LAW Nr. 010172, 9 JANUARY 2001.
Approves the national plan for Education and other matters.
P R E S I D E N T E D R E P u B L I C A I do know that the National Congress decrees and I sanction the following law: Art. 1° Is approved the national plan for education, as contained in the attached document, with a duration of ten years.
Art. 2° from the validity of this law, the States, the Federal District and the municipalities shall, based on the national plan for education, year corresponding plans.
Art. 3° the Union, in conjunction with the States, Federal District, municipalities and civil society, undertake periodic assessments of the implementation of the national plan for education.
§ 1° the Legislature, through the committees of education, culture and sport of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate Education Committee, will monitor the implementation of the national plan for education.
§ 2° the first evaluation will take place in the fourth year of the duration of the Act, and the National Congress to approve legal action arising, for the correction of deficiencies and distortions.
Art. 4° the Union shall set up the National System of Evaluation and establish the necessary mechanisms for the monitoring of the goals contained in the national plan for education.
Art. 5° The multiannual plans of the Union, the States, the Federal District and the Municipalities shall be drawn up in order to support the goals set out in the National Education Plan and the respective year plans.
Art. 6° The powers of the Union, the States, the Federal District and the Municipalities shall endeavour to disclosure of this plan and of the progressive realization of their objectives and goals, so that the society meet widely and accompany your implementation.
Art. 7° this law shall enter into force on the date of your publication.
Brasilia, January 9, 2001; 180° and 113/independence of the Republic.
FERNANDO HENRIQUE CARDOSO Paulo Renato Souza NATIONAL PLAN of EDUCATION index I-Historical INTRODUCTION ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 06
Objetivos e Prioridades ............................................................................................................................... 07 II-A-LEVELS of EDUCATION BASIC EDUCATION 1. EDUCAÇÃO INFANTIL...................................................................................................................... 09 1.1. Diagnóstico...................................................................................................................................... 1.2 09. Diretrizes........................................................................................................................................... 1.3 12. Objetivos e Metas............................................................................................................................ 14
2 - ENSINOFUNDAMENTAL.................................................................................................................. 17 2.1. Diagnóstico....................................................................................................................................... 17 2.2. Diretrizes.......................................................................................................................................... 20 2.3. Objetivos e Metas............................................................................................................................ 23
3 - ENSINO MÉDIO................................................................................................................................ 24 3.1. Diagnóstico...................................................................................................................................... 24 3.2. Diretrizes........................................................................................................................................... 27 3.3. Objetivos e Metas............................................................................................................................. 29 B-4 HIGHER EDUCATION-HIGHER EDUCATION ..................................................................................................... 31 4.1. Diagnóstico....................................................................................................................................... 31 4.2. Diretrizes........................................................................................................................................... 35 4.3. Objetivos e Metas............................................................................................................. 37 4.4. Financing and management of higher education .............................................................. 39 III-provisions for TEACHING 5-adult and youth education................................................................................ 5.1 40. Diagnóstico....................................................................................................................................... 40 5.2. Diretrizes........................................................................................................................................... 43 5.3. Objetivos e Metas............................................................................................................. 44 6-distance education and EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGIES.......................................... 46 6.1. Diagnóstico....................................................................................................................................... 6.2 46. Diretrizes........................................................................................................................................... 6.3 47. Objetivos e Metas............................................................................................................... 47 7-TECHNOLOGICAL EDUCATION and VOCATIONAL TRAINING ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 7.1 49. Diagnóstico....................................................................................................................... 49 7.2. Diretrizes.......................................................................................................................................... 51 7.3. Objetivos e Metas............................................................................................................. 51
8 - EDUCAÇÃO ESPECIAL...................................................................................................... 53 8.1. Diagnóstico...................................................................................................................................... 53 8.2. Diretrizes........................................................................................................................................... 55 8.3. Objetivos e Metas.............................................................................................................. 56
9 - EDUCAÇÃO INDÍGENA........................................................................................................ 59
9.2 Diretrizes............................................................................................................................. 9.3 60. Objetivos e Metas............................................................................................................. 61 IV-TEACHING of BASIC EDUCATION 10-FORMAÇÃODOSPROFESSORES and enhancement of TEACHING ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 63
10.1 Diagnóstico...................................................................................................................................... 63
10.2 Diretrizes.......................................................................................................................................... 65
10.3 Objetivos e Metas............................................................................................................ 67
V- FINANCIAMENTO E GESTÃO............................................................................................ 70 11.1. Diagnóstico..................................................................................................................... 11.2 70. Diretrizes......................................................................................................................... 11.3 76. Objetivos e Metas........................................................................................................... 11.3.1 78. Financiamento............................................................................................................ 11.3.2 78. Gestão........................................................................................................................ 80 VI-monitoring and evaluating the plan ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... INDEX of TABLES Table 1 81 (registration 3/25/98, in middle school, by age group and location) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... 18 Table 2 (gross and net schooling rate -7 to 14 years Brazil and regions-1991 and 1996)......................... 19
Table 3 (high school-registration-Brazil-1991 and 1998)................................................................................ 25 Table 4 (high school drop-out rate and disapproval-1995 and 1997)........................................................ 26 Table 5 (high school-old distortion-rate series-1996-1998)............................................................. 26 Table 6 (Basic-Education enrolments Brazil: 1995-2010)............................................................................. 27 7 Table (table of higher education in Brazil -1998)....................................................................................... 31 Table 8 (evolution of registration for administrative dependence-Brazil-1980-1998)........................................ 32 Table 9 (registration for administrative dependence-Brazil and regions-upper level/98)................................... 33 Table 10 (growth rate of registration for administrative dependence Brazil 1988-1998).................. 34 Table 11 (IFES-retirements and pension expenditure in total expenditure on personnel and social charges)............................................................................................................................... 34 Table 12 (IFES-relationship between expenditure on retirement and pensions and other capital costs) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... 35 Table 13 (IFES-expenditure on investments and financial investments)........................................................... 35 Table 14 (Rates of illiteracy of people of 15 years or more-Brazil and -1996 regions)....................... Table 41 15 (Schooling of the population -1996).................................................................................................. 41 Table 16 (population of 15 years old or older by -1997 literacy situation) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... 42 Table 17 (average years of schooling of the people of 10 years or more for sex and color-1996)........................ 43 Table 18 (medium-level Qualifications with the highest number of seniors-1988 and 1996)............................... 50 Table 19 (functions teachers-national distribution by level of education and school levels that Act-1998)................................................................................................................................................................... 64 Table 20 (Ministry of education-expenditure by source) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... .... 71 Table 21 (direct Expenses with public administrations education-1997) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 71 Table 22 (education-spending States spheres-1997) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 72 Table 23 (origin of Fundef -1998 recipes) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 72 Table 24 (financial effects of Fundef in municipalities with spent below the minimum value (R$ 315.00)? 1998....................................................................................................................................................................73
Tabela 25 (Despesas públicas em educação, em relação ao PIB -1995).......................................................... Table 26 75 (program money in 1995 to 1998 school-attendance) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 76 I-INTRODUCTION 1. Installation HISTORY of the Republic in Brazil and the emergence of the earliest ideas of a plan to the nationwide education occurred simultaneously. As the social, political and economic framework of the beginning of this century if drew, the education began to impose as a condition essential to the development of the country. There was great concern with the statement, in its various levels and modalities. In the first two decades, the various educational reforms, helped in the maturation of the collective perception of education as a national problem.
In 1932, a group of educators, 25 men and women of the brazilian intellectual elite, released a manifesto to the people and Government that became known as the "Manifesto of the pioneers of education". Proposed educational reconstruction, "far-reaching and of vast proportions ... a meaningful unit plan and scientific basis." The document had great repercussions and led to a campaign that resulted in the inclusion of a specific article in the Brazilian Constitution of July 16 of 1934. The art. 150 declared to be "Union competence to fix the national education plan, understanding the teaching of all degrees and branches, common and specialized; and coordinate and monitor your execution in the whole territory of the Country ". Attached, in your art. 152, principal competence to the National Council of education, organized in the form of the law, the plan to be approved by the Legislature, suggesting the Government measures that judge necessary for the best solution of the educational problems and the appropriate distribution of special funds ".
All subsequent constitutions, with the exception of 37, incorporated, implicitly or explicitly, the idea of a National Education Plan. Underlying the consensus there was that the plan should be set by law. The idea thrived and was never entirely abandoned.
The first National Education Plan appeared in 1962, elaborated in the first law of Guidelines and Bases for national education, law No. 4,024, 1961. It has not been proposed in the form of a Bill, but only as an initiative of the Ministry of education and culture, an initiative that was approved by the then Federal Council of education. It was basically a set of quantitative and qualitative goals to be achieved within a period of eight years. In 1965, underwent a review, when descentralizadoras standards have been introduced and stimulate the development of State plans. In 1966, a new revision, called supplementary Education Plan, introduced important changes in the distribution of federal resources, benefiting the implementation of work-oriented gyms and the attendance of illiterates with more than ten years.
The idea of a law resurfaced in 1967, again proposed by the Ministry of education and culture and discussed in four national meetings on planning, without the initiative came to fruition.
With the Federal Constitution of 1988, 50 years after the first official attempt, resurfaced the idea of a long-term national plan, with the force of law, able to confer stability to Government initiatives in the area of education. The art. 214 covers this requirement.
On the other hand, the law No. 9,394 of 1996, which establishes the guidelines and Bases for national education ", provides in articles 9 and 87, respectively, that the Union, drawing up the plan, in collaboration with the States, the Federal District and the municipalities, and the Decade of education. Establishes that the Union forward the plan to the National Congress, a year after the publication of this law, with guidelines and goals for the ten years later, in keeping with the World Declaration on education for all.
On 10 February 1998, Mr Ivan Valente presented in the Plenary of the Chamber of Deputies Bill No. 4,155, 1998 that "approves the national plan for education". The construction of this plan meet the commitments made by the national forum in defense of public school, since your participation in the work of the National Constituent Assembly, has consolidated the work of the I and II National Education Congress-CON-and systematized contributions coming from different segments of civil society. In justification, the author highlights the importance of this reference document "includes dimensions and problems social, cultural, political and educational Brazilians, based in wrestling and propositions of those who advocate a more just and egalitarian society."
On 11 February 1998, the Executive Branch sent to the National Congress the message 180/98 concerning the Bill that "Establishing the national plan for education". Started your course in the Chamber of Deputies as Bill No. 4,173, 1998, included the PL number 4,155/98, on 13 March 1998. In the explanatory memorandum highlights the Education Minister the conception of the plan, which had as its guiding axles, from a legal standpoint, the Federal Constitution of 1988, the law of Guidelines and Bases for national education, in 1996, and the constitutional amendment 14, 1995, which established the maintenance and development of basic education and of teaching. It further considered previous achievements, especially the decennial plan of education for all, prepared in accordance with the recommendations of the meeting organized by UNESCO and held in Jomtien, Thailand, in 1993. In addition to this, the documents resulting from large regional and national mobilization which were presented by Brazil UNESCO conferences were also important grants for the preparation of the document. Several organizations have been consulted by the MINISTRY of EDUCATION, the National Council of Secretaries of education-CONSED and the National Union of municipal education Leaders-UNDIME.
The projects were distributed to committees of education, culture and sport; of finance and taxation; and, justice and Constitution drafting. At first, is rapporteur, Mr Nelson Marchezan.
2. OBJECTIVES and priorities in summary, the plan aims to:. the global elevation of educational level of the population;
. improving the quality of education at all levels;
. the reduction of social and regional inequalities in terms of access and residence, with success, on public education and. democratization of the management of public education, in official establishments, according to the principles of participation of education professionals in the drafting of the pedagogic project of the school and the school and local communities participation in school councils or equivalents.
Whereas financial resources are limited and that the ability to respond to the challenge of offering an education compatible, in extent and quality, the developed countries need to be built progressively, and constant are established priorities in this plan, according to the constitutional duty and social needs.
1. Guarantee eight-year compulsory basic education to all children from 7 to 14 years, ensuring your ticket and stay in school and the completion of that education. This priority includes the necessary effort so that education systems all derive the minimum training for the exercise of citizenship and to the enjoyment of the cultural heritage of modern society. 0 educational process should be appropriate to students ' needs and correspond to a socially significant education. Full-time priority to children of the neediest strata of society.
2. Guarantee of fundamental education to all that he did not have access in their own age or not concluded. The eradication of illiteracy is part of this priority, considering the youth and adult literacy as a starting point and an intrinsic part of this level of education. This population literacy is understood in a broad sense of mastery of the basic tools of literate culture, the elementary mathematical operations, the historical development of human society, the diversity of the physical space and world political and Constitution of brazilian society. Involves the formation of responsible citizen and aware of their rights and duties.
3. Expansion of the service in the other levels of education-early childhood education, secondary education and higher education. The extension of compulsory schooling for children six years of age, either in early childhood education, whether in elementary school, and the gradual extension of access to secondary education for all young people who complete the previous level, but also for young people and adults who don't have school levels in ages. For the other series and for other levels, are set goals of expanding its service percentage age group. The expansion of the service, this plan means greater access, i.e. increasing assurance of slots, while simultaneously training opportunity that matches the needs of different age groups, as well as higher levels, to the needs of society, as regards scientific and technological leadership, artistic and cultural, political and intellectual, business and trade unions, in addition to the demands of the labour market. Part of this priority to guarantee opportunities for additional professional education to basic education, which will lead to the permanent development of skills for productive life, integrated to different forms of education, to work, to science and technology.
4. Enhancement of education professionals. Particular attention should be given to the initial and continuing training, in particular for teachers. Part of this enhancement to guarantee suitable working conditions, including the time for study and preparation of lessons, pay worthy, with wage and career of teaching.
5. Development of information systems and evaluation at all levels and modalities of education, including vocational education, including also the improvement of the processes of collection and dissemination of data, as essential instruments for the management of the educational system and improvement of teaching.
This National Education Plan defines thus:. guidelines for the management and financing of education;
. the guidelines and targets for each level and type of education and. guidelines and goals for the training and upgrading of teaching and other education professionals, in the next ten years.
In the case of general goals for the Nation as a whole, such as scrolling, fitness local specificities and appropriate strategies, to each circumstance, State and municipal plans.
II-A-LEVELS of EDUCATION BASIC EDUCATION 1. 1.1 EARLY CHILDHOOD Diagnosis education of children from zero to six years on specific child education establishments is growing worldwide and fairly, be accelerated due to the need of the family for an institution to take care of the care and education of their children, especially when the parents work outside the home , whether by the arguments from the sciences that investigated the process of child development. If the intelligence is formed from birth and if there are "Windows of opportunity" in childhood when a given stimulus or experience exerts greater influence over intelligence than at any other time of life, neglecting this period means wasting an immense human potential. On the contrary, serve it with specialized professionals able to do mediation between what children already know and what you can experience means investing in human development of unusual way. Today it is known that there are critical periods in development, during which the environment can influence the way the brain is activated to perform functions in areas such as math, language, music. If these opportunities are lost, it will be much harder to get the same results later.
As this science of the child if the child wins education democratizes prestige and interested in investing in it.
Not only are economic arguments that have led Governments, society and families to invest in attention to small children. At the base of this issue is the right to care and education from birth. Education is a constitutive element of person and, therefore, must be present from the moment she was born, as a means and condition of training, development, social integration and personal realization. In addition to the right of the child, the Constitution establishes the right of workers, parents, education of their children and dependents from zero to six years. But the argument is what else is heavy on expression of demand and your attendance on the part of the Government. It derives from the limiting conditions of working families, single parent, nuclear, the family income insufficient to provide adequate facilities for the care and education of their children and the inability of most parents to acquire knowledge about the process of child development that education offers. Whereas these factors are still present, and even more acute in these recent years, is to assume that the early childhood education will continue conquering space in the Brazilian educational scene as a social necessity. This in part, determines the priority that children from low-income families have the policy of expansion of early childhood education. However, we must avoid a poor education for poor children and a reduction in quality as it democratizes access.
In Brazil, the education of children under 7 years has a history of 150 years. Its growth, however, came mostly from the 70 years of this century and was more accelerated until 1993. In 1998, was present in 5,320 Municipalities, representing 96.6% of the total. The mobilization of civil society organizations, political decisions and government programs have been an effective means of expanding enrollment and increasing social awareness on the right, the importance and the need of early childhood education.
It is necessary to examine separately the ages of 0 to 3 and 4 to 6 years, were treated differently in groups goals or by institutions that worked in that field, whether public or private. The first track was predominantly under the aegis of social assistance and had a more assistencial feature, as physical, health care, food. Answer mostly children whose mothers worked outside the home. Great part was answered by philanthropic institutions and community associations, which received financial support and some cases, pedagogical orientation of any public body, like the old LBA. The statistics reported on the health plan calls, there is no complete a survey of how many children were attending some sort of institution in this age group. Poor estimates indicated, until a few years ago, a number of 1,400,000 children served in the range of 0 to 3 years. The Synopsis of basic education Statistics gathered data from 1998 about daycare, indicating an attendance of 381,804 children in ages ranging from less than 4 more than 9 years. Are incomplete data, because only now nurseries are beginning to register in the register. Any number, however, will be a very small amount on the magnitude of the population segment of 0 to 3 years, consisting of 12 million children.
Most environments do not care with qualified professionals, does not develop educational program, has no furniture, toys and other appropriate teaching materials. But one must register, too, that there are good quality day care, with professionals with training and experience in the care and education of children, who develop high-quality educational pedagogical proposal. Good teaching materials and a respectable literature on organization and functioning of the institutions for this age segment have been produced in recent years in the country.
By determining the LDB, nurseries will meet children from zero to three years, getting the range of 4 to 6 for preschool, and should adopt educational goals, becoming in educational institutions, in accordance with the national curriculum guidelines issued by the National Council of education. This determination follows the best pedagogy, because it is at this age that educational stimuli have greater influence on the formation of personality and the development of the child. It is a time that cannot be neglected or misguided. This is one of the important topics for the PNE.
For the range of 4 to 6 years, we have more consistent data, collected by the national system of educational statistics. Of a population of approximately 4,300,000 9,200,000, were enrolled in preschools in the year 1997, equivalent to 46.7%. Already in 1998, he dropped to 44%. The largest attendance in ages closer to mandatory schooling, so that most children of 6 years is already at preschool.
From 1993, the license plates parked in the porch of 4,200,000 almost, certainly not for having achieved the satisfaction of demand, since the deficit is big enough. Considering the increase in the number of families below the poverty level in Brazil, which has been checking in recent years, it is concluded that there is a pent-up demand or a non-meeting the needs of their young children. The Government will be increasingly called upon to act in this area, which, incidentally, is constitutional duty, determined by art. 208, IV of the Federal Constitution.
Observing the distribution of license plates between the public and private spheres, there has been a sharp reduction in attendance on the part of States, a small reduction in the particular area and a large increase in the municipal sphere. In 1987, the States met in 1997 and 850,000, only 600,000, lowering your total participation of 25.9% enrollment to 9.6% and the private sector, of 34 to 24%. In 1998, the retraction was even bigger: to 396,000 plates. The municipalities already have passed, in that period, from 1.3 million registrations to 2,700,000, increasing your parcel as a whole, from 39.2% to 66.3%. This phenomenon stems from the expression and demand pressure on the sphere of Government (municipal) that is closest to families and corresponds to the constitutional priority of activity of municipalities at that level, simultaneously to the elementary school.
The distribution of license plates, as the genre, is balanced: 49.5% female and male, 50.5%. This balance is uniform in all regions of the country. Unlike other countries and to international concerns, in our country, the question requires corrections.
There were, in 1998, 78,106 preschools, of which the Northeast holds nearly half (47.5%) and the South East, .25 of them. In about 1987, observed the same phenomenon that occurred with the plates: the dampened States, and more sharply from 1994, did in 1993 held 31% of establishments and, currently, only 8.8%. The municipalities increased from 47.4% to 65.7% and the private sector, from 22.7% to 25.4%. In relation to the number of students per establishment, it is interesting to note that almost half (45%) answer to 25 students, which features small preschool units of a room. With 51 and more students have only 29.4% of establishments.
Of the 219,000 .129 1000 faculty members are municipal functions; 17000, State and private, 72800. Around 13% of teachers have only elementary school, complete or incomplete; 66% are in medium level and 20% have higher education. From 1987 to 1998 there was an increase in the number of university graduates working in early childhood education (from 20 to 44000), bringing the percentage in that category in relation to the total number of teachers, which reveals a progressive improvement of teacher qualification. With full high school were in 1987 and 1998 95000 already came to 146,000. This data is good cheer, considering that in the first years of life, given the malleability of the child to the social environment, especially the quality of educational experiences, it is essential that professionals are highly skilled. Level of education, however, does not necessarily mean ability to educate young children. Hence why the teacher training courses for early childhood education must have a special attention to human formation, to the question of values and specific skills to deal with being so open to the world and so eager to explore and get to know, how are the kids.
Another important issue to consider is the number of children per teacher because, at this age, children need enough individualized attention in many circumstances and require more nursing of adults than in subsequent levels of education. In the public sector, the ratio is 21.0 for 1 on municipal ball and 23.4, State prison, which is a good number for the range of 4 to 6 years. The private sector put the national average to 18.7 as it is with 14 kids per teacher. These values are similar in all regions.
In relation to infrastructure of establishments, for 1998, pointing out that 4,153 preschools that meet the children, have no 69,714 water supply, 84% of which lie in the Northeast. This grace period occurs for less than 0.5% of the children attended in the Southeast, South and Midwest. In addition, 70% of establishments have no playground, being deprived of rich activity in these environments no less than 54% of children. It is possible that many of the establishments are annexes urban schools elementary school, where the external space is restricted and has to be shared with many other students. Given the importance of free, creative and group toy in this age group, this issue should deserve special attention in the Decade of education, child education terms mischaracterized, by predominance of cognoscitiva activity in the classroom.
You have to register, too, the lack of electricity in 20% of establishments, leaving 167,000 children enrolled without possibility of access to the most modern means of computing as playful learning instruments. Are these, surely, rural preschools. More serious is that 58% of children attend establishment without adequate sanitation, and 127,000 in establishment without sewage, more than half of which, in the Northeast.
Finally, a diagnosis of the needs of early childhood education need to point out the living conditions and development of Brazilian children. Poverty, which affects most of them, which takes away from their families the possibility of primary feed them and watch them, have to be addressed with comprehensive policies involving health, nutrition, education, housing, work and employment, income and social spaces for coexistence, culture and leisure. Since all of these are constituent elements of life and development of the child. The synergistic effect of actions in the area of health, nutrition and education is being demonstrated by evaluations of policies and programs. Hence why the intervention in childhood, child development programmes, covering integrated actions in education, health, nutrition and family support are seen as an important instrument for economic and social development.
The Statistical Synopsis of basic education/1999 registers a decrease of about 200,000 in preschool, in 1998, persisting, although outnumbered (159 thousand), in 1999. This reduction has been attributed to the deployment of FUNDEF, which contemplated separately elementary school of the anterior and posterior stages of basic education. Resources before applied in child education were given, by Municipalities and States, the elementary school, having being closed many early childhood institutions. In the Decade of education, will have to find a solution to the various demands, without prejudice to the constitutional priority of elementary school.
1.2 early childhood guidelines is the first stage of basic education. She lays the Foundation of the human personality, intelligence, emotional life, socialization. The first experiences in life are those that mark more deeply the person. When positive, tend to reinforce learning and the attitudes of confidence, cooperation, solidarity, responsibility. The sciences that pored over the child in the last 50 years, investigating how does your development, coincide in affirming the importance of the first years of his life to the development and subsequent learning. And have provided great support for education to formulate their goals and activities from birth. The same has been accumulating considerable experience and reflection on your practice in this field and defining the most appropriate procedures to offer interesting, challenging children and enriching learning and development opportunities. The early childhood education inaugurates the education of the person.
Such education takes place in the family, in the community and in institutions. Early childhood institutions come becoming increasingly necessary, as complementary to the action of the family, what has already been stated by the most important international education document of this century, the World Declaration on education for all (Jomtien, Thailand, 1990).
It is considered, in the international arena, the early childhood education will have an increasing role in the integral formation of the person, in the development of your learning ability and high intelligence level of the people, because intelligence is genetically inherited or transmitted by teaching, but built by the child, from birth, in social interaction through action on the objects the circumstances and the facts. Longitudinal evaluations, although in small number, indicate the positive effects of educational action in the first years of life, in institutions or specific educational attention programs, both on the academic life later on other aspects of social life. There's plenty of security to say that investment in early childhood education gets a rate of economic return than any other.
The national curriculum guidelines for early childhood education, defined by the National Board of education, according to determines the art. 9, IV of LDB, complemented by the standards of the education systems of States and Municipalities, establish milestones for pedagogical proposals for children from 0 to 6 years.
On the horizon of ten years of this national plan for education, early childhood education demand can be met with quality, benefiting every child who needs and whose family wants to have your children attending an educational institution. To do so, require, in addition to pedagogical guidelines and administrative measures conducive to improving the quality of services offered, political measures, such as decisions and political commitments of the rulers towards children, economic measures relating to financial resources and administrative measures for joint social policy sectors involved in meeting the rights and needs of children such as education, Social services, justice, labor, culture, health and social communications, apart from civil society organizations.
On distribution of competences relating to early childhood education, both the Federal Constitution as the LDB explicit in co-responsibility of the three are Government-Municipalities, State and Union and family. The articulation with family visa, more than anything else, the mutual knowledge of processes of education, values, expectations, in such a way that family and school education complement each other and if coherent learning, enrich, producing more broad and profound. With regard to administrative spheres, the Union and the Member States will act in the alternative, but necessarily, in technical and financial support to Municipalities, according to the art. 30, SAW the Federal Constitution.
The financial investment required to meet targets for range and quality should be seen mainly as necessary applications in basic rights of citizens in the first stage of life and as an investment whose return rates some studies indicate they are high.
The goals are related to demand, rather than the potential demand, defined by the number of children in the age group, as the children's education is not compulsory, but a right of the child. The historical factors that determine the demand still prevailing in our society, becoming increasingly obvious, adding them to its offer as motivating. The existence of the possibility of access and knowledge of the benefits of the frequency to a quality early childhood Center induce an increasing number of families to demand a place for their children. Important, in this process, is the care on quality of care, because this justifies and produces positive results.
The training of professionals of early childhood education deserves special attention, given the importance of your role as a mediator in the process of development and learning. Specific qualification to work in the range of zero to six years includes the knowledge of the scientific basis of the child's development, the production of learning and the ability to reflect on practice, so that this becomes, increasingly, new knowledge and skills in education of children. In addition to the prior's education, requires the permanent training, entered in the pedagogical work, nourishing him and renewing it constantly.
To guide a pedagogical practice consistent with the data of science and more respectful as possible to the process of development of the child, constitutes important guideline the overcoming of dichotomies daycare/preschool, assistance or assistance/education, poor service/education for the middle class and other, that misguided policies and social practices guidelines have been producing throughout history. Education and care constitute a whole indivisible for children, in a process of development cannot be marked by steps or stages in which breaks are bases and possibilities for the sequence. In the ten-year period covered by this plan, Brazil will be able to come up with an early childhood education that embraces the age segment 0 to 6 years (or 0 to 5, to the extent that children from 6 years to join in the elementary school) without the drawbacks of traumatic passages which require "adaptation" between what today constitutes the daycare and preschool , as occurring between this and the first grade of elementary school.
The measures proposed for this 10-year plan to implement the national curriculum guidelines and the references to the early childhood education fall into the perspective of improvement of quality. However, we must emphasize that it is a national guideline the respect for regional diversities, values and cultural expressions of the different localities, forming the socio-historical basis on which children begin construction of their personalities.
Children's education is a right of every child and an obligation of the State (art. 208, IV of the Federal Constitution). The child is not obligated to attend an institution of early childhood education, but whenever your family want or need, the Government has a duty to attend to it. In view of that right and of the positive effects of early education on the development and learning of children, already seen by many researches, the care of any child in a establishment of early childhood education is one of the wisest human development strategies, training of intelligence and personality, positive impact on the whole process of learning. Therefore, in the whole world, this segment of education has been growing significantly and has been recommended by international bodies and conferences.
Whereas, however, the specific conditions of our country, in particular as regards the limitation of financial and technical resources, this plan proposes that the public offer of early childhood education grant priority to children of lower income families, early childhood institutions in the areas of greatest need and in them the best in your concentrating technical and pedagogical resources. One must contemplate, too, the need for full-time care for children of minor age, lower income families when the parents work outside the home. This priority cannot, under any circumstances, to characterize the early childhood education as a poor action for poor. What this plan recommends is a quality education primarily for children subject to exclusion or her victims. The expansion experienced in the care of children of 6 and 5 years of age, will lead invariably to the universalization, transcending the issue of family income.
The constitutional standard of integration of children in regular system will in early childhood education, implemented through specific programmes of guidance to parents, teachers ' qualification, adaptation of establishments as physical conditions, furniture, equipment and teaching materials. When the evaluation recommend service specializing in specific establishments, guidelines for that mode will appear in the chapter on special education.
1.3 Objectives and Metas1 1. Expand the provision of early childhood education to meet in five years, 30% of the population of up to 3 years of age and 60% of the population of 4 to 6 years (or 4 and 5 years) and, until the end of the Decade, attaining the goal of 50 per cent of children from 0 to 3 years and 80% of the 5 years 4.
2. Draw up, within one year, minimum standards of infrastructure for the proper functioning of the child education institutions (kindergartens and preschools) both public and private, that, respecting the regional diversity, ensure the attendance of the characteristics of different age groups and the needs of the educational process: _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 (*) the initiative for fulfilment of this aim/Goal depends on the initiative of the Union;
(**) is required the collaboration of the Union.
the internal space with lighting), heat stroke, ventilation, vision for the external space, power and security, potable water, sanitary sewage;
b) sanitary facilities and personal hygiene of children;
c) facilities for preparation and/or food service;
d) internal and external environment for the development of the activities, in accordance with the curriculum guidelines and methodology of early childhood education, including the home, free expression, the movement and the toy;
and) furniture, equipment and teaching materials;
f) adaptation to special features of children. 3. From the second year of this plan, only permit construction and operation of preschool institutions, public or private, infrastructure requirements defined in the previous item.
4. Adapt the buildings of early childhood education so that, in five years, everyone is complying with the minimum standards established infrastructure.
5. Establish a national programme for the training of professionals in early childhood education, with the collaboration of the Union, the States and municipalities, including universities and higher education institutes and non-governmental organizations, which perform the following goals: to) that, in five years, all the leaders of early childhood institutions have appropriate training in medium level (Normal mode), in ten years top-level training;
(b)) that, in five years, all teachers have specific clearance and, in ten years, 70% have specific training. **
6. From the term of this plan, only admit new professionals in early childhood education who possess the minimum degree level, normal mode, giving preference to the admission of professionals graduated in specific course.
7. Within three years from the start of this plan, put running in-service training program in each municipality or county groups, preferably in conjunction with higher education institutions, with the technical and financial cooperation of the Union and the States, to the permanent updating and deepening the knowledge of professionals who work in early childhood education as well as for the training of auxiliary personnel. ** 8. Ensure that, in two years, all municipalities have set your policy for early childhood education, based on national guidelines, additional State standards and on suggestions of national curriculum benchmarks.
9. Ensure that in three years, all children's educational institutions have formulated, with the participation of education professionals involved in them, their pedagogical projects. ** 10. Establish in all municipalities, within three years, whenever possible in conjunction with higher education institutions that have experience in the field, a system of monitoring, control and supervision of early childhood education, public and private institutions, aiming at the technical support for the improvement of teaching quality and to guarantee compliance with the minimum standards established by the national and State guidelines.
11. Establish mechanisms for collaboration between the sectors of education, health and assistance in the maintenance, expansion, management, control and evaluation of care institutions for children 0 to 3 years of age. ** 12. Ensure school meals for children served in early childhood education, in public establishments and health plan, through collaboration of the Union and the States financial. * * 13. Ensure, in all municipalities, supplying teaching materials appropriate to the age and needs of the educational work, so that, in five years, are met the minimum standards set out in the infrastructure goal no. 2 * 14. Include nurseries or equivalent entities in national system of educational statistics, within three anos.* 15. Extinguish the literacy classes incorporating immediately the children in elementary school and enroll, too, at that level all children of 7 years or more in early childhood education.
16. Deploy school boards and other forms of school and local community participation in improving the functioning of the institutions of child education and enrichment of educational opportunities and educational resources.
17. Establish, by the end of the Decade, in all municipalities and with the collaboration of the sectors responsible for the education, health and social welfare and non-governmental organizations, programmes of guidance and support to parents with children between 0 and 3 years, offering, including financial assistance, food supplementation and legal in cases of poverty, domestic violence and family breakdown extreme * 18. Adopt progressively full-time care for children from 0 to 6 years.
19. Establish parameters of quality early childhood services, as a reference to the supervision, control and evaluation, and as an instrument for the adoption of measures to improve the quality. ** 20. Promote debates with civil society on employees ' right to free assistance to their children and dependents in kindergartens and preschools, set out in art. 7, XXV, of the Federal Constitution. ** Refer to the National Congress a bill aimed at regulating that dispositivo.* 21. Ensure that, in all municipalities, as well as other municipal resources the 10% of the resources for maintenance and development of teaching not linked to FUNDEF are applied primarily in early childhood education. ** 22. (Vetoed) 23. Conduct cost studies of early childhood education based on quality parameters, in order to improve efficiency and ensure the generalization of quality of care. * * 24. Enlarge the offer of training courses for teachers of early childhood education at tertiary level, with specific content, primarily in the regions where the qualifying deficit is greater, in order to achieve the goal established by the LDB to the Decade of education. **
25. To exercise the additional action of the Union and of the State near the Municipalities which have greater technical and financial requirements, pursuant to arts. 30, SAW and 211, § 1, of the Federal Constitution. * * 26. Observe the goals established in the remaining chapters relating to early childhood education.
2. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL 2.1. Diagnosis according to the Brazilian Constitution, primary education is compulsory and free. The art. 208 recommends to guarantee your offer, even to all that he did not have access in their own age. Is basic in the formation of the citizen, because according to the law of Guidelines and Bases for national education, in your art. 32 full mastery of reading, writing and calculating are means for the development of the ability to learn and to relate the social environment and political. First offer it to all brazilian population.
The art. 208, § 1, of the Constitution states: "the access to free and compulsory education is public subjective right", and your non-bidding by the Government or your offer irregular implies responsibility of the competent authority.
Exists today, in Brazil, a broad consensus about the situation and problems of elementary school.
The elementary school enrollment surpass the Brazilian 35 million, more than the number of children from 7 to 14 years representing 116% of this age group. This means that there are many children enrolled in elementary schools with age over 14 years. In 1998, we had more than 8 million people in this situation, (table 1).
The exclusion from school of children at the age itself, whether by negligence of public authorities, whether by omission of the family and of society, is the most evil and irredeemable social exclusion, because the Basic Law denies citizenship, reproducing the circle of poverty and marginality and alienating milhões de brasileiros de any prospect of future.
The consciousness of this fact and that social mobilization occurs have promoted coordinated efforts of different instances of the Government which resulted in a very positive evolution of the elementary school system as a whole, in terms of both coverage as efficiency. The data in table 2 evolutionary, condensed, clearly indicate this.
Table 1-registration, in 3/25/98, in middle school, by age group and Location-1998 Federation Registration Unit by age and Total Total less than Rural Location 7 years of 7 to 14 years 15 to 19 years more than 19 years Less 7 years Total 7 to 14 years 15 to 19 years more than 19 years Brazil North 3,207,880 36,561 2,377,054 664,080 35,792,554 449,279 26,870,018 7,097,448 1,375,809 6,663,508 147,566 5,156,473 1,137,652 221,815
130,185 974,716 19,782 750,146 171,836 32,952 Rondônia Acre Amazonas Roraima 308,992 2,050 244,847 53,991 8,104 85,331 479 71,060 11,578 2,214 140,176 2,178 105,565 27,922 4,511 45,472 1,072 33,818 8,759 1,823 638,303 3,169 452,295 144,953 37,886 134,758 1,953 103,180 23,742 5,883 66,609 516 54,779 10,719 595 15,388 216 12,586 2,341 245 Para 1,585,239
24,361 1,195,568 322,938 42,372 605,686 13,736 463,143 111,169 17,638 122,392 864 99,097 20,636 1,805 19,020 642 15,769 2,172 437 Tocantins Amapá North-East 12,210,131 182,830 8,407,429 2,918,530 701,342 3,910,466 92,067 2,924,691 744,066 149,642 346,169 3,423 224,913 82,921 34,912 69,061 1,684 50,590 12,075 4,712 Maranhão 1,606,227 22,299 1,153,629 357,220 73,079 632,387 14,459
480,890 113,232 23,806 Piauí Ceará 731,247 12,985 552,609 144,399 21,254 276,468 7,322 209,910 50,853 8,383 1,842,237 30,954 1,293,015 423,998 94,270 598,124 15,380 441,521 115,618 25,605 R.G. the North 650,711 10,916 472,791 142,470 24,534 149,082 4,518 116,892 24,079 3,593 Paraiba 882,868 12,103 604,904 215,175 50,686 241,278 4,616 184,815 43,558 8,289 Perrnambuco 1,818,479 16,780 1,297,492 412,394 91,813 464,679 7,440 364,690 80,995 11,554 Alagoas Sergipe 688,285 10,117 485,382 159,822 32,964 242,813 6,008 185,365 44,723 6,717 436,631 2,728 296,161 11,266 264,766
117,648 1,197 91,466 20,630 4,355 Bahia 3,553,446 63,948 2,251,446 951,786 286,266 1,187,987 31,127 849,142 250,378 57,340 Southeast Minas Gerais Espirito Santo 3,857,553 28,472 2,770,672 810,408 248,001 532,361 4,686 428,262 77,248 22,165 13,249,814 71,441 10,431,785 2,369,062 377,526 952,847 10,698 787,539 126,881 27,729 619,559 3,036 499,994 100,666 15,863 97,693 956 86,383 8,984 1,370
Rio de Janeiro Sao Paulo South 4,558,892 117,483 3,777,447 614,192 49,770 577,204 20,287 498,724 54,878 3,315 6,394,838 7,646 5,305,136 1,016,777 65,279 172,488 164 152,098 18,512 1,714 2,377,864 32,287 1,855,983 441,211 48,383 150,305 1,892 120,796 22,137 2,480 Paraná 1,808,149 18,073 1,490,423 255,121 44,532 171,333 2,057 149,082 17,335 2,859 Santa Catarina 983,880 8,712 839,874
R.G. 130,056 5,238 149,808 1,548 134,580 13,224 456 1,766,863 90,698 1,447,150 229,015-256,063 16,682 215,062 24,319 South-Midwest 2,565,837 40,964 1,876,303 531,584 116,986 248,273 4,732 195,373 39,991 8,177 M.G. 459,876 10,761 350,224 82,345 16,526 34,815 320 29,313 4,669 513 South Mato Grosso 557,961 9,993 424,786 104,440 18,742 86,537 1,771 68,420 13,411 2,935 Goiás 1,135,948 12,091
Federal District 412,052 8,119 312,173 81,845 9,915 29,288 899 22,606 5,175 608 789,100 262,954 71,803 97,633 1,742 75,034 16,736 4,121 Source MEC/INEP/SEEC-(Note: the age was obtained from the birth year reported in the school census, i.e. was the age that the student completed in 1998) table 2-Gross and net Enrollment rates at the age of 7 years Brazil and regions-a14 1991 and 1996 region/Year 7 a14-year population Registration in Total Gross Schooling Rate Elementary% matriculation elementary school 7 to 14 years Net Schooling rate% Brazil 1991 27,611,580 29,203,724 23,777,428 1996 28,525,815 33,131,270 25,909,860 105.8 86.1 116.1 90.8 North 1,780,876 1996 2,417,649 2,820,531 1991 2,248,157 2,246,339 2,171,209 99.9 79.2 116.7 89.8 Northeast 1991 9. 010,532 8,650,474 6,528,914 7,601,089 96.0 72.5 114.1 1996 9,180,333 10,475,469 1991 10,737,330 11,965,480 10,185,214 111.4 82.8 Southeast 1996 11,127,665 12,958,674 10,558,852 94.9 South 116.5 94.9 1991 3,811,860 4,201,369 3,589,194 94.2 1996 3,899,007 4,475,774 3,773,730 114.8 110.2 96.8 Midwest
1991 1,803,701 2,140,062 1,693,230 1996 1,901,161 2,400,822 1,804,980 118.6 93.4 126.3 94.9 sources: MEC/INEP/SEEC and IBGE considering the number of children from 7 to 14 years enrolled in elementary school, the attendance of this age group (NET schooling rate) increased from 86% to about 91% between 1991 and 1996. The progress was impressive, especially if we take the data already available from 1998: gross schooling rate of 128% and 95% liquid. The attendance rate has risen to 96%, in the range of 7 to 14 years. Regional differences are decreasing, because in the North and Northeast the rate of net schooling spent 90%, so approaching the national average.
In 1998, the private education absorbed only 9.5% of enrollments, maintaining the trend of decreasing relative participation.
If we consider, on the other hand, the number of children from 7 to 14 years effectively enrolled in any level of education, including some that are in preschool, other attending literacy classes, plus a very small portion that has already entered the high school, the attendance is even bigger and the equally impressive progress: between 1991 and 1998 This rate of attendance grew from 91.6% to 95%, which is very close to a real service universalization.
So we have a situation of swelling in enrollment of the elementary school, which are basically originated from old distortion-series, which, for your time, is a consequence of high levels of disapproval. According to the school census of 1996, more than 46 percent of elementary students are older than the age group corresponding to each series. In the Northeast the situation is more dramatic, reaching 64 percent the index of distortion. This issue gives the exact scale of the degree of inefficiency of the country's education system: students take an average of 10.4 years to complete the eight grades of primary education.
By reference only children of 14 years, we note that, in 1998, of 3,500,000 of adolescents in this age group, only about 622,000 attended the 8th grade of elementary school. In addition to indicate delays in students ' school course, which has been one of the main factors of circumvention, the situation of distortion age-grade causes additional costs to education systems, keeping the children by excessively long period in elementary school. To fix this, open the perspective distortion, while maintaining the current number of slots, expand compulsory education to nine series, beginning at the age of six. This measure is important because, in comparison with other countries, the entry into elementary school is relatively late in Brazil, being six years old standard in the vast majority of systems, including in other countries of Latin America. Correct this situation constitutes a priority of educational policy.
In view of this data set and the extension of enrollment in elementary school, it is surprising and unacceptable that children still out of school. The problem of exclusion is still great in Brazil. According to the population count conducted by IBGE in July 1996, are about 2,700,000 children from 7 to 14 years out of school, part of which it has been there, and left. A portion of this population can be returned to regular school and another needs to be achieved by the programs of adult and youth education.
The existence of children out of school and illiteracy rates are closely associated. In both cases, localized problems, concentrating in pockets of poverty existing in the urban fringe and rural areas.
In most situations, the fact that there are children out of school doesn't have how determinant the deficit of vacancies, is related to the precariousness of education and conditions of exclusion and social marginalization in which they live segments of the brazilian population. Therefore not enough open slots. Parallel programs of assistance to families are key to access to school and staying in it, very poor population, which depends on, for your livelihood, child labour.
Regional inequality is serious, both in terms of coverage as of school success. Despite the significant increase of 9 percentage points of growth between 1991 and 1998, the North and northeast regions are still showing the worst rates of schooling in the country. The National Fund for maintenance and development of basic education and enhancement of the teaching profession, as well as the Projeto Nordeste/Fundescola, must ensure the resources for the correction of these inequalities. Union must continue paying attention to this problem, giving priority to the technical and financial assistance for regions that present greater shortcomings.
2.2 Guidelines the guidelines were defined the fundamental education are contained in the Federal Constitution, in the law of Guidelines and Bases for national education and Curricular guidelines for basic education.
In the first five years of the term of this plan, elementary school should achieve your universalisation under the responsibility of the public authorities, given the inseparability between access, permanence and quality of school education. 0 right to primary education does not refer only to registration, but to quality education, to completion.
0 delay in school resulting from the course repetition and evasion signals the need for educational policies aimed at correcting distortions age-grade. The significant presence of young people with more than 14 years in the elementary school demand the creation of conditions suitable for this age group, learning appropriate to your way to use the space, the time, the resources and the peculiar ways that young people have to live with.
Qualitative offer should, as a result, regularize the school pathways, allowing children to remain in school as long as it takes to complete this level of education, eliminating illiteracy and more quickly raising gradually the schooling of the brazilian population. The extension of the school day to full-time has given good results. 0 customer service full time, giving guidance on compliance with school, sports, artistic activities and proper nutrition, at least two meals, is a significant step forward to reduce social inequalities and enlarge the democratic learning opportunities.
0 full-time and the classes are innovative modalities in an attempt to solve the universalization of education and minimize the repetition.
The LDB, in your art. 34, § 2, recommends the progressive deployment of full-time education, at the discretion of the educational systems, for elementary school students. As they are deployed full-time schools, significant changes will occur as the expansion of the physical network, differentiated service of school meals and availability of teachers, considering the specificity of timetables.
In addition to the educational service, the school has social responsibilities that go beyond the mere teaching, especially for underprivileged children. To ensure a better balance and performance of its students, it is necessary to broaden the social care, especially in the municipalities of lower income with procedures such as minimum income linked to education, school meals, textbooks and school transport.
The rural school requires a different treatment, because the supply of basic education needs to reach all corners of the Country and the expansion of the offer of four regular series to replace isolated classes unidocentes's goal to be pursued, considered the regional peculiarities and seasonality.
Strengthening the political-pedagogic project of the school, as the expression of the educational organization of school unit, school boards, which should be guided by the principle of democratic participation. The management of education and the recovery of results, both the goals and the objectives proposed in this plan, will involve community, students, parents, teachers and other education workers.
The actuality of the curriculum, valuing a curriculum paradigm that enables the interdisciplinarity, opens new perspectives in the development of skills to dominate this new world that draws. The new pedagogical conceptions, based on science education, signaled the curricular reform expressed in the national curriculum Parameters, which have emerged as important proposal and efficient guidance to teachers. The themes are linked to the daily life of the majority of the population. In addition to the curriculum comprises the traditional disciplines, propose inserting you try like ethics, cross-cutting environment, cultural plurality, work and consumption, among others. This curricular structure should always be in line with the guidelines issued by the National Board of education and the boards of education of the States and municipalities.
You must ensure the improvement of the physical infrastructure of schools, generalizing including the conditions for the use of educational technologies in multimedia, gazing from the physical construction, with appropriate adaptations to people with special needs, to specialized areas of artistic and cultural activities, recreational sports, and the adequacy of equipment.
You need to go no further in the training programmes and qualifications of teachers. The course offerings for enabling all professionals of the Magisterium must be effective commitment of higher education institutions and education systems.
And, finally, the consolidation and the improvement of the school census, as well as of the national system for the evaluation of basic education (SAEB), and the creation of additional systems in the States and Municipalities will allow a permanent monitoring of the school situation of the country, and can scale the needs and perspectives of high school and College.
2.3 Objectives and Metas2 1. Universalize the attendance of all the clientele of elementary school, within five years from the date of approval of this plan, ensuring access and permanence of all children at school, established in regions that demonstrate needed specific programs, with the cooperation of the Union, the States and municipalities. ** 2. Zoom to nine years the term of mandatory basic education beginning at age six, as is being universalized the attendance in the range of 7 to 14 anos.* 3. Regularize school flow reducing 50% in five years, the rates of repetition and dropout, through the accelerative learning programs and parallel recovery throughout the course, ensuring effective learning.
4. Draw up, within one year, minimum standards of national infrastructure for the elementary school, compatible with the size of establishments and with the regional realities, including: ** a) space, lighting, insolation, ventilation, drinking water, electricity, security and room temperature;
b) sanitary facilities and hygiene;
c) spaces for sport, recreation, library and school meal service;
d) adaptation of school buildings for the care of students with special needs;
and update and expansion of the acquis) of libraries;
f) furniture, equipment and teaching materials;
g) phone service and reproduction of texts;
h) Informatics and multimedia equipment for teaching.
5. From the second year of the term of this plan, only authorize the construction and operation of schools infrastructure requirements defined.
6. Ensure that, in five years, all schools meet the items from "a" to "d" and, in ten years, all of the items.
7. Establish, in all education systems and with the support of the Union and the school community, programs to equip all schools gradually with the equipment itemized in the items of "and" to "h":* * 8. Ensure that, in three years, all schools have formulated their pedagogical projects, with observance of the curricular guidelines for basic education and the national curriculum Parameters.
9. Promote community participation in the management of schools, universalizando, in two years, the institution of school councils or equivalent bodies.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 2 (*) the initiative for fulfilment of this aim/Goal depends on the initiative of the Union;
(**) is required the collaboration of the Union.
10. Integrating Public resources intended for social policy, in joint actions of the Union, the States and Municipalities, to ensure among other goals, the minimum income linked to socio-educational Actions for families with proven economic shortages. ** 11. Maintain and consolidate the textbook evaluation program created by the Ministry of education, establishing among its criteria the appropriate approach to issues of gender and ethnicity and the Elimination of discriminatory texts or reproducing stereotypes about the role of women, black and índio.* 12. Raise four to five the number of textbooks available to students of the four initial series of elementary school in order to cover the areas that make up the primary school curriculum guidelines and the National curricular parameters. * * 13. Expand progressively the supply of textbooks to all students of the final four series of elementary school, with priority given to the regions in which the students ' access to written material is particularly deficient. ** 14. Provide literature, scientific texts, basic books and reference works, didactic-pedagogical support to professor elementary schools. * * 15. Progressively transform the unidocentes schools in schools more than a teacher, taking into consideration the realities and the pedagogical needs and students ' learning.
16. Associate the unidocentes remaining isolated classes the schools at least four complete series.
17. Provide school transport rural areas, when necessary, with financial cooperation of the Union, the States and municipalities, in order to ensure the students ' schooling and access to school by the teacher * 18. Ensure, in collaboration with the Federal, State and local authorities, the provision of school meals and the necessary balance ensuring calorie levels-protein by age * 19. Ensure, within three years, the weekly workload of diurnal courses comprises at least 20 hours per week of effective school work.
20. Eliminate the existence, in schools, of more than two day shifts and a night shift, without prejudice of customer demand.
21. Expand, the school day in order to expand the full-time school, covering a period of at least 7 hours a day, with forecast of faculty and staff in sufficient numbers.
22. Provide, full-time schools, preferably for children of lower-income families, at least two meals, support for homework, sports and artistic activities, in accordance with the programme of minimum income Associated to socio-educational Actions.
23. Establish, in two years, the curricular reorganisation of evening courses, so as to adapt them to the characteristics of the clientele and promote the gradual elimination of the need for your offer.
24. Articulate the current supervisory and inspection functions in the evaluation system.
25. To provide for more flexible forms of school organization for the countryside, as well as the appropriate professional training of teachers, considering the specificity of the students and the demands of the medium.
26. Ensure the progressive lifting of the level of student performance through the implementation, in all education systems, of a monitoring program using the indicators of the national system of basic education Assessment and evaluation systems of States and Municipalities that may be developed. ** 27. Encourage Municipalities to undertake a mapping, through educational census, children out of school, by District of residence/or workplaces of parents, in order to find the demand and universalize the availability of compulsory education.
28. Environmental education, treated as a cross-cutting issue, will be developed as an integrated educational practice, continuous and permanent in accordance with law No. 9,795/99.
29. Support and encourage student organizations, as a space of participation and exercise of citizenship.
30. Noting the goals established in the chapters relating to distance education, teacher training, indigenous education, special education and financing and management, to the extent that relate to those laid down in this chapter.
3. HIGH SCHOOL 3.1 Diagnosis Considering the ongoing modernization process in the country, the high school has an important role to play. Both in developed countries and in fighting to overcome underdevelopment, the expansion of the high school can be a powerful factor of citizenship training and professional qualification.
Precisely because of that, in the case of Brazil, is particularly worrying the reduced access to secondary education, much lower than in other Latin American countries in development, although the statistics demonstrate that the graduates of the elementary school start to reach the third stage of basic education in a slightly larger number, each year. These small annual increments have cumulative effect. At the end of a few years, will result in a change never before observed in social composition, economic, cultural and age group of the students of the high school.
The Population count conducted by IBGE in 1997 a population of 16,580,383 inhabitants in the age group of 15 to 19 years. Were enrolled in high school, in the same year, 5,933,401 students. Means that, ideally, if the school were regular flow, high school would well less than half of young people in this age group. That's very little, especially when one considers the accelerated increase in the educational level required by the labour market. The situation worsens when one considers that, in the case of the high school, the calculations of the rates of attendance in this age group are unreliable for several reasons. Firstly because, due to the high rates of repetition in primary education, young people come to high school well older. Secondly, because there are a large number of adults back to school several years after completing elementary school.
By virtue of these two conditions, the high school serves mostly young people and adults over the age of expected this level of education (table 3), and assume that are already inserted into the labour market. In fact the 6,968,531 high school students, in, 1998, 54.8%-IE 3,817,688-studied at night.
Table 3-high school-registration-Brazil 1991 and 1998 1991 1998 Administrative Growth Age Dependence absolute value% Value%% Total Absolute 3,770,230,100.0 6,968,531,100.0 84.8 Administrative Dependence 103,092 2.7 1.8 19.2 State 122,927 Federal 2,472,757 5,301,475 65.6 4.7 4.6 79.6 76.0 114.4 176,769 Municipal 1,017,612 1,226,641 317,488 Particular 27.0 17.6 20.5 age group less than 15 years 128,804 96,474 3.4 1.4-15 to 17 years 25.1 1,625,789 3,120,185 44.8 91.9 43.1 over 17 years 2,015,637 3,751,872 53.8 86.1 53.5 source: MEC/INEP/SEEC. Statistical report, 1996 and 1998 school census 0 reduced number of enrollments in high school-only about 30.8% of the population of 15 to 17 years explains, however, by lack of interest of the Government to meet the demand, because the offer of slots in the first grade of high school has consistently been higher than the number of graduating from the eighth grade of elementary school. The exclusion in high school due to low rates of completion of elementary school, which, for your time, are associated with low quality of that level of education, from which stem high rates of repetition and dropout.
0 high school mix, too, with high selectivity. If students are coming in greater numbers to this level of education, completion rates in recent decades indicate that there is much to be done. In the 1970 cohort-73, 74% of those who started the high school could complete it in 1977-80 cohort, this index fell to 50.8%; in 1991-94, to 43.8%.
External causes to the educational system contribute to adolescents and young people get lost in the paths of schooling, aggravated by difficulties of own organization of the school and the teaching-learning process. The numbers of the abandonment and repetition, despite the improvement in recent years, are still quite detrimental (table 4).
Table 4-high school drop-out rate and Disapproval-1995 and 1997 1995 1997 Regions Total Disapproval Disapproval Total Abandonment Abandonment Brazil 32.2 0.9 33.1 26.0 7.7 33.7 26.6 10.1 36.7 18.1 7.5 25.6 21.6 10.1 31.7 13.7 7.5 21.2 North Northeast Southeast 19.3 9.1 28.4 10.9 6.3 17.2 South 16.5 12.7 26.2 10.0 10.0 20.0 Midwest 23.4 12.1 35.5 16.2 10.1 26.3 source: MEC/INEP/SEEC Note: not included non-television show of disapproval rates broken down by regions, the data of repetition and abandonment, beside the distortion rates age-range, allow show-in the absence of specific policies-in that region there will be a higher percentage of students in high school, in age appropriate manner (table 5).
Table 5-high school-age Distortion-rate 1996-1998 series Total Regions first grade second grade third grade 1996 1998 Brazil 55.2 53.9 57.7 56.4 54.6 52.8 51.0 51.3 North Northeast Southeast 1996 1998 74.8 73.2 77.2 75.6 73.2 71.9 71.8 70.0 50.0 48.4 52.2 49.7 49.8 48.0 46.3 47.1 69.6 69.5 72.6 72.3 68.8 68.4 64.7 66.0 1996 1998 1996 1998 South 41.4 39.1 43.3 41.6 41.4 36.6 37.6 36.2 1996 1998 Midwest 58.9 57.7 62.4 1996 1998 60.8 57.5 55.9 53.4 53.9 source: MEC/INEP/SEEC Note: for high school, the recommended age is 15 years for the first series, 16 to 2 and 17 for the third series. The 4th grade of secondary education is not included in the calculations, because it presents different characteristics from other series.
There are, however, positive aspects in the panorama of the high school. 0 more important one is that this was the level of education that showed the highest growth rate in recent years, throughout the system. Only in the period from 1991 to 1998, evolved from 3,770,230 to 6,968,531 students, according to school census, which is clearly associated with a recent improvement in the elementary school and the extension of access to secondary education, have already occurred. In the next years, as a result of the effort that is being made to raise the rates of completion of eighth grade, the demand for high school will expand explosively, according to estimates contained in table 6.
Table 6-Basic-Education Enrolments Brazil: 1995-2010 (1000) Year Total average Elementary 1st to 4th 5th 8th 1995 32,544 20,041 12,503 5,313 1996 33,131 20,027 13,104 5,739 1998 35,488 21,164 14,325 6,962 2000 * 35,439 20,151 15,288 8,774 2002 * 34,947 19,282 15,666 10,020 2004 * 34,253 18,562 15,691 10,297 2005 * * 32,813 33,879 18,255 15,624 10,383 2008
* 32,225 17,245 14,980 10,369 17,552 15,261 10,446 2010 source: MEC/INEP/SEEC (*) estimated data However, in the case of the high school, it's not just about expansion. Between the different levels of education, which has faced in recent years, the biggest crisis in terms of lack of definition of the directions that should be followed in their goals and in your organization. One aspect that should be overcome with the implementation of the new curriculum guidelines for high school and teacher training programs, especially in the areas of science and math.
As for the funding, the constitutional amendment n° 14, as well as the guidelines and Bases, assigns to the States the responsibility for your maintenance and development. In fact, the surprising growth of high school is due basically to the State network in (table 3). The decrease of the registration on the private network, testifies to the increasingly public nature of this level of education. Future expansion, however, will depend on the judicious use of linked resources to education, especially because there is, for this level of education, as the additional resources that exist for the Elementary Education in the form of Salary. So, as the States are obliged to apply 15% of the revenue of taxes in elementary school, the remaining 10% are linked to education should be applied, in this instance, Federal priority in high school. This allocation should provide sufficient funds for the expansion of this level of education, especially when you consider that the primary education consists of eight grades and the Middle, only three; This means that even with the universalization of secondary education, the number of enrolled students will be, at most, 35% that answered the fundamental level.
There are to consider, however, that, in many States, the expansion of the high school comes from competing with the creation of State universities. 0 more reasonable would be to promote the expansion of higher education State with additional resources, without compromising the 25% constitutionally linked to education, which shall be intended primarily to basic education.
3.2 Guidelines 0 slow increase, but continuous, the number of those who manage to complete the compulsory school, associated with the trend towards the reduction of the age of the seniors, will allow an increasing number of young people focused on a longer educational career. Thus, the demand for high school-third stage of basic education-will also consist of threads already inserted in the labour market, social and wage improvement will aspire to and need to master skills that allow you to assimilate and use productively, new technological resources and accelerated transformation.
Recent statistics confirm this trend. Since the mid-' 80, was in high school that was the greatest growth of enrollments in the country. From 1985 to 1994, this growth was higher than 100%, while in elementary school was 30%.
If, in the distant past the breaking point of the Brazilian educational system was on access to school, later in the passage of the old primary school in the gym, then by the differentiation of the quality of education offered, today he gives on the threshold and into the high school.
By the character who took on educational history of almost all countries, the average education is particularly vulnerable to social inequality. In permanent dispute between vocational or academic guidelines, between humanist or economic objectives, expressed in the privileges and in the decorro of origin social exclusions. In view of this, the high school proposed in this plan should meet the challenge of this duality with quality middle school offer all the demand. An education that fosters learning of general skills, fashion people more able to assimilate changes, more autonomous in their choices, respecting differences and overcome social segmentation.
Preparing young people and adults stop the challenges of modernity, the high school should allow acquisition of skills related to the full exercise of citizenship and productive insertion: self-learning; perception of social dynamics and capacity to intervene; understanding of the production processes; ability to observe, interpret and make decisions; mastery of basic skills, languages, communication abstraction; skills to incorporate ethical values of solidarity, cooperation and respect for individuality.
Over the ten years of the term of this plan, as provided for in art. 208, II, of the Federal Constitution which provides as a duty of the State to guarantee the progressive universalization of secondary education free, offering quality education cannot dispense with pedagogical and fundamental administrative settings to a solid general education and economic measures to ensure financial resources for your financing. As States and the Federal District are required to apply 15% of the revenue of taxes in elementary school, the remaining 10% are linked to education should be applied primarily in high school. This allocation will ensure the maintenance and expansion of this level of education in the coming years.
The goals of expanding the provision and improving the quality of secondary education must be clearly associated with the guidelines leading to the correction of the flow of students in elementary school, today with distortion rates age-unacceptable series. On the other hand, the establishment of an evaluation system, similar to what occurs with the elementary school, is essential for monitoring the results of high school and correcting his mistakes. 0 basic education evaluation system (SAEB) and, more recently, the national high school Exam (ENEM), operated by the MEC, the existing evaluation systems in some units of the Federation that, certainly, will be created in other, and statistical systems available today are important mechanisms to promote efficiency and equality of the high school offered in all regions of the country.
You have to consider, too, that the high school caters to an age group that demand a school organisation suited to your get over how to use the space, the time, and the resources available. These elements must be guided the organisation of teaching from the new curricular guidelines for high school, I worked out and approved by National Council of education.
As in other levels of education, the goals of the PNE should join, strongly, to training, capacity-building and enhancement of teaching, treated in another part of this document. It is acknowledged that the shortage of teachers in the area of science is problem that undermines the quality of education and hinders both the maintenance of existing courses as your expansion.
The constitutional provision (art. 208, ill.) for the integration of people with disabilities in regular education network will be, in high school, implemented through qualification of teachers and the adaptation of schools as physical conditions, furniture, equipment and teaching materials. Specialized care when needed, will be observed specific guidelines contained in the chapter on special education.
Thus, the guidelines of the National Education Plan point stop creating incentives and the removal of all obstacles for young people to remain in the school system and at 17 or 18 years of age, are completing basic education with a solid education.
3.3 Objectives and Metas3
1. Formulate and implement progressively, a policy on the management of physical infrastructure in public, providing basic education: a) the reordering, from the first year of this plan, the public school district that includes the rational occupation of State and municipal education institutions, with the objective, among others, of facilitating the delimitation of physical facilities for the separate high school at least the first four grades of primary school and early childhood education;
b) the gradual expansion of the number of high school public schools according to the infrastructure needs identified during the process of reordering of the current physical network;
c) within two years after the term of this plan, the attendance of all the graduates of the elementary school and the inclusion of students with lag of age and those who have special learning needs;
d) offering vacancies that, within five years, corresponding to 50% and, in ten years, 100% of the high demand, as a result of the universalisation and regularization of the flow of students in elementary school.
2. Deploy and consolidate, within five years, the new curricular design prepared by the National Board of education.
3. Improve the use of high school students, in order to achieve satisfactory levels of performance defined and evaluated by the National Evaluation System of basic education (SAEB), by the national high school Exam (ENEM) and evaluation systems that will be deployed in the States.
4. Reduce by 5% per year, the repetition and the avoidance, to reduce to four years the average time to complete this level.
5. Ensure, in five years, that all high school teachers have higher level degree offering, including training opportunities at this level of education to those who have not. ** 6. Draw up, within one year, minimum national standards for high school infrastructure, consistent with the regional realities, including: * a) space, lighting, ventilation and heat stroke of school buildings;
b) sanitary facilities and conditions for the maintenance of hygiene in all school buildings;
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ (*) the initiative for fulfilment of this aim/Goal depends on the initiative of the Union;
(**) is required the collaboration of the Union.
c) space for sport and recreation;
d) space for the library;
e) adaptation of school buildings for the care of students with special needs;
f) installation for science labs;
g) Informatics and multimedia equipment for teaching;
h) update and expansion of the library collection including bibliographic material in support of the teacher and students;
didactic-pedagogic equipment r) support the work in the classroom;
j) phone and text player;
7. Do not allow the operation of new schools outside the standards of '' a '' to '' g ''.
8. adapting, in five years, existing schools, to meet the minimum standards established.
9. Ensure that, in five years, all schools are equipped at least with library, phone and text player.
10. Ensure that, in five years, at least 50%, and, in 10 years, all of the schools have computer equipment for modernization of administration and to support the improvement of teaching and learning. ** 11. Adopt measures for the gradual universalization of communication networks, for improving teaching and learning.
12. Adopt measures for the gradual universalization of all minimum standards during the Decade, encouraging the creation of facilities suitable for this level of education.
13. Establish mechanisms, such as advice or equivalent, to encourage community participation in the management, maintenance and improvement of the conditions of operation of the schools.
14. Ensure the autonomy of the schools, both with regard to the pedagogic project in terms of resources management for maintenance of everyday life.
15. Adopt measures to expand the offer day and keep the night offer, enough to ensure the attendance of students who work.
16. Proceed in two years, a review of didactic-pedagogical and administrative organisation of the night teaching, in order to tailor it to the needs of the student-worker, without prejudice to the quality of education.
17. Establish, within a year, emergency program for teacher training, especially in the areas of science and math * 18. Support and encourage student organizations, as a space of participation and exercise of citizenship.
19. Environmental education, treated as a cross-cutting issue, will be developed as an educational practice, continuous and permanent integrated in accordance with the law n° 9,795/99.
20. Observe, as regards the high school, the goals established in the chapters relating to teacher training, financing and management and distance education.
B-HIGHER EDUCATION 4. 4.1 HIGHER EDUCATION higher education Diagnosis in Brazil, faces serious problems, which will worsen if the National Education Plan does not establish a policy that promotes your renovation and development.
Currently, the approximately 1,500,000 of young graduates of the high school have at your disposal a reasonable number of slots. (Table 7).
Table 7-framework of higher education in Brazil-1998 Total Federal higher education Private Institutions Municipal State 973 57 74 78 764 6,950 1,338 1,125 507 3,980 Courses offered Vacancies 776,031 90,788 70,670 44,267 570,306 Vacancies 651,353 89,160 67,888 39,317 454,988 Freshmen unfilled 124,678 1,628 2,782 4,950 115,318 source: INEP/MEC-a1998 data However, as a result of demographic factors conjugate increase of the demands of the labour market, in addition to the high school improvement policies, an explosion in demand for higher education. The high school enrollment is expected to grow in the State networks, being likely that the growth is coming from students from poorer layers of the population. That is, there will be a growing demand for needy students for higher education. In 1998, 55% of the students at that level attended evening courses; on State network this percentage rises to 62%.
The registration in the institutions of higher education has shown a rapid growth in recent years. Only in 1998, the total number of enrolled jumped to 1 million and 945,000, in 1997, to 2 1,001,000 in 1998. There was, therefore, a growth of 9%,-index equal to that achieved by the system throughout the 80.
Table 8-evolution of Registration for Administrative Dependence-Brazil-1980-1998 Total Federal State Municipal Year Total Public Private Private Public%% 885,054 1981 1,386,792 313,217 129,659 92,934 535,810 38.64 64.26 35.74 1980 1,377,286 316,715 109,252 66,265 492,232 850,982 1982 1,407,987 316,940 134,901 96,547 548,388 859,599 38.95 61.36 61.05 40.08 1983 1,438,992 340,118 147,197 89,374 576,689 862,303
1984 1,399,539 326,199 156,013 89,667 571,879 827,660 40.87 59.92 1985 1,367,609 326,522 146,816 83,342 556,680 810,929 1986 1,418,196 325,734 153,789 98,109 577,632 59.13 40.71 59.29 59.26 1987 1,470,555 329,423 168,039 87,503 584,965 840,564 885,590 39.78 40.74 60.22 1988 1,503,555 317,831 190,736 76,784 585,351 38.94 918,204 1989 1,518,904 315,283 193 61.06. 697 75,434 584,414 934,490 1990 1,540,080 308,867 194,417 75,341 578,625 37.58 61.52 38.48 961,455
1991 1,565,056 320,135 202,315 83,286 605,736 959,320 1992 1,535,788 325,884 210,133 93,645 629,662 61.29 38.71 62.42 41.00 40.99 59.01 59.00 1993 1,594,668 344,387 216,535 92,594 653,516 906,126 941,152 1994 1,661,034 363,543 231,936 94,971 690,450 1995 1,759,703 367,531 239,215 93,794 700,540 1,059,163 970,584 41.57 58.43 38.82 60.18 1996 1,868,529 388,987 243,101
1997 1,945,615 395,833 253,678 109,671 759,182 103,339 735,427 1,133,102 1,186,433 39.36 60.64 39.03 60.97 37.86 62.14 1,321,229 1998 2,125,958 408,640 274,934 121,155 804,729 source: MEC/INEP private school participation at the top level has increased especially in the Decade of 70, as a result of a pressure of demand from the "issue of surpluses". In the last twenty years, the private sector has offered just under two thirds of vacancies in higher education (table 8). From 1994 on, the number of students rose 36.1 percent in private institutions, well above the. In these, the growth was 12.4% 18.5% in the Federal, State, and municipal 27.6%.
The maintenance of typical activities for universities: education, research and extension-which constitute the necessary support to the scientific, technological and cultural development of the country, it will not be possible without the strengthening of the public sector. At the same time, the expansion of the private sector should continue, provided that guaranteed the quality.
As can be seen in table 9, registers, also in the case of higher education, a very uneven distribution of jobs by region, which need to be corrected. It should be noted, however, that this inequality results from the concentration of enrollments in private institutions of the more developed regions. The public sector, on the other hand, is more evenly distributed and thus fulfills an important function of reducing regional inequalities-this function that should be preserved.
Table 9-registration for Administrative Dependence-Brazil and regions-higher level Administrative Federal Region Addiction 1998 Total% State% Private% 2,125,958 408,640 Brazil City% 274,934 12.93 121,155 19.22 1,321,229 North 85,077 45,957 62.14 5.69 9,688 11.38 952 1.11 54.01 28,480 33.47 310,159 118,455 38.19 80,702 26.01 10,681 Northeast 3.44 32.34 Southeast 1,148,004 127,991 100,321
11.14 114,716 9.99 3.76 862,087 South 419,133 71,960 75.09 43,210 17.16 55,543 61,264 13.25 14.61 54.96 Midwest 230,366 163,585 44,277 27.06 14,285 5,048 3.08 99,975 8.73 61.11 source: MEC/INEP/throughout the SEEC Latin America, Brazil boasts one of the lowest rates of access to higher education, even when you take into account the private sector. Thus, the percentage of students enrolled in higher education in relation to the brazilian population of 18 to 24 years is less than 12%, comparing unfavourably with the other countries of the continent. The Argentina, although count on 40% of the age group, sets up a special case since it adopted the unrestricted ticket, which is reflected in high rates of repetition and dropout in the early years. But Brazil is still unfavorable situation front of Chile (20.6%), Venezuela (26%) and Bolivia (20.6%).
It is important to note that the public sector growth was, in recent years, the expansion of State networks service, as shown in table 8. The State contribution to higher education has been important, but should not occur at the expense of quality high school expansion. For a balanced development and marcos of the collaboration, the resources allocated by States to higher education must be additional to 25% of the tax revenue linked to the maintenance and development of basic education.
Note also that, between 1988 and 1998, there has been significant expansion of enrollments in municipal institutions, with growth of 5.8% per year, while the State and individuals, present growth of 4.4% and the 2.9% Federal. Although in terms of the quota, the municipal participation is little expressive-municipal participation less than 6% match of total registrations, this trend of expansion is contrary to the provisions of the municipal constitutional amendment 14, 1996, where the municipal education system must meet as a matter of priority to early childhood education and elementary education. (Table 10).
Table 10-Registration growth index for 1988-1998 Brazil Administrative Dependence 1998 = 100 Federal State Municipal Private Year 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.2 101.6 98.2 101.8 1989 1990 1,998,100.0 1,991,100.7 1,992,102.5 106.1 108.5 104.5 97.2 101.9 98.1 104.7 110.2 122.0 98.7 1,993,108.4 1,994,114.4 1,995,115.6 125.4 122.2 115.4 121.6 123.7 105.7 113.5 120.6 102.5 1996
1,997,124.5 1,998,128.6 133.0 142.8 129.2 122.4 127.5 134.6 123.4 144.1 157.8 143.9 2.9 4.4 5.8 4.4 annual average growth source: MEC/INEP/SEEC the Union historically attributed the role of Act on higher education function provided for in Magna Carta. Public institutions of this level of education cannot do without the support of the State. Public universities have an important role to play in the system, whether in the basic search and in the stricto sensu graduate studies, either as benchmark in the undergraduate education. In addition, you qualify teachers who work in basic education and higher education lecturers who work in public and private institutions, in order to reach the targets set in the LDB as to titling.
You have to think, of course, on rationalization of expenditures and diversification of the system while maintaining the role of the public sector.
There is a controversy about spent per student at the top level, which reflects a fierce dispute of conceptions. There is a variation of the 5 11000 real as annual spending per student, depending on the methodology adopted and the view of the analyst. Part of the studies on the subject simply divides all the University's budget by the number of students. In this way are embedded in the cost of graduation the considerable spending on research-what do not admit, for example, in France. Many Brazilian scholars also dispute this position, since one cannot confuse the function-"teaching" with "research" and "extension". Some authors still disregard the high expenses for the University hospitals and pensions. (Table 11).
Table 11-IFES-retirements and Pension expenditure in Total expenditure on personnel and social charges R$ 1.00-Office personnel and retirements and Pensions% Charges (B/A) 1996 4,981,168,224 1,470,679,381 29.5 28.9 1997 4,973,428,714 1995 2,970,957,348 859,609,496
1,499,419,168 1998 4,907,154,735 1,578,478,032 30.1 32.2 source: SIAFI/TCU-constant values of 1998, deflating itself based on the IGP-DI/FGV, exclusive Federal centers of technological education-CEFETs doesn't fit the National Education Plan to take sides in this dispute. It is recommended that the academic community find consensus criteria of evaluation. However, as regards the issue of inactive, it is understood that should be funded by the Union, but disconnected from the budget of the federal institutions of higher education-IFES.
The Court of Auditors points out that, in addition to significant, the percentage attributable to retirements is growing over the period and that the true meaning of this expense is more noticeable when compared with other expenses of IFES as the Other Costs and Capital expenditures-OCC: what is spent on the payment of inactive and pensioners is equivalent to the amount spent on all other expenses of the IFES that do not refer to personal including maintenance in General, investments, financial investments, etc. (table 12) table 12-IFES-relationship between retirement and pension expenses and other Costs, and retirement and pension financial year Capital Costs and Other Capital R$ 1.00% (after + occ) R$ 1.00% (after + occ) 49.0 51.0 849,592,914 1995 859,609,496 1996 1,470,679,381 1997 1,499,419,168 51.3 49.7 1,452,937,403 50.3 48.7 53.8 46.2 1,354,278,172 1998 1,578,478,032 1,421,472,930 Source : Tribunal de Contas da União-constant values of 1998, so that the percentage of resources for maintenance and investment in IFES is decreased in the same proportion to that increase spending on inactive and pensioners.
It is important to note, even the behavior of investment expenses and financial reversals. (Table 13).
Table 13-IFES-expenditure on investments and Financial Investments Total Exercise spending Index (%) In about 1995 1995 260,891,319 1996 172,984,623 1997 168,287,637 100.0 0.0 64.5 66.3-33.7-35.5-33.2 66.8 1998 86,552,016 source: Tribunal de Contas da União-constant values of 1998, exclusive the CEFETs that way, as opposed to the total expenditure of the IFES, which, after a jump in 1996, began to present relative stability, investment expenses present decline.
As a diversification strategy, you have to think about the expansion of post-secondary education, i.e. training of qualification in technical and professional areas. The modulation itself University education, with intermediate diploma, as was established in France, would allow a substantial expansion of care in modern institutions of higher education, at no extra cost.
4.2 Guidelines no country can aspire to be developed and independent without a strong higher education system. In a world where knowledge surpasses the material resources as a factor of human development, the importance of higher education and its institutions is increasing. So that they can play your educational, institutional and social mission, public support is crucial.
The importance that this plan must be higher education institutions (HEIs), mainly to the University and research centres, erects on the realization that the production of knowledge, today more than ever, and so tends to be increasingly is the basis of scientific and technological development and that this and that are creating the dynamism of today's societies.
The IES have much to do, in the set of national efforts to put the Country up to the demands and challenges of the 21st century. XXI, finding the solution to the current problems, in all fields of life and human activity and opening a horizon for a better future for the brazilian society, reducing inequalities. The provision of quality basic education for all is largely in the hands of these institutions, to the extent that they compete primarily the training of teaching professionals; the formation of the professional, scientific, and cultural frameworks of higher level, the production of research and innovation, the pursuit of a solution to the current problems are functions that highlight the University in order to design the brazilian society for a better future.
The system of higher education should rely on a diverse set of institutions that meet the different demands and functions. Its strategic core be composed by universities, who exercise the functions assigned to it by the Constitution: teaching, research and extension. This strategic core's mission is to contribute to the country's development and the reduction of regional imbalances, in a national project milestones. For this reason, these institutions must have close cooperation with the institutions of science and technology-as is indicated in the LDB (art. 86). In the contemporary world, the rapid transformations aimed at universities the challenge of gathering in their activities of teaching, research and extension, the relevant requirements, including overcoming social and regional inequalities, quality and international cooperation. Universities are from the reflection and research, the main instrument of transmission of the cultural and scientific experience accumulated by humanity. In these institutions takes the wealth of the human knowledge that should be applied to the knowledge and development of the country and of the brazilian society. The University is, at the same time, depository and creator of knowledge.
The basic guideline for the proper performance of this segment is the University autonomy, exerted on the dimensions set out in Magna Carta: didactic-scientific, administrative and financial and patrimonial management.
The Federal Constitution stipulates that the duty of the State with effective education by ensuring, among others, access to higher levels of education, research and artistic creation, according to the capacity of each.
The pressure by the increase of places in higher education, which stems from the increase in the number of graduates of accelerated education, it's already happening and will tend to grow. You must plan the expansion with quality, thus avoiding the easy path of massification. It is important the contribution of the private sector, which already provides most of the vacancies in higher education and has an important role to play, since the quality parameters established by education systems.
There is need for the expansion of public universities to meet the increasing demand of the students, especially the needy, as well as the development of the necessary research to Parents, which depends on these institutions, since they carry out more than 90% of the research and the graduate-in line with the constitutional role reserved to them.
Make sure, therefore, that the public sector in this process, has an expansion of places such that, at the very least, keep urn proportion not less than 40% of the total.
To promote the renewal of the University education of Brazil, we must also revamp the current system of rigid bureaucratic controls. The effective autonomy of universities, expanding the margin of freedom of non-university institutions and the permanent evaluation of the curricula are much needed as urgent measures to ensure that higher education can face the rapid changes in brazilian society and constitute a formulator of paths for human development in our country.
It should be emphasized, too, that the institutions for research, but practicing quality education and, eventually, extension, have an important role to play in the higher education system and expansion, and your exercise including prerogatives of the autonomy. In the case of University centers.
Highlight the importance of the expansion of slots at night, whereas universities, especially the Feds have room for this purpose, highlighting the need to ensure access to laboratories, libraries and other resources to ensure the student-worker quality education to which they are entitled under the same conditions available to the students during the day. This course of action will lead to the improvement of the indicator on the number of teachers by students.
It is also essential to improve the quality of education offered, for what constitutes appropriate instrument the institutionalization of a comprehensive evaluation system associated with the expansion of graduate programs, whose goal is to qualify teachers who work in higher education.
Historically, the Federal Brazilian design has reserved the pape Union! the Act on higher education. This is your precípoa function and it should attract the largest portion of your linked recipe resources. It is important to ensure a stable funding to public universities, from an array that consider their constitutional functions.
It should be stressed that higher education is reserved, too, the role of support and disseminate the knowledge taught in other levels of education, as well as prepare their teachers. So, not only on the part of the University, but also of other institutions of higher education should be not only a close relationship between this level of education and others as well as a commitment to the Brazilian educational system.
Finally, it is necessary to review and expand, in collaboration with the Ministry of science and technology and the State Research Foundations, the graduate incentive policy and scientific, technological and humanistic research in universities.
4.3 Objectives and Metas4 1. Provide, by the end of the Decade, the supply of higher education for at least 30% of the age group of 18 to 24 years. ** 2. (Vetoed)
3. Establish a policy to decrease the inequalities existing between different supply regions of País.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 4 (*) the initiative for fulfilment of this aim/Goal depends on the initiative of the Union;
(**) is required the collaboration of the Union.
4. Establish a comprehensive interactive system for distance education, using it, including, to enlarge the possibilities of attendance in courses, regular or continuing education. ** 5. Ensure effective didactic, scientific autonomy, administrative and financial management for the public universities. ** 6. Institutionalizing a broad and diverse internal and external evaluation system encompassing the public and private sectors, and promote the improvement of the quality of teaching, research, and extension of the acadêmica.* Management 7. Establish development programs for higher education institutions to set up systems and where possible nationally articulated, institutional assessment and capable of providing the high quality standards of education, and in the case of universities, also of pesquisa.* 8. Extend, on the basis of the evaluation system, different privileges of autonomy public non-university institutions and privadas.* 9. Establish periodic reaccreditation system of institutions and periodic recognition of degrees, supported the national assessment system. ** 10. Diversify the higher education system, promoting and valuing non-university establishments that offer quality education and that meet customers with specific demands: technological training, self-employed, new professions, for teaching or training exercise. ** 11. Establish, at the national level, curriculum guidelines to ensure the necessary flexibility and diversity in the curricula offered by the different institutions of higher education, in order to better meet the needs of their customers and the differential peculiarities of the regions in which inserem.* 12. Include in the curriculum guidelines of the teacher training courses related to the problematic themes treated in the cross-cutting issues, especially with regard to approach such as: gender, sexual education, ethics (Justice, dialogue, mutual respect, solidarity and tolerance), cultural plurality, environment, health and local themes.
13. Diversifying the offer of education, encouraging the creation of nocturnal courses with innovative proposals, sequential courses and modular courses with certification, allowing greater flexibility in the formation and expansion of the offer of education. ** 14. From minimum standards laid down by the Government, require progressive improvement of the infrastructure of laboratories, equipment and libraries as a condition for the reaccreditation of the institutions of higher education and renewal of recognition of cursos.* 15. Stimulate the consolidation and the development of graduate studies and research from universities, doubling in ten years, the number of qualified researchers. ** 16. Promote the annual increase in the number of masters and doctors trained in the national postgraduate system in at least 5%. ** 17. Promote periodic surveys of the exodus of Brazilian researchers formed, to other countries, investigate their causes, develop immediate actions to prevent the exodus continue, and plan strategies for attraction of these researchers, as well as talents from other countries. * * 18. Encourage the generalisation of the practice of research as an integral element and moderniser of the teaching-learning processes in all higher education, including with the participation of students in research development * 19. Create policies that facilitate minorities, victims of discrimination, access to higher education, through programmes of compensation of your previous education deficiencies, allowing them, in this way, compete on equal terms in the processes of selection and admission to this level of education. ** 20. Deploy training plans of technical-administrative servers public institutions of higher education, being the competence of the INSTITUTIONS of HIGHER EDUCATION set the way of using the resources provided for this purpose. * * 21. Ensure, in the institutions of higher education, the provision of extension courses to meet the continuing education needs of adults, with or without higher education, with a view to integrate the necessary national effort of social and educational debt rescue.
22. ensuring the creation of boards with the participation of the community and of organized civil society entities, for monitoring and control of University activities, with the goal of ensuring the return to society the results of the research, education and extension.
23. Deploy the program of development of University extension in all federal institutions of higher education in the 2001-2004 quadrennium and ensure that at least 10% of the total credits required for graduation in higher education in the country will be reserved for the performance of students in extension actions.
4.4-Financing and management of higher education 24. (Vetoed) 25. Establish a funding system for the public sector, to consider, in the distribution of resources for each institution, in addition to the survey, the number of students served, with the quality of this offer * 26. (Vetoed) 27. Offer support and encouragement to the Community institutions government non-profit organization, preferably those located in towns not served by the public authorities, taking into account the assessment of the cost and the quality of education offered.
28. encourage public federal and State resources, institutions of higher education to constitute special programs and training of teachers titration, developing and consolidating graduate school in the country. ** 29. (Vetoed) 30. Use part of the resources for science and technology, to consolidate the development of graduate studies and research. ** 31. Include information collected annually through the questionnaire annexed to the national exam for courses, issues relevant to the formulation of gender policies, such as suspension of registration or temporary abandonment of the upper courses due to pregnancy and/or exercising domestic functions related to the custody and education of children. * 32. Encourage the inclusion of representatives of organised civil society in the University Advice. ** 33. To encourage higher education institutions to identify, in basic education, students with high intellectual skills, in the lower income strata, with a view to offer scholarships and support the continuation of the studies. ** 34. Encourage the adoption, by the public institutions, student assistance programs, such as bag-work or other intended to support needy students who demonstrate good academic achievement. 35. Observe, as regards higher education, the goals established in the chapters relating to distance education, teacher training, indigenous education, special education and adult education.
LLL-5 TEACHING MODALITIES. Adult and youth education Diagnostic 5.1 the Federal Constitution determines as one of the goals of the National Education Plan the integration of Government actions that lead to the eradication of illiteracy (art. 214, I). It is task that requires a broad mobilization of human and financial resources on the part of Governments and society.
The service deficits in elementary school resulted, over the years, a large number of young people and adults who did not have access to or have not finished elementary school mandatory.
Although there has been progress with respect to this issue, the number of illiterates is still excessive and shames the Parents: reaches 16 million Brazilians over 15 years. Illiteracy is closely associated with the rates of schooling and the number of children out of school.
All indicators point to stop the deep regional inequalities in the provision of educational opportunities and the concentration of population illiterate or poorly educated in pockets of poverty in the country. About 30% of the illiterate population aged over 15 years is located in the Northeast. (Table 14).
Table 14-Illiteracy rates of persons of 15 years of age or older-Brazil and regions-Brazil 1996 14.7% 11.6% Northern urban * Northeast 28.7% 8.7% Region Region Southeast South 8.9% Midwest region 11.6% source: National Research for sample of Domiciles-1996. Rio de janeiro. IBGE, v. 18, 1998.
* Excluding the rural population of Rondônia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará, and Amapá.
An expanded conception of literacy, covering the training equivalent to eight grades of primary education, increases the population being reached because, as can be seen in table 15, is very high the number of young people and adults who have not completed compulsory schooling.
Table 15-Schooling of the population-1996 groups of Age Classes of years of study (%)
Without education and less than 1 year 1 to 3 years 4 years 5 to 7 years 8 years 8 to 11 years 12 years and certain 13.61 21.55 16.84 18.32 8.25 14.68 5.88 0.87 to 14 10 Total years 15 to 19 10.11 42.99 18.66 26.37 0.85 0.07 0.00 0.96 years 20 to 24 5.36 16.29 12.75 32.15 12.46 19.20 0.76 1.03 years 25 to 29 years 7.03 14.86 5.75 14.37 13.05 22.73 10.80 25.70 6.81 0.79
30 to 39 14.80 19.87 11.18 23.10 8.44 0.71 years 40 to 49 years 9.10 16.61 17.59 15.39 10.29 19.87 10.08 1.08 15.46 20.61 19.85 11.20 8.72 13.51 10.0-4 50 to 59 years 25.53 24.17 20.59 8.00 6.32 8.34 6.53 0.51 0.60 60 years or more Old 40.99 22.01 17.81 5.84 4.35 5.10 3.41 0.47 ignored 22.81 20.08 11.14 11.36 5.27 8.50 3.02 17.83 Source : IBGE. 1996 population count Although illiteracy is concentrated in the more advanced age groups (table 16) and the rates have been reduced, from 20.1% of the population, in 1991, to 15.6% in 1995, there is also an insufficient reduction of illiteracy over time. Old generations cannot be considered as the only responsible for current rates, because people between 15:30 years in 1997 amounted to about 21.4% of the total illiteracy. The problem is not just a demographic issue. As for the stock replenishment of illiterates, as well as the phenomenon of regression, it is expected that only the demographic dynamics is insufficient to promote the reduction in reasonable levels in the coming years. Therefore, to accelerate the reduction of illiteracy is necessary actively on both the existing stock and on future generations.
Table 16-population of 15 years old or older by literacy situation-1997 (*) sex and location of Domicile population of 15 years and over by age groups 15 to 19 years Total 20 to 24 years 25 to 29 years 30 to 39 years 40 to 49 years 50 years or more Total 108,025,650 16,580,383 13,454,058 12,303,375 23,245,389 17,601,643 24,840,802 15,883,372 941,773 960,560 1.0.058.705 _ 2,382,562 Literate Not 2,683,390 7,856,382 Illiteracy% 14.07 5.7
52,043,984 8,312,899 6,667,807 5,955,295 11,197,194 8,421,656 11,489,133 7,608,924 637,555 599,186 623,931 1,255,761 1,227,800 3,264,691 Non Literate Men 7.1 8.6 10.2 15.2 31.6 Illiteracy% 8,274,448 304,218 361,374 434,774 1,126,801 1,455,590 4,591,691 55,981,666 8,267,484 6,786,251 6,348,080 12,048,195 9,179,987 13,351,669 non-Literate Women 14.6 7.7 9.0 10.5 11.2 14.6 28.4 Illiteracy%
20,350,574 3,421,239 2,500,667 2,219,596 4,031,114 3,063,675 5,114,283 6,517,855 499,211 469,830 515,961 1,064,127 1,118,795 2,849,931 14.8 3.7 5.3 6.8 9.4 15.9 34.4 Rural Literate Not Illiteracy 32.0 14.6 18.8 23.2 26.4 36.5 55.7% source: IBGE-demographic census 1991/1995/1996/1997 PNAD * Excluding the rural population of Rondônia, Acre, Amazonas, Roraima, Pará, and Amapá.
As table 15 shows, don't exist, taken this indicator, significant distortions depending on the genre, and including women better positioned in the age groups under 40 years. Taking the regional court, women have, in all regions, a highest average years of study. However, when the factor checked is ethnicity, a distortion, to indicate the need for targeted policies. (Table 17)
Table 17-average years of schooling of the people of 10 years or more of age by sex and color – Brazil 1996 average years of study Total Men Women Black White and Brown 5.3 5.2 5.4 6.2 4.2 5.2 4.9 5.4 6.3 4.7 Total Urban North region Northeast region southeastern region Southern Region 6.0 6.0 6.0 6.6 4.9 3.9 3.6 4.2 4.8 3.5 5.8 5.8 5.8 6.0 4.3 5.5 5.2 5.5 6.3 4.7 Midwest region source: National research for sample of Domiciles, 1996 (CD-ROM) 5.2 Guidelines The profound transformations that have been taking place on a world scale, due to the accelerated scientific and technological advancement and the phenomenon of globalisation, have direct implications on cultural values, in organizing the individual routines, social relations, in political participation, as well as in the reorganization of the world of work.
The need for continuous development of skills and competencies to face these changes altered the traditional conception of adult and youth education, no longer restricted to a particular period or a limited purpose. Develops the concept of education throughout life, which will start with literacy. But it is not enough to teach reading and writing. To insert the population in full exercise of citizenship, improve your quality of life and enjoyment of free time, and expand their opportunities in the labour market, education of young people and adults must understand at least the offer of training equivalent to eight initial series of elementary school.
According to the Magna Charta (art. 208, I), teaching mode "adult and youth education", at the fundamental level must be offered free of charge by the State to all that he did not have access in their own age. It is a subjective public right (CF., art. 208, § 1). So, it is up to public authorities to provide the resources to meet this education.
The successful experiences of financial incentives such as scholarships, should be considered by the school systems responsible for the education of young people and adults. Whenever possible, this policy should be integrated to those addressed to children, such as those involving education and minimum income. So, will be integral to the family.
To meet this, numerous and heterogeneous clientele with regard to interests and competences acquired in social practice, diversifying programs. In this sense, it is essential the participation of solidarity of the entire community, with the involvement of civil society organisations directly involved in. Is necessary, yet, the production of teaching materials and appropriate pedagogical techniques, in addition to the specialization of the faculty.
The integration of youth and adult education with professional education increases your effectiveness, making them more attractive. It is important the support of employers, in order to consider the need for ongoing formation-what can be in a variety of ways: Organization of conferences work compatible with school hours; granting of licences for frequency in courses; implementation of training courses for young people and adults in their own workplace. It is also appropriate to observe that there are workers milhões inserted into large informal market, or looking for a job, or-especially women-involved with household chores. Hence the importance of the Association of employment policies and protection against unemployment to the formation of young people and adults, as well as policies aimed at women, whose education has, moreover, a great impact on the next generation, aiding in the reduction of the appearance of "new illiterates".
As the face of poverty, illiteracy rates accompany the Brazilian regional imbalances, both in relation to political-administrative regions, as regards urban/rural Court. Thus, it is important to follow up the goals, as well as regionalised specific strategies for the rural population.
It is, finally, consider that the educational debt rescue is not restricted to the provision of equivalent training at four initial series of elementary school. The complete cycle of eight series to those who succeed in completing the initial series is an integral part of the rights guaranteed by the Federal Constitution and should be expanded gradually. Similarly, should be guaranteed to those who completed elementary school, access to the high school.
A task of this magnitude requires the guarantee and programming of resources needed. This issue is addressed in the chapter concerning the financing and management.
Although the financing of actions by the public authorities is crucial in the formulation and implementation of strategies needed to tackle the problem of educational deficits, it is important to note that, without an effective contribution of civil society, hardly illiteracy will be eradicated and, much less, achieve will universalize an equivalent training to eight initial series of elementary school. Universities, churches, unions, student bodies, companies, associations of neighborhoods, the mass media and civil society organizations in General should be agents of this huge mobilization. Given the importance of creating opportunities for coexistence with a rich cultural environment, one should seek partnerships with cultural stakeholders, such as museums and libraries, such as cinemas and theatres. Thus, the following goals are vital to the construction of citizenship in the country, requires a national effort, with shared responsibility between the Union, the States and the Federal District, and municipalities organized society.
5.3 Objectives and Metas5 1. Establish, from the approval of the PNE, programs aimed at teaching youth and adults, 10 million in five years and, until the end of the Decade, eradicating illiteracy. ** 2. Ensure, in five years, the provision of adult and youth education equivalent to four initial series of elementary school for 50% of the population of 15 years and over who have not reached this level of education. ** 3. Ensure, by the end of the Decade, the offer of courses equivalent to those four series late from elementary school to the entire population of 15 years and over who have completed the four original series * 4. Establish national program, to ensure that the public schools of primary and secondary school located in areas characterized by illiteracy and low educational level offering literacy programs and teaching and exams for young people and adults, according to the national curriculum guidelines * 5. Establish national supply program by the Ministry of education, educational-pedagogical material, suitable for the clientele, to the elementary level courses for young people and adults, in order to encourage the generalization of the initiatives mentioned in goal anterior.* _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 5 (*) the initiative for fulfilment of this aim/Goal depends on the initiative of the Union;
(**) is required the collaboration of the Union.
6. Perform annually, survey and evaluation of experiences in literacy for young people and adults, which are reference to the built-in agents to the national effort to eradicate illiteracy. ** 7. Ensure that State educational systems, in collaboration with other federal entities, maintain teacher training programs for young people and adults, able to act in accordance with the profile of the customers, and enabled to at the very least, the exercise of the Magisterium in the initial series of elementary school in order to meet the demand of public and private bodies involved in the effort to eradicate illiteracy. ** 8. Establish policies that facilitate partnerships for the use of idle spaces existing in the community, as well as the effective use of the potential of community work entities of civil society, for the education of young people and adults. ** 9. Urging States and municipalities to carry out a mapping, through educational census, pursuant to art. 5, §1 of the LDB, of the population illiterate, by neighborhood or district of homes and/or workplaces, in order to locate and induce the demand and plan the provision of adult and youth education for this population. ** 10. Restructure, create and strengthen, in State and municipal education departments, sectors own tasked to promote the education of young people and adults.
11. encourage the granting of loans to students of higher education curriculum and training courses for middle-level teachers who participate in educational programs for young people and adults.
12. Draw up, within one year, national quality parameters for the various stages of adult and youth education, respecting the specificities of the clientele and the diversity regional.* 13. Perfecting the system of certification of skills for continued studies * 14. Expand the provision of distance education programs in adult and youth education, encouraging your face-to-face courses. * utilization * 15. Whenever possible, join the elementary schools for youth and adults to offer basic vocational training courses.
16. Double in five years and quadruple in 10 years the capacity in middle level courses for teenagers and adults. ** 17. Deploy in all prisons and in establishments that meet teens and young offenders, programs of adult and youth education of primary and secondary level, as well as vocational training, including for this clientele goals no. 5 and no. 14 * 18. Encourage higher education institutions to offer extension courses to meet the continuing education needs of adults, whether or not the top-level training * 19. Stimulate universities and non-governmental organizations to offer courses aimed at senior citizens.
20. In all school systems, every two years, evaluation and dissemination of the results of adult and youth education, as an instrument to ensure the cumprimeríto of the goals of the plan.
21. To carry out specific studies based on data from the Census of PNAD, of specific census (agriculture, correctional officer, etc) to verify the degree of education of the population. ** 22. Articulate the policies of adult and youth education with the unemployment protection and employment generation * 23. In the public and private sectors to encourage the creation of permanent programs of adult and youth education for employees, as well as conditions for the receipt of teleducação programs.
24. Articulate the policies of adult and youth education with the culture, so that your clientele is beneficiary of actions that allow to expand their cultural horizons.
25. Observe, as regards the education of young people and adults, the targets set for basic education, teacher training, distance education, funding and management, technological education, vocational training and education.
26. Include, from the adoption of the national plan for education, adult and youth education in the ways of financing of basic education.
6. Distance education and EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY 6.1 Diagnosis in the process of universalization and democratization of teaching, especially in Brazil, where the educational deficits and regional inequalities are so high, the challenges. existing educational can have on distance education, an auxiliary of unquestionable effectiveness. In addition, educational programmes can play an invaluable role in the cultural development of the population in General.
The country already has numerous educational radio and television networks in the public sector. At the same time, we must consider the contribution of the private sector, which has produced good quality educational programs, especially for television. There are therefore numerous initiatives in this sector.
Are still incipient, however, those that implement a work in cooperation, able to raise the quality and increase the number of programmes produced and presented. The system also suffers from the lack of a computerized network that allows widespread access to existing programs. However the constant regulatory guidelines and Bases is the recognition of the construction of a new paradigm of distance education.
The Union fits the accreditation of authorised institutions offering distance education courses, as well as the establishment of requirements for examination and registration of diplomas (art. 87, §§ 1 and 2); are the responsibility of the teaching systems for production standards, control and evaluation of programmes, as well as the authorization for your implementation (article 87, paragraph 3).
To introduce new conceptions of time and space in education, distance education has a strategic function: contributes to the emergence of significant changes in the institution and school influences on decisions to be taken by political leaders and civil society in setting educational priorities.
The possibilities of distance education are particularly relevant when we analyze the growth of indexes of middle and high school completion. Distance education or semipresenciais can play a crucial role in the provision of equivalent training to middle and high school level for young people and adults insufficiently schooled.
The Ministry of education, in this sector, has given priority to the upgrading and improvement of teachers for basic education and enrichment of educational instrumental available for this level of education. The TV Escola and delivery, to schools, technological equipment needed are important initiatives. In addition, the TV Escola should prove to be an important tool to guide education systems with regard to the adoption of the National curriculum guidelines for elementary school and Curricular parameters. Are also in the initial stage the trainings that guide teachers to use systematically the television, video, radio and computer as teaching instruments of great importance.
The Ministry of education, the Union and the States are necessary partners for the development of information technology in elementary and secondary schools.
6.2 Guidelines To establish that the Government will encourage the development of distance education programmes, at all levels and modes of teaching, the law of Guidelines and Bases for national education introduced a wide-ranging opening for educational policy. It is necessary to extend the concept of distance education in order to incorporate all the possibilities that communications technologies can provide to all levels and forms of education, either through mail, radio and television broadcasting, computer programs, internet, by means of the latest procedures for combined use of means such as telematics and multimedia.
The written material, integral and essential to the effectiveness of this mode of education, should provide the same quality of audiovisual materials.
Throughout the program to offer distance training, there are certainly afford the multiplication of initiatives. Educational and cultural programmes should be encouraged within the general spirit of freedom of the press, enshrined by the Federal Constitution, although subject to quality standards that need to be object of concern not only of government agencies, but also of the producers themselves, through a system of self-regulation. When it comes, however, regular courses, which give the right to certificates or diplomas, regulation and quality control by the public authorities is indispensable and must be rigorous.
There is, therefore, to distinguish clearly the policies aimed to promote educational programs in General and those formulated to control and ensure the quality of programs that lead to certification or diploma.
The law of Guidelines and considers the distance education as an important tool for training and qualification of teachers in service. A prospective view, reasonably short term, we need to make better use of the existing expertise in higher education attendance to institutionalise the provision of degree courses and start a project of Open University that streamline the process of formation of qualified professionals to meet the demands of brazilian society.
The technologies used in distance education cannot, however, be restricted to this purpose. They constitute today a huge potential for curriculum enrichment and improvement of the quality of education. For this, it is essential to equip schools with multimedia, to train teachers to use them, especially in Normal School, Pedagogy courses in Undergraduate, and integrate computing in regular training of the students.
Television, video, radio and computer auxiliary teaching tools are important, and should not replace, however, the communication interfaces and direct interaction between educator and learner.
Will only be allowed the celebration of onerous contracts for retransmission of distance education program with television and radio networks when there is coverage of the Educational radio and television, as well as the elaboration of programs will be held by the State, municipal Departments or by the Ministry of education.
6.3 Objectives and Metas6 1. The Union must establish, within a year, rules for accreditation of institutions providing distance education.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 6 (*) the initiative for fulfilment of this aim/Goal depends on the initiative of the Union;
(**) is required the collaboration of the Union.
2. Establish, within 2 years, in cooperation with the Union's States and municipalities, ethical and aesthetic standards by which to evaluate the production of distance education programs. * 3. Use the educational television and radio channels, as well as education, telematic networks for the dissemination of cultural and educational programs, ensuring to schools and the community basic conditions of access to these resources. ** 4. Ensure integration of actions of the ministries of education, of culture, of work, of science and technology and communications for the development of distance education in the country, by expanding the technological infrastructure and the reduction of costs of communication and information services, creating, in two years, a program to ensure this collaboration.
5. Send to the National Congress, within a year, the regulatory proposal of minimum time, free of charge to the Public, for educational programmes broadcast by commercial radio and television channels, including in nobres.* times
6. Strengthen and support the National System of Educational radio and television, committing to develop programs that meet the goals proposed in this chapter.
7. Promote non-stereotyped images of women and men in educational television, incorporating in your programming issues that argue for equal rights between men and women, as well as the appropriate approach to topics related to ethnicity and handicap especiais.* 8. Enlarge the offer distance training programmes for the education of young people and adults, especially with regard to the provision of basic education, with special consideration for the potential of radio channels and to the service of the rural population.
9. Promote, in partnership with the Ministry of labour, businesses, national learning services and the Federal technical schools, the production and dissemination of vocational training programmes the distance * 10. Promote, with the collaboration of the Union and the States and in partnership with institutions of higher education, distance education programs. ** 11. Start immediately after the approval of the plan, the provision of distance education, higher level, especially in the area of training of teachers for basic education. ** 12. Expand gradually to distance training in higher level for all areas, encouraging the participation of universities and other higher education institutions accredited * 13. Encourage, especially in universities, the training of human resources for distance education * 14. Fnanceira and institutionally to support research in the field of distance education. ** 15. Ensure public schools, primary and secondary level, universal access to educational television and other networks of educational and cultural programming, with the provision of the corresponding equipment, promoting your integration in the educational project of the escola.* 16. Empowering, in five years, at least 500,000 teachers for full use of TV school and educational programming networks out0ras. ** 17. Install, in ten years, 2,000 cores of educational technology, which should act as orientation centres for schools and for the administrative bodies of the educational systems in computerised programmes and access to educational videos. ** 18. Install, in five years, 500,000 computers in 30,000 public schools of elementary and secondary education, by promoting conditions of access the internet.* 19. Empowering, in ten years, 12,000 teachers in Informatics education multipliers. ** 20. Empowering, in five years, 150,000 teachers and educational Informatics technicians 34,000 and zoom in 20% per year to offer this qualification. * * 21. Equip, in ten years, all schools and all elementary schools with more than 100 students, with computers and internet connections that allow the installation of a national network of computers in education and develop appropriate educational programmes, especially the production of quality educational software * 22. Observe, as regards distance education and new educational technologies, relevant goals included in the chapters relating to early childhood education, teacher training, adult and youth education, indigenous education and special education.
7. TECHNOLOGICAL and vocational training EDUCATION 7.1 Diagnosis there is no precise information, in Brazil, on the provision of training for the job, because she is very heterogeneous. In addition to the Federal and state networks of technical schools, there are the programs of the Ministry of labour, the State and local departments of labour and national learning systems, as well as a number, that one imagines very large, private courses, including distance education, and training in service of technical courses offered by companies to their employees.
The first census of Professional Education, initiated by the Ministry of education in 1999, will provide comprehensive data about the Basic, technical and technological courses offered by technical schools federal, State, municipal and by establishments of the so-called S system (SESI, SENAI, SENAC, SESC and others), even those taught by business institutions, trade unions, community and philanthropic.
The heterogeneity and diversity are positive elements, because they allow a very varied demand. But there are worrying factors. The main one is that the offer is small: Although, according to the most recent estimates, already reaches about 5 million workers, is far from reaching the population of young people who need to prepare for the marked and adults that he need to repurpose.
Associated with this is the limitation of vacancies in public establishments, especially in network of 152 schools technical and technological level federal, which combine general training of middle-level vocational training.
The biggest problem, as regards public technical schools, is that the high quality of education they offer is associated with an extremely high cost to your installation and maintenance, which makes impossible a multiplication might be able to answer the set of young people who seek professional training. In addition, due to the restricted offer, a selection system that tends to favor higher-income students and highest level of schooling, young workers, which are those that need it most.
Aside from these specific networks-federal and other few professional education for State-the other schools that offer vocational education suffer from problems of all kinds.
In the school system, registration in 1996 expresses that, in ten high school seniors, had attended some 4.3 professional qualification. Of these, 3.2 were university graduates, graduates of Teaching and technical qualifications in accounting-a set three times greater than the sum of all the other nine qualifications listed by statistics.
Table 18-medium level clearance with highest number of seniors-1988 and 1996 Graduating 1998% 1996 Qualifications% Growth 1988-1996 Teaching 1st grade 127,023 20.1 16.6 52.0 193,024 Accounting Technician 113,548 174,186 18.0 15.0 53.4 24,165 Administration 32,001 3.8 2.7 32.4 Proc. 14,881 data 2.4 2.7 110.3 31,293 Accounting Assistant 3,739 0.6 1.3 311.7 15,394 Magisterium-EST. 12,249 9,443 0.8 1.9 Additional-1.2 0.8 23.2 22.9 7,349 Electronics 9,056 7,959 1.3 0.8 10.2 8,768 Agricultural Mechanics 0.9 0.7 46.0 8,451 5,789 8,811 Secretariat 8,389 0.7 1.4-4.8 325,513 490,005 51.6 42.1 50.0 Total source: MEC/INEP/SEEC Working in schools where there are shortcomings and generalized improvisations, Professional education has reaffirmed the introductory professional duality exists in most Western countries. It worked always as strongly associated with the exclusion mechanism social background of the student. Although there are no detailed statistics regarding, you know that the majority of low-cost qualifications and prestige is in nocturnal State or municipal institutions. In only 15% of them there are libraries, less than 5% offer environment suitable for study of science and even 2% have computer lab-indicators of low quality of education they offer the most layers of the population.
Long, the Country sealed the professional education of any level, but especially the medium as a way to separate those who are not required to best positions in society. A scenario that professional education guidelines proposed in this plan seek to overcome, by providing that the Brazilian citizen must climb-with the support of public power-high levels of schooling, because studies have shown that the increase of one year in the average education of the economically active population determines an increase of 5.5% of GDP (gross domestic product). In this context, the rise of worker's education puts itself as essential for the competitive insertion of Brazil in the globalized world.
There is a national consensus: training for the job requires higher levels of basic education, General, which may be reduced to learning some technical skills, which does not prevent the offering of short courses aimed at the adaptation of the worker to labour market opportunities, associated with the promotion of increasing levels of regular schooling. Finally, it is understood that professional courtesy cannot be conceived solely as a high school, but should provide continuing education, which pervades the life of the worker.
For that reason, are being deployed to new guidelines on public system of vocational education, associated with the high school reform. The professional education under the operational point of view, is structured in basic levels-regardless of the student's schooling level, complementary to technical and technological upper secondary school graduate or graduate.
It is expected the integration of these two types of training: the formal, acquired in specialized institutions, and non-formal, acquired by various means, including at work. Establishes a flexible system for the recognition of credits obtained in any of the modes and certifies skills acquired through non-formal means of professional education. It is also important to consider that the provision of professional education is also shared responsibility between the education sector, the Ministry of labour, labour offices, social services of Commerce, agriculture and industry and the national learning systems. The resources come from, so multiple sources. It is also necessary, and increasingly rely on the companies themselves, which must finance the qualifications of their workers, as in developed countries. Professional education policy is, therefore, a task that requires the collaboration of multiple instances of the public authorities and civil society.
The goals of the national plan for education are directed toward the implementation of a new professional education in the country and for the integration of initiatives. Have as main objective to generalize the training opportunities for work, training, mentioning, in particular, the rural worker.
7.3 goals and Metas7 1. Establish, within two years, an integrated information system, in partnership with government agencies and private institutions, to guide educational policy to meet the needs of initial and continued strength of trabalho.* 2. Establish the permanent review and adaptation to the requirements of national development policy urn and regional basic courses, technical and higher professional education, the labour market offers, in collaboration with entrepreneurs and workers in schools and at all levels of Government.
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 7 (*) the initiative for fulfilment of this aim/Goal depends on the initiative of the Union;
(**) is required the collaboration of the Union.
3. Mobilize, articulate and increase capacity on the network of vocational education institutions, so the triple, every five years, the provision of basic courses designed to meet the population being excluded from the labour market, always associated with basic education, without prejudice that your offer is coupled with actions for higher education. ** 4. Integrate the provision of basic professional courses, whenever possible, by offering programs that allow students who have not completed elementary school get equivalent training. ** 5. Mobilize, articulating and expanding capacity in professional education institutions network, so the triple, every five years, the provision of technical training to students enrolled in them or graduates from high school. ** 6. Mobilize, articulating and expanding capacity in professional education institutions network, so the triple, every five years, the supply of permanent professional education to the productive age population and you need to adapt to new demands and prospects of the labour market. * * 7. Modify, within a year, the current rules governing the formation of teaching staff for this teaching mode in order to take advantage of and enhance the professional experience of the formadores.* 8. Establish, with the collaboration between the Ministry of education, the Ministry of labour, universities, technical schools, CEFETs higher-level national learning services and the private sector, training of trainers programmes for technological and vocational training education. ** 9. Turn gradually, units of the federal technical education network in public centers of professional education and ensure, by the end of the Decade, at least one of these centers in each federated unit can serve as a reference centre for the entire network of professional education, notably in terms of training and development metodológico.* 10. Establish partnerships between the federal, State and municipal systems and the private sector, to broaden and encourage the provision of professional education * 11. Encourage, through public and private resources, the production of distance education programs that broaden the possibilities of permanent professional education for the entire population economically ativa.* 12. Reorganizing the network of agro-technical schools to ensure they meet the role of specific vocational education offer for the rural population, taking into account your level of schooling and the peculiarities and potential of agricultural activity in região.* 13. Establish agro-technical schools together and in collaboration with the Ministry of agriculture basic courses to farmers geared to improving the technical level of the agricultural practices and environmental conservation, within the perspective of development auto-sustentável.* 14. Stimulate the use of public and private structures not only to the regular courses, but also for the training and retraining of workers in order to insert them in the job market with more conditions of competitiveness and productivity, enabling the elevation of your educational level, income and technical.
15. Observe the goals established in the other chapters related to education technology and professional training.
8. SPECIAL EDUCATION Diagnostic 8.1 the Federal Constitution establishes the right of people with special needs receive education preferably in regular education network (art. 208, III). The current guideline is the full integration of these people in all areas of society. It is therefore two issues-the right to education, common to all people, and the right to receive such education whenever possible along with the other people in the "regular" schools.
The legislation, however, is wise in determining preference for this modality of educational assistance, subject to the exceptional cases in which the learner's needs require other forms of care. Recent policies have indicated three possible situations for the Organization of the service: participation in common classes, resources, special room and special school. All the possibilities are intended to offer quality education.
On that policy, as is the brazilian special education?
The knowledge of reality is still very precarious, because we do not have comprehensive statistics on the number of people with special needs or the service. Only since the year 2000 the Census will provide more accurate data, which will allow for deeper analysis of reality.
The World Health Organization estimates that around 10% of the population have special needs. These can be of various orders, hearing, physical, mental, multiple, conduct disorders and giftedness or too high skills. If this estimate applies also in Brazil, we have approximately of 15 million people with special needs. Registration numbers in schools are so low that they don't allow any confrontation with that contingent. In 1998, there were 293,403 students, distributed as follows: 58% with mental problems; 13.8%, with multiple disabilities; 12%, with hearing problems; 3.1% of vision; 4.5%, with physical problems; 2.4%, of conduct. Only 0.3% with high skills or were gifted and 5.9% received "other type of care" (Statistical Synopsis of basic education/1998 school census, the MEC/INEP).
Of the 5,507 Brazilian municipalities, 59.1% do not offer special education in 1998. Regional differences are great. In the Northwest, the absence of this sport happen at 78.3% of Municipalities, especially Rio Grande do Norte, with only 9.6% of its Municipalities presenting data. In the South, 58.1% of the municipalities offered special education, being the Paraná the highest percentage (83.2%). In the Midwest, Mato Grosso do Sul had attendance in 76.6% of its Municipalities. The Holy Spirit is the State with the highest percentage of Municipalities that offer special education (83.1%).
Among the administrative spheres, 48.2% special education establishments in 1998 were State; 26.8%, municipal; 24.8%, 0.2%, federal and private. How are establishments of different sizes, the plates feature some variation in this distribution: 53.1% are private initiative; 31.3%, State; 15.2%, 0.3%, federal and local. Note that the private practice, it included the offered by charities, is responsible for nearly half of all special education in the country. Given the regional discrepancies and the insignificant federal action, there is a need for a more incisive action of the Union in this area.
According to 1998 data, only 14% of these establishments had sanitary facility for students with special needs, who attended the 31% of enrollments. The northern region is the least served in this private, because the percentage of establishments with that requirement down to 6%. The data does not inform on other facilities like ramps and handrails. The Elimination of architectural barriers in schools is an important condition for the integration of these people in education ... regular, constituting a necessary goal in the education. Another key element is the didactic material-appropriate teaching, according to the specific needs of the students. Absence, insufficiency, inadequacy and precariedades can be found in many call centers to this clientele.
In relation to the qualification of teaching professionals, the situation is quite good: only 3.2% of the teachers (better said, of the teaching functions), in 1998, had elementary school, complete or incomplete, as maximum training. They were formed in average 51% and upper level, 45.7%. School systems often offer preparation courses for teachers working in special schools, so 73% of them made specific course. But, considering the policy of integration, that is, that, whenever possible, children, young people and adults are met in special schools, the need for preparation of faculty, and the technical and administrative body of schools increases enormously. In principle, all teachers should have knowledge of special education students.
Observing the modalities of educational care, according to the 1997 data, the "special classes" in which are 38 percent of classes met. 13.7% of them are in "resource rooms" and 12.2% in "educational workshops". Only 5% of the classes are in "common classes with pedagogical support" and 6% are "early education". In "other ways" are met 25% of special education classes. Comparing the public service with the particular, it turns out that this gives preference to early education, the pedagogical workshops and other methods not specified in the report, while that gives priority to special classes and common classes with educational support. The information of 1998 establish other classification, noting that 62% of registered service is located in specialized schools, which reflects the need for a greater commitment of the school together with the particular student.
The attendance by level of education, in 1998 presents the following picture: 87,607 children in early childhood education; 132,685 in elementary school; 1,705, in high school, 7,258 in adult and youth education. Are reported as "other" 64,148 attendances. There is no data about the student with special needs in higher education. The particular is far ahead in the early childhood education (64%) and the State, in the primary and secondary levels (52 and 49%, respectively), but the Hall has grown substantially in attendance at fundamental level.
Recent trends of education systems are the following: integration/inclusion of the student with special needs in educational and entertaining system, if this is not possible in accordance with the needs of the learner, perform the attendance in classes and schools;
. expansion of the regulation of special schools to provide support and guidance to the programmes of integration, in addition to the specific service;
. improvement of qualification of teachers of elementary school for this clientele;
. expansion of the offer of training/specialization courses by the universities and normal schools.
Despite the growth of enrollments, the deficit is too big and is a huge challenge for school systems, because several actions should be carried out at the same time. Among them, we highlight the awareness of other students and the community in General for integration, curricular adaptations, the qualification of teachers to attend regular schools and the specialization of the teachers to meet the new special schools, production of books and teaching materials suitable for the different needs, adaptation of schools so that students can use them special , school bus offering adapted, etc.
But the breakthrough that the Decade of education should produce will be the construction of an inclusive school, guaranteeing the care of human diversity.
8.2 special education guidelines intended for people with special needs in the field of learning, originated either from physical, sensory, mental deficiency or from multiple features like high skills, giftedness or talent.
The integration of these people in the regular education system is a constitutional directive (art. 208, ill.), part of the Government policy for at least a decade. But, despite this relatively long period, such a directive has not yet produced the necessary change in reality, so that all children, youth and adults with special needs are met in regular schools, as recommended in the evaluation of their personal conditions. An explicit and vigorous policy of access to education, the responsibility of the Union, the States and Federal District and the Municipalities, is a precondition for the special people are assured of their rights to education. This policy covers: the social context of the recognition of children, youth and adults like citizens and of your right to be integrated into society as fully as possible; and the educational scope, both in administrative aspects (adequacy of school space, equipment and teaching materials), and the qualification of teachers and other professionals involved. The school environment as a whole must be sensitized for a seamless integration. It is proposed that an integrative, inclusive school, open to the diversity of the students in that community participation is essential. With regard to special schools, the inclusion policy redirects to provide support to integration programmes.
Special education, such as school education mode, will have to be systematically promoted in different levels of education. To guarantee regular teaching vacancies for the various degrees and types of disabilities is an important measure.
Among other features of this policy, are important flexibility and diversity, or because the spectrum of special needs is varied, either because the realities are quite diverse in the country.
The Union has an essential and irreplaceable role in planning and targeting of service expansion, since regional inequalities in educational offer attest a huge disparity in access to school for part of this special population. The Union's support is more urgent will be more necessary where there are the largest deficits.
The sooner you give educational intervention, it will become more effective over the years, producing more profound effects on the development of children. Therefore, the service should start early, including preventively. In the event it is not possible to care for the children's education, you have to detect the deficiencies, the Visual and auditory Horn, which can hinder learning, when the child enters the elementary school. There are simple tests that can be applied by teachers, to identify those problems and your appropriate treatment. In relation to children with high abilities (gifted or talented), the identification will take into account the socio-economic and cultural context and will be made through systematic observation of behavior and student achievement, with a view to check the intensity, frequency and consistency of the strokes, throughout your development.
Considering the issues involved in the development and learning of children, youth and adults with special needs, the coordination and cooperation between the sectors of education, health and assistance is fundamental and potentiates the action of each one of them. As is well known, the attendance is not limited to the educational area, streets involves specialists especially in the area of health and psychology and depends on the collaboration of different Public authorities, in particular those linked to health, assistance and social promotion, including in terms of resources. Is rational measure to avoid duplication of resources through the articulation of those sectors from the diagnostic phase of sensory deficits until the specific therapies. For the low-income population, there is still a need to expand, with the collaboration of the ministries of health and welfare, governmental agencies and non-governmental entities of social assistance, the current programs for providing Orthotics and prostheses of different types. The Minimum Income Program Associated to socio-educational Actions (Law No 97/9,533) extended to this clientele, can be an important means of ensuring access and school attendance.
The formation of human resources with the capacity to offer the service to students in kindergartens, pre-schools; early childhood education centers, regular schools elementary, middle and higher, as well as specialized agencies and other institutions is a priority for the national plan for education. There's no way to have a regular effective school for development and special learners ' learning without teachers, other technicians, administrative and ancillary staff are ready to serve them properly. The special classes, situated on the "regular" schools, aimed at partially integrated, students need to rely on specialized teachers and appropriate teaching material.
Special schools should be emphasized when the needs of the students so indicate. When this type of institution cannot be created in the smaller and poorer Municipalities, inter-municipal agreements concluded and with non-governmental organizations, to ensure the fulfillment of the customers.
Certain civil society organizations, philanthropic in nature, involving the parents of special children, have, historically, been an example of commitment and efficiency in meeting this educational clients, notably in the stage of early childhood education. Far from diminishing the responsibility of the Government to the special education, Government support to such organizations aimed at both the continuity of your collaboration regarding improved efficiency by relying on the parents participate in this task. It is appropriate, therefore, Government support to these institutions as partners in the educational process of learners with special needs.
Requires a determined effort of educational authorities to promote the permanence of students in regular classes, eliminating the harmful practice of referral to special classes of those that feature common difficulties learning, problems of dispersion of attention or discipline. These must be given greater pedagogical support in their own classes, and not separate them as if they needed special care.
Whereas the special student can also be regular school, resources should be provided for also in the elementary school. However, in view of the specificities of this mode of education and the need to promote the expansion of the service, it is recommended to reserve a portion equivalent to 5 or 6% of the resources linked to the maintenance and development of education.
8.3 goals and Metas8 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 8 (*) the initiative for fulfilment of this aim/Goal depends on the initiative of the Union;
(**) is required the collaboration of the Union.
1. Organize, in all municipalities and in partnership with the health and assistance programs designed to broaden the offer early stimulation (appropriate educational interaction) for children with special educational needs, in specialized institutions or regular children's education, especially kindergartens. ** 2. Generalize, in five years, as part of in-service training, the provision of courses on the basic care to special learners, for teachers in child education and exercise in elementary school using including the TV Escola and other distance education programs.
3. Ensure the generalization, in five years, the application of visual and auditory acuity tests in all the institutions of early childhood education and elementary school, in partnership with the health area, in order to detect problems and offer appropriate support to special children.
4. In the first five years of the duration of this plan, resize according to the needs of the customers, increasing, if necessary, special classes, resource rooms and other educational alternatives are recommended, in order to promote and support the integration of students with special needs in ordinary classes, providing them with additional support they need.
5. To generalize, in ten years, the attendance of students with special needs in early childhood education and elementary education, including through consortia between Municipalities, when necessary, providing, in these cases, the school bus.
6. Deploy, in up to four years, in each unit of the Federation, in partnership with the areas of health, social assistance, and work with civil society organizations, at least one specialized Center for the care of people with severe difficulty of development ** 7. Zoom in until the end of the Decade, the number of these centers, so that different regions of each State with its services.
8. Make available, within five years, spoken, textbooks in braille and enlarged characters, for all blind students and for the elementary normal sub vision. ** 9. Establish, in five years, in partnership with the areas of social assistance and culture and with non-governmental organizations, municipal or inter-municipal networks to make available to blind students and those of normal sub spoken literature books vision, in braille and on extended characters.
10. Establish programmes to equip, in five years, schools of basic education and, in ten years, the higher education that meet deaf learners and the normal sub vision, sound amplification equipment and other equipment to facilitate learning, taking into account, as a matter of priority, the special classes and resource rooms * 11. Deploy, in five years, and generalize in ten years, the Brazilian sign language for the deaf students and, where possible, to their families and to the staff of the school unit, through a program of training of monitors, in partnership with non-governmental organizations. ** 12. In coherence with the goals no. 2, 3 and 4, of early childhood education and goals number 4, 5 and 6, of the elementary school: a) to establish, in the first year of this plan, the minimum standards for school infrastructure for receiving of special students; ** b) from the term of the new standards, only authorize the construction of school buildings , public or private, in accordance to the already defined infrastructure requirements for special students;
c) adapt, in five years, the existing school buildings, according to those patterns.
13. Set, in conjunction with the entities of the area, in the first two years of this plan, basic indicators of quality for the operation of special education institutions, public and private, and gradually your generalizing observance. **
14. Expand the supply and use of computers as learning support the learner with special needs, including through partnership with civil society organizations devoted to this type of attendance. ** 15. Ensure, during the Decade, school bus with the necessary adaptations to the students who have difficulty of locomotion. **
16. Ensure the inclusion, in the pedagogic project of school units, special educational needs of their students, defining the resources available and providing in-service training to teachers.
17. the Joint special education initiatives and establish cooperation mechanisms with education policy to work in partnership with governmental and non-governmental organizations, to develop professional training programs for special students, promoting your placement in the labour market. Set conditions for the terminally ill to learners who cannot achieve further educational levels * 18. Establish cooperation with the health, welfare and social assistance, within ten years, orthotics and prosthetics make available to all students with disabilities, as well as specialized health care, if applicable.
19. Include in the curricula of teacher education in the middle and upper levels, contents and specific training courses to meet special students.
20. Include or expand, especially in public universities, specific qualification, in undergraduate and graduate levels, to form specialized personnel in special education, ensuring, in five years, at least one course in each unit of the Federation. ** 21. Introduce, within three years after the term of this plan, disciplinary content relating to learners with special needs in the courses that make up professionals in areas relevant to the fulfillment of these requirements, such as Medicine, nursing, and architecture, among others. ** 22. Encourage, during the Decade, studies and research, especially by higher education institutions, about the various areas related to students who present special needs learning. ** 23. Increase the resources earmarked for special education in order to achieve, in ten years, the minimum equivalent to 5% of the resources linked to the maintenance and development of education, for both, with partnerships with the areas of health, social welfare, work and welfare, in the actions referred to in paragraph 6 goals, 9, 11, 14, 17 and 18 * 24. Within three years after the term of this plan, organize and put into operation in all education systems a sector responsible for special education, as well as by the administration of specific budgetary resources for the care of this mode, which can act in partnership with the sectors of health, social assistance, pension plan and work with civil society organizations.
25. Establish a system of complete and reliable information on the population to be served by special education, to be collected by the educational Census and the Census populacionais.* 26. Deploy gradually, starting from the first year of this plan, programs of service to students with high skills in the psychomotor, intellectual or artistic areas.
27. Ensure continued technical and financial support to non-profit private operating exclusively in special education, providing quality care, attested in evaluation conducted by its education system.
28. Observe, with respect to this mode of teaching, the relevant goals established in the chapters relating to levels of teaching, teacher training and financing and management.
9. INDIGENOUS EDUCATION 9.1 Diagnosis In Brazil, since the 16th century, the provision of school education programmes to indigenous communities was marked by catechesis, civilization and forced integration of the Indians to the national society. Of the Jesuit missionaries to the positivists of the service of protection of Indians, catechetical school bilingual education, the keynote was one: deny the difference, to assimilate the Indians, cause them to turn into something other than what they were. In the process, the institution of the school among indigenous groups served as a tool for imposing extraneous values and identities and cultures.
Only in recent years that picture began to change. Organized groups of civil society began to work together with indigenous communities, seeking alternatives to submission of these groups, such as the guarantee of their territories and less violent relationship and coexistence among these populations and other segments of the national society. The school among indigenous groups gained a new meaning and a new meaning, as a means to ensure access to General knowledge without having to deny the cultural specificities and the identity of those groups. Different experiences have emerged in several regions of Brazil, building educational projects specific to the cultural and historical reality of certain indigenous groups, practicing the interculturality and the bilingüisrno and adapting to your future project.
The abandonment of physical disappearance of the Indians and the integrationist stance that sought to assimilate the Indians to the national community, because the ethnic and social category as transitory and doomed to extinction, is integrated in the changes and innovations guaranteed by the current constitutional text and is based on the recognition of the extraordinary capacity for survival and even demographic recovery, as it appears today After centuries of genocidal practices. The latest research indicates that there are now between 280,000 and 329,000 Indians on Indian lands, constituting around of 210 distinct groups. There is no information about the Indians urbanized, and many of them preserve their languages and traditions.
The small size of the indigenous population, your dispersion and heterogeneity take particularly difficult the implementation of educational policy. This is why it is extremely important the fact that the Federal Constitution have ensured the right of indigenous societies to a differentiated school education, intercultural and bilingual, specifically what is being regulated in several legal texts. Only in this way can we ensure not only your physical survival but also ethnic, rescuing the social debt that Brazil has accumulated in relation to the original inhabitants of the territory.
Despite the good will of government sectors, the general framework of the indigenous school education in Brazil, permeated by fragmented experiences and discontinuous, is regionally uneven and disjointed. There is also much to be done and built towards the universalization of the offer of a quality school education for indigenous people, who come to meet their future projects, of autonomy and ensuring your inclusion in the universe of government programs that seek the satisfaction of the basic needs of learning, in accordance with the World Declaration on education for all.
The transfer of responsibility for indigenous education of the National Indian Foundation for the Ministry of education was only a change of the federal agency process manager. Also a change in terms: If before indigenous schools were maintained by FUNAI (or by State and local departments of education, through agreements concluded with the official indigenous body), now it's up to the States to take on such a task. The superior persuasion of indigenous schools and, in some cases, your decentralization occurred without the creation of mechanisms to ensure a certain uniformity of actions that ensure the specificity of these schools. The superior persuasion so conducted did not represent a process of establishment of partnerships between government agencies and civil society organizations or entities, sharing a same concept on the educational process to be offered to the indigenous communities, but rather a simple transfer of powers and responsibilities. With the transfer of responsibilities of the FUNAI to the MEC, and this for the State departments of education, created a situation of demands on global management process of educational assistance to the indigenous peoples.
There is, today, a clear distribution of responsibilities between the Union, the States and the municipalities, which hinders the implementation of a national policy that ensures the specificity of the model of intercultural education and bilingual indigenous communities.
There is also the need to regularise juridically the indigenous schools, contemplating the successful experiences and redirecting others to to prepare regiments, calendars, resumes, didactic-pedagogical materials and contents adapted to the ethno-cultural and linguistic particularities specific to each indigenous people.
9.2 Guidelines the Federal Constitution guarantees indigenous communities to use their mother tongue and their own learning processes.
The coordination of the actions of indigenous education school stands, today, under the responsibility of the Ministry of education, and it is up to the States and Municipalities, to your implementation.
The proposal for a differentiated, quality Indian School, represents a great novelty in the educational system of the country and demands of institutions and bodies the new dynamics definition, concepts and mechanisms, so much so that these schools are in fact incorporated and served by your inclusion in the official system, how to be respected in their particularities.
Bilingual education, suited to the cultural peculiarities of different groups is best met through Indian teachers. It must be recognized that the initial and continued training of Indians, while teachers from their communities, should occur in service and concurrently to your own schooling. The formation that contemplates should empower teachers to develop curricula and specific programs for indigenous schools; bilingual education, with regard to the methodology and teaching of second languages and the establishment and use of a spelling system of mother tongues; conducting anthropological researches aiming at systematizing and incorporation of knowledge and traditional knowledge of indigenous societies and the elaboration of didactic-pedagogical materials, bilingual or not, for use in schools located in their communities.
9.3 Objectives and Metas9
1. Assign legal liability States for indigenous education, either directly or through delegation of responsibilities to their Municipalities, under the overall coordination and with the financial support of the Ministry of education. ** 2. Universalize immediately the adoption of guidelines for national indigenous school education policy and curriculum parameters established by the National Board of Education and the Ministry of education. ** 3. Universalize, in ten years, the supply to the indigenous communities of educational programs equivalent to four first grades of fundamental education, respecting their ways of life, their world views and the specific sociolingüísticas situations they experienced. ** 4. Expand gradually, the teaching offer of 5a the 8th grade to the indigenous population, whether in the school itself, wants to integrate students in common classes in schools, at the same time they offer the additional care required for your adaptation, in order to ensure access to basic education full. ** 5. Strengthen and ensure the consolidation, enhancement and recognition of experience of construction of a differentiated and quality education currently under way in Indian areas. ** 6. Create, within a year, the official category of "Indian School" so that the specificity of the intercultural and bilingual education model. * * _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 9 (*) the initiative for fulfilment of this aim/Goal depends on the initiative of the Union;
(**) is required the collaboration of the Union.
7. Undertake, within two years, the official recognition and the legal regularization of all the establishments located within the Indian lands and other areas as well as the establishment of a national register of indigenous schools. * * 8. Ensure the autonomy of indigenous schools, both with regard to the pedagogic project concerning the use of public financial resources for maintaining the school daily, ensuring the full participation of indigenous communities in the decisions concerning the running of the school.
9. Establish, within one year, minimum standards more flexible school infrastructure for these establishments, to ensure adaptation to climatic conditions of the region and, where possible, the techniques of building own the group, according to the social use and space concepts specific to each indigenous community, in addition to sanitary and hygiene conditions. ** 10. Establish a national program of cooperation between the Union and the Member States, within five years, equipping schools with didactic-pedagogic equipment indigenous basics, including libraries, video libraries and other support materials. * 11. Adapt programs of the Ministry of education of development aid for education, which already exist, such as transportation, school textbook, school library, school lunches; Tv Escola, in order to contemplate the specificity of indigenous education, both in terms of school, contingent to your goals and requirements, ensuring the provision of these benefits to schools. * * 12. Strengthen and expand the existing lines in the Ministry of education to implement school education programs, to be run by the State or municipal secretariats of education, support organizations, universities and the Indian organizations and associations indígenas.* 13. Create, both in the Ministry of education in State education agencies, programs aimed at the production and publication of didactic and pedagogical materials specific to indigenous groups, including books, videos, and other dictionaries, developed by indigenous teachers together with students and advisors * 14. Deploy, within a year, the national curriculum guidelines and curricular parameters and universalize, in five years, the implementation by indigenous schools in your pedagógico.* project formulation 15. Establish and regulate, in State education systems, the professionalization and public recognition of indigenous teaching, with the creation of indigenous teachers category as career teaching specific, with appropriate titles and call for evidence to linguistic and cultural particularities of indigenous societies, ensuring these teachers the same rights granted to others of the same education system, with remuneration levels corresponding to your level of professional qualification.
16. Establish and assure the quality of continuous systematic training programmes of indigenous teachers, especially with regard to information relating to the school of teaching and learning processes, to literacy, the collective construction of knowledge in school and the valorization of the cultural heritage of the population attended. ** 17. Formulate, in two years, a plan for the implementation of special programmes for the training of indigenous teachers in higher level, through collaboration of universities and equivalent institutions.
18. Create, structure and strengthen, within the maximum period of two years, in State departments of education, sectors responsible for indigenous education, with the task of promoting it, join it and manage it.
19. Deploy, within a year, professional education courses, especially in agricultural regions, aimed at income generation and land use in a balanced way.
20. Promote, in collaboration between the Union, the States and municipalities and in partnership with higher education institutions, teacher training programs of distance education of primary and secondary level. ** 21. Promote the correct and comprehensive information of the brazilian population in General, on societies and indigenous cultures as a means of combating the ignorance, intolerance and prejudice in relation to these populations.
IV-TEACHING of BASIC EDUCATION 10. TEACHER TRAINING and enhancement of TEACHING quality improvement diagnostic 10.1 of the teaching, which is one of the central objectives of the National Education Plan, can only be achieved if it is promoted, at the same table top, the appreciation of the Magisterium. Without this, are baldados any efforts to achieve the goals set out in each one of the levels and modalities of education. This recovery can only be achieved through a global policy of Magisterium, which implies at the same time. the initial vocational training;
. the conditions of work, salary and career;
. the training continued.
The simultaneity of these three conditions, more than a logical conclusion, is a lesson drawn from the practice. Efforts of the education systems and, specifically, training institutions in qualifying and training teachers have become ineffective to produce improvements in the quality of education through initial training because many teachers face a reality often daunting. Year after year, large numbers of teachers leaving teaching due to low wages and working conditions in schools. Train more and better teaching professionals is only part of the task. We must create conditions to maintain the initial enthusiasm, dedication and confidence in results of pedagogical work. It takes teachers to envision professional growth prospects and continuity to your training process. If, on the other hand, you have to rethink your own training, in view of the challenges and new demands in the field of education, which requires increasingly skilled professionals and permanently updated, from early childhood education to higher education (and this is not a purely technical issue of greater number of courses of initial training and qualification courses in service) on the other hand it is essential to keep on teaching and network with prospects constant improvement the talent of the Magisterium. Decent salary and career of teaching in, here, as essential components. The performance evaluation also has importance, in this context.
Consistent with that diagnosis, the National Education Plan establishes guidelines and targets relating to the improvement of schools, both in terms of physical spaces, to infrastructure, to the instruments and teaching materials and support, technological facilities, etc., whether with regard to the formulation of the educational proposals, the participation of education professionals in the drafting of the pedagogic project of the school and school councils and, yet, as the formulation of career plans and remuneration of the teaching and administrative staff and support.
The functions teachers in basic education, in all types of education, to 2 million. The number of teachers is lower, whereas the same teacher may be acting in more than one level and/or teaching mode and more than one establishment, being, in this case, counted more than once. The teaching functions are as follows, according to the 1998 data (MEC/INEP/SEEC): early childhood education: literacy Classes 219,593:46,126 elementary school: high school 1,439,064:365,874 special education: 37,356
Adult and youth education: 103,051 distribution analysis of the functions of teachers by level of education and school levels that Act can only be made on the 1996 data, the latest published by the MEC/INEP/SEEC as see below: Table 19-Teaching Functions-national distribution by level of education and school levels that Act-1998 level of Total training functions levels and courses of action Pre-Esc and Alfabetiz.
1st to 4th grades 5th to 8th grades middle school special education young adult Ens. Fund. Incompl.
65,968 20,581 44,335 712 18 322 567 Ens. Fund. 80,119 22,043 50,641 5,913 675 847 1,462 full Ens. Full 916,791 174,948 531,256 153,258 38,250 19,079 32,150 average Ens. SUP. 1,066,396 48,147 172,715 501,625 326,801 17,108 68,872 full 2,129,274 265,719 798,947 661,508 365,744 37,356 103,051 Total source: MEC/INEP: Synopsis 1996 Statistics. Note: the same teacher can act in more than one level/teaching mode and more than one establishment.
If a teaching function correspond to a teacher, would conclude that table the following qualification: need for early childhood education: 29,458 teachers working in preschool need to take the course, normal mode, to achieve the minimum allowable qualification. As for the nursery, no data. An urgent lifting is necessary, to scale the demand and define the strategy and the resources required.
As for the literacy classes: as will be undone, as the guidelines and goals of this plan is not to qualify teachers for them to remain, but to act in the elementary school. Are teachers that have training 13,166 only elementary school and that should attend at least high school, normal mode.
For the 4 first grades of elementary school: 94,976 need to obtain diploma average, normal mode. Considering the large increase in the number of enrolments at this level of education, between 1996 and 1999, is to assume that the number of teachers in this situation is much bigger, especially if there was no minimum required qualification admissions.
For the last 4 grades of elementary school: 159,883 lack of top-level training, with full licensure.
For high school: 44,486 require higher education. You arrive at the number of 58,000 in 1997, on the basis of the available data on the percentage of that act at that level with higher education.
Qualification requirements for special education and for the education of young people and adults are small with regard to level of education because, in both modes, 97% of teachers have medium level or higher. The main issue in these two cases, is qualifying for the specific nature of the task.
This requirement, in fact, applies also in training for teaching in early childhood education, the initial and final series of elementary school and high school. The psychological, social and physical characteristics of the different ages carry different ways of looking at the objects of knowledge and learning. Hence why it is not enough to be formed in a given level of education; It is necessary to acquire knowledge of the specificity of the process of construction of knowledge in each one of those circumstances and age groups.
It is crucial that data on qualification needs to be broken down by State, which should be done in State plans to scale the effort in each one of them must be done to achieve. the minimum level of training required.
The above data point only for current needs, i.e. that the Brazilian is teaching acting in school systems with the minimum level of training established by the law. Whereas this fixed plan goals of expansion and improvement of the quality of teaching, the training needs will grow in the same proportion of those goals.
In the field of remuneration, the maintenance and development of basic education and appreciation of the Magisterium is making an extraordinary change in those States and cities where the professor received very low salaries below the minimum wage. Should be applied, at least 60% of FUNDEF resources on staff remuneration of teaching effective exercise of its activities in public elementary schools (9,429/96 Law, art. 7). Us States and cities where the salary was higher than allowed by FUNDEF, there has been no improvement to teachers before, additional difficulties for some municipalities maintain the previous standard of remuneration. The evaluation of FUNDEF comes pointing out the flaws and suggesting revisions in order to solve the problems that have been taking place. In some places, the teachers of early childhood education, adult and youth and high school, were damaged. If the 10% minimum constitutionally linked to the maintenance and development of education no jobs in FUNDEF are effectively intended, in the cities, children's education and in the States, the high school, the problems will be partly mitigated.
In compliance with the law 9,424/96, are being developed or reformulated the career plans of the Magisterium. Since this is an ongoing process, this plan reinforces the purpose through specific goals, in the expectation that this constitutes an important step and instrument in enhancing the teaching.
10.2 Guidelines the teaching staff qualification presents itself today as one of the biggest challenges for the national plan for education, and the Government needs to devote himself primarily to the solution of this problem. The implementation of public policies for initial training and continuing education of health professionals is a condition and a means for advancement in science and technology in our society and therefore to the development of the country, since the production of knowledge and the creation of new technologies depend on the level and quality of training people.
Improving the quality of education, indispensable for ensuring the brazilian population the full access to citizenship and the insertion in productive activities that enables constant high standard of living, is a compromise of the nation. This commitment, however, cannot be fulfilled without the enhancement of the teaching, since the teachers play a decisive role in the educational process.
The appreciation of the Magisterium involves at least the following requirements: * a vocational training which will ensure the development of the person as a citizen and professional educator, the mastery of the knowledge object to work with the students and teaching methods that promote learning;
* a system of continuing education which allows the constant growth of teacher your literate culture domain, within a critical view and from the perspective of a new humanism;
* working day organized according to students ' journey, concentrated in a single educational establishment and that includes the time needed for supplementary activities to work in the classroom;
* decent, competitive salary, the labor market, with other occupations requiring equivalent levels of training;
* political and social commitment of the Magisterium.
The first four have to be supplied by the school systems. The fifth depends on the teachers themselves: the commitment to students ' learning, the respect to which they are entitled as citizens in training, interest in the work and participation in the work of the school. Thus, the appreciation of the teaching depends on the Government side, ensuring adequate conditions of work and training, remuneration and professional side of the Magisterium, the good performance in the activity. That way, you have to provide in career entry systems, promotion and clearances for journals that take into account the working conditions and continuing training and the assessment of the performance of teachers.
On initial formation is necessary to overcome the historic dichotomy between theory and practice and the divorce between the pedagogical training and training in the field of expertise that will be worked out in the classroom.
The continuing education is of particular importance, in view of scientific and technological advancement and knowledge level requirement ever more extensive and deep in modern society. This plan, therefore, should pay special attention to ongoing formation (in service) of education professionals.
Remuneration, it is essential that higher levels correspond to higher professional qualification requirements and performance.
This plan sets out the following guidelines for the training of education professionals and your appreciation: the training courses should obey, in any of its levels and courses, the following principles: the solid theoretical training in content) to be taught in basic education, as well as in pedagogical content specifically;
b) wide cultural background;
c) teaching activity as formative focus;
d) contact with the school reality from the beginning to the end of the course, integrating the educational theory to practice;
and formative principle) research;
f) field of new communication and information technologies and the ability to integrate them to the practice of teaching;
g) analysis of current issues of society, culture and the economy;
h) inclusion of questions relating to the education of students with special needs and the issues of gender and ethnicity in training programs;
I) collective interdisciplinary work;
j) experience, during the course of democratic administration of education;
k) development of social and political commitment of the Magisterium; and l) knowledge and implementation of the national curriculum guidelines and levels of basic education.
The initial training of professionals of basic education should be mainly the responsibility of higher education institutions, pursuant to art. 62 the LDB, where the functions of research, teaching and extension and the relationship between theory and practice can ensure the level of social, political and pedagogical quality that is considered necessary. The medium-level training institutions (Normal mode), which offer training in child education activities permitted and in the four first grades of elementary education form the professionals.
The continuing education of teaching is an essential part of the strategy of permanent improvement of the quality of education, and will focus on the opening of new horizons in professional performance. When done in distance education mode, your achievement will include always a part Presential, consisting, among other forms, collective meetings, organized from the needs expressed by the teachers. Such training will have as aim the reflection on educational practice and the search for your technical, ethical and political improvement.
The continuing education of professionals of public education should be guaranteed by the State and municipal education departments, whose performance will include the coordination, financing and maintenance of programs like permanent action and partnership with universities and higher education institutions. That relating to teachers who work in the private sphere will be the responsibility of the respective institutions.
School education cannot be reduced to the classroom and if hinged between action makes all the educational agents-teachers, technicians, administrative and support staff who work at the school. For this reason, the training of professionals for the administrative and technical areas should work hard in offer the same quality of courses for the teaching profession.
The elementary schools in indigenous communities, in accordance with the constitutional precept, should be offered also in their mother tongues and learning processes themselves, to what will be necessary to train teachers of these same communities.
10.3 Objectives and Metas10 1. Ensure the deployment, already from the first year of this plan, career plans for the Magisterium, prepared and approved in accordance with the provisions of law No. 9,424/96 and the creation of new plans, in the case of the ancients still have not been redesigned in accordance with that law. Ensure also the new levels of remuneration in all education systems, with wage floor itself, in accordance with the guidelines established by the National Board of education, ensuring the promotion by merit * _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 10 (*) the initiative for fulfilment of this aim/Goal depends on the initiative of the Union;
(**) is required the collaboration of the Union.
2. Implement gradually, a full-time job, when convenient, accomplished in a single school.
3. Devote between 20 and 25% of the workload of the teachers to prepare lessons, assessments, and educational meetings.
4. (vetoed) 5. Identify and map, from the first year of this plan, teachers in exercise throughout the national territory, that do not have at least medium-level qualification for the teaching profession in order to elaborate, within two years, the diagnosis of lay teachers qualification demand and organize, in all school systems, teacher training programs , allowing them the training required by the Guidelines and Bases for national education, in your art. 87.6. In the municipalities where the need for new teachers is high and is large number of lay teachers, identify and map, already in the first year of this PNE, holders of Bachelor's degrees and middle-level qualification for the teaching profession, who are outside the education system, with a view to your possible exploitation.
7. From gives entry into force of PNE, only admit teachers and other education professionals who possess the minimum qualifications required in art. 62 of the law of guidelines and Foundations of education.
8. Establish, within a year, curricular guidelines and parameters for the teacher training courses and education professionals for different levels and modes of teaching.
9. Set guidelines and establish national standards for guiding the processes of accreditation of training institutions, as well as certification, professional skills development and evaluation of initial training and continuing teachers.
10. Where there are no conditions for top level training of all professionals required to meet the needs of education, establish mid-level courses in specific institutions, to observe the principles laid down in Directive No. 1 and prepare qualified personnel for child education, for the education of young people and adults and for the initial series of elementary school by providing for the continuation of studies of these professionals in top level. ** 11. In competitions and titles for provision of offices for indigenous education, include requirements relating to cultural particularities, especially indigenous groups, linguistic * 12. Enlarge, from the collaboration of the Union, the States and the municipalities, in-service training programs that ensure all teachers the possibility to acquire the minimum qualification required by the Guidelines and Bases for national education, observing the guidelines and curricular parameters. * * 13. Developing distance education programs that can be used also in modular semi-presenciais courses, in order to make possible the fulfillment of the previous goal. * * 14. Generalize, in public higher education institutions, regular courses and modular courses of degree full that facilitate access of teachers in the training exercise at this level of education. ** 15. Encourage universities and other training institutions to offer within the States, teacher training courses, in the same pattern of courses offered at Headquarters, in order to meet the local and regional demand for graduates in teaching professionals. **
16. Promote, in the institutions. top-level public, the offer, at Headquarters or outside of specialization courses for the training of personnel for the various areas of education and, in particular, for special education, the school management, training of young people and adults and children's education. ** 17. Ensure that within 5 years, all teachers in children's education and exercise in the four first grades of elementary school, including on the modalities for the special education and for young people and adults, have at least average clearance (normal mode), and adequate to the characteristics and specific learning needs of the students.
18. Ensure, through a joint program of the Union, the States and municipalities that, within ten years, 70% of teachers in early childhood education and elementary school (in all disciplines) have specific training, full licensure in qualified institutions. * * 19. Ensure that, within 10 years, all high school teachers have specific training, obtained in course degree full in the areas of knowledge in that Act.
20. Include in any vocational training courses, medium-high level, knowledge on education of people with special needs, in the perspective of social integration.
21. Include, in the curricula and programmes of professional deformation of education courses, specific themes of history, of culture, of knowledge, of artistic and religious manifestations of Afro-Brazilian segment, indigenous societies and rural workers and your contribution in brazilian society.
22. Ensure, in the first year of the duration of this plan, the State and municipal education systems keep continuing teacher training literacy teachers, with the partnership of higher education institutions based in their respective geographical areas.
23. Enlarge the offer of courses of master's and doctoral degrees in education and develop research in this field. * * 24. Develop research and graduate programs in education as radiator Centre of professional training in education, for all levels and modalities of education.
25. Identify and map, educational systems, the initial and ongoing training needs of administrative and technical staff, developing and initiating the implementation, within three years from the validity of this PNE, training programmes.
26. Create, within two years, medium-level professional courses for training of support staff in the areas of school administration, multimedia and maintenance of school infrastructures, including school meals and, in the medium term, to other areas that the reality proved to be necessary.
27. Promote, in joint action of the Union, the States and the municipalities, the periodic assessment of the quality of teachers ' performance, based on the guidelines of the Woods No. 8, as subsidy to the needs and characteristics of continuing training courses.
28. Note, the goals set out in other chapters related to teacher training and enhancement of teaching.
V-FINANCING and management Diagnostic 11.1 A goals plan requires a definition of costs as well as the ID of the currently available resources and strategies for your expansion, either through maiseficiente management, either through the creation of new sources, from acknowledgement of the need for greater investment. The percentages constitutionally linked to the maintenance and development of education must represent the starting point for the formulation and implementaçâo of educational goals. We must, however, undo some mistakes. There is a mistaken image that this source represents high value. The binding is performed in relation to revenue from taxes, and not to the whole of the budgetary resources. Tax resources are not even all tax resources (which include taxes and betterment). The tax is species of the genus tribute. The fiscal budget of 1998, for example amounted to 325.6 billion, being the social security budget of the order of 105 billion. Revenue linked to the maintenance and development of education, at the federal level, did not reach 4 billion, which even covers spending on higher education institutions (table 20).
Table 20-Ministry of education-expenditure by source (R$ milhões) 1995 1996 1997%% Source% 1998% 1999% ordinary Resources 10.1 4.4 478 0 0 0 0 977 1,138 10.26 maintenance and development of education-art 212, CF. 38.5 52.3 3,360 4,788 3,489 34.9 3,831 35.8 34.5 3,826 370 Education salary 4.1 5.3 6.4 619 613 486 738 5.7 6.7 Contrib. S/social Profit in people. 271 259 2.8 3.0 legal 39 161 1.5 0.4 4.8 529 Contrib. P/Social Welfare 356 787 1,099 11.4 8.6 3.9 0 0 694 6.3 Fiscal Stabilization Fund-ETF 3,388 37.4 17.8 25.3 2,440 1,632 3,733 34.7 19.4 2,152 resources directly collected 6.3 5.8 530 575 495 518 246 2.2 4.8 5.1 concessions and Permissions Resources 4.5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 496 Other 6.8 7.4 620 6 621 671 4 932 1,762 13.3 15.9, Total 9,070,100.0 9,643,100.0 10,768,100.0 9,153,100.0 11,085,100.0 source: SIAFI/PRODASEN-preparation; COFF/CD 1995 to 1998-1999 Budget Bill settled values given the federal nature of the State, the Constitution has defined a division of responsibilities between the Union, the States and the municipalities, establishing even the organisation of education systems in collaboration. The tables 21 and 22 show the picture of the education spending, coupled with all the administrative spheres.
Table 21-Direct Expenditures with Public administrations Education-1997 nature of Union States Government ball Spending Municipalities all spheres-Personal and social charges Consolidated 4,027,842,317 12,275,243,303 7,214,711,927 23,517,797,547 2,413,067,152 2,983,201,731 913,985,248 6,310,254,129 assistance and Pension transfer other current expenditure 2,430,273,641 3,067,446,542 3,119,763,513 8,617,483,696 603,634,891 917,226,164 717,058,074 2,237,919,129 152,685,812 12,132,874 2.955.3 Financial Investments Investments 26 167,774,012 9,627,503,814 19,256,250,613 11,968,474,085 40,851,228,512 Total source: FECAMP-historical values Table 22-Education Spending-Fedativas Ball-1997 federal Entity% 23.6 47.1 STATES UNION 29.3 MUNICIPALITIES source: Fecamp In 1995, before the adoption of the constitutional amendment 14, there were serious distortions. For example, in Maranhão, in reduced State network, average spending per pupil was 343 reais, while municipal networks, responsible for the majority of license plates the value applied was Royal 88. At the other end, in São Paulo, where the State bore most most elementary enrollment, expenditures corresponded to 336 reais, while municipal networks amounted to 1,165 dollars. All the Municipalities of Maranhão and Alagoas was responsible for two-thirds of the enrollments and received only one third of the resources. Thus, two citizens of the same State and the same level of education were treated as absolutely distinct.
To correct this situation is designed to fund maintenance and development of basic education and of appreciation of the Magisterium, which came to be known as FUNDEF. This consists of a basket of resources equivalent to 15% of some State taxes (FPE, ICMS, IPI quota-Exp.) and municipalities (FPM, quota of ICMS, IPI quota-Exp.), in addition to the compensation for the losses with the exemption of exports from the complementary law No. 87/96.
The nuclei of FUNDEF's proposal are: the establishment of a minimum value per pupil to be spent annually (315 reais for the years 1998 and 1999); the redistribution of resources of the Fund, according to the number of registrations and the subvinculação of 60% of your value for the payment of teaching professionals in effective exercise. If the Fund, within the framework of a given State does not reach the minimum value, the Union performs the complementation. In 1998 this was equivalent to about 435 million (table 23). For the financial year 1999 the forecast is that the complement of the Union of about 610 million (Ordinance No. 286/99-MF).
Table 23 revenue source of Fundef-1998 R$ Recipe distributed value% 1000 FPM
13.9 1,838,315 FPE 1,638,058 12.4 ICMS 66.3 8,759,096 IPI-Exp.
87/96 237,989 1.8 2.4 LC 314,003 Subtotal 12,787,461 434,819 Union Complementation 96.8 3.2 Total 13,222,280,100.0 source: SIAFI/Court of Auditors in addition to promoting equity, FUNDEF was the instrument of a policy that has led several other transformations:-with the creation of unique and specific accounts and monitoring councils and social control of FUNDEF gave more transparency to the management. The increased visibility of resources enabled including identification of deviations;
-with the obligatory presentation of career plans with qualification requirement, started a process of professionalization of career;
-with the subvinculação the payment of teachers improved wages and were again drawn to the career teachers who held other positions in the labour market;
-the setting of a goal of the number of registrations and the accounting nature of the Fund allowed to put the resources where they're students and eliminate cronyism;
-decreased considerably the number of literacy classes and students over the age of 7 years on preschool, being brought to the elementary school.
In 21 of the 26 States, there was a net transfer of resources from the State to the local networks. It is undeniable the redistributive effect of FUNDEF, especially in the Northeast where the municipal networks are responsible for about 50% of enrollments. As shown in Table 24, of 5,506 Brazilian municipalities, about 39% (2,159) had a value per pupil per year below the national minimum value of 315 reais.
Table 24-Financial Effects of FUNDEF, in municipalities with spent below the minimum value (R$ 315.00)-1998 Value per pupil per year (R$ 1.00) Municipalities Students/97 Value per pupil per year Gross additional income (R$ Milhões) Number% Number% Variation before FUNDEF to FUNDEF (B) the value per pupil% (B/A) to 5.6 1,740,209 14.0 77.8 324.9 429.9 247.0 317 100 308 Of 100 to 150 613 11.1 17.6 124.2 335.4 463.1 2,192,551
170 Of 150 to 200 474 211.2 8.6 2,006,045 145 Of 200 to 250 370 16.1 178.4 437.0 518.8 258.6 6.7 9.7 225.7 389.3 195.1 163.5 1,193,002 72 Of 250 to 315 394 1,125,758 9.0 281.3 405.7 140.0 124.3 44 7.1 Sub-total 39.2 2,159 66.4 163.7 375.2 1,746.9 211.5 129 8,257,565 Other 4,178,963 Total 33.6 60.8 3,347 Municipalities
5,506,100.0 12,435,528,100.0 source: MEC/SEAD-balance of the first year of FUNDEF from this redistribution, FUNDEF consisted in fundamental instrument to achieve the priority goal of universalization. From 1997 to 1998, there was a significant increase of 6% in enrollment, which grew from 30,535,072 in 1997 to 32,380,024 in 1998.
It is true that some adjustments and enhancements are required, as foreseen in the legislation itself. The issues of how to ensure the financing of adult and youth education, early childhood education and high school. Of all sorts, any funding policy is from FUNDEF, including the establishment, in the future, of a single fund for all basic education-which cannot be done in the context of this plan, as it requires change in constitutional amendment No. 14.
As pointed out by Barjas Negri (financing of education in Brazil MEC/INEP .1997), "there is a great controversy about how much you spend on education in Brazil. From 1966 began the dissemination of information that contained serious methodological error, i.e. including double counting of expenses, without deduction of intragovernamentais transfers intended for education, from the federal Government to State and local governments and State Governments for the municipal. This may have unduly high percentage of GDP estimates, inflating the data of UNESCO "(from 1989, but who were still of the Statistical Yearbook for 1995).
To overcome this difficulty, Negri sought in careful study to estimate the resources potentially available from the bindings. The problem with this method is that captures exactly what should spend, but not how much you spend-as can only be assessed after the consolidation of the balance sheets of all States, Municipalities and the Union. Recently, the Institute of applied economic research-IPEA estimated at 4.2% of the public expenditure on education for the year 1995. Negri had arrived, for that exercise, the number of 4.53% of available resources.
Note that, although work by running the IPEA considers the expenses of education and culture function, overestimating, therefore spending only with education. Recent OECD data indicates a public spending in education in Brazil, equivalent to 5% of GDP (table 25).
You should not interpret these static data, i.e. the developed countries that have already made a large effort in the postwar period have stabilised their spending. Another is the situation of Brazil, which has the enormous challenges discussed in this plan.
This fact was reported to the OECD by the Brazilian Government. Leaving this official data, the target set by PL number 4,173/98, reaching 6.5% of GDP, including private sector spending (which Negri estimates 1% of GDP), it is very modest. On the other hand, the target contained in paragraph 4,155/98, reaching only in the public sector equivalent to 10% of GDP is very high. In current values, each percentage point means around 10 billion reais. This plan proposes that within ten years to reach a public spending equivalent to 7% of GDP, through continuous and progressive increase of all spheres States. This initial effort is indispensable. To do so requires the commitment of the National Congress and sub-national Legislative, which shall draw up multiannual plans and budgets that are drafted in the period. Over time there would be a stabilization in a lower level, to the extent that was being eradicated illiteracy, corrected the distorted age-range and improved management.
Table 25-public expenditure on education in relation to GDP-1995 COUNTRY% of GDP North America Canada United States Mexico 5.8 5.0 4.6 SOUTH AMERICA BRAZIL Chile Argentina * 3.4 5.0 * Uruguay * Paraguay * 3.0 3.1 2.7 ASIA Korea Malaysia Thailand * 4.9 * 3.6 3.6 EUROPE Austria Denmark France Norway 5.3 6.5 5.8 5.4 Portugal 6.8
Spain Sweden United Kingdom 6.6 4.8 4.6 source: OECD database * 1996 funding and data management are inextricably linked. The transparency of the management of financial resources and the exercise of social control will make it possible to ensure the effective application of resources for education. The law of Guidelines and Bases for national education facilitates widely this task, to establish, in paragraph 5 of article 69, the automatic transfer of the linked resources, the Manager and the regulatory body which authorised expenses as expenses with maintenance and development of education.
As had the national plan for education for all, "the improvement of the levels of quality of education requires the professionalization of both the actions of the Ministry of education and of the other levels of the educational administration as the action in schools. This professionalization involves the definition of specific competences and the allocation of new human capabilities, policies and techniques, both in Central as decentralized us levels, aiming the development of responsible management. Professionalization also requires the expansion of the range of different professions involved in educational management, with the goal of increasing rationality and productivity. "
The federal Government has been acting in order to decentralize resources, directing them directly to schools, in order to strengthen your autonomy (table 26). In this process was induced the formation of parent-teacher associations or school boards. These have increased in 1995 to 11,643 54,591 in 1998.
Table 26-Money Program in 1995 to 1998 School-Attendance Year number of schools number of students Value 1000 1995 144,306 28,350,229 229,348 1996 167,760 31,287,583 259,743 1997 106,711 26,672,800 279,428 129,632 28,857,262 304,337 R$ 1998 ** source: FNDE (activity report and program management)-Presidential Message to the National Congress/1999 * from 1997, only schools with more than 20 students ** data until July 11.2 Guidelines when dealing with the financing of Education , you need to recognize it as a value in itself, a requirement for the full exercise of citizenship, to human development and to improving the quality of life of the population. The Constitution of 1988, in tune with the legal values that emanate from the documents that incorporate the achievements of our time-such as the Universal Declaration of human rights and the International Convention on the rights of the child, expressly determined that education is a right of all and duty of the State and the family (art. 205, CF), and should be carried out "with absolute priority" to children and adolescents (art. 221 , caput, CF) by family, by the State and by society. Although education has other relevant dimensions, including the economic, the obligation of public authorities to fund it is the fact of constituting a right. Thus, education and your funding will not be treated in this PNE as an economic problem, but as a matter of citizenship 1 1.
Using this approach, anything run the duty of the State, accompanied by stringent sanctions public officials if the this law, if they were not given the tools to guarantee it. There emerges the first basic directive for the financing of education: constitutional binding resources to the maintenance and development of education, adopted for the first time by the Constitution of 1934, resurfacing with the democratization in 1946, and, once again, in the midst of the process of political opening, with the approval of the Amendment Calmon, being consolidated by the Constitution of 1988. All us in that the principle of linking was weakened or suppressed, there was a drastic reduction of spending on education-as demonstrated the Senator John Calmon in debates that preceded the approval of your proposal. The significant improvement of the educational indicators achieved in the Decade of 90 leaned on resource binding, which allowed to maintain reasonable levels of investment in public education. Although find still some resistance in some niches of the most risk-averse social economic technocracy, the binding of resources requires not only the priority afforded to education, but also as a condition for more effective management. Only the guarantee of resources and your regular flow allow educational planning.
Another important guideline is the management of educational resources by means of funds accounting nature and specific accounts. The accounting background allows the binding to be effective, being the basis of planning, and not be reduced to a set of ex post justification for purposes of accountability. In addition, allows for a more effective social control and avoids the excessive application of resources in activities-means and political orders.
With the FUNDEF opened important funding guideline: the allocation of resources according to the needs the commitments of each system, expressed by the number of registrations. In this way, there are stimulus for the universalization of education. The money is applied to the end-activity: get more who got network, who has students, a positive approach to the funding of education. Until then, those who do not abide by certain provisions were punished. Now, those who comply are rewarded.
In addition, the diversity of the ability of States and municipalities, and of these with each other, led to a significant difference in spending per student, for the simple fact of being enrolled in a State or municipal school.
Complies to consolidate and improve another directive introduced from FUNDEF, whose main concern was equity. To this end, it is important to the operating concept of minimum amount spent per student, per year, set nationally. Equity refers not only to the systems, but students in each school. So, it ain't no use to receive educational funds a value per student and practice some schools that emphasize spending at the expense of the poor schools. The LDB stipulates that it is up to municipalities to exercise the redistributive function with respect to their schools.
Established equity, the challenge is to get the adequacy of learning to a minimum standard of quality (211.0 §1, CF and art. 60.0 §4, ADCT), defined in precise terms in the LDB (art. 4 IX) as "the variety and minimum amount per pupil, of essential inputs to the development of the teaching-learning process. The key concept here is no longer the minimum value, but the cost-quality student. This must be a reference to the financing of education policy. To address this need, education systems should adjust its financial contributions to this desired pattern, and particularly to strengthen your supplementary function fits Union, through the increase of resources for completion of FUNDEF.
The Federal Constitution requires that the Union competes redistributive functions and supplementary exercise to ensure the Equalization of educational opportunity (art. 211, § 1). This is give kids real possibility of access and permanence in school. You have to combine, firstly, the actions to do so with those directed to combat child labour. It is essential to strengthen education as one of the foundations of the social protection network. Education must be considered a strategic priority for a national development project that encourages the overcoming of inequalities in income distribution and poverty eradication. The policies that match the minimum income to education, adopted in some States and municipalities, on their own initiative or with the support of the Union, from the law No. 9533/97, or directly by the Union in areas where children are at risk, have proved to be effective tools for improving the quality of education by reducing repetition and dropout and involving more the family with their children's education-indispensable ingredient for school success. Because it is not really an educational program, but a program of broad social range, with educational criteria, should be financed with funds from sources other than the intended for school education in strict sense. Note by the way that education is a responsibility of the State and society and not just an organ. Of course, the Ministry (or Secretary, State and municipal levels) of the area to have the central role with regard to school education. But there is also that articulate with other ministries (or departments), gathering competences is in terms of technical support or financial resources, in common areas.
The MEC's have a joint performance with the Ministry of labour, for the qualification, training and training of workers, in which should be applied, including resources of the Fund of support to the employee-FAT. The same reasoning applies to the Social and health Assistance, with regard to early childhood education; for Social assistance, with regard to the eradication of poverty; to the Ministry of Justice in respect of adult and youth education for prisoners and graduates, with Prison-FUNPEN Fund; to the Ministry of communications, with regard to resources for the universalization that should be made available on privileged terms for public schools; for ministries of culture; Sport and tourism; Science and technology and so on. Education is not a concern confined in a ghetto. Involves the entire Government and should permeate all its actions.
For that to be effective it is necessary to promote the authentic federalism in educational matters, from the Division of responsibilities laid down in the Magna Carta. Education is an integrated whole that what occurs in a certain level affects us too much, both in quantitative and qualitative aspects. There are competing powers, as in the case of primary education, provided by States and municipalities. Although the networks consolidated according to the political will and financing capacity of each entity, some actions should involve States and municipalities, as in the case of school transport. Even in the event of well-defined competence, such as early childhood education, which is the responsibility of the municipalities, cannot be neglected the supplementary function of States (art. 30, SAW, CF) and Union (art. 30. VI, CF and art. 211.0 §1, CF). Therefore, an important guideline is the continuous improvement of the system of collaboration. This should be, not only between the Union, the States and municipalities, but also, where possible, between the same entities federal sphere, through actions, and Interstate planning forums, regional and intercity.
As for the distribution and management of financial resources is of the utmost importance the transparency directive. Therefore, must be strengthened the internal and external control bodies, management in education systems, as the boards of education and the social control bodies, such as the monitoring and control Social Councils of FUNDEF, whose jurisdiction should be extended, in order to access all the resources allocated to basic education.
For educational planning, it is important to deploy information systems, with the improvement of the educational base of the improvement of the processes of collection and storage of census data and statistics on the national education. This way, you can consolidate a system of evaluation-essential to verify the effectiveness of public policies in the field of education. The adoption of both systems requires the formation of qualified human resources and the computerization of services, initially in the secretariats, but aimed to connect them with their schools and with the MEC.
Must promote the effective bureaucracy and decentralization of the management, administrative and pedagogical dimensions of financial management, and the school units rely on direct allocation of resources to develop the essentials of your pedagogical proposal and for your everyday expenses.
Finally, in the exercise of your autonomy, each school system's deploy democratic management. System management level in the form of boards of education that meet technical competence and representativeness of the various educational sectors; in terms of school units, through the formation of school boards that join the educational community and ways of choosing the school management involving the guarantee of the commitment to the proposal emanating from the pedagogical school boards and the representation and leadership of the school managers.
11.3 11.3.1 1 Funding goals and Metas11. (Vetoed) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ 11 (*) the initiative for fulfilment of this aim/Goal depends on the initiative of the Uniâo;
(**) is required the collaboration of the Union.
2. Implement monitoring and control mechanisms to ensure strict compliance with the art. 212 of the Constitution in terms of application of the minimum percentages linked to the maintenance and development of the ensino.* Between these mechanisms will be the statement of expenses prepared by the executive powers and appreciated by legislation with the assistance of the respective courts of Auditors, listing the values corresponding to each of the sub-paragraphs of article. 70 of LDB.
3. Create mechanisms that make possible, immediately, the line of paragraph 5 of art. 69 of the law of guidelines and Bases that ensures the automatic allocation of resources linked to the maintenance and development of education for the organ responsible for this sector. Among these mechanisms must be the annual benchmarking by the effective school census of automaticity repasses.* 4. Establish mechanisms to ensure compliance with the arts. 70 and 71 of the law of guidelines and Bases, which define the expenses allowed as maintenance and development of education and those who may not be included in this rubrica.* 5. Mobilize the courts, public prosecution service of the Union and the Member States, the monitoring and control Social Councils of FUNDEF, trade unions, non-governmental organizations and the general public to exercise the supervision necessary for the fulfilment of the goals no. 2, 3 and 4 * 6. Ensure, among the goals of the multi-year plans in force over the next ten years, the forecast of the financial support to the targets set out in this PNE.* 7. (Vetoed)
8. Establish, in the municipalities, the early childhood education as a priority for the application of the 10% of the resources linked to the maintenance and development of the non-reserved education for elementary school.
9. Establish, in the States, the high school as a priority for the application of the 10% of the resources linked to the maintenance and development of the non-reserved education for elementary school.
10. Establish priority use for the education of young people and adults, 15% of the resources intended for the elementary school whose sources are not part of FUNDEF: in municipalities (PROPERTY TAX, ISS, (ITBI) SHOULD, ITR, the IRRF quota and IOF-gold, part of the tax debt that is resulting from taxes), in the States and the Federal District, ITCM (PROPERTY TAXES, the IRRF quota and IOF-Gold , part of the tax debt that is resulting from taxes).
11. Establish national program of financial and technical-administrative support of the Union for the offer, preferably in the poorest Municipalities, of adult and youth education for the population of 15 years and over, who had no access to primary education. * 12. Expand the minimum income programmes linked to education, in order to ensure the access and permanence in school the whole school-age population in the country. ** 13. (Vetoed) 14. Promote equity among students of the education systems and schools belonging to the same education system.
15. Promoting the financial autonomy of schools by means of transfers of resources, directly to the public education establishments, from objective criteria.
16. Integrate actions and technical, administrative and financial resources of the Ministry of education and other ministries in the areas of expertise comum.* 17. Ensure Treasury and resources of Social Assistance for minimum income programmes linked to education; health and welfare resources for early childhood education; resources for universalisation of telecommunications, the creation of conditions of access of school, computer communication networks; Job resources for the qualification of workers; resources of the Fund for the education of Prison inmates and egressos.* 18. The Union must calculate the minimum value for the cost-student for the purpose of supplementing State funds strictly in accordance with the established by law No. 9,424/96.* 11.3.2 19 Management. Perfecting the system of collaboration between education systems with a view to coordinated action among federal entities, sharing responsibilities, from the constitutional functions and and the goals of this purely supplementary PNE * 20. Stimulate cooperation between networks and municipal school systems, through technical support to inter-municipal consortia and regional advisory committees, when necessary.
21. encourage the creation of municipal education Councils and support technically municipalities who choose to form municipal systems.
22. Define, in each school system, democratic management standards of public education, with the participation of the community.
23. Edit by educational systems, general regulations and guidelines desburocratizantes and flexible, to stimulate the initiative and innovative action of educational institutions.
24. Develop standard management that has as the allocation of resources for activities, decentralization, school autonomy, equity, focus on students ' learning and community participation.
25. Develop and execute State and municipal education plans, in line with this PNE.
26. Organize basic education in the country, in order to preserve the rural schools in rural areas and imbued with rural values.
27. Support technically schools in the development and implementation of your pedagogical proposal.
28. Ensure administrative and educational autonomy of schools and expand your financial autonomy, through the transfer of resources directly to the schools for small maintenance and compliance with your pedagogical proposal.
29. Computerize, in three years, with technical and financial assistance from the Union, the State departments of education, integrating them in national system of network educational statistics. * * 30. Computerize progressively, in ten years, with technical and financial assistance from the Union and the States all the municipal secretariats of education, taking into account in five years at least, the half of the municipalities with over 20,000 inhabitants.
31. Establish, in all States, with technical and financial assistance from the Union, technical personnel training programs of the secretariats, to supply, in five years, at least, the needs of the sectors of information and educational statistics, planning and evaluation * 32. Promote administrative measures to ensure the permanence of the technicians trained and with good performance in the frames of the secretariats.
33. Computerize, gradually, with technical and financial assistance from the Union, the administration of the schools with more than 100 students, connecting them into a network with the secretariats of education, in such a way that, in ten years, all schools are in the system. ** 34. Establish, in all States, with the collaboration of municipalities and universities, diversified programs of continuing education and upgrading to improve the performance in the exercise of the occupation or position of Directors of schools.
35. Ensure that, in five years, 50% of the directors, at least, have specific training in higher level and that, at the end of the Decade, all schools with properly trained officers in higher level, preferably with specialization courses.
36. Expand the provision of training courses in school administration in public institutions of higher level, in order to allow compliance with the previous goal. * * 37. Establish policies and criteria for the allocation of federal, State and local resources, in order to reduce regional inequalities and inequities every internal system. ** 38. Consolidate and improve the National System for the evaluation of basic education-SAEB and census escolar.* 39. Establish, in the States, in five years, with the technical and financial cooperation of the Union, a performance evaluation program that reaches at least all schools of more than 50 middle and high school students. ** 40. Establish, in the municipalities, in five years, monitoring and evaluation programs of early childhood education.
41. Set minimum quality standards of learning in basic education in national education Conference, involving the educational community. ** 42. Set up at all levels, councils of the monitoring and control of resources for Education are not included in FUNDEF, whatever your origin, along the lines of Social monitoring and control of FUNDEF.
43. Include, in statistical surveys and school census information about genre, in each category of data coletados.* 44. Observe the goals established in the remaining chapters relating to financing and management.
VI-monitoring and evaluating the PLAN a plan of the importance and complexity of the PNE has to provide for monitoring and evaluation mechanisms that give him security in the continuation of actions over time and in different circumstances develop. Adjustments and corrective measures as the reality is changing or new requirements are appearing will depend on a good monitoring and constant assessment.
You will need to immediately begin the preparation of State plans in line with this national plan and then municipal plans, also consistent with the plan of the respective State. The three documents should compose an integrated set and articulate. Integrated as to the objectives, priorities, goals and guidelines here established. And articulate the actions, so that, in the sum of the efforts of three spheres, of all States and Municipalities over the Union, move the targets here.
Deployment and development of this set need coordination at the national level, coordination in each State and the Federal District and of the coordination in the area of each Municipality, carried out by the bodies responsible for education.
The Ministry of education has a major role and inducer of technical and financial cooperation. This is correct regional differences, raising the overall quality of education in the country. The diagnoses in this plan pointed out some, at various levels and/or methods of teaching, management, financing, training and upgrading of teaching and other education workers. There are many actions which the Union initiative, more specifically the Federal Executive branch. And there are goals we need the cooperation of the Federal Government to run, either because they involve resources that States and municipalities do not have, either because the presence of the Union gives greater power to mobilization and implementation.
Will play a key role in these also functions the National Council of State Secretaries of Education-National Union of CONSED Leaders municipal education-UNDIME, issues relating to basic education; as well as the Council of Rectors of the Brazilian universities-CRUB, those relating to higher education.
Also considered very important the participation of entities of the educational community, education workers, students and parents gathered in their representative entities.
It is necessary that some civil society entities directly concerned and responsible for the rights of children and adolescents participate in the follow-up of the evaluation of the national plan for education. The art. 227, paragraph 7 of the Constitution determines that in the service of the rights of children and adolescents (included in that group people of 0 to 18 years of age) is taken into consideration the provisions of art. 204 the guideline of "participation of the population, through representative organizations, in policy formulation and in control of the actions at all levels". In addition to the direct action of those organizations that rely on the performance of the Government Councils with representation of civil society as the National Council for the rights of children and adolescents-CONANDA, the State and Municipal Councils for the rights of children and adolescents the Guardianship Councils (Law No. 8069/90). The boards of Social monitoring and Control of the maintenance and development of basic education and of enhancing the Teaching-FUNDEF, organized into the three administrative spheres, should have, also, co-responsibility in good driving this plan.
The evaluation of the national plan for education must also make use of qualitative and quantitative data and analysis provided by the evaluation system already operated by the Ministry of education, in the different levels of Basic education evaluation system-SAEB; the national high school Exam-ENEM;. evaluation system of higher education (Commission of experts, national exam for courses, and Recognition Committee), evaluation conducted by the Fundação Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior-CAPES.
In addition to ongoing assessment, periodic reviews should be made, and the first will be in the fourth year after the deployment of the PNE.
The Organization of a system of monitoring and control of the PNE does not specific assignments of the National Congress, the Tribunal de Contas da União-TCU and courts of Auditors of the Member States monitoring and control TCEs.
The goals and targets of this plan can only be achieved if it is conceived and hosted as a State plan, more than Government plan and, therefore, assumed as a commitment of the company to yourself. Its approval by the National Congress, in a context of significant social participation, monitoring and evaluation by the Government and civil society institutions and the consequent recovery of the goals it proposed, are decisive factors for that education produces the big change in development, social inclusion, the scientific and technological production and citizenship of the Brazilian people.