Minister of Foreign Affairs of 16 November. June 1988 on the Convention on the limitation period
for the international sale of goods
On 14 June 2005. June 1974 was in New York adopted the Convention on the limitation period in the
international sale of goods.
On behalf of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic, the Convention was signed in
New York 29 May. August 1975.
With the Convention have expressed their approval of the Federal Assembly of the Czechoslovak
the President of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic and the Socialist
the Republic has ratified it. The ratification instrument was deposited with the
the Secretary-General of the United Nations, the depositary of the Convention,
on 26 April. May 1977.
Convention shall enter into force on the basis of its article 44 paragraph 1. 1 on 1 January 2000.
August 1988 and that the date of entry into force for the Czechoslovak
Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Czech translation of the Convention shall be published at the same time.
JUDr. Mr v.r.
on the limitation period in the international sale of goods
The Contracting States to this Convention,
having international trade as an important factor in the development of
friendly relations between States,
convinced that the adoption of a single edit effect
international sale of goods will facilitate the development of world trade, agreed
The subject of the edit
1. this Convention lays down, which may not be carried out reciprocal rights
buyer and the seller, arising from the contract for the international sale
goods, breach, termination or invalidity of its validity,
due to the expiry of the period. This period is referred to in this Convention, called
2. this Convention shall not affect the provisions relating to time limits, which may be
the right acquired or enforced only when one of the parties against the other
the notification from the side or legal action other than the start of a legal
3. Under this Convention
and the "buyer") and "seller" or "party" means the person to whom
buy or sell, or which agree to buy or sell goods,
and their successors to the rights and obligations arising from the purchase contract;
b) "creditor" means the party who asserts a right, no matter
whether it relates to the monetary or non-monetary benefit;
(c)) "debtor" means a party against whom a creditor exercises a right;
(d)) "breach of contract" means failure to comply with the contract or the performance of which is not
in accordance with the Treaty;
(e)) "legal proceedings" includes judicial, arbitral and administrative proceedings;
f) "person" includes a company, association or other legal entity,
whether private or public, which may sue or be sued;
g) "writing" includes telegram and telex;
h) "year" means the year according to the Gregorian calendar.
For the purposes of this Convention,
and the Treaty) for the international sale of goods is considered to be the sales contract between the
buyer and the seller, who at the time of conclusion of the contract are in place
business in the territory of different States;
(b)) to the fact that the parties have a place of business in different States is
not taken into account, if this fact is not apparent either from the contract or from the
negotiations between the parties or from the declarations made by the parties at any time
prior to the conclusion of the contract or it;
(c)) in cases where the party has a place of business in more than one
the State is a crucial place of business which has the closest relationship to the contract
and its implementation, taking into account the circumstances known or
intended by the Contracting Parties at the time of conclusion of the contract;
(d)) in cases where a party has no place of business, it is crucial
residence (registered office);
e) nepříhlíží to the nationality of the parties nor the fact, whether the parties
or a contract with a commercial nature.
1. this Convention applies only to
and if at the time of closure) of the Treaty, the place of business parties to the Treaty
international sale of goods are in Contracting States; or
b) If pursuant to the provisions of private international law to
use the agreement to acquire the rights of a Contracting State.
3. This Convention shall not apply where the use of the parties expressly
This Convention does not apply to the purchase of
and the goods being purchased) for personal use, the need for family or household
unless the seller before the contract or the conclusion of the
He did not know and did not even know that the item is bought for such purpose;
(b)) at auctions;
(c)) in the performance of the decision or directly from the law;
d) securities and money;
e) of ships, boats or aircraft; air-cushion vehicles
(f)) of electricity.
This Convention shall not apply to the rights arising
and death or bodily harm) on the health of a person;
(b)) of nuclear damage caused by the goods sold;
(c)) the lien or other right in rem collateral;
(d)) of the decision in the legal proceedings;
e) of the Charter, on the basis of which can be reached directly by the exercise of the rights
law of the place where such enforcement is sought;
(f)) of a bill of Exchange or cheque.
1. this Convention shall not apply to contracts in which the preponderant part of the
obligations of the seller refers to the provision of work or services.
2. contracts for the supply of goods to be manufactured or formulated,
they consider the purchase contract, unless the party who orders the goods,
undertakes to supply a substantial part of the goods required for their manufacture or
the making of.
In the interpretation and application of the provisions of this Convention shall take account of its
international character and to the need to promote while the single procedure.
The beginning and the duration of the limitation period
The limitation period shall be four years.
1. The period of limitation begins to run from the date when the law can be applied in the legal
the proceedings; the provisions of articles 10, 11 and 12 is not affected.
2. The beginning of the period of limitation does not scroll
and the determination to) party has sent the notification referred to in article 1
paragraph. 2, or
(b) the provisions of the arbitration agreement) that there will be no right before the release of
1. the right arising from a breach of contract can be applied in legal proceedings on the date
When the Treaty had been infringed.
2. the right of the defects of the goods can be invoked in legal proceedings on the date when the goods were
actually passed to the buyer, or where the goods offered to pass it
the buyers refused.
3. the right to protest against the fraud, or when closing
contract or during its performance, can be invoked in legal proceedings on the date
When the fraud was or could be due diligence revealed.
If the seller has provided expressly guarantee on goods sold,
valid after a period of time, whether the foreseen special notice or otherwise,
the limitation period begins to run on the rights arising from such
the commitment, the buyer shall inform the seller about the fact from which the right to
was created, but no later than the date on which the period for which they were
1. If there are circumstances in which, under the law applicable to the
the contract is one party shall be entitled to withdraw from the contract prior to the time
performance will become repayable, and makes use of this right, begins to run
the limitation period relating to rights that arose from such a fact,
the date when the party announced its withdrawal from the other side. If
does not withdraw from the contract prior to the time when performance becomes
payable, the limitation period begins to run from the date of its maturity.
2. the limitation period relating to the rights arising out of breach of contract, which
provides for partial delivery of goods or the payment of the purchase price is calculated from the
the relevant infringement of partially filling for each of them
in particular. Where, pursuant to the applicable law, either party is entitled to
withdraw from the contract for such an infringement of that right, and shall
limitation period in respect of all the relevant elements on the day
When a party has communicated to the other party that withdraws from the contract.
The building and the extension of the limitation period
The period of limitation ceases to run, when the creditor in order to meet or
the determination of its right to take any legal action that is deemed by the
law of the place of the Court for the institution of legal proceedings against the debtor or for
application of the law in such proceedings already initiated.
1. If the parties conclude an arbitration agreement, stop the limitation period
run, if either party initiates arbitral proceedings in the manner prescribed
in the arbitration agreement or pursuant to the law applicable to such proceedings.
2. If you cannot determine the beginning of the arbitration referred to in paragraph 1, the
the arbitration procedure to be initiated on the date on which the application of the law was to
decided in arbitration, is delivered to the other side to its offices
(place of residence), or place of business, or if it has its registered office (place of residence)
or place of business, to its last known business address (residence) or
the place of business.
In other legal proceedings other than as referred to in articles 13 and 14 stops
the limitation period begins to run when the lender applies in these proceedings of their
the right for the purpose of its determination, satisfaction or if something else
It does not follow from the law applicable to such proceedings. This adjustment applies
in particular, the legal proceedings initiated in connection
and death or disability) of the debtor;
(b)) with bankruptcy or insolvency that apply to all
the debtor's assets;
(c) the cancellation or disposal) of a company, association or other legal
the person who is the debtor.
For the purposes of articles 13, 14 and 15 shall be deemed to have legal effect, consisting in the
the application of the counterclaim for having been made at the time when the claim,
against which the counterclaim is directed, if both claim, counterclaim,
related to the same contract or several contracts concluded during the
the same trade.
1. When it has been exercised in the legal proceedings in the limitation period
in accordance with articles 13, 14, 15 or 16, but this ended without
decision on the merits, it is considered that the limitation period stopped
2. If, at the time of termination of such legal proceedings no longer limitation
period has expired, or if its the end of the year, there is less than
the limitation period is extended so that it will end no earlier than one year from the
the date on which legal proceedings ended.
1. the legal proceedings initiated against one debtor causes
stop limitation period against another debtor, who is
spoluvázán the hands of the joint and several, it shall inform the creditor
in writing of the commencement of proceedings before the expiry of the limitation period provided for
2. If a initiated proceedings against the purchaser by the buyer
purchased goods are sold, will the limitation period provided for in this
the Convention, as regards the rights of the buyer against the seller, if the
the buyer shall notify the seller in writing before the expiry of the limitation period
that was against him initiated that procedure.
3. If the proceedings referred to in paragraphs 1 and 2 of this article has ended, has
They considered that the limitation period is there mentioned continued to run, the Outbox
However, earlier than one year after the termination of this procedure.
If the creditor shall take on the territory of the State where the debtor has his place of business,
before the expiry of the limitation period other than the legal act referred to in articles
13, 14, 15 and 16 and if, under the law of that State, this operation is considered
the effect that the limitation period is over, a new time limit begins to run
four years after the time specified by this law.
1. If the debtor before the expiry of the limitation period to the creditor in writing your
commitment, new four-year limitation period runs from the date of such recognition.
2. the payment of interest or partial performance of an obligation by the debtor has the same effects
as the recognition referred to in paragraph 1 of this article, where it is reasonably
conclude that the debtor has acknowledged its commitment.
If the creditor cannot obtain the cessation of the limitation period for
circumstances which could not have avoided or overcome and which cannot be
attributable to the limitation period is extended for one year from the time when
the said circumstances ceased to exist.
Change the limitation period the parties
1. The limitation period and its effects cannot be modified by a declaration of the parties or
their agreement, except as provided for in paragraph 2 of this article.
2. the debtor may extend the limitation period at any time during the
a written declaration to the creditor. This statement can be repeated.
3. the provisions of this article shall not affect the validity of the clauses in the purchase
the Treaty, which provides that the arbitration proceedings must be instituted in
the shorter limitation period than that provided for in this Convention, provided that such
clause is valid under the law applicable to the contract of purchase.
The General restrictions of the limitation period
Notwithstanding the other provisions of this Convention, the limitation period expires
no later than ten years after the time when the began to run under articles 9, 10, 11 and
12 of this Convention.
The effects of the expiry of the limitation period
To the expiry of the limitation period shall be taken into account in the legal proceedings, only when the
It allows the party to this proceeding.
1. the right cannot be granted or recognised in any legal proceedings,
that was initiated after the end of the limitation period; the provisions of paragraph 2
This article and article 24 shall remain unaffected.
2. Notwithstanding the expiry of the limitation period, the party may rely on the
their rights in the defence or set-off against the right claimed
the other party, if
and both rights) are related to the same contract or several contracts
closed during the same trade, or
(b)) where the law could be used to offset at any time before the expiry of the
the limitation period.
If the debtor fulfills his obligation after the expiration of the limitation period, it is not
entitled to demand the return of what filled, even though he did not know at the time
the performance, that the limitation period has expired.
The effects of the expiry of the limitation period relating to the main undertaking
also apply to interest.
Counting of the limitation period
1. the limitation period shall be calculated so that at the end of the day, which marked
corresponds to the date on which the limitation period began to run. If there is no such date,
at the end of the limitation period ends on the last day of the last month of the limitation
the time limits.
2. the limitation period shall be calculated according to the date where is initiated legal
If the last day of the limitation period is an official holiday or a different day
of rest, which excludes the proper procedure in the legal proceedings, which
creditor initiated or in which it exercises its right under article 13, 14
or 15, the limitation period is extended so that it ends the day after the
public holiday or non-working day, when you can start legal proceedings
or to exercise the right.
For the purposes of this Convention, the legal acts and circumstances, subject to the
articles 13 to 19, which took place on the territory of a Contracting State,
have direct legal effect in another Contracting State if the creditor
has taken all reasonable measures to ensure that the debtor should be about them as soon as possible
shall be so informed.
Implementation of the Convention
1. any Contracting State which comprises two or more territorial units,
According to its Constitution, different systems of law apply in matters of
governed by this Convention, when signing, ratification or
access, declare that this Convention shall extend to all its territorial
units or only to one or more of them, and this statement
may at any time be complementary to any other statement.
2. this declaration shall be communicated to the Secretary-General of the Organization
the United Nations and shall state expressly the territorial units to which the
This Convention shall apply.
3. If a Contracting State referred to in paragraph 1 does not make any representations
at the signing, ratification or accession, this Convention will apply to the
the entire territory of that State.
4. If, on the basis of a declaration under this article, the Convention
apply to one or more territorial units of a Contracting State, but
not at all, and the place of business is in the territory of that State,
This place of business for the purposes of this Convention shall not be deemed to place
business in the territory of a Contracting State, unless it is located in the territorial
Unit to which this Convention applies.
If this Convention refers to the law of the State in which the different legal
schedules, it is considered, that refers to the rule of law, to which the link refers to.
Each Contracting State shall be governed by this Convention in respect of contracts concluded
on a day when he entered into force, the Convention or at a later time.
Declarations and reservations
1. two or more States, which have the same or very similar legal
adjustment of things, to which this Convention applies may at any time declare,
that the Convention does not apply to contracts of sale between the parties
they have a place of business in the territory of these States. Such declarations may be
taken jointly or by reciprocal unilateral declarations.
2. A Contracting State which has the same or a very similar law of things
to which this Convention applies, as one or more States
they are not a party to this Convention may at any time declare that this
the Convention shall not apply to contracts of sale between the parties, which have
place of business in the territory of these States.
3. If the State against which the statement was made in accordance with paragraph 2,
He later becomes a Contracting State, it will have this statement from the date of
towards new Contracting State, the Convention enters into force, the effects under the
paragraph 1, when the new Contracting State joins in such declaration
or will make a reciprocal unilateral declaration.
Any Contracting State may declare, when depositing its instrument of ratification,
or, when you access that this Convention does not apply to the application for invalidity
of the Treaty.
Any Contracting State may declare, when depositing its instrument of ratification,
or, when you access that is not bound by the provisions of article 24 of this Convention.
This Convention shall be without prejudice to any international agreement that has already been
or will be closed and which contains provisions concerning the Affairs of the
governed by this Convention, if the parties have a place of business in the territory of
the States which are parties to such agreements.
1. any State which is a Contracting Party to the international agreements in force
governing the international sale of goods, may declare when you save your
instrument of ratification, when it is accessed, it will be bound by the Convention, only if
contracts for the international sale of goods, as defined by such
a valid international treaty.
2. this declaration shall cease to have force on the first day of the first month following the
the expiry of 12 months from the entry into force of the new Convention on the international
sale of goods, concluded under the auspices of the United Nations.
Any other winnings than referred to in articles 34, 35, 36 and 38 of this Convention is not
1. Declarations made under this Convention shall be notified to the
the Secretary-General of the United Nations and will be effective on the date of
Convention enters into force for the State making the Declaration. The Declaration
made later will be effective the first day of the first month following the
the expiry of six months from the date on which it was delivered to the
the Secretary-General of the United Nations. Reciprocal unilateral
declarations made under article 34 shall be effective the first day of
of the month following the expiration of six months from the date on which the General
the Secretary-General of the United Nations has received the last statement.
2. any State which makes a declaration under this Convention may be
at any time, cancel the notification thus made by the Secretary-General of the Organization of the
of the United Nations. This cancellation shall be effective on the first day of the first
month following the expiration of six months after the date on which the notification was communicated to the
the Secretary-General of the United Nations. When you cancel
Declaration made under article 34 becomes invalid the effectiveness
This cancellation of the Declaration made by another State under this
This Convention may be signed by any State at the headquarters of the Organization
the United Nations until 31 December 2006. December 1975.
This Convention is subject to ratification. The instruments of ratification shall be deposited with
the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
May accede to this Convention, any State. The instrument of accession shall be
deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
1. this Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the first month after the end
six months from the date on which it will be saved the tenth instrument of ratification or
2. for each State which ratifies this Convention or accedes thereto after the
deposit of the 10th instrument of ratification or accession, the Convention shall enter in the
into force on the first day of the first month after the expiry of six months from the date of
deposit of the instrument of ratification or accession of that State.
1. Any Contracting State may denounce this Convention, provided that
shall inform the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
2. The denunciation shall have the effectiveness of the first day of the first month after the expiry of 12
months after the date on which the notice was delivered to the Secretary-General
Of the United Nations.
The original copy of this Convention, of which the English, Chinese, French,
Russian and Spanish versions have the same validity, will be deposited with the
Secretary-General of the United Nations.