Environment, Great Lakes and Energy - Air Quality Division - Part 4. Emissions Limitations and Prohibitions - Sulfur-Bearing Compounds


Published: 1969

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DEPARTMENT OF ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY

AIR QUALITY DIVISION

AIR POLLUTION CONTROL

(By authority conferred on the director of the department of environmental quality by

sections 5503 and 5512 of the natural resources and environmental protection act, 1994

PA 451, MCL 324.5503 and 324.5512)

PART 4. EMISSION LIMITATIONS AND PROHIBITIONS—SULFUR

BEARING COMPOUNDS

R 336.1401 Emission of sulfur dioxide from power plants.

Rule 401. (1) In a power plant, it is unlawful for a person to burn fuel that does not

comply with the sulfur content limitation of table 41 or which, when burned, results in

sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions exceeding an equivalent emission rate as shown in table

41. In a power plant located in Wayne county, it is unlawful for a person to burn fuel that

does not comply with the sulfur content limitation of table 42 and unlawful to cause or

permit a discharge into the atmosphere from fuel-burning equipment SO2 in excess of the

SO2 concentration limit shown in table 42.

(2) Tables 41 and 42 read as follows:

TABLE 41

Fuel and SO2 Emission Limitations for Power Plants

Maximum Equivalent Emission Rates

Average Parts per Million by Volume Pounds of SO2 per Plant Capacity(a) Sulfur (ppmv) Corrected to 50% Million Btu of Heat Input

Content in Excess Air(e) (e) Fuel(b, e) Solid Fuel(c) Liquid Fuel(d) Solid Liquid (Percent (12,000 (18,000 Fuel(c) Fuel(d) by weight) Btu/lb) Btu/lb) (12,000 (18,000

Btu/lb) Btu/lb)

0-500,000 lbs 1.5 890 630 2.5 1.67

Steam per Hour Plant

Capacity

Greater than 1.0 590 420 1.67 1.11

500,000 lbs Steam per

Hour Plant Capacity

(a) The total steam production capacity of all coal- and oil-burning equipment in a power

plant as of August 17, 1971.

(b) "Maximum average sulfur content in fuel" means the average sulfur content in all fuels

burned at any 1 time in a power plant. The sulfur content shall be calculated on the basis of

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12,000 Btu per pound for solid fuels and 18,000 Btu per pound for liquid fuels.

(c) Solid fuels include both pulverized coal and all other coal.

(d) Liquid fuels include distillate oil (No. 1 and No. 2), heavy oil (No. 4, No. 5, and No. 6),

and crude oil.

(e) A person shall sample, analyze, calculate, and record for each day of operation for each

unit at the power plant, the sulfur content of the fuel combusted or the fuel’s equivalent SO2 emission rate in accordance with as-fired fuel sampling and analysis procedures found in

appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; in particular the “Standard Test Methods for Sulfur in Petroleum

Products:” ASTM D129, D1266, or D1552 and the “Standard Test Methods for Total Sulfur in

the Analysis of Coal and Coke:” ASTM D3177 or D4239; as referenced in 40 CFR 60.17,

adopted by reference in R 336.1902. Records must be kept, including the identification of the

power plant, days of operation, and maximum sulfur content of fuel combusted for each day of

operation. Records must be maintained on site for 5 years and submitted to the department upon

written request.

TABLE 42

Fuel and SO2 Concentration Limitations for Power Plants Located in Wayne County

Maximum Weight Percent SO2 ppmv Emission Rates

Fuel Type Sulfur Content in Fuel(a & b) Corrected to 50% Excess Air (b)

Limitations for Fuel-Burning

Equipment

Pulverized Coal 1.00 550

Other Coal 0.75 420

Distillate Oil Nos. 1 & 2 0.30 120

Used Oil 1.00 300

Crude and Heavy Oil 1.00 400

Nos. 4, 5, & 6

(a) “Maximum weight percent sulfur content in fuel" means the maximum weight percent

sulfur content in all fuels burned at any 1 time in a power plant.

(b) A person shall sample, analyze, calculate, and record for each day of operation for

each unit at the power plant, the sulfur content of the fuel combusted and the fuel’s equivalent

SO2 emission rate in accordance with as-fired fuel sampling and analysis procedures found in

appendix A of 40 CFR part 60; in particular the “Standard Test Methods for Sulfur in

Petroleum Products:” ASTM D129, D1266, or D1552 and the “Standard Test Methods for

Total Sulfur in the Analysis of Coal and Coke:” ASTM D3177 or D4239; as referenced in 40

CFR 60.17, adopted by reference in R 336.1902. Records must be kept, including the

identification of the power plant, days of operation, and maximum sulfur content of fuel

combusted for each day of operation. Records must be maintained on site for 5 years and

submitted to the department upon written request.

(3) The following provisions apply to persons in Wayne county:

(a) The maximum weight percent sulfur content in fuel limitations for fuel-burning

equipment provisions of table 42 of this rule do not apply to any person who uses a

combination of fuels in such ratios as to meet the SO2 concentration limitations specified

in table 42 and has obtained written approval from the department for this exemption.

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The allowable concentration limit will be based on the value in the table for the fuel

having the higher allowable concentration limit.

(b) The maximum weight percent sulfur content in fuel limitations for fuel-burning

equipment provisions of table 42 of this rule do not apply to any person who has received

an installation permit from the department for a control device to desulfurize the stack

gases if the control device is installed and operating properly.

(4) Instead of conducting daily as-fired fuel sampling and analysis pursuant to subrule

(2) of this rule, a person at any power plant equipped with a SO2 continuous emissions

monitoring system (CEMS) may compute and record the daily equivalent emission rates

as determined by the SO2 CEMS. The SO2 CEMS must be calibrated, maintained, and

operated in accordance with the procedures in 40 CFR 60.13(d), (e), (f), and (h) and in

performance specification 2, appendix B of 40 CFR part 60 or 40 CFR part 75 excluding

the data substitution outlined in subpart D, adopted by reference in R 336.1902. Records

must be maintained on site for 5 years and submitted to the department upon written

request.

History: 1980 AACS; 2002 AACS; 2008 AACS 2013 AACS; 2019 AACS.

R 336.1401a Definitions.

Rule 401a. As used in this part:

(a) "Power plant" means a single structure devoted to steam or electric generation, or

both, and may contain multiple boilers.

(b) “Sulfur recovery plant” means any plant that recovers elemental sulfur from any

gas stream.

History: 2008 AACS 2013 AACS; 2019 AACS.

R 336.1402 Emission of SO2 from fuel-burning equipment at a stationary source

other than power plants.

Rule 402. (1) For fuel burning equipment at a stationary source other than a power

plant it is unlawful for a person to cause or allow the emission of SO2 from the

combustion of any coal or oil fuel in excess of 1.7 pounds per million Btu of heat input

for oil fuel or in excess of 2.4 pounds per million Btu of heat input for coal fuel.

(2) The provisions of subrule (1) of this rule do not apply to fuel-burning equipment

at a stationary source that is unable to comply with the specified emission limits because

of SO2 emissions caused by the presence of sulfur in other raw materials charged to the

fuel-burning equipment. This exception applies if at any time the actual SO2 emission

rate exceeds the expected theoretical SO2 emission rate from fuel burning. The expected

theoretical SO2 emission rate must be based on the quantity of fuel burned and the

average sulfur content of the fuel.

(3) For fuel burning equipment at a stationary source located in Wayne county other

than a power plant, it is unlawful for a person to burn fuel that does not comply with the

sulfur content limitation of table 43 and unlawful to cause or allow a discharge into the

atmosphere from fuel burning equipment SO2 in excess of the SO2 concentration limit

shown in table 43.

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(4) Table 43 reads as follows:

Table 43

Fuel and SO2 Concentration Limitations for Fuel Burning Equipment (c) at a Stationary

Source Located in Wayne County Other than a Power Plant

Maximum Weight Percent SO2 ppmv Emission Rates

Fuel Type Sulfur Content in Fuel(a, b) Corrected to 50%

Limitations for Fuel- ExcessAirb

Burning Equipment

Coal 0.75 420

Distillate Oil Nos. 1 0.30 120

& 2

Used Oil 1.0 300

Crude and Heavy Oil 1.00 400

Nos. 4, 5, & 6

(a) The determination of sulfur content (percent by weight) of fuel shall be

carried out in accordance with the “Standard Test Methods for Sulfur in Petroleum

Products:” ASTM D129, D1266, or D1552 and the “Standard Test Methods for Total

Sulfur in the Analysis of Coal and Coke:” ASTM D3177 or D4239; as referenced in

40 C.F.R. 60.17, adopted by reference in R 336.1902.

(b) Records must be kept, including the identification of the fuel burning

equipment, days of operation, and maximum sulfur content of fuel combusted for

each day of operation. Records must be maintained on site for 5 years and submitted

to the department upon written request.

(c) For table 43, fuel burning equipment includes residential and commercial

space and water heating. The maximum weight percent sulfur content in fuel and

SO2 ppmv emission rate limitations for distillate, crude, and heavy oils listed above

also apply to these units.

(5) The following provisions apply to persons in Wayne county:

(a) The maximum weight percent sulfur content in fuel limitations for fuel-burning

equipment provisions of table 43 of this rule do not apply to a person who uses a

combination of fuels in such ratios as to meet the SO2 concentration limitations specified

in table 43 and has obtained written approval from the department for this exemption.

The allowable concentration limit will be based on the value in the table for the fuel

having the higher allowable concentration limit.

(b) The maximum weight percent sulfur content in fuel limitations for fuel-burning

equipment provisions of table 43 of this rule do not apply to a person who has received

an installation permit from the department for a control device to desulfurize the stack

gases if the control device is installed and operating properly.

History: 1980 AACS; 2008 AACS 2013 AACS; 2019 AACS.

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R 336.1403 Oil- and natural gas-producing or transporting facilities and natural

gas-processing facilities; emissions; operation.

Rule 403. (1) Except as provided in subrule (3) of this rule, it is unlawful for a

person to cause or allow the emission of sour gas from an oil- or natural gas-producing or

transporting facility or a natural gas- processing facility without burning or equivalent

control of hydrogen sulfide and mercaptans.

(2) Except as provided in subrule (3) of this rule, sour gas that is burned at an oil- or

natural gas-producing or transporting facility or at a natural gas-processing facility shall

be burned in a properly engineered flare, incinerator, or other combustion system with

elevated discharge to the atmosphere. If the flare, incinerator, or other combustion

system burns sour gas in such volume and with such hydrogen sulfide concentration that

the daily quantity of hydrogen sulfide in the gas is less than 28 pounds, then it shall be

equipped with either a pilot flame which will burn continuously when gas flows to the

flare, incinerator, or other combustion system or with an automatic ignition system,

unless otherwise authorized by the department. If the flare, incinerator, or other

combustion system burns sour gas in such volume and with such hydrogen sulfide

concentration that the daily quantity of hydrogen sulfide in the gas is 28 pounds or more,

then it shall be equipped with a continuously burning pilot flame and a mechanism which

will operate, upon failure of the pilot flame, to shut off the flow of gas, unless otherwise

authorized by the department.

(3) The provisions of subrules (1) and (2) of this rule do not apply to either of the

following:

(a) Crude oil-producing facilities that serve a well or group of wells which attained

an average production level of 10 or less barrels per day per well before January 1, 1978,

unless the department has received 1 complaint of odors regarding the facility, and the

owner or operator is unable to or fails to demonstrate, to the satisfaction of the

department, that the uncontrolled hydrogen sulfide and mercaptan emissions do not cause

an odor nuisance or health hazard.

(b) A vessel or a battery of vessels that releases a total daily volume of vapors of less

than 5,000 standard cubic feet, if the owner or operator demonstrates both of the

following:

(i) Combustion of the vapors is not economically reasonable.

(ii) The uncontrolled release of the vapors will not cause a violation of the provisions

of R 336.1901.

(4) A person shall not cause or allow the emission of sulfur dioxide from a new

sweetening facility, unless such emissions are controlled using the best available control

technology.

(5) The operator of a sour gas-, crude-, or condensate-sweetening facility-ty shall do

all of the following:

(a) Monitor the mass flow rate of hydrogen sulfide either entering the plant or going

to the waste gas flare or flares on a periodic schedule specified by the department. The

monitoring program shall include a determination of the hydrogen sulfide concentration

using colorimetric detector tubes or their equivalent and a determination of the

volumetric gas flow rate. The monitoring data shall be submitted to the department in an

acceptable format within 30 days following the end of the month in which the data were

collected.

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(b) Provide fencing, warning signs, or other measures as necessary to warn or deter

unauthorized individuals from entering the plant property or buildings. Signs shall read:

"Danger--Poison Gas," with at least 1 sign on each side of the plant property.

(c) Provide control of malodorous emissions from any pressure relief valve or valves,

storage tanks, and dehydrator vent or vents by burning or equivalent control.

(d) Conduct a program of continuous monitoring of concentrations of hydrogen

sulfide in any building enclosing a sweetening process. The sensor shall be placed as

close to process equipment as practicable. The system shall be designed, installed, and

maintained to provide a visual alarm when the hydrogen sulfide concentration is more

than 50 ppm.

(e) Automatically begin a safe and orderly shutdown of all process inflow streams to

the facility if the concentration of hydrogen sulfide is more than 100 ppm in any building

enclosing a sweetening process. Full operation may be resumed only after successful

corrective measures have been applied.

(f) Automatically commence shut-in of the facility within 1 second after

extinguishment of the flare flame, unless otherwise authorized by the department.

Operation of the facility shall not continue unless corrective measures taken to reignite

the flame are successful.

(6) A new sweetening facility shall not be installed at a distance of less than 1,300

feet from an existing residence, unless otherwise authorized by the department. Such

authorization shall depend upon a satisfactory showing by a permit applicant that an odor

nuisance shall not result from a lesser setback distance.

History: 1980 AACS; 1989 AACS; 2002 AACS.

R 336.1404 Emission of SO2 and sulfuric acid mist from sulfuric acid plants.

Rule 404. (1) It is unlawful for a person to cause or allow the emission of sulfuric acid

mist from any sulfuric acid plant in excess of 0.50 pounds per ton of acid produced, the

production being expressed as 100% sulfuric acid.

(2) It is unlawful for a person in Wayne county to cause or allow SO2 emissions into the

atmosphere from any sulfuric acid plant to exceed 6.5 pounds per ton of acid produced.

(3) Compliance with this rule must be demonstrated using 40 CFR part 60, appendix A,

reference test method no. 8, adopted by reference in R 336.1902.

History: 1980 AACS; 2008 AACS 2013 AACS; 2019 AACS.

R 336.1405 Emissions from sulfur recovery plants located within Wayne county.

Rule 405. At sulfur recovery plants located in Wayne county, a person shall not

cause or allow the emission into the atmosphere of sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, or

sulfuric acid from any such sulfur recovery plant to exceed 0.01 pounds per pound of

sulfur produced.

History: 2008 AACS.

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R 336.1406 Hydrogen sulfide emissions from facilities located within Wayne

county.

Rule 406. (1) A person in Wayne county shall not cause or allow the combustion of

any refinery process gas stream that contains hydrogen sulfide in a concentration of

greater than 100 grains per 100 cubic feet of gas without removal of the hydrogen sulfide

in excess of this concentration.

(2) When the odor of hydrogen sulfide is found to exist beyond the property line of a

source, a person in Wayne county shall not cause or allow the concentration of hydrogen

sulfide to exceed 0.005 parts per million by volume for a maximum period of 2 minutes.

History: 2008 AACS.

R 336.1407. Sulfur compound emissions from sources located within Wayne

county and not previously specified.

Rule 407. Both of the following apply to process and fuel burning equipment at a

stationary source located within Wayne county to which the provisions of R 336.1401 to

R 336.1406 do not apply.

(a) A person shall not cause or allow the emission into the atmosphere gases with a

concentration of SO2 greater than 300 parts per million by volume, which shall be

corrected to 50% excess air.

(b) A person shall not cause or allow the emission into the atmosphere gases with a

concentration of sulfuric acid or sulfur trioxide or a combination thereof greater than 15

milligrams per cubic meter, which shall be corrected to 50% excess air.

History: 2008 AACS; 2013 AACS.

R 336.1420 Rescinded.

History: 2008 AACS; 2013 AACS; 2019 AACS.

R 336.1430 Emission of SO2 from United States Steel, Great Lakes Works.

Rule 430. (1) The provisions in this rule supersede the requirements of R 336.1407 that

apply to United States Steel, Great Lakes Works reheat furnaces and Zug Island boilers

as referenced in subrules (2) and (3) of this rule.

(2) All of the following apply to United States Steel, Great Lakes Works, 80” hot strip

mill reheat furnaces:

On and after December 31, 2016, the combined SO2 emission rate from the 5 reheat

furnaces shall not exceed 148 pounds per hour, based on a 1-hour average starting on the

hour for each clock-hour.

On and after December 31, 2016, the company shall install, calibrate, maintain, and

operate in a manner approved by the department devices to separately monitor and record

the coke oven gas and natural gas usage rates, in cubic feet per hour, for the 5 reheat

furnaces combined for each hour of operation. The 5 furnaces shall be equipped with a

common coke oven gas usage meter and a common natural gas usage meter. The

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company shall keep the usage rate records on file at the facility for a period of 5 years, in

a format acceptable to the department, and make them available to the department upon

request.

On and after December 31, 2016, the company shall compile hourly SO2 emission rate

calculations for the 5 reheat furnaces combined in pounds per hour, for each hour of

operation. Emission rates shall be determined using the method specified in subrule

(3)(g) of this rule. The company shall keep the records of the calculations on file at the

facility for a period of 5 years, in a format acceptable to the department, and make them

available to the department upon request.

(d) Not later than June 30, 2017, the company shall conduct SO2 emission stack

tests of the reheat furnaces, based on testing of a representative furnace. Not less than 30

days before testing, a complete stack test protocol shall be submitted to the department

for approval. The final plan must be approved by the department before testing.

Verification of emission rates includes the submittal of a complete report of the test

results to the department within 60 days following the last date of the test. The company

shall keep the records of the test on file at the facility for a period of 5 years, in a format

acceptable to the department, and make them available to the department upon request.

(e) On and after September 15, 2017, the company shall submit an excess

emission report in an acceptable format to the department semiannually. The report shall

be submitted by September 15 for the January 1 to June 30 reporting period, and by

March 15 for the July 1 to December 31 reporting period. The excess emission report

shall include the following information:

(A) A report of each exceedance above the SO2 limitation including the date, time,

magnitude, cause, and corrective actions for all occurrences during the reporting period.

(B) A report of all periods of fuel gas usage rate monitoring system downtime and

corrective action.

(C) If no SO2 limitation exceedance and no fuel gas usage rate monitoring system

downtime occurred during the reporting period, the company shall report that fact.

(3) All of the following apply to United States Steel, Great Lakes Works, Zug Island

boiler houses number 1 and 2:

The following limits shall be met on and after December 31, 2016:

The combined SO2 emission rate from the number 1 boiler house boilers 1 to 5 shall not

exceed 15 pounds per hour, based on a 1-hour average starting on the hour for each

clock-hour.

(ii) The combined SO2 emission rate from the number 2 boiler house boilers 1 to 5 shall

not exceed 21 pounds per hour, based on a 1-hour average starting on the hour for each

clock-hour.

(iii) The maximum hydrogen sulfide content of the blast furnace gas fired in the boilers

shall not exceed .0274 grains per dry standard cubic foot, based on a 1-hour average

starting on the hour for each clock-hour.

The type of fuels burned in the boilers shall be restricted to blast furnace gas, coke oven

gas, and natural gas.

On and after December 31, 2016, the company shall install, calibrate, maintain, and

operate in a manner approved by the department devices to separately monitor and record

the coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, and natural gas usage rates in cubic feet per hour for

the combined number 1 boiler house boilers and for the combined number 2 boiler house

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boilers for each hour of operation. The company shall keep the usage rate records on file

at the facility for a period of 5 years, in a format acceptable to the department, and make

them available to the department upon request.

(d) On and after December 31, 2016, the company shall install, calibrate, maintain, and

operate in a manner approved by the department devices to monitor and record the blast

furnace gas hydrogen sulfide content in grains per cubic foot for the blast furnace gas

fired in the number 1 boiler house boilers 1 to 5 and in the number 2 boiler house boilers

1 to 5 on a continuous basis to determine the 1-hour average hydrogen sulfide

concentration in the blast furnace gas for each hour of operation. The company shall

keep the records of the hydrogen sulfide content on file at the facility for a period of 5

years, in a format acceptable to the department, and make them available to the

department upon request.

(e) On and after December 31, 2016, the company shall compile hourly SO2 emission

rate calculations separately for the combined number 1 boiler house boilers 1 to 5 and for

the combined number 2 boiler house boilers 1 to 5 for each hour of operation. Emission

rates shall be determined using the method specified in subdivision (g) of the subrule.

The company shall keep the calculation records on file at the facility, for a period of 5

years, in a format acceptable to the department, and make them available to the

department upon request.

(f) On and after September 15, 2017, the company shall submit an excess

emission report in an acceptable format to the department semiannually. The report shall

be submitted by September 15 for the January 1 to June 30 reporting period, and by

March 15 for the

July 1 to December 31 reporting period. The excess emission report shall include the

following information:

(i) A report of each exceedance above the SO2 and/or hydrogen sulfide limitations

including the date, time, magnitude, cause, and corrective actions for all occurrences

during the reporting period.

(ii) A report of all periods of fuel gas usage rate monitoring system and/or fuel gas

hydrogen sulfide monitoring system downtime and corrective action.

(iii) If no SO2 and/or hydrogen sulfide limitation exceedances, no fuel gas usage rate

monitoring system downtime, or no fuel gas hydrogen sulfide monitoring system

downtime occurred during the reporting period, the company shall report that fact.

g) The company shall determine the average hourly SO2 emission rate for the

group of 5 furnaces or boilers grouped as number 1 boiler house or number 2 boiler house

boilers subject to subrule (2) or (3) of this rule as specified below or by a method

approved by the department as required in subrule (4) of this rule:

HOURLY RATE (lbs SO2/hour) = [COG (1000 ft 3/hour) * (0.702 lbs SO2 / 1000 ft

3) +

BFG (ft3/hr) * H2S (gr/ft 3 BFG) * (1 lb H2S / 7,000 gr H2S) * (1.88 lb SO2 /lb H2S) + NG

(1,000,000 ft3/hr)* (0.6 lb SO2 / 1,000,000 3

ft )]

Where:

HOURLY RATE = boiler house group or furnace group emission rate (lbs SO2/hour).

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COG = actual volume of coke oven gas consumed (1000 ft3 per clock-hour) in a furnace

group or boiler house group.

BFG = actual volume of blast furnace gas consumed (ft3 per clock-hour) in a furnace

group or boiler house group.

NG = actual volume of natural gas consumed (1,000,000 ft3 per clock-hour) in a furnace

group or boiler house group.

H 32S = actual concentration of hydrogen sulfide in BFG (gr/ft ) determined on a 1-hour

average basis for each clock-hour of operation.

(h) Not later than June 30, 2017, the company shall conduct SO2 emission stack

tests of a representative boiler in number 1 boiler house and of a representative boiler in

number 2 boiler house. Not less than 30 days before to testing, a complete stack test

protocol must be submitted to the department for approval. The final plan must be

approved by the department before testing. Verification of emission rates includes the

submittal of a complete report of the test results to the department within 60 days

following the last date of the test. The company shall keep the records of the test on file

at the facility for a period of 5 years, in a format acceptable to the department, and make

them available to the department upon request.

(4) The emission rate limits in subrules (2)(a) and (3)(a) of this rule, or equivalent limits

as determined by dispersion modeled SO2 impacts, may be met with several different

control methods including sulfur dioxide flue gas emission controls, blending of alternate

lower sulfur content fuels with currently used fuels, application of fuel desulfurization

control to the currently used coke oven gas and blast furnace gas, use of improved

dispersion techniques such as use of taller exhaust stacks, or a combination of these

and/or other control measures. By August 31, 2016, the company shall submit to the

MDEQ for approval the control methods, control efficiencies as appropriate, and

associated testing, recordkeeping and reporting methods that the company will use to

comply with this rule.

History: 2016 AACS.

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