Act 461 1998

Original Language Title: LEY 461 de 1998

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ACT 461 OF 1998
(August 4)
Official Gazette No. 43,360, of 11 August 1998
Through which the "United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification was adopted in countries experiencing serious drought or desertification, particularly in Africa "made in Paris the seventeen (17) June in 1994 (1994). Summary

Term Notes
THE CONGRESS OF COLOMBIA
having regard to the text of the "United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those countries experiencing serious drought or desertification, particularly in Africa" ​​made in Paris the seventeen (17) June in 1994 (1994) which reads:
(to be transliterated: photocopy of the full text of that instrument, duly authenticated by the Head of the Legal Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs is attached) .
®Convención United Nations to combat desertification in countries experiencing serious drought or desertification, particularly in Africa
The Parties to this Convention,
Affirming that human beings in affected areas or threatened are at the center of concerns to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought,
echoing the urgent concern of the international community, including States and international organizations for the purposes harmful desertification and drought,
Aware that arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas represent a considerable proportion of the surface of the earth and are the habitat and source of livelihood for a large part of the world population,
Acknowledging that desertification and drought are problems of global dimension in that they affect all regions of the world, and that is necessary for the international community to take joint measures to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought
Noting the high concentration of developing countries, especially least developed countries, among countries experiencing serious drought or desertification, and the particularly tragic consequences of these phenomena in Africa, || | Noting also that desertification is caused by complex interactions of physical, social, cultural and economic factors, biological, political,
Considering the impact of trade and relevant aspects of international economic relations on the ability of affected countries to effectively combat desertification,
Conscious that sustainable economic growth, social development and poverty eradication are priorities of affected developing countries, particularly in Africa, and are essential to achieve the goals of sustainable development,
Aware that desertification and drought affect sustainable development in the relationship with important social, such as poverty, poor health and nutrition problems, lack of security food and problems arising from migration, displacement of persons and demographic dynamics,
Appreciating the importance of the efforts made and the experience gained by States and international organizations in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, particularly in implementing the Plan of Action of the United Nations Convention to combat desertification, which originated in the United Nations Conference on desertification 1977
Noting that, despite efforts, have not made the expected progress in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, and that it is necessary to adopt a new and more effective at all levels approach within the framework of sustainable development,
Recognizing the validity and relevance of decisions adopted at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, particularly of Agenda 21 and its chapter 12, which provide a basis for combating desertification, || | Reaffirming the light of the above, the commitments of developed countries as contained in paragraph 13 of chapter 33 of Agenda 21,
Recalling Resolution 47/188 of the General Assembly and, in particular, the priority in she is assigned to Africa, and all other relevant resolutions, decisions and programs of the United Nations on desertification and drought, as well as the statements made in this regard by the countries of Africa and other regions,

Reaffirming the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development in its Principle 2 states that, in accordance with the United Nations Charter and the principles of international law, states have the sovereign right to exploit their own resources according to their environmental policies and development, and the responsibility to ensure that activities within their jurisdiction or control do not cause damage to the environment of other States or of areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction, || | Recognizing that the governments of the countries play a key role in efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought and that progress made in this regard depend on action programs are implemented locally affected areas
Recognizing also the importance and necessity of international cooperation and partnership in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought,
further recognizing the importance of the provision to developing countries affected, particularly those in Africa, of effective means, including substantial financial resources, including new and additional resources, and access to technology, without which it will be difficult to comply fully with its obligations under this Convention,
concerned by the impact of desertification and drought on affected countries in Central Asia and the Transcaucasus,
Stressing the important role played by women in regions affected by desertification and drought, particularly in rural areas of the developing countries, and the importance of ensuring at all levels full participation of men and women in programs to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought,
Emphasizing the special role of the NGOs and other major groups in programs to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought,
Bearing in mind the relationship between desertification and other environmental problems of global dimension facing the international community and national communities
Bearing in mind also that combating desertification can contribute to achieving the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, the Framework Convention of the United Nations on climate change and other environmental conventions, Deeming
that strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought will be most effective if they are based on sound systematic observation and rigorous scientific knowledge and if they are subject to continuous evaluation,
Recognizing the urgent need to improve efficiency and coordination of international cooperation to facilitate the implementation of national plans and priorities,
Determined to adopt and appropriate action to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought for the benefit of future generations measures ,
have agreed as follows: PART I.


INTRODUCTION ARTICLE 1o. TERMS USED. For the purposes of this Convention:
a) "desertification" means land degradation in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid areas resulting from various factors, including climatic variations and human activities;
B) "combating desertification" includes activities which are part of an integrated land in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid areas for sustainable development and aim to use:
i) the prevention or reduction of land degradation,
ii) rehabilitation of partly degraded land, and
iii) reclamation of desertified land;
C) "drought" means the naturally occurring phenomenon when precipitation has been significantly below normal recorded levels, causing serious hydrological imbalances that adversely affect production systems land resources;
D) "mitigating the effects of drought" activities related to the prediction of drought and intended to reduce the vulnerability of society and natural systems to drought means as it relates to the fight against desertification;
E) "land" the terrestrial bio-productive system that comprises soil, vegetation, other biota, and the ecological and hydrological processes that operate within the system means;

F) "land degradation" means reduction or loss of biological or economic productivity and complexity of rainfed farmland, farmland, irrigation or pastures, rangelands, forests and woodlands, caused, in arid, semi-arid and sub-humid by systems land use or a process or combination of processes, including those resulting from human activities and habitation patterns, such as: | || i) soil erosion caused by wind or water,
ii) deterioration of the physical, chemical and biological or economic properties of soil properties, and
iii) the lasting loss of vegetation natural;
G) "arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid" means areas where the ratio of annual precipitation and potential evapotranspiration is between 0.05 and 0.65, excluding polar and sub-polar regions;
H) "affected areas" arid, semi-arid or dry sub-humid areas affected or threatened by means desertification;
I) "affected countries" means countries whose lands include, in whole or in part, affected areas;
J) "Regional economic integration organization" means an organization constituted by sovereign States of a given region which has competence to address issues which this Convention applies and has been duly authorized, in accordance with their means internal procedures, to sign, ratify, accept, approve the Convention and adhere to it;
K) "developed country Parties" means developed country Parties and regional economic integration organizations constituted by developed countries.
Article 2.
. OBJECTIVE.
1. The objective of this Convention is to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought in countries experiencing serious drought or desertification, particularly in Africa, through effective action at all levels, supported by cooperation agreements and international association within the framework of an integrated program in line with the 21 to contribute to the achievement of sustainable development in affected areas approach.
2. Achieving this objective will in the affected areas of long-term integrated strategies that focus on improved productivity of lands, rehabilitation, conservation and sustainable use of land resources and water resources, all with a view to improving living conditions, especially at the community level.

ARTICLE 3o. BEGINNING. To achieve the objectives of this Convention and to implement its provisions, the parties shall be guided, inter alia, by the following principles:
a) The parties should ensure that decisions relating to the development and implementation of control programs desertification and mitigating the effects of drought are taken with the participation of the population and local communities and, at higher levels, an enabling environment to facilitate action at national and local levels is believed;
B) The Parties, in a spirit of international solidarity and partnership, improve cooperation and coordination at subregional, regional and international levels, and better focus, human, financial resources and technical organization where needed;
C) Parties should develop, in a spirit of partnership, cooperation among all levels of government, communities, non-governmental organizations and land users, in order to better understand the character and value of land resources and scarce water resources in affected areas and promote sustainable use of natural resources, and
d) the parties should take full account of the needs and special circumstances of affected developing countries which they are parties, in particular the least developed countries.
PART II. GENERAL PROVISIONS

ARTICLE 4.
. GENERAL OBLIGATIONS.
1. The Parties shall implement their obligations under this individually or jointly Convention through established multilateral and bilateral agreements or planned to establish, or each other, as appropriate, emphasizing the need to coordinate efforts and develop a coherent long-term strategy at all levels.
2. To achieve the objective of this Convention, the Parties:
a) adopt an integrated approach addressing the physical, biological and socioeconomic aspects of desertification and drought are taken into account;

B) give due attention, within the framework of relevant international and regional bodies, to the situation of affected developing country Parties with regard to international trade, marketing arrangements and debt with a view to establishing an enabling environment to promote sustainable development international economic environment;
C) integrate strategies to eradicate poverty in their efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;
D) Promote among the affected country Parties cooperation on environmental protection and resource conservation land and water resources, to the extent that it relates to desertification and drought;
E) strengthen subregional, regional and international cooperation;
F) cooperate within relevant intergovernmental organizations;
G) determine institutional mechanisms, as appropriate, taking into account the need to avoid duplication, and
h) Promote the use of existing financial mechanisms and bilateral and multilateral arrangements that mobilize and channel financial resources || | substantial to affected developing country Parties to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought.
3. The affected developing country Parties are eligible for assistance in the implementation of the Convention.

The 5th ARTICLE. OBLIGATIONS OF PARTIES AFFECTED COUNTRIES. . In addition to the obligations under the 4th article, affected country Parties undertake to:
a) give due priority to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, and allocate adequate resources according to their circumstances and capabilities;
B) Establish strategies and priorities, within the framework of their national plans and policies for sustainable development, for the purpose of combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought;
C) address the underlying causes of desertification and pay special attention to socio-economic factors contributing to desertification processes;
D) promote awareness and facilitate the participation of local populations, particularly women and young people with the support of non-governmental organizations, in efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, and | || e) Create an enabling environment, as appropriate, by strengthening the relevant legislation and, if it does not exist, enacting new laws and the establishment of policies and action programs in the long term.
ARTICLE 6.
. OBLIGATIONS OF DEVELOPED COUNTRY PARTIES. . In addition to the general obligations under the 4th article, developed country Parties undertake to:
a) actively support, as agreed individually or jointly, the efforts of affected developing country Parties, particularly Africa and the least developed countries, to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;
B) provide substantial financial resources and other forms of support to assist affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, effectively to develop and implement their own plans and long-term strategies to combat desertification and mitigating the effects of drought:
c) promote the mobilization of new and additional financial resources in accordance with paragraph b) of paragraph 2 of Article 20;
D) Encourage the mobilization of financial resources from the private sector and other non-governmental sources; and
e) promote and facilitate access by affected country Parties, particularly affected developing country Parties, technology, knowledge and the appropriate experience.

Article 7. PRIORITY FOR AFRICA. In implementing this Convention, the Parties shall give priority to affected African country Parties, taking into account the particular situation prevailing in that region, while not neglecting affected country Parties in other regions.
ARTICLE 8.
. RELATIONSHIP WITH OTHER CONVENTIONS.

1. Parties shall encourage the coordination of activities carried out under this Convention and in the event that are Parties to them, under other relevant international agreements, including the Framework Convention of the United Nations Climate change and the Convention on Biological Diversity, in order to obtain the greatest possible benefits of the activities undertaken under each agreement while avoiding duplication of efforts. The Parties shall encourage the implementation of joint programs, particularly in research, training, systematic observation and information collection and exchange, to the extent that such activities may contribute to achieving the objectives of the agreements concerned.
2. The provisions of this Convention shall not affect the rights and obligations of the Parties under bilateral, regional or international agreements entered into prior to the entry into force of this Convention them.
PART III.
ACTION PROGRAMMES, SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION AND SUPPORTING MEASURES Section 1


ACTION PROGRAMMES
Article 9. BASIC APPROACH.
1. In compliance with the obligations under article 5., Countries affected developing and any other affected country Party in the framework of regional implementation annex concerned or which has notified in writing to the Permanent Secretariat intends to prepare a program national action, develop, will inform the public and implement national action programs, building to the extent possible plans and programs that have already been successfully implemented and, where appropriate, programs of subregional and regional action, as central element of the strategy to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. Such programs shall be updated through a continuing participatory process on the basis of practical experience and research results. The preparation of national action programs shall be closely interlinked with other efforts to formulate national policies for sustainable development.
2. In the various forms of assistance provided by developed country Parties under Article 6., Priority support will be allocated, as agreed programs of national, subregional and regional action by countries affected developing, particularly Africa, either directly or through relevant, or both multilateral organizations.
3. The Parties shall encourage organs, funds and programs of the United Nations and other relevant intergovernmental organizations, academic institutions, the scientific community and non-governmental organizations in a position to cooperate, in accordance with its mandate and capabilities , to support the development, implementation and monitoring of action programs.
ARTICLE 10.
national action programs.
1. The purpose of national action programs is to identify the factors contributing to desertification and practical measures necessary to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought.
2. National action programs shall specify the respective roles of government, local communities and land users and the resources available and necessary. Among other things, the national action programs:
a) incorporate long-term strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, emphasize the aspect of implementation and be integrated with national policies for sustainable development;
B) take into account the possibility of introducing modifications in response to changing circumstances and be sufficiently flexible at the local level to cope with different socio-economic, biological and geophysical conditions;
C) Pay special attention to the implementation of preventive measures for lands that are not yet degraded or only slightly degraded;
D) enhance national capacity in climatology, meteorology and hydrology and means of establishing an early warning system of drought;
E) promote policies and strengthen institutional frameworks to foster cooperation and coordination, in a spirit of partnership, between the donor community, governments at all levels, local populations and community groups, and facilitate access of local populations to appropriate information and technology;

F) provide for effective participation at local, national and regional levels of non-governmental organizations and local populations, both women and men, particularly resource users, including farmers and pastoralists and their representative organizations in policy planning, decision-making, implementation and review of national action programs, and
g) require regular review of their implementation and reporting on progress.
3. National action programs may include, inter alia, some of the following measures drought preparedness and mitigation:
a) The establishment and / or strengthening of early warning systems, as appropriate, including local and national facilities and a common subregional and regional levels, and mechanisms for assisting people displaced for ecological reasons;
B) Strengthening preparedness and management practices for drought, including plans to address the contingencies of drought at the local, national, subregional and regional levels, which take into account both seasonal forecasts as interannual climate;
C) The establishment and / or strengthening, as appropriate, of food security systems, including storage and marketing facilities, particularly in rural areas;
D) The introduction of projects promoting alternative livelihoods that could provide incomes in drought prone areas, and
e) development of sustainable irrigation programs for both crops and livestock.
4. Given the circumstances and specific to each affected country Parties needs, national action programs include, inter alia, as appropriate, measures in some of the following priority areas, or in all of them, as they relate to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought in affected areas and to their populations: promotion of alternative livelihoods and improvement of national economic environment to strengthen programs aimed at eradicating poverty, security food, population dynamics, sustainable management of natural resources, sustainable agricultural practices, development and efficient use of diverse energy sources, the creation of institutional and legal frameworks, capacity building for assessment and systematic observation, including hydrological and meteorological services, and capacity building, education and public awareness.
ARTICLE 11. PROGRAMMES
subregional and regional action. Affected country Parties shall consult and cooperate to prepare, as appropriate, in accordance with relevant regional implementation annexes, subregional or regional programs of action in order to harmonize and complement national programs and increase their effectiveness. The provisions of Article 10 shall apply mutatis mutandis to subregional and regional programs. Such cooperation includes assemblies agreed for the sustainable management of transboundary natural resources, scientific and technical cooperation and the strengthening of relevant institutions.

ARTICLE 12. INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION. Affected country Parties, in collaboration with other Parties and with the international community, should cooperate to ensure the promotion of an enabling international environment for the implementation of the Convention. Such cooperation should also cover fields of technology transfer as well as scientific research and development, information collection and distribution of financial resources.

ARTICLE 13. ASSISTANCE FOR DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTION PROGRAMMES.
1. Among the measures to support action programs pursuant to article 9 include the following:
a) Establish a financial cooperation to provide predictability for action programs and allow for necessary long-term planning;
B) Develop and use mechanisms of cooperation to provide more effective support at the local level, including through non-governmental organizations, to ensure the possibility of repeating, where appropriate, the activities of the pilot programs they have succeeded;
C) Increase flexibility of design, financing and implementation of projects in a manner consistent with the experimental, iterative approach indicated for the involvement of local communities, and

D) Establish, as appropriate, administrative and budgetary procedures that increase the efficiency of cooperation programs and support.
2. In providing such support to affected developing country Parties, priority will be given to African country Parties and least developed countries.

Article 14. COORDINATION IN THE PREPARATION AND IMPLEMENTATION OF ACTION PROGRAMMES.
1. The Parties shall work closely together, either directly or through relevant intergovernmental organizations, in the development and implementation of action programs.
2. The Parties shall develop operational mechanisms, particularly at national and local level, to ensure the fullest possible coordination among developed country Parties, developing country Parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, in order to avoid duplication, harmonize interventions and criteria and make the most of the assistance. priority will be given to coordinating activities related to international cooperation in order to use resources with maximum efficiency activities in countries affected developing, ensure that the assistance is well targeted and facilitate the implementation of national plans and priorities under this Convention.
ARTICLE 15.
regional implementation annexes. elements will be selected for incorporation in action programs and adapted according to their own socioeconomic, geographic and climatic factors affected country Parties or regions, as well as their level of development. The guidelines for preparation of action programs and their exact focus and content with respect to certain subregions and regions are set out in the regional implementation annexes. SECTION 2.


SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNICAL COOPERATION
ARTICLE 16. REUNION AND EXCHANGE OF INFORMATION. The Parties agree, according to their respective capabilities, to integrate and coordinate the collection, analysis and exchange of relevant data and information, both short and long term, to ensure systematic observation of land degradation in affected areas and understand better and assess the processes and effects of drought and desertification. This will help to achieve, among other things, an early warning and advance planning for periods of adverse climatic variations, so that users at all levels, including especially local populations could make practical use of these knowledge. To this end, as appropriate:
a) facilitate and strengthen the functioning of the global network of institutions and facilities for the collection, analysis and exchange of information and systematic observation at all levels, inter alia:
i) aim to use compatible standards and systems,
ii) encompass relevant data and stations, including in remote areas,
iii) use and disseminate collection, transmission and data evaluation modern technology on land degradation, and
iv) establish closer links between data centers and national, subregional and regional information and global information sources;
B) Ensure that the collection, analysis and exchange of information address the needs of local communities and those of decision makers, in order to solve specific problems, and that local communities are involved in these activities ;
C) support and further bilateral and multilateral programs and projects aimed at defining, conducting, assessing and financing the collection, analysis and exchange of data and information, among which include, inter alia, integrated physical, biological, social and economic indicators series;
D) make full use of the expertise of competent intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, especially in order to disseminate relevant information and experience among relevant target groups in different regions;
E) give full weight to the collection, analysis and exchange of socio-economic data and their integration with physical and biological data;
F) Exchange information from all publicly available sources relevant to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought and require that this information is full, open and readily affordable, and

G) In accordance with their respective laws or policies, exchange information on local and traditional knowledge, ensuring adequate protection and ensuring local populations concerned appropriate return from the benefits derived from it, on an equitable basis and mutually agreed terms.

ARTICLE 17. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT.
1. The Parties undertake to promote, according to their respective capabilities and through the competent national, subregional, regional and international institutions, technical and scientific cooperation in the field of combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought.
To that end, they shall support research activities that:
a) contribute to increased knowledge of the processes leading to desertification and drought and the impact and specificity of natural factors and human They cause these phenomena, in order to combat desertification, improve productivity and ensure sustainable use and management of resources;
B) respond to well defined objectives, address the specific needs of local populations and to identify and implement solutions that improve the living standards of people living in the affected areas;
C) protect, integrate, enhance and validate the knowledge, experience and traditional and local practices, ensuring, subject to their respective laws and national policies, the owners of that knowledge will directly benefit in the form equitable and mutually agreed terms from any commercial utilization of them or from any technological development derived from that knowledge;
D) Develop and strengthen the capacities of national, subregional and regional research in affected developing country Parties, particularly in Africa, including the development of local skills and the strengthening of appropriate capacities, especially in countries with research base is weak, with special attention to socio-economic research, multidisciplinary and based on participation;
E) take into account, where relevant, the relationship between poverty, migration caused by environmental factors, and desertification;
F) promote the conduct of joint research programs between agencies national, subregional, regional and international research, both public and private sector for the development of improved, affordable and accessible technologies for sustainable development through effective participation of populations and local communities, and
g) Promote water resources in affected areas, including through cloud seeding.
2. In the action programs should include research priorities for particular regions and subregions, priorities that reflect different local conditions. The Conference of the Parties shall review research priorities, on the recommendation of the Committee on Science and Technology.

ARTICLE 18. TRANSFER, ACQUISITION, ADAPTATION AND DEVELOPMENT OF TECHNOLOGY.
1. The Parties undertake to promote, finance and / or help fund, as agreed by mutual agreement and in accordance with their respective laws and / or policies, transfer, acquisition, adaptation and development of environmentally sound, economically viable and socially acceptable to combat desertification and / or mitigating the effects of drought, with a view to contributing to sustainable development in affected areas. Such cooperation shall be conducted bilaterally or multilaterally, as appropriate, making full use of specialized
intergovernmental and non-governmental knowledge. In particular, the Parties:
a) fully utilize relevant information systems and clearinghouses national, subregional, regional and international existing to disseminate information on technologies available data and their sources, their environmental risks and the general conditions that may be acquired;

B) facilitate access, in particular affected developing country Parties, on favorable terms, including on concessional and preferential terms, as mutually agreed, taking into account the need to protect intellectual property rights, to technologies most suitable from the point of view of its practical application to meet the specific needs of local populations, paying special attention to the social, cultural, economic and environmental impact of such technologies;
C) facilitate technology cooperation among affected country Parties through financial assistance or other appropriate means;
D) Haran extend technology cooperation with affected developing country Parties, including, where appropriate, joint ventures, especially to sectors which foster alternative livelihoods, and
e) take appropriate measures to create domestic market conditions and fiscal or otherwise, conducive to the development incentives, transfer, acquisition and adaptation of technology, knowledge, experience and practices, including measures to ensure adequate and effective protection of intellectual property rights.
2. In accordance with their respective capabilities, and subject to their respective laws and / or national policies, protect, promote and use in particular technologies, knowledge, experience and relevant traditional and local practices. To this end, the Parties undertake:
a) Make inventories of such technology, knowledge, experience and practices and their potential uses with the participation of local populations, and disseminate information on the subject in cooperation, where appropriate, with relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations;
B) Ensure that such technology, knowledge, experience and practices are adequately protected and that local populations benefit directly, fairly and as mutually agreed, from any commercial use made of them or any technological development derived therefrom;
C) encourage and actively support the improvement and dissemination of such technology, knowledge, experiences and practices, or the development of new technologies based on them, and
d) Facilitate, where appropriate, the adaptation of these technology, knowledge, experience and practices to wide use and integrate, as appropriate, with modern technology. SECTION 3.


SUPPORT MEASURES
ARTICLE 19. PROMOTION OF CAPACITIES, EDUCATION AND PUBLIC AWARENESS.
1. The Parties recognize the importance of capacity building, that is, institutional development, training and expansion of local and national capacities for efforts to combat desertification and drought mitigation. The Parties shall promote these capacities, as appropriate, by:
a) The full participation of the population at all levels, especially at the local level, especially women and youth, with the cooperation of non-governmental organizations and local;
B) Strengthening the capacity of training and research at national level in the field of desertification and drought;
C) The establishment and / or strengthening support and extension services in order to more effectively disseminate relevant technology methods and techniques, and by training agricultural extension agents and members of rural organizations so that they can applying participatory approaches to conservation and sustainable use of natural resources;
D) Encouraging the use and dissemination of knowledge, experience and practices of local people in technical cooperation programs where possible;
E) adaptation where necessary, relevant environmentally sound technology and traditional methods of agriculture and pastoralism to modern socio-economic conditions;
F) Providing appropriate training and technology for the use of alternative energy sources, particularly renewable energy resources, particularly in order to reduce dependence on wood for fuel;
G) cooperation, as mutually agreed, to strengthen the capacity of affected developing country Parties to develop and implement programs in the field of collection, analysis and exchange of information in accordance with Article 16;
H) innovative ways of promoting alternative livelihoods, including training in new skills;

I) The training of management and administration as well as personnel responsible for the collection and analysis of data, dissemination and use of early warning information on drought conditions and food production;
J) more effective operation of existing national institutions and legal structures and, where appropriate, by creating new ones, as well as the strengthening of strategic planning and management; and
k) exchange visitor programs to enhance capacity building in affected country Parties through an interactive process of teaching and learning in the long term.
2. Countries affected developing carried out in cooperation with other Parties, intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations, as appropriate, an interdisciplinary review of available capacity and facilities at the local and national level as well as the possibilities of strengthen them.
3. The Parties shall cooperate with each other and through competent intergovernmental organizations, as well as non-governmental organizations, in order to initiate and support programs of public awareness and education in the countries concerned and, where appropriate, in unaffected country Parties, to promote understanding of the causes and effects of desertification and drought and of the importance of achieving the objectives of this Convention. To this end:
a) target awareness campaigns aimed at the general public;
B) Promote permanent public access to relevant information as well as a wide public participation in education and awareness activities;
C) Encourage the establishment of associations that contribute to public awareness;
D) develop and exchange material, where possible in local languages, to provide education and public awareness, exchange and second experts to train personnel of affected developing country Parties so that they can apply appropriate programs education and awareness, and fully utilize relevant educational material available in competent international bodies;
E) assess educational needs in affected areas, elaborate appropriate school curricula and expand, as needed, educational programs and basic adult literacy and access opportunities for all, especially for young people and women, on the identification, conservation, sustainable use and management of natural resources in the affected areas, and
f) develop interdisciplinary programs based on participation integrate awareness on desertification and drought in education systems, as well as in non-formal education programs, adult, distance and practical.
4. The Conference of the Parties shall establish and / or strengthen networks of regional education and training centers to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. Coordination of these networks will be undertaken by an institution created or designated for that purpose, in order to train scientific, technical, and administrative and strengthen the institutions responsible for education and training in affected country Parties, as appropriate, with a view to harmonizing programs and exchange of experience between them. These networks shall cooperate closely with intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations to avoid duplication of efforts.

ARTICLE 20. FINANCIAL RESOURCES.
1. Given the central importance of financing to achieve the objective of the Convention, the Parties, taking into account their capabilities, shall make every effort to ensure that there are sufficient financial resources for programs to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought.
2. To this end, developed country Parties, while giving priority to affected African country Parties without neglecting the affected developing country Parties in other regions, in accordance with article 7, undertake to:.
A) Mobilize financial resources substantial, including as grants and concessional loans, to support the implementation of programs to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought;

B) promote the mobilization of adequate, timely and predictable financial resources, including new and additional resources from the Fund for Global Environment for incremental costs of activities to combat desertification related to its four main areas of action, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the instrument by which the Fund was established;
C) facilitate through international cooperation the transfer of technology, knowledge and experience, and
d) Investigate, in cooperation with affected developing country Parties, innovative methods and incentives for mobilizing and channeling resources, including from foundations, non-governmental organizations and other private sector entities, particularly debt swaps and other innovative means which increase financing by reducing the burden of external debt of countries affected developing, particularly from Africa.
3. The affected developing country Parties, taking into account their capabilities, undertake to mobilize adequate financial resources for the implementation of their national action programs.
4. In mobilizing financial resources, the Parties shall seek full use and qualitative improvement of all sources and mechanisms of national, bilateral and multilateral funding, using consortia, joint programs and parallel financing, and seek to involve sources and mechanisms of funding from the private sector, including those of non-governmental organizations. To this end, the Parties shall fully utilize the operational mechanisms established under Article 14
5. In order to mobilize the necessary financial resources for countries affected developing Parties to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought, the Parties:
a) rationalize and strengthen the management of resources already allocated to fight desertification and mitigating the effects of drought by using them more effectively and efficiently, assessing their successes and shortcomings, removing hindrances to their effective use and reorienting programs in light of the criteria, if necessary, integrated and long-term adopted in implementation of this Convention;
B) In the field of the governing bodies of institutions and multilateral funds and financial services, including banks and regional development funds will give due priority and give due attention to supporting affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, to carry out activities to facilitate the implementation of the Convention, notably action programs they undertake in the framework of regional implementation annexes, and
c) examine ways to strengthen regional and subregional cooperation to support efforts undertaken at the national level.
6. It encourages other Parties to provide, on a voluntary basis, knowledge, experience and relating to desertification and / or financial resources to affected developing country Parties resources techniques.
7. The full implementation by the countries affected developing, particularly those in Africa, of their obligations under the Convention will be greatly assisted by the fulfillment by developed country Parties of their obligations under the Convention, including in particular those relating to financial resources and technology transfer. Developed country Parties should take fully into account in the fulfillment of its obligations that economic and social development and poverty eradication are the first priorities of affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa.

ARTICLE 21. FINANCIAL MECHANISMS.
1. The Conference of the Parties shall promote the availability of financial mechanisms and shall encourage such mechanisms to seek to increase as much as possible the availability of funding for countries affected developing Parties, particularly those in Africa, to implement the Convention. To this end, the Conference of the Parties shall consider for adoption inter alia approaches and policies that:
a) To facilitate the provision of necessary funding at the national, subregional, regional and global levels, for activities carried out in compliance with the relevant provisions of the Convention;
B) Promote approaches, mechanisms and financing arrangements based on multiple sources, and their assessment, consistent with the provisions of Article 20;

C) Provide regularly to interested Parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, information on available sources of funds and on funding patterns in order to facilitate coordination among them;
D) facilitate the establishment, as appropriate, mechanisms such as national funds to combat desertification, including those involving the participation of non-governmental organizations, to channel quickly and efficiently, financial resources to the local level in affected developing country Parties, and
e) strengthen existing funds and financial mechanisms at the subregional and regional levels, particularly in Africa, to support more effectively the implementation of the Convention.
2. The Conference of the Parties will also encourage, through various mechanisms of the United Nations and through multilateral funding institutions, support for national, subregional and regional levels to activities that enable developing country Parties fulfill their obligations under the Convention.
3. The affected developing country Parties shall utilize, and where necessary, establish and / or strengthen national coordinating mechanisms integrated in national development programs that ensure the efficient use of all available financial resources. They shall also utilize participatory processes, involving non-governmental organizations, local groups and the private sector to raise funds, develop and implement programs and ensure that local groups have access to finance. These actions can be enhanced by improved coordination and flexible programming on the part of those providing assistance.
4. In order to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of existing financial mechanisms, by a Global Mechanism to promote actions leading to mobilization and channeling country Parties of substantial financial resources, including technology transfer it is established on the based grants and / or loans on favorable terms or other terms. This Global Mechanism shall function under the direction and guidance of the Conference of the Parties and be accountable to it.
5. At its first regular session, the Conference of the Parties shall identify the entity that is to be host of the Global Mechanism.
The Conference of the Parties and the organization it has identified shall agree upon modalities to ensure inter alia, that the GM:
a) Identify and inventory of relevant bilateral and multilateral programs of cooperation which it provides for the implementation of the Convention;
B) Provide advice to Parties, upon request, with respect to innovative methods of financing and sources of financial assistance and how to improve the coordination of cooperation activities at the national level;
C) provides interested Parties and relevant intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations information on available sources of funds and on funding patterns in order to facilitate coordination among them; and
d) Report on its activities to the Conference of the Parties from its second regular session.
6. At its first session, the Conference of the Parties shall adopt with the organization it has identified as host organization of the GM, appropriate for the administrative operations of such Mechanism, based, where possible, of budgetary resources and existing human resources.
7. In its third regular session, the Conference of the Parties review the policies, operational modalities and activities of the GM accountable to it pursuant to paragraph 4o., Taking into account the provisions of Article 7. Based on this examination shall consider and take appropriate action.
PART IV. INSTITUTIONS


ARTICLE 22. CONFERENCE OF THE PARTIES.
1. It is hereby established a Conference of the Parties.
2. The COP is the supreme body of the Convention and, within its mandate, adopt necessary to promote its effective implementation. In particular, the Conference of the Parties:
a) regularly review the implementation of the Convention and institutional light of the experience gained at the national, subregional, regional and international agreements and on the basis of the evolution of scientific and technological knowledge;

B) Promote and facilitate the exchange of information on measures adopted by the Parties, shall determine the manner and timing of the transmission of the information to be submitted in accordance with Article 26, review the reports and make recommendations on these;
C) Establish such subsidiary organs as it deems necessary to implement the Convention;
D) Review reports submitted by its subsidiary bodies and provide guidance to them;
E) Agree upon and adopt, by consensus, rules and financial regulations, as well as those of the subsidiary bodies;
F) approve amendments to the Convention in accordance with Articles 30 and 31;
G) approve a program and budget for its activities, including those of its subsidiary bodies, and undertake necessary arrangements for their financing;
H) Seek and utilize, as appropriate, services, both domestic or international, intergovernmental and non-governmental bodies and agencies and information provided by,;
I) promote and strengthen relationships with other relevant conventions while avoiding duplication of effort; and
j) Exercise such other functions as may be necessary to achieve the objective of the Convention.
3. At its first session, the Conference of the Parties shall adopt by consensus its own rules, including procedures for decision-making on matters to which the decision-making procedures stipulated in the Convention do not apply. Such procedures may include specified majorities required for the adoption of certain decisions.
4. The first session of the Conference of the Parties shall be convened by the interim secretariat referred to in Article 35 and shall take place no later than one year after the entry into force of the Convention. Unless the Conference of the Parties decides otherwise, ordinary periods of second, third and fourth sessions will be held annually; thereafter, ordinary sessions shall be held every two years.
5. Extraordinary sessions of the Conference of the Parties shall be held whenever the Conference decided by a regular session, or when one of the parties so requests in writing, provided that, within three months following the date on the Permanent Secretariat transmitted to the Parties that request, it is supported by at least one third of the Parties.
6. At each regular session, the Conference of the Parties shall elect a Bureau. The structure and functions of the Bureau shall be determined in the regulations. By choosing the Bureau should be paid due attention to the need to ensure equitable geographical distribution and adequate representation of affected country Parties, particularly those in Africa.
7. The United Nations, its specialized agencies and any State member thereof or observers thereto not party to the Convention, may be represented at sessions of the Conference of the Parties as observers. Any body or agency whether national or international, governmental or non-governmental, qualified in matters covered by the Convention which has informed the Permanent Secretariat of its wish to be represented at a session of the Conference of the Parties as an observer may be so admitted unless one third of the Parties present object.
The admission and participation of observers shall be governed by the regulations approved by the Conference of the Parties.
8. The Conference of the Parties may request competent national and international organizations and particularly relevant expertise to provide information regarding paragraph g) of Article 16, subsection c) of paragraph 1o. Article 17 and paragraph b) of the 2nd paragraph. Article 18

ARTICLE 23. PERMANENT SECRETARY.
1. It is hereby established a Permanent Secretariat.
2. The functions of the Permanent Secretariat shall be:
a) Organize the sessions of the Conference of the Parties and subsidiary bodies established under the Convention and to provide the necessary services;
B) To compile and transmit reports submitted to it;
C) To assist affected developing country Parties, particularly those in Africa, if they so request, in the compilation and communication of information required under the provisions of the Convention;
D) To coordinate its activities with the secretariats of other relevant international bodies and conventions;

E) Make such administrative and contractual arrangements required for the effective performance of its functions under the overall guidance of the Conference of the Parties;
F) To prepare reports on the performance of its functions under the Convention and present them to the Conference of the Parties; and
g) To perform the other secretariat functions determined by the Conference of the Parties.
3. At its first session, the Conference of the Parties shall indicate in its first session a Permanent Secretariat and make arrangements for its operation.

ARTICLE 24. COMMITTEE ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY.
1. Hereby a Committee on Science and Technology is hereby established as a subsidiary organ responsible for providing the Conference of the Parties information and scientific and technological advice on matters relating to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. The Committee, whose meetings will be held in conjunction with the sessions of the Parties, shall be multidisciplinary and open to the participation of all parties. It shall comprise government representatives competent in the relevant fields of expertise.
The Conference of the Parties approve the mandate of the Committee at its first session.
2. The Conference of the Parties shall establish and maintain a roster of independent experts with expertise and experience in relevant fields. The list is based on nominations received in writing from the Parties, and in it the need for a multidisciplinary approach and broad geographical representation is taken into account.
3. The Conference of the Parties may, as necessary, appoint ad hoc panels to provide it, through the Committee, information and advice on specific issues relating to science and technology relevant to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought. These groups will be composed of experts appearing on the list, and integrating the need for a multidisciplinary approach and broad geographical representation is taken into account. These experts must have scientific training and field experience and his appointment for the Conference of the Parties, on the recommendation of the Committee. The Conference of the Parties approve the mandate and modalities of work of these groups.

ARTICLE 25. NETWORK OF INSTITUTIONS, AGENCIES AND BODIES.
1. The Committee on Science and Technology, under the supervision of the Conference of the Parties shall make arrangements to undertake a survey and evaluation of networks, institutions, agencies and relevant bodies existing wishing to become units of a network. This network will support the implementation of the Convention.
2. Based on the results of the study and evaluation paragraph refers to. and this article, the Committee on Science and Technology shall make recommendations to the Conference of the Parties on ways to facilitate and strengthen networking of the units at local and national level or at other levels in order to ensure that you attend the specific requirements listed in articles 16 to 19.
3. Given these recommendations, the Conference of the Parties:
a) identify the units best suited for networking, and recommend operational procedures and timetable for this national, subregional, regional and international units that are; and
b) identify the units best suited to facilitating and strengthening such networking at all levels are units. PART V. PROCEDURES



ARTICLE 26. COMMUNICATION OF INFORMATION.
1. Each Party shall communicate to the Conference of the Parties, through the Permanent Secretariat, reports on the measures taken in implementation of this Convention to the Conference for consideration at its regular sessions. The Conference of the Parties shall determine the timetable for submission and the format of such reports.
2. Affected country Parties shall provide a description of the strategies established pursuant to article 5. of this Convention and any relevant information on their implementation.
3. Affected country Parties which implement action programs pursuant to Articles 9. 15, will provide a detailed description of the programs and their implementation.
4. Any group of affected country Parties may make a joint communication on measures taken at the subregional or regional level within the framework of action programs.

5. Developed country Parties shall report on measures taken to contribute to the preparation and implementation of action programs, including information on financial resources they have provided, or are providing, under this Convention.
6. The information communicated in accordance with the 1st paragraph. at 4. of this Article shall be communicated as soon as possible by the Standing Committee to the Conference of the Parties and relevant subsidiary body.
7. The Conference of the Parties shall facilitate the provision to countries affected developing, particularly in Africa, on request, technical and financial support in compiling and communicating information under this Article, as well as identifying the technical and financial needs associated with action programs.

ARTICLE 27. MEASURES TO RESOLVE ISSUES RELATED APPLICATION. The Conference of the Parties shall consider and adopt procedures and institutional mechanisms to resolve issues that may arise in connection with the implementation of the convention.

ARTICLE 28. SETTLEMENT OF DISPUTES.
1. Any dispute between the Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention shall be resolved through negotiation or any other peaceful means of their choice.
2. When ratifying, accepting, approving or acceding to it, or at any time thereafter the Convention, any Party other than a regional economic integration organization may declare in a written instrument submitted to the depositary that, with respect to any dispute concerning the interpretation or application of the Convention, it recognizes as compulsory in relation to any Party accepting the same obligation one or both of the following means for the settlement of disputes:
a) arbitration in accordance with procedures adopted as soon as possible by the Conference of the Parties in an annex;
B) Submission of the dispute to the International Court of Justice.
3. A Party that is a regional economic integration organization may make a declaration with like effect in relation to arbitration in accordance with the procedure referred to in subparagraph a), 2nd paragraph with. of this Article.
4. The declaration made in accordance with the 2nd paragraph. of this Article shall remain in effect until they expire on schedule in them or until they expire within three months from the date on which the depositary has been given written notice of its revocation.
5. The expiry of a declaration, a notice of revocation or a new declaration shall not in any way affect proceedings pending before an arbitral tribunal or the International Court of Justice unless the parties to the dispute agree otherwise.
6. Parties to a dispute, if they do not accept the same procedure or any of the procedures provided for in paragraph 2o. of this Article, if they have failed to resolve their dispute within 12 months following the date on which one of them has notified the other of the existence of the dispute, they shall refer to conciliation at the request of either, in accordance with the procedure adopted as soon as possible by the Conference of the Parties in an annex.

ARTICLE 29. LEGAL RANGE OF ATTACHMENTS.
1. The annexes are an integral part of the Convention and, unless expressly provided otherwise, any reference to the Convention constitutes a reference to its annexes.
2. The Parties shall interpret the provisions of the annexes in conformity with the rights and obligations under the articles of the Convention.

ARTICLE 30. AMENDMENTS TO THE CONVENTION.
1. Any Party may propose amendments to the Convention.
2. Amendments to the Convention shall be adopted at an ordinary session of the Conference of the Parties. The Permanent Secretariat shall notify the Parties the draft amendment at least six months before the meeting at which it is proposed for adoption. The Permanent Secretariat shall also communicate proposed amendments to the signatories of the Convention.

3. The Parties shall make every effort to reach agreement by consensus on any proposed amendment to the Convention. If all possibilities are exhausted consensus without having reached an agreement, as a last resort the amendment will be approved by two-thirds majority of the Parties present and voting at the meeting. The Permanent Secretariat shall forward the approved amendment to the depositary, who shall circulate it to all Parties for ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
4. The instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval of the amendments or accession thereto shall be delivered to the depositary. Amendments adopted in accordance with paragraph 3o. of this Article shall enter into force for the Parties which have accepted them on the ninetieth day after the date on which the depositary has received the instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by at least two thirds of the Parties to the Convention, were Parties it to the time of approval of the amendments.
5. Amendments shall enter into force for any other Party on the ninetieth day after the date they have delivered to the depositary their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession amendments thereto.
6. For the purposes of this article and article 31, "Parties present and voting" means Parties present and casting an affirmative or negative vote.

ARTICLE 31. ADOPTION AND AMENDMENTS OF ANNEXES.
1. Any additional annex to the Convention and any amendment to an annex shall be proposed and approved under the procedure for amending the Convention set forth in Article 30, provided that, when an additional regional implementation annex or an amendment approved any regional implementation annex, the majority provided for in that article shall include a two-thirds majority of the Parties present and voting in the region concerned. The adoption or amendment of an annex shall be communicated by the depositary to all Parties.
2. An annex that is not a regional implementation annex or an amendment to an annex other than an amendment to a regional implementation annex that have been approved in accordance with paragraph 1o. of this article shall enter into force for all Parties to the Convention six months after the date on which the depositary communicated to the Parties the adoption of such annex or amendment, except for those Parties that have notified in writing to the depositary, within that period of their non-acceptance of the annex or amendment. For Parties which withdraw their notification of non-acceptance, the annex or amendment shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date on which the depositary has received the withdrawal of such notification.
3. Any additional regional implementation annex or any amendment to any regional implementation annex that have been approved under the 1st paragraph with. of this article shall enter into force for all Parties to the Convention six months after the date on which the depositary communicated to the Parties the adoption of such annex or amendment, except:
a) Parties that have written notice to the depositary within that period of six months, non-acceptance of that additional regional implementation annex or amendment to a regional implementation annex. For Parties which withdraw their notification of non-acceptance, the annex or amendment shall enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date on which the depositary has received the withdrawal of such notification; and
b) Parties have made a declaration with respect to additional regional implementation annexes or amendments to regional implementation annexes in accordance with paragraph 4o. Article 34. In this case, the annexes or amendments enter into force for those Parties on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval of annexes or amendments, or accession to them.
4. If the adoption of an annex or an amendment to an annex involves amending the Convention, that annex or amendment shall not enter into force until entry into force of amendments to the Convention.

ARTICLE 32. RIGHT TO VOTE.
1. Subject to the provisions of the 2nd paragraph. of this Article, each Party to the Convention shall have one vote.
2. Regional economic integration organizations, in matters within their competence, exercise their right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of its Member States that are Parties to the Convention. Such organizations shall not exercise their right to vote if any of its Member States exercises and vice versa.
PART VI. FINAL PROVISIONS



ARTICLE 33. SIGNATURE. The present Convention shall be open for signature by Member States of the United Nations or any of its specialized agencies or that are Parties to the Statute of the International Court of Justice, and regional economic integration organizations, in Paris, 14 and 15 October 1994, and thereafter at United Nations Headquarters in New York until 13 October 1995.

Article 34. RATIFICATION, ACCEPTANCE, APPROVAL AND ACCESSION.
1. The Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance, approval or accession by States and regional economic integration organizations. It shall remain open for accession from the day following that on which the Convention is closed for signature. The instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the depositary.
2. Regional economic integration organizations that become Parties to the Convention without any of its Member States shall be bound to all their obligations under the Convention.
For organizations with one or more Member States that are Parties to the Convention, the organization concerned and its Member States decide on their respective responsibilities for the fulfillment of their obligations under Convention. In such cases, the organization and its Member States shall not be entitled to exercise rights under the Convention concurrently.
3. Regional economic integration organizations In their instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession the extent of its competence with respect to matters governed by the Convention. They shall also notify it without delay any substantial change in the scope of its jurisdiction to the depositary, who shall in turn Parties.
4. In its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, any Party may declare in relation to any additional regional implementation annex or amendment to an agreement of regional application, they enter into force for that part only once the respective deposit instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
ARTICLE 35. INTERIM PROVISIONS
. The functions of the Secretariat referred to in Article 23 shall be performed on an interim basis, until the Conference of the Parties concludes its first session, the Secretariat established by the United Nations General Assembly in its resolution 47 , 188, 22 December 1992.

ARTICLE 36. ENTRY INTO FORCE.
1. The Convention will enter into force on the ninetieth day after the date of deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
2. With respect to each State or regional economic integration organization that ratifies, accepts or approves the Convention or accedes thereto after the deposit of the fiftieth instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, the Convention shall enter into force on the ninetieth day from the date on which the State or organization concerned has deposited its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
3. For the purposes of the 1st paragraphs. and 2nd. of this Article, any instrument deposited by a regional economic integration organization shall not be considered as additional to those deposited by member states of the organization.

ARTICLE 37. RESERVATIONS. No reservations may be made to this Convention.

ARTICLE 38. DENUNCIATION.
1. Any Party may denounce the Convention by written notification to the depositary at any time after three years have elapsed from the date on which the Convention has entered into force for the Party concerned.
2. Denunciation shall take effect after one year from the date on which the depositary has received notification or later in the date specified in the notification.

ARTICLE 39. DEPOSITARY. The Secretary General of the United Nations shall be the depositary of the Convention.

ARTICLE 40. AUTHENTIC TEXTS. The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, Spanish, French, English and Russian texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary General of the United Nations.
In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention.
Done in Paris on June 17 of in 1994. ANNEX I.

Regional Implementation Annex for Africa

ARTICLE 1o. SCOPE. This Annex applies to Africa, in relation to each Party and in accordance with the Convention, in particular article 7 thereof., For the purpose of combating desertification and / or mitigating the effects of drought in their areas arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid. Article 2.
. OBJECT. In light of the particular conditions of Africa, the purpose of this Annex, at the national, subregional and regional levels in Africa, is as follows:
a) identify measures and arrangements, including the nature and processes assistance provided by developed country Parties in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention;
B) To provide an efficient and practical application of the Convention to address the specific conditions of Africa, and
c) promote processes and related to combating desertification and / or mitigating the effects of activities drought in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid Africa.
ARTICLE 3o. CONDITIONS FOR THE AFRICAN REGION. In compliance with its obligations under the Convention, the Parties, in implementing this Annex, adopt a basic approach that takes into consideration the following particular conditions of Africa:
a) The large proportion of arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid;
B) The considerable number of countries and populations adversely affected by desertification and by the frequency of severe drought;
C) The large number of landlocked countries affected;
D) the widespread poverty prevalent in most affected countries, the large number of least developed countries among them, and the need for considerable amounts of external assistance, consisting of grants and concessional loans, for the pursuit of their development goals;
E) The difficult socio-economic conditions, exacerbated by deteriorating and fluctuating terms of trade, external indebtedness and political instability, which induce internal, regional and international migrations;
F) The heavy reliance of populations on natural resources for subsistence which, compounded by the effects of demographic trends and factors, a weak technological base and unsustainable production practices, contributes to serious degradation of the resources;
G) the insufficient institutional and legal frameworks, the weak infrastructural base and the insufficient scientific, technical and educational capacity, there is great need for capacity building; and
h) The central role of actions to combat desertification and / or mitigating the effects of drought in the national development priorities of affected African countries. ARTICLE 4.
. COMMITMENTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF AFRICAN COUNTRY PARTIES.
1. According to their respective capabilities, African country Parties undertake to:
a) Take combating desertification and / or mitigating the effects of drought as a central strategy in their efforts to eradicate poverty;
B) To promote regional cooperation and integration, in a spirit of solidarity and partnership based on mutual interest, in programs and activities to combat desertification and / or mitigating the effects of drought;
C) rationalize and strengthen existing institutions concerned with desertification and drought and involve other existing institutions, as appropriate, to increase their effectiveness and ensure more efficient use of resources;
D) Promote the exchange of information on appropriate technology, knowledge, experience and practices among countries of the region; and
e) Develop contingency plans to mitigate the effects of drought in areas degraded by desertification and / or drought.
2. In compliance with the general and specific obligations under articles 4. and 5th. of the Convention, affected African country Parties shall endeavor:
a) Allocate appropriate national budgets in accordance with national conditions and financial resources capabilities and reflecting the new priority that Africa attaches to the phenomenon of desertification and / or drought;
B) sustain and strengthen reforms currently underway in decentralization, resource tenure and encouraging the participation of local populations and communities; and
c) identify and mobilize new and additional financial resources at the national level and expand, as a matter of priority, the capacity and capabilities to mobilize domestic financial resources.

The 5th ARTICLE. COMMITMENTS AND OBLIGATIONS OF STATES PARTESDESARROLLADOS.
1. In fulfilling their obligations under articles 4., 6o. and 7th. of the Convention, the developed country Parties shall give priority to affected African country Parties and, in this context:
a) help combat desertification and / or mitigating the effects of drought, including by providing financial resources or other or facilitating access to them and promoting, financing or helping to finance the transfer and adaptation of appropriate technologies and environmental knowledge and access to them, as mutually agreed and in accordance with national policies, taking into account their adoption of the strategy of poverty eradication as a central strategy;
B) continue to allocate significant resources and / or increase resources to combat desertification and / or mitigating the effects of drought, and
c) help strengthen their capacities so that they can improve their institutional structures and its scientific and technical capabilities, information collection and analysis of information and research and development for the purpose of combating desertification and / or mitigating the effects of drought.
2. Other country Parties may provide voluntarily technology, knowledge and experience related to the decertification and / or financial resources to affected African country Parties. The international cooperation will facilitate the transfer of such theoretical and practical knowledge and techniques. ARTICLE 6.
. STRATEGIC PLANNING FRAMEWORK FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT.
1. National action programs shall be a central and integral part of a broader process of formulating national policies for sustainable development in affected African country Parties.
2. a process of consultation and participation will be launched, that will involve the appropriate levels of government, local populations and communities and non-governmental organizations, to provide guidance on a strategy with flexible planning to allow maximum participation populations and local communities. As appropriate, may participate in this process bilateral and multilateral aid agencies, at the request of an affected African country Party.
Article 7. CALENDAR OF PREPARATION OF ACTION PROGRAMMES. Until the entry into force of the Convention, the African country Parties, in collaboration with other members of the international community, as appropriate and to the extent possible, provisionally apply the provisions of the Convention relating to the development of national action programs, subregional and regional. ARTICLE 8.
. CONTENT OF NATIONAL ACTION PROGRAMS.
1. In accordance with Article 10 of the Convention, the overall strategy of national action programs shall emphasize integrated in the affected areas, based on participatory mechanisms and on integration of strategies for the eradication of local development programs poverty in efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. The programs shall aim at strengthening the capacity of local authorities and ensuring the active participation of populations, communities and local groups, with special emphasis on education and training, mobilization of non-governmental organizations with proven expertise and strengthening of decentralized governmental structures.
2. As appropriate, national action programs present the following general characteristics:
a) The use, in developing and implementing the experience of combating desertification and / or mitigating the effects of drought, taking into account social, economic and ecological conditions;
B) Determining the factors contributing to desertification and / or drought and the resources and capacities available and required, and the establishment of appropriate policies and reactive measures and institutional arrangements and other measures to combat these phenomena and / or mitigate their effects; and
c) Increased participation of local populations and communities, including women, farmers and pastoralists, and delegation to them of more responsibility for management.
3. As appropriate, national action programs include the following measures:
a) Measures to improve the economic environment with a view to eradicating poverty:
i) increasing incomes and employment opportunities, especially for the poorest members of the community, by:

- The creation of markets for agricultural products.
- Creating financial instruments suited to local needs.
- Encouraging diversification in agriculture and the creation of agricultural enterprises, and
- economic development for agricultural and non-agricultural activities,
ii) improve the long-term prospects of rural economies by:
- creating incentives for productive and possibilities of access to the means of production investments and
- the adoption of price and tax policies and commercial practices that promote growth;
Iii) Adoption and implementation of population and migration policies to reduce population pressure on land; and
iv) Promotion of drought resistant crops and cropping systems integrated dry-land food security purposes;
B) Measures to conserve natural resources:
i) ensuring integrated and sustainable management of natural resources, including:
- Agricultural and grazing lands.
- The vegetation cover and wildlife.
- Forests.
- Water resources and conservation, and
- Biodiversity.
Ii) Providing training in techniques related to sustainable management of natural resources, strengthen environmental awareness campaigns and education and disseminate knowledge about it; and
iii) Ensure the development and efficient use of diverse energy sources, the promotion of alternative sources of energy, particularly solar energy, wind energy and biogas, and specific arrangements for the transfer, acquisition and adaptation of relevant technology to alleviate the pressure on fragile natural resources are subject;
C) Measures to improve institutional organization:
i) Determine the roles and responsibilities of central government and local authorities within the framework of a policy planning land use;
Ii) To promote a policy of active decentralization, devolving local authorities in management responsibilities and decision-making, and encourage initiative and responsibility of local communities and the creation of local structures, and || | iii) make the necessary adjustments in the institutional and regulatory framework for the management of natural resources to ensure the security of land tenure for local populations;
D) Measures to improve knowledge of desertification:
i) To promote research and the collection, processing and exchange of information on scientific, technical and socioeconomic aspects of desertification;
Ii) To promote national research capacity as well as the collection, processing, exchange and analysis of information to ensure that the phenomena are better understood and that the results of the analysis into operational terms, and
iii) promote the study medium and long term:
- socio-economic and cultural trends in affected areas,
- qualitative and quantitative trends in natural resources, and
- the interaction between climate and desertification and
e) Measures to monitor and assess the effects of drought:
i) Develop strategies to evaluate the impacts of natural climate variability on drought and desertification at regional level and / or use forecasts climatic variations on seasonal to interannual time scales in efforts to mitigate the effects of drought;
Ii) Improving early warning systems and response capacity, ensure the efficient administration of emergency relief and food aid and improve supply systems and food distribution programs cattle protection works public and livelihoods for drought prone areas, and
iii) Monitoring and assessing ecological degradation to provide reliable and timely information on the process and dynamics of resource degradation in order to facilitate the adoption better policies and responses.
Article 9. DEVELOPMENT OF NATIONAL ACTION PROGRAMMES AND IMPLEMENTATION AND EVALUATION INDICADORESPARA. Each affected African country Parties shall designate an appropriate national coordinating body to play a catalytic role in the development, implementation and evaluation of its national action program.
This coordinating body, in accordance with article 3. and as appropriate:

A) identification and review of actions, beginning with a consultation process at local level involving local populations and communities and local governments cooperate, donor country Parties and intergovernmental and non-government, on the basis of initial consultations stakeholders at national level;
B) Identify and analyze the constraints, needs and gaps affecting development and sustainable land use and recommend practical measures to avoid duplication by making the most of relevant ongoing activities and promote the implementation of the results;
C) facilitate, design and formulate project activities based on interactive, flexible approaches to ensure the active participation of populations in affected areas and to minimize the adverse effects of such activities, and determine the needs for financial assistance and technical cooperation by establishing an order of priorities among them;
D) Establish relevant indicators that are quantifiable and readily verifiable to ensure the assessment and evaluation of national action programs, including measures in the short, medium and long term, and implementing such national action programs agreed ; and
e) To prepare reports on progress in implementing national action programs.
ARTICLE 10. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK PROGRAMMES ACCIÓNSUBREGIONALES.
1. In accordance with article 4. of the Convention, African country Parties shall cooperate in the development and implementation of subregional action programs for Central Africa, East, North, South and West. To that end, they may delegate to the competent intergovernmental organizations the following responsibilities:
a) To serve as focal points for preparatory activities and coordinating the implementation of subregional action programs;
B) Assisting in the development and implementation of national action programs;
C) facilitate the exchange of information, expertise and providing advice on the review of national legislation; and
d) any other responsibilities relating to the implementation of subregional action programs.
2. Specialized subregional institutions may provide support, upon request, and be entrusted with the responsibility to coordinate activities in their respective areas of competence.
ARTICLE 11. CONTENT AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS ACCIÓNSUBREGIONALES. The SRAP will focus on issues that are better addressed at the subregional level. Subregional action programs shall, where necessary, mechanisms for the management of shared natural resources. Such mechanisms shall effectively handle transboundary problems associated with desertification and drought and provide support for the harmonious implementation of national action programs. Priority areas for subregional action programs will focus, as appropriate, on:
a) joint programs for the sustainable management of transboundary natural resources through bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, as appropriate;
B) coordination of programs to develop alternative energy sources;
C) cooperation in the management and control of pests and diseases of plants and animals;
D) The activities of capacity building, education and awareness that are better carried out or supported at the subregional level;
E) The scientific and technical cooperation, particularly in the field of climatology, meteorology and hydrology, including networking for data collection and assessment, information sharing and project monitoring, and coordination of research and development and priority setting for them;
F) early warning systems and joint planning for mitigating the effects of drought, including measures to address the problems caused by migration induced by environmental factors;
G) The search for ways of sharing experiences, particularly regarding participation of local populations and communities, and creating an environment conducive to improving the management of land use and the use of appropriate technologies;

H) capacity building of subregional organizations to coordinate and provide technical services and establishment, reorientation and strengthening of subregional centers and institutions; e
i) The policy in areas such as trade, an impact on affected areas and populations, including policies for the coordination of regional marketing regimes and for common infrastructure.
ARTICLE 12. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK OF THE REGIONAL ACTION PROGRAMME.
1. In accordance with Article 11 of the Convention, African country Parties shall jointly determine the procedures for preparing and implementing the regional action program.
2. The Parties may provide appropriate support to relevant institutions and regional organizations in Africa so that they are able to meet the responsibilities under the Convention.
ARTICLE 13. CONTENT OF REGIONAL ACTION PROGRAM. The regional action program includes measures relating to combating desertification and / or mitigating the effects of drought in the following priority areas, as appropriate:
a) Development of regional cooperation and coordination of programs subregional action to create regional consensus on key policy areas, including through regular consultations between subregional organizations;
B) Capacity building regarding the activities which are better implemented at the regional level;
C) The search for solutions together with the international community for economic and social global issues that impact on affected areas taking into account paragraph b) of paragraph 2o. of Article 4. of the Convention;
D) Promoting the exchange of information and appropriate techniques, technical expertise and relevant experience among affected country Parties of Africa and its subregions and other regions affected; promotion of scientific and technological cooperation particularly in the fields of climatology, meteorology, hydrology and alternative energy sources; coordination of activities of subregional and regional research; and identification of regional priorities for research and development;
E) coordination of networks for systematic observation and assessment and information exchange, and integration of these networks into global networks; and
f) Coordination and strengthening of early warning systems and subregional and regional to face the drought contingency plans.
ARTICLE 14. FINANCIAL RESOURCES.
1. In accordance with Article 20 of the Convention and the 2nd paragraph. Article 4o., the affected country Parties of Africa will seek to create an enabling macroeconomic framework to mobilize financial resources and establish policies and procedures to channel resources more effectively to local development programs, including through non-governmental organizations, as appropriate .
2. in accordance with the 4th paragraphs. and 5th. Article 21 of the Convention, the Parties agree to establish an inventory of sources of funding at the national, subregional, regional and international levels to ensure the rational use of existing resources and to identify gaps in the allocation of resources to facilitate the implementation of programs of action. The inventory will be reviewed and updated periodically.
3. In accordance with article 7. of the Convention, developed country Parties shall continue to allocate significant resources or increased resources for affected country Parties of Africa as well as other forms of assistance on the basis of agreements and partnership arrangements that Article 18 refers to paying the due attention, inter alia, issues related to debt, international trade and marketing systems, as provided in subsection b) of the 2nd paragraph. of Article 4. of the Convention.
ARTICLE 15. FINANCIAL MECHANISMS.
1. In accordance with the provisions of article 7. of the Convention, which stipulates that priority to affected country Parties of Africa is granted, and taking into account the particular situation prevailing in this region, the Parties shall pay special attention to the implementation in Africa of the provisions of subsections d ) and e) of paragraph 1o. Article 21 of the Convention and in particular:
a) To facilitate the establishment of mechanisms such as national funds to combat desertification to channel financial resources to the local level; Y

B) strengthening existing funds and financial mechanisms at the subregional and regional levels.
2. In accordance with Articles 20 and 21 of the Convention, the Parties which are also members of the governing bodies of relevant regional and subregional financial institutions, including the African Development Bank and the African Development Fund, shall promote efforts to be granted the due priority and attention to the activities of those institutions that advance the implementation of this Annex.
3. The Parties shall streamline, to the extent possible, procedures for channeling funds to affected African country Parties.
ARTICLE 16. Technical assistance and cooperation. The Parties undertake, in accordance with their respective capabilities, to rationalize technical assistance to African country Parties and cooperation with them in order to increase the effectiveness of projects and programs inter alia, by:
a) reducing the cost of support measures and backstopping, especially administrative expenses; in any case, such costs shall only represent a small percentage of the total cost of each project to ensure maximum efficiency of projects;
B) Assigning priority to the use of competent or, when necessary national experts, competent experts from the subregion or region for the formulation, preparation and implementation of projects and capacity building for the local there where it does not exist; and
c) The administration, coordination and efficient use of technical assistance provided.
ARTICLE 17. TRANSFER, ACQUISITION, ADAPTATION OF TECNOLOGÍAAMBIENTALMENTE SUITABLE AND ACCESS TO THIS. When applying Article 18 of the Convention relating to transfer, acquisition, adaptation and development of technology, the Parties undertake to give priority to African country Parties and, if necessary, develop new models of partnership and cooperation with them in order to strengthen their capacities for scientific research and development and information collection and dissemination of information to enable them to implement their strategies to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. ARTICLE 18. AGREEMENTS
coordination and partnership.
1. African country Parties shall coordinate the preparation, negotiation and implementation of programs of national, subregional and regional action.
They may involve, as appropriate, other Parties and intergovernmental organizations and non-governmental organizations in the process.
2. The aim of such coordination will be to ensure that financial and technical cooperation is consistent with the convention and provide the necessary continuity in the use and management of resources.
3. African country Parties shall organize consultative processes at the national, subregional and regional levels. These consultative processes may:
a) serve as a forum to negotiate and conclude partnership agreements based on national, subregional and regional programs; and
b) specify the contribution of African country Parties and other members of the consultative groups to the programs and identify priorities and agreements on indicators for the implementation and evaluation, as well as financial provisions for execution.
4. The Permanent Secretariat, at the request of African country Parties and in accordance with Article 23 of the Convention, facilitate the convocation of such consultative processes:
a) advice on the organization of effective consultative arrangements, drawing on experience other such arrangements;
B) providing information to relevant bilateral and multilateral agencies concerning consultative meetings or processes, and encouraging their active involvement; and
c) providing other relevant in establishing or improving consultative arrangements.
5. Bodies subregional and regional coordination, inter alia:
a) recommend the introduction of appropriate adjustments to partnership agreements;
B) Monitor and evaluate the implementation of the agreed subregional and regional programs and report thereon; and
c) aim to ensure efficient communication and cooperation among African country Parties.

6. Participation in the consultative groups will be open, as appropriate, governments, groups and donors, funds and programs of the United Nations System bodies, relevant subregional and regional organizations and representatives of relevant non-governmental organizations . The participants in each consultative group shall determine the modalities of its management and operation.
7. In accordance with Article 14 of the Convention, developed country Parties to develop, on their own initiative, an informal process of consultation and coordination between them at national and regional levels, subregional, since, at the request are encouraged of an affected African country Party or of an appropriate subregional or regional organization, in a process of national, subregional or regional consultation to assess and address the needs of assistance to facilitate implementation.
ARTICLE 19. MONITORING PROVISIONS. Monitoring of the provisions of this Annex African country Parties, in accordance with the relevant articles of the Convention, as follows are responsible:
a) At the national level, via a mechanism whose composition will be determined by each affected African country Parties.
This mechanism will involve representatives of local communities and operate under the supervision of the national coordinating body to article 9 refers .;
B) At the subregional level, via a scientific and technical multidisciplinary advisory committee whose composition and modalities of operation will be determined by the African country Parties of the subregion concerned; and
c) At the regional level, by mechanisms defined in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Treaty establishing the African Economic Community and by a Scientific and Technical Advisory Committee for Africa.
ANNEX II
Regional Implementation Annex for Asia
ARTICLE 1o. OBJECT. The purpose of this annex is to provide guidelines and arrangements for the effective implementation of the Convention in the affected country Parties of the Asian region in the light of the particular conditions of that region. Article 2.
. CONDITIONS OF THE REGION OF ASIA. In fulfilling its obligations under the Convention, the Parties shall take into account, as appropriate, the following special conditions, which are relevant in varying degrees to the affected country Parties of the region:
a) high proportion of areas in their territories affected by desertification and drought or vulnerable to, and the broad diversity of these areas with regard to climate, topography, land use and socio-economic systems;
B) The strong pressure on natural resources for livelihoods;
C) The existence of production systems, directly related to widespread poverty, leading to land degradation and to pressure on scarce water resources;
D) The major impact on those countries of the situation of the world economy and social problems such as poverty, poor health and nutrition, lack of food security, migration, displacement of people and dynamics demographic;
E) The fact that their capacities and institutional structures are expanding but are still insufficient to address the problems of desertification and drought at the national level; and
f) The need for international cooperation to achieve sustainable development objectives relating to combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought.
ARTICLE 3o. FRAMEWORK OF NATIONAL ACTION PROGRAMMES.
1. National action programs shall be an integral broader sustainable development of the affected country Parties of the region national political party.
2. Affected country Parties develop national action programs that are suitable in accordance with Articles 9. 11 of the Convention, paying particular attention to paragraph f) of the 2nd paragraph. Article 10. In the process may participate at the request of the country concerned that bilateral and multilateral cooperation is concerned, as appropriate party. ARTICLE 4.
. National action programs.
1. When preparing and implementing national action programs, affected country Parties of the region, in accordance with their respective circumstances and policies, may, inter alia, the following measures they deem appropriate:

A) Designate appropriate bodies responsible for the coordination and implementation of their action programs preparation;
B) Make affected populations, including local communities, involved in the development, coordination and implementation of their action programs through a locally relevant consultative process, in cooperation with local authorities and national organizations and non-governmental ;
C) To study the state of the environment in affected areas to assess the causes and consequences of desertification and to determine priority areas for action;
D) Evaluate, with the participation of affected populations, past and programs and being applied in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought, to design a strategy and elaborate activities their action programs;
E) prepare technical and financial programs based on the information obtained as a result of the activities listed in subparagraphs a) to d);
F) Develop and implement procedures and benchmarks for evaluating implementation of their action programs;
G) Promote integrated watershed management, conservation of soil resources and the improvement and rational use of water resources;
H) The establishment and / or strengthening of information systems, evaluation and monitoring and early warning systems in areas prone to desertification and drought, taking account of climatological, meteorological, hydrological, biological and other relevant factors; e
i) formulate in a spirit of partnership and in the case of international cooperation, including financial and technical assistance, appropriate in support of their action programs provisions.
2. In accordance with Article 10 of the Convention, the overall strategy of national action programs shall emphasize integrated local development programs for affected areas, based on participatory mechanisms and on integration of strategies for poverty eradication in efforts to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought. Sectoral measures in the action programs shall be grouped in priority fields which take into account the great diversity of affected areas in the region referred to in paragraph a) of the 2nd article.
The 5th ARTICLE. SRAP and sets.
1. In accordance with Article 11 of the Convention, affected country Parties in Asia may mutually agree to consult and cooperate with other Parties, as appropriate, with a view to preparing and implementing programs of subregional or joint action, as appropriate, to to complement national action programs and promote efficiency. In any case, the relevant Parties may jointly agree to entrust subregional organizations, bilateral or national organizations, or specialized institutions, responsible for preparing, coordinating and implementing the programs. Such organizations or institutions may also serve as centers of action to promote and coordinate measures implemented in accordance with Articles 16 to 18 of the Convention.
2. In preparing and implementing subregional action programs or joint, the affected country Parties of the region shall, inter alia, the following measures they deem appropriate:
a) identify, in cooperation with national institutions, priorities in the fight against desertification and mitigating drought which can better be met by such programs and relevant activities which could be carried out effectively through them;
B) Evaluate the operational capacities and activities of relevant regional, subregional and national institutions;
C) assess existing programs relating to desertification and drought of all parties in the region or subregion or some of them, and their relationship with national programs; and
d) Adopt, in a spirit of partnership and in the case of international cooperation, including financial and technical measures bilateral and / or multilateral appropriate program support resources.

3. Programs of subregional or joint action may include agreed joint programs for the sustainable management of transboundary natural resources in relation to desertification and drought, priorities for coordination and other activities in the areas of capacity building, cooperation scientific and technical, including early warning systems for drought and information sharing, and means of strengthening the relevant subregional organizations or institutions. ARTICLE 6.
. REGIONAL ACTIVITIES. Regional efforts to strengthen the programs of subregional or joint action may include, inter alia, measures to strengthen institutions and mechanisms for coordination and cooperation at the national, subregional and regional levels, and promote the application of Articles 16 to 19 Convention. These activities may include:
a) Promoting and strengthening technical cooperation networks;
B) preparing inventories of technologies, knowledge, experience and practices, as well as traditional and local technologies and experience, and promoting their dissemination and use;
C) The assessment of needs for technology transfer and promoting the adaptation and use of such technologies; and
d) Promoting public awareness programs and capacity-building at all levels, strengthening training, research and development and the application of systems for the development of human resources.
Article 7. FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISM.
1. Given the importance of combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought in the Asian region, promote the mobilization of substantial financial resources and the availability of financial mechanisms, in accordance with Articles 20 and 21 of the Convention.
2. . In accordance with the Convention and on the basis of the coordinating mechanism provided for in article 8 and in accordance with their national development policies, affected country Parties of the region shall, individually or jointly:
a) Adopt measures to rationalize and strengthen mechanisms of financing through public and private investment in order to achieve concrete results in combating desertification and mitigating the effects of drought;
B) Identify the requirements for international cooperation in support of national, particularly financial, technical and technological efforts; and
c) promote the participation of bilateral or multilateral financial cooperation institutions to ensure the implementation of the Convention.
3. The Parties shall streamline, to the extent possible the procedures for channeling funds to affected country Parties of the region. ARTICLE 8.
. MECHANISMS OF COOPERATION AND COORDINATION.
1. Affected country Parties, through the appropriate bodies designated in accordance with subparagraph a) of paragraph 1o. of Article 4. and other parts of the region may, as appropriate, establish a mechanism for the purpose, inter alia, of:
a) exchange information, experience, knowledge and practices;
B) To cooperate and coordinate action, including bilateral and multilateral arrangements, at the subregional and regional levels;
C) promote scientific, technical technological and financial cooperation in accordance with articles 5. to the 7th .;
D) Identify the needs for external cooperation; and
e) Take provisions for monitoring and evaluating action programs.
2. Affected country Parties, through the appropriate bodies designated in accordance with subparagraph a) of paragraph 1o. Article 4o., and other Parties in the region may also, as appropriate, apply a process of consultation and coordination with regard to programs of national, subregional and joint action. Where appropriate, these Parties may require participation in that process of other Parties and intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations. Among other things, this coordination will aim to reach agreement on opportunities for international cooperation in accordance with Articles 20 and 21 of the Convention, enhance technical cooperation and channel resources to be used effectively.
3. Affected country Parties of the region shall hold periodic coordination meetings whose convocation may be provided by the Permanent Secretariat in accordance with Article 23 of the Convention, if so requested:

A) Advising on the organization of effective coordination arrangements, drawing on experience from other such arrangements;
B) providing information to relevant bilateral and multilateral agencies concerning coordination meetings, and encouraging their active involvement; and
c) providing other information relevant in establishing or improving coordination processes.
ANNEX III
Regional Implementation Annex for Latin America and the Caribbean
ARTICLE 1o. OBJECT. The purpose of this Annex is to provide general guidelines for the implementation of the Convention in the Latin America and the Caribbean, in the light of the particular conditions of the region. Article 2.
. CONDITIONS OF LATIN AMERICA AND THE CARIBBEAN. In accordance with the provisions of the Convention, the Parties shall take into consideration the following specific characteristics of the region:
a) The existence of extensive vulnerable areas severely affected by desertification and / or drought, in which observed heterogeneous characteristics depending on the area in which they occur. This cumulative and intensifying process has negative social, cultural, economic and environmental aspects, and its severity is accentuated because the region is one of the world's largest reserves of biodiversity;
B) The frequent application in the affected areas of unsustainable development models as a result of the complex interaction of physical, biological, political, social, cultural and economic factors, including international economic factors such as external indebtedness, deteriorating of the terms of trade and trade practices that distort international markets for agricultural, fishery and forestry products; and
c) The severe reduction in ecosystem productivity, which is the main consequence of desertification and drought and is expressed in the decline in agricultural, livestock and forestry yields and loss of biological Diversity. From the social point of view, the results are impoverishment, migration, internal displacement and deterioration of the quality of life of the population are generated; therefore, the region should comprehensively address the problems of desertification and drought, promoting sustainable models, consistent with the environmental, economic and social reality of each country's development.
ARTICLE 3o. ACTION PROGRAMS.
1. In accordance with the Convention, in particular Articles 9. to 11, and in accordance with their national development policies, affected country Parties of the region shall, as appropriate, prepare and implement national action programs to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought as an integral part of its policies national sustainable development. Subregional and regional programs may be prepared and implemented in accordance with the requirements of the region.
2. In preparing their national action programs, affected country Parties of the region shall pay particular attention to the provisions of paragraph f) of paragraph 2 of Article 10 of the Convention. ARTICLE 4.
. CONTENT OF NATIONAL ACTION PROGRAMS. Depending on their respective situations and in accordance with article 5. of the Convention, affected country Parties of the region may take into account the following areas in its strategy to combat desertification and mitigate the effects of drought:
a) Capacity-building, education and public awareness, technical, scientific and technological cooperation and financial resources and mechanisms;
B) Eradication of poverty and improving the quality of human life;
C) achieving food security and sustainable development of agricultural, livestock, forestry and multipurpose activities;
D) sustainable management of natural resources, especially the rational management of river basins;
E) sustainable management of natural resources in offshore areas;
F) rational management and conservation of soil resources and exploitation and efficient use of water resources;
G) Formulation and implementation of emergency plans to mitigate the effects of drought;
H) Establishment and / or strengthening of information systems, evaluation and monitoring and early warning systems in areas prone to desertification and drought, taking account of climatological, meteorological, hydrological, biological, soil, economic aspects and social;

I) developing, managing and efficiently using diverse sources of energy, including the promotion of alternative sources;
J) conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, in accordance with the provisions of the Convention on Biological Diversity;
K) demographic aspects related to the processes of desertification and drought; and
l) Establishment or strengthening institutional and legal frameworks for the implementation of the Convention and aimed, inter alia, the decentralization of administrative structures and functions relating to desertification and drought, with the participation of affected communities and society in general.
The 5th ARTICLE. TECHNICAL COOPERATION, SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL. In accordance with the Convention, in particular Articles 16 to 18, and under the coordinating mechanism provided for in article 7. of this Annex, affected country Parties of the region, individually or jointly:
a) promote the strengthening of technical cooperation networks and systems of national, subregional and regional information as well as their integration into global information sources ;
B) prepare an inventory of available technologies and knowledge, promoting their dissemination and use;
C) promote the use of technology, knowledge, experience and practices in accordance with the provisions of paragraph b) of paragraph 2 of Article 18 of the Convention;
D) identify transfer of technology requirements; and
e) promote the development, adaptation, adoption and transfer of relevant existing and new environmentally sound technologies. ARTICLE 6.
. FINANCIAL RESOURCES AND MECHANISM. In accordance with the Convention, in particular Articles 20 and 21, and in accordance with its national development policy, under the coordination mechanism envisaged in article 7. of this Annex, affected country Parties of the region, individually or jointly:
a) Take measures to rationalize and strengthen mechanisms to supply funds through public and private investment to achieving specific results in the fight against desertification and mitigating the effects of drought;
B) identify international cooperation requirements in support of national efforts; and
c) Encourage the participation of multilateral institutions bilateral financial cooperation and / or in order to ensure the implementation of the Convention ARTICLE 7.
. INSTITUTIONAL FRAMEWORK.
1. For the purposes of operationalizing this Annex, affected country Parties of the region:
a) Establish and / or strengthen national focal points, responsible for the coordination of actions relating to combating desertification and / or mitigating the effects of drought;
B) establish a coordination mechanism among national focal points, with the following objectives:
i) exchange information and experiences,
ii) Coordinate activities at the subregional and regional levels,
iii) Promote technical, scientific, technological and financial cooperation,
iv) Identify the requirements for external cooperation, and
v) monitoring and evaluation of the implementation of action programs.
2o. The countries affected parts of the region shall hold periodic coordination meetings whose convocation may be provided by the Permanent Secretariat in accordance with Article 23 of the Convention, if so requested:
a) advice on the organization of effective arrangements coordination, based on experience from other such arrangements;
B) providing information to relevant bilateral and multilateral agencies concerning coordination meetings, and encouraging their active involvement; and
c) providing other information relevant in establishing or improving coordination processes.
ANNEX IV
Regional Implementation Annex for the Northern Mediterranean
ARTICLE 1o. OBJECT. The purpose of this annex is to provide guidelines and arrangements for the practical and effective implementation of the Convention in affected country Parties of the northern Mediterranean region in the light of their particular conditions. Article 2.
. CONDITIONS OF THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION NORTH. The particular conditions of the northern Mediterranean region referred to in article 1. They include:
a) semi-arid climatic conditions affecting large areas, seasonal droughts, very high rainfall variability and sudden and high-intensity rainfall;

B) poor Floors with marked tendency to erosion, prone to develop surface crusts;
C) uneven relief with steep slopes and very diversified landscapes;
D) Large losses of forest cover due to frequent wildfires;
E) crisis conditions in traditional agriculture with associated land abandonment and deterioration of soil and water conservation structures;
F) unsustainable exploitation of water resources, which causes serious environmental damage, including chemical pollution, salinization and exhaustion of aquifers; and
g) concentration of economic activity in coastal areas as a result of urban growth, industrial activities, tourism and irrigated agriculture.
ARTICLE 3o. STRATEGIC PLANNING FRAMEWORK sound sustainable development.
1. National action programs shall be an integral part of the strategic planning framework for sustainable development of the countries affected parts of the northern Mediterranean.
2. a process of consultation and participation, in which take part the relevant government agencies, local communities and non-governmental organizations to provide guidance on an economy based on flexible planning strategy to allow maximum local participation, pursuant will be undertaken with subsection f) of the 2nd paragraph. Article 10 of the Convention. ARTICLE 4.
. OBLIGATION TO PREPARE NATIONAL ACTION PROGRAMS AND UNCALENDARIO. Affected country Parties of the northern Mediterranean region develop national action programs and, as appropriate, programs subregional, regional or joint action. The preparation of such programs shall be finalized as soon as possible.
The 5th ARTICLE. DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL ACTION. In preparing and implementing national action programs pursuant to Articles 9. and 10 of the Convention, as appropriate, each country affected part of the region:
a) Designate appropriate bodies responsible for the preparation, coordination and implementation of its program;
B) Involve affected populations, including local communities, in the preparation, coordination and implementation of the program through a locally driven consultative process, with the cooperation of local authorities and relevant non-governmental organizations;
C) Consider the state of the environment in affected areas to assess the causes and consequences of desertification and to determine priority areas for action;
D) evaluate, with the participation of affected populations, past and current programs and implementation in order to establish a strategy and activities of the action program;
E) prepare technical and financial programs based on the information obtained through the activities in subparagraphs a) to d); and
f) Develop and utilize procedures and criteria for monitoring and evaluating the implementation of the program. ARTICLE 6.
. CONTENT OF NATIONAL ACTION PROGRAMS. Affected country Parties of the region may include in their programs of measures related to national action:
a) legislative, institutional and administrative areas;
B) The procedures for land use, management of water resources, soil conservation, forestry, agricultural activities and pasture and range management;
C) The management and conservation of wildlife and other forms of biological diversity;
D) protection against forest fires;
E) promotion of alternative livelihoods; and
f) research, training and public awareness.
Article 7. Subregional, regional and joint action.
1. Affected country Parties of the region may, in accordance with Article 11 of the Convention, prepare and implement a SRAP and / or regional levels to complement and increase the effectiveness of national action programs. Also, two or more affected country Parties of the region may agree to prepare a joint action program.
2. The provisions of Articles 5 and 6 of this Annex shall apply mutatis mutandis to the preparation and implementation of subregional, regional and joint action. In addition, these programs may include the conduct of research and development activities concerning selected ecosystems in affected areas.
3. To develop and implement programs of subregional, regional or joint action programs, affected country Parties of the region shall, as appropriate:

A) identify, in cooperation with national institutions, national objectives relating to desertification which can better be met by such programs and relevant activities which could be effectively carried through these programs;
B) evaluate the operational capacities and activities of relevant regional, subregional and national institutions; and
c) assess existing programs relating to desertification among Parties of the region and their relationship with national action programs. ARTICLE 8.
. COORDINATION OF SUBREGIONAL ACTION PROGRAMMES, REGIONALESY CONJUNTOS. In preparing a program of subregional, regional or joint action, the affected country Parties may establish a coordination committee composed of representatives of each affected country Parties concerned, to review progress in combating desertification , harmonize national action programs, make recommendations at the various stages of preparation and implementation of the subregional, regional or joint action, and serve as a center for the promotion and coordination of technical cooperation in accordance with articles 16 to 19 of the Convention.
Article 9. COUNTRIES NOT QUALIFYING FOR ASSISTANCE. Do not qualify for assistance under this Convention for the implementation of national, subregional, regional and joint action programs developed country Parties affected in the region.
ARTICLE 10. Coordination with other subregions and regions. Programs subregional, regional and joint of the northern Mediterranean region action may be developed and implemented in collaboration with the programs of other subregions or regions, particularly with those of the subregion of Africa septentrional.¯
The undersigned Chief
Legal Office of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs DECLARES
:
That this faithful reproduction is taken photocopy of the certificate text of the "United Nations Convention to combat desertification in those countries affected by drought serious or desertification, particularly in Africa "made in Paris the seventeen (17) June in 1994 (1994), a document that is on file in the Legal Office of the Ministry.
Given in Santa Fe de Bogota, DC, nine (9) days of July in 1997 (1997).
Chief Legal Office, Hector Adolfo
Sintura Varela. RAMA

PUBLIC POWER EXECUTIVE PRESIDENCY OF THE REPUBLIC
Santa Fe de Bogota, DC, July 3, 1997
Approved. Submit to the consideration of the honorable

National Congress for constitutional purposes.
(Sgd.) Ernesto Samper Pizano
The Minister of Foreign Affairs,
(Sgd.) Emma Mejia Velez Maria. DECREES
:
ARTICLE 1o. Approval of the "United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those countries experiencing serious drought or desertification, particularly Africa" ​​made in Paris the seventeen (17) June in 1994 (1994). Article 2.
. In accordance with the provisions of article 1. 7a Act. 1944, the "United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification in those countries experiencing serious drought or desertification, particularly in Africa" ​​made in Paris the seventeen (17) June in 1994 (1994) that article 1. this law passed, will force the country from the date the international link regarding the same is perfected.
ARTICLE 3o. This law applies from the date of publication.
The President of the honorable Senate,
Amylkar ACOSTA MEDINA.
The Secretary General of the honorable Senate,
PUMAREJO PEDRO VEGA.
The President of the honorable Chamber of Representatives,
CARLOS ARDILA BALLESTEROS.
The Secretary General of the honorable House of Representatives, DIEGO VIVAS
TAFUR.
REPUBLIC OF COLOMBIA - NATIONAL GOVERNMENT
communicated and published. Run
prior review by the Constitutional Court,
under Article 241-10 of the Constitution.
Given in Santa Fe de Bogota, DC, on August 4, 1998.

Ernesto Samper Pizano Minister of Foreign Affairs, Camilo Reyes Rodriguez
.
The Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development,
ANTONIO GOMEZ EDUARDO MERLANO.



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