945 in four copies, each of which
is drawn up in English, French and Russian, and each text will be the same
The Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland:
For the Government of the United States of America:
Robert H. Jackson.
For the provisional Government of the French Republic:
For the Government of Union of Soviet Socialist Republics:
The Statute of the
International military court of Justice.
The composition of the international military court of Justice.
According to the agreement signed on 8 June 1998. the Government of the United Kingdom in August 1945
Of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the United States Government
of America. The provisional Government of the French Republic and the Government of the Union of
of Soviet Socialist Republics will be established, the international military
the Court of Justice (hereafter, called "the Court") to the fair and
rapid criminal proceedings with the major war criminals of the European axis, and
to their punishment.
The Court will be composed of four members, each of which will have a representative. Each
The signatory shall designate one Member and one alternate. Representatives will be,
If they will be able to present all the meetings of the Court.
If a member of the Court for illness or any other cause
Unable to perform his duties in his place, his Deputy.
The indictment, the defendants nor their defenders cannot odmítnouti the Court of Justice,
its members or their representatives. Any signatory may trade their
Member in the Court or his replacement for reasons of health or
other important reasons with the exception that the Exchange is not přípustna during the
the trial, except by a representative.
and the presence of all four) members of the Court, or by a representative of each
the absent member is to be used for quorum.
(b)) before the delineation of members of the Court shall agree between themselves on the
election of the President from among their number; This Chairman holds office after this
version, but that would have been otherwise had the votes of at least three members. It is in the
principle, agreed that the Presidency will be in the function of alternation, as version
they go behind. However, if the Court of Justice in the territory of one of the zasedati
the four Signatories, the předsedati representative of the Signatories in the judicial
(c)), without prejudice to what has been said, the majority of the Court of Justice usnášeti
votes and in a tie will be that of the voice of the předsedův, but
that conviction and penalties shall be imposed only by an affirmative vote of at least three members
The Court of Justice.
If needed, and by the number of cases to be tried in may
be established by other courts; the establishment and tasks of each of the
the Court, as well as the procedure for him will be the same and they will říditi this
Competence and general principles.
Article 6 of the
The Court, established by the agreement referred to in article 1 of the Statute for
the trial and punishment of the major war criminals of the European Axis, the
authorized to judge and potrestati persons who committed, acting in the interest of
the European Axis countries, whether as individuals or as members of the organisací,
any of the following crimes.
The following acts, or some of them are crimes falling under
jurisdiction of the Court, which will be the personal liability:
and Crimes against peace); that is, plotting, preparing, instigating or
taking the offensive of the war, or the war that violates international treaties,
agreement or guarantees or participation in a common plan or conspiracy to
implementation of anything from what stated above;
b) war crimes: that is a violation of laws of war or war
practice. Such an infringement in itself will include murder, bad management
or deportation of the civilian population of the occupied territory or to
slave labor or for any other purpose, the murder of prisoners of war
or persons on the seas, or bad management, the killing of hostages, plunder
public or private property, wanton destruction of towns and villages, or
devastation not justified by military necessity, but will not be limited to them;
c) crimes against humanity: namely, murder, extermination, enslavement,
deportation or other inhumane acts committed against any civilian
the population before the war, or the war or persecution of the causes
political, racial or religious when you perform any of the
crime falling under the jurisdiction of the Court, or in conjunction with
in such a crime, regardless of whether it has been violated local law
the country where the crimes were committed.
The leaders, instigators and spoluvinníci organisátoři, zúčastnivší when
plotting or carrying out of the common plan or conspiracy to perform
one of the said crimes are responsible for all actions of all
people in the implementation of such a plan.
The official position of the defendants as heads of State or responsible
officials in public authorities, shall not be considered fact
is the responsibility of the exculpatory or mitigating the punishment.
The fact that the defendant acted on the orders of his Government or of its
as it is presented, it relieves them of liability, but may be considered
mitigating for the assessment of the penalty, if the Court decides that the justice
It calls for.
During the trial of any individual Member of any group or
Organization of the Court may make a Mormon out (in connection with any
offence for which an individual may be convicted) that the group or
He was a member of organization of this individual was organisací
to be a criminal.
After the adoption of the indictment shall notify the Court of Justice in a way that recognizes that the appropriate
the prosecution intends to požádati the Court has made such a declaration;
each Member of the Organization will then be entitled to požádati the Court of Justice, to
provided a hearing on the question of whether the Organization was criminal in nature. The Court of
the Court will be entitled to request vyhověti or zamítnouti. If
request, the Court may be the way in which applicants will be
represented and heard.
If a group or organization of the Court of Justice declared criminal,
He will have the competent national authority of each of the signatory the right stíhati
individuals for membership before the national military or occupation
the courts. In any such case is seen as a criminal nature of the Group
or organization established and cannot be in doubt.
Anyone who has been convicted by the Court, may be accused before the national,
military or occupation by the Court, which is mentioned in article 10 of this
Of the Statute, from a different crime than from membership in a criminal group, or
work organization and such court may, after conviction, sentence him to an independent uložiti
the punishment that he has saved the Court for engaging in criminal activities
such a group or organization, and an additional penalty to such punishment.
The Court will have the right to set out to do proceedings against the person accused of
the crimes enumerated in article 6 of this Statute in her absence,
If not found, or if, for any reason, the Court finds
necessary in the interest of Justice to produce such a hearing in her absence.
The Court of Justice shall establish the rules according to which it will be in the management of postupovati.
These rules must not odporovati the provisions of this Statute.
The choir for the investigation and prosecution of major war criminals.
Each signatory shall designate a Chief Prosecutor to investigated allegations
against the main war criminals and prosecuted them.
The main claimants will be činni as a body for the following tasks:
and dohodnouti a plan) for the specific activities of each of the major
prosecutors and his staff;
(b) the final determination of the main permanent Alliance) war criminals, that the Court of
(c)) schváliti and an indictment of the Charter, which have to be submitted;
(d) administer the prosecution and of the Charter) attached thereto the Court of Justice;
e) sestaviti and doporučiti to the Court for approval to build
rules for the management, which has regard to article 13 of the present Statute.
The Court will be competent to rule in this way recommended, with or
without them, ye or zamítnouti.
The choir will be acting in all things according to the resolution of most of the above
and the President will appoint, as may be appropriate, and in conformity with the principle of
alternating, with the fact that in determining some of the accused to be
judged by the Court or when determining the crimes from which is to be
accused will be adopted if the votes are divided, the proposal made by the
the party has proposed that the defendant was tried, or that the
the charges were brought against him.
The main applicants will be individually and bulwarks in synergy
also set out to do the following tasks:
and, the circumstances and zjišťovati) předkládati, or at the front of the makeup,
all necessary evidence;
(b) the indictment for the approval of připravovati) by the College in accordance with paragraph (c)) article
14 of this Statute;
(c) all necessary vyslýchati) witnesses and defendants;
(d)) as the plaintiff in vystupovati version;
e) ustanovovati representative to comply with the obligations that would have been
f) podniknouti such other acts, they may seem necessary to
version was prepared and carried out.
Is the consensus that no witness or defendant, the detainee one
A signatory, will not be taken out of power without the consent of the Signatories.
A fair trial for defendants.
In order to ensure that the defendants will be tried fairly, will be
proceed as follows:
and the prosecution will obsahovati all) specific data, specifying in
details of the charges against the defendants. A copy of the indictment and all documents
submitted with the indictment, translated in a language they understand, they will be
the accused delivered within a reasonable time before the makeover.
(b) each time the preliminary hearing) of the accused or in version with it
He will have the defendant the right to administer any observations relevant for the
the charges against him.
(c) the accused and the preliminary hearing) version with him will be carried out in
language or translated into a language that the accused understands.
(d) the defendant he will have the right) not before the Court of Justice itself or
have a help Defender.
(e) the defendant he will have the right to) předkládati in version, alone or with his
advocate, the evidence in support of his defence, and set out to do cross-examination
all witnesses led by the indictment.
The Court's permission and guidance version.
The Court will be entitled to
and witnesses to the obesílati version) and insist on their presence and testimony and
organize them questions;
(b) each defendant, vyslýchati;)
(c)) shall require that the submitted documents and other důkazný material;
(d)) my witnesses to the oath;
e) ustanoviti officials to carry out all the tasks assigned to them, the Court of
the Court determines the permissions, however the evidence's carried out on command.
The Court of Justice
and strictly limits the version) quick hearing on the issues raised in the
as a result of the charges,
(b)) to take strict measures in order to avoid any action that would
cause disproportionate holdout and to avoid negotiations and přednesy
any kind of non-material matters,
(c)) will be acting in aggregate with every dripping with disdain to the Court by storing the appropriate
criminal records, among them the exclusion of the accused or his defence counsel from all
further proceedings or some of his section, but without prejudice to the findings of the
raised by the allegations.
The Court is not bound by any formal rules of movement. Shall establish a
quick and informal rules for the management, will set out to do what is in the range
the largest and most will admit any evidence, which will be domnívati that has
the accompanying value.
The Court may shall require to be informed about the nature of any evidence
before will be offered, in order to decide about its severity.
The Court shall require proof of the facts is not generally known, but will be
call for the Court is known. It will also call for the Court known
official government documents and reports of the United Nations, and with the resolutions and
documents of the committees, the dosazených in the various allied countries for
investigations of war crimes and the reports and findings of the military or other
the courts of any of the United Nations.
The permanent seat of the Court of Justice will be in Berlin. The first meeting of the members of the Court of
the Court and the main plaintiffs will be in Berlin at the location specified by the control
Council for Germany. The first version will be in Norimberce and any subsequent
version will be at such places as the Court decides.
With each version may účastniti on the side of the indictment, one of the main
the Prosecutor or even more of the main applicants. Each Chief Prosecutor may
zastávati its function in person or by a person or persons.
The function of the lawyer of the defendant may, at the request of the accused zastávati
any advocate with qualifications in matters vystupovati
litigation before the courts of their own country, or any other person you
to do this, the Court separately.
Control when the version he will have this progress:
and the Indictment will be read) before the Court.
(b)), the Court would each of the accused, whether they claim to be
"guilty" or "not guilty".
(c) the prosecution will have the opening).
(d)), the Court for the prosecution and the defence would, what evidence-if
some-they wish to předložiti the Court of Justice and shall decide on the admissibility of the
of such evidence.
(e)) will be questioned witnesses the prosecution witnesses for the defence and then. Then
can either the prosecution or the Defense lead such evidence that output
The Court recognizes limiting.
(f)), the Court may at any time debit any question each witness and
each of the accused.
(g) the prosecution and defence may) demand for the questions to all the witnesses and defendants,
who tell us, and put is cross-examined.
h) Defense he will have speech to the Court.
I) he will have speech Indictment to the Court.
(j) the accused may make) any theatre for the Court of Justice.
to the Court hands down a verdict) and declare the punishment.
All official documents will be submitted, and all judicial proceedings conducted
English, French and Russian and in the language of the accused. Also into the language
the country in which the Court sits, may be translated from the Protocol and of the
control what the Court considers it desirable for Justice and for the
Statement of guilt and punishment.
In article 26.
The Court's verdict on the guilt or innocence of each accused will
obsahovati the reasons on which it is based, will be final and will not be
subject to a review.
In article 27.
When sentencing, the Court will have the right to sentence the accused to uložiti
death or such other punishment, which according to its destination will be fair.
In addition to the penalty, which saves, the Court has the right to zbaviti convicted
all nakradeného assets and may make this asset has been handed in
Control Council for Germany.
When blame will be punishments carried out pursuant to orders of the Supervisory Board for the
Germany, which may at any time zmírniti or otherwise change the penalty, but
cannot have enhanced its severity. When the control Council for Germany, after
the conviction and punishment of any defendant, reveals new evidence
which in its opinion might založiti the new allegations against him,
shall report to the Council on the Control of the Corps, set up under article 14
This statute, to act as it deems appropriate to the interests of přihlížeje
The expenses of the Court and the proceedings will be Signatories to the debit of funds účtovati
allowed for the upkeep of the control Council for Germany.
Advertising with the expectation that an agreement within the meaning of article 29(3) thereof. 7 became effective
on 8 July 2006. August 1945.
Mr. president of the Republic has granted on 13 November. September 1945 consent to access
The Czechoslovak Republic to this agreement. Access To The Czechoslovak
the Republic was notified by Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Great Britain
and for the Czechoslovak Republic gained the agreement of the international force on
September 26, 1945.
Agreement are bound by the following States:
Australia (5.10.1945), Belgium (5.10.1945), Czechoslovakia (26.9.1945),
Denmark (10.9.1945), Ethiopie (9.10.1945), France (8.8.1945), Haiti
(3.11.1945), Honduras (17.10.1945), India (22.12.1945), Yugoslavia
(29.9.1945), Luxembourg (1.11.1945), the Netherlands (25.9.1945), Norway
(20.10.1945), New Zealand (19.11.1945), Panama (17.10.1945), Paraguay
(14.11.1945), Poland (1.10.1945), Greece (10.9.1945), United Kingdom
Of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (8.8.1945), United States
(8.8.1945), Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (8.8.1945),
Uruguay (11.12.1945), Venezuela (17.11.1945).
Masaryk in r.