People's Republic Of China Constitutional Amendments (Attached: People's Republic Of China Constitution (As Amended In 2004)),

Original Language Title: 中华人民共和国宪法修正案(附:《中华人民共和国宪法〔2004年修正本〕》)

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    (March 14, 2004 second meeting of the deputies on March 14, 2004, People's Republic of China National People's Congress announcement purposes) in the seventh paragraph of the preamble of the Constitution of article 18th "under the guidance of Marxism, Leninism, Mao Zedong thought and Deng Xiaoping theory" is amended as "Marxism-Leninism, Mao Zedong thought, Deng Xiaoping theory and the ' three represents ' under the guidance of the important thought of", "along the path of building socialism with Chinese characteristics" is amended as " Along the road of socialism with Chinese characteristics "," gradually realize the modernization of industry, agriculture, national defense, and science and technology, "added after" promoting the coordinated development of material civilization, political civilization and spiritual civilization. " This paragraph modified as follows: "achievement of the victory of China's new democratic revolution and the Socialist cause, the CPC led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups, under the guidance of Marxism, Leninism, Mao Zedong thought, stick to the truth, correct mistakes and overcoming numerous difficulties and obstacles made. China is in the primary stage of socialism for a long time. The fundamental task of the State is along the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and concentrate its effort on socialist modernization construction. China all people will continues to in CPC led Xia, in Marx Leninism, and Mao Zedong thought, and Deng Xiao-ping's theory and ' three a representative ' important thought guidelines Xia, insisted people's democratic dictatorship, insisted Socialist road, insisted reform, constantly perfect Socialist of the system, development socialist market, development Socialist Democratic, sound socialist legal, self-reliance, hard, gradually achieved industrial, and agricultural, and defense and science and technology of modern, promoted material, and Coordinated development of spiritual civilization and political civilization, and turn China into a prosperous, strong, democratic and civilized socialist country. "The second sentence of article 19th the tenth paragraph of the preamble of the Constitution" in the long-term process of revolution and construction, has been formed under the leadership of the CPC, democratic parties and people's organizations to participate in, including all socialist workers, socialism Patriots and Patriots who support the reunification of the motherland and the broad patriotic United Front, this front will continue to consolidate and develop. "Is amended as:" in the long process of revolution and construction, has been formed under the leadership of the CPC, democratic parties and people's organizations to participate in, including all socialist laborers, builders of the Socialist cause, supporting socialism Patriots and Patriots who support the reunification of the motherland and the broad patriotic United Front, this front will continue to consolidate and develop. "20th tenth article of the Constitution" States where the public interest requires, in accordance with the law on land requisition. "Amended to read:" States where the public interest requires, in accordance with the law on compensation for land requisitioned or expropriated and given. "21st 11th article" the State protects the lawful rights and interests of individual economy and private economy. National guidance, supervision and management of individual economy and private economy. "Amended to read:" the State protects the individual and private economy of non-public ownership economy's legal rights and interests. States to encourage, support and guide the development of non-public ownership economy, and supervision and management of non-public ownership economy in accordance with law. "22nd 13th" national protection of citizens ' lawful income, savings, houses and other lawful property ownership. "State in accordance with the legal provisions for the protection of citizens to inherit private property. "Is amended as:" citizen's lawful private property is inviolable. "" State in accordance with the law to protect citizens ' rights to private property and inheritance. "" States where the public interest requires, in accordance with the law on citizens ' private property expropriated or expropriation and compensation. "The 23rd article of the Constitution a paragraph added to article 14th, as the fourth paragraph:" the State shall establish a social security system compatible with the level of economic development. "24th 33rd one paragraph is added as a third paragraph:" the State respects and safeguards human rights.     "Third paragraph read fourth paragraph accordingly. 25th the 59th article "national people's Congress elected by the provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities and military representatives. Representatives of minorities should have appropriate representation. "Is amended as:" the national people's Congress by provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities and special administrative regions and the army composed of representatives elected. Representatives of minorities should have appropriate representation.     "26th 67th national people's Congress Standing Committee terms of reference the 20th" (20) decisions or individual provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the martial law "is amended as" (20) or individual provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the State of emergency. " 27th constitutional article 80th "People's Republic of China according to the decision of the national people's Congress and the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress Chairman, promulgating laws, appoint and remove the premier, Vice Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers or commissions, the Auditor-General, the Secretary-General, awarded state medals and titles of honour, published the amnesty, issued the martial law order, and declare a State of war, promulgates. "Modified:" People's Republic of China according to the decision of the national people's Congress and the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress Chairman, promulgating laws, appoint and remove the premier, Vice Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers or commissions, the Auditor-General, the Secretary-General, awarded state medals and titles of honour, issued amnesty, declared a State of emergency, declared a State of war, promulgates. "28th 81st" People's Republic of China Chairman, on behalf of People's Republic of China, receives foreign envoys; according to the decision of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress, appoints and recalls plenipotentiary representatives, ratifies and abrogates treaties and important agreements concluded with foreign States. "Modified:" People's Republic of China Chairman, on behalf of People's Republic of China, State functions and receiving foreign envoys; according to the decision of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress, appoints and recalls plenipotentiary representatives, ratifies and abrogates treaties and important agreements concluded with foreign States.     "29th 89th State Council terms of reference of the 16th" (16) decisions within the scope of the provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the martial law in parts of the "amended to read" (16) in accordance with the law decides to provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities within the scope of the State of emergency in some areas. " Article 30th 98th "provincial, municipal, County, municipal district people's Congress for a term of five years. The people's congresses of townships, nationality townships, and towns for a term of three years. "Modified to:" local people's congresses at all levels for a term of five years. "The 31st chapter the fourth chapter of the Constitution," the national flag, the national emblem and the capital "is amended as" national flag, national anthem, emblem and the capital. " 136th added a section, second paragraph: "People's Republic of China is the national anthem of the anthem. "Report: People's Republic of China Constitution (as amended in 2004) (December 4, 1982 session of the fifth national people's Congress on December 4, 1982, the national people's Congress bulletin published for implementation on April 12, 1988 NPC adopted at the first meeting of the People's Republic of China Constitution Amendment Act, March 29, 1993 adopted by the first meeting of the session of the national people's Congress of the People's Republic of China constitutional amendment,     March 15, 1999 adopted by the second session of the ninth national people's Congress of the People's Republic of China constitutional amendment and March 14, 2004, adopted at the second meeting of the deputies of the People's Republic of China Constitution Amendment Act amended) directory general outline preamble chapter Chapter II fundamental rights and duties of citizens chapter III section I section II of the national people's Congress institutions People's Republic of China Chairman of section III Department of State Fourth section of the Central Military Commission at its fifth a local people's Congress and local people's Governments at various levels sixth seventh the organs of self-government of national autonomous areas section people's courts and people's procuratorates the fourth chapter of the national flag, national anthem, national emblem, the preamble to the capital of China is one of the oldest countries in the world.     Chinese people of all ethnic groups work together to create a brilliant culture, have a glorious revolutionary tradition. After 1840, the feudal China gradually turned into a semi-colonial and semi-feudal country.     The Chinese people for national independence and liberation and for democracy and freedom have waged heroic struggle.     In 20th century, the great and earthshaking historical changes have taken place in China. 1911 revolution led by Sun Yat-Sen, and abolished the feudal monarchy, founded the Republic of China.     However, the historical tasks of the Chinese people against imperialism and feudalism has not been completed. In 1949, Chairman Mao Zedong as leader of the Chinese Communist Party led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups, after a long period of arduous struggle and after other forms of struggle, finally overthrew the rule of imperialism, feudalism and bureaucrat-capitalism, achieved a great victory of the new democratic revolution, established the People's Republic of China.     Since then, the Chinese people have taken the power of the State, became the masters of the country. People's Republic of China since the founding of our society and gradually achieve the transition from new democracy to socialism. Socialist transformation of private ownership has been completed, system of exploitation of man by man abolished and the Socialist system has been established. People's democratic dictatorship led by the working class and based on the Alliance, which is in essence the dictatorship, has been consolidated and developed. The Chinese people and the Chinese people's Liberation Army have defeated imperialist and hegemonist aggression, sabotage and armed provocations and maintaining national independence and security, strengthened the defense. Has made significant achievements in economic construction, independent and relatively complete industrial system of socialism has been formed, a significant increase in agricultural production. Education, science, culture and other undertakings have made great development of Socialist ideological education has achieved obvious results.    People's lives have been improved a lot. Achievements of the victory of China's new democratic revolution and the Socialist cause, the CPC led the Chinese people of all ethnic groups, under the guidance of Marxism, Leninism, Mao Zedong thought, stick to the truth, correct mistakes and overcoming numerous difficulties and obstacles made. China is in the primary stage of socialism for a long time. The fundamental task of the State is along the path of socialism with Chinese characteristics, and concentrate its effort on socialist modernization construction. China all people will continues to in CPC led Xia, in Marx Leninism, and Mao Zedong thought, and Deng Xiao-ping's theory and "three a representative" important thought guidelines Xia, insisted people's democratic dictatorship, insisted Socialist road, insisted reform, constantly perfect Socialist of the system, development socialist market, development Socialist Democratic, sound socialist legal, self-reliance, hard, gradually achieved industrial, and agricultural, and defense and science and technology of modern, promoted material, and     Coordinated development of spiritual civilization and political civilization, and turn China into a prosperous, strong, democratic and civilized socialist country. In China, the exploiting classes as such have been eliminated, but class struggle will exist within a certain scope.     Chinese people and try to undermine China's domestic and foreign hostile forces and elements of the Socialist system, must fight. Taiwan is People's Republic of China part of the sacred territory.     Completion of the great cause of the reunification of the motherland is including Taiwan compatriots, the sacred duty of all Chinese people. Must rely on the Socialist construction workers, farmers and intellectuals, and unite with all forces that can be United. In the long-term process of revolution and construction, has been formed under the leadership of the CPC, democratic parties and people's organizations to participate in, including all socialist laborers, builders of the Socialist cause, supporting socialism Patriots and Patriots who support the reunification of the motherland and the broad patriotic United Front, this front will continue to consolidate and develop. The United Front organization of the Chinese people's political consultative conference, is broadly representative, which has played an important historical role, in national political life, our social life and in the future in promoting friendship and in carrying out socialist modernization, safeguarding national unity and solidarity in the fight, and will further play its important role.     Multi-party cooperation and political consultation system under the leadership of the Chinese Communist Party will exist and develop for a long time. People's Republic of China is the national unitary multi-ethnic State founded jointly by the people of all ethnic groups. Socialist ethnic relations of equality, unity and mutual assistance has been established, and will continue to be strengthened. In upholding national unity in the struggle against chauvinism, mainly Han chauvinism, to vote against local nationalism.     Make every effort to promote the common prosperity of all ethnic groups in the country. The Chinese revolution and construction achievements are inseparable from the support of the people of the world. China's future are closely linked with the future of the world.     China insisted independent of foreign policy, insisted each other respect sovereignty and territory full, and non violations, and non interference Interior, and equality, and peaceful coexistence of five items principles, development with States of diplomatic relations and economic, and culture of Exchange; insisted against imperialism, and hegemony, and colonialism, strengthening with world States people of solidarity, support was oppression national and developing countries towards and maintenance national independent, and development national economic of Justice struggle, for maintenance world peace and promote human progress career and efforts. This Constitution, in the form of law to confirm the outcome of the struggle of the people of all ethnic groups in China, provides basic system and basic tasks of the State, is the country's fundamental law, has the highest legal authority.     People of all nationalities, all State organs and armed forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises and institutions, must take the Constitution as basic norm of conduct, and for the maintenance of the dignity of the Constitution and ensure its implementation responsibilities.     Chapter one General principles article People's Republic of China is led by the working class and based on the Alliance on the basis of the Socialist state under the people's democratic dictatorship. The Socialist system is People's Republic of China's basic system.     Prohibit any organization or individual to undermine the Socialist system.     Article People's Republic of China all power belongs to the people.     Organs of people exercise State power are the national people's Congress and local people's congresses at all levels.     In accordance with the law of the people, through a variety of ways and forms, the management of State Affairs, economic and cultural undertakings, and Social Affairs.     Article People's Republic of China National institutions apply the principle of democratic centralism.     The national people's Congress and local people's congresses at all levels are elected by the democratic, accountable to the people and subject to their supervision.     State administrative organs, judicial organs and procuratorial organs are produced by the people's congresses, to which they are responsible, by which they are supervised.     Central and local State organs is the Division of powers, followed under the unified leadership of the Central Government, give full play to the initiative and enthusiasm of the place principle. Fourth People's Republic of China all ethnic groups are equal. The State protects the lawful rights and interests of ethnic minorities, the preservation and development of ethnic relations of equality, unity and mutual assistance.     Prohibition of discrimination and oppression of any ethnic group, prohibit acts of undermining national unity and ethnic division.     Countries according to the characteristics and needs of the ethnic minorities, helping accelerate economic and cultural development in ethnic minority areas. The areas inhabited by ethnic minorities exercising regional autonomy and self-government are established, exercise their right to self-determination.     Every national autonomous area is People's Republic of China is not part of.     All nationalities have the freedom to use and develop their own spoken and written languages and to preserve or reform their own Folkways and freedom.     Article fifth People's Republic of China rule of law, building a socialist country.     National unity and dignity of the Socialist legal system.     All laws, administrative regulations and local regulations may contravene the Constitution. All State organs and armed forces, all political parties and public organizations and all enterprises must abide by the Constitution and the law.     All acts in violation of the Constitution and the law, must be investigated.     No organization or individual is privileged to be beyond the Constitution or the law. Sixth People's Republic of China of the basis of the Socialist economic system is Socialist public ownership of the means of production, namely, ownership by the people and collective ownership.     Abolition of exploitation of man of Socialist public ownership system, implementation of best, the principle of distribution according to work.     Country in the primary stage of socialism, public ownership is dominant and diverse forms of ownership develop the basic economic system, adhere to the distribution according to work is dominant and a variety of modes of distribution coexist system. Article seventh State economy is the sector of socialist economy, is the leading force in the national economy.     The State ensures the consolidation and development of the economy. Article eighth contracted management of rural collective economic organizations practise home based, system was a combination of two-tier management system. Rural production, supply and marketing, credit, consumption and other forms of economic cooperation, is the sector of socialist economy under collective ownership.     Workers participating in the rural collective economic organizations, right, within the limits prescribed by law to farm plots of cropland, and household sideline production and raise privately owned livestock.     Towns of handicrafts, industry, construction, transport, Commerce, service industry, various forms of economic cooperation, it is the sector of socialist economy under collective ownership.     Countries protect the lawful rights and interests of urban and rural collective economic organizations, and encourages, guides and helps the development of collective economy.     Nineth mineral resources, waters, forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land, beaches and other natural resources belonged to the State, which are owned by law belong to the collective forests, mountains, grasslands, unreclaimed land, beaches except. State ensures the rational use of natural resources and protects rare animals and plants.     Prohibit any organization or individual by whatever means is appropriate or destruction of natural resources.     Article tenth urban land is owned by the State.     Land in rural and suburban areas, other than prescribed by law belong to the State, belong to the collective; Homestead and farm plots of cropland, also belong to the collective.     Countries where the public interest requires, in accordance with the law on compensation for land requisitioned or expropriated and given. No organization or individual may appropriate, buy, sell or in any other form of illegal transfer of land.     Land use right may be transferred in accordance with the provisions of the law.     All organizations and individuals using land must be reasonable use of the land.     11th article in the law within the individual, private and other non-public sector of the economy, is an important component of the Socialist market economy. The State protects private economic and other legitimate rights and interests of the non-public sector of the economy.     States to encourage, support and guide the development of non-public ownership economy, and supervision and management of non-public ownership economy in accordance with law.     12th Socialist public property is inviolable. The State protects Socialist public property.     Any organization or individual by whatever means is prohibited appropriation or damaging of State and collective property.     13th citizens ' lawful private property is inviolable.     State in accordance with the law to protect citizens ' rights to private property and inheritance.     Countries where the public interest requires, in accordance with the law on citizens ' private property expropriated or expropriation and compensation.     14th state by increasing workers ' enthusiasm and skills, promoting advanced science and technology, improving the economic management system and enterprise management system, the implementation of responsibility system for various forms of socialism, improving the Organization of work, in order to continuously improve labour productivity and economic efficiency, development of the social productive forces.     National economy and combat waste.     The State properly apportions accumulation and consumption, taking into account the interests of the State, collectives and individuals, on the basis of expanded production, and improve the people's material and cultural life.     The State shall establish a social security system compatible with the level of economic development.     15th State practices socialist market economy.     Countries in strengthening economic legislation and improve macro-control.     State law prohibits any organization or individual to disrupt social and economic order.    16th State-owned enterprises within the limits prescribed by the law have the right to make their own decisions. State-owned enterprises in accordance with the law, through congresses and other forms, practise democratic management.     17th under the premise of collective economic organizations in complying with the law, are given autonomy in conducting independent economic activities.     Collective economic organizations practise democratic management in accordance with the law, elect or remove their managerial personnel and management decision on major issues.     18th People's Republic of China allowed foreign enterprises and other economic organizations or individuals in accordance with the People's Republic of China Law of investment in China and Chinese enterprises or other economic organizations of various forms of economic cooperation. In China by foreign enterprises and other economic organizations of foreign countries and the Sino-foreign joint venture enterprise, must comply with the People's Republic of China law.     Their legitimate rights and interests are protected by the People's Republic of China legal protection.     19th State the development of Socialist education and works to improve the scientific and cultural level of the whole nation.     Country schools of various types, universal compulsory primary education, the development of secondary education, vocational education and higher education, and the development of pre-school education.     The State develops educational facilities, literacy, workers, farmers, government staff and other workers ' political, cultural, scientific, technical, business, education, encouraging the self-taught.     The State encourages the collective economic organizations, State enterprises and institutions and other sectors of society to establish educational institutions of various types according to law.     Countries national Mandarin.     20th national development of the natural and social sciences, popularize scientific and technical knowledge, and rewards achievements in scientific research and technical innovation.     21st State develops medical and health services, promotes modern medicine and traditional Chinese medicine, encourage and support rural collective economic organizations, State enterprises and institutions and neighbourhood organizations of various medical and health facilities, carrying out public health activities and protect people's health.     National sports development, carries out mass sports activities, enhance the people's physique.     22nd national development of serving the people and socialism, literature and art, the press, radio and television broadcasting, publishing and distribution services, libraries, museums, and other cultural undertakings, develop mass cultural activities.     State protected historical sites, valuable cultural relics and other important historical and cultural heritage.     23rd State trains serve socialism of various professionals, expanding the ranks of intellectuals and creates conditions, give full play to their role in socialist modernization.     24th State through universal access to education, moral education, culture, discipline and legality, in urban and rural areas by the people in the formulation and implementation of rules of conduct, conventions, strengthening the construction of socialist spiritual civilization.     State advocates love the motherland, love the people, labor, science and socialism of social morality, people in the education on patriotism, collectivism, internationalism, and communism, for the education of dialectical materialism and historical materialism, against capitalism, feudalism and other decadent ideas.     25th the State promotes family planning so that population growth may fit the plans for economic and social development.     26th State to protect and improve the living environment and the ecological environment, and to prevent and control pollution and other public hazards.     The State organizes and encourages afforestation and protection of vegetation.     27th all State organs carry out the principle of simple, responsibility for work and implementation of staff training and assessment system, and constantly improve the work quality and efficiency, combat bureaucratism.     All State organs and State functionaries must rely on the support of the people, maintain regular close contact with people, listen to the views and suggestions of the people and accept supervision by the people, to serve the people.     28th State maintains public order and suppresses treasonable and other criminal activities that endanger national security, sanctions against law and order, crime of undermining the Socialist economic and other activities, punishing and reforming criminals. 29th People's Republic of China's armed forces belong to the people.     Its mission is to consolidate national defense, resist aggression, defend the motherland, safeguard the people's peaceful labour, participate in national construction, to serve the people.     Strengthening construction of revolutionization, modernization and regularization of the armed forces, strengthen the national defense force.     Article 30th People's Republic of China administrative division are as follows: (a) the country is divided into provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities directly under (ii) provinces and autonomous regions are divided into autonomous prefectures, counties, autonomous counties, cities, and (iii) counties, autonomous counties are divided into townships, nationality townships, and towns. Municipalities and large cities are divided into districts and counties.     Autonomous prefectures are divided into counties, autonomous counties, and cities.     All autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties are national autonomous areas. 31st State may establish special administrative regions when necessary.     System to be instituted in special administrative regions under specific conditions prescribed by law enacted by the national people's Congress.     32nd People's Republic of China protected the legitimate rights and interests of foreigners within Chinese territory, foreigners in China must abide by the People's Republic of China law.     People's Republic of China for foreigners who seek asylum for political reasons, may be given the right to asylum.     Chapter II fundamental rights and obligations Article 33rd People's Republic of China nationality who was People's Republic of China citizens.     People's Republic of China citizens shall be equal before the law.     States to respect and guarantee human rights.     Every citizen is entitled to rights under the Constitution and law, as well as fulfilment of obligations under the Constitution and the law.     34th People's Republic of China citizens of 18 years of age, without distinction as to nationality, race, sex, occupation, family background, religious belief, education, property status or length of residence, have the right to vote and to stand for election, but except persons deprived of political rights according to law.     35th People's Republic of China citizens have freedom of speech, press, freedom of Assembly, of Association, of procession and of demonstration.     Article 36th People's Republic of China citizens have freedom of religious belief.     No State organ, social organization or individual may force citizens to believe or not to believe in religion, prohibiting any discrimination against citizens of religious and non-religious citizens. The State protects normal religious activities.     No person may make use of religion to disrupt public order, impair the health of citizens or interfere with the State education system activity.     Religious bodies and religious affairs are not subject to any foreign domination.     37th People's Republic of China citizen's freedom shall be inviolable.     Any citizen, without the approval or decision of a people's Procuratorate or a people's Court decided and executed by a public security organ, from arrest.     Prohibition of unlawful detention or deprivation or restriction of citizens ' freedom by other means, to illegally search a citizen's body. Article 38th People's Republic of China citizens ' human dignity is inviolable.     Against citizens by any means is prohibited for insult, slander and false accusation. 39th People's Republic of China citizen's residence is inviolable.     Prohibition of unlawful search of, or intrusion into, a citizen's House. 40th People's Republic of China freedom and privacy of correspondence of citizens are protected by law protection.     In addition to the needs of national security or of investigation into criminal offences, the public security organ or the procuratorial organs in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law to inspect the communications, no organization or individual may, on any grounds, infringe upon citizens ' freedom and privacy of correspondence.     41st People's Republic of China citizens of any State organs and State functionaries, have the right to make criticisms and suggestions regarding any illegal misconduct of State organs and State functionaries, to relevant State organs complaints, charges or exposures made right, but may not be fabricated or distorted facts and false accusation. Citizen complaints, charges or exposures, the State organ concerned must ascertain the facts to handle.     No one may suppress and retaliation.     Because State agencies and countries who have suffered losses through infringement of their civic rights, and have the right to compensation in accordance with the law.     42nd People's Republic of China citizens ' labour rights and obligations.     Countries through various channels, create employment conditions, strengthen labor protection, improve working conditions, and on the basis of expanded production, increases remuneration and benefits. Labor is a glorious duty all able-bodied citizens. State-owned enterprises and workers in urban and rural economic collectives should approach their work as the masters of the country. The State promotes socialist labour emulation, and rewards model and advanced workers.     State encourages citizens to engage in volunteering.     State employment of citizens before making the necessary training to employment.     43rd People's Republic of China worker's right to rest.     National development workers rest and recuperation facilities, provides employees ' working hours and vacations. 44th state in accordance with the legal provisions of enterprises and organizations of workers and functionaries of the retirement system.     Retiree life guaranteed by the State and society. Article 45th People's Republic of China citizens in old age, illness or disability cases, have the right to material assistance from the State and society.     Development required for citizens to enjoy this right of the State social insurance, social relief and medical and health services.     Life of the State and social security, disabled veterans, provide pensions to families of martyrs and give preferential treatment to military families.     The State and society help make arrangements for blind, deaf and dumb and other work, livelihood and education of citizens with disabilities.     Article 46th People's Republic of China citizens have the right and obligation to receive education.     National foster youth, adolescents and children in moral, intellectual and physical development. 47th People's Republic of China citizens to engage in scientific research, literary and artistic creations and other cultural activities freely.     Countries engaged in education, science, technology, literature, art and other cultural undertakings the benefit of the citizens of the people's creative work, to encourage and help.    48th People's Republic of China Women in the political, economic, cultural, social and family life and enjoy equal rights with men in all spheres. State protection of the rights and interests of women, equal pay for equal work for men and women, the training and selection of women cadres.     49th marriage, the protection of families, mothers and children are protected by the State.     Both spouses have the duty to practise family planning.     Parents have the obligation to bring up and educate their minor children and adult children have the duty to support and assist their parents.     Prohibits the destruction of freedom of marriage, prohibition of the abuse of the elderly, women and children.     50th People's Republic of China protected the legitimate rights and interests of overseas Chinese, to protect the lawful rights and interests of returned overseas Chinese and the family members.     51st People's Republic of China citizens in exercising their freedoms and rights and must not harm national, social and collective interests and legitimate freedoms and rights of other citizens.     52nd People's Republic of China citizens have the duty to safeguard national unity and national unity of the country.     53rd People's Republic of China citizens must abide by the Constitution and the law, keep state secrets, protect public property, observe labour discipline and public order and respect social ethics.     54th People's Republic of China citizens to defend the motherland's security, reputation and interests of the obligation, without endangering the security, reputation and interests of the country.     55th to defend the motherland and resist aggression is People's Republic of China the sacred duty of every citizen.     In accordance with the law for military service and join the militia is People's Republic of China the honourable duty of citizens.     56th People's Republic of China citizens tax obligations in accordance with the law. Chapter III section Congress of national institutions article 57th People's Republic of China National People's Congress is the highest organ of State power.     Its permanent body is the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress.     58th National People's Congress and its Standing Committee exercise the legislative power of the State. 59th Congress by provinces, autonomous regions, municipalities and special administrative regions and composed of representatives elected by the army.     Representatives of minorities should have appropriate representation.     Election hosted by the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress of Deputies.     The number of Deputies and the manner prescribed by law.     60th session of the national people's Congress, a five-year term. The national people's Congress two months prior to the expiration of the mandate, elections of the deputies of the next session of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress must be completed. If elections were not the exceptional circumstances by the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress adopted by all its members two-thirds more than most, it may be postponed, extending the mandate of the current session of the national people's Congress.     In exceptional circumstances after the end of a year, you must complete the election of Deputies. 61st national people's Congress meets in session once a year, convened by the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress.     If the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress deems it necessary, or one-fifth per cent of the deputies proposed that the national people's Congress may be convened at the Conference.     When the national people's Congress meets, it elects a Presidium meeting.     62nd article national people's Congress exercise following terms: (a) modified Constitution; (ii) supervision Constitution of implementation; (three) developed and modified criminal, and civil, and national institutions of and other of basic legal; (four) election People's Republic of China President, and Deputy President; (five) according to People's Republic of China President of nominated, decided State Prime Minister of candidates; according to State Prime Minister of nominated, decided State Deputy Prime Minister, and State, and the Department Minister, and the Committee Director, and Auditor-General, and Secretary-General of candidates;     (Six) Election Central Military Commission President; according to Central Military Commission President of nominated, decided Central Military Commission other composition personnel of candidates; (seven) election Supreme People's Court Dean; (eight) election highest people's Procuratorate Attorney-General; (nine) review and approved economy and social development plans and plans implementation situation of report; (10) review and approved national of budget and budget implementation situation of report; (11) change or revoked national people's Congress Standing Committee not appropriate of decided;     (12) provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities build and (13) establishment of special administrative regions and the systems and (14) to decide on questions of war and peace (15) other powers and functions shall be exercised by the highest organ of State power.     63rd national people's Congress has the right to remove from Office the following persons: (a) the People's Republic of China President and Vice-President, (ii) the premier, Vice Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers or commissions, the Auditor-General and Secretary-General; (c) the Chairman of the Central Military Commission, and other members of the Central Military Commission and (d), President of the Supreme People's Court; (v) the Supreme People's Procuratorate.     64th constitutional amendment proposed by the representative of the national people's Congress Standing Committee of the national people's Congress or by more than one-fifth, and in two-thirds of the majority of all the deputies.     Laws and resolutions by the majority vote of all the deputies.     65th Standing Committee of the national people's Congress is composed of the following members: the Chairman, Vice Chairman of a number of people, Secretary General and members of several others.     Component members of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress, there shall be an appropriate number of representatives of ethnic minorities.     Component members of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress elects, and has the right to recall.     The composition of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress shall hold office in State administrative organs, judicial organs and procuratorial organs functions.     66th session of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress session of the national people's Congress for the same term, exercises its powers it up to the next session of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress elected a new.     Chairman and Vice Chairman shall serve no more than two consecutive terms. 67th article national people's Congress Standing Committee exercise following terms: (a) explained Constitution, supervision Constitution of implementation; (ii) developed and modified except should by national people's Congress developed of legal yiwai of other legal; (three) in national people Congress intersessional during, on national people's Congress developed of legal for part added and modified, but shall not with the legal of principles phase conflict; (four) explained legal; (five) in national people Congress intersessional during,     Review and approved economy and social development plans, and State budget in implementation process in the by must for of part adjustment programme; (six) supervision State, and Central Military Commission, and Supreme People's Court and highest people's Procuratorate of work; (seven) revoked State developed of with Constitution, and legal phase conflict of administrative regulations, and decided and command; (eight) revoked province, and autonomous regions, and municipalities power organ developed of with Constitution, and legal and administrative regulations phase conflict of local regulations and resolution;     (Nine) in national people Congress intersessional during, according to State Prime Minister of nominated, decided Minister, and Committee Director, and Auditor-General, and Secretary-General of candidates; (10) in national people Congress intersessional during, according to Central Military Commission President of nominated, decided Central Military Commission other composition personnel of candidates; (11) according to Supreme People's Court Dean of drew attention to the, appointment Supreme People's Court Deputy Dean, and judge, and trial Committee members and military court Dean;     (12) according to highest people's Procuratorate Attorney-General of drew attention to the, appointment highest people's Procuratorate Deputy Attorney-General, and inspectors, and prosecutorial Committee members and Chief Attorney-General, and approved province, and autonomous regions, and municipalities of people's Procuratorate Attorney-General of appointment; (13) decided diplomatic Plenipotentiary of appointment; (14) decided with foreign concluded of Treaty and important agreement of approved and abolished; (15) provides soldiers and diplomatic personnel of title level system and other specifically title level system;     (16) provides and decided grant national of Medal and honors title; (17) decided amnesty; (18) in national people Congress intersessional during, if encountered national suffered armed violations or must perform international between common prevent aggression of Treaty of situation, decided war State of announced; (19) decided national story or local mobilization; (20) decided national or individual province, and autonomous regions, and municipalities into emergency; (21) National People's Congress grant of other terms. 68th, Chairman of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress, presided over the work of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress, convenes its meetings.     Vice-Chairmen, Secretary-General to assist the Chairman in his work.     Composed of the Chairman, Vice-Chairmen, Secretary-General, Chairman of the Conference, dealing with the important day-to-day work of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress.     69th responsible Standing Committee of the national people's Congress and reports on its work. 70th article establishes a nationalities Committee, Law Committee, the national people's Congress financial and Economic Committee, education, science, culture and public health Committee, Foreign Affairs Committee, overseas Chinese Affairs Committee, and others require the establishment of special committees.     During the national people's Congress, the special committees work under the leadership of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress.     The specialized Committee in the national people's Congress and its Standing Committee, under the leadership of research, review and preparation of the relevant motion.     71st national people's Congress and its Standing Committee when it deems it necessary, may appoint an Inquiry Committee on specific issues, and according to the report of the Commission of inquiry, the corresponding resolution.     When the Commission of inquiry to investigate all relevant State organs, social organizations and citizens have an obligation to provide it with the necessary materials. 72nd Component members of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress and the national people's Congress, presented on a right, in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law belongs to the national people's Congress and the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress, within the terms of reference of the motion. 73rd during meetings of the deputies to the national people's Congress, during meetings of the component members of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress Standing Committee, right, in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law to the State Council or the question of ministries and commissions under the State Council.     Question authority must reply.     74th deputies to, non-licensed by the Presidium of the national people's Congress, when the national people's Congress during the non-licensed by the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress, not be subjected to arrest or a criminal trial.     75th deputies to the national people's Congress meeting and voting cannot be held accountable by law.     76th deputies must be exemplary in abiding by the Constitution and the law, keep state secrets, and their production, work and social activities, assist in the implementation of the Constitution and the law.     Representatives of the national people's Congress should maintain close contact with the units which elected them, and people, listen to and reflect the opinions and demands of the people, to serve the people. 77th Deputies under the supervision of the units which elected them.     The electoral units have the right to, in accordance with the procedure prescribed by law to recall elected representatives.     78th organization and working procedures of the national people's Congress and its Standing Committee are prescribed by law.     Section II of People's Republic of China 79th People's Republic of China President and Vice President elected by the national people's Congress.     Have the right to vote and to stand for election in the age of 45 People's Republic of China citizens can be selected as the People's Republic of China President and Vice-President.     People's Republic of China President and Vice-President for a term of the session of the national people's Congress for the same, and shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.     80th People's Republic of China according to the decision of the national people's Congress and the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress Chairman, promulgating laws, appoint and remove the premier, Vice Premiers, State Councillors, Ministers or commissions, the Auditor-General, the Secretary-General, awarded state medals and titles of honour, issued amnesty, declared a State of emergency, declared a State of war, promulgates.     81st People's Republic of China Chairman, on behalf of People's Republic of China, State functions and receiving foreign envoys; according to the decision of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress, appoints and recalls plenipotentiary representatives, ratifies and abrogates treaties and important agreements concluded with foreign States.     82nd People's Republic of China Vice President assists the President.     People's Republic of China Vice President of the Commission, to President as part of the terms of reference.     83rd People's Republic of China President and Vice-President exercise authority to the next session of the national people's Congress are elected President and Vice President assume office.     84th People's Republic of China President vacancy, Office of the Vice President succeeds Chairman.     People's Republic of China Vice President when absent, by the national people's Congress election.     People's Republic of China Chairman and Deputy Chairman are absent when deputies by-elections prior to the by-election, by the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress, Chairman of the temporary Deputy Chairman.     Section III State 85th People's Republic of China State Council, that is, the Central People's Government, is the supreme organ of the authority, is the highest organ of State administration.     86th State Council is composed of the following: the Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister, number, Chinese individuals, ministries, commissions, the Auditor-General, the Secretary-General. The Premier of the State Council in charge.     The Ministers assume overall responsibility for the ministries and commissions.     Organizations under the State Council shall be prescribed by law.     87th session of the State Council session of the national people's Congress for the same term.     Premier, Vice Premiers, State Councillors shall serve no more than two consecutive terms. 88th Prime Minister led the work of the State Council.     Vice-Premiers, State Councillors assist the premier in his work.     The Prime Minister, Deputy Prime Minister and State Councilor, Secretary General of the State Council Executive meeting.     The premier convenes and presides over the Executive meetings and plenary meeting of the State Council. 89th article State exercise following terms: (a) according to Constitution and legal, provides administrative measures, developed administrative regulations, released decided and command; (ii) to national people's Congress or national people's Congress Standing Committee proposed motion; (three) provides the Department and the Committee of task and duties, unified led the Department and the Committee of work, and led not belongs to the Department and the Committee of national of administrative work; (four) unified led national place levels national administrative organ of work, Provides central and province, and autonomous regions, and municipalities of national administrative organ of terms of specific divided; (five) prepared and implementation economy and social development plans and State budget; (six) led and management economic work and urban and rural construction; (seven) led and management education, and science, and culture, and health, and sports and family planning work; (eight) led and management home, and police, and judicial administrative and monitored, work; (nine) management Foreign Affairs, with foreign concluded Treaty and agreement; (10) led and management defense construction career; (10 A) led and management national affairs, guarantees minority of equal right and autonomous place of autonomy right; (12) protection overseas of due of right and interests, protection returned overseas Chinese and family members of legal of right and interests; (13) change or revoked the Department, and the Committee released of not appropriate of command, and indicates and regulations; (14) change or revoked place levels national administrative organ of not appropriate of decided and command; (15) approved province, and autonomous regions, and municipalities of regional divided, approved autonomous, and County, and     The establishment and geographic division of the autonomous counties, and cities, (16) in accordance with the law decides to provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities within the scope of the State of emergency in some areas, (17) the preparation of the audited administrations, appointment, training, evaluation and reward and punishment in accordance with law officials (18) other functions and powers granted by the national people's Congress and its Standing Committee.     90th State Council ministries or commissions responsible for the work; convene and preside over ministerial meetings or Committee meetings, Board meetings to discuss and decide on major problems of this sector.     Ministries and commissions in accordance with laws and administrative regulations, decisions and orders of the State Council, within the limits of the authority, issue orders, directives and regulations.     91st auditing bodies are established by the State Council, on financial revenue and expenditure of the departments under the State Council and local governments at all levels, financial institutions, enterprises and organizations of the country's financial revenue and expenditure, audit and supervision.     Audit institutions led by the premier, independent exercise of its power of supervision through auditing in accordance with laws, not subject to interference by any administrative organ, public organization or individual.     92nd State Department responsible for the national people's Congress and reports on its work, during the national people's Congress, the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress is responsible and reports on its work.     93rd of the fourth section of the Central Military Committee People's Republic of China Central Military Commission, led the nation's armed forces.     Central Military Commission is composed of the following officers: the President, Vice-Chairpersons, members of several others.     The Chairman of Central Military Commission system.     The Central Military Commission at each session of the national people's Congress for the same term.     94th Chairman of the Central Military Commission of the national people's Congress and its Standing Committee is responsible for.     Fifth 95th section at all levels of local people's congresses and local people's Governments of provinces, municipalities, counties, cities and municipal districts, townships, nationality townships, and towns set up the people's congresses and people's Governments.     The Organization of local people's congresses and local people's Governments at all levels shall be prescribed by law. Autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties of self-government are established.     Organization and work of the organs of self-government in accordance with Chapter III of the Constitution section fifth and sixth fundamental principles laid down by the law.     96th regional people's congresses at various levels are local organs of State power.     Local people's congresses at or above the county level establish standing committees.     97th of provinces, municipalities, districts, election of deputies to people's congresses at the next level; City County, city not divided into districts, municipal districts, townships, nationality townships, and towns of deputies directly elected by the voters.     Local people's congresses at all levels of representation and the manner prescribed by law.     98th session of the local people's congresses at all levels for a period of five years.     99th regional people's congresses at all levels within the administrative area to ensure compliance and enforcement of the Constitution, laws, administrative rules and regulations; permission in accordance with law, adopt and publish resolutions, review and determine local economic construction, cultural and public service development plan.     Local people's congresses at or above the county level shall review and approve within the administrative area of the national economy and social development plan, and their reports on the implementation of the budget; the power to alter or annul inappropriate decisions of the Standing Committee of the present level.     Township people's congresses in accordance with the laws requiring permission to take specific measures tailored to national characteristics.     100th provincial and municipal people's congresses and their standing committees, contrary to the Constitution and the laws, administrative regulations under the premise, can formulate local laws, reported to the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress for the record. 101th Local people's congresses at all levels elect and the right to recall the people's Governments at the corresponding level of provincial governors and Vice Governors, mayors and deputy mayors, county heads and Deputy Heads of counties, districts and Vice Mayor, Mayor and Vice Mayor, Mayor and Deputy Mayor. Local people's congresses at or above the county level elections and the right to recall the people's courts and the people's procuratorates at the same level.     The election or recall of Chief Procurator, shall be reported to superior procurators of the people's Procuratorate of the people's Congress Standing Committee for approval.     102th in provinces, municipalities, districts, deputies from the supervision of the electoral units; City County, city not divided into districts, municipal districts, townships, nationality townships, and towns of the supervision of the national people's Congress by voters.     The election of the representatives of the local people's congresses at all levels and voters are entitled to pursuant to the procedure prescribed by law to remove from their elected representatives.     103th Standing Committee of local people's congresses at or above the county level shall by the Director, the Deputy Director and composed of members of several people, of the people's congresses at the corresponding levels are responsible and report on their work.     Local people's congresses at or above the county level elects, and has the right to recall the level component members of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress.     Where the composition of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress at or above the county level shall hold office in State administrative organs, judicial organs and procuratorial organs functions.     104th article County above of place levels Congress Standing Committee discussion, and summary version administrative within the aspects work of major matters; supervision this level Government, and Court and people's Procuratorate of work; revoked this level Government of not appropriate of decided and command; revoked Xia level Congress of not appropriate of resolution; in accordance with legal provides of permission decided state staff of appointment; in this level Congress intersessional during, recall and by-election Shang level Congress of individual representative.     105th local people's Governments at various levels are local organs of State executive bodies at all levels are local organs of State administration at various levels.     Local people's Governments at various levels by Governors, mayors, county heads, districts, townships and towns accountability.     106th session of the local people's Governments term of each session of the present level for the same period.     107th local people's Governments at or above the county level shall, in accordance with the rights prescribed by law, within their respective administrative areas of economy, education, science, culture, health and sports, urban and rural development and finance, civil affairs, public security, ethnic affairs, judicial administration, supervision and family planning administration and issue decisions and orders, appointment, training, evaluation and administrative staff of rewards and punishments.     People's Governments of townships, nationality townships and towns shall perform the people's congresses at the corresponding levels of resolutions and decisions and orders of the State administrative organs at higher levels and administrative work within their respective administrative areas.     Provincial and municipal people's Government for decision townships, nationality townships, and towns of the establishment and geographic division.     108th local people's Governments at or above the county level shall lead the work sector and lower level people's Governments work has the right to amend or cancel the work sector and lower level people's Governments are not an appropriate decision. 109th established by local people's Governments at and above the county level shall audit institutions.     Local audit organs at various levels independent exercise of its power of supervision through auditing in accordance with laws, the people's Governments at the corresponding level and upper level audit institutions are responsible for. 110th local people's Governments at various levels are responsible and report on their work of the present level.     Local people's Governments at or above the county level during the close session of the present level, on the level of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress responsible for and reports on its work. Level of State administration on the local people's Governments at various levels are responsible and report on their work.     Local people's Governments at all levels all over the country are State administrative organs under the unified leadership of the State Council, is subject to the State Department. 111th areas populated by urban and rural residents on the basis of established neighborhood committees and village committees are grass-roots mass self-government organizations. Neighbourhood or village Committee Director, Deputy Directors and members are elected by the residents.     Neighbourhood or village Committee in relationship with the grass-roots political power is prescribed by law.     Neighbourhood or village Committee for people's mediation committees such as, public security, public health, and go through the residential area public affairs and welfare undertakings, mediate disputes, and help to maintain social order, and make recommendations to reflect the opinions and demands of the masses and the people's Government.     Sixth article 112th the organs of self-government of national autonomous areas are the organs of self-government of national autonomous areas autonomous regions, the people's congresses and people's Governments of autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties.     113th in the people's congresses of the autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties, in addition to representatives of the nationality exercising regional autonomy and other peoples living in the administrative area should also be appropriate representatives.     Autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties in the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress shall be citizens of the nationality exercising regional autonomy, Director or Deputy Director.     114th Chairmen of autonomous regions, autonomous prefecture, autonomous county of the nationality exercising regional autonomy of the citizens.     115th autonomous regions, autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties of self-government of local State organs provided for in chapter III of the Constitution section fifth terms of reference, and in accordance with the Constitution, the law on regional ethnic autonomy provisions and other legal permission to exercise the power of autonomy, according to the actual situation of the local implementation of national laws and policies. 116th congresses of local ethnic groups in the autonomous areas of political, economic and cultural characteristics, formulate autonomous regulations and separate regulations. An autonomous regulations and separate regulations, reported to the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress for approval to take effect.     Autonomous regulations and separate regulations of autonomous prefectures and autonomous counties, provinces or entered into force after the approval of the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress of the autonomous region, and reported to the Standing Committee of the national people's Congress for the record. 117th of self-government of the national autonomous areas manage local financial autonomy.     In accordance with the revenue of the national autonomous areas under the financial system, should be used by the self-government of the national autonomous areas independently arrange for.     118th in the organs of self-government of national autonomous areas under the guidance of the national plan, independently arrange for and administer local economic development.     When his country in developing resources and building enterprises in ethnic autonomous areas, should look after the interests of ethnic autonomous areas.     119th article of self-government of the national autonomous areas independently administer local education, science, culture, health, sports, protect and clean up the cultural heritage of the nation, cultural development and prosperity.     120th self-government of the national autonomous areas in accordance with the country's military regime and the actual needs of the local, approved by the State Council, to organize local social security forces.     121th in performing their functions, the organs of self-government in ethnic autonomous areas, in accordance with the provisions of the Ordinance on the exercise, written language or languages in common use in the locality.     122th countries from financial, material and technical assistance to the minority nationalities to accelerate their economic and cultural development.     Help from local ethnic groups in the autonomous areas train large numbers of cadres at all levels, all kinds of professional and technical workers.     Seventh people's courts and people's procuratorates 123th People's Republic of China people's courts are the judicial organs of the State.     124th People's Republic of China Supreme People's Court, established local levels, military courts and other special people's courts.     Term of Office President of the Supreme People's court session of the national people's Congress for the same, and shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.     The Organization of people's courts is prescribed by law. 125th Court, except in special circumstances as specified by law, shall be conducted in public.     The right to defence of the accused.     126th people's Court according to law exercise judicial power independently, free from interference by any administrative organ, public organization or individual.     127th Supreme People's Court is the highest judicial organ.     The Supreme People's Court trial work of the local people's courts and special people's courts at all levels, the superior people's Court of the people's Court supervises the judicial work. 128th Supreme People's Court to the national people's Congress and its Standing Committee is responsible for.     Local people's courts at all levels responsible for the organs of State power which created them.     129th People's Republic of China people's procuratorates are State legal supervisory bodies.     130th People's Republic of China establishes the Supreme People's Procuratorate and the people's procuratorates at various local levels, military and other special people's procuratorates.     The Supreme People's Procuratorate Procurator-General session of the session of the national people's Congress for the same term, and shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.     The Organization of people's procuratorates is prescribed by law.     131th people's procuratorates exercise procuratorial power independently in accordance with law, not subject to interference by any administrative organ, public organization or individual.     132th Supreme People's Procuratorate is the highest procuratorial organ.     Supreme People's Procuratorate directs the work of local people's procuratorates at different levels and special people's procuratorates, the superior Procuratorate directs the work of lower-level people's Procuratorate. 133th Supreme People's Procuratorate to the national people's Congress and its Standing Committee is responsible for.     Local people's procuratorates at all levels of the organs of State power which created them and the people's Procuratorate at a charge. 134th citizens of all ethnic groups have the right to use their national language in action.     People's courts and people's procuratorates is not familiar with the spoken language of the participants in the proceedings, they should be translated.     In areas inhabited by minorities or ethnic groups shall be written in the local language of the trial; the indictments, judgments, notices and other instruments should be based on actual needs of language or languages in common use in the locality.     135th people's courts, people's procuratorates and the public security organs in handling criminal cases, should the Division responsible for co-ordination, check each other to ensure the correct and effective implementation of the law.    The fourth chapter of the national flag, anthem, emblem and the capital 136th People's Republic of China is a red flag with the national flag.     People's Republic of China is the national anthem of the anthem.     137th People's Republic of China national emblem, is the five-star shines in the middle of Tiananmen Square, surrounded by corn and gear.      138th People's Republic of China's capital Beijing.