Jump Back To Oars 437-002-0005 Through 437-002-0154

Link to law: http://arcweb.sos.state.or.us/pages/rules/oars_400/oar_437/437_002_0312-2324.html
Published: 2015

The Oregon Administrative Rules contain OARs filed through November 15, 2015

 

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DEPARTMENT OF CONSUMER AND BUSINESS SERVICES,

OREGON OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH DIVISION










 

DIVISION 2
GENERAL OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH RULES
SCROLL DOWN TO VIEW OARs 437-002-0312 through 437-002-2324
GO BACK TO OARs 437-002-0161 through 437-002-0311
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437-002-0312
Oregon Rules for Pulp, Paper and Paperboard Mills
(1) General Requirements.
(a) Application. This section
applies to establishments where pulp, paper, and paperboard are manufactured or
converted. This section does not apply to logging and the transportation of logs
to pulp, paper, and paperboard mills.
(b) Standards incorporated
by reference. Standards covering issues of occupational safety and health which
have general application without regard to any specific industry are incorporated
by reference in sections (2) through (14) of this rule and in subsections (c) and
(d) of this rule and made applicable under this rule. Such standards shall be construed
according to the rules set forth in §1910.5, Applicability of Standards, in
Subdivision A.
(c) General incorporation
of standards. Establishments subject to this section shall comply with the following
standards of the American National Standards Institute:
(A) Safety Requirements for
Floor and Wall Openings, Railings, and Toeboards, A10.18-1983.
(B) Scheme for the Identification
of Piping Systems, A13.1-1981 (R1993).
(C) Safety Code for Portable
Wood Ladders, A14.1-1990.
(D) Safety Code for Portable
Metal Ladders, A14.2-1990.
(E) Safety Code for Fixed
Ladders, A14.3-1990.
(F) Safety Code for Cranes,
Derricks, and Hoists, B30.2-1990.
(G) Overhead and Gantry Cranes,
B30.17-1992.
(H) Crawler, Locomotive,
and Truck Cranes, B30.8-1993.
(I) Safety Code for Woodworking
Machinery, ANSI O1.1-1992.
(J) Method of Measurement
of Real-Ear Protection of Hearing Protectors — Physical Attenuation of Ear
Muffs, ANSI S3.19-1974 (R1990).
(K) Practice for Occupational
and Educational Eye and Face Protection, ANSI Z87.1-1989.
(L) Requirements for Sanitation
in Places of Employment, ANSI Z4.1-1986.
(M) Fundamentals Governing
the Design and Operation of Local Exhaust Systems, Z9.2-1979 (R 1991).
(N) Practices for Respiratory
Protection, ANSI Z88.2-1992.
(O) Safety Requirements for
Industrial Head Protection, ANSI Z89.1-1986.
(P) Safety Color Code, ANSI
Z535.1-1991.
(Q) Practice for the Inspection
of Elevators (Inspector’s Manual), ANSI/ASME A17.2-1988.
(R) Safety Code for Elevators,
Dumbwaiters, and Moving Walks, ANSI/ASME A17.1-1990.
(S) Safety Code for Mechanical
Power-Transmission Apparatus, ANSI/ASME B15.1-1992.
(T) Safety Code for Conveyors,
Cableways, and Related Equipment, ANSI/ASME B20.1- 1993.
(U) Power Piping, ANSI/ASME
B31.1-1992.
(V) Safety Code for Powered
Industrial Trucks, ANSI/ASME B56.1.
(W) Practice for Industrial
Lighting, ANSI/IES RP-990.
(X) Installation of Blower
and Exhaust Systems for Dust, Stock, and Vapor Removal or Conveying, ANSI/NFPA 91-1992.
(Y) Fire Department Self-Contained
Breathing Apparatus Program, ANSI/NFPA 1404-1989.
(Z) Safety Code for Ventilation
and Operation of Open-Surface Tanks, ANSI/UL 641-1985.
(d) Other standards. The
following standards shall be considered standards under this section:
(A) ASME Boiler and Pressure
Vessel Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels 1992, including addenda.
(B) Building Exits Code for
Life Safety from Fire, NFPA 101-1991.
(C) NFPA Code for Prevention
of Sulfur Fires and Explosions, NFPA 655-1993.
(D) Safety in the Transportation,
Storage, Handling and Use of Explosives, IME Pamphlet No. 17, March 1987, Institute
of Makers of Explosives.
(2) Employee Training.
(a) Employees shall not be
permitted to operate any machine or equipment until they have received proper training
and are familiar with safe operating procedures.
(b) Employees shall be trained
in proper lifting or moving techniques and methods. Mechanical devices should be
used or employees should ask for assistance in lifting or moving heavy objects.
(c) In each area where hazardous
substances may be encountered, personnel shall be trained to cope with emergencies
arising from breaks, ruptures, or spills which would create a hazardous condition.
(d) Any faulty equipment
or hazardous condition shall be promptly reported to the person in charge.
(e) When an employee is assigned
to work alone in a remote or isolated area, a system shall be instituted whereby
such employee reports to someone or a designated person shall check on his or her
safety. The procedure shall designate the method of contact and the frequency. All
persons will be trained on the procedures.
(3) Safe Practices.
(a) Guards. All driving mechanisms,
power transmission apparatus, and prime movers shall be constructed, guarded, and
used in conformity with Subdivision O, Machinery and Machine Guarding.
(b) Inspection of controls
and safety devices. Brakes, back stops, antirunaway devices, overload releases,
and other safety devices shall be inspected and tested frequently to insure that
all are operative and maintained in good repair.
(c) Personal protective clothing
and equipment. Personal protective clothing and equipment shall be provided and
worn in accordance with Subdivision I, Personal Protective Equipment. Respiratory
protection must conform to the requirements of §1910.134 of Subdivision I.
(d) Floors and platforms.
Floors, platforms, and work surfaces shall be guarded and maintained in accordance
with §1910.23, in Subdivision D, Walking-Working Surfaces.
(e) Lockouts. Lockout/tagout
shall be in accordance with the requirements of §1910.147, in Subdivision J,
with the exception that:
(A) There will be no tagouts
allowed in lieu of lockout for that which can be locked out. Tags are provided for
identification and information purposes only.
(B) Persons engaged in repair,
inspection, maintenance, or clean-up shall lockout the affected equipment, retain
possession of the keys to the locks, and personally remove the lock and tag upon
completion of the work.
(C) Group lockout. (See Appendices
A and B.)
(i) When servicing and/or
maintenance is performed by a crew, craft, department or other group, they shall
utilize a procedure which affords the employees a level of protection equivalent
to that provided by the implementation of a personal lockout device.
(ii) Group lockout devices
shall be used in accordance with the procedures required by §1910.147(c)(4)
including, but not necessarily limited to, the following specific requirements.
(I) Primary responsibility
is vested in an authorized employee for a set number of employees working under
the protection of a group lockout device (such as an operations lock);
(II) Provision for the authorized
employee to ascertain the exposure status of individual group members with regard
to the lockout of the machine or equipment; and
(III) When more than one
crew, craft, department, etc. is involved, assignment or overall job-associated
lockout control responsibility to an authorized employee designated to coordinate
affected work forces and ensure continuity of protection; and
(IV) Each authorized employee
shall affix a personal lockout device to the group lock-out device, group lockbox,
or comparable mechanism when he or she begins work, and shall remove those devices
when he or she stops working on the machine or equipment being serviced or maintained;
and
(V) Any person involved in
the lockout process shall have the right to place their own lock at each lockout
location where group lockout procedures have been allowed.
(f) Confined space entry.
Confined space entry shall be in accordance with 437-002-0146 Confined Spaces, in
Subdivision J.
(g) Industrial power trucks.
(A) All industrial power
trucks and operations shall conform to §1910.178, Powered Industrial Trucks,
Subdivision N, Material Handling and Storage. All forklift trucks shall be provided
with overhead guards. Design requirements shall provide protection for the liquid
petroleum gas tank. All guards shall be designed in compliance with §1910.178,
Powered Industrial Trucks, in Subdivision N.
(B) Mirrors or other methods
to ensure visibility shall be installed at blind corners or intersections which
will allow operators to observe oncoming traffic.
(C) Every power truck operated
from an end platform or standing position shall be equipped with a platform extending
beyond the operator’s position, strong enough to withstand a compression load
equal to the weight of the loaded vehicle applied along the longitudinal axis of
the truck with the outermost projection of the platform against the flat vertical
surface.
(D) Pushing of vehicles or
rail cars with the forks or clamps of a lift truck is prohibited.
(h) Emergency lighting.
(A) Emergency lighting shall
be provided wherever it is necessary for employees to remain at their machines or
stations to shut down equipment in case of power failure. Emergency lighting shall
be provided at stairways and passageways or aisleways used by employees for emergency
exit in case of power failure. Emergency lighting shall be provided in all plant
first aid and medical facilities.
(B) Emergency lighting shall
be maintained in accordance with the manufacturer or engineering specifications,
and shall be checked at least every 30 days for defects.
(i) Electrical equipment.
All electrical installations and electrical utilization equipment shall comply with
the National Electrical Code requirements and the provisions of Subdivision S, Electrical.
(4) Handling and Storage
of Pulpwood and Pulp Chips.
(a) Handling pulpwood with
forklift trucks. Where large forklift trucks, or lift trucks with clam-jaws, are
used in the yard, the operator’s enclosed cab shall be provided with an escape
hatch, whenever the hydraulic arm blocks escape through the side doors.
(b) Handling pulpwood with
cranes or stackers.
(A) Where locomotive cranes
are used for loading or unloading pulpwood, the pulpwood shall be piled so as to
allow a clearance of not less than 24 inches between the pile and the end of the
cab of any locomotive crane in use, when the cab is turned in any working position.
(B) The minimum distance
of the pulpwood pile from the centerline of a standard-gage track shall be maintained
at not less than 8-1/2 feet.
(C) Logs shall be piled in
an orderly and stable manner, with no projection into walkways or roadways.
(D) Rail cars shall not be
spotted on tracks adjacent to the locomotive cranes unless a 24 inch clearance is
maintained, as required in section (4)(b)(A) of this rule.
(E) The handling and storage
of other materials shall conform to sections (4)(b)(A) and (B) of this rule with
respect to clearance.
(F) Equipment and practices
shall conform to American National Standards B30.2-1990 and B30.2.0-1967.
(G) Personal protective equipment
for such uses as foot, head, and eye protection shall be required for workers on
a job basis.
(H) No person shall be permitted
to walk beneath a suspended load, bucket, or hook.
(c) Pulpwood storage and
handling.
(A) Unauthorized vehicles
and unauthorized foot traffic shall not be allowed in any active sorting, storing,
loading, or unloading areas.
(B) Unloading lines shall
be so arranged that it is not necessary for the workers to attach them on the pond
or dump side of the load.
(C) Jackets or vests of fluorescent
or other high visibility material shall be worn by persons working on dry land log
storage.
(D) Wire rope doglines used
for towing or rafting shall not be used when:
(i) They acquire jaggers
to the extent that they present a hazard to the workers handling them; or
(ii) When they are weakened
to the extent that they are hazardous.
(E) Boom sticks shall be
capable of safely supporting the weight imposed upon them.
(F) Stiff booms shall be
made by fastening not less than two boom sticks together. The width of the stiff
boom shall be not less than 36 inches measured from outside to outside of the outer
logs. The boom sticks shall be fastened together with not less than 4-inch by 6-inch
cross ties or cable lashing properly recessed into notches in the boom sticks and
secured.
(G) Pike poles shall be kept
in good repair. Conductive pike poles shall not be used where it is possible that
they may come in contact with electrical conductors.
(H) All log dumps shall be
periodically cleared of bark and other debris.
(I) When cutting bands on
bundled logs, workers shall position themselves in a safe location. Double-bitted
axes shall not be used for cutting bands. Caution shall be used to prevent being
struck by ends of bands being cut and, if needed, personal protective equipment
shall be worn.
(J) Storing or sorting on
water, or any boom work other than boom boat operations, shall require a minimum
of two persons.
(d) Handling pulpwood from
ships.
(A) Ladders and gangplanks
with railings to boat docks shall meet the requirements of American National Standards
A10.18-1983, A14.1-1990, A14.2-1990, and A14.3-1990, and shall be securely fastened
in place.
(B) The hatch tender shall
be required to signal the hoisting engineer to move the load only after the employees
working in the hold are in the clear.
(C) The air in the ship’s
hold, tanks, or closed vessels shall be tested for oxygen deficiency and for toxic,
explosive and combustible gases and vapors.
(e) Handling pulpwood from
flatcars and all other rail cars.
(A) Railroad flatcars for
the conveyance of pulpwood loaded parallel to the length of the car shall be equipped
with safety-stake pockets.
(B) Where pulpwood is loaded
crosswise on a flatcar sufficient stakes of sizes not smaller than 4 by 4 inches
shall be used to prevent the load from shifting.
(C) When it is necessary
to cut stakes, those on the unloading side should be partially cut through first,
and then the binder wires cut on the opposite side. Wire cutters equipped with long
extension handles shall be used. No person shall be permitted along the dumping
side of the car after the stakes have been cut.
(D) When steel straps without
stakes are used, the steel straps shall be cut from a safe area to prevent employees
from being struck by the falling logs.
(E) Flatcars and all other
cars shall be chocked during unloading. Where equipment is not provided with hand
brakes, rail clamping chocks shall be used.
(F) A derail shall be used
to prevent movement of other rail equipment into cars where persons are working.
(f) Handling pulpwood from
trucks.
(A) Cutting of stakes and
binder wires shall be done in accordance with section (4)(e)(C) of this rule.
(B) Where binder chain and
steel stakes are used, the binder chains shall be released and the stakes tripped
from the opposite side of the load spillage.
(C) Where binder chains and
crane slings are used, the crane slings shall be attached and taut before the binder
chains are released. The hooker shall see that the helper is clear before signaling
for the movement of the load.
(D) The truck driver shall
leave the truck cab and be in the clear, in a designated area, and shall be in clear
view of the unloading equipment operator while the unloader is approaching the loaded
truck.
(E) The truck driver shall
remain outside the cab and clear of the load while logs are being unloaded except
that, after a complete load is lifted as a unit and held stationary, the driver
may enter the cab and drive forward from under the suspended load.
(F) Log unloaders shall not
be moved about the premises with loads raised higher than absolutely necessary.
(g) Handling pulp chips from
rail cars.
(A) All cars shall be securely
fastened in place and all employees in the clear before dumping is started.
(B) Personal protective equipment
for such uses as foot, head, and eye protection shall be provided, and employees
shall wear the equipment when working in the woodyard. Ear protection shall be provided
when the noise level may be harmful.
(C) When a rollover-type
unloading device is used for removing chips from cars, the cars shall be properly
secured in place, and all employees shall be in the clear before dumping operation
is started.
(h) Handling pulp chips and
hog fuel from trucks and trailers.
(A) All trucks and trailers
shall be secure and all employees in the clear before dumping is started.
(B) Personal protective equipment
necessary to protect workers from hazards shall be provided and worn.
(C) Elevating platform-type
or cable-lift type unloading devices shall have adequate back bumper stops.
(D) Side rails or other positive
means to prevent the truck and/or trailer from falling shall be used while unloading
the single trailer units.
(E) All persons shall be
clear of all hoisting or elevating mechanisms before dumping commences.
(F) No person shall remain
in any truck while the truck is being elevated.
(G) A safe area and suitable
device shall be provided for the chip tester to use while taking chip samples.
(H) Rolled chip nets shall
not be positioned where they cover the ladders on rail cars or trucks.
(I) Chip and hog fuel storage.
(i) When mobile equipment
is used on top of hog fuel or chip piles, a roll-over protection system shall be
installed on the equipment. If the cab is of the enclosed type, windshield wipers
shall be installed.
(ii) Hog fuel bins shall
be provided with standard railed platform or walkways near the top or other equally
effective means shall be provided for use by employees engaged in dislodging hog
fuel.
(iii) Extreme care shall
be taken to prevent chips or hog fuel from creating an overhang or bridging.
(iv) Employees shall be prohibited
from working under overhangs or bridges.
(J) Chip and sawdust bins.
Steam or compressed-air lances, or other facilities, shall be used for breaking
down the arches caused by jamming in chip lofts. No worker shall be permitted to
enter a bin unless done in accordance with 437-002-0146 Confined Spaces, in Subdivision
J.
(i) Crane operations.
(A) Crane boom and load capacities
as specified by the manufacturer shall be posted in the cab of the crane in accordance
with §1910.180, Crawler, Locomotive and Truck Cranes, in Subdivision N, Material
Handling and Storage.
(B) A safety device such
as a heavy chain or cable at least equal in strength to the lifting cables shall
be fastened to the boom and to the frame of the boom crane (if it is other than
locomotive) at the base. Alternatively, a telescoping safety device shall be fastened
to the boom and to the cab frame, so as to prevent the boom from snapping back over
the cab in the event of lifting cable breakage.
(C) A crane shall not be
operated where any part thereof may come within 10 feet of overhead powerlines (or
other overhead obstructions) unless the powerlines have been de-energerized, or
clearances are maintained as specified in §1910.303, General Requirements,
in Subdivision S, Electrical.
(D) Standard signals for
the operation of cranes shall be established for all movements of the crane, in
accordance with American National Standards B30.2-1990 and B30.8-1988.
(E) Only one member of the
crew shall be authorized to give signals to the crane operator.
(F) All cranes shall be equipped
with a suitable warning device such as a horn or whistle.
(G) A sheave guard shall
be provided beneath the head sheave of the boom.
(H) Grapples, tongs, and
buckets shall not be left suspended when not in use.
(j) Traffic warning signs
or signals.
(A) A flagger shall direct
the movement of cranes or locomotives being moved across railroad tracks or roads,
and at any points where the vision of the operator is restricted. The flagger must
always remain in sight of the operator when the crane or locomotive is in motion.
The blue flag policy shall be used to mark stationary cars day and night. This policy
shall include marking the track in advance of the spotted cars (flag for daytime,
light for darkness).
(B) After cars are spotted
for loading or unloading, warning flags or signs shall be placed in the center of
the track at least 50 feet away from the cars and a derail set to protect workers
in or on the car.
(k) Rail car operations and
railroad warning devices.
(A) On a dead end spur, a
blue signal may be displayed adjacent to the switch opening while cars are being
loaded or unloaded. When such warning devices are displayed, the equipment shall
not be coupled to or moved.
(B) Equipment which would
obscure the blue signal shall not be placed on the track.
(C) Each maintenance crew
shall display and remove its own set of blue signals.
(D) A flashing warning light
or other device shall be installed near any opening which leads to a passageway
crossing railroad tracks adjacent to the building. Such light or device shall be
activated prior to any switching or movement of railroad equipment to warn workers
of the dangerous condition in the area.
(E) Workers shall not crawl
under or pass between coupled rail cars to cross tracks.
(F) An audible whistle, horn,
or bell shall be sounded by the locomotive engineer to give adequate warning prior
to switching across any road crossing.
(G) When switching railroad
equipment in congested areas or across roadways or walkways, “flying switches”
shall be prohibited.
(H) All freight car doors
shall be inspected before workers open or close them. A safe method shall be used
to open or close the door.
(l) Illumination. Artificial
illumination shall be provided when loading or unloading is performed after dark,
in accordance with American National Standard ANSI/IES-RP-1990, Practice for Industrial
Lighting.
(m) Bridge or dock plates.
(A) The construction and
use of bridge or dock plates shall conform to requirements of §1910.30(a),
Walking-Working Surfaces, in Subdivision D.
(B) The sides of bridge or
dock plates shall have an upturn or lip of at least 4 inches covering the area between
the edge of the loading dock and edge of car or truck floor whenever the distance
exceeds 18 inches to prevent wheeled equipment from running off the sides.
(C) Bridge or dock plates
shall have at least 6 inches bearing surface on the loading dock.
(D) Bridge or dock plates
intended to be moved by mechanized equipment shall be designed for this purpose
or attachments for safe handling shall be used.
(n) Hand tools. Handles of
wood hooks shall be locked to the shank to prevent them from rotating.
(o) Removal of pulpwood.
(A) The ends of a woodpile
shall be properly sloped and cross-tiered into the pile. Upright poles shall not
be used at the ends of woodpiles. To knock down wood from the woodpile, mechanical
equipment shall be used to permit employees to keep in the clear of loosened wood.
(B) If dynamite is used to
loosen the pile, only authorized personnel shall be permitted to handle and discharge
the explosive. An electric detonator is preferable for firing; if a fuse is used,
it shall be an approved safety fuse with a burning rate of not less than 120 seconds
per yard and a minimum length of 3 feet, in accordance with “Safety in the
Transportation, Storage, Handling and Use of Explosives”, IME Pamphlet No.
17, March 1987.
(p) Log hauls, slips and
carriages.
(A) Controls shall be arranged
to operate from a position where the operator will at all times be in the clear
of logs, machinery, lines, and rigging.
(B) Controls shall be marked
to indicate their function.
(C) An effective method of
disengaging the head rig saws from the power unit shall be installed on all head
rigs where the power unit is not directly controlled by the sawyer. The saws shall
be disengaged from the source of power which shall be locked out before repairs
or changes are made.
(D) When needed for protection
of personnel, an automatic stop or interlocking device shall be installed on log
hauls or slips.
(E) A barricade or other
positive stop of adequate strength shall be provided to protect the sawyer from
rolling logs.
(F) A guard shall be provided
to prevent logs from rolling off the log deck into the well.
(G) The sawyer shall be safeguarded
either by his or her location or by use of substantial screens or approved safety
glass.
(H) A substantial stop or
bumper shall be installed at each end of the carriage run.
(I) Canting gear or other
equipment shall not be allowed to hang over the log deck in such a manner as to
endanger employees.
(J) Canting gear controls
shall be marked to indicate their function.
(K) The sawyer shall be primarily
responsible for the safety of the carriage crew and off- bearers. He or she shall
exercise due care in the operation of the carriage and log turning devices.
(L) A control device shall
be provided so that the sawyer may stop the head rig section of the mill without
leaving his or her stand.
(M) The feed control lever
of friction or belt-driven carriage feed works shall be designed to operate away
from the saws or carriage track.
(N) Feed works and log turning
control levers shall be so arranged that they may be secured when not in use and
shall be adequately guarded against accidental activation.
(O) Carriages upon which
persons are required to work shall be solidly decked over and the employees properly
protected.
(P) Substantial sweeps shall
be installed in front of each carriage wheel. Such sweeps shall extend to within
1/4 inch of the rails.
(Q) Where power-operated
log turners are used, carriage knees shall be provided with goosenecks or other
substantial means of protecting the carriage crew.
(q) Belt conveyors.
(A) The sides of the conveyor
shall be constructed so that the pulpwood will not fall off.
(B) Where conveyors cross
passageways or roadways, a horizontal platform shall be provided under the conveyor
extending out from the sides of the conveyor a distance equal to 1 1/2 times the
length of the wood handled. The platform shall extend the width of the road plus
2 feet on each side and shall be kept free of wood and rubbish. The edges of the
platform shall be provided with toeboards or other protection to prevent wood from
falling, in accordance with American National Standard A10.18-1983.
(C) All conveyors for pulpwood
shall have the in-running nips between chain and sprockets guarded; also, turning
drums shall be guarded.
(D) Every belt conveyor shall
have an emergency stop cable extending the length of the conveyor so that it may
be stopped from any location along the line, or conveniently located stop buttons
within 10 feet of each work station, in accordance with American National Standard
ANSI/ASME B20.1-1993.
(r) Signs. Where conveyors
cross walkways or roadways in the yards, signs reading “Danger — Overhead
Conveyor” or an equivalent warning shall be erected, in accordance with American
National Standard for Safety Color Code, ANSI Z535.1-1991 or ANSI Z535.2-2011.
(5) Handling and Storage
of Raw Materials Other Than Pulpwood or Pulp Chips.
(a) Personal protective equipment.
(A) Whenever possible, all
dust, fumes, and gases incident to handling materials shall be controlled at the
source, in accordance with OAR 437-002-0382, Oregon Rules for Air Contaminants,
in Subdivision Z. Where control at the source is not possible, respirators with
goggles or protective masks shall be provided, and employees shall wear them when
handling alum, clay, soda ash, lime, bleach powder, sulfur, chlorine, and similar
materials, and when opening rag bales.
(B) When handling liquid
acid or alkali, workers shall be provided with approved eye and face protection
and protective clothing, in accordance with Subdivision I, Personal Protective Equipment.
(b) Clearance.
(A) When materials are being
piled inside a building and upon platforms, an aisle clearance at least 3 feet greater
than the widest truck in use shall be provided.
(B) Baled paper and rags
stored inside a building shall not be piled closer than 18 inches to walls, partitions,
or sprinkler heads.
(c) Piling and unpiling pulp.
(A) Piles of wet lap pulp
(unless palletized) shall be stepped back one-half the width of the sheet for each
8 feet of pile height. Sheets of pulp shall be interlapped to make the pile secure.
Pulp shall not be piled over pipelines to jeopardize pipes, or so as to cause overloading
of floors, or to within 18 inches below sprinkler heads.
(B) Piles of pulp shall not
be undermined when being unpiled.
(C) Floor capacities shall
be clearly marked on all floors.
(d) Chocking rolls.
(A) Where rolls are pyramided
two or more high, chocks shall be installed between each roll on the floor and at
every row. Where pulp and paper rolls are stored on smooth floors in processing
areas, rubber chocks with wooden core shall be used.
(B) When rolls are decked
two or more high, the bottom rolls shall be chocked on each side to prevent shifting
in either direction.
(6) Preparing Pulpwood.
(a) Gang and slasher saws.
A guard shall be provided in front of all gang and slasher saws to protect workers
from wood thrown by saws. A guard shall be placed over tail sprockets.
(b) Slasher tables. Saws
shall be stopped and power switches shall be locked out and tagged whenever it is
necessary for any person to be on the slasher table.
(c) Slasher drive belts,
pulleys, and shafts. All belts, pulleys, and shafts shall be guarded in accordance
with American National Standard ANSI/ASME B15.1-1992.
(d) Runway to the jack ladder.
The runway from the pond or unloading dock to the table shall be protected with
standard handrails and toeboards. Inclined portions shall have cleats or equivalent
nonslip surfacing, in accordance with Subdivision D, Walking-Working Surfaces. Protective
equipment shall be provided for persons working over water.
(e) Guards below table. Where
not protected by the frame of the machine, the underside of the slasher saws shall
be enclosed with guards.
(f) Conveyors. The requirements
of section (4)(q) of this rule shall apply.
(g) Circular saws (not slasher
saws). Saws shall be provided with standard guards, in accordance with American
National Standard ANSI O1.1-1992.
(h) Fixed chain saws, circular
cut-off saws, drag and swing saws.
(A) Saws shall be so arranged
that they will not project into any passageway when in an idle or working position.
When existing conditions do not leave clear passage the saws shall be fenced off
in order to make it impossible for anyone to walk into them.
(B) Drag saws and fixed chain
saws shall be equipped with a device that will safely lock them in an “UP”
position.
(C) All persons shall be
in the clear before starting operations of a drag, chain, or swing saw.
(D) Log decks shall be equipped
with a device to hold the material stable while being cut.
(i) Barker feed. Each barker
shall be equipped with a feed and turnover device which will make it unnecessary
for the operator to hold a bolt or log by hand during the barking operation. Eye,
ear, and head protection shall be provided for the operator, in accordance with
section (3)(c) of this rule.
(j) Guards. A guard shall
be installed around barkers to confine flying particles, in accordance with ANSI/ASME
B15.1-1992.
(k) Stops. All control devices
shall be locked out and tagged when knives are being changed.
(l) Speed governor. Water
wheels, when directly connected to barker disks or grinders, shall be provided with
speed governors, if operated with gate wide open.
(m) Continuous barking drums.
(A) When platforms or floors
allow access to the sides of the drums, a standard railing shall be constructed
around the drums. When two or more drums are arranged side by side, proper walkways
with standard handrails shall be provided between each set, in accordance with section
(3)(d) of this rule.
(B) Sprockets and chains,
gears, and trunnions shall have standard guards, in accordance with section (3)(a)
of this rule.
(C) Whenever it becomes necessary
for a worker to go within a drum, the driving mechanism shall be locked and tagged,
at the main disconnect switch, in accordance with section (3)(e) of this rule.
(D) This subsection (m) also
applies to barking drums employed in the yard.
(n) Intermittent barking
drums. In addition to motor switch, clutch, belt shifter, or other power disconnecting
device, intermittent barking drums shall be equipped with a device which may be
locked to prevent the drum from moving while it is being emptied or filled.
(o) Hydraulic barkers.
(A) Hydraulic barkers shall
be enclosed with strong baffles at the inlet and the outlet. The operator shall
be protected by at least five-ply laminated glass.
(B) The high pressure hoses
of hydraulic barkers shall be secured in such a manner that the hose connection
ends will be restrained if a hose connection fails.
(p) Splitter block. The block
upon or against which the wood is rested shall have a corrugated surface or other
means provided that the wood will not slip. Wood to be split, and also the splitting
block, shall be free of ice, snow, or chips. The operator shall be provided with
eye and foot protection. A clear and unobstructed view shall be maintained between
equipment and workers around the block and the workers’ help area.
(q) Power control. Power
for the operation of the splitter shall be controlled by a clutch or equivalent
device.
(r) Knot cleaners. The operators
of knot cleaners of the woodpecker type shall wear eye protection equipment.
(s) Chipper spout. The feed
system to the chipper spout shall be arranged in such a way that the operator does
not stand in a direct line with the chipper spout. All chipper spouts shall be enclosed
to a height of at least 42 inches from the floor or operator’s platform. When
other protection is not sufficient, the operator shall be protected from falling
into the chipper by the use of a safety belt and lanyard. Ear protection equipment
shall be worn by the operator and others in the immediate area if there is any possibility
that the noise level may be harmful (see §1910.95, Occupational Noise Exposure,
in Subdivision G).
(t) Feeding material/clearing
jams in machines. Appropriate safety belts and lanyards and face protection shall
be used by employees who manually feed material or clear jams in machines unless
other provisions are made which will protect the employees.
(u) Carriers for knives.
Carriers shall be provided and used for transportation of knives.
(7) Rag and Old Paper Preparation.
(a) Ripping and trimming
tools.
(A) Hand knives and scissors
shall have blunt points, shall be fastened to the table with chain or thong, and
shall not be carried on the person but placed safely in racks or sheaths when not
in use.
(B) Hand knives and sharpening
steels shall be provided with guards at the junction of the handle and the blade.
Utility knives with blade exposure of 2-1/2 inches or less are exempted from this
requirement.
(b) Shredders, cutters, and
dusters.
(A) Rotating heads or cylinders
shall be completely enclosed except for an opening at the feed side sufficient to
permit only the entry of stock. The enclosure shall extend over the top of the feed
rolls. It shall be constructed either of solid material or with mesh or openings
not exceeding 1/2-inch and substantial enough to contain flying particles and prevent
accidental contact with moving parts. The enclosure shall be bolted or locked into
place.
(B) A smooth-pivoted idler
roll resting on the stock or feed table shall be provided in front of feed rolls
except when arrangements prevent the operator from standing closer than 36 inches
to any part of the feed rolls.
(C) Any manually fed cutter,
shredder, or duster shall be provided with an idler roll as per section (7)(b)(B)
of this rule or the operator shall use special hand-feeding tools.
(D) Hoods of cutters, shredders,
and dusters shall have exhaust ventilation, in accordance with §1910.94, Ventilation,
in Subdivision G.
(c) Blowers.
(A) Blowers used for transporting
rags shall be provided with feed hoppers having outer edges located not less than
48 inches from the fan.
(B) The arrangement of the
blower discharge outlets and work areas shall be such as to prevent material from
falling on workers.
(d) Conveyors. Conveyors
and conveyor drive belts and pulleys shall be fully enclosed or, if open and within
7 feet of the floor, shall be constructed and guarded in accordance with section
(4)(q) of this rule, and Subdivision N, Material Handling and Storage.
(e) Guarding requirements.
(A) Traveling sections of
conveyors and other equipment with wheels which run on rails or guides shall be
guarded by sweep guards, installed in front of the traveling wheels in all areas
where workers may be exposed to contact. Sweep guards shall have not greater than
1/4 inch clearance above the rail or guide.
(B) When using mechanical
equipment to elevate the front end of the chip containers for dumping into a hopper,
the shear area between the floor and the elevated section shall be safeguarded.
(f) Dust. Measures for the
control of dust shall be provided, in accordance with American National Standard
ANSI/NFPA 91-1992 and Subdivision I, Personal Protective Equipment.
(g) Rag cookers.
(A) When cleaning, inspection,
or other work requires that persons enter rag cookers, all steam and water valves,
or other control devices, shall be locked and tagged in the closed or “off”
position. Blank flanging of pipelines is acceptable in place of closed and locked
valves.
(B) When cleaning, inspection,
or other work requires that persons must enter the cooker, one person shall be stationed
outside in a position to observe and assist in case of emergency, in accordance
with section (3)(f) of this rule.
(C) Rag cookers shall be
provided with safety valves in accordance with the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel
Code, Section VIII, Unfired Pressure Vessels – 1992.
(8) Chemical Processes of
Making Pulp.
(a) Industrial kiln guns
and ammunition. Management shall develop written instructions, including safety
procedures, for storing and operating industrial kiln guns and ammunition. All persons
working with this equipment shall be instructed in these procedures and shall follow
them.
(b) Sulfur burners.
(A) Sulfur-burner houses
shall be safely and adequately ventilated, and every precaution shall be taken to
guard against dust explosion hazards and fires, in accordance with American National
Standard Z9.2-1979 (R1991), and NFPA 655-1993.
(B) Nonsparking tools and
equipment shall be used in handling dry sulfur.
(C) Sulfur storage bins shall
be kept free of sulfur dust accumulation, in accordance with American National Standard
ANSI Z9.2-1979 (R1991).
(D) Electric equipment shall
be of the explosion-proof type, in accordance with the requirements of Subdivision
S, Electrical.
(E) Sulfur-melting equipment
shall not be located in the burner room.
(c) Protection for employees
(acid plants).
(A) Gas masks, fitted with
canisters containing absorbents for the particular acids, gases, or mists involved,
shall be provided for employees of the acid department.
(B) Supplied air respirators
shall be strategically located for emergency and rescue use.
(C) During inspection, repairs,
or maintenance of acid towers, the worker shall be provided with eye protection,
a supplied air respirator, a safety belt, and an attached lifeline. The line shall
be extended to an attendant stationed outside the tower opening.
(d) Acid tower structure.
Outside elevators shall be inspected daily during winter months when ice materially
affects safety. Elevators, runways, stairs, etc., for the acid tower shall be inspected
monthly for defects that may occur because of exposure to acid or corrosive gases.
(e) Tanks (acid). Entering
acid tanks shall be in accordance with 437-002-0146 Confined Spaces, in Subdivision
J.
(f) Clothing. Where lime
slaking takes place, employees shall be provided with rubber boots, rubber gloves,
protective aprons, and eye protection. A deluge shower and eye fountain shall be
provided to flush the skin and eyes to counteract lime or acid burns.
(g) Lead burning. When lead
burning is being done within tanks, fresh air shall be forced into the tanks so
that fresh air will reach the face of the worker first and the direction of the
current will never be from the source of the fumes toward the face of the workers.
Supplied air respirators (constant-flow type) shall be provided.
NOTE: (For specifics refer to Subdivision
Q, Welding, Cutting and Brazing; and §1910.1025, Lead, in Subdivision Z.)
(h) Hoops for acid storage tanks. Hoops
of tanks shall be made of rods rather than flat strips and shall be safely maintained
by scheduled inspections.
(i) Quicklime stoppages.
Water shall not be used to unplug quicklime stops or plugs in pipes or confined
spaces.
(j) Digester building exits.
At least one unobstructed exit at each end of the room shall be provided on each
floor of a digester building.
(k) Digester building escape
respirators. Escape respirators shall be available for escape purposes only. These
respirators shall meet the requirements of §1910.134 in Subdivision I, including
the requirement to be inspected at frequent intervals, not to exceed one month.
(l) Elevators.
(A) Elevators shall be constructed
in accordance with American National Standard A17.1-1990.
(B) Elevators shall be equipped
with escape respirators for the maximum number of passengers.
(C) Elevators shall be equipped
with an alarm system to advise of failure.
(m) Blowoff valves and piping.
(A) The blowoff valve of
a digester shall be arranged so as to be operated from another room, remote from
safety valves.
(B) All fasteners used to
secure digester piping shall conform to ANSI/ASME B31.1-1992.
(C) Digester blow valves
shall be pinned or locked in closed position throughout the entire cooking period.
This rule applies only to manually operated valves in batch digestors.
(n) Blow lines.
(A) When blow lines from
more than one digester lead into one pipe, the cock or valve of the blow line from
the tank being inspected or repaired shall be locked and tagged out, or the line
shall be disconnected and blocked off.
(B) Test holes in piping
systems. Test holes in blow lines of piping systems shall not be covered with insulation
or other materials.
(o) Inspection and repair
of tanks. All piping leading to tanks shall be blanked off or valved and locked
in accordance with §1910.147, Lockout/Tagout, in Subdivision J.
(p) Blow pits and blow tanks.
(A) Blow-pit openings shall
be preferably on the side of the pit instead of on top. When located on top, openings
shall be as small as possible and shall be provided with railings, in accordance
with Subdivision D, Walking-Working Surfaces.
(B) Entrance into blow pits
must be done in accordance with 437-002-0146, Subdivision J.
(C) A signaling device shall
be installed in the digester and blow-pit rooms and chip bins to be operated as
a warning before and while digesters are being blown.
(D) Blow-pit hoops shall
be maintained in a safe condition.
(q) Blowing batch digester.
(A) Blowoff valves shall
be opened slowly.
(B) After the digester has
started to be blown, the blowoff valve shall be left open, and the hand plate shall
not be removed until the digester cook signals the blowpit person that the blow
is completed. Whenever it becomes necessary to remove the hand plate to clear stock,
operators shall wear eye protection equipment and protective clothing to guard against
burns from hot stock.
(C) Means shall be provided
whereby the digester cook shall signal the person in the chip bin before starting
to load the digester.
(r) Inspecting and repairing
digester.
(A) Valves controlling lines
leading into a digester shall be locked out and tagged in accordance with §1910.147,
Lockout/Tagout, in Subdivision J.
(B) Sources of energy associated
with a digester shall be isolated in accordance with §1910.147, Lockout/Tagout,
in Subdivision J.
(C) Entry into the digester
shall be in accordance with 437-002-0146 Confined Spaces, in Subdivision J.
(D) The concentration of
lead in the air shall not exceed the limits specified in §1910.1025, Lead,
Subdivision Z.
(E) All employees entering
digesters for inspection or repair work shall be provided with protective headgear.
(F) Eye protection and dust
respirators shall be provided to workers while the old brick lining is being removed,
in accordance with Subdivision I, Personal Protective Equipment.
(G) Sanitary facilities shall
be provided as specified in §1910.141, Sanitation, in Subdivision J.
(s) Pressure tanks-accumulators
(acid).
(A) Safety regulations governing
inspection and repairing of pressure tanks-accumulators (acid) shall be the same
as those specified in section (8)(t) of this rule.
(B) The pressure tanks-accumulators
shall be inspected twice annually and more frequently if required by the manufacturer
or engineer’s recommendations. (Refer to Boiler and Pressure Vessel Safety
Laws of the State Building Codes Division, Department of Consumer and Business Services.)
(t) Pressure vessels (safety
devices).
(A) Each unfired pressure
vessel shall have a pressure relieving device or devices installed and operated
in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII (Unfired Pressure
Vessels – 1992). In the case of batch digesters with safety pressure relieving
devices installed directly to the pressure vessel, means shall be devised to verify
regularly that the safety devices have not become plugged or corroded to the point
of being inoperative.
(B) All safety devices shall
conform to Paragraph U-2 in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section VIII,
Unfired Pressure Vessels – 1992.
(u) Miscellaneous. Insofar
as the processes of the sulfate and soda operations are similar to those of the
sulfite processes, sections (8)(a) through (t) of this rule shall apply.
(A) Quick operating showers,
bubblers, etc., shall be available for emergency use in case of caustic soda burns.
(B) Rotary tenders, smelter
operators, and those cleaning smelt spouts shall be provided with eye protection
equipment (fitted with lenses that filter out the harmful rays emanating from the
light source) when actively engaged in their duties, in accordance with §1910.132,
in Subdivision I.
(C) Piping, valves and fittings
between the digester, blowpit, and blow tanks shall be in accordance with ANSI/ASME
B31.1-1992. These shall be inspected at least semi-annually to determine the degree
of deterioration and repaired or replaced when necessary, in accordance with American
National Standards ANSI/ASME B31.1-1992.
(v) Welding. Welding on blow
tanks, accumulator tanks, or any other vessels where turpentine vapor or other combustible
vapor could gather shall be done only after the vessel has been completely purged
of fumes. Fresh air shall be supplied workers inside of vessels.
NOTE: See Subdivision Q, Welding, Cutting
and Brazing, for additional welding requirements.
(w) Turpentine systems and storage tanks.
Nonsparking tools and ground hose shall be used when pumping out the tank. The tank
shall be surrounded by a berm or moat.
(x) Recovery furnace area.
(A) An audible warning system
shall be installed in kraft and soda base sulfite recovery furnace areas and shall
be activated whenever an emergency exists.
(B) All personnel working
in recovery furnace areas shall be instructed on procedures to be followed when
emergency warning systems are activated.
(C) Emergency warning systems
in the recovery furnace areas shall be kept in proper working condition and shall
be tested or checked weekly.
(D) Workers shall stand to
the side while opening a furnace or boiler firebox door.
(E) Smelt-dissolving tanks
shall be covered and the cover kept closed, except when samples are being taken.
(F) Smelt tanks shall be
provided with vent stacks and explosion doors, in accordance with American National
Standard ANSI/UL 641-1985.
(G) An emergency shutdown
procedure as currently recommended by the boiler manufacturer shall be implemented
and used when an emergency shutdown is required. Both normal and emergency shutdown
procedures shall be posted.
(H) Recovery furnaces and
power boilers are to be constructed, maintained, and serviced as required by the
State Building Codes Division of the Department of Consumer and Business Services.
(I) Open pipes shall not
be used as punch bars if the use would create a hazard.
(J) Furnace room. Exhaust
ventilation shall be provided where niter cake is fed into a rotary furnace and
shall be so designed and maintained as to keep the concentration of hydrogen sulfide
gas below the limits listed in OAR 437-002-0382, Oregon Rules for Air Contaminants,
in Subdivision Z.
(9) Bleaching.
(a) Bleaching containers.
Bleaching containers, such as cells, towers (bleaching engines), etc., except the
Bellmer type, shall be completely covered on the top, with the exception of one
small opening large enough to allow filling but too small to admit a person. Platforms
leading from one engine to another shall have standard guardrails, in accordance
with Subdivision D, Walking-Working Surfaces.
(b) Bleach plant alarm system.
An audible alarm system shall be installed and it shall be activated whenever a
serious leak or break develops in the bleach plant area which creates a health or
fire hazard.
(c) Bleach mixing rooms.
(A) Areas where dry bleach
powder is mixed shall be provided with adequate exhaust ventilation, located at
the floor level, in accordance with ANSI/UL 641-1985.
(B) Respiratory protection
shall be provided for emergency use, in accordance with American National Standards
ANSI/NFPA 1404- 1989, and Z88.2-1980. Respiratory protection must conform to the
requirements of §1910.134 of Subdivision I.
(C) For emergency and rescue
work, self-contained air masks or supplied air equipment shall be provided in accordance
with American National Standards Z88.2-1980. Respiratory protection must conform
to the requirements of §1910.134 of Subdivision I.
(d) Liquid chlorine.
(A) Tanks of liquid chlorine
shall be stored in an adequately ventilated unoccupied room, where their possible
leakage cannot affect workers.
(B) Gas masks capable of
absorbing chlorine shall be supplied, conveniently placed, and regularly inspected,
and workers who may be exposed to chlorine gas shall be instructed in their use.
(C) For emergency and rescue
work, independent self-contained breathing apparatus or supplied air equipment shall
be provided.
(D) At least two exits, remote
from each other, shall be provided for all rooms in which chlorine is stored.
(E) Spur tracks upon which
tank cars containing chlorine and caustic are spotted and connected to pipelines
shall be protected by means of a derail in front of the cars.
(F) All chlorine, caustic,
and acid lines shall be marked for positive identification, in accordance with American
National Standard A13.1-1981 (R 1985).
(e) Handling chlorine dioxide.
(A) Chlorine dioxide generating
and storage facilities shall be placed in areas which are adequately ventilated
and are easily kept clean of wood, paper, pulp, etc., to avoid contamination which
might cause a reaction. This can be accomplished by placing these facilities in
a separate room or in a designated outside space.
(B) Safety showers and/or
jump tanks and eyewash fountains shall be provided for persons working around sodium
chlorate and the other hazardous chemicals involved in this process.
(C) Water hoses for flushing
spills shall be adequate in size and located where needed.
(D) The generating area shall
have signs in accordance with Subdivision J, General Environmental Controls, warning
of the hazard and restricting entrance to authorized personnel only.
(E) Facilities handling sodium
chlorate and chlorine dioxide shall be declared “No Smoking” areas and
shall have signs posted accordingly.
(F) All equipment involved
in the chlorine dioxide process where pressure may be generated shall be provided
with adequate pressure relief devices.
(G) Respiratory protective
equipment approved for use in exposures to chlorine and chlorine dioxide gases shall
be provided.
(H) Management shall be responsible
for developing written instructions including safety procedures for operating and
maintaining the generator and associated equipment. All personnel working on this
equipment shall be thoroughly trained in these procedures and shall follow them.
(I) Only authorized personnel
shall be allowed in close proximity to the chlorine dioxide generating equipment.
(J) When reasonably possible,
the sample station should be located on the outside of the generating room. Goggles
must be worn when taking samples.
(K) Welding or burning shall
not be performed on the generator system while it is operating. Immediately before
maintenance can be performed on the inside of any of this equipment, it shall be
thoroughly flushed with water and purged of hazardous gases.
(L) Chlorine and chlorine
dioxide gas shall be carried away from the work place and breathing area by an exhaust
system. The gas shall be rendered neutral or harmless before being discharged into
the atmosphere. The requirements of American National Standard Z9.2-1979 (R1991)
shall apply to this subdivision.
(f) Handling sodium chlorate.
(A) Workers handling and
working with sodium chlorate shall be thoroughly trained in precautions to be used
in handling and special work habits.
(B) Workers exposed to direct
contact with sodium chlorate shall wear appropriate personal protective equipment.
(C) Facilities for storage
and handling of sodium chlorate shall be constructed so as to eliminate possible
contact of dry or evaporated sodium chlorate with wood or other material which could
cause a fire or explosion.
(D) Chlorine gas shall be
carried away from the work place and breathing area by an exhaust system. The gas
shall be rendered neutral or harmless before being discharged into the atmosphere.
The requirements of American National Standard Z9.2-1979 (R1991) shall apply to
this subdivision.
(E) Sodium chlorate facilities
shall be constructed with a minimum of packing glands, stuffing boxes, etc.
(g) Bagged or drummed chemicals.
Bagged or drummed chemicals require efficient handling to prevent damage and spillage.
Certain oxidizing chemicals used in bleaching pulp and also in some sanitizing work
require added precautions for safety in storage and handling. In storage, these
chemicals shall be isolated from combustible materials and other chemicals with
which they will react such as acids. They shall also be kept dry, clean and uncontaminated.
(10) Mechanical Pulp Process.
(a) Pulp grinders.
(A) Water wheels directly
connected to pulp grinders shall be provided with speed governors limiting the peripheral
speed of the grinder to that recommended by the manufacturer.
(B) Doors of pocket grinders
shall be arranged so as to keep them from closing accidentally.
(b) Butting saws. Hood guards
shall be provided on butting saws, in accordance with American National Standard
ANSI O1.1-1992.
(c) Floors and platforms.
The requirements of section (3)(d) of this rule shall apply.
(d) Personal protection.
Persons exposed to falling material shall wear eye, head, foot, and shin protection
equipment, in accordance with Subdivision I, Personal Protective Equipment.
(11) Stock Preparation.
(a) Pulp shredders.
(A) Cutting heads shall be
completely enclosed except for an opening at the feed side sufficient to permit
only entry of stock. The enclosure shall be bolted or locked in place. The enclosure
shall be of solid material or with mesh or other openings not exceeding 1/2-inch.
(B) Either a slanting feed
table with its outer edge not less than 36 inches from the cutting head or an automatic
feeding device shall be provided.
(C) Repairs for cleaning
of blockage shall be done only when the shredder is shutdown and control devices
locked.
(D) All power-driven mechanisms
shall be guarded in accordance with section (3)(a) of this rule.
(b) Pulp conveyors. Pulp
conveyors and conveyor drive belts and pulleys shall be fully enclosed, or if open
and within 7 feet of the floor, shall be constructed and guarded in accordance with
Subdivision N, Material Handling and Storage, and Subdivision O, Machinery and Machine
Guarding.
(c) Floors, steps, and platforms.
The requirements of section (3)(d) of this rule shall apply.
(d) Beaters.
(A) Beater rolls shall be
provided with covers.
(B) Guardrails 42 inches
high shall be provided around beaters where tub tops are less than 42 inches from
the floor, in accordance with section (3)(d) of this rule and Subdivision D, Walking-Working
Surfaces.
(C) When cleaning, inspecting,
or other work requires that persons enter the beaters, all control devices shall
be locked and tagged out, in accordance with §1910.147, Lockout, in Subdivision
J.
(D) When beaters are fed
from the floor above, the chute opening, if less than 42 inches from the floor,
shall be provided with a complete rail or other enclosure. Openings for manual feeding
shall be sufficient only for entry of stock and shall be provided with at least
two permanently secured crossrails, in accordance with Subdivision D, Walking-Working
Surfaces.
(E) Floors around beaters
shall be provided with sufficient drainage to remove wastes.
(e) Pulpers.
(A) All pulpers having the
top or any other opening of the vessel less than 42 inches from the floor or work
platform shall have such openings guarded by railed or other enclosures. For manual
charging, openings shall be sufficient only to permit the entry of stock and shall
be provided with at least two permanently secured crossrails, in accordance with
§1910.23, Guarding Floor and Wall Openings and Holes, in Subdivision D.
(B) When cleaning, inspecting
or other work requires persons to enter the pulpers it shall be in accordance with
437-002-0146 Confined Spaces, in Subdivision J. All power mechanisms shall be guarded
as required in Subdivision O, Machinery and Machine Guarding.
(C) Cleaning or inspecting
pulpers or other work, including work above the pulper in a dangerous position,
shall be in accordance with §1910.147, Lockout, in Subdivision J.
(D) All power mechanisms
shall be guarded in accordance with Subdivision O, Machinery and Machine Guarding.
(f) Pulping devices. Emergency
stop controls shall be provided at the feed point when pulping devices are fed manually
from the floor above.
(g) Guillotine-type roll
splitters. Rolls shall be centered and in a horizontal position directly below the
guillotine-type blade while being split. No part of the body shall be under the
guillotine-type blade.
(h) Stock chests and tanks.
(A) All control devices shall
be locked when persons enter stock chests, in accordance with §1910.147, Lockout/Tagout,
in Subdivision J.
(B) All power mechanisms
shall be guarded in accordance with Subdivision O, Machinery and Machine Guarding.
(C) When cleaning, inspecting,
or other work requires that persons enter stock chests, they shall be provided with
a low-voltage extension light.
(12) Machine Room.
(a) Controls and safety devices.
(A) Electrically or manually
operated power disconnecting devices for all power-operated equipment shall be provided
within easy reach of the operator while in his or her normal operating position.
If necessary for safety of the operation, the machine shall be so equipped that
retarding or braking action can be applied at the time of or after the source of
power is deactivated.
(B) Pulp and paper machines
shall be equipped with stopping devices. The devices shall be located where they
can be used readily to stop the machines or sections of the machine. Power disconnect
devices and retarding or braking controls provided for in section (12)(a)(A) of
this rule are required for the safe operation of a pulp and paper machine.
(C) Brakes, back stops, antirunaway
devices, overload releases, and other safety devices shall be inspected and tested
frequently to insure that all are operative and maintained in good repair.
(D) An audible alarm shall
be sounded prior to starting up any section of a pulp or paper machine. Sufficient
time shall be allowed between activation of the alarm system and start-up of the
equipment to allow any persons to clear the hazardous area.
(E) In starting up a dryer
section, dryers shall be preheated and steam for heating the drums shall be introduced
slowly, while the drums are revolving.
(F) Employees shall not attempt
to remove a broken carrier rope from a dryer while the section is running at operating
speed.
(G) Employees shall not feed
a stack with any hand-held device which is capable of going through the nip.
(H) Employees shall stop
dryer to remove a wrap except in cases where it can be safely removed by using air
or other safe means.
(I) Special protective gloves
shall be provided and shall be worn by employees when filing or handling sharp-edged
doctor blades.
(J) Employees shall not place
their hands between the sharp edge of an unloaded doctor blade and the roll while
cleaning the doctor blade.
(K) The crane operator shall
ascertain that reels are properly seated at winder stand or at reel arms before
he or she disengages the hooks.
(L) Shaftless winders shall
be provided with a barrier guard of sufficient strength and size to confine the
rolls in the event they become dislodged while running.
(M) Employees shall keep
clear of hazardous areas around the lowerator, especially all lowerator openings
in a floor and where roll is being discharged.
(N) If a powered roll ejector
is used it should be interlocked to prevent accidental actuation until the receiving
platform or roll lowering table is in position to receive the roll.
(O) Provision shall be made
to hold the rider roll when in a raised position unless counter-balancing eliminates
the hazard.
(b) Drives.
(A) All drives, pulleys,
couplings, and shafts on equipment requiring service while operating shall have
standard guards in accordance with section (3)(a) of this rule.
(B) All drives shall be provided
with lockout devices at the power switch which interrupts the flow of current to
the unit.
(C) All ends of rotating
shafts including dryer drum shafts shall be completely guarded.
(D) All accessible disengaged
doctor blades should be covered.
(E) All exposed shafts shall
be guarded. Crossovers shall be provided.
(F) Oil cups and grease fittings
shall be placed in a safe area remote from nip and heat hazards.
(c) Protective equipment.
Face shields, aprons and rubber gloves shall be provided for workers handling acids
in accordance with sections (3)(c) and (5)(a) of this rule.
(d) Walkways. Steps and footwalks
along the fourdrinier and press section shall have nonslip surfacing and be complete
with standard handrails, when practical, in accordance with §1910.23, in Subdivision
D, Walking-Working Surfaces.
(e) Steps. Steps of uniform
rise and tread with nonslip surfaces shall be provided at each press in accordance
with Subdivision D, Walking-Working Surfaces.
(f) Plank walkways. A removable
plank shall be provided along each press, with standard guardrails installed. The
planks shall have nonslip surfaces in accordance with Subdivision D, Walking-Working
Surfaces.
(g) Dryer lubrication. If
a gear bearing must be oiled while the machine is in operation, an automatic oiling
device to protect the oiler shall be provided, or oil cups and grease fittings shall
be placed along the walkways out of reach of hot pipes and dryer gears.
(h) Levers. All levers carrying
weights shall be constructed so that weights will not slip or fall off.
(i) First dryer. Either a
permanent guardrail or apron guard or both shall be installed in front of the first
dryer in each section in accordance with Subdivision O, Machinery and Machine Guarding.
(j) Steam and hot-water pipes.
All exposed steam and hot-water pipes within 7 feet of the floor or working platform
or within 15 inches measured horizontally from stairways, ramps, or fixed ladders
shall be covered with an insulating material, or guarded in such manner as to prevent
contact.
(k) Dryer gears. Dryer gears
shall be guarded except where the oilers’ walkway is removed out of reach
of the gears’ nips and spokes and hot pipes in accordance with Subdivision
O, Machinery and Machine Guarding.
(l) Broke hole.
(A) A guardrail shall be
provided at broke holes in accordance with Subdivision D, Walking-Working Surfaces.
(B) Where pulpers are located
directly below the broke hole on a paper machine and where the broke hole opening
is large enough to permit a worker to fall through, any employee pushing broke down
the hole shall wear a safety belt and lanyard. The lanyard shall be fastened in
such a manner that it is impossible for the person to fall into the pulper.
(C) An alarm bell or a flashing
light shall be actuated before dropping material through the broke hole.
(m) Feeder belt. A feeder
belt or other effective device shall be provided for starting paper through the
calender stack.
(n) Steps. Steps or ladders
of uniform rise and tread with nonslip surfaces shall be provided at each calender
stack. Handrails and hand grips shall be provided at each calender stack in accordance
with Subdivision D, Walking-Working Surfaces.
(o) Grounding. All calender
stacks and spreader bars shall be grounded in accordance with Subdivision S, Electrical,
as protection against shock induced by static electricity.
(p) Sole plates. All exposed
sole plates between dryers, calenders, reels, and rewinders shall have a nonskid
surface.
(q) Nip points. The hazard
of the nip points on all calender rolls shall be eliminated or mini- mized by means
of an effective barrier device, or by feeding the paper into the rolls by means
of a rope carrier, air jets, or hand feeding devices.
(r) Scrapers. Alloy steel
scrapers with pullthrough blades approximately 3 by 5 inches in size shall be used
to remove “scabs” from calender rolls.
(s) Illumination. Permanent
lighting shall be installed in all areas where employees are required to make machine
adjustments and sheet transfers in accordance with American National Standard ANSI/IES
RP-1990.
(t) Control panels. All control
panel handles and buttons shall be protected from accidental contact.
(u) Lifting reels.
(A) The reels shall stop
rotating before being lifted from bearings.
(B) All lifting equipment
(clamps, cables, and slings) shall be maintained in a safe condition and inspected
regularly.
(C) Reel shafts with square
block ends shall be guarded.
(v) Feeder belts. Feeder
belts, carrier ropes, air carriage, or other equally effective means shall be provided
for starting paper into the nip or drum-type reels.
(w) In-running nip.
(A) Where the nipping points
of all drum winders and rewinders is on the operator’s side, it shall be guarded
by barrier guards interlocked with the drive mechanism.
(B) A zero speed switch or
locking device shall be installed to prevent the guard from being raised, lowered,
or removed while the roll is turning.
(x) Core collars. Set screws
for securing core collars to winding and unwinding shafts shall not protrude above
the face of the collar. All edges of the collar with which an operator’s hand
comes in contact shall be beveled to remove all sharp corners.
(y) Slitter knives. Slitter
knives shall be guarded so as to prevent accidental contact. Carriers shall be provided
and used for transportation of slitter knives.
(z) Winder shaft. The winder
shall have a guide rail to align the shaft for easy entrance into the opened rewind
shaft bearing housings.
(aa) Handling rolls, winders
and core shafts. Mechanical handling equipment shall be provided for handling rolls,
winder shafts, and core shafts that are too heavy for safe manual handling based
on the NIOSH Work Practice Guide for Manual Lifting – 1981.
(bb) Winder area. A nonskid
surface shall be provided in front of the winder to prevent accidental slipping.
(cc) Radiation. Special standards
regarding the use of radiation equipment shall be posted and followed as required
by §1910.1096, Ionizing Radiation, in Subdivision Z.
(13) Finishing Room.
(a) Cleaning rolls. Rolls
shall be cleaned only on the outrunning side.
(b) Emergency stops. Electrically
or manually operated quick power disconnecting devices, interlocked with braking
action, shall be provided on all operating sides of the machine within easy reach
of all employees. These devices shall be tested by making use of them when stopping
the machine.
(c) Core collars. The requirements
of section (12)(x) of this rule, and the requirements in Subdivision O, Machinery
and Machine Guarding, shall apply.
(d) Elevators. These shall
be in accordance with American National Standard ANSI/ASME A17.1-1990.
(e) Control panels. The requirements
of section (12)(t) of this rule shall apply.
(f) Guillotine-type cutters.
(A) Each guillotine-type
cutter shall be equipped with a control which requires the operator and helper,
if any, to use both hands to engage the clutch when operated from within reach of
blade.
(B) Each guillotine-type
cutter shall be equipped with a nonrepeat device.
(C) Carriers shall be provided
and used for transportation of guillotine-type cutter knives.
(g) Rotary cutter.
(A) On single-knife machines
a guard shall be provided at a point of contact to the knife.
(B) On duplex cutters the
protection required for single-knife machines shall be provided for the first knife,
and a hood shall be provided for the second knife.
(C) Safe access shall be
provided to the knives of a rotary cutter by means of catwalks with nonslip surfaces,
railings, and toeboards in accordance with Subdivision D, Walking-Working Surfaces.
(D) A guard shall be provided
for the spreader or squeeze roll at the nip side on sheet cutters.
(E) Electrically or manually
operated quick power disconnecting devices with adequate braking action shall be
provided on all operating sides of the machine within easy reach of all operators.
(F) The outside slitters
shall be guarded.
(h) Platers.
(A) A guard shall be arranged
across the face of the rolls to serve as a warning that the operator’s hand
is approaching the danger zone.
(B) A quick power disconnecting
device shall be installed on each machine within easy reach of the operator.
(i) Finishing room rewinders.
(A) The nipping points of
all drum winders and rewinders located on the operator’s side shall be guarded
by either automatic or manually operated barrier guards of sufficient height to
protect fully anyone working around them. The barrier guard shall be interlocked
with the drive mechanism to prevent operating above jog speed without the guard
in place. A zero speed switch should be installed to prevent the guard from being
raised while the roll is turning.
(B) A nonskid surface shall
be provided in front of the rewinder to prevent an employee from slipping in accordance
with section (3)(d) of this rule.
(C) Mechanical lifting devices
shall be provided for placing and removing rolls from the machine.
(j) Control panels. The requirements
of section (12)(t) of this rule shall apply.
(k) Roll-type embosser. The
nipping point located on the operator’s side shall be guarded by either automatic
or manually operated barrier guards interlocked with the drive.
(l) Converting machines.
(A) When using a crane or
hoist to place rolls into a backstand and the operator cannot see both ends of the
backstand, appropriate means will be implemented to eliminate hazards involved.
The operator shall ascertain that rolls are properly seated at winder stand or at
roll arms before he or she disengages the hooks.
(B) All power closing sections
shall be equipped with an audible warning system which will be activated when closing
the sections.
(C) Slitters, slotters, and
scorers not in use shall be properly stored so as not to create a hazard.
(D) Mechanical handling equipment
shall be provided for handling rolls or devices that are too heavy for safe manual
handling based on the NIOSH Work Practice Guide for Manual Lifting – 1981.
(E) Sheer and pinch points.
Sheer and pinch points at the feed mechanism shall be color-coded orange and/or
identified by signs in accordance with Subdivision J, General Environmental Controls.
(m) Sorting and counting
tables.
(A) Tables shall be smooth
and free from splinters, with edges and corners rounded.
(B) Paddles shall be smooth
and free from splinters.
(n) Roll splitters. The nip
point and cutter knife shall be guarded by either automatic or manually operated
barrier guards.
(o) Corrugators.
(A) Rails of rail-mounted
devices such as roll stands shall be flush with the adjacent floor, and so installed
to provide a minimum of 18 inches clearance between the equipment and walls or other
fixed objects.
(B) All corrugating and pressure
rolls shall be equipped with appropriately designed and installed threading guides
so as to prevent contact with the infeed nip of the various rolls by the operator.
(C) Lower elevating conveyor
belt rolls on the single facer bridge shall have a minimum nip clearance of 4 inches.
(D) Web shears at the discharge
end of the double facer shall be equipped with barrier-type guards.
(E) Slitter stations not
in use shall be disconnected from the power source by positive means.
(F) The adhesive system shall
be so designed and installed as to keep fumes and airborne dust within limits in
accordance with OAR 437-002-0382, Oregon Rules for Air Contaminants, in Subdivision
Z.
(14) Materials Handling.
(a) Hand trucks. No person
shall be permitted to ride on a powered hand truck unless it is so designed by the
manufacturer. A limit switch shall be on operating handle – 30° each
way from a 45° angle up and down.
(b) Power trucks. Power trucks
shall comply with Subdivision N, Material Handling and Storage. Adequate ventilation
shall be provided and the trucks properly maintained, so that dangerous concentrations
of carbon monoxide cannot be generated, especially in warehouses or other isolated
areas of a plant.
(c) Carton-stitching machine.
The carton-stitching machine shall be guarded to prevent the operator from coming
in contact with the stitching head.
(d) Banding of skids, cartons,
cases, etc. Banders and helpers shall wear eye protection equipment in accordance
with section (3)(c) of this rule.
(e) Unloading cars or trucks.
(A) Loading and unloading
materials. Platforms with ladders or stairways shall be installed or alternative
methods made available when needed so that workers may safely gain access to and
perform work on the top of rail cars or trucks when ladders are not installed on
such equipment.
(B) Where steel bands or
wires are used in boxcars or trucks, all loaders and helpers shall wear eye protection
in accordance with Subdivision I, Personal Protective Equipment.
(C) The construction and
use of bridge or dock plates shall conform to the requirements of American National
Standard B56.1-1988.
(D) Flag signals, derails,
or other protective devices shall be used to protect workers during switching operations.
The blue flag policy shall be invoked according to section (4)(j) of this rule.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 7-1994, f. &
cert. ef. 11-4-94; OSHA 3-1998, f. & cert. ef. 7-7-98; OSHA 2-2001, f. &
cert. ef. 2-5-01; OSHA 1-2012, f. & cert .ef. 4-10-12; OSHA 6-2012, f. 9-28-12,
cert. ef. 4-1-13; OSHA 7-2013, f. & cert. ef. 12-12-13
437-002-0313
Additional Oregon Rules for Sawmills
(1) Application. This section includes safety requirements for sawmill operations including, but not limited to, log and lumber handling, sawing, trimming, and planing; waste disposal; operation of dry kilns; finishing; shipping; storage; yard and yard equipment; and for power tools and affiliated equipment used in connection with such operations.
(2) Conveyors. Feed conveyors for chippers, hogs, burners, and other dangerous machines shall be fully guarded to prevent workers from falling into the conveyor. Where a part of the guard must be omitted to permit workers to feed the conveyor, they shall be provided with and shall wear a safety belt and lanyard tied off to a life line.
(3) Unloading Equipment:
(a) The tile and overarm grapple of all hydraulically operated log handling machines shall be equipped with a means for preventing the release of the tilt and/or grapple devices in case of a failure in the hydraulic system;
(b) A-frames and similar log unloading devices shall be guyed and braced to provide stability and prevent tipping.
NOTE: Pond Boats. Small pond boats which are not designed to transport more than one person are exempt from the life-ring requirement.
(4) Transfers and Tracks:
(a) Guardrails and handrails shall be installed on and about transfers and transfer tracks wherever necessary for the safety or workers;
(b) Cars shall not be moved while workers are in the bight of tow lines;
(c) Tracks shall be clear of obstructions before rail cars are moved.
(5) Green Chains and Sorting Tables:
(a) Green chains and similar equipment shall be provided with a stopping device which is readily accessible to one or more persons working on the chain;
(b) A toe board not less than six inches in height of nominal two by six inch material shall be installed on the vertical face of all green chain and sorting tables;
(c) The flow of lumber or other materials on sorting tables and green chain shall be regulated as evenly as possible.
(d) Rollers or other devices shall be provided for removing heavy material from the chain or table.
(e) Workers shall not cross over operating conveyors, rolls, or belts unless elevated cross-overs are provided for this purpose.
(6) Transfer Rolls:
(a) Power driven rolls shall be operated in a manner to prevent end collisions;
(b) The space between live rolls, for a distance of at least one roll on either side of cross-overs or walkways, shall be filled in with substantial material;
(c) Live roll sprockets, chains, gears and drive shafts shall be guarded wherever exposed to contact;
(d) Live rolls shall be replaced when a hole (sufficient to impair its strength, or catch clothing) has developed.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & ORS 656.726(3)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - ORS 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 7-1993, f. 6-8-93, cert. ef. 8-1-93; OSHA 3-1996, f. & cert. ef. 7-22-96
437-002-0314
Veneer and Plywood Machinery
NOTE: 1910.265(c) and (d) also apply to Veneer and Plywood Machinery. (See OAR 437-002-0313(1).
(1) Purpose. The purpose of this rule is to prescribe minimum requirements for veneer and plywood operations.
(2) Veneer Lathe:
(a) A mechanical lock shall be provided to prevent the back-up roll from closing until activated by the operator;
(b) A guard or positive interlock and necessary hydraulic or air controls shall be provided to prevent forward movement of the charger, if such movement may be hazardous;
(c) Positive means shall be provided to hold the head in the open position while servicing the knife;
(d) A protective device for the knife edge shall be provided for use when transporting the knife;
(e) Where there is a hazard from "exploding" logs, both lathe operator's and charger operator's stations shall be protected against flying slabs and chips;
(f) Means shall be provided in the knife grinding area to drain cleaning or cooling liquids from the work station;
(g) Knives and other cutting equipment shall be stored in planned storage areas;
(h) The area under the elevating ramp (tipple) from the lathe to the stock trays shall be guarded to prevent entrance while the lathe is in operation.
(3) Veneer Slicer. The veneer slicer knife shall be guarded at front and rear to prevent accidental contact with the knife edge.
(4) Veneer Clipper:
(a) Clippers shall be provided with a guard on both in-feed and out-feed sides to protect the employees;
(b) Each operating treadle for veneer clippers shall be covered by a device which is adequate to avoid accidental activation or tripping.
(5) Veneer Cutter:
(a) Power-driven guillotine veneer cutters (except continuous feed trimmers) shall be equipped with the following:
(A) A starting device which requires the simultaneous action of both hands to start the cutting motion, and at least one hand on a control during the complete stroke of the knife; or
(B) An automatic device which will remove the hands of the operator from the danger zone at every descent of the blade used in conjunction with one-hand starting devices which require two distinct movements of the device to start the cutting motion.
(b) All power-driven veneer cutters shall be so designed that the knife positively returns to the starting position after each complete cycle of the knife;
(c) Where two or more workers are employed at the same time on the same power-driven guillotine veneer cutter equipped with two-hand control, the device shall be so arranged that each worker shall be required to use both hands simultaneously on the controls to start the cutting motion, and at least one hand on a control to complete the cut.
NOTE: The controls should be of a type that cannot be defeated by tying down one of them.
(d) In addition to the brake or other stopping mechanism, a nonrepeat device shall be provided which will prevent the machine from operating in the event of a mechanical failure;
(e) Where no other device serves as protection, a guard running the length of the knife shall be installed on the in-feed side;
(f) A protective device, such as side shields, shall be provided on the out-feed side;
(g) A protective device for the knife edge shall be provided for use when transporting the knife;
(h) Positive means of opening and locking the control circuit and supporting the mechanism in the "up" position shall be provided for use during knife changes;
(i) When the hold-down clamp and knife are in their uppermost positions, the knife edge shall not extend below the lower edge of the hold-down clamp.
(6) Tray System:
(a) The tray system shall be equipped with controls at each end so that the system cannot be operated unless both switches are in the "on" position;
(b) A walkway shall be constructed the entire length of the trays so that the top tray can be reached in the event of a "plug-up" without having to climb up the frames.
(7) Veneer Dryer:
(a) A standard stairway and catwalk across the tray lines shall be constructed to provide safe access in the event of a "plug-up" and dryer feed controls, including a positive lock out, shall be provided at the feeders' station;
(b) Steam lines outside the dryer which may be contacted by personnel shall be insulated or enclosed;
(c) Suitable gloves and aprons shall be worn by workers off-bearing veneer from chain or table;
(d) Where a band saw is used to trim panel core, it shall be guarded in accordance with 1910.265(e)(2)(ii)(c).
(8) Hot Press or Veneer Press:
(a) Steam lines which may be contacted by personnel shall be insulated or enclosed;
(b) Standard guard rails shall be provided on the ends of loading and unloading elevators or hoist platforms or both. (See OAR Chapter 437, Division 2/D, 1910.23(e)(1));
(c) Hot-press hoists shall be provided with a braking and holding mechanism which will operate automatically in case of failure of lifting chains or cables;
(d) On a hot-press equipped with an automatic charger, an electrically interlocked gate or chain shall be provided across the opening between the charger and the press which, when opened, will open the circuit to prevent the charger from moving;
(e) Where two workers are employed in loading the press, closing control devices shall be provided within reach of each work station, so interconnected as to require activation of both controls to operate the press, and a quick opening device shall be provided at each station on the press hoist platform;
(f) Floor openings on non-working sides of press and pit shall be protected with standard guard rails. (See OAR Chapter 437, Division 2/D 1910.23(a)(8));
(g) Means shall be provided for safe access into the press pit, the top of the press, and each side, and a positive means of blocking up the hoist platform.
(9) Stripsaw and Patch Machine:
(a) An anti-kickback device and hood guard shall be provided on the veneer stripsaw;
(b) The patch machine shall be guarded to prevent operator's hands from entering the punch area, and the foot treadle shall be guarded.
(10) Veneer Chipper and Hogs:
(a) The top feed roll shall be equipped with a guard and a shield or panel shall be provided on the operator's side to prevent operator from reaching the roll;
(b) Chippers and hogs shall be guarded in accordance with 1910.265(c)(20)(i) through (c)(21)(ii)(c). Feed conveyors to chippers and hogs shall be guarded in accordance with OAR 437-002-0313(1).
(11) Electronic Laminating Press and Edge Gluer:
(a) Interlocked gates shall be provided on in-feed and out-feed sides of batch-type presses which are interlocked to prevent power being activated until gates are completely lowered;
(b) Shielding shall be provided to protect against harmful exposure to radiation that may be emitted;
(c) All screens and filters shall be equipped with interlocks which will shut off all power in the event they are removed.
(12) Edge Gluer Jointer:
(a) A barrier shall be installed at the end of the travel of the head to prevent flying splinters from injuring personnel;
(b) A gate shall be installed to prevent access between the edge gluer jointer and the grasshopper, so arranged that when the gate is opened, all electricity, air, and hydraulic lines will be shut off and the cylinders bled;
(c) A device should be positioned across the front of the in-feed nip point, so arranged as to shut off the equipment if contact is made with it.
(13) Wide Belt Sanders. Wide-belt sanders shall be equipped with non-kickback fingers and a barrier at the in-feed side adjusted to prevent more than one panel entering the sander at a time.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & ORS 656.726(3)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - ORS 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 7-1993, f. 6-8-93, cert. ef. 8-1-93
437-002-0315
Shake and Shingle Machinery
NOTE: 1910.265(c) and (d) also apply to Shake and Shingle Machinery. (See OAR 437-002-0313(1).)
(1) Purpose. The purpose of this rule is to prescribe minimum requirements for shake and shingle manufacturing operations.
(2) Definitions applicable to shake and shingle machinery:
(a) "Blocks" shall mean those sections of a log cut in various lengths;
(b) "Blocks" and "Bolts" may be considered to be synonymous;
(c) "Clipper Saw" shall mean a circular saw used to trim manufactured shingles;
(d) "Groover" shall mean a cylinder-type knife (knives) similar to a planer knife (knives), used to cut grooves into the face surface on the side edge of shakes or shingles;
(f) "Johnson Bar" shall mean a shaft used to control the feed of the carriage;
(g) "Knee Bolter Circular Saw" shall mean a stationary circular saw used to trim and debark blocks (the blocks are manually maneuvered onto a carriage and fed into a saw);
(h) "Log Haul" shall mean a power conveyor used to move logs into position to cut into blocks;
(i) "Packers" shall mean employees who pack the manufactured shakes or shingles into bundles;
(j) "Pantograph Power Splitter" shall mean a hydraulically operated wedge, manually positioned into place, used to split blocks;
(k) "Power Saw Splitter" shall mean a stationary circular saw used to split (saw) blocks, (the blocks are manually maneuvered onto a carriage and fed into the saw);
(l) "Set Works" shall mean a component of the shingle machine, located on the machine frame, used to control the thickness of each shingle being manufactured;
(m) "Shake Machine" shall mean a band saw used to cut shake blanks into manufactured shakes;
(n) "Shake Splitter" shall mean a stationary hydraulically operated wedge, manually controlled, used to split shake blocks into shake blanks;
(o) "Shim Saw" shall mean a circular saw used to re-cut manufactured shingles into narrow widths;
(p) "Shingle Machine" shall mean a machine used to manufacture shingles; composed of a feed, set works, and carriage system, all functioning in relation to a circular saw;
(q) "Shingle Saw" shall mean a circular saw used to cut shingles from blocks;
(r) "Spault" shall mean the first and last section(s) of block as it is cut into shingles;
(s) "Spault Catcher" shall mean a device located on the shingle machine next to the solid feed rolls, used to hold the last section of each block being cut (called a spault), in place;
(t) "Track or Swing Cut Off Saw" shall mean a circular saw used to cut blocks from a log.
(3) Track or Swing Cut Off Circular Saw:
(a) A power operated track or swing cut off circular saw shall have controls so arranged that operators are not positioned directly in front of the saw while making a cut;
(b) All track or swing cut off circular saws shall be completely encased or guarded when the saw is in the retract position, except for that portion of the guard that must be left open for the operation of the saw;
(c) Track or swing cut off circular saw guards shall be constructed of sheet metal not less than 1/8-inch thick, or a wood guard of not less than nominal two-inch thick wood material, or equivalent;
NOTE: Hinged or removable doors or gates will be permitted where necessary to permit adjusting and oiling.
(d) The driving belts on the track or swing cut off circular saw shall be guarded;
(e) A safety catch shall be provided to prevent the track cut off saw from leaving the track.
(4) Overhead Deck Splitter -- Pantograph:
(a) Pantograph splitters shall have a shroud incorporated on the upper pressure plate to eliminate the possibility of the splitter moving from the operating are. This shroud shall be constructed of substantial design with a minimum width of three inches and a minimum thickness of 3/8-inch;
(b) Mechanically operated overhead splitters shall have handles moving opposite the stroke of the piston;
(c) When the leading edge of the pantograph splitter is completely extended, the minimum clearance from the deck to the splitting edge shall be two inches.
(5) Power Splitter Saw. Power splitters shall have spreaders behind the saw to prevent materials from squeezing the saw or being thrown back on the operator. The top of the saw shall be completely covered.
(6) Knee Bolter Circular Saw:
(a) A safety catch shall be provided to prevent the bolter carriage from leaving the track;
(b) Bolter saws shall be provided with a canopy guard of sheet metal not less than 1/8-inch thick, or cast iron guard not less than 3/16-inch thick or a wood guard of not less than nominal two-inch thick wood material or equivalent:
(A) Such guard shall completely enclose the rear portion of the saw;
(B) It shall be so arranged and adjusted as to cover the front of the saw; not to exceed 20 inches from the top of the carriage to the bottom of the guard on 16-inch and 18-inch blocks and 26 inches on 24-inch blocks, or the material being cut.
(c) Knee bolter saws shall be provided with wipers of belting or other suitable material. These wipers shall be installed on both sides of the saw in such a manner as to deflect knots, chips, slivers, etc., that are carried by the saw;
(d) A positive device shall be provided and used to manually lock and hold the feed table of knee bolter saws in the neutral position when not in use;
(e) That portion of all saws which is below and behind the saw table shall be effectively guarded by the exhaust hood of other device;
(f) Hinged or removable doors or gates will be permitted where necessary to permit adjusting and oiling.
(7) Shake Machinery:
(a) Shake Splitters:
(A) A positive de-energizing device shall be provided within ready reach of each shake splitter operator;
(B) Each shake splitter shall be provided with an adjustable stroke limiter to eliminate the splitting blade from striking the table;
(C) All splitters shall have a minimum clearance of four inches, from the splitting edge to the table surface, when the splitter is in the extended position;
(D) All splitter tables shall have a friction surface to reduce kick out of the material being split;
(E) Shake splitters shall not be operated at a speed that would cause chunks to be thrown in such a manner as to create a hazard to the operator;
(F) The use of foot pedal (treadle) mechanisms shall be provided with protection to prevent unintended operation from falling or moving objects or by accidental stepping onto the pedal:
(i) The pedal shall have a nonslip surface;
(ii) The pedal return spring shall be of the compression type, operating on a rod or guided within a hole or tube, or designed to prevent interleaving of spring coils in event of breakage;
(iii) If pedal counterweights are provided, the path of the travel of the weight shall be enclosed.
(b) Shake Saw Guards:
(A) Every shake band saw shall be equipped with a saw guard on both sides of the blade down to the top side of the guide;
(B) The outside saw guard shall extend a minimum of 3-1/2 inches below the bottom edge of the saw guide;
(C) The maximum opening between the saw guide and table rolls shall be 15 inches.
(c) Shake Saw Band Wheel Guards:
(A) The band wheels on all shake band saws shall be completely encased or guarded on both sides;
(B) The guards shall be constructed of not less than No. 14 U.S. gauge metal or material equal in strength;
(C) The metal doors, on such guards, shall have a wood liner of a minimum thickness of 1/2 inch.
(d) Shake Saw Band Wheels Speed and Maintenance:
(A) No band wheel shall be run at a peripheral speed in excess of that recommended by the manufacturer;
(B) Each band wheel shall be carefully inspected at least once a month by management;
(C) Any band wheel in which a crack is found in the rim or in a spoke shall be immediately discontinued from service until properly repaired;
(D) Each band saw frame shall be provided with a tension indicator.
(8) Upright Shingle Machine:
(a) Upright Shingle Saw Guards:
(A) Every shingle machine carriage shall be equipped with a hand guard which:
(i) Projects at least one inch beyond the cutting edge of the saw;
(ii) Shall be located not more than 1/2-inch from the side of the saw blade.
(B) Shingle saw guards shall have a rim guard so designed and installed as to prevent chips and knots from flying from the saws. Such guards shall cover the edge of the saw to at least the depth of the teeth, except such part of the cutting edge as is essential for sawing the material;
(C) Saws, arbors, and couplings shall be guarded;
(D) Every part of a clipper saw, except that part which is exposed to trim shingles, shall be enclosed by a guard, so designed and installed to prevent contact with the clipper saw. An additional guard shall be installed not more than four inches above the clipper board and not more than 1/2-inch from the vertical plane of the saw;
(E) The underside of clipper saw boards shall be equipped with a substantial finger guard to effectively protect the operator's fingers. The guard shall be a minimum of five inches long and 1-1/4 inches deep.
(b) Upright Carriage Guards:
(A) Automatic revolving cam set works and rocker arms, on machine frame, shall be guarded where exposed to contact;
(B) The spault catchers shall be not less than 3/16-inch thick and kept sharp at all times. Missing teeth shall be replaced.
(c) Carriage Feed Works:
(A) The pinion gear, bull wheel and Johnson bar operating the same carriage, shall be guarded where exposed to contact;
(B) Each shingle machine clutch treadle shall be arranged so that it is necessary to manually operate the treadle to start the machine:
(i) The use of devices to permit the automatic starting of the machine when the jaw treadle is released is prohibited;
(ii) The carriage shall have a brake to hold it in a neutral position.
(C) Carriage speed shall not exceed 34 strokes per minute.
(9) Related Shake and Shingle Sawing Machinery:
(a) Flat or Taper Saw. A wood or metal guard or its equivalent shall be secured to the sliding table at the side nearest the sawyer to protect him/her from contact with the cutting edge of the saw when a block is not in the cut;
(b) Hip and Ridge Saws:
(A) The hip and ridge saws shall be guarded with a hood-like device;
(B) This guard shall cover that portion of the saw not needed to cut the material, located above the cutting table;
(C) The remaining portion of the saw, located below the table, shall be effectively guarded.
NOTE: The above subsection is applicable to both shake and shingle hip and ridge saws.
(c) Shim Stock Saws. The top ends and sides of the shim stock saws shall be guarded;
(d) Shake or Shingle Groover. The top ends and sides of the groover, to include the press rolls, shall be guarded;
(e) Mechanical Power Transmission Machinery. All mechanical power transmission equipment shall be guarded in accordance with the requirements of Division 2, Subdivision O, Machinery and Machine Guarding.
(10) Circular Saws, Speeds, and Repairs:
(a) Maximum Allowable Speeds:
(A) No circular saw shall be run at a speed in excess of that recommended by the manufacturer;
(B) The manufacturer's recommended speed shall be etched or otherwise permanently marked on the blade, and that speed shall not be exceeded.
(b) Repairs and Reconditioning:
(A) Shingle saws when reduced in size to less than 40 inches in diameter shall be discontinued from service as shingle saws on upright or vertical machines;
(B) Shingle saws may be reconditioned for use as clipper saws, provided the surfaces are reground and the proper balance attained;
(C) Shingle saws may be used to no less than 36 inches on flat or taper saw machines.
(c) Operations:
(A) Workers shall not leave shingle machines unattended while the carriage is in motion:
(i) Chunks may be placed horizontally one tier high on top of shingle blocks;
(ii) Shingle blocks shall be piled in a stable manner, not more than 72 inches high, within the immediate working area of the shingle sawyer or the area shall be barricaded.
(B) Provisions shall be made to prevent blocks from falling into the packing area;
(C) On each machine operated by electric motors, positive means shall be provided for rendering such controls or devices inoperative while repairs or adjustments are being made to the machines they control;
(D) Workers shall not stand on top of blocks while in the process of splitting such blocks into bolts.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & ORS 656.726(3)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - ORS 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 7-1993, f. 6-8-93, cert. ef. 8-1-93
NOTE: Federal rule 1910.268(a)(1), was NOT adopted by OR-OSHA. Instead, OAR 437-002-0316(1) applies:
437-002-0316
Oregon Rules for Telecommunications
(1) Application. This division sets forth safety and health standards that apply to the work conditions, practices, means, methods, operations, installations, and processes performed at telephone, TV cable, and other signaling equipment centers and installations, and at field installations used to transmit or control communication or other signals of the service supplier and may be located outdoors or in building spaces used for such field installations. "Center" work includes the installation, operation, maintenance, rearrangement, and removal of communications equipment and other associated equipment in telecommunications switching centers. "Field" work includes the installation, operation, maintenance, rearrangement, and removal of conductors and other equipment used for signal or communication service, and of their supporting or containing structures, overhead or underground on public or private rights of way, including buildings or other structures.
(2) Employee protection in public work areas.
(a) Before work is begun in the vicinity of vehicular or pedestrian traffic which may endanger employees, pedestrian and traffic control devices shall be provided for all operations on or adjacent to streets, alleys and walkways. The traffic control shall conform to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) D6.1e-1989 Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices for Streets and Highways and the Oregon Department of Transportation's Short Term Work Zones Manual. Where further protection is needed, barriers shall be utilized. At night, warning lights shall be prominently displayed, and excavated areas shall be enclosed with protective barricades.
(b) Once a work area has been established, it shall be the employer's responsibility to provide adequate supervision and periodic surveillance to assure that the above requirements are met.
(3) Before work is performed on overhead lines, underground (such as in manholes), or in buried plants, the employer or designated representative shall make a complete evaluation of the work location to determine if a hazard exists or could be created in the performance of the work. The employer or designated representative shall determine from this evaluation, a safe procedure for performing the work and those means or methods shall be implemented before the work proceeds. Examples of possible worksite conditions that may be hazardous include, but are not limited to:
(a) Manhole, pit, and pole locations, street intersections, alleys and isolated areas;
(b) Weather and road conditions (such as ice, snow, and rain);
(c) Visibility;
(d) Time of day;
(e) Manhole atmosphere conditions (such as explosive gases, exhaust fumes, and oxygen deficiency);
(f) Jointly occupied manholes with foreign utilities; and
(g) Power hazards.
(4) All equipment, tools, and safety devices shall be installed, used and operated in accordance with the manufacturer's recommendations and operating instructions and its listing or labeling.
(5) Rubber insulating equipment.
(a) Rubber insulating equipment designed for the voltage levels to be encountered shall be provided and the employer shall ensure that they are used by employees as required by OAR 437, Division 2/R, 1910.268, Telecommunications.
(b) Rubber insulating equipment shall meet the electrical and physical requirements contained in ASTM Standard D-120-87, "Standard Specifications for Rubber Insulating Gloves," and ASTM Standard D 1048-88(a), "Standard Specifications for Rubber Insulating Blankets," with the exception that:
(A) The maximum proof test current for a 14-inch Class I glove shall be no more than 14 mA; and with the further exception that:
(B) Existing 14-inch Class I rubber gloves that meet a maximum proof test current of 16 mA and a minimum breakdown voltage of 17,000 volts (RMS) acquired prior to July 1, 1975 may be used as long as these gloves comply with the retest requirements of paragraph (f)(5) of 1910.268.
(c) Patching rubber goods is prohibited; rubber protective equipment shall not be vulcanized or patched.
(d) Rubber gloves for workers. A pair of approved rubber gloves and bag shall be assigned to each worker when workers are required to work on or be exposed to energized parts.
(6) Equipment.
(a) Ladder hooks. When ladder hooks are engaged the safety straps shall be lashed around the top rung and strand or otherwise secured to the strand.
(b) Chain saw usage.
(A) Chain saws shall be inspected prior to use and kept in good repair at all times. Saws with defective parts shall not be used.
(B) Chain saw engines shall be shut off while being fueled.
(C) Chain saws shall be equipped with an automatic throttle control which will return the engine to idling speed upon release of the throttle.
(D) All employees using chain saws shall wear flexible ballistic nylon pads or other equivalent protection sewn or otherwise fastened to the trousers, which will protect the legs from the thigh to below the knee, except when working from an aerial lift device.
(E) Chain saws shall not be brought into a bucket or work platform of an aerial lift device. Saws shall be carried on the outside of the aerial lift device. Chain saws shall be started and used only outside of the aerial lift device.
(7) Training. The employer shall see that employees who operate derricks and cranes are properly trained as required in OAR 437, Division 2/N, OAR 437-002-0229(2), Crane Operator Training Requirements.
(8) Handling poles near energized power conductors.
(a) Insulating gloves shall be worn when handling the pole with either hands or tools, when there exists a possibility that the pole may contact a power conductor. Where the voltage to the ground of the power conductor exceeds 15kV to ground, Class II gloves (as defined in ASTM D1048-88a shall be used. For voltages not exceeding 15kV to ground, insulating gloves shall have a breakdown voltage of at least 17kV.
(b) The guard or insulating material used to protect the pole shall meet the appropriate 3 minute proof test voltage requirements contained in ASTM D 1048-88a.
(9) Fiber optic/lightwave transmission.
(a) Only qualified employees shall install, service, maintain or use lightwave test equipment.
(b) Employees shall avoid eye exposure to emissions from unterminated energized optical connectors.
(c) Employees shall not look into vacant regenerator slots with an optical instrument.
(d) Employees should not examine or look into broken, severed, or disconnected fiber optic cables.
(e) Lightwave emissions may only be viewed with an indirect image converting device.
(f) Microscopes, magnifying glasses and eye loupes shall not be used to examine energized fiber optic cables.
(g) Lightguide terminals must be tagged "Do Not Energize" when splicing technicians are restoring a damaged system.
(10) Reserved.
(11) Additional definitions in Oregon.
(a) "Clearance:"
(A) For working on, means the certification by the property authority that a specified line or piece of equipment is deenergized; that the proper precautionary measures have been taken and that the line or equipment is being turned over to the workers.
(B) From hazard, means adequate separation or protection by the use of protective devices to prevent accidental contact by persons or objects on approach to a point of danger.
(b) "Climbing space" -- The vertical space reserved along the side of poles or structures to permit ready access for linemen to equipment and conductors located on poles or structures.
(c) "Communication plant" -- The conductors and their associated equipment required to provide public or private signals or communicative service.
(d) "Competent or qualified person" -- A person who is familiar with the construction of, or operation of, such lines and/or equipment that concerns his or her position and who is fully aware of the hazards connected therewith or one who has passed a journeyman's examination for the particular branch of the trades with which he or she may be connected.
(e) "Emergency" -- When an unusual condition exists that endangers life and/or property.
(f) "Foreman or Person-in-charge" -- That person directly in charge of workers doing the work regardless of title.
(g) "Grounding" -- The act of placing shorts and grounds on conductors and equipment for the purpose of protecting workers from dangerous voltages while working on such lines or equipment.
(h) "Guard or guarded" -- Covered, shielded, fenced, enclosed, or otherwise protected by means of suitable covers, casings, barriers, rails, screens, mats, platforms, or warning signs or devices which are suitable to remove the possibility of dangerous contact on approach by other persons or objects to a point of danger.
(i) "Manlift equipment" -- Such types of portable truck-mounted equipment as mechanical, electric or hydraulic ladders and boom-mounted buckets or cages.
(j) "Protection from hazardous voltage" -- The isolation from or deenergizing of equipment to prevent accidental contact by persons or objects on approach to point of danger.
(k) "Protective devices" -- Those devices such as rubber gloves, rubber blankets, line hose, rubber hoods or other insulating devices, which are specially designed for the protection of workers.
(l) "Public highway" -- Land, road, street, boulevard, and every way or place in the state open as matter of right to public vehicular travel, both inside and outside the limit of cities and towns.
(m) "Sheath" -- As applied to sharp tools, a case that effectively covers the tool.
(n) "Voltage communications" -- Voltage used for electronic communications equipment to which workers or protective equipment may be subjected.
(A) "High" -- Over 600 volts to ground -- RMS AC or DC or over 1,000 volts RMS across bare parts.
(B) "Medium high" -- 151 to 600 volts to ground -- RMS AC or DC or 301 to 1,000 volts RMS AC across any bare parts.
(o) "Voltage electric supply" -- The maximum effective line voltage to which the workers or protective equipment may be subjected.
(A) "Low" -- Includes voltages from 100 to 600 volts.
(B) "High" -- Those voltages in excess of 600 volts.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & ORS 656.726(3)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - ORS 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 11-1993, f. 8-4-93, cert. ef. 10-1-93; OSHA 1-1996, f. & cert. ef. 2-16-96; OSHA 2-1999, f. & cert. ef. 4-30-99; OSHA 3-1999, f. & cert. ef. 4-30-99
NOTE: In Oregon, live-line work is prohibited by OAR 437-002-0317(2) below. Other Oregon rules are contained in 437-002-0317(1):
Subdivision S — Electrical
NOTE: The following rule adopts by reference the federal Electrical Standard.
437-002-0320
Adoption by Reference
In addition to, and not in lieu of,
any other health and safety codes contained in OAR chapter 437, the Department adopts
by reference the following federal regulations printed as part of the Code of Federal
Regulations, 29 CFR 1910, in the Federal Register:
(1) 29 CFR 1910.301 Introduction;
published 8/7/81, FR vol. 46, p. 40185.
Design Safety Standards for Electrical Systems
(2) 29 CFR 1910.302 Electrical utilization
systems; published 2/14/07, FR vol. 72, no. 30, p. 7136.
(3) 29 CFR 1910.303 General
requirements; published 10/29/08, FR vol. 73, no. 210, p. 64202.
(4) 29 CFR 1910.304 Wiring
design and protection; published 10/29/08, FR vol. 73, no. 210, p. 64202.
(5) 29 CFR 1910.305 Wiring
methods, components and equipment for general use; published 2/14/07, FR vol. 72,
no. 30, p. 7136.
(6) 29 CFR 1910.306 Specific
purpose equipment and installations; published 2/14/07, FR vol. 72, no. 30, p. 7136.
(7) 29 CFR 1910.307 Hazardous
(classified) locations; published 2/14/07, FR vol. 72, no. 30, p. 7136.
(8) 29 CFR 1910.308 Special
systems; published 2/14/07, FR vol. 72, no. 30, p. 7136.
(9) (Reserved for 1910.309–.330)
(10) 29 CFR 1910.331 Scope;
published 4/11/14, FR vol. 79, no. 70, p. 20316; 10/5/15, FR vol. 80, no. 192, p.
60033.
(11) 29 CFR 1910.332 Training;
published 8/6/90, Federal Register vol. 55, no. 151, pp. 32016-32020.
(12) 29 CFR 1910.333 Selection
and use of work practices; published 1/31/94, FR vol. 59, no. 20, pp. 4475-6; amended
with OR-OSHA AO 4-2007, filed and effective 8/15/07.
(13) 29 CFR 1910.334 Use
of equipment; published 11/1/90, FR vol. 55, no. 212, pp. 46052-46054.
(14) 29 CFR 1910.335 Safeguards
for personnel protection; published 8/6/90, Federal Register vol. 55, no. 151, pp.
32016-32020.
(15) (Reserved for 1910.336–.360)
Safety-Related Maintenance Requirements
(16) (Reserved for 1910.361–.380)
Safety Requirements for Special Equipment
(17) (Reserved for 1910.381–.398)
(18) 29 CFR 1910.399 Definitions
Applicable to this Subdivision; published 4/11/14, FR vol. 79, no. 70, p. 20316.
(19) Appendices. Appendix
A — Reference Documents. These standards are available at the Oregon Occupational
Safety and Health Division (OR-OSHA), Department of Consumer and Business Services;
and the United States Government Printing Office.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 2-1991, f. 2-4-91,
cert. ef. 4-1-91; OSHA 3-1994, f. & cert. ef. 8-1-94; OSHA 4-2007, f. &
cert. ef. 8-15-07; OSHA 3-2009, f. 4-6-09, cert. ef. 4-17-09; OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16

Subdivision T — Commercial Diving Operations

437-002-0340
Adoption by Reference
In addition to, and not in lieu
of, any other safety and health codes contained in OAR Chapter 437, the Department
adopts by reference the following federal regulations printed as part of the Code
of Federal Regulations, 29 CFR 1910, in the Federal Register:
(1) 29 CFR 1910.401 Scope and
application, published 2/17/04, FR vol. 69, p. 7351.
(2) 29 CFR 1910.402 Definitions,
published 2/17/04, FR vol. 69, p. 7351.
(3) 29 CFR 1910.410 Qualification
of dive team, published 7/22/77, Federal Register, vol. 42, p. 37668.
(4) 29 CFR 1910.420 Safe practices
manual, published 4/30/84, FR vol. 49, p. 18295.
(5) 29 CFR 1910.421 Pre-dive
procedures, published 6/7/89, FR vol. 54, p. 24334.
(6) 29 CFR 1910.422 Procedures
during dive, published 7/22/77, Federal Register, vol. 42, p. 37668.
(7) 29 CFR 1910.423 Post-dive
procedures, published 4/30/84, FR vol. 49, p. 18295.
(8) 29 CFR 1910.424 SCUBA diving,
published 7/22/77, Federal Register, vol. 42, p. 37668.
(9) 29 CFR 1910.425 Surface-supplied
air diving, published 7/22/77, Federal Register, vol. 42, p. 37668.
(10) 29 CFR 1910.426 Mixed-gas
diving, published 7/22/77, Federal Register, vol. 42, p. 37668.
(11) 29 CFR 1910.427 Liveboating,
published 7/22/77, Federal Register, vol. 42, p. 37668.
(12) 29 CFR 1910.430 Equipment,
published 9/18/88, FR, vol. 51, p. 33033.
(13) 29 CFR 1910.440 Recordkeeping
requirements, published 12/27/11, FR vol. 76, no. 248, p. 80735.
(14) 29 CFR 1910.441 Effective
date, published 4/3/06, FR vol. 71, no. 63, p. 16669.
(15) 29 CFR 1910, Appendix A
to Subdivision T, Examples of conditions which may restrict or limit exposures to
hyperbaric conditions, published 7/22/77, Federal Register, vol. 42, p. 37668.
(16) 29 CFR 1910, Appendix B
to Subdivision T, Guidelines for scientific diving, published 1/9/85, Federal Register,
vol. 50, p. 1050.
(17) 29 CFR 1910, Appendix C
to Subdivision T, Alternative Conditions under §1910.401(a)(3) for Recreational
Diving Instructors and Diving Guides (Mandatory), published 2/17/04, Federal Register,
vol. 69, p. 7351.
NOTE: These standards
are on file at the Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division, Oregon Department
of Consumer and Business Services, and the United States Government Printing Office.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented:
ORS 654.001 - 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 5-1993, f. 5-3-93, cert. ef.
6-1-93; OSHA 4-1997, f. & cert. ef. 4-2-97; OSHA 2-2004, f& cert. ef. 5-20-04;
OSHA 4-2006, f. & cert. ef. 7-24-06; OSHA 4-2011, f. & cert. ef. 12-8-11;
OSHA 1-2012, f. & cert .ef. 4-10-12

Additional Oregon Rules for Commercial Diving

437-002-0342
Additional Oregon Definition
"Depth" The actual depth of the dive measured in feet below the water's surface. For purposes of determining pressure equivalents, these measurements are assumed to be salt water at 0.445 pounds per square inch per foot of depth (0.445 psi/ft depth). Fresh water equals 0.432 psi/ft depth.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & ORS 656.726(3)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - ORS 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-1993, f. 5-3-93, cert. ef. 6-1-93
437-002-0345
Inland Emergency Aid
If conducting inland dive operation, the telephone or call numbers of the nearest local sheriff's office shall be included on the "Emergency Aid" list.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & ORS 656.726(3)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - ORS 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-1993, f. 5-3-93, cert. ef. 6-1-93
437-002-0355
Air Supply Systems (Compressed Gases and Air)
(1) For purposes of this standard, air supply systems shall include:
(a) Air supplied directly to a diver;
(b) Compressed systems used to fill air cylinders (tanks);
(c) Compressed air cylinders (tanks); and
(d) Compressed oxygen cylinder;
(e) For additional requirements for compressed gas cylinders, see OAR Division 2/I, 1910.134(d), Respiratory Protection; Division 2/H, 1910.101, Compressed Gases; and 30 CFR 11, Respiratory Protective Devices.
(2) Tests for carbon monoxide shall be conducted on the air in air supply systems as follows:
(a) At least daily for air supplied directly to the diver; and
(b) At least once for each group or batch of cylinders filled or purchased.
(3) The employer shall insure that the requirements of 1910. 430(d) through (i) are met, regardless of where compressed gas cylinder (tanks) are purchased or filled.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & ORS 656.726(3)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - ORS 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-1993, f. 5-3-93, cert. ef. 6-1-93

Subdivision Z — Toxic and Hazardous Substances

437-002-0360
Adoption by Reference
In addition to, and not in lieu of,
any other safety and health codes contained in OAR Chapter 437, the Department adopts
by reference the following federal regulations printed as part of the Code of Federal
Regulations, 29 CFR 1910, in the Federal Register:
(1) (Reserved) 29 CFR 1910.1000
Air contaminants.
NOTE: 29 CFR 1910.1000 was repealed
on 11/15/93 by OR OSHA. In Oregon, OAR 437-002-0382 applies.
(2) 29 CFR 1910.1001 Asbestos, published
2/8/13, FR vol. 78, no. 27, p. 9311.
(3) 29 CFR 1910.1002 Coal
tar pitch volatiles, interpretation of term, published 1/21/83, Federal Register,
vol. 43, p. 2768.
(4) 29 CFR 1910.1003 13 Carcinogens,
published 3/26/12, FR vol. 77, no. 58, p. 17574.
(5) 29 CFR 1910.1004 See
§1910.1003, 13 Carcinogens.
(6) Reserved for 29 CFR 1910.1005.
(7) 29 CFR 1910.1006 See
§1910.1003, 13 Carcinogens.
(8) 29 CFR 1910.1007 See
§1910.1003, 13 Carcinogens.
(9) 29 CFR 1910.1008 See
§1910.1003, 13 Carcinogens.
(10) 29 CFR 1910.1009 See
§1910.1003, 13 Carcinogens.
(11) 29 CFR 1910.1010 See
§1910.1003, 13 Carcinogens.
(12) 29 CFR 1910.1011 See
§1910.1003, 13 Carcinogens.
(13) 29 CFR 1910.1012 See
§1910.1003, 13 Carcinogens.
(14) 29 CFR 1910.1013 See
§1910.1003, 13 Carcinogens.
(15) 29 CFR 1910.1014 See
§1910.1003, 13 Carcinogens.
(16) 29 CFR 1910.1015 See
§1910.1003, 13 Carcinogens.
(17) 29 CFR 1910.1016 See
§1910.1003, 13 Carcinogens.
(18) 29 CFR 1910.1017 Vinyl
chloride, published 3/26/12, FR vol. 77, no. 58, p. 17574.
(19) 29 CFR 1910.1018 Inorganic
arsenic, published 3/26/12, FR vol. 77, no. 58, p. 17574.
(20) 29 CFR 1910.1020 Access
to Employee Exposure and Medical Records, published 6/8/11, Federal Register, vol.
76, no. 110, p. 33590.
Appendix A Sample Authorization Letter.
Appendix B Availability
of NIOSH RTECS.
(21) 29 CFR 1910.1025 Lead, published
3/26/12, FR vol. 77, no. 58, p. 17574.
(22) 29 CFR 1910.1026 Chromium
(VI), published 3/26/12, FR vol. 77, no. 58, p. 17574.
(23) 29 CFR 1910.1027 Cadmium,
published 3/26/12, FR vol. 77, no. 58, p. 17574.
(24) 29 CFR 1910.1028 Benzene,
and Appendices A, B, C, D, and E, published 3/26/12, FR vol. 77, no. 58, p. 17574.
(25) 29 CFR 1910.1029 Coke
oven emissions, published 3/26/12, FR vol. 77, no. 58, p. 17574.
(26) 29 CFR 1910.1030 Bloodborne
pathogens, published 6/8/11, Federal Register, vol. 76, no. 110. P. 33590.
(27) 29 CFR 1910.1043 Cotton
dust, published 3/26/12, FR vol. 77, no. 58, p. 17574.
(28) 29 CFR 1910.1044 1,2
dibromo-3 chloropropane, published 2/8/13, FR vol. 78, no. 27, p. 9311.
(29) 29 CFR 1910.1045 Acrylonitrile,
published 3/26/12, FR vol. 77, no. 58, p. 17574.
(30) 29 CFR 1910.1047 Ethylene
oxide, published 3/26/12, FR vol. 77, no. 58, p. 17574.
(31) 29 CFR 1910.1048 Formaldehyde,
and Appendices A, B, C, D and E, published 2/8/13, FR vol. 78, no. 27, p. 9311.
(32) 29 CFR 1910.1050 Methylenedianiline
(MDA), published 3/26/12, FR vol. 77, no. 58, p. 17574.
(33) 29 CFR 1910.1051 1,3-Butadiene,
published 2/8/13, FR vol. 78, no. 27, p. 9311.
(34) 29 CFR 1910.1052 Methylene
Chloride, published 2/8/13, FR vol. 78, no. 27, p. 9311.
(NOTE: 29 CFR 1910.1101 Asbestos,
was repealed by Federal Register, vol. 57, no. 110, issued 6/8/92, p. 24330.)
(35) 29 CFR 1910.1096 Ionizing
radiation, published 6/20/96, FR vol. 61, no. 46, p. 31427.
(36) 29 CFR 1910.1200 Hazard
communication, published 2/8/13, FR vol. 78, no. 27, p. 9311.
(37) 29 CFR 1910.1201 Retention
of DOT Markings, Placards and Labels, published 7/19/94, Federal Register, vol.
59, p. 36700.
(38) 29 CFR 1910.1450 Occupational
Exposure to Hazardous Chemicals in Laboratories, published 1/22/13, FR vol. 78,
no. 14, p. 4324.
(39) 29 CFR 1910.1499 Removed.
Published 3/7/96, Federal Register, vol. 61, no. 46, p. 9245.
(40) 29 CFR 1910.1500 Removed.
Published 3/7/96, Federal Register, vol. 61, no. 46, p. 9245.
These standards are available at the Oregon
Occupational Safety and Health Division, Oregon Department of Consumer and Business
Services, and the United States Government Printing Office.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: APD 13-1988, f. 8-2-88
& ef. 8-2-88; APD 14-1988, f. & ef. 9-12-88; APD 18-1988, f. & ef. 11-17-88;
APD 4-1989(Temp), f. 3-31-89, ef. 5-1-89; APD 6-1989(Temp), f. 4-20-89, ef. 5-1-89;
APD 9-1989, f. & ef. 7-7-89; APD 11-1989, f. 7-14-89, ef. 8-14-89; APD 13-1989,
f. & ef. 7-17-89; OSHA 1-1990(Temp), f. & ef. 1-11-90; OSHA 3-1990(Temp),
f. & ef. 1-19-90; OSHA 6-1990, f. & ef. 3-2-90; OSHA 7-1990, f. & ef.
3-2-90; OSHA 9-1990, f. 5-8-90, ef. 8-8-90; OSHA 11-1990, f. 6-7-90, ef. 7-1-90;
OSHA 13-1990(Temp), f. 6-28-90, ef. 8-1-90; OSHA 14-1990, f. 6-28-90, ef. 8-1-90;
OSHA 19-1990, f. & ef. 8-31-90; OSHA 20-1990, f. & ef. 9-18-90; OSHA 21-1990,
f. & ef. 9-18-90; OSHA 7-1991, f. & cert. ef. 4-25-91; OSHA 13-1991, f.
& cert. ef. 10-10-91; OSHA 15-1991, f. & cert. ef. 12-13-91; OSHA 1-1992,
f. & cert. ef. 1-22-92; OSHA 4-1992, f. & cert. ef. 4-16-92; OSHA 5-1992,
f. 4-24-92, cert. ef. 7-1-92; OSHA 6-1992, f. & cert. ef. 5-18-92; OSHA 9-1992(Temp),
f. & cert. ef. 9-24-92; OSHA 11-1992, f. & cert. ef. 10-9-92; OSHA 12-1992,
f. & cert. ef. 10-13-92; OSHA 14-1992, f. & cert. ef. 12-7-92; OSHA 15-1992,
f. & cert. ef. 12-30-92; OSHA 1-1993, f. & cert. ef. 1-22-93; OSHA 6-1993(Temp),
f. & cert. ef. 5-17-93; OSHA 12-1993, f. 8-20-93, cert. ef. 11-1-93; OSHA 17-1993,
f. & cert. ef. 11-15-93; OSHA 4-1994, f. & cert. ef. 8-4-94; OSHA 1-1995,
f. & cert. ef. 1-19-95; OSHA 4-1995, f. & cert. ef. 3-29-95; OSHA 5-1995,
f. & cert. ef. 4-6-95; OSHA 8-1995, f. & cert. ef. 8-25-95; OSHA 4-1996,
f. & cert. ef. 9-13-96; OSHA 6-1996, f. & cert. ef. 11-29-96; OSHA 4-1997,
f. & cert. ef. 4-2-97; OSHA 6-1997, f. & cert. ef. 5-2-97; OSHA 8-1997,
f. & cert. ef. 11-14-97; OSHA 1-1998, f. & cert. ef. 2-13-98; OSHA 3-1998,
f. & cert. ef. 7-7-98; OSHA 1-1999, f. & cert. ef. 3-22-99; OSHA 2-1999,
f. & cert. ef. 4-30-99; OSHA 6-2001, f. & cert. ef. 5-15-01; OSHA 10-2001,
f. 9-14-01, cert. ef. 10-18-01; OSHA 12-2001, f. & cert. ef. 10-26-01; OSHA
1-2005, f. & cert. ef. 4-12-05; OSHA 4-2006, f. & cert. ef. 7-24-06; OSHA
6-2006, f. & cert. ef. 8-30-06; OSHA 10-2006, f. & cert. ef. 11-30-06; OSHA
5-2009, f. & cert. ef. 5-29-09; OSHA 3-2010, f. 6-10-10, cert. ef. 6-15-10;
OSHA 4-2011, f. & cert. ef. 12-8-11; OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11, cert. ef. 7-1-12;
OSHA 1-2012, f. & cert .ef. 4-10-12; OSHA 5-2012, f. & cert. ef. 9-25-12;
OSHA 3-2013, f. & cert. ef. 7-18-13; OSHA 4-2013, f. & cert. ef. 7-19-13
437-002-0363
Oregon Amendment
1910.1028(j)(1)(ii)
is amended to read (wording in brackets is deleted): 1910.1028(j)(1)(ii) The employer
shall ensure that labels or other appropriate forms of warning are provided for
containers of benzene within the workplace. [There is no requirement to label pipes.]
The labels shall comply with the requirements of CFR 1910.1200(f) and in addition
shall include the following legend:
Danger

Contains
Benzene

Cancer Hazard
Stat. Auth.: ORS
654.025(2) & 656.726(3)

Stats. Implemented:
ORS 654.001 - 654.295

Hist.: APD
13-1988, f. & ef. 8-2-88
437-002-0364
Oregon Rules
for MOCA (4,4'-Methylene Bis (2-chloroaniline))
(1) Application.
This rule applies to any areas in which MOCA (4,4’-Methylene bis (2-chloroaniline))
(CAS# 101-14-4) is manufactured, processed, repackaged, released, handled, or stored,
but shall not apply to transhipment in sealed containers, except for the labeling
requirements under OAR 437-002-0364(5)(b), (c), and (d).
(2) Definitions:
“Absolute
filter” is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a monodisperse aerosol
of 0.3 μm particles.
“Administrator”
means the Administrator of the Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division, or
any person directed to act for the Administrator.
“Authorized
employee” means an employee whose duties require them to be in the regulated
area and who has been specifically assigned by the employer.
“Clean
change room” means a room where employees put on clean clothing and/or protective
equipment in an environment free of MOCA. The clean change room shall be contiguous
to and have an entry from a shower room, when the shower room facilities are otherwise
required in this rule.
“Closed
system” means an operation involving MOCA where containment prevents the release
of MOCA into regulated areas, non-regulated areas, or the external environment.
“Decontamination”
means the inactivation of MOCA or its safe disposal.
“Disposal”
means the safe removal of MOCA from the work environment.
“Emergency”
means an unforeseen circumstance or set of circumstances resulting in the release
of MOCA which may result in exposure to or contact with MOCA.
“External
environment” means any environment external to regulated and non-regulated
areas.
“Isolated
system” means a fully enclosed structure other than the vessel of containment
of MOCA which is impervious to the passage of MOCA and which would prevent the entry
of MOCA into regulated areas, non-regulated areas, or the external environment,
should leakage or spillage from the vessel of containment occur.
“Laboratory
type hood” is a device enclosed on three sides and the top and bottom, designed
and maintained so as to draw air inward at an average linear face velocity of 150
feet per minute with a minimum of 125 feet per minute; designed, constructed, and
maintained in such a way that an operation involving MOCA within the hood does not
require the insertion of any portion of any employee's body other than their hands
and arms.
“Non-regulated
area” means any area under the control of the employer where entry and exit
is neither restricted nor controlled.
“Open-vessel
system” means an operation involving MOCA in an open vessel, which is not
in an isolated system, a laboratory type hood, nor in any other system affording
equivalent protection against the entry of MOCA into regulated areas, non-regulated
areas, or the external environment.
“Protective
clothing” means clothing designed to protect an employee against contact with
or exposure to MOCA.
“Regulated
area” means an area where entry and exit is restricted and controlled.
(3) Requirements
for areas containing MOCA.
(a) A regulated
area shall be established by an employer where MOCA is manufactured, processed,
used, repackaged, released, handled or stored. All such areas shall be controlled
in accordance with the requirements for the following category or categories describing
the operation involved:
(A) Isolated
systems. Employees working with MOCA within an isolated system, such as a “glove
box” shall wash their hands and arms upon completion of the assigned task
and before engaging in other activities not associated with the isolated system.
(B) Closed
system operation. Within regulated areas where MOCA is stored in sealed containers,
or contained in a closed system, including piping systems, with any sample ports
or openings closed while MOCA is contained within:
(i) Access
shall be restricted to authorized employees only; and
(ii) Employees
shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the
regulated areas, close to the point of exit and before engaging in other activities.
(C) Open
vessel system operations. Open vessel system operations as defined in OAR 437-002-0364(2)
are prohibited.
(D) Transfer
from a closed system, charging or discharging point operations, or otherwise opening
a closed system. In operations involving “laboratory type hoods,” or
in locations where MOCA is contained in an otherwise “closed system,”
but is transferred, charged, or discharged into other normally closed containers,
the provisions of this rule shall apply.
(i) Access
shall be restricted to authorized employees only.
(ii) Each
operation shall be provided with continuous local exhaust ventilation so that air
movement is always from ordinary work areas to the operation. Exhaust air shall
not be discharged to regulated areas, non-regulated areas or the external environment
unless decontaminated. Clean make-up air shall be introduced in sufficient volume
to maintain the correct operation of the local exhaust system.
(iii) Employees
shall be provided with, and required to wear, clean, full body protective clothing
(smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirt and pants), shoe covers and gloves prior
to entering the regulated area.
(iv) Employees
engaged in MOCA handling operations must be provided and required to wear and use
respiratory protection, in accordance with OAR 437, Division 2/I, Personal Protective
Equipment, 1910.134, Respiratory Protection.
(v) Prior
to each exit from a regulated area, employees shall be required to remove and leave
protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit and at the last exit of the
day, to place used clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point
of exit for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious
containers shall be identified, as required under OAR 437-002-0364(5)(b), (c) and
(d).
(vi) Employees
shall be required to wash hands, forearms, face and neck on each exit from the regulated
area, close to the point of exit, and before engaging in other activities.
(vii) Employees
shall be required to shower after the last exit of the day.
(viii) Drinking
fountains are prohibited in the regulated area.
(E) Maintenance
and decontamination activities. In cleanup of leaks or spills, maintenance or repair
operations on contaminated systems or equipment, or any operations involving work
in an area where direct contact with MOCA could result, each authorized employee
entering that area shall:
(i) Be provided
with and required to wear clean, impervious garments, including gloves, boots and
continuous-air supplied hood in accordance with OAR 437, Division 2/I, Personal
Protective Equipment;
(ii) Be decontaminated
before removing the protective garments and hood; and
(iii) Be
required to shower upon removing the protective garments and hood.
(F) Premixed
solutions. Where MOCA is present only in a single solution at a temperature not
exceeding 220° F, the establishment of a regulated area is not required; however:
(i) Only
authorized employees shall be permitted to handle such materials;
(ii) Each
day employees shall be provided with and required to wear a clean change of protective
clothing (smocks, coveralls, or long-sleeved shirts and pants), gloves, and other
protective garments and equipment necessary to prevent contact with the solution
in the process used;
(iii) Employees
shall be required to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment when leaving
the work area at the end of the work day, or at any time solution is spilled on
such clothing or equipment. Used clothing and equipment shall be placed in impervious
containers for purposes of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious
containers shall be identified, as required under OAR 437-002-0364(5)(b), (c) and
(d).
(iv) Employees
shall be required to wash hands and face after removing such clothing and equipment
and before engaging in other activities;
(v) Employees
assigned to work covered by OAR 437-002-0364(3)(a)(F) shall be deemed to be working
in regulated areas for the purposes of OAR 437-002-0364(4)(a); (b)(A), (B); (c)(C),
(D), and 437-002-0364(5) through (7).
(vi) Work
areas where solution may be spilled shall be:
(I) Covered
daily or after any spill with a clean covering; or
(II) Cleaned
thoroughly daily and after any spill.
(4) General
Regulated Area Requirements:
(a) Emergencies.
In an emergency, immediate measures including, but not limited to, the requirements
of sections (A), (B), (C), (D), and (E) below shall be implemented:
(A) The potentially
affected area shall be evacuated as soon as the emergency has been determined.
(B) Hazardous
conditions created by the emergency shall be eliminated and the potentially affected
area shall be decontaminated prior to the resumption of normal operations.
(C) Special
medical surveillance by a physician shall be instituted within 24 hours, for employees
present in the potentially affected area at the time of the emergency. A report
of the medical surveillance and any treatment shall be included in the incident
report, in accordance with OAR 437-002-0364(6)(b).
(D) Where
an employee has a known contact with MOCA, such employee shall be required to shower
as soon as possible, unless contraindicated by physical injuries.
(E) An incident
report on the emergency shall be reported as provided in OAR 437-002-0364(6)(b).
(F) Emergency
deluge showers and eyewash fountains supplied with running potable water shall be
located near, within sight of, and on the same level with locations where a direct
exposure to MOCA would be most likely as a result of equipment failure, or improper
work practice.
(b) Hygiene
Facilities and Practices.
(A) Storage
or consumption of food, storage or use of containers of beverages, storage or application
of cosmetics, smoking, storage of smoking materials, tobacco products or other products
for chewing, or the chewing of such products, are prohibited in regulated areas.
(B) Where
employees are required by OAR 437-002-0364 to wash, washing facilities shall be
provided in accordance with OAR 437, Division 2/J, 1910.141, Sanitation.
(C) Where
employees are required by OAR 437-002-0364 to shower, shower facilities shall be
provided in accordance with OAR 437, Division 2/J, 1910.141 Sanitation.
(D) Where
employees wear protective clothing and equipment clean change rooms shall be provided
in accordance with OAR 437, Division 2/J, 1910.141, Sanitation, for the number of
such employees required to change clothes.
(E) Where
toilets are in regulated areas, such toilets shall be in a separate room.
(c) Contamination
Control.
(A) Regulated
areas, except for outdoor systems, shall be maintained under pressure negative with
respect to non-regulated areas. Local exhaust ventilation may be used to satisfy
this requirement. Clean make-up air in equal volume shall replace air removed.
(B) Any equipment,
materials, or other item taken into or removed from a regulated area shall be done
so in a manner that does not cause contamination in non-regulated areas or the external
environment.
(C) Decontamination
procedures shall be established and implemented to remove MOCA from the surfaces
of materials, equipment, and the decontamination facility.
(D) Dry sweeping
and dry mopping is prohibited.
(5) Signs,
Information and Training.
(a) Signs.
(A) Entrances
to regulated areas shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:
DANGER
MOCA
(4,4’-METHYLENE
BIS (2-CHLOROANILINE))
MAY CAUSE
CANCER
AUTHORIZED
PERSONNEL ONLY
(B) Entrances
to regulated areas containing operations covered in OAR 437-002-0364 (3)(a)(E),
shall be posted with signs bearing the legend:
DANGER
MOCA
(4,4’-METHYLENE
BIS (2-CHLOROANILINE))
MAY CAUSE
CANCER
WEAR RESPIRATORY
PROTECTION AND
PROTECTIVE
CLOTHING IN THIS AREA
AUTHORIZED
PERSONNEL ONLY
(C) Appropriate
signs and instructions shall be posted at the entrance to, and exit from, regulated
areas, informing employees of the procedures that must be followed in entering and
leaving a regulated area.
(b) Container
Contents Identification.
(A) Provide
impervious containers as required under OAR 437-002-0364(3)(a)(D)(v).
(i) Ensure
only authorized employees have access to and handle containers.
(ii) Containers
must display the following warning:
DANGER
CONTENTS
CONTAMINATED with MOCA
(4,4’-METHYLENE
BIS (2-CHLOROANILINE))
MAY CAUSE
CANCER
(B) Label
all primary and secondary containers of MOCA in accordance with 1910.1200.
(c) Lettering.
(A) Lettering
on signs and instructions required by OAR 437-002-0364(5)(a)[ and (b)] shall be
a minimum letter height of 2 inches.
(B) Labels
on containers required under OAR 437-002-0364(5)(b)(A)(ii) shall not be less than
1/2 the size of the largest lettering on the package, and not less than 8 point
type in any instance; provided that no such required lettering need be more than
1 inch in height.
(d) Prohibited
Statements. No statement shall appear on or near any required sign, label, or instruction
which contradicts or detracts from the effect of any required warning, information
or instruction.
(e) Training
and Indoctrination.
(A) Each
employee prior to being authorized to enter a regulated area, shall receive a training
and indoctrination program including, but not necessarily limited to:
(i) The nature
of the carcinogenic hazards of MOCA including local and systemic toxicity;
(ii) The
specific nature of the operation involving MOCA which could result in exposure;
(iii) The
purpose for and application of the medical surveillance program, including, as appropriate,
methods of self-examination;
(iv) The
purpose for and application of decontamination practices and purposes;
(v) The purpose
for and significance of emergency practices and procedures;
(vi) The
employee’s specific role in emergency procedures;
(vii) Specific
information to aid the employee in recognition and evaluation of conditions and
situations which may result in the release of MOCA;
(viii) The
purpose for and application of specific first aid procedures and practices; and
(ix) A review
of OAR 437-002-0364 at the employee’s first training and indoctrination program
and annually thereafter.
(B) Specific
emergency procedures shall be prescribed, and posted, and employees shall be familiarized
with their terms, and rehearsed in their application.
(C) All materials
relating to the program shall be provided upon request to authorized representatives
of the Administrator.
(6) Reports.
(a) Reserved.
(b) Incidents.
Incidents which result in the release of MOCA into any area where employees may
be potentially exposed shall be reported in accordance with this rule.
(A) A report
of the occurrence of the incident and the facts obtainable at that time, including
a report of any medical treatment of affected employees, shall be made within 24
hours to the Administrator.
(B) A written
report shall be filed with the Administrator within 15 calendar days thereafter,
and shall include:
(i) A description
of the area involved, and the extent of known and possible employee exposure and
area contamination; and
(ii) A report
of any medical treatment of affected employees, and any medical surveillance program
implemented; and
(iii) An
analysis of the circumstances of the incident, and measures taken or to be taken,
with specific completion dates, to avoid further similar releases.
(7) Medical
Surveillance. At no cost to the employee, a program of medical surveillance shall
be established and implemented for employees considered for assignment to enter
regulated areas, and for authorized employees.
(a) Examinations:
(A) Before
an employee is assigned to enter a regulated area, a pre-assignment physical examination
by a physician shall be provided. The examination shall include the personal history
of the employee, family and occupational background, including genetic and environmental
factors.
(B) Authorized
employees shall be provided periodic physical examinations, not less often than
annually, following the pre-assignment examination.
(C) In all
physical examinations, the examining physician shall consider whether there exist
conditions of increased risk, including reduced immunological competence, those
undergoing treatment with steroids or cytotoxic agents, pregnancy and cigarette
smoking.
(b) Records:
(A) Employers
of employees examined pursuant to this rule shall cause to be maintained complete
and accurate records of all such medical examinations. Records shall be maintained
for the duration of the employee’s employment. The employer shall comply with
the requirements concerning transfer of records set forth in Division 2/Z, 1910.1020(h).
(B) Records
required by this rule shall be provided upon request to employees, designated representatives,
and the Administrator in accordance with OAR 437, Division 2/Z, 1910.1020, Access
to Employee Exposure and Medical Records.
(C) Any physician
who conducts a medical examination required by this rule shall furnish to the employer
a statement of the employee’s suitability for employment in the specific exposure.
Stat. Auth.: ORS
654.025(2) & 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented:
ORS 654.001 - 654.295

Hist.: WCB
3-1975, f. 10-6-75, ef. 11-1-75; WCB 4-1979, f. 5-21-79, ef. 7-15-79; WCB 8-1980,
f. 11-5-80, ef. 12-1-80; OSHA 12-1993, f. 8-20-93, cert. ef. 11-1-93; OSHA 4-2011,
f. & cert. ef. 12-8-11; OSHA 5-2012, f. & cert. ef. 9-25-12
437-002-0368
Deterioration
(1) Periodic examination, at least annually, of all asbestos containing material should be performed to detect deterioration.
(2) Asbestos which has become damaged or deteriorated shall be repaired, enclosed, encapsulated, or removed in accordance with the provisions of 29 CFR 1926.1101 in OAR 437, Division 3, Construction.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - 654.295

Hist.: APD 9-1989, f. & ef. 7-7-89; OSHA 12-1993, f. 8-20-93, cert. ef. 11-1-93; OSHA 4-1995, f. & cert. ef. 3-29-95; OSHA 1-2005, f. & cert. ef. 4-12-05

Oregon-Initiated Rules

NOTE: §1910.1025(a)(1) and (2) were not adopted. In Oregon, OAR 437-002-0371 applies:
437-002-0371
Scope and Application
29 CFR 1910.1025 applies to all occupational exposures to lead, except Construction (see 1926.62 in Division 3, Construction).
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & ORS 656.726(3)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - ORS 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 26-1990, f. & cert. ef. 11-16-90; OSHA 6-1994, f. & cert. ef. 9-30-94
NOTE: Former Division 130, Thiram, has been redesignated, renumbered, and slightly amended as Oregon-initiated Rule 437-002-0373 to continue coverage not provided in federal standards.
437-002-0373
Oregon Rules for Thiram
(1) Scope and Application.
(a) These rules include requirements
for the control of worker exposure to thiram (Tetramethyl- thiuram disulfide).
(b) These rules apply where
worker exposure to thiram may occur during manufacture, storage, packaging, tree
application, treated seedling handling, or use of thiram or thiram treated seedlings.
(c) These rules apply to the
transportation of thiram or thiram treated trees except to the extent that the U.
S. Department of Transportation may regulate the hazards covered by these rules.
(2) Definitions. The following
definitions shall apply in the application of the thiram rules:
Clean – The absence of
dirt or materials which may be harmful to a worker’s health.
Large Seedlings – Those
seedlings of such size, either by length or breath, that during normal planting
operations it is difficult to avoid contact of the thiram treated plant with the
mouth or face.
(3) General Requirements. The
following rules shall be applicable to thiram:
(a) Permissible Exposure Limits.
(A) No employee may be exposed
to thiram at atmospheric concentrations greater than 0.15 mg/m3 over any 8-hour
period; and
(B) No employee may be exposed
to thiram at atmospheric concentrations greater than 0.30 mg/m3 averaged over any
period not exceeding 15 minutes.
(C) Workers shall not be allowed
to work more than five days in any seven day period with or around thiram or thiram
treated seedlings.
(D) OAR 437-002-0373(3)(a)(C)
above is not applicable if a specific thiram control program in addition to these
rules and approved by the Administrator has been implemented.
(b) Washing and Worker Hygiene.
(A) Workers shall wash their
hands prior to eating or smoking and at the close of work.
(B) Warm (at least 85°F,
29.4°C) wash water and single use hand wiping materials shall be provided for
washing.
(C) The warm water and hand
wiping materials shall be at fixed work locations or at the planting unit.
(D) Where warm water is not
available within 15 minutes travel time, non-alcoholic based waterless hand cleaner
shall also be provided.
(E) Every planter or nursery
worker shall be advised to bathe or shower daily.
(F) The inside of crummies or
other worker carrying vehicles shall be washed or vacuumed and wiped down at least
weekly during the period of thiram use.
(c) Personal Protective Measures.
(A) Clothing shall be worn by
workers to reduce skin contact with thiram to the legs, arms and torso.
(B) For those workers who have
thiram skin irritations, exposed areas of the body shall be protected by a suitable
barrier cream.
(C) Only impervious gloves may
be worn by workers.
(D) Workers’ hands should
be clean of thiram before placing them into gloves.
(E) Nursery applicators shall
be provided with and use NIOSH approved respirators according to OAR 437, Division
2/I, 1910.134, Respiratory Protection, disposable coveralls or rubber slickers or
other impervious clothing, rubberized boots, head covers and rubberized gloves.
(F) Reserved.
(G) Nursery workers other than
applicators who may be exposed to thiram shall be provided with and use disposable
coveralls or rubber slickers or other impervious clothing, impervious footwear and
gloves, and head covers unless showers in accordance with OAR 437, Division 2/J,
1910.141, Sanitation, have been provided and are used.
(H) Eye protection according
to OAR 437, Division 2/I, 437-002-0134(8), shall be provided and worn by workers
who may be exposed to splashes of thiram such as during spraying, plug bundling,
belt line grading and plugging or other operations.
(d) Respiratory Protection.
(A) Only certified respiratory
protection which is applicable and approved by NIOSH shall be provided to workers.
(B) All respirators shall be
used and maintained in accordance with OAR 437, Division 2/I, 1010.134, Respiratory
Protection.
(C) Respirators shall be worn
when planting large seedlings to avoid mouth and face contact with the thiram treated
plant unless equally effective measures or planting practices have been taken.
(e) Food Handling.
(A) Food, snacks, beverages,
smoking materials, or any other item which is consumed shall not be stored or consumed
in the packing area of the nursery.
(B) Crummies or other worker
carrying vehicles shall have a clean area for carrying lunches.
(C) The clean area of the vehicle
shall be elevated from the floor and not used to carry other than food or other
consumable items.
(D) The carrying of lunches,
food or other consumable items in tree planting bags is prohibited.
(E) Care shall be taken to ensure
that worker exposure to thiram spray, including downwind driftings, is minimized
or eliminated.
(F) Workers shall stand upwind
when bags that contained thiram or thiram treated seedlings are burned.
(f) Thiram Use and Handling.
(A) Nurseries shall develop
a quality control program approved by the Administrator to ensure that only the
minimum amount of thiram necessary to achieve the desired anti-browsing results
is applied to the tree seedlings.
(B) Thiram treated seedlings
shall be allowed to set between the time of spraying and packing.
(C) Seedlings shall be kept
moist during packing and whenever possible during planting operations.
(D) Floors where thiram is used
shall not be dry swept but instead vacuumed, washed or otherwise cleaned at least
daily.
(E) Silica chips used to cover
seedling plugs shall be removed at the nursery.
(g) Labeling.
(A) In the event the Oregon
Department of Agriculture, or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), has
promulgated and maintained administrative rules relative to the labeling of thiram
treated seedlings, such rules shall apply.
(B) In the event the Oregon
State Department of Agriculture, or EPA, has not promulgated or maintained thiram
labeling rules, there shall be attached to each container, bundle or wrapping of
thiram treated seedlings, a clearly legible and visible tag or label, of waterproof
material and printing, on which there is stated in English and Spanish the following:
CAUTION
These seedlings have been treated with
an animal repellent containing Thiram (tetramethyl thiuram disulfide) which
may flake off the seedlings during handling. Consumption of alcoholic beverages
or use of alcohol-base creams or lotions during a time span from 12 hours before
to 7 days after exposure to Thiram may result in nausea, headache, vomiting,
fatigue, or flushness. Exposure to Thiram may also cause irritation of the
eyes, nose, throat, or skin.
Thiram may interfere with or
render ineffective medications taken by epileptics or heart patients with blood-clotting
difficulties. Animal studies at very high concentrations (more than 250 mg-kg) indicate
that Thiram may cause birth defects.
SAFETY PRECAUTIONS
1. Keep treated seedlings moist
at all times.
2. Clothing shall be worn
by workers to reduce skin contact with Thiram to the legs, arms and torso.
3. A fiber or cloth face mask (respirator)
may be worn at the planter’s discretion, except that when plating large seedlings,
respirators shall be required to avoid mouth and face contact with thiram treated
plants, unless equally effective measures have been taken.
4. Wash exposed skin areas thoroughly
after handling treated seedlings and before smoking, drinking, eating or going to
the bathroom.
5. If Thiram flakes come in
contact with eyes, immediately flush eyes freely with water.
6. Bathe daily and change work clothes
at least every other day.
PRECAUCION
Estas plantas han sido tratadas
con un replente contra animales que tiene la substacia Thiram (tetramethyl
thiuram disulfide) que puede desaparecer en manoseo. La consuncion de bebidas alcoholicas
o el uso de cremas o lociones con base de alcohol dentro de 12 horas antes de ser
expuesto o hasta 7 dias despues de ser expuesto a Thiram puede resultar en
sintomas de nausea, dolor de cabeza, vomito, faiga o rubor. Contacto con Thiram puede causar irritacion de los ojos, nariz, garganta o piel.
Thiram puede interferir
o desv alidar en completa las medicinas de los epilepticos o personas con condiciones
de la corazon con dificultades de coagulacion de la sangre. Estudios con animals
en concentraciones muy altas (mnas que 250 mg-kg) indican que Thiram puede
causar desformaciones fetales. Sin que cuando se sembra plantas de semillas grandes
macaras estaran requerido a evitar contacto con la boca y la cara con plantas tratado
con Thiram excepto cuando otros metodos igualmente efecaz estarah usados.
MEDIAS DE PRECAUTION
1. Guardar mojados las platas
siempre.
2. El trabajador necesita usar
ropa para reducir el contacto de Thiram con law piernas, brazos, y el torso.
3. Una mascara de fibre o garra
(mascara) se puede usar a la discrecion del plantador.
4. Lavese bien los parten expuestos
cuando trate los semillos antes de fumar, tomar, comer e ir al bano.
5. Se acaso el Thiram cae en
sus ojos, imediatamente labese los ojos libremente con agua.
6. Banese todos los dias y cambiese
de ropa de trabojo por lo menos cada otro dia.
(C) Other containers or thiram
handling areas shall be signed and labeled in accordance with OAR 437, Division
2/J, General Environmental Controls, 1910.144 and 1910.145.
(h) Training.
(A) Each worker engaged in operations
where exposure to thiram may occur shall be provided training relating to the hazards
of thiram and precautions for its safe use and handling.
(B) The training shall be approved
by the Administrator.
(C) The training shall include
instruction in:
(i) The nature of the health
hazard(s) from chronic exposure to thiram including specifically the potential for
birth defects, alcohol intolerance, and drug interaction.
(ii) The specific nature of
operations which could result in exposure to thiram and the necessary protective
steps;
(iii) The purpose for, proper
use, and limitations of protective devices including respirators and clothing;
(iv) The acute toxicity and
skin irritation effects of thiram, and the necessary protective steps;
(v) The necessity for and requirements
of excellent personal hygiene;
(vi) A review of the thiram
rules at the worker’s first training and indoctrination, and annually thereafter.
(D) A copy of these thiram rules
shall be provided to each worker who may be exposed to thiram.
[Publications: Publications
referenced are available from the agency.]
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4).

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: WCB 13-1977(Temp), f.
& ef. 11-7-77; WCD 2-1978, f. & ef. 3-6-78; OSHA 12-1993, f. 8-20-93, cert.
ef. 11-1-93; OSHA 1-2012, f. & cert. ef. 4-10-12
437-002-0377
Additional Oregon Rules for Hazard Communication
(1) In addition
to the provisions of 1910.1200(i)(11), the Oregon Occupational Safety and Health
Division shall have the authority under ORS Chapter 654 to issue a subpoena or any
protective orders.
(2) Agency
actions under ORS Chapter 654 and these rules may be enforced by the issuance of
additional citations and penalties pursuant to ORS 654.071(4), ORS 654.086(1)(d),
or ORS 654.086(3). The Oregon Occupational Safety and Health Division may refer
the matter to the Circuit Court in the county in which the proceedings are pending
for enforcement of the subpoena.
Stat. Auth.: ORS
654.025(2) & 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented:
ORS 654.001 - 654.295

Hist.: WCB
6-1984, f. 6-25-84, ef. 11-25-85; APD 1-1988, f. & ef. 2-8-88; OSHA 12-1993,
f. 8-20-93, cert.; ef. 11-1-93; OSHA 5-2012, f. & cert. ef. 9-25-12
NOTE:
Former division 153, Pipe Labelling, has been redesignated, renumbered, and amended
as Oregon-initiated Rule 437-002-0378, to continue coverage not provided in federal
standards.
437-002-0378
Oregon Rules
for Pipe Labelling
(1) Scope and Application.
This division shall apply to all piping systems containing hazardous substances
or that use asbestos as a pipe insulation material in buildings, structures and
workplaces. This division does not apply to buried piping.
(2) Definitions.
Hazardous substances:
any substance which is a physical or health hazard.
Health Hazard:
A chemical which is classified as posing one of the following hazardous effects:
acute toxicity (any route of exposure); skin corrosion or irritation; serious eye
damage or eye irritation; respiratory or skin sensitization; germ cell mutagenicity;
carcinogenicity; reproductive toxicity; specific target organ toxicity (single or
repeated exposure); or aspiration hazard. The criteria for determining whether a
chemical is classified as a health hazard are detailed in Appendix A to 1910.1200
- Health Hazard Criteria.
Physical
Hazard: A chemical that is classified as posing one of the following hazardous
effects: explosive; flammable (gases, aerosols, liquids, or solids); oxidizer (liquid,
solid or gas); self-reactive; pyrophoric (liquid or solid); self-heating; organic
peroxide; corrosive to metal; gas under pressure; or in contact with water emits
flammable gas. See Appendix B to 1910.1200 – Physical Hazard Criteria.
Piping system:
includes pipes, single or multiple, of any kind and, in addition, valves and pipe
coverings.
Pipes: conduits
for the transport of gases, liquids, semiliquids or fine particulate dusts.
(3) Purpose. The
purpose of this division is to prescribe minimum labelling requirements for all
piping systems which contain hazardous substances, transport substances in a hazardous
state, or which use asbestos as a pipe insulation material.
(4) Labelling.
(a) Pipes
and piping systems which contain hazardous substances or transport substances in
a hazardous state shall be labelled in accordance with subsections (A), (B), (C)
and (D) or other- wise identified in accordance with subsection (c) of this rule:
(A) Positive
identification of the hazardous contents of a piping system shall be by lettered
labels. The label shall give the name of the contents in full or abbreviated form.
(B) Contents
shall be identified by labelling with sufficient detail to identify the hazard.
(C) Label
wording shall be brief, informative and simple.
(D) Labelling
shall be accomplished by stencilling, the use of tape, adhesives, markers or approved
alternative means.
(b) Pipes
or piping systems which use asbestos as a pipe insulation material shall be labelled
in accordance with subsection (b)(A), or otherwise identified in accordance with
subsection (c) below:
(A) The label
for pipe insulation containing asbestos shall include the following:
DANGER
CONTAINS ASBESTOS FIBERS
MAY CAUSE CANCER
CAUSES DAMAGE TO LUNGS
DO NOT BREATHE DUST
AVOID CREATING DUST
(c) The employer may use signs,
placards, process sheets, batch tickets, operating procedures, or other such written
materials in lieu of affixing labels to individual pipes, as long as the alternative
method identifies the pipe(s) to which it is applicable and conveys the information
required by this rule. The written materials shall be readily accessible to the
employees in their work areas during each shift. (OAR 437, Division 2/Z, Hazard
Communication, 1910.1200.)
(5) Location
of Labelling.
(a) Labelling
shall be applied where confusion may occur, such as close to valves or flanges and
adjacent to changes in direction, branches and where pipes pass through walls, floors
or ceilings.
(b) Labelling
shall be applied, at a minimum, at the beginning and end of continuous pipe runs.
(c) For asbestos
insulation, labelling shall be at a minimum, on unobstructed continuous pipe runs,
every 75 feet. Illustration.
(6) Visibility.
(a) Where
pipes are located above or below the normal line of vision, the lettering shall
be placed below or above the horizontal centerline of the pipe.
(b) Where
pipes are inaccessible and/or at a distance which precludes clear identification
of the letters on labelling, alternatives to the labelling which meet all other
requirements of this rule may be used (i.e., schematics posted on walls in work
areas). Appendix.
[ED. NOTE:
Tables referenced are not included in rule text. Click here for PDF copy of table(s).]
Stat. Auth.: ORS
654.025(2) & 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented:
ORS 654.001 - 654.295

Hist.: WCD
8-1986, f. 9-4-86, cert. ef. 10-1-87; OSHA 12-1993, f. 6-20-93, cert. ef. 11-1-93,
Renumbered from 437-153-0004-0025; OSHA 5-2012, f. & cert. ef. 9-25-12
437-002-0382
Oregon Rules for Air Contaminants
An employee’s exposure to any substance listed in Oregon Tables Z-1, Z-2, or Z-3 of this section shall be limited in accordance with the requirements of the following paragraphs of this section.
(1) Oregon Table Z-1.
(a) Substances with limits preceded by “C” -- Ceiling Values. An employee’s exposure to any substance in Oregon Table Z-1, the exposure limit of which is preceded by a “C”, shall at no time exceed the exposure limit given for that substance. If instantaneous monitoring is not feasible, then the ceiling shall be assessed as a 15-minute time weighted average exposure which shall not be exceeded at any time during the working day.
(b) Other substances -- 8-hour Time Weighted Averages. An employee’s exposure to any substance in Oregon Table Z-1, the exposure limit of which is not preceded by a “C”, shall not exceed the 8-hour Time Weighted Average given for that substance in any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week.
(c) Other Substances -- Excursion Limits. Excursions in worker exposure levels may exceed 3 times the PEL-TWA for no more than a total of 30 minutes during a workday, and under no circumstances should they exceed 5 times the PEL-TWA, provided that the PEL-TWA is not exceeded.
(d) Skin Designation. To prevent or reduce skin absorption, an employee’s skin exposure to substances listed in Oregon Table Z-1 with an “X” in the Skin Designation column following the substance name shall be prevented or reduced to the extent necessary in the circumstances through the use of gloves, coveralls, goggles, or other appropriate personal protective equipment, engineering controls or work practices.
(2) Oregon Table Z-2. An employee’s exposure to any substance listed in Oregon Table Z-2 shall not exceed the exposure limits specified as follows:
(a) 8-hour time weighted averages. An employee’s exposure to any substance listed in Oregon Table Z-2, in any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week, shall not exceed the 8-hour time weighted average limit given for that substance in Oregon Table Z-2.
(b) Acceptable ceiling concentrations. An employee’s exposure to a substance listed in Oregon Table Z-2 shall not exceed the acceptable ceiling concentration for the given substance in the table at any time during an 8-hour shift except:
(i) Acceptable maximum peak above the acceptable ceiling concentration for an 8-hour shift. An employee’s exposure to a substance listed in Oregon Table Z-2 shall not exceed the acceptable maximum peak above the acceptable ceiling concentration, and shall not exceed the maximum duration for the given substance during an 8-hour shift.
(c) Example. Table During an 8-hour work shift, an employee exposed to benzene may be exposed to an 8-hour time weighted average (TWA) of 10 ppm. Concentrations of benzene during the 8-hour work shift may not exceed 25 ppm, unless that exposure is no more than 50 ppm and does not exceed 10 minutes during an 8-hour work shift. Such exposures must be compensated by exposures to concentrations below 10 ppm so that the 8-hour time-weighted average is less than 10 ppm.
(d) Skin Designation. To prevent or reduce skin absorption, an employee’s skin exposure to substances listed in Oregon Table Z-2 with an “X” in the Skin Designation column following the substance name shall be prevented or reduced to the extent necessary in the circumstances through the use of gloves, coveralls, goggles, or other appropriate personal protective equipment, engineering controls or work practices.
(3) Oregon Table Z-3. An employee’s exposure to any substance listed in Oregon Table Z-3, in any 8-hour work shift of a 40-hour work week, shall not exceed the 8-hour time weighted average limit given for that substance in the table. Computation formulae. The computation formula which shall apply to employee expo- sure to more than one substance for which 8-hour time weighted averages are included in OAR 437, Division 2/Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances, in order to determine whether an employee is exposed over the regulatory limit is as follows: The cumulative exposure for an 8-hour work shift shall be computed as follows:
E = (CaTa + CbTb + ...CnTn) ÷ 8
Where:
E is the equivalent exposure for the working shift.
C is the concentration during any period of time T where the concentration remain constant.
T is the duration in hours of the exposure at the concentration C.
The value of E shall not exceed the 8-hour time weighted average specified in subpart Z of 29 CFR part 1910 for the substance involved.
To illustrate the formula prescribed in paragraph (4)(a)(i) of this section, assume that Substance A has an 8-hour time weighted average limit of 100 ppm (Oregon Table Z-1). Assume that an employee is subject to the following exposure:
Two hours exposure at 150 ppm
Two hours exposure at 75 ppm
Four hours exposure at 50 ppm
Substituting this information in the formula, we have
[(2 x 150) + (2 x 75) + (4 x 50)] ÷ 8 = 81.25 ppm
Since 81.25 ppm is less than 100 ppm, the 8-hour time weighted average limit, the exposure is acceptable.
In case of a mixture of air contaminants an employer shall compute the equivalent exposure as follows:
Em = (C1 ÷ L1) + (C2 ÷ L2) + .(Cn ÷ Ln)
Where:
Em is the equivalent exposure for the mixture.
C is the concentration of a particular contaminant.
L is the exposure limit for that substance specified in Subpart Z of 29 CFR Part 1910.
The value of Em shall not exceed unity (1).
To illustrate the formula prescribed in paragraph (4)(b)(i) of this section, consider the following exposures:
Table
Substituting in the formula, we have:
Em = (500 ÷ 1000) + (45 ÷ 200) + (40 ÷ 200)
Em = 0.500 + 0.225 + 0.200
Em = 0.925
Since Em is less than unity (1), the exposure combination is within acceptable limits.
(4) To achieve compliance with paragraphs (1) through (4) of this section, administrative or engineering controls must first be determined and implemented whenever feasible. When such controls are not feasible to achieve full compliance, protective equipment or any other protective measures shall be used to keep the exposure of employees to air contaminants within the limits prescribed in this section. Any equipment and/or technical measures used for this purpose must be approved for each particular use by a competent industrial hygienist or other technically qualified person. Whenever respirators are used, their use shall comply with 1910.134.
Notes, Footnotes, Table, Note, Footnotes, Table, Footnotes, Table
The measurements under this note refer to the use of an AEC (now NRC) instrument. If the respirable fraction of coal dust is determined with a MRE the figure corresponding to that of 2.4 mg/m3 in the table for coal dust is 4.5 mg/m3.
[ED. NOTE: Tables referenced are available from the agency.]
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 17-1993, f. & cert. ef. 11-15-93; OSHA 6-1994, f. & cert. ef. 9-30-94; OSHA 5-1997, f. & cert. ef. 4-22-97; OSHA 6-1997, f. & cert. ef. 5-2-97; OSHA 4-2001, f. & cert. ef. 2-5-01; OSHA 6-2006, f. & cert. ef. 8-30-06; OSHA 6-2008, f. 5-13-08, cert. ef. 7-1-08
NOTE: The following Oregon-initiated rule is adopted in place of 1910.1450(k).
437-002-0390
Oregon Effective Dates
(1) The effective date for 29 CFR 1910.1450 in Oregon is August 8, 1990.
(2) Start up dates in Oregon:
(a) Employers shall have developed and implemented a written Chemical Hygiene Plan no later than May 8, 1991;
(b) 29 CFR 1910.1450(a)(2) shall not take effect until the employer has developed and implemented a written Chemical Hygiene Plan.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & ORS 656.726(3)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - ORS 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 9-1990, f. 5-8-90, ef. 8-8-90
437-002-0391
Additional
Oregon Rules for Carcinogens in Laboratories
(1) Definitions.
“Absolute
filter” is one capable of retaining 99.97 percent of a monodisperse aerosol
of 0.3 μm particles.
For the purposes
of OAR 437-002-0391, “carcinogen” is defined as the substances regulated
by 29 CFR 1910.1003, 1910.1004, 1910.1006, 1910.1007, 1910.1008, 1910.1009, 1910.1010,
1910.1011, 1910.1012, 1910.1013, 1910.1014, 1910.1015, 1910.1016 and OAR 437-002-0364.
(2) Laboratory
activities. The requirements of this section shall apply to research and quality
control activities involving the use of a carcinogen.
(a) Mechanical
pipetting aids shall be used for all pipetting procedures.
(b) Experiments,
procedures and equipment which could produce aerosols shall be confined to laboratory-type
hoods or glove boxes.
(c) Surfaces
on which a carcinogen is handled shall be protected from contamination.
(d) Contaminated
wastes and animal carcasses shall be collected in impervious containers which are
closed and decontaminated prior to removal from the work area. Such wastes and
carcasses shall be incinerated in such a manner that no carcinogenic products are
released.
(e) All other
forms of a carcinogen shall be inactivated prior to disposal.
(f) Laboratory
vacuum systems shall be protected with disposable absolute filters. Exhaust systems
containing such filters shall be provided with suitable ports or openings to enable
determination of whether the filter in its operating location, does meet the efficiency
requirements defined in OAR 437-002-0391(1). Determination of filter efficiency
shall be by measurement, with a forward light scattering photometer, of passage
of a polydisperse dioctyl phthalate aerosol.
(g) Employees
engaged in animal support activities shall be:
(A) Provided
with, and required to wear, a complete protective clothing change, clean each day,
including coveralls or pants and shirt, foot covers, head covers, gloves, and appropriate
respiratory protective equipment or devices; and
(B) Required
to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit prior
to each exit from a regulated area and at the last exit of the day, to place used
clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes
of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers must
display the following warning:
DANGER
CONTAMINATED
MAY CAUSE CANCER
(C) Required to wash hands,
forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated area close to the point
of exit, and before engaging in other activities; and
(D) Required
to shower after the last exit of the day.
(h) Employees,
other than those engaged only in animal support activities, each day shall be:
(A) Provided
with and required to wear a clean change of appropriate laboratory clothing, such
as a solid front gown, surgical scrub suit, or full buttoned laboratory coat.
(B) Required
to remove and leave protective clothing and equipment at the point of exit prior
to each exit from a regulated area and at the last exit of the day, to place used
clothing and equipment in impervious containers at the point of exit for purposes
of decontamination or disposal. The contents of such impervious containers must
display the following warning:
DANGER
CONTAMINATED
MAY CAUSE CANCER
(C) Required to wash hands,
forearms, face and neck upon each exit from the regulated area close to the point
of exit, and before engaging in other activities.
(i) Air pressure
in laboratory areas and animal rooms where a carcinogen is handled and bio- assay
studies are performed shall be negative in relation to the pressure in surrounding
areas. Exhaust air shall not be discharged to regulated areas, non-regulated areas
or the external environment unless decontaminated.
(j) There
shall be no connection between regulated areas and any other areas through the ventilation
system.
(k) A current
inventory of carcinogens shall be maintained.
(l) Ventilated
apparatus such as laboratory type hoods, shall be tested at least semi-annually
or immediately after ventilation modification or maintenance operations, by personnel
fully qualified to certify correct containment and operation.
Stat. Auth.: ORS
654.025(2) & 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented:
ORS 654.001 - 654.295

Hist.: WCB
3-1975, f. 10-6-75, ef. 11-1-75; OSHA 12-1993, f. 6-20-93, cert. ef. 11-1-93; OSHA
5-2012, f. & cert. ef. 9-25-1
437-002-1001
Asbestos Respiratory
Protection Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d)(except (d)(1)(iii)), and (e) through (m) and (o), which covers each employee
required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1001 Asbestos, to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these Asbestos rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1017
Vinyl Chloride Respiratory
Protection Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii), and (d)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (2)), and (e) through (m) and
(o), which covers each employee required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1017, Vinyl Chloride,
to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these Vinyl Chloride rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1018
Inorganic Arsenic Respiratory
Protection Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (e) through (m) and (o), which covers each employee
required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1018 Inorganic Arsenic, to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these Inorganic Arsenic rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1025
Lead Respiratory Protection
Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (e) through (m) and (o), which covers each employee
required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1025 Lead, to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these Lead rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1027
Cadmium Respiratory Protection
Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (e) through (m) and (o), which covers each employee
required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1027 Cadmium, to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these Cadmium rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1028
Benzene Respiratory Protection
Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii), and (d)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (2)), and (e) through (m) and
(o), which covers each employee required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1028 Benzene, to
use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these Benzene rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1029
Coke Oven Emissions Respiratory
Protection Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii), and (d)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (2)), and (e) through (m) and
(o), which covers each employee required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1029 Coke Oven Emissions,
to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these Coke Oven Emissions rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1030
Additional Oregon Rules
for Bloodborne Pathogens
Every employer with employees
that use medical sharps in direct patient care must, at least annually, identify,
evaluate, and select engineering and work practice controls, including safer medical
devices.
(1) This evaluation must involve
non-managerial front-line employees responsible for direct patient care.
(2) This evaluation must be
done on a facility-by-facility basis. When a facility has multiple departments with
specific equipment and/or work practice
concerns, the evaluation must involve employees from those departments.
(3) After a device is evaluated and selected,
the employer must make a decision on implementing that device.
(a) If a device is not purchased
because of employer or employee concerns, those concerns must be documented. However,
if the employer does not purchase a device that had employee support, the employer
must also document the employee support, as well as the justification for not purchasing
that device.
(b) If a device is purchased
without the consent of the employees who evaluated it, the employer must document
the employees’ concerns, as well as the employers’ justification for
purchasing that device.
(c) All documentation required
by 437-002-1030(3) must be kept as part of the written Exposure Control Plan.
(4) The employer must ensure
that all affected employees are informed on the process for selecting safer medical
devices.
(5) Employees must be trained
in the use of safer medical devices before the employees use those devices.
Stat. Auth: ORS 654.025(2) &
656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 10-2001, f. 9-14-01,
cert. ef. 10-18-01
437-002-1035
Oregon Rule for Sharps
Injury Log
The requirement to establish
and maintain a sharps injury log applies to any employer who is required to maintain
an Exposure Control Plan. The sharps injury log must be maintained for 5 years.
Stat. Auth: ORS 654.025(2) &
656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 10-2001, f. 9-14-01,
cert. ef. 10-18-01
437-002-1043
Cotton Dust Respiratory
Protection Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii), and (d)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (2)), and (e) through (m) and
(o), which covers each employee required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1043 Cotton Dust,
to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these Cotton Dust rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1044
1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane
Respiratory Protection Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (e) through (m) and (o), which covers each employee
required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1044 1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane, to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these 1,2-Dibromo-3-Chloropropane rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1045
Acrylonitrile Respiratory
Protection Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii), and (d)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (2)), and (e) through (m) and
(o), which covers each employee required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1045 Acrylonitrile,
to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these Acrylonitrile rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1047
Ethylene Oxide Respiratory
Protection Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (e) through (m) and (o), which covers each employee
required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1047 Ethylene Oxide, to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these Ethylene Oxide rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1048
Formaldehyde Respiratory
Protection Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii), and (d)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (2)), and (e) through (m) and
(o), which covers each employee required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1048 Formaldehyde,
to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these Formaldehyde rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1050
Methylenedianiline Respiratory
Protection Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (e) through (m) and (o), which covers each employee
required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1050 Methylenedianiline, to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these Methylenedianiline rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1051
1,3-Butadiene Respiratory
Protection Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii), and (d)(3)(iii)(B)(1) and (2)), and (e) through (m) and
(o), which covers each employee required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1051 1,3-Butadiene,
to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these 1,3-Butadiene rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1052
Methylene Chloride Respiratory
Protection Program
The employer must implement
a respiratory protection program in accordance with Division 2/I, 1910.134(b) through
(d) (except (d)(1)(iii)), and (e) through (m) and (o), which covers each employee
required by Division 2/Z, 1910.1052 Methylene Chloride, to use a respirator.
NOTE: This is in addition
to other respiratory protection and medical surveillance requirements specified
in these Methylene Chloride rules.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2)
& 656.726(4)

Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295

Hist.: OSHA 5-2011, f. 12-8-11,
cert. ef. 7-1-12
437-002-1139
Working Over or In Water
(1) Scope and Application: This rule
applies to employees not covered by division 3, Construction; division 4, Agriculture
or division 6, Forest Practices. These rules apply where the danger of drowning
exists and the water is more than five feet deep. These rules do not apply to law
enforcement or emergency services workers nor to any workers protected by general
or personal fall protection nor to employees covered by OAR 437-002-1910.401 through
1910.441, Commercial Diving Operations.
(2) Definition: Rescue device
— A ring buoy and line, gaff pole, throwable rescue device or other device
that serves as a means to rescue somebody from the water without requiring the rescuer
to enter the water.
(3)(a) Workers in water
must wear a Coast Guard approved or equivalent, wearable personal flotation device
(PFD).
(b) Workers over water on
floating or unstable surfaces must wear a Coast Guard approved or equivalent, wearable
personal floatation device (PFD).
(c) Piers, docks, wharves
and work sites along developed shorelines must have rescue devices available within
200 feet of the water or shoreline work area.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 1-2001, f. 1-18-01,
cert. ef. 3-1-01
437-002-2101
Compressed Gases (General Requirements)
(1) Inspection of compressed gas cylinders.
Each employer must conduct a visual inspection of compressed gas cylinders under
their control to determine they are in a safe condition. Visual and other inspections
must be conducted as prescribed in the Hazardous Materials Regulations of the Department
of Transportation (49 CFR Parts 171-179 and 14 CFR Part 103). Where those regulations
are not applicable, visual and other inspections must be conducted in accordance
with Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Pamphlet C-6 2013, 11th Edition, Standard
for Visual Inspection of Steel Compressed Gas Cylinders and CGA Pamphlet C-8 2005,
Reaffirmed 2010, 7th Edition, Standard for Requalification of DOT-3HT, CTC-3HT,
and TC-3HTM Seamless Steel Cylinders.
(2) Compressed gases. The
handling, storage, and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable
tanks, rail tankcars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks must be in accordance with Compressed
Gas Association Pamphlet P-1 2008, 11th Edition, Safe Handling of Compressed Gases
in Containers.
(3) Safety relief devices
for compressed gas containers. Compressed gas cylinders, portable tanks, and cargo
tanks must have pressure relief devices installed and maintained in accordance with
Compressed Gas Association CGA S-1.1 2011 14th edition and, CGA S-1.2 2009 9th edition.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2), 656.726(4).
Stats. Implemented: ORS
654.001 - 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 6-2014, f. 10-28-14,
cert. ef. 5-1-15
437-002-2102
Acetylene
(1) Cylinders.
(a) Employers must ensure
that the manufacturing, in-plant transfer, transportation, handling, storage, and
use of acetylene in cylinders comply with this rule and the provisions of Compressed
Gas Association (CGA) Pamphlet G-1-2009 (“Acetylene”) (Compressed Gas
Association, Inc., 12th ed., 2009).
(b) Definitions.
(A) Confined space: A space
that meets all of the following:
(i) Large enough and configured
so that an employee can fully enter the space and perform work.
(ii) Has limited or restricted
means for entry and/or exit.
(iii) Is not designed for
continuous human occupancy.
(B) Enclosed space —
Spaces that are surrounded by something, and the only openings are access openings,
for example, drawers, closets, unventilated cabinets, automobile trunks, unventilated
cylinder compartments, or toolboxes.
(C) Handling – Moving,
connecting, or disconnecting a compressed gas container under normal conditions.
(D) PSIG (Gauge Pressure)
— Pressure above or below local atmospheric pressure displayed as pounds per
square inch.
(E) Secure — Arrange
to prevent movement (including lashing and chaining), or a minimum of three points
of contact with other cylinders or walls.
(F) Use — Withdrawing
and using the gas in a non-recoverable manner for applications other than manufacturing
or repackaging of compressed gasses.
(c) Acetylene Cylinders General
Requirements.
(A) You must:
(i) Store and use cylinders
valve end up.
NOTE: Gas suppliers and distributors
may store secured containers in a horizontal position.
(ii) Secure cylinder(s) to prevent falling
or movement.
(iii) Use a cylinder cart
or cylinder pallet to move acetylene cylinders.
NOTE: This rule does not apply to acetylene
fill plants, handling, distribution, and maintenance processes where cylinders are
tilted and rolled on their bottom edge only the minimal distance necessary to get
them on and off carts or pallets.
(iv) Attach the cylinder to a pressure
reducing regulator or blow back manifold before opening the cylinder valve.
(v) Remove pressure regulators
before moving cylinders unless they are secured in an upright position on a cylinder
cart.
(vi) Back out regulator adjusting
screws before opening cylinder valves.
(vii) Protect cylinders from
contact with welding spatters and cutting or burning slag.
(viii) Install reverse flow
check valves and flashback arresters according to manufacturer recommendation.
(B) You must not:
(i) Drop cylinders.
(ii) Drag cylinders.
(iii) Apply a torch to the
side of a cylinder.
(iv) Hoist cylinders using
lifting magnets, slings, ropes, chains, or any other device where the cylinders
form a part of the carrier.
(v) Handle cylinders so that
the bottom fusible metal pressure relief device can strike an object.
(vi) Expose any part of your
body to the line of discharge of a fusible metal pressure relief device.
(vii) Use acetylene at a
pressure exceeding 15 psig.
(viii) Exceed an acetylene
withdrawal rate of one-seventh of the cylinder capacity per hour for welding, cutting,
and allied processes.
(d) Transporting Acetylene
Cylinders (additional requirements).
(A) You must protect cylinders
and attached regulators:
(i) From damage when being
transported by any vehicle.
(ii) From abnormal mechanical
shock that is likely to damage the cylinder, valve, or fusible metal pressure relief
device.
(B) You must not transport
cylinders in enclosed spaces.
(C) You must ensure that
cylinders are leak checked prior to each placement into the vehicle. Cylinders left
in vehicles overnight must be leak checked at the end of the day and again prior
to transporting.
(e) Acetylene Cylinder Storage.
(A) You must store cylinders:
(i) In assigned locations.
(ii) In areas posted with
signs prohibiting smoking and open flame.
(iii) In well-ventilated
locations.
(iv) Away from heat sources.
(v) Where they are protected
from corrosion.
NOTE: Cylinders with or without regulators,
kept in or on vehicles due to their frequency of use will not be considered as stored
when a leak test is performed at the end of the day. When cylinders are used during
multiple shifts, they must be leak tested at the end of each shift.
(B) You must not store cylinders:
(i) Where they contact electrical
welding equipment or electrical circuits.
NOTE: All high and low pressure cylinders
in contact with or secured to a conductive table or column without being isolated
from electrical current can become part of an electrical circuit.
(ii) Where they can be struck by heavy
objects.
(iii) In enclosed spaces.
(iv) In confined spaces.
(v) Within 20 feet of oxygen
unless they are separated by a noncombustible partition. Partitions must:
(I) vertically extend at
least 18 inches above the tallest container and not less than 5 feet.
(II) laterally extend at
least 18 inches beyond the sides of the containers.
(III) have a fire resistance
rating of at least one-half hour.
NOTE 1: (paragraph (1)(e)(B)(v)): Single
cylinders of acetylene and oxygen can be stored secured on a cart or used adjacent
to each other without a partition.
NOTE 2: (paragraph (1)(e)(B)(v)):
Single cylinders of acetylene and oxygen secured at a work station without attached
pressure reducing regulators are considered to be in use.
(vi) With full and empty cylinders grouped
together.
NOTE: (paragraph (1)(e)(B)(vi)): This
does not apply to the cylinder distribution process.
(f) Connecting and Disconnecting Acetylene
Cylinders for Use.
(A) You must:
(i) Return cylinders with
contaminated valves (mud, oil, grease, and similar material) to the supplier.
(ii) Secure the cylinder(s)
where it can not contact any electrical circuit or electrical welding equipment.
NOTE: All high and low pressure cylinders
in contact with or secured to a conductive table column without being isolated from
electrical current can become part of an electrical circuit.
(iii) Inspect hoses before each shift.
(iv) Remove damaged hoses
from service.
(v) Check pressurized cylinder
valves, fuse plugs and all connections for leaks prior to use.
(vi) Use industry approved
leak detection solution or oil free soapy water.
(vii) Notify the gas supplier
of any leaking cylinder and follow the supplier’s instruction for returning
the cylinder.
(viii) Back out the regulator
adjusting screws before opening cylinder valves.
(ix) Close the system valves
and release all gas from the regulators before removing the regulator from a cylinder.
(x) Keep the cylinder key
used for opening the cylinder valve on the valve spindle when the cylinder is in
use.
(B) You must not attempt
to repair or alter cylinders or valves.
(2) Piped Systems.
(a) Employers must comply
with Chapter 9 (“Acetylene Piping”) of NFPA 51A-2006 (“Standard
for Acetylene Charging Plants”) (National Fire Protection Association, 2006
ed., 2006).
(b) When employers can demonstrate
that the facilities, equipment, structures, or installations used to generate acetylene
or to charge (fill) acetylene cylinders were installed prior to February 16, 2006,
these employers may comply with the provisions of Chapter 7 (“Acetylene Piping”)
of NFPA 51A-2001 (“Standard for Acetylene Charging Plants”) (National
Fire Protection Association, 2001ed., 2001).
(c) The provisions of 437-002-2102(2)(b)
also apply when the facilities, equipment, structures, or installation used to generate
acetylene or to charge (fill) acetylene cylinders were approved for construction
or installation prior to February 16, 2006, but constructed and installed on or
after that date.
(d) For additional information
on acetylene piping systems, see CGA G-1.2-2006, Part 3 (“Acetylene piping”)
(Compressed Gas Association, Inc., 3rd ed., 2006).
(3) Generators and filling
cylinders.
(a) Employer must ensure
that facilities, equipment, structures, or installations used to generate acetylene
or to charge (fill) acetylene cylinders comply with the provisions of NFPA 51A-2006
(“Standard for Acetylene Charging plants”) (National Fire Protection
Association, 2006 ed., 2006).
(b) When employers can demonstrate
that the facilities, equipment, structures, or installations used to generate acetylene
or to charge (fill) of acetylene cylinders were constructed or installed prior to
February 16, 2006, these employers may comply with the provisions of NFPA 51A-2001
(“Standard for Acetylene Charging Plants”) (National Fire Protection
Association, 2001 ed., 2001).
(c) The provisions of 437-002-2102(3)(b)
also apply when the facilities, equipment, structures, or installation were approved
for construction or installation prior to February 16, 2006, but constructed and
installed on or after that date.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 1-2010, f. &
cert. ef. 2-19-10; OSHA 6-2014, f. 10-28-14, cert. ef. 5-1-15
437-002-2224
Vehicle Drivers and Riders.
(1) Scope. This rule applies, without regard to vehicle ownership when your employees drive or ride as part of their employment.
NOTE: The Oregon Bureau of Labor and Industries (BOLI) administers rules about using minors as drivers. Please contact the nearest BOLI office for more information.
(2) Driver Qualifications. You must not allow an employee to drive a vehicle on a public highway or road unless they have a valid driver's license appropriate for that type vehicle.
(3) General Safety.
(a) Do not allow employees to drive or ride in any vehicle known to be unsafe.
(b) Require employees to report any safety problems effecting vehicles you own or provide.
(4) Rider Safety -- General.
(a) Except as in (5), (6) and (7), do not allow employees to occupy a vehicle in excess of its seating capacity.
(b) Require employees to comply with all applicable seatbelt and traffic safety laws.
(5) Rider Safety in the Bed of Dump Trucks, Pickups and Similar Vehicles. Do not transport workers in the beds of dump trucks, pickups or similar vehicles unless these conditions are met when applicable:
(a) When seating is available, it must be secure to the floor and passengers may not stand.
(b) The bed is secure to the frame. Beds that tilt or slide must be secure from movement.
(c) Dump beds must be secure or the activating lever locked.
(d) The total height of the sides of the transport area must be at least 42 inches. If riders sit on the floor, the height must be at least 24 inches.
(e) There must be a tailgate the same height as the sides or three evenly spaced chains, cables or ropes taut across the back.
(f) Not more than 4 workers may ride on a flatbed without sides or a tailgate and then only when the speed will not be more than 30 mph. There must be two handholds for each rider.
(g) Workers must not ride in space with cargo unless it is secure from movement.
(6) Standing Rider Safety -- Buses. Riders must not sit on the floor while the vehicle is moving. Riders may stand if these conditions are met:
(a) There must be an aisle at least 12 inches wide leading to the emergency exit.
(b) There are no seats in or boards across the aisle.
(c) There must be handholds for standing riders.
(d) Not more than one rider per row of seats may stand.
(e) Riders may not sit or stand near the driver and not ahead of the forward-most row of seats.
(f) Workers in transit must not stand for more than one hour or 45 miles, whichever is less. At the end of that period, the standing workers must get a seat or the vehicle must stop for a 15-minute rest allowing the workers to get out.
(7) Fueling.
(a) There must be no smoking or other source of ignition within 25 feet of any refueling operation.
(b) Do not fill any container that is not bonded or grounded while it is inside the vehicle, in the pickup bed or anyplace other than on the ground.
(c) Stop the engine (except diesels) during fueling.
(d) Refueling vehicles with LPG must be outdoors.
(8) Hauling gasoline or flammable liquid.
(a) For buses, vehicles that carry 16 or more, crew trucks, vans and passenger cars, use only DOT or UL approved containers that hold 5 gallons or less and secure them in an area separate from passengers.
(b) For pickups, flatbeds and other vehicles not in (a), there is no container size limit as long it is not in an enclosed passenger area.
(9) Hauling Explosives. When hauling explosives, only the driver and one qualified person may be in the vehicle. Comply with OAR 437-002-1910.109 and 437-002-0109.
(10) Loading or Unloading. When loading or unloading vehicles in a manner that is likely to cause the vehicle to move, set the brakes and chock the wheels.
(11) High Voltage Clearances. When operating a vehicle near overhead lines carrying more than 600v, OAR 437-002-0047 applies for general industry employers and OAR 437-003-0047 applies for Construction employers.
(12) Traffic Control. You must require employees to set up appropriate traffic controls when they stop on or adjacent to a highway, street, or road in a way that creates a hazard and when traffic cannot adjust safely on its own. The controls must conform to the Millennium Edition of the (FHWA) Manual of Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD), December 2000.
NOTE: Get a copy of the Millennium Edition from the following organizations: American Traffic Safety Services Association, 15 Riverside Parkway, Suite 100, Fredericksburg, VA 22406-1022; Telephone: 1-800-231-3475; Fax: (540) 368-1722; www.atssa.com; Institute of Transportation Engineers, 1099 14th Street, NW., Suite 300 West, Washington, DC 20005-3438; Fax: (202) 289-7722; www.ite.org; and American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials; www.aashto.org; Telephone: 1-800-525-5562.OR: Download the MUTCD 2000 at http://mutcd.fhwa.dot.gov/kno-millennium. OR: The MUTCD 2000 is available for review at the Oregon OSHA Resource Center, 350 Winter Street NE, Basement - Room 26, Salem, Oregon 97301-3882; Telephone: (503) 378-3272, or toll free in Oregon 1-800-922-2689.
NOTE: Employers who follow the most current edition of the Oregon Temporary Traffic Control Handbook for Operations of 3 Days or Less comply with this requirement.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2), 656.726(4).

Stat. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - 654.295.

Hist.: OSHA 6-2007, f. & cert. ef. 9-26-07
437-002-2225
Vehicles for Highway and Road Operation Characteristics and Maintenance
(1) Scope. This applies to employer-owned vehicles licensed for highway and road use, driven and/or maintained by employees on public or private property, except the following:
(a) Powered Industrial Trucks covered by OR-OSHA standard 1910.178 and OAR 437-002-0227.
(b) Earth moving equipment (scrapers, loaders, bulldozers and graders) covered by OAR 437-003-1926.602.
(c) Manufactured structures, ATVs, golf carts and other similar devices not intended for highway or road use.
NOTE: When operating a vehicle near overhead power lines more than 600 volts, OAR 437-002-0047 applies for General Industry employers and OAR 437-003-0047 applies for Construction employers.
(2) Vehicle Components.
(a) The engine start/stop control must be within reach of the driver.
(b) There must be steps, ladders and railings to allow safe access to and exit from areas on vehicles where employees must access. Steps and rungs must be slip resistant.
(c) Vehicles whose cargo is loaded by cranes, power shovels or other powered loaders must have a cab or cab shield that protects the occupants from the impact of falling material.
(d) Secure all material, equipment or tools to prevent movement or a barrier must be in place to protect the occupants from moving items.
(e) Vehicles with cabs must have a door or doors for entry and exit.
(f) Vehicle cargo must not prevent occupants from exiting under any condition.
(g) Vehicles must comply with ORS 811.225, Failure to Maintain Safety Belts in Working Order.
(3) Flashing Warning Lights. Buses with a capacity of 16 or more passengers must have a working flashing light system that complies with ORS 816.260 if they load or unload passengers on a public highway or road.
(4) Buses and Crew Trucks.
(a) Buses and crew trucks must have a secure seat with back rest for each occupant.
(b) Buses with an enclosed seating area for 12 or more workers, unless loaded from the rear, must have an emergency exit not less than 24 inches wide by not less than 48 inches high on the left side or rear of the vehicle. It must open easily from inside or outside the vehicle.
(5) Passenger Compartments.
(a) Floors and decks must be slip resistant.
(b) Seal openings between the engine compartment and muffler area to prevent carbon monoxide from entering the enclosed passenger compartment.
(c) Enclosed passenger compartment must be substantially dust proof and watertight.
(d) Areas where workers sit or stand must be free of protruding nails, screws, splinters or similar physical hazards.
(e) Protect riders from inclement weather by enclosing riding areas as necessary.
(6) Steering. Do not allow spinner knobs on vehicles without power steering. Spinner knobs must be on the inside of the steering wheel.
(7) Lighting. Where general lighting in vehicle operating areas is less than 2 footcandles per square foot, vehicles must have working lights that sufficiently light the travel path.
(8) Testing, Maintenance, and Repair.
(a) Block or crib heavy machinery, equipment or parts supported by slings, hoists, jacks or otherwise prevent it from falling before employees work underneath or between such objects.
(b) During repair or maintenance set all controls in neutral, stop the motor and set the brakes unless the work requires otherwise.
(c) During maintenance or inspection on vehicles with dump bins, use an attached, lockable support that prevents unintentional lowering of the bin.
(d) Disconnect the vehicle battery when the work allows and the energized system could cause injury.
(9) Warning Devices.
(a) All vehicles must have a working horn that can be heard above surrounding area noise. Paragraph (b) does not apply when the vehicle backs up with an observer or when the operator verifies that there is nobody behind the vehicle or when nobody may enter the danger area without the operator's knowledge.
(b) Vehicles with an obstructed view to the rear must have a backup alarm that can be heard over the surrounding noise. If surrounding noise prevents this or if there are so many vehicles using backup alarms that they cannot be distinguished from each other, flashing or strobe lights are acceptable.
(10) Control of Exhaust Gases.
(a) Vehicles must have a working muffler.
(b) Exhaust pipes must direct the gasses away from occupants.
(c) Insulate or otherwise protect exhaust pipes exposed to worker contact.
(11) First Aid Kits. Vehicles for transport of 16 or more workers must have a clean, stocked first aid kit with enough supplies for the number of workers usually transported.
NOTE: Laws and/or administrative rules administered by other government agencies require fire extinguishers in vehicles under specifically defined circumstances.
(12) Controls.
(a) Levers that control dump or hoist devices must have a latch or other device that prevents accidental starting or tripping of the mechanism.
(b) The operator of a dump truck must be able to operate the tailgate trip handle from a position clear of the dumping load.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2), 656.726(4).

Stat. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - 654.295.

Hist.: OSHA 6-2007, f. & cert. ef. 9-26-07
437-002-2226
Vehicles for Use on Property Other Than Public Roads and Highways Operation, Characteristics and Maintenance
(1) Scope. This rule applies to employer-owned vehicles, not licensed or normally operated on public highways or roads, except the following:
(a) Powered Industrial Trucks covered in OR-OSHA standard 1910.178 and OAR 437-002-0227.
(b) Earth moving equipment, (scrapers, loaders, bulldozers and graders) covered by OAR 437-003-1926.602.
(c) Manufactured structures, ATVs, golf carts and other similar devices not intended for highway or road use.
(2) Safe Operation. You must require the driver to:
(a) Look in the direction of travel and have a clear view unless being guided by somebody with a clear view of the route.
(b) Slow or stop as appropriate at intersections and not drive in marked pedestrian lanes.
(c) Not drive a vehicle up to a person standing in front of a stationary object.
(d) Manually control all towed or pushed vehicles unless they use a towbar.
(3) Vehicle Loads. You must protect employees from hazardous vehicle loads by requiring that they:
(a) Not load a vehicle beyond its rated capacity.
(b) Stabilize, lash down or otherwise secure the load.
(c) Never be under an elevated load.
(4) Basic Equipment Requirements. You must assure your vehicles comply with the following:
(a) Vehicles with windshields must have working powered wipers and an effective defroster.
(b) There must be no broken glass that impairs the driver's vision.
(c) When the load or passengers obstruct the use of the interior rear view mirror, there must be an outside rear view mirror on each side of the vehicle.
(d) Vehicle brakes must be effective when the vehicle is fully loaded. The parking brake must hold the loaded vehicle on any slope which it may operate.
NOTE: The rules on safety chains do not apply to saddle-mount towing, or to a semitrailer coupled to a towing vehicle with a fifth wheel and kingpin assembly so designed that the upper and lower halves may not separate without being manually released onto a dolly without a tow bar.
(5) Uncoupled towing. You must assure that:
(a) Towed vehicles with a gross weight of 5,000 pounds or less must have at least one safety chain or cable. Towed vehicles with a gross weight more than 5,000 pounds must have at least two safety chains or cables.
(b) Safety chains or cables must be strong enough to control the towed vehicle in event the tow bar or coupling device fails.
(c) Safety chains or cables must connect to the towed and towing vehicles and to the tow bar so as to prevent the tow bar from dropping to the ground if it or the coupling device fails.
(d) There must be only enough slack in safety chains or cables to permit proper turning.
(6) Coupled towing. You must assure that:
(a) Drawbar, coupling device, and other connections for towing of trailers must be strong enough to hold the weight of the towed vehicle on any grade over which it may operate.
(b) Any coupling device on any towing vehicle used as a connection for the tow bar on any towed vehicle with a gross weight more than 5,000 pounds must be firmly attached to the frame or to a solid connection to the frame.
(c) There must be a suitable locking means to prevent accidental separation of the towed and towing vehicles.
(d) Connections must have only enough slack to allow for universal action of the connections.
NOTE: When operating a vehicle near overhead power lines more than 600 volts, OAR 437-002-0047 applies for General Industry employers and OAR 437-003-0047 applies for Construction employers.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2), 656.726(4).

Stat. Implemented: ORS 654.001 - 654.295.

Hist.: OSHA 6-2007, f. & cert. ef. 9-26-07
437-002-2253
Oxygen-fuel Gas Welding and Cutting
(1) Scope and Application.
These rules apply to safe
practices for users of oxy-fuel gas for welding, cutting, soldering, brazing, flame
coating (thermal spraying), related materials and equipment, in general industry
and construction. This rule does not apply to agriculture, forest activities, or
maritime industries.
(2) Definitions.
(a) Apparatus — Includes
regulators, hoses, connections (fittings), torches, manifolds and safety devices.
(b) Approved — Means
listed or approved by a nationally recognized testing laboratory. Refer to1910.7
for definitions and requirements for a nationally recognized testing laboratory.
(c) Attended — When
a trained employee or qualified person is within sight of and can maintain control
of the torch.
(d) Brazing — Is a
metal joining process where filler metal is heated to join two or more close-fitting
metal parts. It is similar to soldering but the temperatures used to melt the filler
metal at or above 800oF.
(e) Burners — A type
of torch system usually designed for stationary use at the bench or lathe. The material
being worked, such as glass, is moved into and around the flame. Flame size is determined
by valves that adjust the flow and mix of fuel gas and oxygen.
(f) Check valve (reverse
flow check valve) — A device designed to prevent the unintentional backflow
of gases.
NOTE: Reverse flow check valves alone
will not stop a flashback in the system.
(g) Compartment (inside) — Is
within an enclosed vehicle and opens to the inside.
(h) Compartment (outside)
— Is recessed or built into an enclosed vehicle but opens to the outside of
the enclosed vehicle. This compartment seals the compressed gases from entering
the vehicle compartment and is vented to the outside of the vehicle.
(i) Competent person —
one who is capable of identifying existing and predictable hazards in the surroundings
or working conditions which are unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to employees,
and who has authorization to take prompt corrective measures to eliminate them.
(j) Confined space —
A space that meets all of the following:
(A) Large enough and so configured
that an employee can fully enter the space and perform work.
(B) Has limited or restricted
means for entry or exit.
(C) Is not designed for continuous
human occupancy.
(k) Containers (compressed,
liquefied and dissolved gas) — Cylinders, portable tanks, non-refillable cylinders,
or stationary tanks, consisting of various shapes and sizes that are designed and
constructed to meet ASME, TC or DOT specification.
(l) Crack (Cracking) —
Opening a cylinder valve slightly and immediately closing it prior to attaching
a pressure reducing regulator. This is an approved process that applies only to
oxygen cylinders.
(m) Cutting (oxy-fuel cutting)
— A process where a cutting torch is used to heat metal to kindling temperature.
A stream of oxygen is then trained on the metal, and metal burns in that oxygen
and then flows out of the cut.
(n) Cylinder(s) — An
approved DOT portable container used for transportation and storage of compressed
gas. Generally a cylinder is a compressed gas container having a maximum water capacity
of 454 kg (1000 lbs).
(o) Drop Test — A method
using compressed gas cylinder (container) pressure to test connected regulators,
hoses, torch and connections for leaks.
(p) Enclosed space —
Spaces that are surrounded by something and the only openings are access openings,
for example, drawers, closets, unventilated cabinets, automobile trunks, unventilated
cylinder compartments or toolboxes.
(q) Enclosed vehicle —
Includes but is not limited to the interior of automobiles, automobile trunks, vans,
or in any enclosed truck or trailer.
(r) Flame coating (thermal
spraying) — The use of oxygen and fuel gases to apply fine metallic or nonmetallic
materials in a molten or semi-molten condition to form a coating. The coating material
may be in the form of powder, ceramic-rod, wire, or molten materials.
(s) Flashback (flame) arrestor
— A device that prevents the propagation of a flame upstream.
(t) Fuel Gas — A flammable
product or mixture of products used in welding, cutting and heating processes. Commonly
used fuel gases are available in compressed gases, liquefied and liquefied mixtures,
acetylene dissolved, and gasoline.
(u) Handling — Moving,
connecting, or disconnecting oxygen and fuel gas containers under normal conditions.
(v) Leak test — The
application of a liquid solution, or the use of other methods, to verify that oxygen
and fuel gas cylinders and apparatus do not leak. Solutions must be compatible with
the gas being used.
(w) Manifold — An apparatus
designed to connect two or more cylinders for use. In construction this may mean
that two cylinders or more are connected by pigtails to form a manifold.
(x) Moving cylinders —
The movement of a cylinder(s) from one location to another at the worksite or place
of business.
(y) Periodic Inspection —
An inspection that is made at least once per quarter.
(z) Portable Cylinder banks
— Multiple cylinders manifolded together on a portable frame.
(aa) PSIG (Gauge Pressure)
— Pressure above or below local atmospheric pressure displayed as pounds per
square inch.
(bb) Secure — Arrange
to prevent movement (including lashing and chaining), or a minimum of three points
of contact with other cylinders or walls.
(cc) Special truck —
A vehicle or cart that is designed for the specific purpose of moving compressed,
dissolved and liquefied gas cylinders in a stable manner.
(dd) Stored — Cylinders
without attached regulators, cylinders not secured to a workstation, or cylinders
that have not been used for 24 hours or more will be considered stored. This does
not include cylinders secured on a cart.
NOTE 1: No more than one additional
set of cylinders may be secured to a workstation.
NOTE 2: Cylinders, with
or without regulators, kept in or on vehicles due to their frequency of use will
not be considered as stored when a leak test is performed at the end of the day.
When cylinders are used during multiple shifts, they must be leak tested at the
end of each shift.
(ee) Soldering — Is a metal joining
process where filler metal is heated to join two or more close-fitting metal parts.
It is similar to brazing but the temperatures used to melt the filler metal are
below 800oF.
(ff) Supervisory personnel
(supervisor) — An agent of the employer such as a manager, superintendent,
foreperson, or person in charge of all or part of the place of employment who directs
the work activities of one or more employees.
(gg) Torches:
(A) (Pre-mix) — Oxygen
and fuel gases are mixed in a chamber within the torch body.
(B) (Surface-mix) —
Oxygen and fuel gases are mixed at the torch tip.
(hh) Transporting cylinders
— Any cylinder movement by a vehicle to a worksite or place of business.
NOTE 1: A cylinder(s) loaded into a
vehicle for movement to a worksite or place of business is not in storage.
NOTE 2: Requirements for
the separation of oxidizers and fuel gases do not apply when cylinders are being
transported to a work site or place of business.
(ii) Use — Withdrawing and using
the gas in a non-recoverable manner for applications other than manufacturing or
repackaging of compressed gasses.
(jj) Valve end up —
The tops of all acetylene cylinders are elevated so that the cylinders are inclined
at an angle of not less than 30 degrees from horizontal (to protect against loss
of acetone).
(kk) Welder and welding operator
— One who operates electric or gas welding and cutting equipment.
(ll) Welding (oxy-fuel welding)
— A process using fuel gases and oxygen to weld metals. Welded metal occurs
when two pieces are heated to a temperature that produces a shared pool of molten
metal. The molten pool is generally supplied with additional metal called filler.
Filler material depends upon the metals to be welded.
(3) Training and Evaluation.
(a) You must provide training
by a competent person that covers:
(A) Procedures, practices
and requirements for representative tasks employees are expected to perform.
(B) Instructions for safe
use, operation and maintenance of tools, equipment and machinery.
(C) Manufacturer’s
operating and maintenance instructions, warnings and precautions.
(D) Work performance expectations
in a language or manner that employees are able to understand.
(E) Hazards associated with
expected tasks.
(F) Ways to prevent or control
identified hazards.
NOTE: A new employee does not need
to be retrained in all of (3)(a)(A)–(F) if you are able to determine through
discussion and observations that they received adequate training prior to employment
with you. Retraining is required if the employee fails to demonstrate the knowledge
and experience to safely perform the expected tasks.
(b) You must evaluate employee’s
ability to adequately perform the expected tasks prior to allowing them to work
independently.
(4) General Requirements.
(a) You must:
(A) Guard against mixtures
of fuel gases and air or oxygen that may be explosive.
(i) Use approved apparatus
such as torches, regulators, or pressure reducing valves, hoses and connections,
protective equipment, acetylene generators, and manifolds.
(ii) Install and use reverse
flow check valves and flashback arrestors according to torch manufacturers’
recommendations unless they are not required by the manufacturer.
(B) Use cylinders that meet
the Department of Transportation requirements published in 49 CFR Part 178.
(C) Use portable cylinders
for the storage and shipment of compressed gases that are constructed and maintained
in accordance with the U.S. Department of Transportation regulations, 49 CFR Parts
171-179.
(D) Use compressed gas cylinders
equipped with connections complying with Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Pamphlet
V-1 1994, 7th Edition, Standard for Compressed Gas Cylinder Valve Outlet and Inlet
Connections.
(E) Use compressed gas cylinders
whose contents are legibly marked with:
(i) The chemical or trade
name of the gas in conformance with Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Pamphlet C-7
2011, 9th Edition, Guide to Preparation of Precautionary Labeling and Marking of
Compressed Gas Containers, and
(ii) Stenciling, stamping,
or labeling that is not readily removable.
(F) Protect against oil and
grease hazards.
(i) Keep cylinders, cylinder
valves, couplings, regulators, hose, and apparatus free from oily or greasy substances.
(ii) Keep oxygen cylinders
away from contacting oil and grease.
(G) Follow the requirements
of OAR 437-002-2253(13) Service Piping, OAR 437-002-2253 (14) Acetylene Generators,
OAR 437-002-2253 (15) Calcium Carbide Storage when generating acetylene for immediate
use at the work location.
(H) Make readily available
the rules and instructions covering the operation and maintenance of oxygen or fuel-gas
supply equipment including generators, and oxygen or fuel-gas distribution piping
systems.
(b) You must not:
(A) Remove any product or
shipping hazard labels.
(B) Deface any product or
shipping hazard labels.
(C) Use liquid acetylene.
(D) Generate acetylene at
a pressure in excess of 15 psig (30 psia).
(E) Pipe or use acetylene
at a pressure in excess of 15 psig unless it is in an approved manifold.
NOTE 1: This requirement does not apply
to storage of acetylene dissolved in a suitable solvent in cylinders manufactured
and maintained according to U.S. Department of Transportation requirements, or to
acetylene for chemical use.
NOTE 2: Due to the instability
of acetylene, the 15 psig (30 psia) limit is intended to prevent unsafe use of acetylene
in pressurized chambers such as caissons, underground excavations, or tunnel construction.
(F) Use any device or attachment facilitating
or permitting mixtures of air or oxygen with flammable gases prior to consumption,
except at the burner or in a standard torch, unless approved for the purpose.
(G) Attempt to mix gases
in a cylinder unless you are a gas supplier.
(H) Refill a cylinder unless
you are:
(i) The owner of the cylinder,
or
(ii) Authorized by the owner
of the cylinder.
(I) Use a cylinder’s
contents for purposes other than those intended by the supplier.
(J) Use a damaged cylinder.
(K) Repair or alter cylinders
or valves.
(L) Tamper with the numbers
and markings stamped into cylinders.
(M) Handle oxygen cylinders,
cylinder caps and valves, couplings, regulators, hoses, and apparatus with oily
hands or gloves.
(N) Permit a jet of oxygen
to:
(i) Strike an oily surface.
(ii) Strike greasy clothes.
(iii) Enter a fuel oil or
other storage tank.
(O) Blow off clothing with
oxygen.
(P) Use oxygen in pneumatic
tools, in oil preheating burners, to start internal-combustion engines, to blow
out pipelines, to create pressure, or for ventilation.
(5) Transportation of Compressed,
Liquefied and Dissolved Gas Cylinders.
(a) When transporting cylinders
in vehicles you must:
(A) Secure cylinders from
moving.
(B) Keep valve protection
caps in place on cylinders when regulators are not attached.
NOTE: This applies to cylinders designed
to accept valve caps.
(C) Protect cylinder valves and regulators
when regulators are attached.
(D) Keep acetylene gas cylinders
with valve(s) end up.
(E) Keep liquid cylinder
valve(s) vertical.
(F) Keep oil residue from
contacting oxygen cylinders.
(b) When transporting cylinders
in enclosed vehicle(s) you must:
NOTE: This rule does not apply to cylinders
transported in an unoccupied enclosed truck or trailer compartment with a shippers’
certificate meeting the code for Hazardous Materials Regulations CFR 49 part 172.204.
(A) Ensure that cylinders are leak checked
prior to each placement into the vehicle. Cylinders left in vehicles overnight must
be leak checked at the end of the day and again prior to transporting.
(B) Cap cylinders.
(C) Secure cylinders from
movement.
(D) Isolate fuel gas cylinders
from sources of ignition.
(E) Maintain vehicle temperatures
below 125 degrees.
NOTE: Temperatures in vehicles can
exceed 125 F during sunny or warm weather. This may affect your decision to leave
cylinders in vehicles for periods of time when temperatures may climb.
(F) Remove cylinders from the “inside
vehicle compartment” to the outside of the vehicle prior to use.
(G) Open “outside vehicle
compartment” doors when withdrawing product from cylinders.
(H) Ensure that all outside
cylinder compartment(s) are sealed to prevent leakage to the inside of the vehicle.
Outside compartment doors must open to the outside of the vehicle.
(I) Ensure the interior of
any cylinder compartment containing oxidizers does not contain petroleum products
or materials that have contacted petroleum products.
(c) When transporting cylinders
in vehicles you must not put them in the trunks of passenger vehicles.
(6) Storage of Oxygen and
Fuel Gas Cylinders.
(a) You must store oxygen
and fuel gas cylinders in locations:
(A) Specifically assigned.
(B) Well ventilated.
(C) That avoids prolonged
exposure to damp environments.
(D) Away from heat sources.
(E) Posted with signs prohibiting
smoking and open flame within 20 feet.
(F) Where the temperature
does not exceed 125°F (52°C).
(G) Where sparks, hot slag,
or flame will not reach them.
(H) Where they will not contact
electrical welding equipment or electrical circuits.
NOTE: All high and low pressure cylinders
in contact with or secured to a conductive table or column without being isolated
from electrical current can become part of an electrical circuit.
(I) Where they are protected from corrosion.
(J) Where they cannot be
knocked over.
(K) Where they cannot be
damaged by passing or falling objects.
(L) Where they will not be
tampered with by unauthorized persons.
(M) Where they will not be
struck by heavy objects.
(N) Away from inside or outside
exit routes or other areas normally used or intended for safe travel of personnel.
(O) Where they will not be
subject to unventilated enclosed spaces.
(P) That are not identified
as confined spaces.
(Q) With prominent signs
posted identifying the names of the gasses stored.
(b) You must store cylinders
in the following manner:
(A) With valve caps in place.
NOTE: This applies to cylinders designed
to accept valve caps.
(B) Valve end up and secured from movement.
(C) Liquefied gas cylinders
and acetylene cylinders with valve end up.
NOTE: Liquefied petroleum gas cylinders
used on forklifts may be stored either horizontally or vertically.
(D) Refrigerated liquid cylinders in
a vertical position.
(E) With all individual oxygen
and flammable gas cylinder valves on portable cylinder banks closed.
(c) You must separate oxygen
cylinders from fuel-gas cylinders or combustible materials (especially oil or grease)
and any other substance likely to cause or accelerate fire by:
(A) A minimum distance of
20 feet, or
(B) A noncombustible barrier
that:
(i) Vertically extends 18
inches above the tallest cylinder(s) and is at least 5 feet high.
(ii) Laterally extends 18
inches beyond the sides of the cylinders.
(iii) Has a fire-resistance
rating of at least one-half hour.
NOTE 1: If you have a preexisting noncombustible
barrier used to separate oxygen from combustible materials or fuel gases other than
acetylene, the barrier must be a minimum of 5 feet high and have a minimum fire
resistance rating of one-half hour. Noncombustible barriers built after May 1, 2015,
must comply with the 18 inch dimensions found in 437-002-2253(6)(c)(B)(i) and (ii).
NOTE 2: 437-002-2102 Acetylene,
requires noncombustible partitions used for oxygen and acetylene separation to extend
18 inches horizontally and vertically.
(d) You must separate oxygen and fuel
gas cylinders secured on a cart from assigned cylinder storage areas by a minimum
of 20 feet or a non combustible barrier.
NOTE 1: Single cylinders of oxygen
and fuel gas can be secured on a cart or used adjacent to each other without being
separated by a partition.
NOTE 2: An additional set
of cylinders secured at a workstation without attached pressure reducing regulators
will be considered in use and not in storage.
(e) You must limit cylinders, except
those in actual use or attached ready for use, stored inside buildings to a total
gas capacity of 2,000 cubic feet or 300 pounds of liquefied petroleum gas.
(f) Store cylinders of fuel
gases in excess of 2,000 cubic feet total gas capacity or 300 pounds of liquefied
petroleum gas (LPG), or any LPG mixture where LPG is the primary gas, (this does
not apply to cylinders in actual use or attached ready for use) in the following
manner:
(A) Outside, or
(B) In a separate room, compartment
or special building with interior walls, partitions, floors, and ceilings that:
(i) Are constructed with
noncombustible material having a fire-resistance floor to ceiling
(ii) Are securely anchored
(iii) Have at least one wall
of the room that is an exterior wall
(C) The room must have a
swinging type, self-closing fire door for a Class B opening and have a rating of
at least 1 hour if there are openings to other parts of the building.
(D) The room must have wired
glass windows mounted with approved metal frames and fixed sashes where windows
are used. They must be installed in accordance with the Standard for the Installation
of Fire Doors and Windows, NFPA 80-1970.
(g) You must comply with
the provisions of the Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluid Code, NFPA No. 55-2010
when a liquid oxygen system is to be used to supply gaseous oxygen that has a storage
capacity of more than 20,000 cubic feet of oxygen (measured at 14.7 psia (101 kPa)
and 70° F (21.1° C)), connected in service or ready for service, or unconnected
reserves on site.
(h) The handling, storage,
and utilization of all compressed gases in cylinders, portable tanks, rail tank
cars, or motor vehicle cargo tanks must be in accordance with Compressed Gas Association
(CGA) Pamphlet P-1 2008, 11th Edition, Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers.
(7) Handling of Oxygen and
Fuel Gas Cylinders.
(a) When handling or moving
cylinders you must:
(A) Provide adequate access
for cylinder handling.
(B) Remove regulators and
ensure any required valve protection is in place before moving unsecured cylinders.
(C) Move cylinders using
a special truck, a cylinder hand truck, a cart or cylinder pallet.
NOTE: This rule does not
apply to acetylene manufacturers, cylinder fill plants and distributors of compressed
gases and acetylene. (7)(a)(C) does not apply to the movement of individual fuel
gas cylinders of 40 cubic feet (b-tank) or less.
(D) Leave the valve protection
cap and valve seal outlet in place until the cylinder has been secured in place
and is ready to be connected to a regulator or manifold.
NOTE: This does not apply
to manufacturers and distributors of compressed gases and acetylene plants where
cylinders are connected and disconnected to cylinder manifolds.
(E) Use warm, not boiling,
water to thaw frozen cylinders loose from the ground or if otherwise fixed.
(b) When moving cylinders
by a crane or derrick you must:
(A) Use a cradle, boat, or
suitable platform that secures cylinders.
(B) Install valve-protection
caps on cylinders, including those cylinders with a water weight capacity of over
30 lbs., designed to accept a cap.
(C) Not use slings or electric
magnets for this purpose.
(c) Before moving a portable
bank or cylinder cradles you must:
(A) Close all individual
oxygen and flammable gas cylinder valves on portable cylinder banks when in storage.
(B) Restrict manual movement
of portable cylinder banks to clean, smooth, level stationary surfaces.
(C) Stay out of the portable-bank’s
travel path when moving manually.
(d) When moving a portable
bank or cylinder cradles with a forklift you must secure them to the forklift.
(e) When moving a portable
bank or cylinder cradles with a crane you must use the lifting hook attached to
the cradles or other appropriate moving equipment.
(f) When lifting liquid cylinders
you must:
(A) Lift by using the cylinder
lift eyes.
(B) Use a lifting device
designed for the lift and rated for the weight.
(g) Before moving cylinders
to storage you must:
(A) Close the cylinder valve.
(B) Replace and secure any
valve outlet seals.
(C) Properly install the
cylinder cap.
(h) When handling or moving
cylinders you must not:
(A) Repair or alter cylinders
or valves.
(B) Place bars under valves
or valve protection caps to pry cylinders loose when frozen to the ground or otherwise
fixed.
(C) Use valve protection
caps for lifting or lowering cylinders manually or with a crane from one position
or location to another.
(D) Drag or slide cylinders.
(E) Lift liquid cylinders
by the cylinder grab ring.
(F) Drop cylinders or permit
them to strike each other violently.
(G) Subject any cylinder
to mechanical shocks that may damage the valve.
(H) Use cylinders as rollers
for moving material or other equipment.
(I) Permit oil, grease or
other combustible substances to contact cylinders, valves, or other apparatus.
(J) Attempt to catch a falling
cylinder.
(K) Place cylinders where
they can become part of an electrical circuit.
NOTE: All pressurized cylinders in
contact with or secured to a conductive table or column without being isolated from
electrical current can become part of an electrical circuit.
(i) When connecting cylinders for use
you must:
(A) Use a pressure-reducing
regulator or separate control valve to discharge gas from a cylinder.
(B) Use regulators approved
for the specific gas.
(C) Loosen the valve outlet
seal slowly when preparing to connect a cylinder.
(D) Back out the regulator
adjusting screws before opening cylinder valves.
(E) Open oxygen cylinder
valves slowly and slightly (called cracking) for an instant and then close before
attaching a regulator. Stand with the cylinder valve between you and the valve outlet
connection so the outlet connection is facing away from your body when cracking
an oxygen cylinder.
NOTE: Cracking is an approved
process that applies only to oxygen cylinders.
(F) Open acetylene cylinder
valves no more than one and one half turns.
NOTE: It is preferable to
open the acetylene valve no more than three-fourths of a turn.
(G) Return cylinders with
contaminated valves (mud, oil, grease, and similar material) to the supplier.
(H) Use acetylene tank keys
or wrenches designed to open acetylene stem type valves.
(I) Notify the supplier if
cylinder valves cannot be opened by hand.
(J) Stand with the cylinder
valve between you and the regulator so your body, the cylinder valve, and regulator
form a straight line when opening the cylinder valve.
(K) Open cylinder valves
slowly and carefully after the cylinder has been connected to the process.
(L) Ensure that cylinder
valves, pressure-reducing regulators, hoses, torches and all connections do not
leak.
(i) Perform a drop test
(I) Ensure that both the
oxygen and fuel control valves on the torch handle are closed.
(II) With the oxygen cylinder
valve open, adjust the oxygen regulator to deliver a minimum of 20 PSIG (10kPa).
(III) With the fuel cylinder
valve open, adjust the fuel regulator to deliver a minimum of 10 PSIG (70kPa).
(IV) Close both the oxygen
and fuel cylinder valves.
(V) Turn the adjusting screws
counterclockwise to relieve regulator pressure.
(VI) Observe the gauges on
both regulators for a minimum of five minutes. If the gauge readings do not change,
then the system is leak tight. If there is a leak, use an approved leak detection
method to locate it.
(ii) If the pressure drops
during the drop test, perform a leak test to identify all leaks.
(iii) Use industry approved
oil free leak detection solution.
(iv) Perform a leak test
on cylinder pressure relief and safety devices, valves and regulator connections
after the cylinder valve is open and connected to the pressure reducing regulator.
(v) Remove from service any
cylinder that leaks at the valve, safety device or fittings that cannot be stopped
by closing the valve. Isolate the cylinder away from ignition sources.
NOTE: Remove leaking cylinders to a
safe outside location whenever possible. A warning should be placed near cylinders
with leaking fuse plugs or other leaking safety devices not to approach them with
a lighted cigarette or other source of ignition.
(vi) Promptly notify the supplier of
any leaking cylinder or trouble with any cylinder valve and follow their instructions.
(vii) Tag cylinders having
leaking fuse plugs or other leaking safety devices.
(M) Keep the cylinder key
used for opening stem type cylinder valves on the valve spindle.
(N) Allow each gas to flow
through its respective hose for a few seconds to purge the hose of any mixture of
gases:
(i) After connecting welding,
cutting or heating apparatus to oxygen and fuel-gas cylinders.
(ii) When starting to reuse
the apparatus after an interval of a half hour or more.
(j) When connecting cylinders
you must not:
(A) Open cylinder valves
(other than cracking oxygen) until a regulator has been attached.
(B) Stand or have any body
part in front or behind the pressure reducing regulator when opening cylinder valves.
(C) Use a hammer or wrench
to open hand wheel cylinder valves.
(k) When removing regulators
from cylinders you must:
(A) Ensure that oxygen and
fuel gas cylinder valves are closed.
(B) Visually check the low
pressure delivery gauges and high pressure supply gauge to ensure there is no pressure
remaining in the system.
(C) Use the appropriate wrench
to disconnect the regulator.
(D) Place disconnected regulators,
hoses, and torches where they will not come into contact with dust and oily or greasy
substances.
(8) Use of Oxygen and Fuel
Gas Cylinders.
(a) When using cylinders
you must:
(A) Secure from movement
with valve end up.
(B) Perform a drop test as
defined in (7)(i)(L)(i) at the beginning of each shift to verify no leaks exist.
(C) Close cylinder or manifold
valves:
(i) Before moving cylinders.
(ii) At the end of the shift
or when work is finished.
(iii) When cylinders are
empty.
(D) Place cylinders far enough
away from the actual welding or cutting operation to:
(i) Ensure sparks, hot slag,
or flame will not reach them, or
(ii) Protect them with fire
resistant shields.
(E) Keep cylinders away from
radiators, piping systems, layout tables, etc., that may be used for grounding electric
circuits such as for arc welding machines.
(F) Keep keys, handles or
nonadjustable wrenches on valve stems of cylinders not having fixed hand wheel while
these cylinders are in service.
(G) Keep one key or handle
on valve stems for each in service manifold in multiple cylinder installations.
(H) Allow each gas to flow
through its respective hose for a few seconds to purge the hose of any mixture of
gases before using a torch assembly that has been shutdown for an interval of one
half hour or more.
(I) Follow the apparatus
manufacturer’s operating sequence when lighting, adjusting, and extinguishing
torch flames.
(J) Close the torch handle
valves on oxygen and/or fuel gas when the welding and cutting equipment is unattended
for only a few minutes.
NOTE: This does not apply to jeweler’s
torches or other torches similar in size when placed in proper holders.
(K) Completely shut down a torch system
(refer to (8)(a)(C)) in the following order:
(i) Close and drain the oxygen
system before the closing and draining of the fuel gas system.
(ii) Open the torch valves
momentarily after closing the cylinder valves to release all gas pressure from the
hoses and regulators; then close the torch valves.
(iii) Turn the regulator
pressure adjusting screws counter clockwise to release all spring pressure.
(iv) Visually check the low
pressure delivery gauge and high pressure supply gauge to ensure there is no pressure
remaining in the system.
(b) When using cylinders
you must not:
(A) Place a cylinder where
it might become part of an electric circuit.
(B) Tap an electrode against
a cylinder to strike an arc.
(C) Use a cylinder as a roller
or support.
(D) Attempt to mix gases
in a cylinder unless you are the gas supplier.
(E) Refill a cylinder unless
you are the owner of the cylinder or a person authorized by the owner.
(F) Use a cylinder’s
contents for purposes other than those intended by the supplier.
(G) Tamper with safety devices
on cylinders or valves.
(H) Drop or handle cylinders
roughly.
(I) Put down a lighted torch
unless the torch or torch assembly is placed in a holder and secured from unintended
movement.
(J) Use the regulator adjusting
screw as a shut-off mechanism.
(K) Place anything on top
of any cylinder when in use which may damage the safety device or interfere with
the quick closing of the valve.
(L) Take cylinders containing
oxygen or acetylene or other fuel gas into confined spaces.
(9) Pressure Reducing Regulators.
(a) When using pressure reducing
regulators you must:
(A) Use them with cylinder
and piping outlets to ensure suitable working pressure for fuel gas and oxygen-fuel
gas applications.
(B) Use them for the gas
and pressures for which they are intended.
(C) Ensure that regulator
inlet connections are marked with an identifying Compressed Gas Association (CGA)
number.
NOTE: The CGA numbers identify the
cylinder valve and gas service for which an inlet connection is designed.
(D) Ensure that inlet connections of
regulators intended for attachment to gas storage cylinders comply with the requirements
of Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Pamphlet V-1 1994, 7th Edition, Standard for
Compressed Gas Cylinder Valve Outlet and Inlet Connections and Compressed Gas Association
(CGA) Pamphlet V-7 2009, 5th Edition, Standard Method of Determining Cylinder Valve
Outlet Connections for Industrial Gas Mixtures.
(E) Ensure that regulators
or parts of regulators, including gauges, are repaired only by skilled mechanics
who have been properly instructed.
(F) Use oxygen regulators
that are marked with “USE NO OIL.”
(G) Use acetylene regulator
with a delivery pressure gauge that graphically indicates the maximum 15 psig working
pressure.
(H) Inspect regulator union
nuts and connections to detect faulty seats before the regulators are attached to
the cylinder valves.
(I) Fully turn the regulator
pressure-adjusting screw counter clockwise before slowly opening the cylinder valve.
(J) Keep pressure-reducing
regulators in good repair.
(K) Replace cracked, broken
or otherwise defective parts (including gauge glasses).
(b) When using pressure reducing
regulators you must not:
(A) Use the regulator adjusting
screw as a “shut-off” mechanism.
(B) Use oxygen and/or fuel
gases from cylinders, piping, or manifolds through torches or other devices equipped
with shutoff valves without using a pressure reducing regulator.
(10) Hose and Hose Connections
(a) When using fuel gas and
oxygen hoses you must:
(A) Use hoses that comply
with the Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Pamphlet E-1 2009, 6th Edition, Standard
for Rubber Welding Hose and Hose Connections for Gas Welding, Cutting, and Allied
Processes and Association for Rubber Products Manufacturers (ARPM) Publication IP-7
2011, 10th Edition.
NOTE: This standard does not apply
to liquefied petroleum gas hose covered under NFPA 58, Liquefied Petroleum Gas Code
applicable to the propane industry.
(B) Use fuel gas and oxygen hoses that
are easily distinguishable from each other.
NOTE: The contrast may be made by different
colors or by surface characteristics readily distinguishable by the sense of touch.
Use red for fuel gases, green for oxygen, and black for inert gas.
(C) Use “Grade T” hose for
most fuel gases to include acetylene.
NOTE: Grade R or RM hose may only be
used with acetylene. Do not use with any other fuel gas.
(D) Use oil free air or an oil free
inert gas to test hoses.
(E) Keep hoses and couplings
(connectors) free from oily or greasy substances.
(F) Visually inspect each
hose for leaks, burns, worn places, bulges, cracks, crimps, multiple splices, cuts,
oil and grease, damaged or worn fittings, and other defects rendering it unfit for
service:
(i) At the beginning of each
task, the portion of hose intended for use, or
(ii) At the end of each working
shift, the portion of hose used before storing it on a cart or hose reel.
(G) Perform inspections on
hoses and hose connections following any failed drop test to determine the cause
of the failure.
(H) Test hose to twice the
normal pressure it will be subjected to but in no case less than 300 psi. when it:
(i) Has been subject to flashback,
or
(ii) Shows evidence of severe
wear or damage.
(I) Repair or replace hoses
that have defects rendering them unfit for service.
(J) Protect hoses from damage
by physical hazards, hot objects, or kinking.
(K) Keep hoses, cables, and
other equipment clear of passageways, ladders and stairs.
(L) Use manifold hose connections,
including both ends of the supply hose that lead to the manifold, with hose that
cannot be interchanged between fuel gas and oxygen manifolds and supply header connections.
You must not use adapters to permit the interchange of hose.
(M) Cap manifold and header
hose connections when not in use.
(N) Store gas hoses in ventilated
boxes.
(b) When using fuel gas and
oxygen hoses you must not:
(A) Route in such a manner
that severely bends the hose at the hose coupling (connector).
(B) Pull or drag welding
equipment with the hose assembly.
(C) Drag or rest hoses on
materials that are not fully cooled.
(D) Drag hoses across potential
puncture or abrading points.
(E) Handle oxygen hoses with
oily hands or oily gloves.
(F) Tape together more than
4 inches out of 12 inches of parallel sections of oxygen and fuel gas hose.
(G) Use a single hose having
more than one gas passage.
(H) Repair damaged hoses
with tape.
(I) Use a defective hose.
(c) Hose connections must:
(A) Comply with Compressed
Gas Association (CGA) Pamphlet E-1 2009, 6th Edition, Standard for Rubber Welding
Hose and Hose Connections for Gas Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes, (3) Connections.
(B) Clamp or securely fasten
in a manner that will withstand twice the pressure to which they are normally subjected,
and in no case less than a pressure of 300 psi, for one (1) minute, without leakage.
(C) Use oxygen and fuel gas
connection fittings that are different in size and prevent the intermixing of connections,
or
(D) Be marked in a manner
to identify the oxygen and fuel gas hose.
(E) Use hose couplings that
cannot be unlocked or disconnected by means of a straight pull without rotary motion.
(d) When using hose connections
you must not use adaptors that permit the interchange of manifold hose connections.
(11) Torches used with Oxygen
and Fuel Gas.
(a) When using oxygen and
fuel gas torches you must:
(A) Follow the manufacturer’s
recommendation for the use of torch handles with internal check valves and flashback
arrestors.
(B) Keep torches free from
oily or greasy substances.
(C) Clean clogged torch tip
openings with suitable:
(i) Cleaning wires.
(ii) Drills.
(iii) Devices designed for
such purposes.
(D) Inspect torches following
any failed drop test to determine the cause of the failure prior to using. Check:
(i) Shut-off valves.
(ii) Hose couplings.
(iii) Tip connections.
(E) Only light torches with
friction lighters, stationary pilot flames or other approved devices.
(b) You must not:
(A) Use defective torches.
(B) Light a torch:
(i) With matches.
(ii) From hot work.
(iii) With other hand held
open flame.
(12) Manifolds with Oxygen
and Fuel Gas.
(a) When working with oxygen
and fuel gas manifolds you must:
(A) Label each manifold with
the name of the product they contain in letters at least 1-inch high:
(i) Use permanent signage,
or
(ii) Use painted letters.
(B) Place oxygen and fuel
gas manifolds in safe, well ventilated and accessible locations.
(C) Use manifolds that are
either approved separately for each component part or as an approved assembled unit.
(D) Limit the total capacity
of fuel-gas cylinders connected to one manifold inside a building. The total capacity
must not exceed 300 pounds (135.9 kg) of liquefied petroleum gas or 3,000 cubic
feet (m3) of other fuel-gas, except as provided for in paragraph (a)(F).
(E) Separate more than one
manifold connected to cylinders located in the same room by:
(i) At least 50 feet, or
(ii) A noncombustible partition
that:
(I) Extends at least 18 inches
above the tallest container and is not less than 5 feet high.
(II) Extends laterally at
least 18 inches beyond the sides of the containers.
NOTE 1: If you have a preexisting noncombustible
barrier used to separate oxygen from combustible materials or fuel gases other than
acetylene, the barrier must be a minimum of 5 feet high and have a minimum fire
resistance rating of one-half hour. Noncombustible barriers built after May 1, 2015,
must comply with the 18 inch dimensions found in 437-002-2253(12)(a)(E)(ii)(I) and
(II).
NOTE 2: 437-002-2102 Acetylene,
requires noncombustible partitions used for oxygen and acetylene separation to extend
18 inches horizontally and vertically.
(III) Has a fire-resistance rating of
at least one-half hour.
(F) Locate fuel-gas cylinders
connected to one manifold having an aggregate capacity exceeding 300 pounds of liquefied
petroleum gas or 3,000 cubic feet of other fuel-gas:
(i) Outdoors, or
(ii) In a separate building
or room constructed in accordance with the rules on acetylene generators (14)(d)(H)(i),
(d)(H)(ii), and (d)(H)(iii) and (14)(d)(I)(i), (d)(I)(ii), and (d)(I)(iii).
(G) Ensure that separate
manifold buildings or rooms used for storage of calcium carbide and cylinders containing
fuel gases:
(i) Are well-ventilated.
(ii) Do not have open flames
for heat or lighting.
(iii) Are in compliance with
Storage (6)(f)(B) when cylinders exceed 2000 cubic feet or 300 pounds of liquefied
petroleum gas.
(H) Use approved pressure
regulating devices on high-pressure fuel-gas manifolds.
(I) Use manifold hose connections
that are not interchangeable on all ends of the supply hose that leads to the manifold.
(J) Keep hose connections
free of grease and oil.
(K) Cap manifold and header
hose connections when not in use.
(b) When working with oxygen
and fuel gas manifolds you must not:
(A) Locate oxygen and fuel
gas manifolds in enclosed or confined spaces.
(B) Use adaptors that permit
the interchange of manifold hose connections.
(C) Place anything on top
of a manifold when in use which will:
(i) Damage the manifold
(ii) Interfere with the quick
closing of the manifold valve(s).
(c) When using high-pressure
oxygen manifolds (for use with cylinders having a Department of Transportation service
pressure above 200 psig (1.36 MPa)) you must:
(A) Use manifolds that are
either approved separately for each component part or approved as an assembled unit.
(B) Separate oxygen manifolds
from fuel-gas cylinders or combustible materials (especially oil or grease) by a:
(i) Minimum distance of 20
feet, or
(ii) Noncombustible partition
that complies with Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Pamphlet P-1 2008, 11th Edition,
Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers:
(I) Extends at least 18 inches
above the tallest container and is not less than 5 feet high.
(II) Extends laterally at
least 18 inches beyond the sides of the containers.
NOTE 1: If you have a preexisting noncombustible
barrier used to separate oxygen from combustible materials or fuel gases other than
acetylene, the barrier must be a minimum of 5 feet high and have a minimum fire
resistance rating of one-half hour. Noncombustible barriers built after May 1, 2015,
must comply with the 18 inch dimensions found in 437-002-2253(12)(c)(B)(ii)(I) and
(II).
NOTE 2: 437-002-2102 Acetylene,
requires noncombustible partitions used for oxygen and acetylene separation to extend
18 inches horizontally and vertically.
(III) Has a fire-resistance rating of
at least one-half hour.
(C) Limit oxygen cylinders
connected to one manifold to a total gas capacity of 6,000 cubic feet except as
provided in paragraph (c)(E).
(D) Separate manifolds by:
(i) At least 50 feet, or
(ii) A noncombustible partition
that complies with Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Pamphlet P-1 2008, 11th Edition,
Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers:
(I) Extends at least 18 inches
above the tallest container and not less than 5 feet high.
(II) Extends laterally at
least 18 inches beyond the sides of the containers.
NOTE 1: If you have a preexisting noncombustible
barrier used to separate oxygen from combustible materials or fuel gases other than
acetylene, the barrier must be a minimum of 5 feet high and have a minimum fire
resistance rating of one-half hour. Noncombustible barriers built after May 1, 2015,
must comply with the 18 inch dimensions found in 437-002-2253(12)(c)(D)(ii)(I) and
(II).
NOTE 2: 437-002-2102 Acetylene,
requires noncombustible partitions used for oxygen and acetylene separation to extend
18 inches horizontally and vertically.
(III) Has a fire-resistance rating of
at least one-half hour.
(E) Locate an oxygen manifold
inside a building having other occupancy, with an aggregate cylinder capacity of
more than 6,000 cubic feet of oxygen, in a separate room that is:
(i) Of noncombustible construction
having a fire-resistance rating of at least one-half hour, or
(ii) A noncombustible partition
that complies with Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Pamphlet P-1 2008, 11th Edition,
Safe Handling of Compressed Gases in Containers:
(I) Extends at least 18 inches
above the tallest container and is not less than 5 feet high.
(II) Extends laterally at
least 18 inches beyond the sides of the containers.
NOTE 1: If you have a preexisting noncombustible
barrier used to separate oxygen from combustible materials or fuel gases other than
acetylene, the barrier must be a minimum of 5 feet high and have a minimum fire
resistance rating of one-half hour. Noncombustible barriers built after May 1, 2015,
must comply with the 18 inch dimensions found in 437-002-2253(12)(c)(E)(ii)(I) and
(II).
NOTE 2: 437-002-2102 Acetylene,
requires noncombustible partitions used for oxygen and acetylene separation to extend
18 inches horizontally and vertically.
(III) Has a fire-resistance rating of
at least one-half hour.
(F) Comply with NFPA 55,
2010 Edition, Compressed Gases and Cryogenic Fluid Code, when an oxygen manifold
or oxygen bulk supply system has more than 20,000 cubic feet of oxygen (measured
at 14.7 psia (101 kPa) and 700 F (21.1oC)), connected in service, ready for service,
or unconnected reserves on hand at the site.
(G) Use approved pressure
regulating devices on high-pressure oxygen manifolds.
(d) When using high pressure
oxygen manifolds you must not locate them in an acetylene generator room.
(e) When using low-pressure
oxygen manifolds with cylinders having a Department of Transportation service pressure
not exceeding 200 psig (1.36 Mpa) you must:
(A) Use manifolds that:
(i) Are constructed for use
with oxygen at a pressure of 250 psig.
(ii) Have a minimum bursting
pressure of 1,000 psig.
(iii) Are protected by a
safety relief device that will relieve at a maximum pressure of 500 psig.
NOTE: DOT-4L200 cylinders safety device
relieve at a maximum pressure of 250 psig, or 235 psig if vacuum insulation is used.
(B) Use hose and hose connections subject
to cylinder pressure that have a bursting pressure of 1,000 psig.
(C) Test and prove manifolds
are gas-tight at a pressure of 300 psig.
(D) Use oil-free non-combustible
fluid for testing oxygen manifolds.
(E) Locate manifolds to comply
with paragraphs (c)(B), (C), (D), (E), and (F) and all their parts.
(F) Post the following sign
at each manifold:
Low-Pressure Manifold
Do Not Connect High-Pressure Cylinders
Maximum Pressure — 250 psig
(f) When using portable outlet headers
you must:
(A) Equip each outlet on
the service piping from which oxygen or fuel-gas is withdrawn, to supply a portable
outlet header, with a readily accessible shutoff valve.
(B) Use hose and hose connections
that comply with paragraph (a)(I) of this section when connecting the portable outlet
header to the service piping.
(C) Provide master shutoff
valves for both oxygen and fuel-gas at the entry end of the portable outlet header.
(D) Provide a hydraulic back-pressure
valve, installed at the inlet and preceding the service outlets, on portable fuel-gas
service outlet headers unless one of the following is installed at each outlet and
approved for use:
(i) Pressure-reducing regulator,
(ii) Back-flow check valve,
or
(iii) Hydraulic back-pressure
valve.
(E) Provide oxygen service
header outlets with pressure reducing regulators or direct hose connections.
(F) Provide each valve assembly
with a detachable outlet seal cap, chained or otherwise attached to the body of
the valve on the portable header service outlet.
(G) Use materials and fabrication
procedures for portable outlet headers that comply with the rule on Service Piping
Systems paragraphs (13)(a)(A)–(L), (13)(b)(A)–(E), and (13)(f)(A)–(C).
(H) Provide frames for portable
outlet headers that will:
(i) Secure the equipment
in the correct operating position.
(ii) Protect them from damage
during handling and operation.
(g) When using portable outlet
headers you must not use them indoors except for temporary service when a direct
supply outlet located on the service piping system cannot be accessed.
(h) To comply with manifold
operation procedures you must:
(A) Ensure that cylinder
manifolds are installed under the supervision of someone familiar with the proper
practices with reference to their construction and use.
(B) Ensure all manifolds
and parts used in methods of manifolding are used only for the gas or gases for
which they are approved.
(C) Install approved flash
arresters between each acetylene cylinder and the coupler block.
NOTE: For outdoor use only,
and when the number of cylinders coupled does not exceed three, one flash arrester
installed between the coupler block and regulator is acceptable.
(D) Install manifold acetylene
and liquefied fuel-gas cylinders in a vertical position.
(E) Maintain approximately
equal pressure in the gas cylinders connected to and discharged simultaneously through
a common manifold.
(i) To comply with manifold
operation procedures you must not connect more than 3,000 cubic feet of aggregate
capacity of fuel-gas cylinders to a portable manifold inside a building.
(13) Service piping systems
materials and designs.
(a) Service piping systems
must use:
(A) Piping and fittings that
comply with section 2, Industrial Gas and Air Piping Systems, of the American National
Standard Code for Power Piping ASME B31.1 2010.
(B) At least Schedule 40
pipe and use fittings that are at least standard weight in sizes up to and including
6-inch nominal.
(C) Copper tubing that is
Type K or L and complies with the Standard Specification for Seamless Copper Water
Tube, ASTM B88-66a.
(D) Steel, wrought iron,
brass or copper pipe, or seamless copper, brass or stainless steel tubing, except
when stated otherwise.
(E) Stainless steel or copper
alloys for oxygen piping and fittings when pressures exceed 700 psi.
(F) Hose connections and
hose to connect the outlet of a manifold pressure regulator to piping, provided
that the working pressure of the piping is 250 psi or less and they comply with
the rules for hose and hose connections found in paragraphs (10) (a)(A), (10) (a)(K),
(10) (b)(G), (10)(c)(A), and (10)(c)(B).
(G) Hose(s) that do not exceed
5 feet in length to connect manifold pressure regulators to piping.
(H) Hose that has a minimum
bursting pressure of 1,000 psig (6.8 MPa).
(I) A piping system with
a minimum design pressure of 250 psig when oxygen is supplied from a low-pressure
oxygen manifold without an intervening pressure regulating device.
(J) Pressure regulating devices
at each station outlet when the connected equipment is for use at pressures less
than 250 psig (1.7 MPa).
(K) Steel or wrought iron
piping for acetylene or acetylenic compounds.
(L) Unalloyed copper for
acetylene or acetylenic compounds only with equipment listed as appropriate for
its use.
(b) Piping joints must be
treated as follows. You must:
(A) Weld, thread or flange
joints in steel or wrought iron piping.
NOTE: Fittings, such as ells, tees,
couplings, and unions, may be rolled, forged or cast steel, malleable iron or nodular
iron.
(B) Weld, braze, thread, or flange brass
or copper pipe joints.
(C) Braze socket type joints
with silver-brazing alloy or similar high melting point (not less than 800°
F (427° C)) filler metal.
(D) Braze joints or use approved
gas tubing fittings in seamless copper, brass, or stainless steel tubing.
(E) Prohibit the use of gray
or white cast iron fittings on piping joints.
(c) When installing piping
systems you must:
(A) Internally examine and
remove scale and dirt from fittings and lengths of pipe before assembly.
(B) Wash out oxygen pipe
and fittings with a suitable solution which will effectively remove grease and dirt
but will not react with oxygen.
NOTE: Hot water solutions of caustic
soda or trisodium phosphate are effective cleaning agents for this purpose. Rinse
and dry piping thoroughly after cleaning.
(C) Install and maintain distribution
lines in a safe operating condition.
(D) Run all piping as directly
as practicable.
(E) Protect piping against
physical damage.
(F) Make allowances for piping
expansion, contraction, jarring and vibration.
(G) Locate pipe laid underground
below the frost line.
(H) Protect against corrosion.
(I) Weld or braze piping
that is installed in tunnels, trenches or ducts.
(J) Install shutoff valves
outside of tunnels, trenches or ducts.
(K) Provide good natural
or forced ventilation when oxygen piping is installed in the same tunnel, trench
or duct with fuel-gas pipelines.
(L) Drain low points in piping
that carries moist gas into drip pots, constructed to permit pumping or draining
out the condensate, at necessary intervals.
(M) Install drain valves
having outlets normally closed with screw caps or plugs for draining low points
in piping systems.
(N) Case or jacket pipes
leading to the surface of the ground where necessary to prevent loosening or breaking.
(O) Install gas cocks or
valves for all buildings at points where they will be readily accessible for shutting
off the gas supply to these buildings in an emergency.
(P) Install a shutoff valve
in the discharge line from the generator, gas holder, manifold or other source of
supply.
(Q) Thoroughly blow out assembled
piping with air, nitrogen or carbon dioxide to remove foreign materials.
(R) Blowout oxygen piping
using oil-free air, oil-free nitrogen, or oil-free carbon dioxide:
NOTE: Air or inert gas may be used
with other piping.
(S) Purge oxygen lines, using oil-free
air, oil-free nitrogen, or oil-free carbon dioxide.
(T) Use pressure relief devices
set to function at not more than the design pressure of the systems and that discharge
upwards to a safe location.
(d) When installing piping
systems you must not:
(A) Install shutoff valves
in safety relief lines in such a manner that the safety relief device can be rendered
ineffective.
(B) Have uncapped openings
of flammable gas lines or other parts of equipment being purged of air or gas near
open lights or other sources of ignition.
(C) Use open end valves or
petcocks except when drips are located outdoors, underground, and not readily accessible.
(D) Use valves outdoors,
underground or in areas not readily accessible unless they are equipped with a means
to secure them in the closed position.
(E) Weld or cut an acetylene
or oxygen pipeline, including the attachment of hangers or supports, until the line
has been purged.
(e) When painting and marking
piping systems you must ensure that:
(A) Underground pipe and
tubing and outdoor ferrous pipe and tubing is covered or painted with a suitable
material for protection against corrosion.
(B) Aboveground piping systems
are marked in accordance with the American National Standard Scheme for the Identification
of Piping Systems, ASME A13.1 2007.
(C) Station outlets are marked
with the name of the gas.
(f) When testing piping systems
you must:
(A) Test and prove they are
gas-tight at 1-1/2 times their maximum operating pressure.
(B) Thoroughly purge them
of air before placing them in service.
(C) Use oil free and noncombustible
material to test oxygen lines.
(g) When testing piping systems
you must not:
(A) Use flames to detect
leaks.
(B) Purge flammable gas lines
or other parts of equipment of air or gas when uncapped openings are near sources
of ignition.
(h) When installing protective
equipment, hose and regulators in service piping systems you must:
(A) Install and use equipment
in the service for which it was approved and as recommended by the manufacturer.
(B) Install the protective
equipment shown in Figures Q-1, Q-2, and Q-3 in portable outlet headers and fuel-gas
and oxygen piping systems to prevent:
NOTE: When only a portion of a fuel-gas
system is to be used with oxygen, only that portion need comply with paragraph (h)(A).
Figures Q-1, Q-2, Q-3
(i) Backflow of oxygen into the fuel-gas
supply system.
(ii) Passage of a flash back
into the fuel-gas supply system.
(iii) Excessive back pressure
of oxygen in the fuel-gas supply system.
NOTE: The three functions
of the protective equipment may be combined in one device or may be provided by
separate devices.
(C) Locate protective equipment:
(i) As in Figure Q-1In the
main supply line, Figure Q-1, or
(ii) As in Figure Q-2 at
the head of each branch line, or
(iii) As in Figure Q-3 at
each location where fuel-gas is withdrawn.
(iv) As in Figure Q-2 or
Figure Q-3 where branch lines are of 2 inch pipe size or larger or of substantial
length.
(D) Install flash-back protection
that will prevent flame from passing into the fuel-gas system.
(E) Provide an approved back-pressure
relief device set at a pressure not greater than the pressure rating of the backflow
or the flashback protection device, whichever is lower.
(F) Locate pressure-relief
devices on the downstream side of backflow and flashback protection devices.
(G) Install pressure-relief
device vents that are at least as large as the relief device inlet.
(H) Install pressure-relief
vents without low points that may collect moisture.
(I) Install drip pots with
drains closed with screw plugs or caps at the low points if low points are unavoidable.
(J) Install the vent end
so it:
(i) Does not endanger personnel
or property through gas discharge.
(ii) Is located away from
ignition sources.
(iii) Terminates in a hood
or bend.
(K) Maintain liquid levels
when using a liquid in the pipeline protective equipment.
NOTE: Suitable antifreeze
may be used to prevent freezing.
(L) Withdraw fuel-gas for
use with equipment not requiring oxygen upstream of the piping protective devices.
(i) Station outlet protective
equipment must:
(A) Have a check valve, pressure
regulator, hydraulic seal, or combination of these devices at each station outlet,
including those on portable headers.
(B) Have these devices as
shown in Figures Q-1, Q-2, and Q-3 and designated as SF and SO.
(C) Use approved pipeline
protective equipment (designated PF) located at the station outlet as in Figure
Q-3, or an additional check valve, pressure regulator, or hydraulic seal is required.
(D) Have a shutoff valve
(designated VF and VO) installed at each station outlet.
(E) Have a shutoff valve
located on the upstream side of other station outlet equipment.
(F) Terminate the station
outlet in a union connection that complies with the Compressed Gas Association (CGA)
Pamphlet E-1 2009, 6th Edition, Standard for Rubber Welding Hose and Hose Connections
for Gas Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes and Compressed Gas Association (CGA)
Pamphlet E-4 2010, 6th Edition, Standard for Gas Pressure Regulators if the outlet
is equipped with a detachable regulator.
(G) Terminate in a union
connection complying with the Compressed Gas Association (CGA) Pamphlet E-1 2009,
6th Edition, Standard for Rubber Welding Hose and Hose Connections for Gas Welding,
Cutting, and Allied Processes if it is connected directly to a hose.
(H) Terminate in pipe threads
to which permanent connections are to be made, such as to a machine.
(I) Have station outlets
equipped with a detachable outlet seal cap secured in place.
(J) Use this cap to seal
the outlet except when a hose, a regulator, or piping is attached.
(K) Be equipped with station
outlets with approved backflow and flash-back protective devices when four or less
torches are supplied from one station outlet through rigid piping provided:
(i) Each outlet from this
piping is equipped with a shutoff valve, and
(ii) The fuel-gas capacity
of any one torch does not exceed 15 cubic feet (0.42m3) per hour.
(14) Acetylene generators.
(a) When using acetylene
generators you must:
(A) Use those that are of
approved construction.
(B) Ensure they are plainly
marked with:
(i) Maximum weight and size
of carbide necessary for a single charge.
(ii) Manufacturer’s
name and address.
(iii) Name or number of the
type of generator.
(iv) Size of the carbide
to be used on the generator nameplate.
(v) Rating and pressure limitations.
(C) Limit the total hourly
output rate for which it is approved and marked. Unless specifically approved for
higher ratings, carbide-feed generators must be rated at 1 cubic foot (0.028 m3)
per hour per pound of carbide required for a single complete charge.
(D) Require regular operating
of relief valves.
(E) Set relief valves to
open at a pressure not in excess of 15 psig.
(F) Set hydraulic back pressure
valves to open at a pressure not in excess of 20 psig.
(G) Locate the generator
where the operator can maintain ample free, unobstructed operation and maintenance
space around the generator to permit ready adjustment and charging.
(H) Ensure that all non-automatic
generator water overflows are visible.
(I) Ensure that non-automatic
generators are not used to generate acetylene at pressures exceeding 1 psig.
(b) When using stationary
acetylene generators (automatic and non-automatic) you must:
(A) Place on a foundation
where:
(i) The generator(s) is level.
(ii) No excessive strain
will be placed on the generator or its connections.
(B) Ensure the generator(s)
is grounded.
(C) Place generators where
water will not freeze.
(D) Ensure there are no prohibited
sources of ignition in outside generator houses or inside generator rooms unless
the generators are prepared in accordance with paragraph (h)(H)(i) through (iv)
of this section:
(E) Ensure that when a non-continuous
connection to the water supply is used the supply line must terminate at a point
not less than 2 inches above the regularly provided opening for filling so that
the water can be observed as it enters the generator.
(F) Discharge generators
through an open connection into a suitably vented outdoor receptacle or residue
pit.
NOTE: An open connection for the sludge
draw off is desirable to enable the generator operator to observe leakage of generator
water from the drain valve or sludge cock.
(G) Provide a vent pipe for each generator.
(H) Rigidly install the escape
or relief pipe:
(i) Without traps.
(ii) So condensation will
drain back to the generator.
(I) Carry the full size escape
or relief pipe to a suitable point outside the building.
(J) Terminate the escape
or relief pipe in a hood or bend located at least 12 feet (3.7m) above the ground.
NOTE: It is preferable to terminate
the escape or relief pipe above the roof, and as far away as practicable from windows
or other openings into buildings and as far away as practicable from sources of
ignition such as flues or chimneys and tracks used by locomotives.
(K) Route the generating chamber relief
pipes separately to the outside so they are unobstructed by rain, snow, ice, insects,
or birds.
(L) Locate the end of the
relief pipes at least 3 feet (0.9 m) from combustible construction.
(M) Use gas holders constructed
on the gasometer principle that has the bell suitably guided.
(N) Ensure the gas bell moves
freely without tendency to bind and it has at least 2 inches (5 cm) clearance from
the shell.
(O) Provide a compressor
or booster cutoff at a point 12 inches (0.3 m) or more above the landing point of
the bell.
(P) Ventilate the room in
accordance with paragraph (d)(J) of this section when the gas holder is located
indoors.
(Q) Heat and light the room
in accordance with paragraphs (d)(K) and (d)(L), (M), (N), (O), and (R) of this
section when the gas holder is located indoors.
(R) Protect gas holder seals
against freezing when the gas holder is not located within a heated building.
(S) Provide means to stop
the generator-feeding mechanism before the gas holder reaches the upper limit of
its travel.
(T) Ensure that the gas capacity
of the gas holder is not less than one-third of the hourly rating of the generator
when the holder is connected to only one generator.
(U) Ensure if acetylene is
used from the gas holder without increase in pressure at some points, but with increase
in pressure by a compressor or booster pump at other points, then you must:
(i) Install approved piping
protective devices in each supply line.
(ii) Locate a low-pressure
protective device between the gas holder and the shop piping.
(iii) Locate the medium-pressure
protective device between the compressor or booster pump and the shop piping (see
Figure 1).
NOTE 1: Approved protective equipment
(designated PF) is used to prevent backflow of oxygen into the fuel-gas supply system,
passage of a flashback into the fuel-gas supply system; and excessive back pressure
of oxygen in the fuel-gas supply system.
NOTE 2: The three functions
of the protective equipment may be combined in one device or may be provided by
separate devices. Figure 1.
(V) Use approved compressor or booster
systems only.
(W) Ensure that wiring and
electrical equipment in compressor or booster pump rooms or enclosures conform to
the provisions of Subdivision S, Electrical, Class I, Division 2.
(X) Locate compressors and
booster pump equipment:
(i) In well-ventilated areas
and
(ii) Away from ignition sources
including, but not limited to, open flames, electrical or mechanical sparks.
(Y) Provide compressor or
booster pumps with pressure relief valves which will relieve pressure exceeding
15 psig:
(i) To a safe outdoor location
as provided in paragraph (b)(G), (H), (I), (J), (K), and (L) of this section, or
(ii) By returning the gas
to the inlet side or to the gas supply source.
(Z) Provide compressor or
booster pump discharge outlets with approved protective equipment. (See Service
Piping Systems (h) and (i)).
(c) When using stationary
acetylene generators (automatic and non-automatic) you must not:
(A) Use common salt (sodium
chloride) or other corrosive chemicals for protection against freezing.
(B) Supply water through
a continuous connection to the generator unless the generator is provided with an:
(i) Adequate open overflow,
or
(ii) Automatic water shutoff
which will effectively prevent overfilling the generator.
(C) Fit generators with continuous
drain connections leading to sewers unless otherwise specifically approved.
(D) Interconnect generating
chamber relief pipes.
(d) When outside generator
houses and inside generator rooms for stationary acetylene generators are used,
you must.
(A) Ensure that the walls,
floors, and roofs of outside generator houses are of noncombustible construction.
(B) Separate the storage
or manifolding of oxygen cylinders from the generator or carbide storage section
by partition walls continuous from floor to roof or ceiling, of the type of construction
stated in paragraph (d)(H)(i) thru (iii) of this section.
(C) Ensure that separation
walls are:
(i) Without openings.
(ii) Joined to the floor,
other walls and ceiling or roof in a manner to create a permanent gastight joint.
(D) Locate exit doors so
they are readily accessible in case of emergency.
(E) Provide explosion venting:
(i) For outside generator
houses and inside generator rooms in exterior walls or roofs.
(ii) In areas equal to not
less than 1 square foot (0.09 m2) per 50 cubic feet (1.4 m3) of room volume.
(iii) That consists of one
or any combination of the following:
(I) Walls of light, noncombustible
material preferably single-thickness,
(II) Single-strength glass;
(III) Lightly fastened hatch
covers;
(IV) Lightly fastened swinging
doors in exterior walls opening outward;
(V) Lightly fastened walls
or roof designed to relieve at a maximum pressure of 25 pounds per square foot (0.001
MPa).
(F) Restrict the installation
of acetylene generators inside buildings to buildings not exceeding one story in
height.
NOTE: This does not prohibit
such installation on the roof or top floor of a building exceeding such height.
(G) Enclose generators installed
inside a building in a separate room.
(H) Ensure that the walls,
partitions, floors, and ceilings of inside generator rooms:
(i) Are constructed from
noncombustible materials having a fire-resistance rating of at least 1 hour floor
to ceiling.
(ii) Are securely anchored.
(iii) Have at least one wall
of the room be an exterior wall.
(I) Protect openings from
an inside generator room to other parts of the building:
(i) By a swinging type, self-closing
fire door for a Class B opening and having a rating of at least 1 hour.
(ii) With wired glass windows
in partitions that are in approved metal frames with fixed sash.
(iii) By completing Installation
in accordance with the Standard for the Installation of Fire Doors and Windows,
NFPA 80-1970.
NOTE: Inside generator rooms built
after July 1, 2014 must comply with NFPA 80-2013.
(J) Ventilate inside generator rooms
or outside generator houses with vents located at floor and ceiling levels.
(K) Heat by steam, hot water,
enclosed electrically heated elements or other indirect means.
(L) Ensure that generator
houses or rooms have natural light during daylight hours.
(M) Restrict installation
of electric lamps to fixed position where artificial lighting is necessary.
(N) Provide lamps with enclosures
of glass or other noncombustible material so designed and constructed to prevent
gas vapors from reaching the lamp or socket and to resist breakage.
(O) Use rigid conduit with
threaded connections.
(P) Install lamps outside
of wired-glass panels in gas-tight frames in the exterior walls or roof of the generator
house or room.
(Q) Locate electric switches,
telephones, and all other electrical apparatus which may cause a spark, outside
the generator house or in a room or space separated from the generator room by a
gas-tight partition, except:
(i) If they are specifically
approved for use inside acetylene generator room.
(ii) Where the generator
system is designed so that no carbide fill opening or other part of the generator
is open to the generator house or room during the operation of the generator, and
(iii) When residue is carried
in closed piping from the residue discharge valve to a point outside the generator
house or room, and
(iv) Where electrical equipment
in the generator house or room must conform to the provisions of Subpart S for Class
I, Division 2 locations.
(R) Ensure that unauthorized
persons do not enter outside generator houses or inside generator rooms.
(e) When outside generator
houses and inside generator rooms for stationary acetylene generators are used,
you must not:
(A) Locate openings in any
outside generator house within 5 feet (1.5m) of any opening in another building.
(B) Use flames or fire to
heat outside generator houses or inside generator rooms, or in any enclosure communicating
with them.
(f) When using portable acetylene
generators you must:
(A) Use those that are approved
for portable use.
(B) Use them further than
10 feet (3m) from combustible materials other than the floor.
(C) Protect them against
freezing.
(D) Clean and recharge them
and blow off the air mixture outside of buildings.
(E) Anchor them to the vehicles
they are to be transported and used on.
(F) Turn off the vehicle
motor during charging, cleaning, and generating processes.
(G) Locate portable generators
at a safe distance from the welding position so they will not be exposed to sparks,
slag, and misdirection of the torch flame or over heating from hot materials or
processes.
(g) When using portable acetylene
generators you must not:
(A) Use them in rooms with:
(i) A total volume less than
the total gas-generating capacity per charge of all generators in the room (to obtain
the gas-generating capacity in cubic feet per charge, multiply the pounds of carbide
per charge by 4.5).
(ii) A ceiling height less
than 10 feet (3 m).
(B) Use salt or other corrosive
chemical to prevent freezing.
(C) Move those charged with
carbide by crane or derrick.
(D) Store those not in use
in rooms where open flames are used unless the:
(i) Generator contains no
carbide.
(ii) Generator has been thoroughly
purged of acetylene.
(iii) Rooms are well ventilated.
(h) When providing maintenance
and operating acetylene generators you must:
(A) Post operating instructions
in a conspicuous place near the generator or keep those in a suitable place available
for ready reference.
(B) Follow the order of operations
specified in the manufacturer instructions when recharging generators.
(C) Flush out batch-type
generators with water:
(i) When the charge of carbide
is exhausted.
(ii) Before additional carbide
is added to the generating chamber, and
(D) Renew the water supply
according to instruction card furnished by the manufacturer.
(E) Add enough carbide each
time the generator is recharged to refill the space provided for carbide without
ramming the charge.
(F) Keep the generator water
chambers filled to the proper level at all times except while draining during the
recharging operation.
(G) Fill the water chamber
to the proper level whenever:
(i) Repairs are to be made.
(ii) The generator is to
be charged.
(iii) Carbide is to be removed.
(H) Do the following before
making repairs involving welding, soldering, or other hot work or other operations
which produce a source of ignition:
(i) Completely remove the
carbide charge and feed mechanism.
(ii) Expel all acetylene
by completely flooding the generator shell with water.
(iii) Disconnect the generator
from the piping system.
(iv) Keep the generator filled
with water, if possible, or positioned to hold as much water as possible.
(i) When maintaining or operating
acetylene generators you must not:
(A) Discharge water-carbide
residue from the generator:
(i) Into sewer pipes, or
(ii) Store in areas near
open flames.
NOTE: Clear water from residue settling
pits may be discharged into sewer pipes.
(B) Use steel or ferrous tools while
distributing the charge.
(C) Make hot repairs in a
room where there are other generators unless all the generators and piping have
been purged of acetylene.
(15) Storing of calcium carbide.
(a) Packaging of calcium
carbide must:
(A) Be in containers that
are:
(i) Constructed from metal
having sufficient strength to prevent rupture.
(ii) Equipped with a screw
top or equivalent.
(iii) Constructed to be water-and-air-tight.
(iv) Soldered in a manner
that the package will not fail if exposed to fire.
(B) Ensure that the packages
are conspicuously marked “Calcium Carbide — Dangerous If Not Kept Dry”
or with equivalent warning.
(C) Make known this caution:
“Metal tools, even the so-called spark resistant type may cause ignition of
an acetylene and air mixture when opening carbide containers”.
(b) When storing calcium
carbide indoors you must:
(A) Store in dry, waterproof,
well-ventilated locations when quantities of 600 pounds or less are being stored.
(B) Keep packages of calcium
carbide sealed, except one of each size may be open.
(C) Store calcium carbide
exceeding 600 pounds (272.2 kg) but not exceeding 5,000 pounds (2,268 kg):
(i) In accordance with paragraph
(b)(D)(i), (ii), (I) through (III) of this section;
(ii) In an inside generator
room or outside generator house; or
(iii) In a separate room
in a one-story building which may contain other occupancies, but without cellar
or basement beneath the carbide storage section. Such rooms must be constructed
in accordance with paragraphs (d)(H)(i) through (iii) and (d)(I)(i) and (ii) of
this section and ventilated in accordance with paragraph (d)(J) of this section.
These rooms must be used for no other purpose.
(D) Store calcium carbide
in excess of 5,000 pounds (2,268 kg) in:
(i) An outside generator
houses, or
(ii) A one story building
without cellar or basement and used for no other purpose:
(I) If the storage building
is of noncombustible construction, it may adjoin other one-story buildings if they
are separated by unpierced firewalls.
(II) If the storage building
is detached and less than 10 feet (3 m) from a building or buildings, there must
not be an opening in any of the mutually exposing sides of such buildings within
10 feet (3 m).
(III) If the storage building
is of combustible construction, it must be at least 30 feet (9.1 m) from any other
building exceeding two stories.
(c) When storing calcium
carbide indoors you must not:
(A) Store more than 600 pounds
of calcium carbide in the same room with fuel-gas cylinders.
(B) Break the seals when
there is carbide in excess of 1 pound (0.5 kg) in any other unsealed package of
the same size of carbide in the room.
(C) Store in rooms with sprinkler
systems.
(d) When storing calcium
carbide outdoors you must:
(A) Examine carbide containers
to make sure they are in good condition.
(B) Place the bottom tier
of each row on wooden planking or equivalent so containers will not contact the
ground or ground water.
(C) Periodically re-examine
carbide containers for rusting or other damage that might affect its water or air
tightness.
(D) Ensure the carbide containers
that are stored the longest are used first.
(E) Only store in unopened
air and water tight metal containers.
(F) Store only those containers
that are unopened.
[ED. NOTE:
Tables referenced are not included in rule text. Click here for PDF copy of table(s).]
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS
654.001 - 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 6-2014, f.
10-28-14, cert. ef. 5-1-15
Division 2/RR, Electric Power Generation, Transmission,
and Distribution
437-002-2300
General
(1) Application. Division 2/RR covers
the operation and maintenance of electric power generation, control, transformation,
transmission, and distribution lines and equipment. These provisions apply to:
(a) Power generation, transmission,
and distribution installations, including related equipment for the purpose of communication
or metering that are accessible only to qualified employees;
Note to paragraph (1)(a): The types
of installations covered by this paragraph include the generation, transmission,
and distribution installations of electric utilities, as well as equivalent installations
of industrial establishments. This includes facilities producing electric energy
from other forms of energy, including but not limited to thermal, hydroelectric,
photovoltaic, wind-generated, wave energy, and chemical energy from fuel cells and
batteries. Division 2/S covers supplementary electric generating equipment that
is used to supply a workplace for emergency, standby, or similar purposes only.
(b) Other installations at an electric
power generating station, as follows:
(A) Fuel and ash handling
and processing installations, such as coal conveyors,
(B) Water and steam installations,
such as penstocks, pipelines, and tanks, providing a source of energy for electric
generators, and
(C) Chlorine and hydrogen
systems;
(c) Test sites where employees
perform electrical testing involving temporary measurements associated with electric
power generation, transmission, and distribution in laboratories, in the field,
in substations, and on lines, as opposed to metering, relaying, and routine line
work;
(d) Work on, or directly
associated with, the installations covered in paragraphs (1)(a) through (1)(C) of
this rule; and
(e) Line-clearance tree-trimming
performed for the purpose of clearing space around electric power generation, transmission,
or distribution lines or equipment and on behalf of an organization that operates,
or that controls the operating procedures for, those lines or equipment, as follows:
(A) Entire Division 2/RR
, except paragraph (1) of 437-002-2317, applies to line-clearance tree trimming
covered by the introductory text to paragraph (1)(e) of 437-002-2300 when performed
by qualified employees (those who are knowledgeable in the construction and operation
of the electric power generation, transmission, or distribution equipment involved,
along with the associated hazards).
(B) Rules 437-002-2300(2),
(3); 437-002-2301, 437-002-2302, 437-002-2306, 437-002-2310, 437-002-2315, and 437-002-2317
of Division 2/RR apply to line-clearance tree trimming covered by the introductory
text to paragraph (1)(e) of 437-002-2300 when performed by line-clearance tree trimmers
who are not qualified employees.
(f) Notwithstanding paragraph
(1)(a) of this rule, Division 2/RR does not apply to electrical installations, electrical
safety-related work practices, or electrical maintenance considerations covered
by Division 2/S or Division 3/K.
Note 1 to paragraph (1)(f): Oregon
OSHA considers work practices conforming to 1910.332 through 1910.335 of Division
2/S as complying with the electrical safety-related work-practice requirements of
Division 2/RR identified in Table 1 of Appendix A-2 to Division 2/RR, provided that
employers are performing the work on a generation or distribution installation meeting
1910.303 through 1910.308 of Division 2/S. This table also identifies provisions
in Division 2/RR that apply to work by qualified persons directly on, or associated
with, installations of electric power generation, transmission, and distribution
lines or equipment, regardless of compliance with 1910.332 through 1910.335 of Division
2/S.
Note 2 to paragraph (1)(f):
Oregon OSHA considers work practices performed by qualified persons and conforming
to Division 2/RR as complying with 1910.333(c) and 1910.335 of Division 2/S.
(g) Division 2/RR applies in addition
to all other applicable standards contained in Division 2. Employers covered under
Division 2/RR are not exempt from complying with other applicable provisions in
Division 2 by the operation of 1910.5(c) of Division 2. Specific references in Division
2/RR to other subdivisions are for emphasis only.
(h) Division 2/RR also covers
the construction of electric power transmission and distribution lines and equipment.
As used in this Subdivision, the term "construction" includes the erection of new
electric transmission and distribution lines and equipment, and the alteration,
conversion, and improvement of existing electric transmission and distribution lines
and equipment. Division 2/RR applies to safety-related work practices for qualified
employees.
(i) This rule applies in
addition to all other applicable standards contained in Division 3, relating to
construction activities. Employers engaged in construction activities covered under
Division 2/RR are not exempt from complying with other applicable provisions in
Division 3 by the operation of 437-003-0005 Additional Applicability, of Division
3/A. Specific references in Division 2/RR to other subdivisions of Division 3 are
provided for emphasis only.
(2) Training.
(a) All employees performing
work covered by this rule must be trained as follows:
(A) Each employee must be
trained in, and familiar with, the safety-related work practices, safety procedures,
and other safety requirements in this rule that pertain to their job assignments.
(B) Each employee must also
be trained in and familiar with any other safety practices, including applicable
emergency procedures (such as pole-top and manhole rescue), that are not specifically
addressed by this rule but that are related to their work and are necessary for
their safety.
(C) The degree of training
must be determined by the risk to the employee for the hazard involved.
(b) Each qualified employee
must also be trained and competent in:
(A) The skills and techniques
necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric equipment,
(B) The skills and techniques
necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts,
(C) The minimum approach
distances specified in this rule corresponding to the voltages to which the qualified
employee will be exposed and the skills and techniques necessary to maintain those
distances,
(D) The proper use of the
special precautionary techniques, personal protective equipment, insulating and
shielding materials, and insulated tools for working on or near exposed energized
parts of electric equipment, and
(E) The recognition of electrical
hazards to which the employee may be exposed and the skills and techniques necessary
to control or avoid these hazards.
Note to paragraph (2)(b): For the purposes
of this rule, a person must have the training required by paragraph (2)(b) of this
rule to be considered a qualified employee.
(c) Each line-clearance tree trimmer
who is not a qualified employee must also be trained and competent in:
(A) The skills and techniques
necessary to distinguish exposed live parts from other parts of electric equipment,
(B) The skills and techniques
necessary to determine the nominal voltage of exposed live parts, and
(C) The minimum approach
distances specified in this rule corresponding to the voltages to which the employee
will be exposed and the skills and techniques necessary to maintain those distances.
(d) The employer must determine,
through regular supervision and through inspections conducted on at least an annual
basis, that each employee is complying with the safety-related work practices required
by this rule.
(e) An employee must receive
additional training (or retraining) under any of the following conditions:
(A) If the supervision or
annual inspections required by paragraph (2)(d) of this rule indicate that the employee
is not complying with the safety-related work practices required by this rule, or
(B) If new technology, new
types of equipment, or changes in procedures necessitate the use of safety-related
work practices that are different from those which the employee would normally use,
or
(C) If they must employ safety-related
work practices that are not normally used during their regular job duties.
Note to paragraph (2)(e)(C): Oregon
OSHA considers tasks that are performed less often than once per year to necessitate
retraining before the performance of the work practices involved.
(f) The training required by paragraph
(a)(2) of this rule must be of the classroom or on-the-job type.
(g) The training must establish
employee proficiency in the work practices required by this rule and must introduce
the procedures necessary for compliance with this rule.
(h) The employer must ensure
that each employee has demonstrated proficiency in the work practices involved before
that employee is considered as having completed the training required by paragraph
(a)(2) of this rule.
Note 1 to paragraph (2)(h): Though
they are not required by this paragraph, employment records that indicate that an
employee has successfully completed the required training are one way of keeping
track of when an employee has demonstrated proficiency.
Note 2 to paragraph (2)(h):
For an employee with previous training, an employer may determine that that employee
has demonstrated the proficiency required by this paragraph using the following
process:
(1) Confirm that the employee has the
training required by paragraph (a)(2) of this rule,
(2) Use an examination or
interview to make an initial determination that the employee understands the relevant
safety-related work practices before they perform any work covered by this rule,
and
(3) Supervise the employee
closely until that employee has demonstrated proficiency as required by this paragraph.
(3) Information transfer.
(a) Before work begins, the
host employer must inform contract employers of:
(A) The characteristics of
the host employer's installation that are related to the safety of the work to be
performed and are listed in paragraphs (4)(a) through (4)(e) of this rule;
Note to paragraph (3)(a)(A): This paragraph
requires the host employer to obtain information listed in paragraphs (4)(a) through
(4)(e) of this rule if it does not have this information in existing records.
(B) Conditions that are related to the
safety of the work to be performed, that are listed in paragraphs (4)(f) through
(4)(h) of this rule, and that are known to the host employer;
Note to paragraph (3)(a)(B): For the
purposes of this paragraph, the host employer need only provide information to contract
employers that the host employer can obtain from its existing records through the
exercise of reasonable diligence. This paragraph does not require the host employer
to make inspections of worksite conditions to obtain this information.
(C) Information about the design and
operation of the host employer's installation that the contract employer needs to
make the assessments required by this rule; and
Note to paragraph (3)(a)(C): This paragraph
requires the host employer to obtain information about the design and operation
of its installation that contract employers need to make required assessments if
it does not have this information in existing records.
(D) Any other information about the
design and operation of the host employer's installation that is known by the host
employer, that the contract employer requests, and that is related to the protection
of the contract employer's employees.
Note to paragraph (3)(a)(D): For the
purposes of this paragraph, the host employer need only provide information to contract
employers that the host employer can obtain from its existing records through the
exercise of reasonable diligence. This paragraph does not require the host employer
to make inspections of worksite conditions to obtain this information.
(b) Contract employers must comply with
the following requirements:
(A) The contract employer
must ensure that each of its employees is instructed in the hazardous conditions
relevant to the employee's work that the contract employer is aware of as a result
of information communicated to the contract employer by the host employer under
paragraph (3)(a) of this rule.
(B) Before work begins, the
contract employer must advise the host employer of any unique hazardous conditions
presented by the contract employer's work.
(C) The contract employer
must advise the host employer of any unanticipated hazardous conditions found during
the contract employer's work that the host employer did not mention under paragraph
(3)(a) of this rule. The contract employer must provide this information to the
host employer within 2 working days after discovering the hazardous condition.
(c) The contract employer
and the host employer must coordinate their work rules and procedures so that each
employee of the contract employer and the host employer is protected as required
by this rule.
(4) Existing characteristics
and conditions. Existing characteristics and conditions of electric lines and equipment
that are related to the safety of the work to be performed must be determined before
work on or near the lines or equipment is started. Such characteristics and conditions
include, but are not limited to:
(a) The nominal voltages
of lines and equipment,
(b) The maximum switching-transient
voltages,
(c) The presence of hazardous
induced voltages,
(d) The presence of protective
grounds and equipment grounding conductors,
(e) The locations of circuits
and equipment, including electric supply lines, communication lines, and fire-protective
signaling circuits,
(f) The condition of protective
grounds and equipment grounding conductors,
(g) The condition of poles,
and
(h) Environmental conditions
relating to safety.
[ED. NOTE:
Tables referenced are not included in rule text. Click here for PDF copy of table(s).]
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2301
Medical Services and First Aid
When employees are performing General
Industry activities, the employer must provide medical services and first aid as
required by 437-002-0161. When employees are performing Construction activities,
the employer must provide medical services and first aid as required by 1926.50.
In addition to the requirements of 437-002-0161 and 1926.50, the following requirements
also apply:
(1) First-aid/CPR training.
When employees are performing work on, or associated with, exposed lines or equipment
energized at 50 volts or more, persons with first-aid/CPR training must be available
as follows:
(a) For field work involving
two or more employees at a work location, at least two trained persons must be available.
However, for line-clearance tree trimming operations performed by line-clearance
tree trimmers who are not qualified employees, only one trained person need be available
if all new employees are trained in first aid/CPR within 3 months of their hiring
dates.
(b) For fixed work locations
such as substations, the number of trained persons available must be sufficient
to ensure that each employee exposed to electric shock can be reached within 4 minutes
by a trained person. However, where the existing number of employees is insufficient
to meet this requirement (at a remote substation, for example) each employee at
the work location must be a trained employee.
(2) First-aid supplies. First-aid
supplies required by 437-002-0161 and 1926.50 must be placed in weatherproof containers
if the supplies could be exposed to the weather.
(3) First-aid kits. The employer
must maintain each first-aid kit and ensure that it is readily available for use.
(a) For employers involved
in general industry activities, the first aid kit must be inspected frequently enough
to ensure that expended items are replaced, and at least once per year.
(b) For employers involved
in construction activities, the first-aid supplies must be in individual sealed
packages for each type of item, must be checked by the employer before being sent
out to each job, and at least weekly to ensure expended items are replaced.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2302
Job Briefing
(1) Before each job.
(a) In assigning an employee
or a group of employees to perform a job, the employer must provide the employee
in charge of the job with all available information that relates to the determination
of existing characteristics and conditions required by paragraph (4) of 437-002-2300.
(b) The employer must ensure
that the employee in charge conducts a job briefing that meets paragraphs (2), (3),
and (4) of this rule with the employees involved before they start each job.
(2) Subjects to be covered.
The briefing must cover at least the following subjects:
(a) Hazards associated with
the job
(b) Work procedures involved
(c) Special precautions
(d) Energy-source controls
(e) Personal protective equipment
requirements
(3) Number of briefings.
(a) At least one job briefing
must be conducted before the start of the first job of each day or shift even if
the work or operations to be performed during the work day or shift are repetitive
and similar.
(b) Additional job briefings
must be held if significant changes, which might affect the safety of the employees,
occur during the course of the work.
(4) Extent of briefing.
(a) A brief discussion is
satisfactory if the work involved is routine and if the employees, by virtue of
training and experience, can reasonably be expected to recognize and avoid the hazards
involved in the job.
(b) A more extensive discussion
must be conducted:
(A) If the work is complicated
or particularly hazardous, or
(B) If the employee cannot
be expected to recognize and avoid the hazards involved in the job.
(5) Working alone. An employee
working alone need not conduct a job briefing. However, the employer must ensure
that the tasks to be performed are planned as if a briefing were required.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2303
Hazardous Energy Control Procedures
(1) Application. The provisions of this
rule apply to the use of hazardous energy control procedures for the control of
energy sources in installations for the purpose of electric power generation, including
related equipment for communication or metering. Clearance procedures and hazardous
energy control procedures for the deenergizing of electric energy sources that are
used exclusively for purposes of transmission and distribution, and construction
activities, are addressed in 437-002-2312 Deenergizing lines and equipment for employee
protection.
NOTE: Installations in electric power
generation facilities that are not an integral part of, or inextricably commingled
with, power generation processes or equipment are covered under 1910.147 and Division
2/S, Electrical.
(2) General.
(a) The employer must establish
a program consisting of energy control procedures, employee training, and periodic
inspections to ensure that, before any employee performs any servicing or maintenance
on a machine or equipment where the unexpected energizing, start up, or release
of stored energy could occur and cause injury, the machine or equipment is isolated
from the energy source and rendered inoperative.
(b) The employer's energy
control program under paragraph (2) of this rule must meet the following requirements:
(A) If an energy isolating
device is not capable of being locked out, the employer's program must use a tagout
system.
(B) If an energy isolating
device is capable of being locked out, the employer's program must use lockout,
unless the employer can demonstrate that the use of a tagout system will provide
full employee protection as follows:
(i) When a tagout device
is used on an energy isolating device that is capable of being locked out, the tagout
device must be attached at the same location that the lockout device would have
been attached, and the employer must demonstrate that the tagout program will provide
a level of safety equivalent to that obtained by the use of a lockout program.
(ii) In demonstrating that
a level of safety is achieved in the tagout program equivalent to the level of safety
obtained by the use of a lockout program, the employer must demonstrate full compliance
with all tagout-related provisions of this standard together with such additional
elements as are necessary to provide the equivalent safety available from the use
of a lockout device. Additional means to be considered as part of the demonstration
of full employee protection must include the implementation of additional safety
measures such as the removal of an isolating circuit element, blocking of a controlling
switch, opening of an extra disconnecting device, or the removal of a valve handle
to reduce the likelihood of inadvertent energizing.
(C) After November 1, 1994,
whenever replacement or major repair, renovation, or modification of a machine or
equipment is performed, and whenever new machines or equipment are installed, energy
isolating devices for such machines or equipment must be designed to accept a lockout
device.
(c) Procedures must be developed,
documented, and used for the control of potentially hazardous energy covered in
437-002-2303.
(d) The procedure must clearly
and specifically outline the scope, purpose, responsibility, authorization, rules,
and techniques to be applied to the control of hazardous energy, and the measures
to enforce compliance including, but not limited to, the following:
(A) A specific statement
of the intended use of this procedure;
(B) Specific procedural steps
for shutting down, isolating, blocking and securing machines or equipment to control
hazardous energy;
(C) Specific procedural steps
for the placement, removal, and transfer of lockout devices or tagout devices and
the responsibility for them; and
(D) Specific requirements
for testing a machine or equipment to determine and verify the effectiveness of
lockout devices, tagout devices, and other energy control measures.
(e) The employer must conduct
a periodic inspection of the energy control procedure at least annually to ensure
that the procedure and the provisions of 437-002-2303 are being followed.
(A) The periodic inspection
must be performed by an authorized employee who is not using the energy control
procedure being inspected.
(B) The periodic inspection
must be designed to identify and correct any deviations or inadequacies.
(C) If lockout is used for
energy control, the periodic inspection must include a review, between the inspector
and each authorized employee, of that employee's responsibilities under the energy
control procedure being inspected.
(D) Where tagout is used
for energy control, the periodic inspection must include a review, between the inspector
and each authorized and affected employee, of that employee's responsibilities under
the energy control procedure being inspected, and the elements set forth in paragraph
(2)(g) of this rule.
(E) The employer must certify
that the inspections required by paragraph (2)(e) of this rule have been accomplished.
The certification must identify the machine or equipment on which the energy control
procedure was being used, the date of the inspection, the employees included in
the inspection, and the person performing the inspection.
Note to paragraph (2)(e)(E): If normal
work schedule and operation records demonstrate adequate inspection activity and
contain the required information, no additional certification is required.
(f) The employer must provide training
to ensure that the purpose and function of the energy control program are understood
by employees and that the knowledge and skills required for the safe application,
usage, and removal of energy controls are acquired by employees. The training must
include the following:
(A) Each authorized employee
must receive training in the recognition of applicable hazardous energy sources,
the type and magnitude of energy available in the workplace, and in the methods
and means necessary for energy isolation and control.
(B) Each affected employee
must be instructed in the purpose and use of the energy control procedure.
(C) All other employees whose
work operations are or may be in an area where energy control procedures may be
used must be instructed about the procedures and about the prohibition relating
to attempts to restart or reenergize machines or equipment that are locked out or
tagged out.
(g) When tagout systems are
used, employees must also be trained in the following limitations of tags:
(A) Tags are essentially
warning devices affixed to energy isolating devices and do not provide the physical
restraint on those devices that is provided by a lock.
(B) When a tag is attached
to an energy isolating means, it is not to be removed without authorization of the
authorized person responsible for it, and it is never to be bypassed, ignored, or
otherwise defeated.
(C) Tags must be legible
and understandable by all authorized employees, affected employees, and all other
employees whose work operations are or may be in the area, in order to be effective.
(D) Tags and their means
of attachment must be made of materials which will withstand the environmental conditions
encountered in the workplace.
(E) Tags may evoke a false
sense of security, and their meaning needs to be understood as part of the overall
energy control program.
(F) Tags must be securely
attached to energy isolating devices so that they cannot be inadvertently or accidentally
detached during use.
(h) Retraining must be provided
by the employer as follows:
(A) Retraining must be provided
for all authorized and affected employees whenever there is a change in their job
assignments, a change in machines, equipment, or processes that present a new hazard
or whenever there is a change in the energy control procedures.
(B) Retraining must also
be conducted whenever a periodic inspection under paragraph (2)(e) of this rule
reveals, or whenever the employer has reason to believe, that there are deviations
from or inadequacies in an employee's knowledge or use of the energy control procedures.
(C) The retraining must reestablish
employee proficiency and must introduce new or revised control methods and procedures,
as necessary.
(i) The employer must certify
that employee training has been accomplished and is being kept up to date. The certification
must contain each employee's name and dates of training.
(3) Protective materials
and hardware.
(a) Locks, tags, chains,
wedges, key blocks, adapter pins, self-locking fasteners, or other hardware must
be provided by the employer for isolating, securing, or blocking of machines or
equipment from energy sources.
(b) Lockout devices and tagout
devices must be singularly identified; must be the only devices used for controlling
energy; may not be used for other purposes; and must meet the following requirements:
(A) Lockout devices and tagout
devices must be capable of withstanding the environment to which they are exposed
for the maximum period of time that exposure is expected.
(i) Tagout devices must be
constructed and printed so that exposure to weather conditions or wet and damp locations
will not cause the tag to deteriorate or the message on the tag to become illegible.
(ii) Tagout devices must
be so constructed as not to deteriorate when used in corrosive environments.
(B) Lockout devices and tagout
devices must be standardized within the facility in at least one of the following
criteria: color, shape, size. Additionally, in the case of tagout devices, print
and format must be standardized.
(C) Lockout devices must
be substantial enough to prevent removal without the use of excessive force or unusual
techniques, such as with the use of bolt cutters or metal cutting tools.
(D) Tagout devices, including
their means of attachment, must be substantial enough to prevent inadvertent or
accidental removal. Tagout device attachment means must be of a non-reusable type,
attachable by hand, self-locking, and nonreleasable with a minimum unlocking strength
of no less than 50 pounds and must have the general design and basic characteristics
of being at least equivalent to a one-piece, all-environment-tolerant nylon cable
tie.
(E) Each lockout device or
tagout device must include provisions for the identification of the employee applying
the device.
(F) Tagout devices must warn
against hazardous conditions if the machine or equipment is energized and must include
a legend such as the following: Do Not Start, Do Not Open, Do Not Close, Do Not
Energize, Do Not Operate.
Note to paragraph (3)(b)(F): For specific
provisions covering accident prevention tags, see 1910.145.
(4) Energy isolation. Lockout and tagout
device application and removal may only be performed by the authorized employees
who are performing the servicing or maintenance.
(5) Notification. Affected
employees must be notified by the employer or authorized employee of the application
and removal of lockout or tagout devices. Notification must be given before the
controls are applied and after they are removed from the machine or equipment.
Note to paragraph (5): See also paragraph
(7) of this rule, which requires that the second notification take place before
the machine or equipment is reenergized.
(6) Lockout/tagout application. The
established procedures for the application of energy control (the lockout or tagout
procedures) must include the following elements and actions, and these procedures
must be performed in the following sequence:
(a) Before an authorized
or affected employee turns off a machine or equipment, the authorized employee must
have knowledge of the type and magnitude of the energy, the hazards of the energy
to be controlled, and the method or means to control the energy.
(b) The machine or equipment
must be turned off or shut down using the procedures established for the machine
or equipment. An orderly shutdown must be used to avoid any additional or increased
hazards to employees as a result of the equipment stoppage.
(c) All energy isolating
devices that are needed to control the energy to the machine or equipment must be
physically located and operated in such a manner as to isolate the machine or equipment
from energy sources.
(d) Lockout or tagout devices
must be affixed to each energy isolating device by authorized employees.
(A) Lockout devices must
be attached in a manner that will hold the energy isolating devices in a "safe"
or "off" position.
(B) Tagout devices must be
affixed in such a manner as will clearly indicate that the operation or movement
of energy isolating devices from the "safe" or "off" position is prohibited.
(i) Where tagout devices
are used with energy isolating devices designed with the capability of being locked
out, the tag attachment must be fastened at the same point at which the lock would
have been attached.
(ii) Where a tag cannot be
affixed directly to the energy isolating device, the tag must be located as close
as safely possible to the device, in a position that will be immediately obvious
to anyone attempting to operate the device.
(e) Following the application
of lockout or tagout devices to energy isolating devices, all potentially hazardous
stored or residual energy must be relieved, disconnected, restrained, or otherwise
rendered safe.
(f) If there is a possibility
of reaccumulation of stored energy to a hazardous level, verification of isolation
must be continued until the servicing or maintenance is completed or until the possibility
of such accumulation no longer exists.
(g) Before starting work
on machines or equipment that have been locked out or tagged out, the authorized
employee must verify that isolation and deenergizing of the machine or equipment
have been accomplished. If normally energized parts will be exposed to contact by
an employee while the machine or equipment is deenergized, a test must be performed
to ensure that these parts are deenergized.
(7) Release from lockout/tagout.
Before lockout or tagout devices are removed and energy is restored to the machine
or equipment, procedures must be followed and actions taken by the authorized employees
to ensure the following:
(a) The work area must be
inspected to ensure that nonessential items have been removed and that machine or
equipment components are operationally intact.
(b) The work area must be
checked to ensure that all employees have been safely positioned or removed.
(c) After lockout or tagout
devices have been removed and before a machine or equipment is started, affected
employees must be notified that the lockout or tagout devices have been removed.
(d) Each lockout or tagout
device must be removed from each energy isolating device by the authorized employee
who applied the lockout or tagout device. However, if that employee is not available
to remove it, the device may be removed under the direction of the employer, provided
that specific procedures and training for such removal have been developed, documented,
and incorporated into the employer's energy control program. The employer must demonstrate
that the specific procedure provides a degree of safety equivalent to that provided
by the removal of the device by the authorized employee who applied it. The specific
procedure must include at least the following elements:
(A) Verification by the employer
that the authorized employee who applied the device is not at the facility;
(B) Making all reasonable
efforts to contact the authorized employee to inform him or her that his or her
lockout or tagout device has been removed; and
(C) Ensuring that the authorized
employee has this knowledge before he or she resumes work at that facility.
(8) Additional requirements.
(a) If the lockout or tagout
devices must be temporarily removed from energy isolating devices and the machine
or equipment must be energized to test or position the machine, equipment, or component
thereof, the following sequence of actions must be followed:
(A) Clear the machine or
equipment of tools and materials in accordance with paragraph (7)(a) of this rule;
(B) Remove employees from
the machine or equipment area in accordance with paragraphs (7)(b) and (7)(c) of
this rule;
(C) Remove the lockout or
tagout devices as specified in paragraph (7)(d) of this rule;
(D) Energize and proceed
with the testing or positioning; and
(E) Deenergize all systems
and reapply energy control measures in accordance with paragraph (6) of this rule
to continue the servicing or maintenance.
(b) When servicing or maintenance
is performed by a crew, craft, department, or other group, they must use a procedure
which affords the employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided by
the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device. Group lockout or tagout
devices must be used in accordance with the procedures required by paragraphs (2)(c)
and (2)(d) of this rule including, but not limited to, the following specific requirements:
(A) Primary responsibility
must be vested in an authorized employee for a set number of employees working under
the protection of a group lockout or tagout device (such as an operations lock);
(B) Provision must be made
for the authorized employee to ascertain the exposure status of all individual group
members with regard to the lockout or tagout of the machine or equipment;
(C) When more than one crew,
craft, department, or other group is involved, assignment of overall job-associated
lockout or tagout control responsibility must be given to an authorized employee
designated to coordinate affected work forces and ensure continuity of protection;
and
(D) Each authorized employee
must affix a personal lockout or tagout device to the group lockout device, group
lockbox, or comparable mechanism when he or she begins work and must remove those
devices when he or she stops working on the machine or equipment being serviced
or maintained.
(c) Procedures must be used
during shift or personnel changes to ensure the continuity of lockout or tagout
protection, including provision for the orderly transfer of lockout or tagout device
protection between off-going and on-coming employees, to minimize their exposure
to hazards from the unexpected energizing or start-up of the machine or equipment
or from the release of stored energy.
(d) Whenever outside servicing
personnel are to be engaged in activities covered in 437-002-2303, the on-site employer
and the outside employer must inform each other of their respective lockout or tagout
procedures, and each employer must ensure that his or her personnel understand and
comply with restrictions and prohibitions of the energy control procedures being
used.
(e) If energy isolating devices
are installed in a central location and are under the exclusive control of a system
operator, the following requirements apply:
(A) The employer must use
a procedure that affords employees a level of protection equivalent to that provided
by the implementation of a personal lockout or tagout device.
(B) The system operator must
place and remove lockout and tagout devices in place of the authorized employee
under paragraphs (4), (6)(d), and (7)(d) of this rule.
(C) Provisions must be made
to identify the authorized employee who is responsible for (that is, being protected
by) the lockout or tagout device, to transfer responsibility for lockout and tagout
devices, and to ensure that an authorized employee requesting removal or transfer
of a lockout or tagout device is the one responsible for it before the device is
removed or transferred.
Note to 437-002-2303: Lockout and tagging
procedures that comply with paragraphs (c) through (f) of 1910.147 will also be
deemed to comply with 437-002-2303 if the procedures address the hazards covered
by 437-002-2303.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2304
Enclosed Spaces
This rule covers enclosed spaces that
may be entered by employees. It does not apply to vented vaults if the employer
makes a determination that the ventilation system is operating to protect employees
before they enter the space. This rule applies to routine entry into enclosed spaces
in lieu of the confined space entry requirements contained in 437-002-0146 (4) through
(11). If, after the employer takes the precautions given in 437-002-2304 and 437-002-2319
of Division 2/RR, the hazards remaining in the enclosed space endanger the life
of an entrant or could interfere with an entrant's escape from the space, then entry
into the enclosed space must meet the permit-space entry requirements of 437-002-0146
(4) through (11), Confined spaces, in Division 2/J.
(1) Safe work practices.
The employer must ensure the use of safe work practices for entry into, and work
in, enclosed spaces and for rescue of employees from such spaces.
(2) Training. Each employee
who enters an enclosed space or who serves as an attendant must be trained in the
hazards of enclosed-space entry, in enclosed-space entry procedures, and in enclosed-space
rescue procedures.
(3) Rescue equipment. Employers
must provide equipment to ensure the prompt and safe rescue of employees from the
enclosed space.
(4) Evaluating potential
hazards. Before any entrance cover to an enclosed space is removed, the employer
must determine whether it is safe to do so by checking for the presence of any atmospheric
pressure or temperature differences and by evaluating whether there might be a hazardous
atmosphere in the space. Any conditions making it unsafe to remove the cover must
be eliminated before the cover is removed.
Note to paragraph (4): The determination
called for in this paragraph may consist of a check of the conditions that might
foreseeably be in the enclosed space. For example, the cover could be checked to
see if it is hot and, if it is fastened in place, could be loosened gradually to
release any residual pressure. An evaluation also needs to be made of whether conditions
at the site could cause a hazardous atmosphere, such as an oxygen-deficient or flammable
atmosphere, to develop within the space.
(5) Removing covers. When covers are
removed from enclosed spaces, the opening must be promptly guarded by a railing,
temporary cover, or other barrier designed to prevent an accidental fall through
the opening and to protect employees working in the space from objects entering
the space.
(6) Hazardous atmosphere.
Employees may not enter any enclosed space while it contains a hazardous atmosphere,
unless the entry conforms to the confined space standard, 437-002-0146 Confined
spaces, in Division 2/J.
(7) Attendants. While work
is being performed in the enclosed space, an attendant with first-aid training must
be immediately available outside the enclosed space to provide assistance if a hazard
exists because of traffic patterns in the area of the opening used for entry. The
attendant is not precluded from performing other duties outside the enclosed space
if these duties do not distract the attendant from: monitoring employees within
the space or ensuring that it is safe for employees to enter and exit the space.
Note to paragraph (7): See 437-002-2319
Underground electrical installations, for additional requirements on attendants
for work in manholes and vaults.
(8) Calibration of test instruments.
Test instruments used to monitor atmospheres in enclosed spaces must be kept in
calibration and must have a minimum accuracy of ±10 percent.
(9) Testing for oxygen deficiency.
Before an employee enters an enclosed space, the atmosphere in the enclosed space
must be tested for oxygen deficiency with a direct-reading meter or similar instrument,
capable of collection and immediate analysis of data samples without the need for
offsite evaluation. If continuous forced-air ventilation is provided, testing is
not required provided that the procedures used ensure that employees are not exposed
to the hazards posed by oxygen deficiency.
(10) Testing for flammable
gases and vapors. Before an employee enters an enclosed space, the internal atmosphere
must be tested for flammable gases and vapors with a direct-reading meter or similar
instrument capable of collection and immediate analysis of data samples without
the need for off-site evaluation. This test must be performed after the oxygen testing
and ventilation required by paragraph (9) of this rule demonstrate that there is
sufficient oxygen to ensure the accuracy of the test for flammability.
(11) Ventilation and monitoring
for flammable gases or vapors. If flammable gases or vapors are detected or if an
oxygen deficiency is found, forced-air ventilation must be used to maintain oxygen
at a safe level and to prevent a hazardous concentration of flammable gases and
vapors from accumulating. A continuous monitoring program to ensure that no increase
in flammable gas or vapor concentration above safe levels occurs may be followed
in lieu of ventilation if flammable gases or vapors are initially detected at safe
levels.
Note to paragraph (11): See the definition
of "hazardous atmosphere" for guidance in determining whether a specific concentration
of a substance is hazardous.
(12) Specific ventilation requirements.
If continuous forced-air ventilation is used, it must begin before entry is made
and must be maintained long enough for the employer to be able to demonstrate that
a safe atmosphere exists before employees are allowed to enter the work area. The
forced-air ventilation must be so directed as to ventilate the immediate area where
employees are present within the enclosed space and must continue until all employees
leave the enclosed space.
(13) Air supply. The air
supply for the continuous forced-air ventilation must be from a clean source and
may not increase the hazards in the enclosed space.
(14) Open flames. If open
flames are used in enclosed spaces, a test for flammable gases and vapors must be
made immediately before the open flame device is used and at least once per hour
while the device is used in the space. Testing must be conducted more frequently
if conditions present in the enclosed space indicate that once per hour is insufficient
to detect hazardous accumulations of flammable gases or vapors.
Note to paragraph (14): See the definition
of "hazardous atmosphere" for guidance in determining whether a specific concentration
of a substance is hazardous.
Note to 437-002-2304 : Entries
into enclosed spaces conducted in accordance with the requirements of 437-002-0146
(4) through (11), Confined spaces, are considered as complying with 437-002-2304
of Division 2/RR.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2305
Excavations
Excavation operations must comply with
Division 3/P.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2306
Personal Protective Equipment
(1) General. For employers engaged in
general industry activities, personal protective equipment must meet the requirements
of 437-002-0134. For employers engaged in construction activities, personal protective
equipment must meet the requirements of 437-003-0134.
Note 1: 437-002-0134(4) and 437-003-0134(4)
set employer payment obligations for the personal protective equipment required
by this rule, including, but not limited to, the fall protection equipment required
by paragraph (2) of this rule, the electrical protective equipment required by 437-002-2311(3)
of Division 2/RR, and the flame-resistant and arc-rated clothing and other protective
equipment required by 437-002-2311(8) of Division 2/RR.
Note 2: For general industry
activities, refer to Division 2/I, 1910.137, for Electrical Protective Equipment
requirements. For construction activities, refer to Division 3/E, 1926.97, for Electrical
Protective Equipment requirements.
(2) Fall protection.
(a) Personal fall arrest
systems must meet the requirements of Division 3/M, as required by 437-002-0134(5)
of Division 2 and 437-003-0134(5) of Division 3.
(b) Personal fall arrest
equipment used by employees who are exposed to hazards from flames or electric arcs,
as determined by the employer under 437-002-2311(8)(a) of Division 2/RR, must be
capable of passing a drop test equivalent to that required by paragraph (2)(c)(L)
of this rule after exposure to an electric arc with a heat energy of 40±5 cal/cm2.
(c) Body belts and positioning
straps for work-positioning equipment must meet the following requirements:
(A) Hardware for body belts
and positioning straps must meet the following requirements:
(i) Hardware must be made
of drop-forged steel, pressed steel, formed steel, or equivalent material.
(ii) Hardware must have a
corrosion-resistant finish.
(iii) Hardware surfaces must
be smooth and free of sharp edges.
(B) Buckles must be capable
of withstanding an 8.9-kilonewton (2,000-pound-force) tension test with a maximum
permanent deformation no greater than 0.4 millimeters (0.0156 inches).
(C) D rings must be capable
of withstanding a 22-kilonewton (5,000-pound-force) tensile test without cracking
or breaking.
(D) Snaphooks must be capable
of withstanding a 22-kilonewton (5,000-pound-force) tension test without failure.
Note to paragraph (2)(c)(D) of this
rule: Distortion of the snaphook sufficient to release the keeper is considered
to be tensile failure of a snaphook.
(E) Top grain leather or leather substitute
may be used in the manufacture of body belts and positioning straps; however, leather
and leather substitutes may not be used alone as a load-bearing component of the
assembly.
(F) Plied fabric used in
positioning straps and in load-bearing parts of body belts must be constructed in
such a way that no raw edges are exposed and the plies do not separate.
(G) Positioning straps must
be capable of withstanding the following tests:
(i) A dielectric test of
819.7 volts, AC, per centimeter (25,000 volts per foot) for 3 minutes without visible
deterioration;
(ii) A leakage test of 98.4
volts, AC, per centimeter (3,000 volts per foot) with a leakage current of no more
than 1 mA;
Note to paragraphs (2)(c)(G)(i) and
(2)(c)(G)(ii): Positioning straps that pass direct-current tests at equivalent voltages
are considered as meeting this requirement.
(iii) Tension tests of 20 kilonewtons
(4,500 pounds-force) for sections free of buckle holes and of 15 kilonewtons (3,500
pounds-force) for sections with buckle holes;
(iv) A buckle-tear test with
a load of 4.4 kilonewtons (1,000 pounds-force); and
(v) A flammability test in
accordance with Table RR-1. Table RR-1.
(H) The cushion part of the
body belt must contain no exposed rivets on the inside and must be at least 76 millimeters
(3 inches) in width.
(I) Tool loops must be situated
on the body of a body belt so that the 100 millimeters (4 inches) of the body belt
that is in the center of the back, measuring from D ring to D ring, is free of tool
loops and any other attachments.
(J) Copper, steel, or equivalent
liners must be used around the bars of D rings to prevent wear between these members
and the leather or fabric enclosing them.
(K) Snaphooks must be of
the locking type meeting the following requirements:
(i) The locking mechanism
must first be released, or a destructive force must be placed on the keeper, before
the keeper will open.
(ii) A force in the range
of 6.7 N (1.5 lbf) to 17.8 N (4 lbf) must be required to release the locking mechanism.
(iii) With the locking mechanism
released and with a force applied on the keeper against the face of the nose, the
keeper may not begin to open with a force of 11.2 N (2.5 lbf) or less and must begin
to open with a maximum force of 17.8 N (4 lbf).
(L) Body belts and positioning
straps must be capable of withstanding a drop test as follows:
(i) The test mass must be
rigidly constructed of steel or equivalent material with a mass of 100 kg (220.5
lbm). For work-positioning equipment used by employees weighing more than 140 kg
(310 lbm) fully equipped, the test mass must be increased proportionately (that
is, the test mass must equal the mass of the equipped worker divided by 1.4).
(ii) For body belts, the
body belt must be fitted snugly around the test mass and must be attached to the
test structure anchorage point by means of a wire rope.
(iii) For positioning straps,
the strap must be adjusted to its shortest length possible to accommodate the test
and connected to the test-structure anchorage point at one end and to the test mass
on the other end.
(iv) The test mass must be
dropped an unobstructed distance of 1 meter (39.4 inches) from a supporting structure
that will sustain minimal deflection during the test.
(v) Body belts must successfully
arrest the fall of the test mass and must be capable of supporting the mass after
the test.
(vi) Positioning straps must
successfully arrest the fall of the test mass without breaking, and the arrest force
may not exceed 17.8 kilonewtons (4,000 pounds-force). Additionally, snaphooks on
positioning straps may not distort to such an extent that the keeper would release.
Note to paragraph (2)(c) of this rule:
When used by employees weighing no more than 140 kg (310 lbm) fully equipped, body
belts and positioning straps that conform to American Society of Testing and Materials
Standard Specifications for Personal Climbing Equipment, ASTM F887-12e1, are deemed
to be in compliance with paragraph (2)(c) of this rule.
(d) The following requirements apply
to the care and use of personal fall protection equipment.
(A) Body belts and positioning
straps must never be stored with sharp or edged tools.
(B) Small tools carried in
the belt must be placed so they present the least danger of coming in accidental
contact with energized parts. Sharp or pointed tools must not be carried unless
in scabbards, or are otherwise effectively safeguarded.
(C) Work-positioning equipment
must be inspected before use each day to determine that the equipment is in safe
working condition. Work-positioning equipment that is not in safe working condition
may not be used.
Note to paragraph (2)(d)(C): Appendix
F to Division 2/RR contains guidelines for inspecting work-positioning equipment.
(D) The use of chainsaws is prohibited
on all overhead work where workers are supported by a single climbing belt or rope.
(E) Workers must not place
positioning straps around the pole above the top crossarm except where adequate
protection is taken to prevent it from slipping over the top of the pole. Workers
must not allow either end of a strap to hang loose, either in climbing or descending
poles or other structures.
(F) Gaffs and Climbers
(i) Gaffs and Climbers must
be maintained according to the manufacturer’s recommendations.
(ii) Workers must remove
climbers before driving any vehicle.
(iii) Climbers must not be
worn except when required. Workers must not continue to wear their climbers while
working on the ground except for brief periods when a worker is necessarily off
the pole.
(iv) While climbers are not
being worn, the gaffs must be properly guarded.
(G) Safety lines must be
readily available while working aloft to be used for emergency rescue such as lowering
a worker to the ground. Such safety lines must be a minimum of one-half-inch diameter
and three or four strand first-grade manila or its equivalent in strength (2,650
lb.) and durability.
(H) Personal fall arrest
systems must be used in accordance with 1926.502(d).
Note to paragraph (2)(d)(H): Fall protection
equipment rigged to arrest falls is considered a fall arrest system and must meet
the applicable requirements for the design and use of those systems. Fall protection
equipment rigged for work positioning is considered work-positioning equipment and
must meet the applicable requirements for the design and use of that equipment.
(I) The employer must ensure that employees
use fall protection systems as follows:
(i) Each employee working
from an aerial lift must use a fall restraint system or a personal fall arrest system.
Paragraph (c)(2)(v) of 1910.67 and paragraph (b)(2)(v) of 1926.453 do not apply.
(ii) Except as provided in
paragraph (2)(d)(I)(iii) of this rule, each employee in elevated locations more
than 1.2 meters (4 feet) above the ground on poles, towers, or similar structures
must use a personal fall arrest system, work-positioning equipment, or fall restraint
system, as appropriate, if the employer has not provided other fall protection meeting
Division 2/D, Walking-Working Surfaces; or Division 3/M, Fall Protection.
(iii) Each qualified employee
climbing or changing location on poles, towers, or similar structures must use fall
protection equipment unless the employer can demonstrate that climbing or changing
location with fall protection is infeasible or creates a greater hazard than climbing
or changing location without it.
Note 1 to paragraphs (2)(d)(I)(ii)
and (2)(d)(I)(iii) of this rule: These paragraphs apply to structures that support
overhead electric power transmission and distribution lines and equipment. They
do not apply to portions of buildings, such as loading docks, or to electric equipment,
such as transformers and capacitors. Division 2/D, and Division 3/M contain the
duty to provide fall protection associated with walking and working surfaces.
(J) Work-positioning equipment must
be rigged so that an employee can free fall no more than 0.6 meters (2 feet).
(K) Anchorages for work-positioning
equipment must be capable of supporting at least twice the potential impact load
of an employee's fall, or 13.3 kilonewtons (3,000 pounds-force), whichever is greater.
Note to paragraph (2)(d)(K): Wood-pole
fall-restriction devices meeting American Society of Testing and Materials Standard
Specifications for Personal Climbing Equipment, ASTM F887-12e1, are deemed to meet
the anchorage-strength requirement when they are used in accordance with manufacturers'
instructions.
(L) Unless the snaphook is a locking
type and designed specifically for the following connections, snaphooks on work-positioning
equipment may not be engaged:
(i) Directly to webbing,
rope, or wire rope;
(ii) To each other;
(iii) To a D ring to which
another snaphook or other connector is attached;
(iv) To a horizontal lifeline;
or
(v) To any object that is
incompatibly shaped or dimensioned in relation to the snaphook such that accidental
disengagement could occur should the connected object sufficiently depress the snaphook
keeper to allow release of the object.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2307
Portable Ladders and Platforms
(1) General. For employers involved
in general industry activities, requirements for portable ladders contained in Division
2/D apply in addition to the requirements of this rule, except as specifically noted
in paragraph (2) of this rule. For employers involved in construction activities,
requirements for portable ladders contained in Division 3/X apply in addition to
the requirements of this rule, except as specifically noted in paragraph (2) of
this rule.
(2) Special ladders and platforms.
For general industry activities, portable ladders used on structures or conductors
in conjunction with overhead line work need not meet 1910.25(d)(2)(i) and (d)(2)(iii)
or 1910.26(c)(3)(iii). For construction activities, portable ladders and platforms
used on structures or conductors in conjunction with overhead line work need not
meet 1926.1053(b)(5)(i) and (b)(12). Portable ladders and platforms used on structures
or conductors in conjunction with overhead line work must meet the following requirements:
(a) In the configurations
in which they are used, portable platforms must be capable of supporting without
failure at least 2.5 times the maximum intended load.
(b) Portable ladders and
platforms may not be loaded in excess of the working loads for which they are designed.
(c) Portable ladders and
platforms must be secured to prevent them from becoming dislodged.
(d) Portable ladders and
platforms may be used only in applications for which they are designed.
(3) Conductive ladders. Portable
metal ladders and other portable conductive ladders may not be used near exposed
energized lines or equipment. However, in specialized high-voltage work, conductive
ladders must be used when the employer demonstrates that nonconductive ladders would
present a greater hazard to employees than conductive ladders.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2308
Hand and Portable Power Equipment
(1) General. Paragraph (2) of this rule
applies to electric equipment connected by cord and plug. Paragraph (3) of this
rule applies to portable and vehicle-mounted generators used to supply cord- and
plug-connected equipment. Paragraph (4) of this rule applies to hydraulic and pneumatic
tools.
(2) Cord- and plug-connected
equipment. For general industry activities, cord- and plug-connected equipment not
covered by Division 2/S must comply with one of the following instead of 1910.243(a)(5);
and for construction activities, cord- and plug-connected equipment not covered
by Division 3/K must comply with one of the following instead of 1926.302(a)(1):
(a) The equipment must be
equipped with a cord containing an equipment grounding conductor connected to the
equipment frame and to a means for grounding the other end of the conductor (however,
this option may not be used where the introduction of the ground into the work environment
increases the hazard to an employee); or
(b) The equipment must be
of the double-insulated type conforming to Division 2/S or Division 3/K; or
(c) The equipment must be
connected to the power supply through an isolating transformer with an ungrounded
secondary of not more than 50 volts.
(3) Portable and vehicle-mounted
generators. Portable and vehicle-mounted generators used to supply cord- and plug-connected
equipment covered by paragraph (2) of this section must meet the following requirements:
(a) The generator may only
supply equipment located on the generator or the vehicle and cord- and plug-connected
equipment through receptacles mounted on the generator or the vehicle.
(b) The non-current-carrying
metal parts of equipment and the equipment grounding conductor terminals of the
receptacles must be bonded to the generator frame.
(c) For vehicle-mounted generators,
the frame of the generator must be bonded to the vehicle frame.
(d) Any neutral conductor
must be bonded to the generator frame.
(4) Hydraulic and pneumatic
tools.
NOTE: Hydraulic fluid in insulating
tools. Paragraph (d)(1) of 1926.302 does not apply to hydraulic fluid used in insulating
sections of hydraulic tools.
(a) Safe operating pressures for hydraulic
and pneumatic tools, hoses, valves, pipes, filters, and fittings may not be exceeded.
Note to paragraph (4)(a) of this rule:
If any hazardous defects are present, no operating pressure is safe, and the hydraulic
or pneumatic equipment involved may not be used. In the absence of defects, the
maximum rated operating pressure is the maximum safe pressure.
(b) A hydraulic or pneumatic tool used
where it may contact exposed energized parts must be designed and maintained for
such use.
(c) The hydraulic system
supplying a hydraulic tool used where it may contact exposed live parts must provide
protection against loss of insulating value, for the voltage involved, due to the
formation of a partial vacuum in the hydraulic line.
Note to paragraph (4)(c) of this rule:
Use of hydraulic lines that do not have check valves and that have a separation
of more than 10.7 meters (35 feet) between the oil reservoir and the upper end of
the hydraulic system promotes the formation of a partial vacuum.
(d) A pneumatic tool used on energized
electric lines or equipment, or used where it may contact exposed live parts, must
provide protection against the accumulation of moisture in the air supply.
(e) Pressure must be released
before connections are broken, unless quick acting, self-closing connectors are
used.
(f) Employers must ensure
that employees do not use any part of their bodies to locate, or attempt to stop,
a hydraulic leak.
(g) Hoses may not be kinked.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2309
Live-line Tools
(1) Live-line tools must be used by
employees when doing work on energized lines and equipment in excess of 5,000 volts.
(2) Live-line tools must
be used while handling foreign objects that are in contact with high voltage equipment
or conductors energized in excess of 5,000 volts.
(3) Only live-line tools
that are tested and warranted by the manufacturer at the time of purchase to be
adequate for the voltage involved must be used.
(4) Design of tools. Live-line
tool rods, tubes, and poles must be designed and constructed to withstand the following
minimum tests:
(a) If the tool is made of
fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP), it must withstand 328,100 volts per meter (100,000
volts per foot) of length for 5 minutes, or
Note to paragraph (4)(a): Live-line
tools using rod and tube that meet ASTM F711-02 (2007), Standard Specification for
Fiberglass-Reinforced Plastic (FRP) Rod and Tube Used in Live Line Tools, are deemed
to comply with paragraph (4) of this rule.
(b) If the tool is made of wood, it
must withstand 246,100 volts per meter (75,000 volts per foot) of length for 3 minutes,
or
(c) The tool must withstand
other tests that the employer can demonstrate are equivalent.
(5) Condition of tools.
(a) Each live-line tool must
be wiped clean and visually inspected for defects before use each day.
(b) If any defect or contamination
that could adversely affect the insulating qualities or mechanical integrity of
the live-line tool is present after wiping, the tool must be removed from service
and examined and tested according to paragraph (5)(c) of this rule before being
returned to service.
(c) Live-line tools used
for primary employee protection must be removed from service every 2 years, and
whenever required under paragraph (5)(b) of this rule, for examination, cleaning,
repair, and testing as follows:
(A) Each tool must be thoroughly
examined for defects.
(B) If a defect or contamination
that could adversely affect the insulating qualities or mechanical integrity of
the live-line tool is found, the tool must be repaired and refinished or must be
permanently removed from service. If no such defect or contamination is found, the
tool must be cleaned and waxed.
(C) The tool must be tested
in accordance with paragraphs (5)(c)(D) and (5)(c)(E) of this rule under the following
conditions:
(i) After the tool has been
repaired or refinished; and
(ii) After the examination
if repair or refinishing is not performed, unless the tool is made of FRP rod or
foam-filled FRP tube and the employer can demonstrate that the tool has no defects
that could cause it to fail during use.
(D) The test method used
must be designed to verify the tool's integrity along its entire working length
and, if the tool is made of fiberglass-reinforced plastic, its integrity under wet
conditions.
(E) The voltage applied during
the tests must be as follows:
(i) 246,100 volts per meter
(75,000 volts per foot) of length for 1 minute if the tool is made of fiberglass,
or
(ii) 164,000 volts per meter
(50,000 volts per foot) of length for 1 minute if the tool is made of wood, or
(iii) Other tests that the
employer can demonstrate are equivalent.
(d) Live-line tools may not
be used when rain, fog, or any other factor is sufficient to reduce their insulating
qualities so that leakage can be felt.
(e) Live-line tools must
be kept in a dry place. When transporting, they must be kept in separate special
storage compartments, or be contained in protective bags. They may not be laid directly
on the ground.
Note to paragraph (5) of this rule:
Guidelines for the examination, cleaning, repairing, and in-service testing of live-line
tools are specified in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers' IEEE
Guide for Maintenance Methods on Energized Power Lines, IEEE Std 516-2009.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2310
Materials Handling and Storage
(1) General. For general industry activities,
materials handling and storage must comply with applicable material handling and
material storage requirements in Division 2, including those in Division 2/N, except
for Helicopters, which must comply with 437-002-2323. For construction activities,
materials handling and storage must comply with applicable material handling and
material storage requirements in Division 3, including those in Division 3/N and
Division 3/CC, except for Helicopters, which must comply with 437-002-2323.
(2) Materials storage near
energized lines or equipment.
(a) In areas to which access
is not restricted to qualified persons only, materials or equipment may not be stored
closer to energized lines or exposed energized parts of equipment than the following
distances, plus a distance that provides for the maximum sag and side swing of all
conductors and for the height and movement of material-handling equipment:
(A) For lines and equipment
energized at 50 kilovolts or less, the distance is 3.05 meters (10 feet).
(B) For lines and equipment
energized at more than 50 kilovolts, the distance is 3.05 meters (10 feet) plus
0.10 meter (4 inches) for every 10 kilovolts over 50 kilovolts.
(b) In areas restricted to
qualified employees, materials may not be stored within the working space about
energized lines or equipment.
Note to paragraph (2)(b): 437-002-2320(1)
Substations; and 437-002-2321(3) Power Generation Installations; of Division 2/RR,
specify the size of the working space.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2311
Working On or Near Exposed Energized
Parts
This rule applies to work on or near
exposed live parts.
(1) General.
(a) Only qualified employees
may work on or with exposed energized lines or parts of equipment.
(b) Only qualified employees
may work in areas containing unguarded, uninsulated energized lines or parts of
equipment operating at 50 volts or more.
(c) Electric lines and equipment
must be considered and treated as energized unless they have been deenergized in
accordance with 437-002-2303 Hazardous Energy Control, or 437-002-2312, of Division
2/RR.
(2) Two worker rules.
(a) Not fewer than two qualified
employees may work on lines or equipment energized at more than 600 volts while
performing the following types of work:
(A) Installation, removal,
or repair of lines energized at more than 600 volts,
(B) Installation, removal,
or repair of deenergized lines if an employee is exposed to contact with other parts
energized at more than 600 volts,
(C) Installation, removal,
or repair of equipment, such as transformers, capacitors, and regulators, if an
employee is exposed to contact with parts energized at more than 600 volts,
(D) Work involving the use
of mechanical equipment, other than insulated aerial lifts, near parts energized
at more than 600 volts, and
(E) Other work that exposes
an employee to electrical hazards greater than, or equal to, the electrical hazards
posed by operations listed specifically in paragraphs (2)(a)(A) through (2)(a)(E)
of this section.
(b) The following exceptions
to the two-worker rule in 437-002-2311(2)(a)(A) through (2)(a)(E) apply:
(A) When re-fusing circuits
with a live-line tool.
(B) When operating switches
by means of operating handles or live-line tools, excluding installation or removal
of load break elbows with live line tools, addressed in paragraph (2)(b)(E) of this
rule.
(C) When a qualified apprentice
is assigned to work with a journeyman for the purpose of training.
(D) When installing or removing
a live-line clamp connection with an approved live-line tool on single phase line
or apparatus, providing that the connection or disconnection does not interrupt
or pick up a load.
(E) Routine circuit switching,
including installation or removal of a load break elbow with a live line tool on
a single phase line or apparatus, with only one potential primary source.
(i) Authorized employees
must conduct an inspection to determine that conditions on the site allow for safe
work. Conditions include the following examples:
(I) Physical condition of
the cable, elbows, apparatus, and switching equipment.
(II) Environmental and work
conditions, such as limited visibility, bad weather, restricted working space, and
poor lighting.
(III) Service life of the
elbow, power cable, and apparatus.
(ii) When an employee requests
a second worker on site, a second worker must be provided.
(F) Emergency repairs to
the extent necessary to safeguard the general public.
(G) Work performed with live-line
tools when the position of the employee is such that he or she is neither within
reach of, nor otherwise exposed to contact with, energized parts.
(c) Proximity. Workers within
reach of each other must not work on different phases of the same circuit, on different
circuits, or on one energized phase and a ground conductor at the same time.
(3) Minimum approach distances.
(a) The employer must establish
minimum approach distances no less than the distances computed by Table RR-2 for
ac systems or Table RR-7 for dc systems.
(b) For voltages over 72.5
kilovolts, the employer must determine the maximum anticipated per-unit transient
overvoltage, phase-to-ground, through an engineering analysis or assume a maximum
anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, in accordance with
Table RR-8. When the employer uses portable protective gaps to control the maximum
transient overvoltage, the value of the maximum anticipated per-unit transient overvoltage,
phase-to-ground, must provide for five standard deviations between the statistical
sparkover voltage of the gap and the statistical withstand voltage corresponding
to the electrical component of the minimum approach distance. The employer must
make any engineering analysis conducted to determine maximum anticipated per-unit
transient overvoltage available upon request to employees and to Oregon OSHA for
examination and copying.
Note to paragraph (3)(b): See Appendix
B to Division 2/RR for information on how to calculate the maximum anticipated per-unit
transient overvoltage, phase-to-ground, when the employer uses portable protective
gaps to reduce maximum transient overvoltages.
(c) The employer must ensure that no
employee approaches or takes any conductive object closer to exposed energized parts
than the employer's established minimum approach distance, unless:
(A) The employee is insulated
from the energized part. Rubber insulating gloves or rubber insulating gloves and
sleeves worn in accordance with paragraph (4) of this rule constitutes insulation
of the employee from the energized part upon which the employee is working provided
that the employee has control of the part in a manner sufficient to prevent exposure
to uninsulated portions of the employee's body; or
(B) The energized part is
insulated from the employee and from any other conductive object at a different
potential.
(C) Live-line barehand work
is prohibited in Oregon.
(4) Type of insulation: Adequate
barriers and clearances.
(a) Protective equipment
and devices must be installed or removed with:
(A) Rubber gloves or hot
sticks on conductors or equipment energized at 5,000 volts or less.
(B) Live line tools for conductors
or equipment energized in excess of 5,000 volts.
(C) Rubber protective equipment
may be considered as adequate barriers when used on voltages for which it is rated.
Rubber gloves may be used as additional protection from accidental contact only
on voltages above 5,000 and not over 15,000 volts phase to ground.
(D) Rubber gloves cannot
be used as primary protection on voltages over 5,000 volts.
(E) Fixed protective guards
and barriers, when installed and maintained according to the manufacturer’s
guidelines, may be considered as providing adequate clearance.
(b) When an employee uses
rubber insulating gloves as insulation from energized parts (under paragraph (3)(c)(A)
of this rule), the employer must ensure that the employee also uses rubber insulating
sleeves. However, an employee need not use rubber insulating sleeves if:
(A) Exposed energized parts
on which the employee is not working are insulated from the employee; and
(B) When installing insulation
for purposes of paragraph (4)(b)(A) of this rule, the employee installs the insulation
from a position that does not expose their upper arms to contact with other energized
parts.
(c) When an employee uses
rubber insulating gloves or rubber insulating gloves and sleeves as insulation from
energized parts (under paragraph (3)(c)(A) of this rule), the employer must ensure
that the employee:
(A) Puts on the rubber insulating
gloves and sleeves in a position where they cannot reach into the minimum approach
distance, established by the employer under paragraph (3)(a) of this rule; and
(B) Does not remove the rubber
insulating gloves and sleeves until they are in a position where they cannot reach
into the minimum approach distance, established by the employer under paragraph
(3)(a) of this rule.
(5) Working position.
(a) The employer must ensure
that each employee, to the extent that other safety-related conditions at the worksite
permit, works in a position from which a slip or shock will not bring the employee's
body into contact with exposed, uninsulated parts energized at a potential different
from the employee's.
(b) When an employee performs
work near exposed parts energized at more than 600 volts, but not more than 72.5
kilovolts, and is not wearing rubber insulating gloves, being protected by insulating
equipment covering the energized parts, performing work using live-line tools, the
employee must work from a position where he or she cannot reach into the minimum
approach distance, established by the employer under paragraph (3)(a) of this rule.
(6) Making connections. The
employer must ensure that employees make connections as follows:
(a) In connecting deenergized
equipment or lines to an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device,
an employee must first attach the wire to the deenergized part;
(b) When disconnecting equipment
or lines from an energized circuit by means of a conducting wire or device, an employee
must remove the source end first; and
(c) When lines or equipment
are connected to or disconnected from energized circuits, an employee must keep
loose conductors away from exposed energized parts.
(7) Conductive articles.
When an employee performs work within reaching distance of exposed energized parts
of equipment, the employer must ensure that the employee removes or renders nonconductive
all exposed conductive articles, such as keychains or watch chains, rings, or wrist
watches or bands, unless such articles do not increase the hazards associated with
contact with the energized parts.
(8) Protection from flames
and electric arcs.
(a) The employer must assess
the workplace to identify employees exposed to hazards from flames or from electric
arcs.
(b) For each employee exposed
to hazards from electric arcs, the employer must make a reasonable estimate of the
incident heat energy to which the employee would be exposed.
Note 1 to paragraph (8)(b): Appendix
E to Division 2/RR provides guidance on estimating available heat energy. Oregon
OSHA will deem employers following the guidance in Appendix E to Division 2/RR to
be in compliance with paragraph (8)(b) of this rule. An employer may choose a method
of calculating incident heat energy not included in Appendix E to Division 2/RR
if the chosen method reasonably predicts the incident energy to which the employee
would be exposed.
Note 2 to paragraph (8)(b):
This paragraph does not require the employer to estimate the incident heat energy
exposure for every job task performed by each employee. The employer may make broad
estimates that cover multiple system areas provided the employer uses reasonable
assumptions about the energy-exposure distribution throughout the system and provided
the estimates represent the maximum employee exposure for those areas. For example,
the employer could estimate the heat energy just outside a substation feeding a
radial distribution system and use that estimate for all jobs performed on that
radial system.
(c) The employer must ensure that each
employee who is exposed to hazards from flames or electric arcs does not wear clothing
that could melt onto their skin or that could ignite and continue to burn when exposed
to flames or the heat energy estimated under paragraph (8)(b) of this rule.
Note to paragraph (8)(c) of this rule:
This paragraph prohibits clothing made from acetate, nylon, polyester, rayon and
polypropylene, either alone or in blends, unless the employer demonstrates that
the fabric has been treated to withstand the conditions that may be encountered
by the employee or that the employee wears the clothing in such a manner as to eliminate
the hazard involved.
(d) The employer must ensure that the
outer layer of clothing worn by an employee, except for clothing not required to
be arc rated under paragraphs (8)(e)(A) through (8)(e)(E) of this rule, is flame
resistant under any of the following conditions:
(A) The employee is exposed
to contact with energized circuit parts operating at more than 600 volts,
(B) An electric arc could
ignite flammable material in the work area that, in turn, could ignite the employee's
clothing,
(C) Molten metal or electric
arcs from faulted conductors in the work area could ignite the employee's clothing,
or
Note to paragraph (8)(d)(C): This paragraph
does not apply to conductors that are capable of carrying, without failure, the
maximum available fault current for the time the circuit protective devices take
to interrupt the fault.
(D) The incident heat energy estimated
under paragraph (8)(b) of this rule exceeds 2.0 cal/cm2.
(e) The employer must ensure
that each employee exposed to hazards from electric arcs wears protective clothing
and other protective equipment with an arc rating greater than or equal to the heat
energy estimated under paragraph (8)(b) of this rule whenever that estimate exceeds
2.0 cal/cm2. This protective equipment must cover the employee's entire body, except
as follows:
(A) Arc-rated protection
is not necessary for the employee's hands when the employee is wearing rubber insulating
gloves with protectors or, if the estimated incident energy is no more than 14 cal/cm2,
heavy-duty leather work gloves with a weight of at least 407 gm/m2 (12 oz/yd2),
(B) Arc-rated protection
is not necessary for the employee's feet when the employee is wearing heavy-duty
work shoes or boots,
(C) Arc-rated protection
is not necessary for the employee's head when the employee is wearing head protection
meeting 437-002-0134(9) and 437-003-0134(9) if the estimated incident energy is
less than 9 cal/cm2 for exposures involving single-phase arcs in open air or 5 cal/cm2
for other exposures,
(D) The protection for the
employee's head may consist of head protection meeting 437-002-0134(9) and 437-003-0134(9),
and a faceshield with a minimum arc rating of 8 cal/cm2 if the estimated incident-energy
exposure is less than 13 cal/cm2 for exposures involving single-phase arcs in open
air or 9 cal/cm2 for other exposures, and
(E) For exposures involving
single phase arcs in open air, the arc rating for the employee's head and face protection
may be 4 cal/cm2 less than the estimated incident energy.
Note to paragraph (8): See Appendix
E to Division 2/RR for further information on the selection of appropriate protection.
(9) Fuse handling. When an employee
must install or remove fuses with one or both terminals energized at more than 300
volts, or with exposed parts energized at more than 50 volts, the employer must
ensure that the employee uses tools or gloves rated for the voltage. When an employee
installs or removes expulsion-type fuses with one or both terminals energized at
more than 300 volts, the employer must ensure that the employee wears eye protection
meeting the requirements of Division 2/I and Division 3/E, uses a tool rated for
the voltage, and is clear of the exhaust path of the fuse barrel.
(10) Covered (non-insulated)
conductors. The requirements of this section that pertain to the hazards of exposed
live parts also apply when an employee performs work in proximity to covered (non-insulated)
wires.
(11) Non-current-carrying
metal parts. Non-current-carrying metal parts of equipment or devices, such as transformer
cases and circuit-breaker housings, must be treated as energized at the highest
voltage to which these parts are exposed, unless the employer inspects the installation
and determines that these parts are grounded before employees begin performing the
work.
(12) Opening and closing
circuits under load.
(a) The employer must ensure
that devices used by employees to open circuits under load conditions are designed
to interrupt the current involved.
(b) The employer must ensure
that devices used by employees to close circuits under load conditions are designed
to safely carry the current involved.
(13) Safety Watch
(a) A qualified safety watch
must be provided in areas where inadvertent motions, movements, or tool use would
violate Minimum Approach Distances (MAD). The safety watch’s sole duty is
to keep constant watch over persons working within the MAD, to warn them of danger,
and to stop the work when necessary.
(b) The foreman or other
worker in charge of the work being performed is responsible for the designation
of the safety watch. It is the responsibility of the worker in charge to select
a qualified worker who is capable and familiar with the work.
(c) The worker in charge
may act as a safety watch providing no other duties interfere. If the worker in
charge is distracted or must leave the immediate vicinity, that worker must either
designate another qualified person as the safety watch or order the work stopped.
(d) Use of vehicles, gin
poles, cranes, and other equipment in restricted or hazardous areas must at all
times be monitored by a qualified safety watch other than the equipment operator.
Tables RR-2 through RR-8.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2312
Deenergizing Lines and Equipment
for Employee Protection
(1) Application. This rule applies to
the deenergizing of transmission and distribution lines and equipment for the purpose
of protecting employees. See 437-002-2303 Hazardous Energy Control, Division 2/RR,
for requirements on the control of hazardous energy sources used in the generation
of electric energy. Conductors and parts of electric equipment that have been deenergized
under procedures other than those required by 437-002-2303, as applicable, must
be treated as energized.
(2) General.
(a) If a system operator
is in charge of the lines or equipment and their means of disconnection, the employer
must designate one employee in the crew to be in charge of the clearance and must
comply with all of the requirements of paragraph (3) of this rule in the order specified.
(b) If no system operator
is in charge of the lines or equipment and their means of disconnection, the employer
must designate one employee in the crew to be in charge of the clearance and to
perform the functions that the system operator would otherwise perform under this
rule. All of the requirements of paragraph (3) of this rule apply, in the order
specified, except as provided in paragraph (2)(b) of this rule.
(c) If only one crew will
be working on the lines or equipment and if the means of disconnection is accessible
and visible to, and under the sole control of, the employee in charge of the clearance,
paragraphs (3)(b), (3)(d), and (3)(f) of this rule do not apply. Additionally, the
employer does not need to use the tags required by the remaining provisions of paragraph
(3) of this rule.
(d) If two or more crews
will be working on the same lines or equipment, then:
(A) The crews must coordinate
their activities under this rule with a single employee in charge of the clearance
for all of the crews and follow the requirements of this rule as if all of the employees
formed a single crew, or
(B) Each crew must independently
comply with this rule and, if there is no system operator in charge of the lines
or equipment, must have separate tags and coordinate deenergizing and reenergizing
the lines and equipment with the other crews.
(e) The employer must render
any disconnecting means that are accessible to individuals outside the employer's
control (for example, the general public) inoperable while the disconnecting means
are open for the purpose of protecting employees.
(3) Deenergizing lines and
equipment
(a) The employee that the
employer designates pursuant to paragraph (2) of this rule as being in charge of
the clearance must make a request of the system operator to deenergize the particular
section of line or equipment. The designated employee becomes the employee in charge
(as this term is used in paragraph (3) of this rule) and is responsible for the
clearance.
(b) The circuit or equipment
must be considered as energized until notification from the system operator to the
contrary is received.
(c) The system operator must
obtain the name of the person requesting clearance and be assured that the person
is qualified to receive such clearance.
(d) The person requesting
the clearance must state exactly what circuit or equipment they want de-energized
and the reason.
(e) The system operator must
repeat the request for clearance and be certain that the request is fully understood.
(f) The employer must ensure
that all switches, disconnectors, jumpers, taps, and other means through which known
sources of electric energy may be supplied to the particular lines and equipment
to be deenergized are open. The employer must render such means inoperable, unless
its design does not so permit, and then ensure that such means are tagged to indicate
that employees are at work.
(g) The employer must ensure
that automatically and remotely controlled switches that could cause the opened
disconnecting means to close are also tagged at the points of control. The employer
must render the automatic or remote control feature inoperable, unless its design
does not so permit.
(h) The employer need not
use the tags mentioned in paragraphs (3)(f) and (3)(g) of this rule on a network
protector for work on the primary feeder for the network protector's associated
network transformer when the employer can demonstrate all of the following conditions:
(A) Every network protector
is maintained so that it will immediately trip open if closed when a primary conductor
is deenergized;
(B) Employees cannot manually
place any network protector in a closed position without the use of tools, and any
manual override position is blocked, locked, or otherwise disabled; and
(C) The employer has procedures
for manually overriding any network protector that incorporate provisions for determining,
before anyone places a network protector in a closed position, that: The line connected
to the network protector is not deenergized for the protection of any employee working
on the line; and (if the line connected to the network protector is not deenergized
for the protection of any employee working on the line) the primary conductors for
the network protector are energized.
(i) Tags must prohibit operation
of the disconnecting means and must indicate that employees are at work.
(j) After the applicable
requirements in paragraphs (3)(a) through (3)(i) of this section have been followed
and the system operator gives a clearance to the employee in charge, the employer
must ensure that the lines and equipment are deenergized by testing the lines and
equipment to be worked with a device designed to detect voltage.
(k) The employer must ensure
the installation of protective grounds as required by 437-002-2313 Grounding for
the protection of employees, Division 2/RR.
(l) After the applicable
requirements of paragraphs (3)(a) through (3)(k) of this rule have been followed,
the lines and equipment involved may be considered deenergized.
(m) To transfer the clearance,
the employee in charge (or the employee's supervisor if the employee in charge must
leave the worksite due to illness or other emergency) must inform the system operator
and employees in the crew; and the new employee in charge must be responsible for
the clearance.
(n) To release a clearance,
the employee in charge must:
(A) Notify each employee
under that clearance of the pending release of the clearance;
(B) Ensure that all employees
under that clearance are clear of the lines and equipment;
(C) Ensure that all protective
grounds protecting employees under that clearance have been removed; and
(D) Report this information
to the system operator and then release the clearance.
(o) Only the employee in
charge who requested the clearance may release the clearance, unless the employer
transfers responsibility under paragraph (3)(m) of this rule.
(p) No one may remove tags
without the release of the associated clearance as specified under paragraphs (3)(n)
and (3)(o) of this rule.
(q) The employer must ensure
that no one initiates action to reenergize the lines or equipment at a point of
disconnection until all protective grounds have been removed, all crews working
on the lines or equipment release their clearances, all employees are clear of the
lines and equipment, and all protective tags are removed from that point of disconnection.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2313
Grounding for the Protection of
Employees
(1) Application. 437-002-2313 applies
to grounding of generation, transmission, and distribution lines and equipment for
the purpose of protecting employees. Paragraph (4) of this rule also applies to
protective grounding of other equipment as required elsewhere in Division 2/RR.
(2) General. For any employee
to work transmission and distribution lines or equipment as deenergized, the employer
must ensure that the lines or equipment are deenergized under the provisions of
437-002-2312 and must ensure proper grounding of the lines or equipment as specified
in paragraphs (3) through (8) below. However, if the employer can demonstrate that
installation of a ground is impracticable or that the conditions resulting from
the installation of a ground would present greater hazards to employees than working
without grounds, the lines and equipment may be treated as deenergized provided
that the employer establishes that all of the following conditions apply:
(a) The employer ensures
that the lines and equipment are deenergized under the provisions of 437-002-2312
Deenergizing lines and equipment for employee protection, Division 2/RR.
(b) There is no possibility
of contact with another energized source.
(c) The hazard of induced
voltage is not present.
(3) Equipotential zone. Temporary
protective grounds must be placed at such locations and arranged to will prevent
each employee from being exposed to hazardous differences in electric potential.
Note to paragraph (3): Appendix C to
Division 2/RR contains guidelines for establishing the equipotential zone required
by this paragraph. Oregon OSHA will deem grounding practices meeting these guidelines
as complying with paragraph (3) of this rule.
(4) Protective grounding equipment.
(a) Protective grounding
equipment must be capable of conducting the maximum fault current that could flow
at the point of grounding for the time necessary to clear the fault.
(b) Protective grounding
equipment must have an ampacity greater than or equal to that of No. 2 AWG copper.
(c) Protective grounds must
have an impedance low enough so that they do not delay the operation of protective
devices in case of accidental energizing of the lines or equipment.
(d) While working on circuits
deenergized under clearance conditions with multi-phase lines, shorts and grounds
must be established at the lowest impedance available. Employees may perform work
on one phase of a multi-phase line after establishing an equipotential zone that
includes the phase being directly worked on. The phases outside the equipotential
zone are to be treated as energized with minimum approach distance observed, unless
they become part of the equipotential zone.
Note to paragraph (4): American Society
for Testing and Materials Standard Specifications for Temporary Protective Grounds
to Be Used on De-Energized Electric Power Lines and Equipment, ASTM F855-09, contains
guidelines for protective grounding equipment. The Institute of Electrical Engineers
Guide for Protective Grounding of Power Lines, IEEE Std 1048-2003, contains guidelines
for selecting and installing protective grounding equipment.
(5) Testing. The employer must ensure
that, unless a previously installed ground is present, employees test lines and
equipment and verify the absence of nominal voltage before employees install any
ground on those lines or that equipment.
(6) Grounding must be verified
if an employee requests it.
(7) Connecting and removing
grounds.
(a) The employer must ensure
that, when an employee attaches a ground to a line or to equipment, the employee
attaches the ground-end connection first and then attaches the other end by means
of a live-line tool. For lines or equipment operating at 600 volts or less, the
employer may permit the employee to use insulating equipment other than a live-line
tool if the employer ensures that the line or equipment is not energized at the
time the ground is connected or if the employer can demonstrate that each employee
is protected from hazards that may develop if the line or equipment is energized.
(b) The employer must ensure
that, when an employee removes a ground, the employee removes the grounding device
from the line or equipment using a live-line tool before they remove the ground-end
connection. For lines or equipment operating at 600 volts or less, the employer
may permit the employee to use insulating equipment other than a live-line tool
if the employer ensures that the line or equipment is not energized at the time
the ground is disconnected or if the employer can demonstrate that each employee
is protected from hazards that may develop if the line or equipment is energized.
(8) Additional precautions.
The employer must ensure that, when an employee performs work on a cable at a location
remote from the cable terminal, the cable is not grounded at the cable terminal
if there is a possibility of hazardous transfer of potential should a fault occur.
(9) Removal of grounds for
test. The employer may permit employees to remove grounds temporarily during tests.
During the test procedure, the employer must ensure that each employee uses insulating
equipment, must isolate each employee from any hazards involved, and must implement
any additional measures necessary to protect each exposed employee in case the previously
grounded lines and equipment become energized.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2314
Testing and Test Facilities
(1) Application. 437-002-2314 provides
for safe work practices for high-voltage and high-power testing performed in laboratories,
shops, and substations, and in the field and on electric transmission and distribution
lines and equipment. It applies only to testing involving interim measurements using
high voltage, high power, or combinations of high voltage and high power, and not
to testing involving continuous measurements as in routine metering, relaying, and
normal line work.
Note to paragraph (1): Oregon OSHA
considers routine inspection and maintenance measurements made by qualified employees
to be routine line work not included in the scope of 437-002-2314, provided that
the hazards related to the use of intrinsic high-voltage or high-power sources require
only the normal precautions associated with routine work specified in the other
paragraphs of this rule. Two typical examples of such excluded test work procedures
are "phasing-out" testing and testing for a "no-voltage" condition.
(2) General requirements.
(a) The employer must establish
and enforce work practices for the protection of each worker from the hazards of
high-voltage or high-power testing at all test areas, temporary and permanent. Such
work practices must include, as a minimum, test area safeguarding, grounding, the
safe use of measuring and control circuits, and a means providing for periodic safety
checks of field test areas.
(b) The employer must ensure
that each employee, upon initial assignment to the test area, receives training
in safe work practices, with retraining provided as required by 437-002-2300(2).
(3) Safeguarding of test
areas.
(a)The employer must provide
safeguarding within test areas to control access to test equipment or to apparatus
under test that could become energized as part of the testing by either direct or
inductive coupling and to prevent accidental employee contact with energized parts.
(b) The employer must guard
permanent test areas with walls, fences, or other barriers designed to keep employees
out of the test areas.
(c) In field testing, or
at a temporary test site not guarded by permanent fences and gates, the employer
must ensure the use of one of the following means to prevent employees without authorization
from entering:
(A) Distinctively colored
safety tape supported approximately waist high with safety signs attached to it,
(B) A barrier or barricade
that limits access to the test area to a degree equivalent, physically and visually,
to the barricade specified in paragraph (3)(c)(A) of this rule, or
(C) One or more test observers
stationed so that they can monitor the entire area.
(d) The employer must ensure
the removal of the safeguards required by paragraph (3)(c) of this rule when employees
no longer need the protection afforded by the safeguards.
(4) Grounding practices.
(a) The employer must establish
and implement safe grounding practices for the test facility.
(A) The employer must maintain
at ground potential all conductive parts accessible to the test operator while the
equipment is operating at high voltage.
(B) Wherever ungrounded terminals
of test equipment or apparatus under test may be present, they must be treated as
energized until tests demonstrate that they are deenergized.
(b) The employer must ensure
either that visible grounds are applied automatically, or that employees using properly
insulated tools manually apply visible grounds, to the high-voltage circuits after
they are deenergized and before any employee performs work on the circuit or on
the item or apparatus under test. Common ground connections must be solidly connected
to the test equipment and the apparatus under test.
(c) In high-power testing,
the employer must provide an isolated ground-return conductor system designed to
prevent the intentional passage of current, with its attendant voltage rise, from
occurring in the ground grid or in the earth. However, the employer need not provide
an isolated ground-return conductor if the employer can demonstrate that both of
the following conditions exist:
(A) The employer cannot provide
an isolated ground-return conductor due to the distance of the test site from the
electric energy source, and
(B) The employer protects
employees from any hazardous step and touch potentials that may develop during the
test.
Note to paragraph (4)(c)(B): See Appendix
C to Division 2/RR for information on measures that employers can take to protect
employees from hazardous step and touch potentials.
(d) For tests in which using the equipment
grounding conductor in the equipment power cord to ground the test equipment would
result in greater hazards to test personnel or prevent the taking of satisfactory
measurements, the employer may use a ground clearly indicated in the test set-up
if the employer can demonstrate that this ground affords protection for employees
equivalent to the protection afforded by an equipment grounding conductor in the
power supply cord.
(e) The employer must ensure
that, when any employee enters the test area after equipment is deenergized, a ground
is placed on the high-voltage terminal and any other exposed terminals.
(A) Before any employee applies
a direct ground, the employer must discharge high capacitance equipment through
a resistor rated for the available energy.
(B) A direct ground must
be applied to the exposed terminals after the stored energy drops to a level at
which it is safe to do so.
(f) If the employer uses
a test trailer or test vehicle in field testing, its chassis must be grounded. The
employer must protect each employee against hazardous touch potentials with respect
to the vehicle, instrument panels, and other conductive parts accessible to employees
with bonding, insulation, or isolation.
(5) Control and measuring
circuits.
(a) The employer may not
run control wiring, meter connections, test leads, or cables from a test area unless
contained in a grounded metallic sheath and terminated in a grounded metallic enclosure
or unless the employer takes other precautions that it can demonstrate will provide
employees with equivalent safety.
(b) The employer must isolate
meters and other instruments with accessible terminals or parts from test personnel
to protect against hazards that could arise should such terminals and parts become
energized during testing. If the employer provides this isolation by locating test
equipment in metal compartments with viewing windows, the employer must provide
interlocks to interrupt the power supply when someone opens the compartment cover.
(c) The employer must protect
temporary wiring and its connections against damage, accidental interruptions, and
other hazards. To the maximum extent possible, the employer must keep signal, control,
ground, and power cables separate from each other.
(d) If any employee will
be present in the test area during testing, a test observer must be present. The
test observer must be capable of implementing the immediate deenergizing of test
circuits for safety purposes.
(6) Safety check.
(a) Safety practices governing
employee work at temporary or field test areas must provide, at the beginning of
each series of tests, for a routine safety check of such test areas.
(b) The test operator in
charge must conduct these routine safety checks before each series of tests and
must verify at least the following conditions:
(A) Barriers and safeguards
are in workable condition and placed properly to isolate hazardous areas;
(B) System test status signals,
if used, are in operable condition;
(C) Clearly marked test-power
disconnects are readily available in an emergency;
(D) Ground connections are
clearly identifiable;
(E) Personal protective equipment
is provided and used as required by Division 2/I, Division 3/E, and Division 2/RR;
and
(F) Proper separation between
signal, ground, and power cables.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2315
Mechanical Equipment
(1) General requirements.
Note to 437-002-2315: For employers
engaged in construction activities, mechanical equipment must be operated in accordance
with applicable requirements in Division 3, including subdivisions N, O, and CC
of Division 3, except that 1926.600(a)(6) does not apply to operations performed
by qualified employees.
(a) The critical safety components of
mechanical elevating and rotating equipment must receive a thorough visual inspection
before use on each shift.
Note to paragraph (1)(a): Critical
safety components of mechanical elevating and rotating equipment are components
for which failure would result in free fall or free rotation of the boom.
(b) No motor vehicle or earthmoving
or compacting equipment having an obstructed view to the rear may be operated on
off-highway jobsites where any employee is exposed to the hazards created by the
moving vehicle, unless:
(A) The vehicle has a reverse
signal alarm audible above the surrounding noise level, or
(B) The vehicle is backed
up only when a designated employee signals that it is safe to do so.
(c) Rubber-tired self-propelled
scrapers, rubber-tired front-end loaders, rubber-tired dozers, wheel-type agricultural
and industrial tractors, crawler-type tractors, crawler-type loaders, and motor
graders, with or without attachments, must have rollover protective structures that
meet the requirements of Division 3/W.
(d) The operator of an electric
line truck may not leave their position at the controls while a load is suspended,
unless the employer can demonstrate that no employee (including the operator) is
endangered.
(2) Outriggers.
(a) Mobile equipment, if
provided with outriggers, must be operated with the outriggers extended and firmly
set, except as provided in paragraph (2)(c) of this rule.
(b) Outriggers may not be
extended or retracted outside of the clear view of the operator unless all employees
are outside the range of possible equipment motion.
(c) If the work area or the
terrain precludes the use of outriggers, the equipment may be operated only within
its maximum load ratings specified by the equipment manufacturer for the particular
configuration of the equipment without outriggers.
(3) Applied loads. Mechanical
equipment used to lift or move lines or other material must be used within its maximum
load rating and other design limitations for the conditions under which the mechanical
equipment is being used.
(4) Operations near energized
lines or equipment.
(a) Mechanical equipment
must be operated so that the minimum approach distances from exposed energized lines
and equipment, established by the employer under paragraph (3)(a) of 437-002-2311,
are maintained. However, the insulated portion of an aerial lift operated by a qualified
employee in the lift is exempt from this requirement if the applicable minimum approach
distance is maintained between the uninsulated portions of the aerial lift and exposed
objects having a different electrical potential.
(b) A designated employee
other than the equipment operator must observe the approach distance to exposed
lines and equipment and provide timely warnings before the minimum approach distance
required by paragraph (4)(a) of this rule is reached, unless the employer can demonstrate
that the operator can accurately maintain the minimum approach distance.
(c) Aerial lifts must have
dual controls (lower and upper) as follows:
(A) The upper controls must
be within easy reach of the employee in the bucket. On a two-bucket-type lift, access
to the controls must be within easy reach of both buckets.
(B) The lower set of controls
must be near the base of the boom and must be designed so that they can override
operation of the equipment at any time.
(C) Controls must be placed
and guarded so that the equipment cannot be activated by inadvertent contact by
the operator, tools, equipment, lines, or foreign objects.
(d) If, during operation
of the mechanical equipment, that equipment could become energized, the operation
also must comply with at least one of paragraphs (4)(d)(A) through (4)(d)(C) of
this rule.
(A) The energized lines or
equipment exposed to contact must be covered with insulating protective material
that will withstand the type of contact that could be made during the operation.
(B) The mechanical equipment
must be insulated for the voltage involved. The mechanical equipment must be positioned
so that its uninsulated portions cannot approach the energized lines or equipment
any closer than the minimum approach distances, established by the employer under
paragraph (3)(a) of 437-002-2311.
(C) Each employee must be
protected from hazards that could arise from mechanical equipment contact with energized
lines or equipment. The measures used must ensure that employees will not be exposed
to hazardous differences in electric potential. Unless the employer can demonstrate
that the methods in use protect each employee from the hazards that could arise
if the mechanical equipment contacts the energized line or equipment, the measures
used must include all of the following techniques:
(i) Using the best available
ground to minimize the time the lines or electric equipment remain energized,
(ii) Bonding mechanical equipment
together to minimize potential differences,
(iii) Providing ground mats
to extend areas of equipotential, and
(iv) Employing insulating
protective equipment or barricades to guard against any remaining hazardous electrical
potential differences.
Note to paragraph (4)(d)(C): Appendix
C to Division 2/RR contains information on hazardous step and touch potentials and
on methods of protecting employees from hazards resulting from such potentials.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2316
Overhead Lines
(1) General. This paragraph provides
additional requirements for work performed on or near overhead lines and equipment.
(a) The employer must determine
if elevated structures such as poles or towers are capable of withstanding the additional
or unbalanced stresses of climbing or equipment. If the pole or other structure
cannot withstand the expected loads, the employer must brace or otherwise support
the pole or structure to prevent failure.
Note to paragraph (1)(a):
Appendix D to Division 2/RR contains test methods that employers can use to determine
whether a wood pole is capable of sustaining the forces imposed by an employee climbing
the pole. This paragraph also requires the employer to determine that the pole can
sustain all other forces imposed by the work employees will perform.
(b) When a pole is set, moved,
or removed near an exposed energized overhead conductor, the pole may not contact
the conductor.
(c) Raising poles, towers,
or fixtures close to high voltage conductors must be done under the supervision
of a worker qualified for this work.
(d) Conductive rigging (wire
rope) may not be used to raise poles, transformers, and other equipment except when
such rigging is below, protected, or at a sufficient distance from energized high
voltage conductors to prevent hazardous contact.
(e) When a pole is set, moved,
or removed near an exposed energized overhead conductor, the employer must ensure
that each employee wears electrical protective equipment or uses insulated devices
when handling the pole and that no employee contacts the pole with uninsulated parts
of their body.
(f) To protect employees
from falling into holes used for placing poles, the employer must physically guard
the holes, or ensure that employees attend the holes, whenever anyone is working
nearby.
(g) Suitable guards and barriers
must be erected so that workers or tools and equipment will not fall into or accidentally
contact energized conductors or equipment.
(h) Materials and tools other
than belt tools for which the body belt is designed:
(A) Must be raised or lowered
by means of a suitable container or handline.
(B) May not be thrown to
or from employees working on poles or structures. When field conditions prevent
the use of a handline or alternative method from being done safely, a designated
drop zone must be established. Clear communication must occur to prevent employees
from entering the zone while material is being dropped in a controlled manner.
(2) Installing and removing
overhead lines. The following provisions apply to the installation and removal of
overhead conductors or cable (overhead lines).
(a) When lines that employees
are installing or removing can contact energized parts, the employer must use the
tension-stringing method, barriers, or other equivalent measures to minimize the
possibility that conductors and cables the employees are installing or removing
will contact energized power lines or equipment.
(b) For conductors, cables,
and pulling and tensioning equipment, the employer must provide the protective measures
required by 437-002-2315 (4)(d) when employees are installing or removing a conductor
or cable close enough to energized conductors that any of the following failures
could energize the pulling or tensioning equipment or the conductor or cable being
installed or removed:
(A) Failure of the pulling
or tensioning equipment,
(B) Failure of the conductor
or cable being pulled, or
(C) Failure of the previously
installed lines or equipment.
(c) If the conductors that
employees are installing or removing cross over energized conductors in excess of
600 volts and if the design of the circuit interrupting devices protecting the lines
so permits, the employer must render inoperable the automatic-reclosing feature
of these devices.
(d) Before employees install
lines parallel to existing energized lines, the employer must make a determination
of the approximate voltage to be induced in the new lines, or work must proceed
on the assumption that the induced voltage is hazardous. Unless the employer can
demonstrate that the lines that employees are installing are not subject to the
induction of a hazardous voltage or unless the lines are treated as energized, temporary
protective grounds must be placed at such locations and arranged in such a manner
that the employer can demonstrate will prevent exposure of each employee to hazardous
differences in electric potential.
Note 1 to paragraph (2)(d): If the
employer takes no precautions to protect employees from hazards associated with
involuntary reactions from electric shock, a hazard exists if the induced voltage
is sufficient to pass a current of 1 milliampere through a 500-ohm resistor. If
the employer protects employees from injury due to involuntary reactions from electric
shock, a hazard exists if the resultant current would be more than 6 milliamperes.
Note 2 to paragraph (2)(d):
Appendix C to Division 2/RR rule contains guidelines for protecting employees from
hazardous differences in electric potential as required by this paragraph.
(e) Conductors being strung must not
be allowed to slack enough to be in reach of traffic or pedestrians, unless guarded
by flaggers or other suitable safeguards.
(f) Reel-handling equipment,
including pulling and tensioning devices, must be in safe operating condition and
must be leveled and aligned.
(g) When stringing or removing
conductors under tension, sleeves must not be pulled through the bull wheel or the
puller on the tension machine unless appropriate safeguards are taken.
(h) A qualified employee,
or an experienced person under the supervision of a qualified employee, must be
placed in charge of the reels as the reel tender.
(i) Reel handling equipment,
including pulling, braking, and sagging equipment must be firmly anchored or secured
during operations.
(j) The employer must ensure
that employees do not exceed load ratings of stringing lines, pulling lines, conductor
grips, load-bearing hardware and accessories, rigging, and hoists.
(k) When replacing a conductor
with a new or larger conductor, the conductor being removed may not be used to pull
in the new one unless the one being removed has been carefully inspected for its
entire length and then adjudged to have adequate strength.
(l) The employer must repair
or replace defective pulling lines and accessories.
(m) Each pull must be snubbed
or dead ended at both ends before subsequent pulls.
(n) The employer must ensure
that employees do not use conductor grips on wire rope unless the manufacturer specifically
designed the grip for this application.
(o) The employer must ensure
that employees maintain reliable communications, through two-way radios or other
equivalent means, between the reel tender and the pulling rig operator.
(p) Employees may operate
the pulling rig only when it is safe to do so.
Note to paragraph (2)(p): Examples
of unsafe conditions include: employees in locations prohibited by paragraph (2)(q)
of this rule, conductor and pulling line hang-ups, and slipping of the conductor
grip.
(q) While a power-driven device is pulling
the conductor or pulling line and the conductor or pulling line is in motion, the
employer must ensure that employees are not directly under overhead operations or
on the cross arm, except as necessary for the employees to guide the stringing sock
or board over or through the stringing sheave.
(3) Live-line bare-hand work
is prohibited.
(4) Towers and structures.
The following requirements apply to work performed on towers or other structures
that support overhead lines.
(a) The employer must ensure
that no employee is under a tower or structure while work is in progress, except
when the employer can demonstrate that such a working position is necessary to assist
employees working above.
(b) The employer must ensure
that employees use tag lines or other similar devices to maintain control of tower
rules being raised or positioned, unless the employer can demonstrate that the use
of such devices would create a greater hazard to employees.
(c) The employer must ensure
that employees do not detach the loadline from a member or rule until they safely
secure the load.
(d) The employer must ensure
that, except during emergency restoration procedures, employees discontinue work
when adverse weather conditions would make the work hazardous in spite of the work
practices required by this rule.
Note to paragraph (4)(d): Thunderstorms
in the vicinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice storms are examples of adverse
weather conditions that make this work too hazardous to perform even after the employer
implements the work practices required by this rule.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2317
Line-clearance Tree Trimming
This rule provides additional requirements
for line-clearance tree trimming and for equipment used in this type of work.
(1) Electrical hazards. This
paragraph does not apply to qualified employees.
(a) Before an employee climbs,
enters, or works around any tree, a determination must be made of the nominal voltage
of electric power lines posing a hazard to employees. However, a determination of
the maximum nominal voltage to which an employee will be exposed may be made instead,
if all lines are considered as energized at this maximum voltage.
(b) There must be a second
line-clearance tree trimmer within normal, unassisted voice communication under
any of the following conditions:
(A) If a line-clearance tree
trimmer is to approach more closely than 3.05 meters (10 feet) to any conductor
or electric apparatus energized at more than 600 volts or
(B) If branches or limbs
being removed are closer to lines energized at more than 600 volts than the distances
listed in Table RR-4, Table RR-5, Table RR-6, and Table RR-7 or
(C) If roping is necessary
to remove branches or limbs from such conductors or apparatus.
(c) Line-clearance tree trimmers
must maintain the minimum approach distances from energized conductors given in
Table RR-4, Table RR-5, Table RR-6, and Table RR-7.
(d) Branches that are contacting
exposed energized conductors or equipment, or that are within the distances specified
in Table RR-4 Table RR-5, Table RR-6, and Table RR-7 may be removed only through
the use of insulating equipment.
Note to paragraph (1)(d): A tool constructed
of a material that the employer can demonstrate has insulating qualities meeting
paragraph (3) of 437-002-2309 is considered as insulated under paragraph (1)(d)
of this rule if the tool is clean and dry.
(e) Ladders, platforms, and aerial devices
may not be brought closer to an energized part than the distances listed in Table
RR-4, Table RR-5, Table RR-6, and Table RR-7.
(f) Line-clearance tree trimming
may not be performed when adverse weather conditions make the work hazardous in
spite of the work practices required by this rule. Each employee performing line-clearance
tree trimming in the aftermath of a storm or under similar emergency conditions
must be trained in the special hazards related to this type of work.
Note to paragraph (1)(f): Thunderstorms
in the immediate vicinity, high winds, snow storms, and ice storms are examples
of adverse weather conditions that are presumed to make line-clearance tree trimming
too hazardous to perform safely.
(2) Brush chippers.
(a) Brush chippers must be
equipped with a locking device in the ignition system.
(b) Access panels for maintenance
and adjustment of the chipper blades and associated drive train must be in place
and secure during operation of the equipment.
(c) Brush chippers not equipped
with a mechanical infeed system must be equipped with an infeed hopper of length
sufficient to prevent employees from contacting the blades or knives of the machine
during operation.
(d) Trailer chippers detached
from trucks must be chocked or otherwise secured.
(e) Each employee in the
immediate area of an operating chipper feed table must wear personal protective
equipment as required Division 2/I.
(3) Sprayers and related
equipment.
(a) Walking and working surfaces
of sprayers and related equipment must be covered with slip-resistant material.
If slipping hazards cannot be eliminated, slip-resistant footwear or handrails and
stair rails meeting the requirements of Division 2/D may be used instead of slip-resistant
material.
(b) Equipment on which employees
stand to spray while the vehicle is in motion must be equipped with guardrails around
the working area. The guardrail must be constructed in accordance with Division
2/D.
(4) Stump cutters.
(a) Stump cutters must be
equipped with enclosures or guards to protect employees.
(b) Each employee in the
immediate area of stump grinding operations including the stump cutter operator)
must wear personal protective equipment as required by Division 2/I.
(5) Gas powered saws. Gas
powered saw operations must meet the requirements of 437-007-0405 Chain Saws, Division
7; and the following:
(a) Each power saw weighing
more than 6.8 kilograms (15 pounds, service weight) that is used in trees must be
supported by a separate line, except when work is performed from an aerial lift
and except during topping or removing operations where no supporting limb will be
available.
(b) Each power saw must be
equipped with a control that will return the saw to idling speed when released.
(c) Each power saw must be
equipped with a clutch and must be so adjusted that the clutch will not engage the
chain drive at idling speed.
(d) A power saw must be started
on the ground or where it is otherwise firmly supported. Drop starting of saws over
6.8 kilograms (15 pounds), other than chain saws, is permitted outside of the bucket
of an aerial lift only if the area below the lift is clear of personnel. Drop starting
chain saws is prohibited.
(e) A power saw engine may
be started and operated only when all employees other than the operator are clear
of the saw.
(f) A power saw may not be
running when the saw is being carried up into a tree by an employee.
(g) Power saw engines must
be stopped for all cleaning, refueling, adjustments, and repairs to the saw or motor,
except as the manufacturer's servicing procedures require otherwise.
(6) Backpack power units
for use in pruning and clearing.
(a) While a backpack power
unit is running, no one other than the operator may be within 3.05 meters (10 feet)
of the cutting head of a brush saw.
(b) A backpack power unit
must be equipped with a quick shutoff switch readily accessible to the operator.
(c) Backpack power unit engines
must be stopped for all cleaning, refueling, adjustments, and repairs to the saw
or motor, except as the manufacturer's servicing procedures require otherwise.
(7) Rope.
(a) Climbing ropes must be
used by employees working aloft in trees. These ropes must have a minimum diameter
of 12 millimeters (0.5 inch) with a minimum breaking strength of 10.2 kilonewtons
(2,300 pounds). Synthetic rope must have elasticity of not more than 7 percent.
(b) Rope must be inspected
before each use and, if unsafe (for example, because of damage or defect), may not
be used.
(c) Rope must be stored away
from cutting edges and sharp tools. Rope contact with corrosive chemicals, gas,
and oil must be avoided.
(d) When stored, rope must
be coiled and piled, or must be suspended, so that air can circulate through the
coils.
(e) Rope ends must be secured
to prevent their unraveling.
(f) Climbing rope may not
be repaired by splicing.
(g) A rope that is wet, that
is contaminated to the extent that its insulating capacity is impaired, or that
is otherwise not considered to be insulated for the voltage involved may not be
used near exposed energized lines.
(8) Fall protection. Each
employee must be tied in with a climbing rope and safety saddle when the employee
is working above the ground in a tree, except when ascending into or descending
from the tree.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2318
Communication Facilities
(1) Microwave transmission.
(a) The employer must ensure
that no employee looks into an open waveguide or antenna connected to an energized
microwave source.
(b) If the electromagnetic-radiation
level within an accessible area associated with microwave communications systems
exceeds the radiation-protection guide specified by 1910.97(a)(2), the employer
must post the area with warning signs containing the warning symbol described in
1910.97(a)(3). The lower half of the warning symbol must include the following statements,
or ones that the employer can demonstrate are equivalent: "Radiation in this area
may exceed hazard limitations and special precautions are required. Obtain specific
instruction before entering."
(c) When an employee works
in an area where the electromagnetic radiation could exceed the radiation protection
guide, the employer must institute measures that ensure that the employee's exposure
is not greater than that permitted by that guide. Such measures may include administrative
and engineering controls and personal protective equipment.
(2) Power-line carrier. The
employer must ensure that employees perform power-line carrier work, including work
on equipment used for coupling carrier current to power line conductors, in accordance
with the requirements of Division 2/RR pertaining to work on energized lines.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2319
Underground Electrical Installations
This rule provides additional requirements
for work on underground electrical installations.
(1) Access. The employer
must ensure that employees use a ladder or other climbing device to enter and exit
a manhole or subsurface vault exceeding 1.22 meters (4 feet) in depth. No employee
may climb into or out of a manhole or vault by stepping on cables or hangers.
(2) Lowering equipment into
manholes.
(a) Equipment used to lower
materials and tools into manholes or vaults must be capable of supporting the weight
to be lowered and must be checked for defects before use.
(b) Before anyone lowers
tools or material into the opening for a manhole or vault, each employee working
in the manhole or vault must be clear of the area directly under the opening.
(3) Attendants for manholes
and vaults.
(a) While work is being performed
in a manhole or vault containing energized electric equipment, an employee with
first-aid and cardiopulmonary resuscitation training must be available on the surface
in the immediate vicinity of the manhole or vault entrance to render emergency assistance.
(b) Occasionally, the employee
on the surface may briefly enter a manhole or vault to provide nonemergency assistance.
Note 1 to paragraph (3)(b): 437-002-2304(7)
of Division 2/RR may also require an attendant and does not permit this attendant
to enter the manhole or vault.
Note 2 to paragraph (3)(b):
437-002-2311(1)(b) of Division 2/RR requires employees entering manholes or vaults
containing unguarded, uninsulated energized lines or parts of electric equipment
operating at 50 volts or more to be qualified.
(c) For the purpose of inspection, housekeeping,
taking readings, or similar work, an employee working alone may enter, for brief
periods of time, a manhole or vault where energized cables or equipment are in service
if the employer can demonstrate that the employee will be protected from all electrical
hazards.
(d) The employer must ensure
that employees maintain reliable communications, through two-way radios or other
equivalent means, among all employees involved in the job.
(4) Duct rods. The employer
must ensure that, if employees use duct rods, the employees install the duct rods
in the direction presenting the least hazard to employees. The employer must station
an employee at the far end of the duct line being rodded to ensure that the employees
maintain the required minimum approach distances.
(5) All primary cables must
be permanently and plainly identified by tags or other methods at both ends.
(6) Multiple cables. When
multiple cables are present in a work area, the employer must identify the cable
to be worked by electrical means, unless its identity is obvious by reason of distinctive
appearance or location or by other readily apparent means of identification. The
employer must protect cables other than the one being worked from damage.
(7) Moving cables. Except
when paragraph (8)(b) of this rule permits employees to perform work that could
cause a fault in an energized cable in a manhole or vault, the employer must ensure
that employees inspect energized cables to be moved for abnormalities.
(8) Protection against faults.
(a) Where a cable in a manhole
or vault has one or more abnormalities that could lead to a fault or be an indication
of an impending fault, the employer must deenergize the cable with the abnormality
before any employee may work in the manhole or vault, except when service-load conditions
and a lack of feasible alternatives require that the cable remain energized. In
that case, employees may enter the manhole or vault provided the employer protects
them from the possible effects of a failure using shields or other devices that
are capable of containing the adverse effects of a fault. The employer must treat
the following abnormalities as indications of impending faults unless the employer
can demonstrate that the conditions could not lead to a fault: Oil or compound leaking
from cable or joints, broken cable sheaths or joint sleeves, hot localized surface
temperatures of cables or joints, or joints swollen beyond normal tolerance.
(b) If the work employees
will perform in a manhole or vault could cause a fault in a cable, the employer
must deenergize that cable before any employee works in the manhole or vault, except
when service-load conditions and a lack of feasible alternatives require that the
cable remain energized. In that case, employees may enter the manhole or vault provided
the employer protects them from the possible effects of a failure using shields
or other devices that are capable of containing the adverse effects of a fault.
(9) Sheath continuity. When
employees perform work on buried cable or on cable in a manhole or vault, the employer
must maintain metallic-sheath continuity, or the cable sheath must be treated as
energized.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2320
Substations
This paragraph provides additional requirements
for substations and for work performed in them.
(1) Access and working space.
The employer must provide and maintain sufficient access and working space around
electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance of such equipment
by employees.
Note to paragraph (1): American National
Standard: National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI/IEEE C2-2012 contains guidelines
for the dimensions of access and working space about electric equipment in substations.
Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with paragraph (u)(1) of this rule.
Oregon OSHA will determine whether an installation that does not conform to this
ANSI standard complies with paragraph (1) of this rule based on the following criteria:
Whether the installation conforms
to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect when the installation was made.
Whether the configuration of the
installation enables employees to maintain the minimum approach distances, established
by the employer under paragraph (3)(a) of 437-002-2311, while the employees are
working on exposed, energized parts, and
Whether the precautions taken when
employees perform work on the installation provide protection equivalent to the
protection provided by access and working space meeting ANSI/IEEE C2-2012.
(2) Draw-out-type circuit breakers.
The employer must ensure that, when employees remove or insert draw-out-type circuit
breakers, the breaker is in the open position. The employer must also render the
control circuit inoperable if the design of the equipment permits.
(3) Substation fences. Conductive
fences around substations must be grounded. When a substation fence is expanded
or a section is removed, fence sections must be isolated, grounded, or bonded as
necessary to protect employees from hazardous differences in electric potential.
Note to paragraph (3): IEEE Std 80-2000,
IEEE Guide for Safety in AC Substation Grounding, contains guidelines for protection
against hazardous differences in electric potential.
(4) Guarding of rooms and other spaces
containing electric supply equipment.
(a) Rooms and other spaces
in which electric supply lines or equipment are installed must meet the requirements
of paragraphs (4)(a) through (4)(e) of this rule under the following conditions:
(A) If exposed live parts
operating at 50 to 150 volts to ground are within 2.4 meters (8 feet) of the ground
or other working surface inside the room or other space,
(B) If live parts operating
at 151 to 600 volts to ground and located within 2.4 meters (8 feet) of the ground
or other working surface inside the room or other space are guarded only by location,
as permitted under paragraph (5)(a) of this rule, or
(C) If live parts operating
at more than 600 volts to ground are within the room or other space, unless:
(i) The live parts are enclosed
within grounded, metal-enclosed equipment whose only openings are designed so that
foreign objects inserted in these openings will be deflected from energized parts,
or
(ii) The live parts are installed
at a height, above ground and any other working surface, that provides protection
at the voltage on the live parts corresponding to the protection provided by a 2.4-meter
(8-foot) height at 50 volts.
(b) Fences, screens, partitions,
or walls must enclose the rooms and other spaces so as to minimize the possibility
that unqualified persons will enter.
(c) Unqualified persons may
not enter the rooms or other spaces while the electric supply lines or equipment
are energized.
(d) The employer must display
signs at entrances to the rooms and other spaces warning unqualified persons to
keep out.
(e) The employer must keep
each entrance to a room or other space locked, unless the entrance is under the
observation of a person who is attending the room or other space for the purpose
of preventing unqualified employees from entering.
(5) Guarding of energized
parts.
(a) The employer must provide
guards around all live parts operating at more than 150 volts to ground without
an insulating covering unless the location of the live parts gives sufficient clearance
(horizontal, vertical, or both) to minimize the possibility of accidental employee
contact.
Note to paragraph (5)(a): American
National Standard: National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI/IEEE C2-2002 contains guidelines
for the dimensions of clearance distances about electric equipment in substations.
Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with paragraph (5)(a) of this rule.
Oregon OSHA will determine whether an installation that does not conform to this
ANSI standard complies with paragraph (5)(a) of this rule based on the following
criteria:
Whether the installation conforms
to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect when the installation was made,
Whether each employee is isolated
from energized parts at the point of closest approach; and
Whether the precautions taken when
employees perform work on the installation provide protection equivalent to the
protection provided by horizontal and vertical clearances meeting ANSI/IEEE C2-2002.
(b) Except for fuse replacement and
other necessary access by qualified persons, the employer must maintain guarding
of energized parts within a compartment during operation and maintenance functions
to prevent accidental contact with energized parts and to prevent dropped tools
or other equipment from contacting energized parts.
(c) Before guards are removed
from energized equipment, the employer must install barriers around the work area
to prevent employees who are not working on the equipment, but who are in the area,
from contacting the exposed live parts.
(d) Proper identification
and warning signs must be posted at all entrances to battery rooms or compartments.
(6) Substation entry.
(a) Upon entering an attended
substation, each employee, other than employees regularly working in the station,
must report their presence to the employee in charge of substation activities to
receive information on special system conditions affecting employee safety.
(b) The job briefing required
by 437-002-2302 Job Briefing, Division 2/RR; must cover information on special system
conditions affecting employee safety, including the location of energized equipment
in or adjacent to the work area and the limits of any deenergized work area. Job
briefings apply equally to unattended and attended substations and to employees
already working in a substation and employees who enter a substation.
(c) A qualified safety watch
must be provided for all other work being performed in any energized substation
yard except when the work is separated from all energized equipment by a barrier.
(d) Qualified nonelectrical
workers will be allowed to work in substations without barriers and without a safety
watch if all the following conditions are observed:
(A) Permission to enter must
be obtained from the substation operator or other authorized person.
(B) Each qualified nonelectrical
worker must be trained and competent as required by 437-002-2300(2)(b) Training,
of Division 2/RR, and must have demonstrated proficiencies in the work practices
involved as required by 437-002-2300 (2)(h) Training, Division 2/RR.
Note: Employees who have not demonstrated
proficiency in the work practices involved are considered to be undergoing on-the-job
training and must be under the direct supervision of a qualified employee.
(C) The worker must not work off the
ground without the specific approval of the person responsible for control of entry
except to operate such equipment as light motor vehicles, which have no equipment
or loads that can project above the cab.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2321
Power Generation Installations
This rule provides additional requirements
and related work practices for power generating plants.
(1) Interlocks and other
safety devices.
(a) Interlocks and other
safety devices must be maintained in a safe, operable condition.
(b) No interlock or other
safety device may be modified to defeat its function, except for test, repair, or
adjustment of the device.
(2) Changing brushes. Before
exciter or generator brushes are changed while the generator is in service, the
exciter or generator field must be checked to determine whether a ground condition
exists. The brushes may not be changed while the generator is energized if a ground
condition exists.
(3) Access and working space.
The employer must provide and maintain sufficient access and working space around
electric equipment to permit ready and safe operation and maintenance.
Note to paragraph (3) of this rule:
American National Standard: National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI/IEEE C2-2012 contains
guidelines for the dimensions of access and working space about electric equipment
in substations. Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with paragraph
(3) of this rule. Oregon OSHA will determine whether an installation that does not
conform to this ANSI standard complies with paragraph (3) of this rule based on
the following criteria:
Whether the installation conforms
to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect when the installation was made;
Whether the configuration of the
installation enables employees to maintain the minimum approach distances, established
by the employer under paragraph (3)(a) of this section, while the employees are
working on exposed, energized parts, and;
Whether the precautions taken when
employees perform work on the installation provide protection equivalent to the
protection provided by access and working space meeting ANSI/IEEE C2-2012.
(4) Guarding of rooms and other spaces
containing electric supply equipment.
(a) Rooms and other spaces
in which electric supply lines or equipment are installed must meet the requirements
of paragraphs (4)(b) through (4)(e) of this rule under the following conditions:
(A) If exposed live parts
operating at 50 to 150 volts to ground are within 2.4 meters (8 feet) of the ground
or other working surface inside the room or other space,
(B) If live parts operating
at 151 to 600 volts to ground and located within 2.4 meters (8 feet) of the ground
or other working surface inside the room or other space are guarded only by location,
as permitted under paragraph (5)(a) of this rule, or
(C) If live parts operating
at more than 600 volts to ground are within the room or other space, unless:
(i) The live parts are enclosed
within grounded, metal-enclosed equipment whose only openings are designed so that
foreign objects inserted in these openings will be deflected from energized parts,
or
(ii) The live parts are installed
at a height, above ground and any other working surface, that provides protection
at the voltage on the live parts corresponding to the protection provided by a 2.4-meter
(8-foot) height at 50 volts.
(b) Fences, screens, partitions,
or walls must enclose the rooms and other spaces so as to minimize the possibility
that unqualified persons will enter.
(c) Unqualified persons may
not enter the rooms or other spaces while the electric supply lines or equipment
are energized.
(d) The employer must display
signs at entrances to the rooms and other spaces warning unqualified persons to
keep out.
(e) The employer must keep
each entrance to a room or other space locked, unless the entrance is under the
observation of a person who is attending the room or other space for the purpose
of preventing unqualified employees from entering.
(5) Guarding of energized
parts.
(a) The employer must provide
guards around all live parts operating at more than 150 volts to ground without
an insulating covering unless the location of the live parts gives sufficient clearance
(horizontal, vertical, or both) to minimize the possibility of accidental employee
contact.
Note to paragraph (5)(a): American
National Standard: National Electrical Safety Code, ANSI/IEEE C2-2002 contains guidelines
for the dimensions of clearance distances about electric equipment in substations.
Installations meeting the ANSI provisions comply with paragraph (5)(a) of this rule.
Oregon OSHA will determine whether an installation that does not conform to this
ANSI standard complies with paragraph (5)(a) of this rule based on the following
criteria:
Whether the installation conforms
to the edition of ANSI C2 that was in effect when the installation was made;
Whether each employee is isolated
from energized parts at the point of closest approach; and
Whether the precautions taken when
employees perform work on the installation provide protection equivalent to the
protection provided by horizontal and vertical clearances meeting ANSI/IEEE C2-2002.
(b) Except for fuse replacement and
other necessary access by qualified persons, the employer must maintain guarding
of energized parts within a compartment during operation and maintenance functions
to prevent accidental contact with energized parts and to prevent dropped tools
or other equipment from contacting energized parts.
(c) Before guards are removed
from energized equipment, the employer must install barriers around the work area
to prevent employees who are not working on the equipment, but who are in the area,
from contacting the exposed live parts.
(6) Water or steam spaces.
The following requirements apply to work in water and steam spaces associated with
boilers:
(a) A designated employee
must inspect conditions before work is permitted and after its completion. Eye protection,
or full face protection if necessary, must be worn at all times when condenser,
heater, or boiler tubes are being cleaned.
(b) Where it is necessary
for employees to work near tube ends during cleaning, shielding must be installed
at the tube ends.
(7) Chemical cleaning of
boilers and pressure vessels. The following requirements apply to chemical cleaning
of boilers and pressure vessels:
(a) Areas where chemical
cleaning is in progress must be cordoned off to restrict access during cleaning.
If flammable liquids, gases, or vapors or combustible materials will be used or
might be produced during the cleaning process, the following requirements also apply:
(A) The area must be posted
with signs restricting entry and warning of the hazards of fire and explosion; and
(B) Smoking, welding, and
other possible ignition sources are prohibited in these restricted areas.
(b) The number of personnel
in the restricted area must be limited to those necessary to accomplish the task
safely.
(c) There must be ready access
to water or showers for emergency use.
Note to paragraph (7)(c):
See 1910.141 and 437-002-0141 for requirements that apply to the water supply and
to washing facilities.
(d) Employees in restricted
areas must wear protective equipment meeting the requirements of Division 2/I and
including, but not limited to, protective clothing, boots, goggles, and gloves.
(8) Chlorine systems.
(a) Chlorine system enclosures
must be posted with signs restricting entry and warning of the hazard to health
and the hazards of fire and explosion.
Note to paragraph (8)(a): See Division
2/Z for requirements necessary to protect the health of employees from the effects
of chlorine.
(b) Only designated employees may enter
the restricted area. Additionally, the number of personnel must be limited to those
necessary to accomplish the task safely.
(c) Emergency repair kits
must be available near the shelter or enclosure to allow for the prompt repair of
leaks in chlorine lines, equipment, or containers.
(d) Before repair procedures
are started, chlorine tanks, pipes, and equipment must be purged with dry air and
isolated from other sources of chlorine.
(e) The employer must ensure
that chlorine is not mixed with materials that would react with the chlorine in
a dangerously exothermic or other hazardous manner.
(9) Boilers.
(a) Before internal furnace
or ash hopper repair work is started, overhead areas must be inspected for possible
falling objects. If the hazard of falling objects exists, overhead protection such
as planking or nets must be provided.
(b) When opening an operating
boiler door, employees must stand clear of the opening of the door to avoid the
heat blast and gases which may escape from the boiler.
(10) Turbine generators.
(a) Smoking and other ignition
sources are prohibited near hydrogen or hydrogen sealing systems, and signs warning
of the danger of explosion and fire must be posted.
(b) Excessive hydrogen makeup
or abnormal loss of pressure must be considered as an emergency and must be corrected
immediately.
(c) A sufficient quantity
of inert gas must be available to purge the hydrogen from the largest generator.
(11) Coal and ash handling.
(a) Only designated persons
may operate railroad equipment.
(b) Before a locomotive or
locomotive crane is moved, a warning must be given to employees in the area.
(c) Employees engaged in
switching or dumping cars may not use their feet to line up drawheads.
(d) Drawheads and knuckles
may not be shifted while locomotives or cars are in motion.
(e) When a railroad car is
stopped for unloading, the car must be secured from displacement that could endanger
employees.
(f) An emergency means of
stopping dump operations must be provided at railcar dumps.
(g) The employer must ensure
that employees who work in coal- or ash-handling conveyor areas are trained and
knowledgeable in conveyor operation and in the requirements of paragraphs (11)(h)
through (11)(l) of this rule.
(h) Employees may not ride
a coal or ash-handling conveyor belt at any time. Employees may not cross over the
conveyor belt, except at walkways, unless the conveyor's energy source has been
deenergized and has been locked out or tagged in accordance with paragraph (d) of
this rule.
(i) A conveyor that could
cause injury when started may not be started until personnel in the area are alerted
by a signal or by a designated person that the conveyor is about to start.
(j) If a conveyor that could
cause injury when started is automatically controlled or is controlled from a remote
location, an audible device must be provided that sounds an alarm that will be recognized
by each employee as a warning that the conveyor will start and that can be clearly
heard at all points along the conveyor where personnel may be present. The warning
device must be actuated by the device starting the conveyor and must continue for
a period of time before the conveyor starts that is long enough to allow employees
to move clear of the conveyor system. A visual warning may be used in place of the
audible device if the employer can demonstrate that it will provide an equally effective
warning in the particular circumstances involved. However if the employer can demonstrate
that the system's function would be seriously hindered by the required time delay,
warning signs may be provided in place of the audible warning device. If the system
was installed before January 31, 1995, warning signs may be provided in place of
the audible warning device until such time as the conveyor or its control system
is rebuilt or rewired. These warning signs must be clear, concise, and legible and
must indicate that conveyors and allied equipment may be started at any time, that
danger exists, and that personnel must keep clear. These warning signs must be provided
along the conveyor at areas not guarded by position or location.
(k) Remotely and automatically
controlled conveyors, and conveyors that have operating stations which are not manned
or which are beyond voice and visual contact from drive areas, loading areas, transfer
points, and other locations on the conveyor path not guarded by location, position,
or guards must be furnished with emergency stop buttons, pull cords, limit switches,
or similar emergency stop devices. However, if the employer can demonstrate that
the design, function, and operation of the conveyor do not expose an employee to
hazards, an emergency stop device is not required.
(A) Emergency stop devices
must be easily identifiable in the immediate vicinity of such locations.
(B) An emergency stop device
must act directly on the control of the conveyor involved and may not depend on
the stopping of any other equipment.
(C) Emergency stop devices
must be installed so that they cannot be overridden from other locations.
(l) Where coal-handling operations
may produce a combustible atmosphere from fuel sources or from flammable gases or
dust, sources of ignition must be eliminated or safely controlled to prevent ignition
of the combustible atmosphere.
Note to paragraph (11)(l): Locations
that are hazardous because of the presence of combustible dust are classified as
Class II hazardous locations. See 1910.307.
(m) An employee may not work on or beneath
overhanging coal in coal bunkers, coal silos, or coal storage areas, unless the
employee is protected from all hazards posed by shifting coal.
(n) An employee entering
a bunker or silo to dislodge the contents must wear a body harness with lifeline
attached. The lifeline must be secured to a fixed support outside the bunker and
must be attended at all times by an employee located outside the bunker or facility.
(12) Hydroplants and equipment.
Employees working on or close to water gates, valves, intakes, forebays, flumes,
or other locations where increased or decreased water flow or levels may pose a
significant hazard must be warned and must vacate such dangerous areas before water
flow changes are made.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2322
Special Conditions
(1) Capacitors. The following additional
requirements apply to work on capacitors and on lines connected to capacitors.
Note to paragraph (1): See 437-002-2312
Deenergizing Lines and Equipment for Employee Protection; and 437-002-2313 Grounding
for the Protection of Employees, of Division 2/RR, for requirements pertaining to
the deenergizing and grounding of capacitor installations.
(a) Before employees work on capacitors,
the employer must disconnect the capacitors from energized sources and short circuit
the capacitors. The employer must ensure that the employee short circuiting the
capacitors waits at least 5 minutes from the time of disconnection before applying
the short circuit.
(b) Before employees handle
the units, the employer must short circuit each unit in series-parallel capacitor
banks between all terminals and the capacitor case or its rack. If the cases of
capacitors are on ungrounded substation racks, the employer must bond the racks
to ground.
(c) The employer must short
circuit any line connected to capacitors before the line is treated as deenergized.
(2) Current transformer secondaries.
The employer must ensure that employees do not open the secondary of a current transformer
while the transformer is energized. If the employer cannot deenergize the primary
of the current transformer before employees perform work on an instrument, a relay,
or other section of a current transformer secondary circuit, the employer must bridge
the circuit so that the current transformer secondary does not experience an open-circuit
condition.
(3) Series streetlighting.
(a) If the open-circuit voltage
exceeds 600 volts, the employer must ensure that employees work on series streetlighting
circuits in accordance with 437-002-2316 Overhead Lines; and 437-002-2319 Underground
Electrical Installations, of Division 2/RR, as appropriate.
(b) Before any employee opens
a series loop, the employer must deenergize the streetlighting transformer and isolate
it from the source of supply or must bridge the loop to avoid an open-circuit condition.
(4) Illumination. The employer
must provide sufficient illumination to enable the employee to perform the work
safely.
(5) Protection against drowning.
(a) Whenever an employee
may be pulled or pushed, or might fall, into water where the danger of drowning
exists, the employer must provide the employee with, and must ensure that the employee
uses, a U.S. Coast Guard approved personal flotation device.
(b) The employer must maintain
each personal flotation device in safe condition and must inspect each personal
flotation device frequently enough to ensure that it does not have rot, mildew,
water saturation, or any other condition that could render the device unsuitable
for use.
(c) An employee may cross
streams or other bodies of water only if a safe means of passage, such as a bridge,
is available.
(6) Employee protection in
public work areas.
(a) Traffic-control signs
and traffic-control devices used for the protection of employees must meet 437-003-0424
Traffic Control, of Division 3.
(b) Before employees begin
work in the vicinity of vehicular or pedestrian traffic that may endanger them,
the employer must place warning signs or flags and other traffic-control devices
in conspicuous locations to alert and channel approaching traffic.
(c) The employer must use
barricades where additional employee protection is necessary.
(d) The employer must protect
excavated areas with barricades.
(e) The employer must display
warning lights prominently at night.
(7) Backfeed. When there
is a possibility of voltage backfeed from sources of cogeneration or from the secondary
system (for example, backfeed from more than one energized phase feeding a common
load), the requirements of 437-002-2311 Working On or Near Exposed Energized Parts,
of Division 2/RR, apply if employees will work the lines or equipment as energized;
and the requirements of 437-002-2312 Deenergizing Lines and Equipment for Employee
Protection, and 437-002-2313 Grounding for the Protection of Employees, of Division
2/RR, apply if employees will work the lines or equipment as deenergized.
(8) Lasers. The employer
must install, adjust, and operate laser equipment in accordance with 1926.54 Nonionizing
Radiation, of Division 3.
(9) Hydraulic fluids. Hydraulic
fluids used for the insulated sections of equipment must provide insulation for
the voltage involved.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2323
Helicopters
(1) Definitions:
(a) Designated employees.
Those employees selected or designated by the employer to work under or near helicopters
who have first been instructed in hooking, unhooking, guiding and securing the load,
including the signal person, all of whom have been instructed in the hazards of
helicopter work and who know the provisions of this section.
(b) Pilot in Command or Pilot
means the person who:
(A) Has the final authority
and responsibility for the operation and safety of the flight;
(B) Has been designated as
pilot in command before or during the flight; and
(C) Holds the appropriate
category, class, and type rating for the conduct of the flight if applicable.
(c) Helicopter Service Operator.
Entity that holds the appropriate Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) operating
certification and provides helicopter support services.
(d) Downwash. A down and
outward air column from the main rotor system.
(e) Ground personnel or crew.
Employees who work on or near the equipment and are familiar with the hazards of
helicopter use in power distribution and transmission line work and who know these
rules and the methods of operation.
(f) Helicopter, helicopter
crane, and rotorcraft. A heavier-than-air aircraft that depends principally for
its support in flight on the lift generated by one or more rotors. The use of the
word helicopter in these rules also means helicopter crane, rotorcraft, or similar
aircraft.
(g) Hooking and unhooking.
The process by which an external load is either attached to or detached from the
helicopter hook or sling line.
(h) Positive guide system.
A system or method of installing a load into position so that the load is capable
of being released from the helicopter without being otherwise secured, and the load
will remain in position permanently or until otherwise secured by physical means.
(i) Rotors. A system of blades
that rotates or revolves to supply lift or direction to the rotorcraft.
(j) Signal person. A member
of the ground crew that is designated by an employer to direct, signal and otherwise
communicate with the pilot of the helicopter.
(k) Sling. A strap, chain,
rope or similar implement used to securely hold something being lifted, lowered,
carried or otherwise suspended.
(l) Static charge. An imbalance
of electric potential within or on the surface of a material.
(m) Tagline. A rope or similar
device used to guide or control the direction or movement of a load.
(2) Helicopter regulations.
Helicopter cranes must comply with any applicable regulations of the Federal Aviation
Administration (FAA).
(3) Hazard Analysis and Job
Briefing.
(a) Before the commencement
of any construction, maintenance, or lifting activity using a helicopter, a Job
Hazard Analysis (JHA) must be conducted, which, at a minimum, must:
(A) Define the core tasks.
(B) Identify specific hazards.
(C) Identify mission specific
tasks.
(D) Describe procedures or
controls used to safely manage or mitigate the hazards.
(E) Describe the communication
procedure to be used with the crew.
(F) Discuss fatigue, and
methods to eliminate or mitigate it.
(G) Specify Minimum Approach
Distances (MAD).
(H) Describe a site specific
emergency action plan.
(b) A site specific job briefing
must be held each day construction, maintenance, or lifting activities using a helicopter
are performed. The daily job briefing at a minimum must:
(A) Summarize or recap the
content of the JHA as applicable to the day’s duties.
(B) Communicate any site
specific hazards not identified in the JHA and provide mitigation for those hazards.
(C) Identify or establish
roles for each person who will be interfacing with the aircraft or its loads.
(D) Describe the communication
procedure to be used with the crew.
(E) Specify Minimum Approach
Distances (MAD) from energized electrical lines and equipment in the work area.
(F) Describe the applicable
sections of the site specific emergency action plan, such as the locations of first
aid equipment and rescue gear.
(c) An additional job briefing
must be held immediately if working conditions change during the course of a job.
Working conditions would include weather, wind, and visibility. During the job briefing
all affected employees and others, including signal persons, ground workers, pilots,
must be advised of the hazards including a change of operation if needed.
(4) Sling and rigging.
(a) The pilot is responsible
for the integrity of the rigging for any external load and must ensure safe delivery
of the cargo by inspecting and monitoring the security of the rigging throughout
the operation. Prior to operations, the pilot must check the condition and application
of all rigging gear to ensure serviceability. Prior to commencing operations, determine
the complete rigging requirements including slings and taglines.
(b) All personnel involved
with rigging activities must receive appropriate rigging training and show proficiency,
specific to helicopter operations and the work or task/s being performed.
(c) The slings used for the
external load must be inspected each day before use. Slings must be inspected by
an employee designated, trained and qualified as a rigger.
(d) No sling can be used
unless it has a properly marked minimum tensile strength of five times the load
which will be carried or is being carried.
(A) No sling can be used
unless upon inspection it is determined to be in good condition and capable of the
work which is to be performed, and is properly marked.
(B) Loads must be properly
slung so that there will be no slippage or shifting of the load and so that the
load will not accidentally be dislodged from the helicopter.
(C) Slings must be the appropriate
weight, strength and length to prevent the sling from being lifted and entangled
into the aircraft rotor system.
(D) Pressed sleeves, wedged
eyes, or equivalent means must be used for all suspended loads using wire rope.
(5) Personal protective equipment
when working on, under or in the near vicinity of helicopters:
(a) Personal protective equipment
for employees must consist of complete eye protection and hard hats secured by chinstraps.
(b) Loose-fitting clothing
likely to flap in the downwash must not be worn.
(6) Loose gear and objects.
Every practical precaution must be taken to provide for the protection of the employees
from flying objects in the rotor downwash. All loose gear within 100 feet of the
place of lifting the load, depositing the load, and all other areas susceptible
to rotor downwash must be secured or removed.
(7) Landing Zones.
(a) When establishing the
landing zone, the following items must be considered: size and type of helicopter,
suitability of the planned activity, physical barriers or obstructions, helicopter
touchdown area and congestion in the area.
(b) All helicopter landing,
loading and unloading areas must be maintained to reduce the likelihood of flying
materials, tripping, or other hazards attendant to the work being performed.
(8) Pilot’s responsibility.
(a) The helicopter pilot
is responsible for the size, weight and manner in which loads are connected to the
helicopter.
(b) No load can be made if
the helicopter pilot believes the lift cannot safely be performed. The employer
must make certain that the pilot of the helicopter is able to freely exercise their
prerogative and judgment as to safe operation of the helicopter itself concerning
size, weight and manner by which loads are connected.
(c) The pilot must possess
the appropriate ratings for the aircraft and must be competent to safely conduct
the assigned tasks. The pilot has the final authority and is solely responsible
for the safe operation of the helicopter loads at all times.
(9) Hooking and unhooking
loads.
(a) Work performed at an
elevated position and directly under hovering helicopters may be performed only
by qualified employees.
(A) Work must be limited
to the minimum time necessary to guide, secure, hook or unhook the loads.
(B) When an employee is working
from the ground under hovering helicopters, the employee must have a safe means
of ingress and egress at all times, including readily available escape route or
routes in the event of an emergency.
(b) Positive guide systems
must be used for the placement of large segments of a primary tower structure and
must enable the heavy lift helicopter to temporarily secure and release the load.
(10) Static charge. All loads
must be grounded or bonded with a device capable of discharging either the actual
or potential static charge before ground personnel either touch or come close enough
to touch the suspended load.
(11) Line Stringing.
(a) Weight of the external
load must not exceed the manufacturer’s load limit.
(b) Each helicopter operator
engaged in line stringing must be authorized by the Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA) for Part 133 Class C operations.
(c) All line stringing operations
must be conducted according to the following requirements:
(A) Stringing tension method
must enable a consistent positive control of the cable, rope, or similar lines at
all times during pulling operations.
(B) During all pulling operations,
the helicopter pilot must maintain an aircraft orientation that allows the pilot
to maintain constant visibility in both directions on line.
(C) When pulling from the
aircraft belly hook attachment point, a ballast weight of a minimum of 300 pounds
must be used. At no time during the pulling operation can the load line that is
attached to the helicopter’s belly hook attachment point exceed a 30 degree
angle from vertical. This does not apply when pulling from the helicopter’s
approved side pull attachment point.
(12) Visibility. Employees
must keep clear of and outside the downwash of the helicopter except as necessary
to perform a permitted activity.
(13) Communication.
(a) Communication must be
maintained between the air crew and ground personnel at all times by a designated
and qualified signal person. There must be a constant, open line of communication,
using radios or head and hand signals.
(b) Signal systems must be
understood by the air crew and the ground crew, including signal persons, prior
to the hoisting of any load.
(c) Signaling and maintaining
communications with the pilot are the sole and exclusive function of the signal
person during periods of loading and unloading. The signal person must be distinguishable
from other members of the ground crew by the pilot of the aircraft. This may be
by way of orange-colored gloves, vest, or other apparel.
(d) The lead worker and one
top person must also have an operating transmitter and receiver.
(e) Authorized and qualified
employees may come within 50 feet of the helicopter when the rotor blades are turning,
but no closer, other than to enter the craft or to hook or unhook the load or do
other essential functions. Other employees may not come closer than 100 feet of
the aircraft when it is operating.
(f) The signals between the
signal person and the operator of the helicopter must be those submitted to the
Federal Aviation Administration for the particular procedure or job. In the event
no signals have been submitted to the Federal Aviation Administration, a system
of signaling must be used that has been documented and that is capable of being
clearly understood by all employees and others involved in the job. When head signals
are to be used, the qualified worker must use a visually enhanced hard hat or helmet
with clear markings to indicate the desired movement. Any signals other than up/down
or in/out will require the use of hand signals.
(g) Should a change occur
in the hazards, method of performing the job, signals to be used, or other operating
conditions during the course of any particular job, a conference must immediately
be held at which time all affected employees and others, including signal persons,
ground personnel, and pilots, will be advised of such hazards or change of operation.
No employee is permitted to work unless such employee and others fully understand
the changes that have taken place.
(14) Helicopter Operation.
(a) Whenever approaching
or leaving a helicopter with blades rotating, all employees must remain in full
view of the pilot and remain in a crouched position while within 50 feet of the
helicopter. No employee can approach the rear of the helicopter unless directly
authorized and directed by the pilot of such craft. All employees when operating
or working within 50 feet of the helicopter with blades turning are subject to the
direction of the helicopter pilot.
(b) All materials and equipment
loaded in the aircraft must be properly secured for flight.
(c) Long objects, such as
shovels and live-line tools, must be carried horizontally and below the waist to
avoid contact with the aircraft rotor blades.
(d) The pilot must ensure
that all loads are safely secured to the helicopter, or in cargo baskets, and properly
loaded with regard to weight and balance.
(e) Never throw anything
while loading and unloading the helicopter. Thrown items may come in contact with
the aircraft rotor blade, causing damage to the aircraft and possible injury to
ground personnel.
(f) While in the helicopter,
safety belts must remain fastened at all times except when pilot instructs otherwise
or while entering or leaving the helicopter.
(g) Smoking in the helicopter
is prohibited at all times.
(15) Helicopter Work Tasks.
(a) Human External Cargo
(HEC)
(A) The sling or vertical
suspension system for HEC is a vertical system suspended from the helicopter cargo
hook. The sling system must comply with FAA regulation 14 CFR Part 133 Class B or
D – External Load.
(B) Helicopter operations
involving HEC must incorporate the use of a secondary safety device, in addition
to the helicopter’s primary attachment means, to prevent the inadvertent release
of the load. This device must remain able to be jettisoned in accordance with class
B load requirements.
(i) HEC lines must be not
less than 10:1 safety ratio between the rated breaking strength and the working
load.
(ii) All harnesses used for
helicopter short-haul operations must meet the ANSI Z359.1-2007 standards for class
III (full body) harnesses and must be equipped with both dorsal and sternal D rings.
(iii) All suspension harnesses
used for HEC must be adjusted to the user, and the harness must be equipped with
an orthostatic shock relief device. Such devices must be used on flights lasting
over five minutes.
(b) Hover Transfer.
(A) The qualified line worker
must be attached to the helicopter at all times when traveling between the ground
and the aerial transfer point or worksite. There must be an FAA approved attachment
point on the helicopter for the lineman’s safety harness lanyard.
(B) If a platform system
is used to transport crews, or if a crewmember performs work from a platform system,
the platform system and all aircraft attachment points must comply with applicable
FAA regulations and requirements.
(C) All platform operations
must be conducted in accordance with the 14 CFR Part 133 Class A - External Load.
(D) Flight and hovering capabilities
of the helicopter must not be adversely affected by the design of the platform.
(E) The platform may not
adversely affect the auto rotation and emergency capabilities of the helicopter.
(F) The platform and loads
may affect the lateral & longitudinal center of gravity weight and balance of
the helicopter in flight, therefore an engineered counter-balance system which will
ensure stability must be used if the platform exceeds the lateral center of gravity
limits of the manufactures specifications for the helicopter.
(16) Fires. Open fires are
not permitted in any area where fires will be affected by the downwash of the rotors,
nor can any employee smoke in an area subject to the downdraft of the rotor.
(17) Refueling operations.
(a) Refueling any helicopter
with either aviation gasoline or Jet B (Turbine) type fuel is prohibited while the
engines are running.
(b) Fueling of helicopters
using Jet A (Turbine-Kerosene) type fuel is allowed with engines running.
(c) All helicopter fueling
must comply with the following:
(A) No unauthorized people
are allowed within fifty feet of the refueling operation or fueling equipment.
(B) Fire extinguishers must
be available and must be in compliance with FAA regulations.
(C) All fueling personnel
must be thoroughly trained in the refueling operation and in the use of the available
fire extinguishing equipment they may be expected to use.
(D) There must be no smoking,
open flames, exposed flame heaters, flare pots, or open flame lights within fifty
feet of the refueling area or fueling equipment. The refueling area or the fuel
truck must be posted with “no smoking” signs.
(E) Prior to making any fueling
connection to the aircraft, the fueling equipment must be bonded to the aircraft
by use of a cable, thus providing a conductive path to equalize the potential between
the fueling equipment and the aircraft. The bond must be maintained until fueling
connections have been removed, thus allowing separated charges that could be generated
during the fueling operation to reunite. Grounding during aircraft fueling is not
permitted
(F) To control spills, fuel
must be pumped either by hand or power. Pouring or gravity flow is not permitted.
Self-closing nozzles or deadman controls must be used and may not be blocked open.
Nozzles may not be dragged along the ground.
(G) In case of a spill, the
fueling operation must be immediately stopped until such time as the person in charge
determines that it is safe to resume the refueling operation.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
437-002-2324
Definitions
(1) Affected employee. An employee whose
job requires him or her to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing
or maintenance is being performed under lockout or tagout, or whose job requires
him or her to work in an area in which such servicing or maintenance is being performed.
(2) Attendant. An employee
assigned to remain immediately outside the entrance to an enclosed or other space
to render assistance as needed to employees inside the space.
(3) Authorized employee.
An employee who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform
servicing or maintenance on that machine or equipment. An affected employee becomes
an authorized employee when that employee's duties include performing servicing
or maintenance covered under Division 2/RR.
(4) Automatic circuit recloser.
A self-controlled device for automatically interrupting and reclosing an alternating-current
circuit, with a predetermined sequence of opening and reclosing followed by resetting,
hold closed, or lockout.
(5) Barricade. A physical
obstruction such as tapes, cones, or A-frame type wood or metal structures that
provides a warning about, and limits access to, a hazardous area.
(6) Barrier. A physical obstruction
that prevents contact with energized lines or equipment or prevents unauthorized
access to a work area.
(7) Bond. The electrical
interconnection of conductive parts designed to maintain a common electric potential.
(8) Bus. A conductor or a
group of conductors that serve as a common connection for two or more circuits.
(9) Bushing. An insulating
structure that includes a through conductor or that provides a passageway for such
a conductor, and that, when mounted on a barrier, insulates the conductor from the
barrier for the purpose of conducting current from one side of the barrier to the
other.
(10) Cable. A conductor with
insulation, or a stranded conductor with or without insulation and other coverings
(singleconductor cable), or a combination of conductors insulated from one another
(multiple-conductor cable).
(11) Cable sheath. A conductive
protective covering applied to cables.
Note to the definition of "cable sheath":
A cable sheath may consist of multiple layers one or more of which is conductive.
(12) Circuit. A conductor or system
of conductors through which an electric current is intended to flow.
(13) Clearance (between objects).
The clear distance between two objects measured surface to surface.
(14) Clearance (for work).
Authorization to perform specified work or permission to enter a restricted area.
(15) Clearance (electrical).
Notification from an authorized person that all necessary actions have been taken
to de-energize a circuit, line, or equipment and the line or equipment is safe to
be worked, so that workers may be authorized to proceed with intended operations.
(16) Communication lines.
(See Lines; (a) Communication lines.)
(17) Conductor. A material,
usually in the form of a wire, cable, or bus bar, used for carrying an electric
current.
(18) Contract employer. An
employer, other than a host employer, that performs work covered by this section
under contract.
(19) Covered conductor. A
conductor covered with a dielectric having no rated insulating strength or having
a rated insulating strength less than the voltage of the circuit in which the conductor
is used.
(20) Current-carrying part.
A conducting part intended to be connected in an electric circuit to a source of
voltage. Non-current-carrying parts are those not intended to be so connected.
(21) Deenergized. Free from
any electrical connection to a source of potential difference and from electric
charge; not having a potential that is different from the potential of the earth.
Note to the definition of "deenergized":
The term applies only to current-carrying parts, which are sometimes energized (alive).
(22) Designated employee (designated
person). An employee (or person) who is assigned by the employer to perform specific
duties under the terms of this section and who has sufficient knowledge of the construction
and operation of the equipment, and the hazards involved, to perform his or her
duties safely.
(23) Drop start (Chain saws):
The process of starting a chain saw by simultaneously pushing it away from the body
with one hand and pulling the starter cord handle with the other.
(24) Electric line truck.
A truck used to transport personnel, tools, and material for electric supply line
work.
(25) Electric supply equipment.
Equipment that produces, modifies, regulates, controls, or safeguards a supply of
electric energy.
(26) Electric supply lines.
(See Lines; (b) Electric supply lines.)
(27) Electric utility. An
organization responsible for the installation, operation, or maintenance of an electric
supply system.
(28) Enclosed space. A working
space, such as a manhole, vault, tunnel, or shaft, that has a limited means of egress
or entry, that is designed for periodic employee entry under normal operating conditions,
and that, under normal conditions, does not contain a hazardous atmosphere, but
may contain a hazardous atmosphere under abnormal conditions.
Note to the definition of "enclosed
space": Oregon OSHA does not consider spaces that are enclosed but not designed
for employee entry under normal operating conditions to be enclosed spaces for the
purposes of this section. Similarly, Oregon OSHA does not consider spaces that are
enclosed and that are expected to contain a hazardous atmosphere to be enclosed
spaces for the purposes of this Subdivision. Such spaces meet the definition of
permit spaces in 1910.146, and entry into them must conform to that standard.
(29) Energized (alive, live). Electrically
connected to a source of potential difference, or electrically charged so as to
have a potential significantly different from that of earth in the vicinity.
(30) Energy isolating device.
A physical device that prevents the transmission or release of energy, including,
but not limited to, the following: a manually operated electric circuit breaker,
a disconnect switch, a manually operated switch, a slide gate, a slip blind, a line
valve, blocks, and any similar device with a visible indication of the position
of the device. (Push buttons, selector switches, and other control-circuit-type
devices are not energy isolating devices.)
(31) Energy source. Any electrical,
mechanical, hydraulic, pneumatic, chemical, nuclear, thermal, or other energy source
that could cause injury to employees.
(32) Entry (as used in 437-002-2304
Enclosed spaces, of Division 2/RR). The action by which a person passes through
an opening into an enclosed space. Entry includes ensuing work activities in that
space and is considered to have occurred as soon as any part of the entrant's body
breaks the plane of an opening into the space.
(33) Equipment (electric).
A general term including material, fittings, devices, appliances, fixtures, apparatus,
and the like used as part of or in connection with an electrical installation.
(34) Exposed, Exposed to
contact (as applied to energized parts). Not isolated or guarded.
(35) Fall restraint system.
A fall protection system that prevents the user from falling any distance.
(36) First-aid training.
Training in the initial care, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (which includes
chest compressions, rescue breathing, and, as appropriate, other heart and lung
resuscitation techniques), performed by a person who is not a medical practitioner,
of a sick or injured person until definitive medical treatment can be administered.
(37) Ground. A conducting
connection, whether planned or unplanned, between an electric circuit or equipment
and the earth, or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
(38) Grounded. Connected
to earth or to some conducting body that serves in place of the earth.
(39) Guarded. Covered, fenced,
enclosed, or otherwise protected, by means of suitable covers or casings, barrier
rails or screens, mats, or platforms, designed to minimize the possibility, under
normal conditions, of dangerous approach or inadvertent contact by persons or objects.
Note to the definition of "guarded":
Wires that are insulated, but not otherwise protected, are not guarded.
(40) Hazardous atmosphere. An atmosphere
that may expose employees to the risk of death, incapacitation, impairment of ability
to self-rescue (that is, escape unaided from an enclosed space), injury, or acute
illness from one or more of the following causes:
(a) Flammable gas, vapor,
or mist in excess of 10 percent of its lower flammable limit (LFL);
(b) Airborne combustible
dust at a concentration that meets or exceeds its LFL;
Note to the definition of "hazardous
atmosphere" (2): This concentration may be approximated as a condition in which
the dust obscures vision at a distance of 1.52 meters (5 feet) or less.
(c) Atmospheric oxygen concentration
below 19.5 percent or above 23.5 percent;
(d) Atmospheric concentration
of any substance for which a dose or a permissible exposure limit is in Division
2/G, Occupational Health and Environmental Control; Division 3/D, Occupational Health
and Environmental Controls; or in subdivisions Z, Toxic and Hazardous Substances,
of Division 2 and Division 3; and which could result in employee exposure in excess
of its dose or permissible exposure limit;
Note to the definition of "hazardous
atmosphere" (4): An atmospheric concentration of any substance that is not capable
of causing death, incapacitation, impairment of ability to self-rescue, injury,
or acute illness due to its health effects is not covered by this provision.
(e) Any other atmospheric condition
that is immediately dangerous to life or health.
Note to the definition of "hazardous
atmosphere" (5): For air contaminants for which Oregon OSHA has not determined a
dose or permissible exposure limit, other sources of information, such as Safety
Data Sheets that comply with the Hazard Communication Standard, 1910.1200 of Division
2, and 1926.1200 of Division 3, published information, and internal documents can
provide guidance in establishing acceptable atmospheric conditions.
(41) High-power tests. Tests in which
the employer uses fault currents, load currents, magnetizing currents, and line-dropping
currents to test equipment, either at the equipment's rated voltage or at lower
voltages.
(42) High-voltage tests.
Tests in which the employer uses voltages of approximately 1,000 volts as a practical
minimum and in which the voltage source has sufficient energy to cause injury.
(43) High wind. A wind of
such velocity that one or more of the following hazards would be present:
(a) The wind could blow an
employee from an elevated location,
(b) The wind could cause
an employee or equipment handling material to lose control of the material, or
(c) The wind would expose
an employee to other hazards not controlled by the standard involved.
Note to the definition of "high wind":
Oregon OSHA normally considers winds exceeding 64.4 kilometers per hour (40 miles
per hour), or 48.3 kilometers per hour (30 miles per hour) if the work involves
material handling, as meeting this criteria, unless the employer takes precautions
to protect employees from the hazardous effects of the wind.
(44) Host employer. An employer that
operates, or that controls the operating procedures for, an electric power generation,
transmission, or distribution installation on which a contract employer is performing
work covered by this section.
Note to the definition of "host employer":
Oregon OSHA will treat the electric utility or the owner of the installation as
the host employer if it operates or controls operating procedures for the installation.
If the electric utility or installation owner neither operates nor controls operating
procedures for the installation, Oregon OSHA will treat the employer that the utility
or owner has contracted with to operate or control the operating procedures for
the installation as the host employer. In no case will there be more than one host
employer.
(45) Immediately dangerous to life or
health (IDLH). Any condition that poses an immediate or delayed threat to life or
that would cause irreversible adverse health effects or that would interfere with
an individual's ability to escape unaided from a permit space.
Note to the definition of "immediately
dangerous to life or health": Some materials-hydrogen fluoride gas and cadmium vapor,
for example-may produce immediate transient effects that, even if severe, may pass
without medical attention, but are followed by sudden, possibly fatal collapse 12-72
hours after exposure. The victim "feels normal" from recovery from transient effects
until collapse. Such materials in hazardous quantities are considered to be "immediately"
dangerous to life or health.
(46) Insulated. Separated from other
conducting surfaces by a dielectric (including air space) offering a high resistance
to the passage of current.
Note to the definition of "insulated":
When any object is said to be insulated, it is understood to be insulated for the
conditions to which it normally is subjected. Otherwise, it is, for the purpose
of this section, uninsulated.
(47) Insulation (cable). Material relied
upon to insulate the conductor from other conductors or conducting parts or from
ground.
(48) Isolated. Not readily
accessible to persons unless special means for access are used.
(49) Line-clearance tree
trimmer. An employee who, through related training or on-the-job experience or both,
is familiar with the special techniques and hazards involved in line-clearance tree
trimming.
Note 1 to the definition of "line-clearance
tree trimmer": An employee who is regularly assigned to a line-clearance tree-trimming
crew and who is undergoing on-the-job training and who, in the course of such training,
has demonstrated an ability to perform duties safely at his or her level of training
and who is under the direct supervision of a line-clearance tree trimmer is considered
to be a line-clearance tree trimmer for the performance of those duties.
Note 2 to the definition
of "line-clearance tree trimmer": A line-clearance tree trimmer is not considered
to be a "qualified employee" under Subdivision RR unless he or she has the training
required for a qualified employee under 437-002-2300(2)(b), General: Training, of
Subdivision RR. However, under the electrical safety-related work practices standard
in Division 2/S, a line-clearance tree trimmer is considered to be a "qualified
employee". Tree trimming performed by such "qualified employees" is not subject
to the electrical safety-related work practice requirements contained in 1910.331
through 1910.335 of Division 2/S when it is directly associated with electric power
generation, transmission, or distribution lines or equipment. (See 1910.331 for
requirements on the applicability of the electrical safety-related work practice
requirements contained in 1910.331 through 1910.335 to line-clearance tree trimming
performed by such “qualified employees,” and see the note following
1910.332(b)(3) of Division 2/S for information regarding the training an employee
must have to be considered a qualified employee under 1910.331 through 1910.335
of Division 2/S.)
(50) Line-clearance tree trimming. The
pruning, trimming, repairing, maintaining, removing, or clearing of trees, or the
cutting of brush, that is within the following distance of electric supply lines
and equipment:
(a) For voltages to ground
of 50 kilovolts or less-3.05 meters (10 feet);
(b) For voltages to ground
of more than 50 kilovolts-3.05 meters (10 feet) plus 0.10 meters (4 inches) for
every 10 kilovolts over 50 kilovolts.
Note to the definition of “line-clearance
tree trimming”: This section applies only to line-clearance tree trimming
performed for the purpose of clearing space around electric power generation, transmission,
or distribution lines or equipment and on behalf of an organization that operates,
or that controls the operating procedures for, those lines or equipment. See paragraph
(1) of 437-002-2300. Tree trimming performed on behalf of a homeowner or commercial
entity other than an organization that operates, or that controls the operating
procedures for, electric power generation, transmission, or distribution lines or
equipment is not directly associated with an electric power generation, transmission,
or distribution installation and is outside the scope of this section. In addition,
tree trimming that is not for the purpose of clearing space around electric power
generation, transmission, or distribution lines or equipment is not directly associated
with an electric power generation, transmission, or distribution installation and
is outside the scope of this section. Such tree trimming may be covered by other
applicable standards. See, for example, 437-002-0268 and 1910.331 through 1910.335
of Division 2.
(51) Lines.
(a) Communication lines.
The conductors and their supporting or containing structures which are used for
public or private signal or communication service, and which operate at potentials
not exceeding 400 volts to ground or 750 volts between any two points of the circuit,
and the transmitted power of which does not exceed 150 watts. If the lines are operating
at less than 150 volts, no limit is placed on the transmitted power of the system.
Under certain conditions, communication cables may include communication circuits
exceeding these limitations where such circuits are also used to supply power solely
to communication equipment.
Note to the definition of "communication
lines": Telephone, telegraph, railroad signal, data, clock, fire, police alarm,
cable television, and other systems conforming to this definition are included.
Lines used for signaling purposes, but not included under this definition, are considered
as electric supply lines of the same voltage.
(b) Electric supply lines. Conductors
used to transmit electric energy and their necessary supporting or containing structures.
Signal lines of more than 400 volts are always supply lines within this section,
and those of less than 400 volts are considered as supply lines, if so run and operated
throughout.
(52) Manhole. A subsurface
enclosure that personnel may enter and that is used for installing, operating, and
maintaining submersible equipment or cable.
(53) Minimum approach distance.
The closest distance an employee may approach an energized or a grounded object.
Note to the definition of "minimum
approach distance": 437-002-2311 (3)(a), Working on or near exposed energized parts,
requires employers to establish minimum approach distances.
(54) Personal fall arrest system. A
system used to arrest an employee in a fall from a working level.
(55) Power-line Carrier (PLC).
An electric power transmission and distribution conductor that simultaneously carries
data, such as internet broadband. Also known as power-line networking (PLN) or power-line
communication.
(56) Qualified employee (qualified
person). An employee (person) knowledgeable in the construction and operation of
the electric power generation, transmission, and distribution equipment involved,
along with the associated hazards.
Note 1 to the definition of "qualified
employee (qualified person)": An employee must have the training required by 437-002-2300(2)(b)
General, Training; to be a qualified employee.
Note 2 to the definition
of "qualified employee (qualified person)": an employee who is undergoing on-the-job
training and who has demonstrated, in the course of such training, an ability to
perform duties safely at his or her level of training and who is under the direct
supervision of a qualified person is a qualified person for the performance of those
duties.
(57) Statistical sparkover voltage.
A transient overvoltage level that produces a 97.72-percent probability of sparkover
(that is, two standard deviations above the voltage at which there is a 50-percent
probability of sparkover).
(58) Statistical withstand
voltage. A transient overvoltage level that produces a 0.14-percent probability
of sparkover (that is, three standard deviations below the voltage at which there
is a 50-percent probability of sparkover).
(59) Switch. A device for
opening and closing or for changing the connection of a circuit. In this section,
a switch is manually operable, unless otherwise stated.
(60) System operator. A qualified
person who has been designated by the employer to have authority over switching,
clearances, and operation of the system and its parts.
(61) Vault. An enclosure,
above or below ground, that personnel may enter and that is used for installing,
operating, or maintaining equipment or cable.
(62) Vented vault. A vault
that has provision for air changes using exhaust flue stacks and low-level air intakes
operating on pressure and temperature differentials that provide for airflow that
precludes a hazardous atmosphere from developing.
(63) Voltage. The effective
(root mean square, or rms) potential difference between any two conductors or between
a conductor and ground. This section expresses voltages in nominal values, unless
otherwise indicated. The nominal voltage of a system or circuit is the value assigned
to a system or circuit of a given voltage class for the purpose of convenient designation.
The operating voltage of the system may vary above or below this value.
(64) Voltage (low). Voltage
of 600 volts or less.
(65) Voltage (high). Voltage
greater than 600 volts.
(66) Work-positioning equipment.
A body belt or body harness system rigged to allow an employee to be supported on
an elevated vertical surface, such as a utility pole or tower leg, and work with
both hands free while leaning.
Stat. Auth.: ORS 654.025(2) & 656.726(4)
Stats. Implemented: ORS 654.001
- 654.295
Hist.: OSHA 3-2015, f. 10-9-15,
cert. ef. 1-1-16
JUMP BACK TO OARs 437-002-0005 through 437-002-0154
JUMP BACK TO OARs 437-002-0161 through 437-002-0311

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